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  1. The Development of Occupational Sex-Role Stereotypes: The Effects of Gender Stability and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Eileen S.C.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    1983-01-01

    Investigated occupational stereotypes of nursery school, kindergarten, third- and sixth-grade children, and the effects of their acquiring the concept of gender stability. Assessed (1) personal aspirations, and (2) ideas about jobs men and women do. (Author/GC)

  2. Environmental Restrictors to Occupational Participation in Old Age: Exploring Differences across Gender in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Orellano-Colón, Elsa M.; Mountain, Gail A.; Rosario, Marlene; Colón, Zahira M.; Acevedo, Sujeil; Tirado, Janiliz

    2015-01-01

    Many older adults face challenges that prevent them from accomplishing common daily activities such as moving around, home maintenance, and leisure activities. There is still a need to examine and understand how environmental factors impact daily participation across gender. This study sought to make a qualitative comparison of gender differences regarding environmental barriers to participation in daily occupations from the perspectives of older adults who live alone in Puerto Rico. Twenty-six Hispanic older adults, 70 years or older participated in this study. We used a descriptive qualitative research design in which researchers administered an in-depth interview to each participant. The results elucidated that women were more likely than men to experience restricted participation due to lack of accessibility of the built environment and transportation systems. The findings could help with the development of tailored, occupation-based, preventive interventions that address gender specific environmental barriers and promote greater participation among both women and men. Further research is required to explore whether these environmental barriers to occupational participation remain consistent across living situations, socioeconomic status and ethnicity. PMID:26378554

  3. Disaster management and the critical thinking skills of local emergency managers: correlations with age, gender, education, and years in occupation.

    PubMed

    Peerbolte, Stacy L; Collins, Matthew Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    Emergency managers must be able to think critically in order to identify and anticipate situations, solve problems, make judgements and decisions effectively and efficiently, and assume and manage risk. Heretofore, a critical thinking skills assessment of local emergency managers had yet to be conducted that tested for correlations among age, gender, education, and years in occupation. An exploratory descriptive research design, using the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal-Short Form (WGCTA-S), was employed to determine the extent to which a sample of 54 local emergency managers demonstrated the critical thinking skills associated with the ability to assume and manage risk as compared to the critical thinking scores of a group of 4,790 peer-level managers drawn from an archival WGCTA-S database. This exploratory design suggests that the local emergency managers, surveyed in this study, had lower WGCTA-S critical thinking scores than their equivalents in the archival database with the exception of those in the high education and high experience group.

  4. Sleep-wake cycle of adolescents in Côte d'Ivoire: influence of age, gender, religion and occupation.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Claudia; Randler, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is characterized by significant individual differences. Those differences in the sleep-wake cycle are partially heritable but are also influenced by environmental factors like the light/dark cycle or social habits. In this study we analyse for the first time the sleep-wake rhythm of adolescent pupils and working adolescents in a less industrialised country in West Africa near the equator. The aim of this study was to explore the sleep wake cycle in this geographical region, using Côte d'Ivoire as an example. Data collection took place between 2nd of March and 10th of June 2009. 588 adolescents (338 girls, 250 boys) between 10 and 15 years (mean ± SD: 12.72 ± 1.63) participated in this study. We collected data on the religion of the participants (Christian (N = 159), Muslim (N = 352), other/no religion (N = 77)) and their occupation. Participants were either pupils attending school (N = 336) or adolescents that were already working (N = 252) and not attending school. The interviewer filled in the questionnaire. We found significant effects of age (p < 0.001), gender (p < 0.001), occupation (p = 0.002), religion (p < 0.001) and region (p < 0.001). The midpoint of sleep was on average 1:26 (SD: 00:30) on weekdays and 1:37 (SD: 00:42) on weekend days. There are significant differences between weekdays and weekend days, but these were only small. Sleep duration suggests that adolescents in Côte d'Ivoire may gain sufficient sleep during week and weekend days, and thus, may live more in accordance with their own biological clock than adolescents in the northern hemisphere. In contrast, the data can be interpreted that adolescents live in a permanent 'jetlag'. Factors may be the more continuous light/dark cycle in the tropics, low amount of ambient light and less electricity.

  5. The Accuracy of Gender Stereotypes Regarding Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Sylvia; Finnegan, Andrea

    Given the salience of biological sex, it is not surprising that gender stereotypes are pervasive. To explore the prevalence of such stereotypes, the accuracy of gender stereotyping regarding occupations is presented in this paper. The paper opens with an overview of gender stereotype measures that use self-perceptions as benchmarks of accuracy,…

  6. Predicting Adult Occupational Environments from Gender and Childhood Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephen A.; Hampson, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    To test aspects of a theory of the role of personality and gender on the development of vocational interests, and their subsequent effects on adult occupational choices, this study examined associations between childhood personality traits, gender, and occupational environments over 40 years later. Participants (N = 587) were assessed on the Big Five by their teachers when aged 6–12 years. In middle-age (late 40’s) they reported their occupation. Holland’s RIASEC vocational types (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) were used to characterize the job environments of reported occupations. Childhood Openness/Intellect and Conscientiousness, but no other Big Five traits, were associated with occupational environments. For the most strongly sex-typed work environments, associations with Openness/Intellect were moderated by gender. Discussion of these findings suggested that the roots of the strongest gender stereotyping effects in occupations may be found not only in the social factors associated with gender, but also in the individual differences of children related to Openness/Intellect. PMID:20822206

  7. Occupational Gender Desegregation in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, David A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of 1980 and 1990 Public Use Microdata Samples showed that, among full-time workers, occupational sex segregation declined 6.5 percentage points, less than the 8.5 point decline in the 1970s. Three-quarters of the desegregation was due to changed gender composition of occupations, one-quarter due to faster growth in more integrated…

  8. Predicting adult occupational environments from gender and childhood personality traits.

    PubMed

    Woods, Stephen A; Hampson, Sarah E

    2010-11-01

    To test aspects of a theory of the role of personality and gender on the development of vocational interests and their subsequent effects on adult occupational choices, the authors of this study examined associations among childhood personality traits, gender, and occupational environments more than 40 years later. Participants (N = 587) were assessed on the Big Five by their teachers when the participants were between 6 and 12 years old. In middle-age (late 40s), the participants reported their occupation. Holland's (1997) RIASEC vocational types (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) were used to characterize the job environments of reported occupations. Childhood Openness/Intellect and Conscientiousness, but no other Big Five traits, were associated with occupational environments. For the most strongly sex-typed work environments, associations with Openness/Intellect were moderated by gender. These findings suggest that the roots of the strongest gender-stereotyping effects in occupations may be found not only in the social factors associated with gender but also in the individual differences of children related to Openness/Intellect.

  9. Aspects of Young Children's Perceptions of Gender-Typed Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Gary D.; Sadovsky, Adrienne L.; Troseth, Georgene L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated young children's perceived competencies of men and women in gender-typed occupations, perceptions about how much money they earn in gender-typed occupations, and affective reactions regarding growing up to have gender-typed occupations. Children perceived differential competencies of men and women regarding gender-typed occupations…

  10. Gender issues on occupational safety and health.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Eugenio; Vona, Rosa; Monterosso, Davide; Giammarioli, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    The increasing proportion of women in the workforce raises a range of gender-related questions about the different effects of work-related risks on men and women. Few studies have characterized gender differences across occupations and industries, although at this time, the gender sensitive approach is starting to acquire relevance in the field of human preventive medicine. The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work has encouraged a policy of gender equality in all European member states. Italy has adopted European provisions with new specific legislation that integrates the previous laws and introduces the gender differences into the workplace. Despite the fact that gender equal legislation opportunities have been enacted in Italy, their application is delayed by some difficulties. This review examines some of these critical aspects.

  11. The Gender Pay Gap, Fringe Benefits, and Occupational Crowding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, Eric; Laughlin, Teresa

    1995-01-01

    In estimating earnings equations for seven occupations, when fringe benefits are excluded, women receive significantly lower wages in all but the most female-dominated occupation. Including fringe benefits makes gender significant in only one occupational category. Crowding of one gender into an occupation appears the primary determinant of the…

  12. Gender Stereotypes of Occupations: Does Women's Work Have Prestige Yet?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girondi, Annette M.; And Others

    While gender stereotyping of occupations has been investigated, the relationship between such stereotypes and job status has received less attention. Two studies were conducted in which assessments of occupational gender stereotyping were compared with assessments of occupational prestige made by the same subjects. In study one, subjects were 20…

  13. Gender-related academic and occupational interests and goals.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jennifer; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the theories and empirical evidence concerning whether gender differences in academic and occupational goals and interests exist, and if so, why those differences may be present. Expectancy-value theory, stereotype threat, sociocultural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis lay the theoretical framework for this chapter. Following a brief review of these theories, we describe the evidence for gender differences in academic ability and occupational interests and goals, using meta-analytic reviews wherever possible. Although there are few gender differences in academic ability, some gender differences in occupational goals and interests persist, particularly in science and mathematics. These gender differences may be due to parental or cultural expectations, changes in developmental trends, stereotypes and discrimination, or gendered-expectations to achieve work-family balance. Overall, the pathways to adult occupations are complex, involving many factors that affect occupational goals, interests, and self-concept.

  14. Predicting Adult Occupational Environments from Gender and Childhood Personality Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Stephen A.; Hampson, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    To test aspects of a theory of the role of personality and gender on the development of vocational interests and their subsequent effects on adult occupational choices, the authors of this study examined associations among childhood personality traits, gender, and occupational environments more than 40 years later. Participants (N = 587) were…

  15. New Jobs, Old Occupational Stereotypes: Gender and Jobs in the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Linda; Hayward, Rowena

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports data from a questionnaire-based UK study that examined occupational sex-role stereotypes, perceived occupational gender segregation, job knowledge and job preferences of male and female pupils aged 14-18 for 23 jobs. Data were collected from 508 pupils in total. Both boys and girls perceived the majority of the jobs as being…

  16. Gender Inequality among Japanese High School Teachers: Women Teachers' Resistance to Gender Bias in Occupational Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyajima, Tomomi

    2008-01-01

    This study explores gender inequality in the occupational culture of Japanese high school teachers with special focus on women teachers' resistance to gender-biased practices. It examines the effectiveness of official and informal teacher training programmes in raising awareness of gender issues. Through an ethnographic case study conducted in…

  17. Links between Family Gender Socialization Experiences in Childhood and Gendered Occupational Attainment in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Katie M.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Gendered occupational segregation remains prevalent across the world. Although research has examined factors contributing to the low number of women in male-typed occupations – namely science, technology, engineering, and math – little longitudinal research has examined the role of childhood experiences in both young women’s and men’s later gendered occupational attainment. This study addressed this gap in the literature by examining family gender socialization experiences in middle childhood – namely parents’ attitudes and work and family life – as contributors to the gender typicality of occupational attainment in young adulthood. Using data collected from mothers, fathers, and children over approximately 15 years, the results revealed that the associations between childhood socialization experiences (∼10 years old) and occupational attainment (∼26 years old) depended on the sex of the child. For sons but not daughters, mothers’ more traditional attitudes towards women’s roles predicted attaining more gender-typed occupations. In addition, spending more time with fathers in childhood predicted daughters attaining less and sons acquiring more gender-typed occupations in young adulthood. Overall, evidence supports the idea that childhood socialization experiences help to shape individuals’ career attainment and thus contribute to gender segregation in the labor market. PMID:26977112

  18. Gender variation in developmental trajectories of educational and occupational expectations and attainment from adolescence to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Mello, Zena R

    2008-07-01

    Adolescents' future expectations are a potentially important precursor of adult attainment and may illuminate how males and females vary in schooling and work. Thus, this longitudinal study examined gender variation in developmental trajectories of educational and occupational expectations from adolescence to adulthood and in connection to corresponding adult attainment. National data (NELS:88) including individuals aged 14 to 26 and hierarchical linear modeling analyses yielded several findings: Males and females had similar developmental trajectories of educational expectations from adolescence to adulthood with the sample average expecting to attend college. Probabilities of expecting a professional occupation were lower for males than females. Adolescent educational and occupational expectations predicted corresponding attainment in adulthood, although the relationship varied by gender. Males who reported high occupational expectations in adolescence had higher occupational attainment in adulthood compared to males with low occupational expectations, whereas females' adult occupational attainment did not vary by their adolescent occupational expectations. Gender variation in expectations and attainment is discussed in light of historical changes, and future directions of research are proposed.

  19. Occupational accidents in professional dance with focus on gender differences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Classical dance comprises gender specific movement tasks. There is a lack of studies which investigate work related traumatic injuries in terms of gender specific differences in detail. Objective To define gender related differences of occupational accidents. Methods Basis for the evaluation were occupational injuries of professional dancers from three (n = 785; f: n = 358, m: n = 427) state theatres. Results The incidence rate (0.36 per year) was higher in males (m: 0.45, f: 0.29). There were gender specific differences as to the localizations of injuries, particularly the spine region (m: 17.3%, f: 9.8%, p = 0.05) and ankle joint (m: 23.7%, f: 35.5%, p = 0.003). Compared to male dancers, females sustained more injuries resulting from extrinsic factors. Significant differences could specifically be observed with dance floors (m: 8.8%, f: 15.1%, p = 0.02). There were also significant gender differences observed with movement vocabulary. Conclusion The clearly defined gender specific movement activities in classical dance are reflected in occupational accidents sustained. Organisational structures as well as work environment represent a burden likewise to male and female dancers. The presented differences support the development of gender specific injury prevention measures. PMID:24341391

  20. Gender, values, and occupational interests among children, adolescents, and adults.

    PubMed

    Weisgram, Erica S; Bigler, Rebecca S; Liben, Lynn S

    2010-01-01

    Work fulfills personal values, perhaps differently for males and females. Explored here was the role values play in shaping occupational interests. Study 1 examined children's, adolescents', and adults' (N = 313) occupational values (regarding money, power, family, altruism), occupational interests, and perceptions of values afforded by traditionally masculine and feminine occupations. Results revealed sex differences in occupational values and interests. Furthermore, participants' values predicted their own interests in culturally masculine and feminine occupations. Study 2 used novel jobs and experimentally manipulated prototypical sex of worker and value affordances to disentangle their effects on occupational interests. At all ages, participants' (N = 240) occupational interests were affected by the depicted sex of the workers and by the stated value affordances of the jobs.

  1. Gender in occupational health research of farmworkers: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Rima R; Hojeij, Safa; Elzein, Kareem

    2014-01-01

    Background Farmwork is one of the most hazardous occupations for men and women. Research suggests sex/gender shapes hazardous workplace exposures and outcomes for farmworkers. This paper reviews the occupational health literature on farmworkers, assessing how gender is treated and interpreted in exposure-outcome studies. Methods The paper evaluates peer-reviewed articles on men and women farmworkers' health published between 2000 and 2012 in PubMed or SCOPUS. Articles were identified and analyzed for approaches toward sampling, data analysis, and use of exposure indicators in relation to sex/gender. Results 18% of articles reported on and interpreted sex/gender differences in health outcomes and exposures. Sex/gender dynamics often shaped health outcomes, yet adequate data was not collected on established sex/gender risk factors relating to study outcomes. Conclusion Research can better incorporate sex/gender analysis into design, analytical and interpretive approaches to better explore its mediation of health outcomes in light of emerging calls to mainstream gender research. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:1344–1367, 2014. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. PMID:25227724

  2. Gender and Choice in Education and Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, John, Ed.

    Nine chapters present cutting-edge research on "brainsex" and its effects on personality, education, and choice. It targets concepts such as job attributes, work flexibility, long-term life planning, home-work conflict, prestige versus occupational interest, and intrinsic motivational mechanisms to explain the relative failure of…

  3. Occupational status and mobility among undocumented immigrants by gender.

    PubMed

    Powers, M G; Seltzer, W

    1998-01-01

    Immigration has long been a national and state concern. The 1989 Legalized Population Survey (LPS-1) collected data on illegal immigrants to the US who subsequently became legalized aliens under the provisions of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. These data are used in a study assessing whether undocumented male and female immigrants improve their earnings and occupational status over time and the extent of variation in occupational status and mobility by gender and region. The data indicate that both undocumented men and women, on average, improved their earnings and occupational status between their first jobs in the US and their jobs just before applying for legalization under the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. However, the earnings, occupational status, and occupational mobility of men were greater than for women.

  4. What will I be when I grow up? The impact of gender identity threat on adolescents' occupational preferences.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Samantha; Carlsson, Rickard

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the impact of gender identity threat on adolescents' occupational preferences. Two hundred and ninety-seven adolescents (45% girls, M age = 14.4, SD = .54) participated in the experiment. There were substantial differences between boys' and girls' occupational preferences. Importantly, adolescents who received a threat to their gender identity became more stereotypical in job preferences, suggesting a causal link between threatened gender identity and stereotypical preferences. A comparison threat to one's capability did not have this effect, indicating a unique effect of gender identity threat. Further, individual differences in gender identity concerns predicted gender stereotypical preferences, and this finding was replicated with an independent sample (N = 242). In conclusion, the results suggest that threats to adolescents' gender identity may contribute to the large gender segregation on the labor market.

  5. What Will I Be when I Grow up? The Impact of Gender Identity Threat on Adolescents' Occupational Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Samantha; Carlsson, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of gender identity threat on adolescents' occupational preferences. Two hundred and ninety-seven adolescents (45% girls, M age = 14.4, SD = 0.54) participated in the experiment. There were substantial differences between boys' and girls' occupational preferences. Importantly, adolescents who received a threat…

  6. Intergenerational Educational and Occupational Mobility in Spain: Does Gender Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pablos Escobar, Laura; Gil Izquierdo, María

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the changes in intergenerational mobility seen in Spain during the last century. It examines educational and occupational mobility, paying particular attention to the existence of a differentiated gender effect. The magnitude of the historical changes that have taken place in Spain during the twentieth century and the scarcity…

  7. Gender differences in respiratory symptoms-Does occupation matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Dimich-Ward, Helen . E-mail: hward@interchange.ubc.ca; Camp, Patricia G.; Kennedy, Susan M.

    2006-06-15

    Little attention has been given to gender differences in respiratory health, particularly in occupational settings. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate gender differences in respiratory morbidity based on surveys of hospitality workers, radiographers, and respiratory therapists. Data were available from mail surveys of 850 hospitality industry workers (participation rate 73.9%; 52.6% female), 586 radiographers (participation rate 63.6%; 85% female), and 275 respiratory therapists (participation rate 64.1%; 58.6% female). Cross-tabulations by gender were evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} analysis and logistic regression with adjustment for personal and work characteristics. Women consistently had greater respiratory morbidity for symptoms associated with shortness of breath, whereas men usually had a higher prevalence of phlegm. There were few differences in work exposures apart from perception of exposure to ETS among hospitality workers. Gender differences in symptoms were often reduced after adjustment for personal and work characteristics but for respiratory therapists there were even greater gender disparities for asthma attack and breathing trouble. Population health findings of elevated symptoms among women were only partially supported by these occupational respiratory health surveys. The influence of differential exposures and personal factors should be considered when interpreting gender differences in health outcomes.

  8. Age Norms: The Influence of Age, Sex, and Occupational Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepelin, Harold; And Others

    Although informal age norms which influence the timing of major role transitions have been well documented, recent research questions the pervasiveness of this influence. In order to assess the effects of age, sex, and occupational level on perceptions of informal age norms, white-collar and blue-collar men and women (N=462) at two age levels,…

  9. Does the Level of Occupational Aggregation Affect Estimates of the Gender Wage Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Michael P.; Shannon, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Using data from the 1989 Canadian Labour-Market Activity Survey, when occupation is treated as a productivity-related characteristic, gender wage gap estimates are distorted. Using a larger number of occupations, the occupational aggregation by gender reflects barriers women face in attempting to enter male-dominated occupations. (SK)

  10. Gender and occupational health and safety requirements among Saskatchewan farm adolescents.

    PubMed

    Crouchman, E; Ding, K; Hagel, L; Dosman, J; Pickett, W

    2011-10-01

    Children on farms perform hazardous work that exposes them to risks for injury. Hazards include operation of heavy machinery, working with limited supervision, working at heights, and performing work prohibited by law in other industries. Incidence rates and patterns of injury are known to differ between boys and girls on farms. Farm adherence to occupational health and safety practices, and whether such practices vary by gender, has received limited study in this occupational setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between gender and work practices, and required occupational health and safety practices, within a sample of adolescent children age 12 to 18 years living on Saskatchewan farms. A cross-sectional study was performed. Measures were obtained by self-report. We compared requirements for boys and girls on the following: (1) use of personal protective equipment (PPE), (2) conduct of specific hazardous jobs, (3) training and supervision for equipment work, and (4) training and supervision for large animal work. A total of 434 children were identified, and 297 (68%) met the eligibility criteria. Of these, 170 were boys (57%) with a mean age of 14.5 years (SD 1.9). Occupational health and safety requirements varied by gender; girls were less likely to be required to use PPE (adjusted OR 2.39; 95% CI: 1.16, 4.94). There was no evidence of an association between gender and the conduct of hazardous work. Gender patterns in required training and supervision for work suggested disadvantages for girls, but were not significant. Adolescent girls and boys both performed hazardous jobs on the farm. Girls were as likely to conduct hazardous jobs but not to be required to use PPE. This gender disparity may indicate a need for a public health approach that recognizes gender as a determinant of work assignment and of health and safety practices on farms.

  11. Relationally Oriented Masculinity, Gender Nontraditional Interests, and Occupational Traditionality of Employed Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jome, LaRae M.; Surething, Nicole A.; Taylor, Kari K.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the degree to which emotional and relationally oriented aspects of masculinity and gender nontraditional vocational interests predict the gender traditionality of employed men's occupations. Participants include 166 men employed in a range of occupations from gender nontraditional (i.e., female dominated) to gender neutral to…

  12. Gender and age do not influence the ability to work.

    PubMed

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; da Silva Valente, Luciana do Socorro; de Moraes, Mônica Vasconcelos; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Work capacity is related to physical, environmental and psychosocial factors and is influenced by individual characteristics and occupations. The aim of this study was to evaluated the relationship between work capacity, gender and age. 360 people employed at an institution of higher education of both genders and similar age were asked to participate in this study. The ability to work was analyzed using Work Ability Index (WAI). Descriptive statistical, Pearson correlations and ANOVA test was applied. Of these, 197 workers who participated in the study completed and returned the questionnaire. The results show there weren't any significant differences between work ability in relation to gender and age, but we observed an increase variability of responses for WAI score in older workers. No significant differences in the perception of the ability of work between men and women..

  13. Occupational gender segregation: index measurement and econometric modeling.

    PubMed

    Watts, M

    1998-11-01

    Empirical studies of gender segregation by occupation must be founded on rigorous measurement procedures. There appears to be a consensus that any index used in the analysis of time-series or international cross-section employment data must be either margin-free or decomposable to yield a margin-free component. On the other hand, Charles and Grusky (1995) advocate the use of multiplicative log models from which a margin-free odds ratio can be derived. In this paper, I contrast the construction and interpretation of the index of dissimilarity and the Karmel-MacLachlan index with the multiplicative modeling of gender segregation and the associated log index.

  14. Critical Media Literacy and Gender: Teaching Middle School Children about Gender Stereotypes and Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puchner, Laurel; Markowitz, Linda; Hedley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the implementation of a small-scale critical media literacy curriculum unit focused on gender stereotypes, especially as they pertain to occupations. The research question was whether students exposed to the critical media literacy (CML) curriculum were more likely than students not exposed to believe: that…

  15. Gender Relations and Applied Research on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calasanti, Toni

    2010-01-01

    As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of…

  16. Age and occupational well-being.

    PubMed

    Warr, P

    1992-03-01

    Two questions are examined through an investigation of 1,686 people employed in a wide range of jobs. First, is there a U-shaped relationship between age and occupational well-being, such that medium-aged workers report lower well-being than do both younger and older people? That pattern is found, in relationship to both job anxiety-contentment and job depression-enthusiasm. Second, can the observed associations between age and well-being be accounted for by 13 potentially explanatory factors, covering job position, job characteristics, work values, demographic factors, and family life cycle? After introducing these variables into stepwise regression equations, age remains significantly predictive of job well-being. Possible additional explanations of this positive association include other characteristics, an increasingly retrospective focus, and nonoccupational experiences.

  17. Occupational gender stereotypes: is the ratio of women to men a powerful determinant?

    PubMed

    Adachi, Tomoko

    2013-04-01

    Gendered division of occupational choices still exists in contemporary Japanese society. Women are underrepresented in traditionally male-dominated fields, while few men occupy positions in traditionally female-dominated areas. The purpose of the present study was to examine occupational gender stereotypes and its relation to the female-to-male ratio of jobholders. Participants were 540 Japanese (262 women, 278 men) who participated in an Internet survey. The results showed that the female-to-male ratio of jobholders was a strong predictor of gender stereotyping. That is to say, contemporary Japanese recognized male-dominated occupations as typically masculine and female-dominated ones as typically feminine. Gender comparisons revealed that men rated female-dominated occupations as more feminine in nature than did women, while women rated male-dominated occupations as more masculine than did men. Future implications for career interventions focusing on occupational gender stereotypes were also discussed.

  18. An Examination of Adolescents' Salary Expectations and Gender-Based Occupational Stereotyping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Todd G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the effect of gender on expectations of salary and judgments about occupational suitability. Responses from 1,062 high school students were collected. Females provided lower salary estimates than males and were less likely to stereotype occupations on the basis of gender. Academic achievement was negatively correlated with…

  19. Warm-hearted businessmen, competitive housewives? Effects of gender-fair language on adolescents’ perceptions of occupations

    PubMed Central

    Vervecken, Dries; Gygax, Pascal M.; Gabriel, Ute; Guillod, Matthias; Hannover, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies from countries with grammatical gender languages (e.g., French) found both children and adults to more frequently think of female jobholders and to consider women’s success in male dominated occupations more likely when the jobs were described in pair forms (i.e., by explicit reference to male and female jobholders, e.g., inventeuses et inventeurs; French feminine and masculine plural forms for inventors), rather than masculine only forms (e.g., inventors). To gain a better understanding of this phenomenon, we systematically varied the gender connotation of occupations (males overrepresented, females overrepresented, equal share of males and females) and measured additional dependent variables, predicting that gender fair language would reduce the impact of the gender connotation on participants’ perceptions. In a sample of 222 adolescents (aged 12–17) from French speaking Switzerland, we found that pair forms attenuated the difference in the ascription of success to male and female jobholders in gendered occupations and attenuated the differential ascription of warmth to prototypical jobholders in male vs. female dominated jobs. However, no effect of language form on the ascription of competence was found. These findings suggest that language policies are an effective tool to impact gendered perceptions, however, they also hint at competence-related gender stereotypes being in decline. PMID:26441805

  20. Warm-hearted businessmen, competitive housewives? Effects of gender-fair language on adolescents' perceptions of occupations.

    PubMed

    Vervecken, Dries; Gygax, Pascal M; Gabriel, Ute; Guillod, Matthias; Hannover, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies from countries with grammatical gender languages (e.g., French) found both children and adults to more frequently think of female jobholders and to consider women's success in male dominated occupations more likely when the jobs were described in pair forms (i.e., by explicit reference to male and female jobholders, e.g., inventeuses et inventeurs; French feminine and masculine plural forms for inventors), rather than masculine only forms (e.g., inventors). To gain a better understanding of this phenomenon, we systematically varied the gender connotation of occupations (males overrepresented, females overrepresented, equal share of males and females) and measured additional dependent variables, predicting that gender fair language would reduce the impact of the gender connotation on participants' perceptions. In a sample of 222 adolescents (aged 12-17) from French speaking Switzerland, we found that pair forms attenuated the difference in the ascription of success to male and female jobholders in gendered occupations and attenuated the differential ascription of warmth to prototypical jobholders in male vs. female dominated jobs. However, no effect of language form on the ascription of competence was found. These findings suggest that language policies are an effective tool to impact gendered perceptions, however, they also hint at competence-related gender stereotypes being in decline.

  1. The role of occupational attributes in gender earnings inequality, 1970-2010.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Hadas

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in the research on the important role of social structures in forming gender inequalities, this study examines the effect of occupational attributes on the gender earnings gap over four decades. Using the IPUMS-USA from 1970 to 2010, the paper shows that occupational attributes cannot be reduced to the aggregate attributes of their individual incumbents. Rather, the effect of occupations on the gender earnings gap goes far beyond both the distributive role of occupational segregation and the effect of individual wage-related characteristics. Furthermore, occupations not only explain a significant portion of net gender pay gaps, but have also contributed to the narrowing of the gaps over the past several decades, as occupational attributes that favor women's pay have become more dominant over time.

  2. Pediatrician or Professional Athlete? Gender, Ethnicity, and Occupational Aspirations of Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the occupational aspirations of beginning high school students by gender and ethnicity, and examined the relationship between the educational demands of the occupations desired by students and their academic performance before and after entering high school. Desired occupations were obtained from 662 entering 9th-grade students…

  3. Impact of occupational stress on stroke across occupational classes and genders.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Kayaba, Kazunori; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo

    2011-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to analyze the association between incident stroke, occupational class and stress and to examine whether the association is found in both men and women in a prospective study of Japanese male and female workers. A total of 3190 male and 3363 female Japanese community-dwelling workers aged 65 or under with no history of cardiovascular disease were followed. Occupational stress was evaluated using a demand-control questionnaire. The impact on stroke was examined in stratified analyses of occupational classes. We identified 147 incident strokes (91 in men and 56 in women) during the 11-year follow-up period. Men with high strain jobs (combination of high job demand and low job control) were nearly three times more likely to suffer from a stroke than men with low strain jobs (combination of low job demand and high job control). Among male workers in low occupational classes (blue-collar and non-managerial work), job strain was associated with a higher risk of stroke. In contrast, there was no association between job strain and incident stroke among male workers in high occupational classes (white-collar and managerial work). No statistically significant differences were found for stroke incidence among the job characteristic categories in all the female participants. However, significant, over five-fold excess risks were found among white-collar and managerial female workers exposed to high job strain, compared with their counterparts with low strain jobs. Our study of Japanese workers provided supportive evidence for vulnerability to occupational stress among lower occupational class workers in males but not in females.

  4. Age and Gender Differences in Instructional Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcheir, Marcia J.

    This study examines whether students' age and/or gender impact their preferences for instructional practices thought to improve learning, and their preparation for college and performance in college. Students were asked which of 38 instructional practices they preferred, how often they experienced each practice, and how well prepared they felt in…

  5. Age-related eye disease and gender.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, the prevalence of moderate to severe visual impairment and blindness is 285 millions, with 65% of visually impaired and 82% of all blind people being 50 years and older. Meta-analyses have shown that two out of three blind people are women, a gender discrepancy that holds true for both developed and developing countries. Cataract accounts for more than half of all blindness globally and gender inequity in access to cataract surgery is the major cause of the higher prevalence of blindness in women. In addition to gender differences in cataract surgical coverage, population-based studies on the prevalence of lens opacities indicate that women have a higher risk of developing cataract. Laboratory as well as epidemiologic studies suggest that estrogen may confer antioxidative protection against cataractogenesis, but the withdrawal effect of estrogen in menopause leads to increased risk of cataract in women. For the other major age-related eye diseases; glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy, data are inconclusive. Due to anatomic factors, angle closure glaucoma is more common in women, whereas the dominating glaucoma type; primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is more prevalent in men. Diabetic retinopathy also has a male predominance and vascular/circulatory factors have been implied both in diabetic retinopathy and in POAG. For AMD, data on gender differences are conflicting although some studies indicate increased prevalence of drusen and neovascular AMD in women. To conclude, both biologic and socioeconomic factors must be considered when investigating causes of gender differences in the prevalence of age-related eye disease.

  6. Relationships among gender, age, and intellectual development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hernandez, Lilian; Marek, Edmund A.; Renner, John W.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among gender, age, and intellectual development. Random samples of 70 females and 70 males were selected with each sex group equally divided into a low-age and a high-age group. The low-age group ranged in age from 16.25 years to 16.75 years and the high-age group from 16.76 years to 17.25 years. The Piaget tasks selected to measure cognitive development were: Conservation of Volume, Separation of Variables, and Equilibrium in the Balance and Combination of Colorless Chemical Liquids. Data from this research produced these findings: (1) males demonstrate a higher level of intellectual development than females, (2) males mature intellectually earlier than females, (3) the value of the conservation of volume task as a component of a battery of formal tasks depends upon whether the decisions are to be made on the basis of the total-task results or on individual task performance, and (4) there appear to be factors other than age and gender that are related to the development of formal operational reasoning. These investigators hypothesize that experiences is another important factor.

  7. Gender, Values, and Occupational Interests among Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgram, Erica S.; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2010-01-01

    Work fulfills personal values, perhaps differently for males and females. Explored here was the role values play in shaping occupational interests. Study 1 examined children's, adolescents', and adults' (N = 313) occupational values (regarding money, power, family, altruism), occupational interests, and perceptions of values afforded by…

  8. Effects of Stories on Elementary-School Children's Gender-Stereotyped Attitudes Toward Adult Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schau, Candace Garrett; And Others

    This study examines the effects of reading materials on children's gender stereotypes toward adult occupations. The study sample consisted of 355 first-, third- and fifth-grade middle class children randomized into 3 groups which received 10 stories each. One group received sex-role-reversed occupational stories, another sex-stereotyped stories,…

  9. Gender Differences in the Vocational Interests of Youth Considering High Job Growth and Green Energy Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Becky S.

    2012-01-01

    For more than 100 years, vocational psychologists and educational researchers have sought to identify the significant influences shaping occupational interests. This descriptive study used a series of vocational card sort exercises with 139 rural high school youth to identify gender differences in occupational interests toward working in 60 of the…

  10. Openness to Gender Atypical Occupations in Youth: Do Peer Groups and School Classes Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alm, Susanne; Bäckman, Olof

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses aspects of gender composition and social dominance in peer groups and school classes and their effects on the degree of openness to gender-atypical occupations in young adolescents. The data set used contains information for some 13,000 girls and boys living in Stockholm in the early 1960s. Results from multi-level regressions…

  11. Gender Stereotypes and Women's Reports of Liking and Ability in Traditionally Masculine and Feminine Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Debra L.

    2008-01-01

    Gender stereotypes were examined for their causal influence on women's reported liking for and perceived ability to succeed in traditionally masculine and feminine occupations. One hundred twenty-one women were assigned to either a gender-stereotype activation or filler task and then completed measures of liking for, and perceived ability to…

  12. Caring and Daring Discourses at Work: Doing Gender through Occupational Choices in Elderly Care and Police Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejes, Andreas; Haake, Ulrika

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to problematise how gender is being done--1. through occupational choices in two occupations that are traditionally gender divided, elderly care and police work, and 2. through the division of work assignments in police work. Interviews with care workers and police officers are analysed using a "doing gender" perspective, a…

  13. Trends in occupational segregation by gender 1970-2009: adjusting for the impact of changes in the occupational coding system.

    PubMed

    Blau, Francine D; Brummund, Peter; Liu, Albert Yung-Hsu

    2013-04-01

    In this article, we develop a gender-specific crosswalk based on dual-coded Current Population Survey data to bridge the change in the census occupational coding system that occurred in 2000 and use it to provide the first analysis of the trends in occupational segregation by sex for the 1970-2009 period based on a consistent set of occupational codes and data sources. We show that our gender-specific crosswalk more accurately captures the trends in occupational segregation that are masked using the aggregate crosswalk (based on combined male and female employment) provided by the U.S. Census Bureau. Using the 2000 occupational codes, we find that segregation by sex declined substantially over the period but at a diminished pace over the decades, falling by only 1.1 percentage points (on a decadal basis) in the 2000s. A primary mechanism by which segregation was reduced was through the entry of new cohorts of women, presumably better prepared than their predecessors and/or encountering less labor market discrimination; during the 1970s and 1980s, however, occupational segregation also decreased within cohorts. Reductions in segregation were correlated with education, with the largest decrease among college graduates and very little change in segregation among high school dropouts.

  14. The Meaning of Gender while Aging with Paralytic Polio

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tracie; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Walker, Janiece; Scott, Tiffany; Choban, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the influence of gender on aging with childhood onset paralytic polio. The hermeneutic phenomenological exploration of gender was done using multiple qualitative interviews with 25 women, age 55 to 75 years of age, who had polio since before 14 years of age. We noted three themes: 1) The movement of her body, 2) Integrating body and gender, and 3) Gender discrepancies. Findings are discussed in the context of gendered expectations and the women’s bodies. PMID:21240713

  15. Familial and Economic Influences on the Gender-Related Educational and Occupational Aspirations of Rural Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Meece, Judith L.; Askew, Karyl J. S.; Agger, Charlotte A.; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Byun, Soo-yong

    2015-01-01

    Economic, occupational, and social shifts in rural economies have influenced nuanced changes in the educational and occupational aspirations of rural adolescent women and men. However, there is limited contemporary research that examines the aspirations of rural adolescents at the beginning of the 21st century. Drawing on a sample of 8,756 rural adolescents in the United States, we examine how familial, geographic, and economic variables influence gender-related differences in educational and occupational aspirations. Findings revealed significant gender differences, favoring girls, in youth's educational aspirations, occupational aspirations, and aspirations for nontraditional careers. Results highlight the importance of contextual variables such as parental expectations, family income, and motivation variables in predicting gender-related aspirations of rural youth. PMID:26681990

  16. Does Gender Matter? an Exploratory Study of Perspectives Across Genders, Age and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist

    2009-11-01

    Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the social hierarchy. Analysis indicated that there were differences between male and female views on these dimensions of gender, and that age and educational levels were also influential. While younger respondents from both genders demonstrated flexibility in their definitions of gender and expressed strong support for gender equality, they were noticeably lacking in their knowledge of the historical context of gender relations and did not show the skills required to realise their ideals of gender equality, especially when compared to older respondents of both genders with higher levels of educational attainment.

  17. The course of physical functional limitations and occupational conditions in a middle-aged working population in France

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical functional limitations (PFL) have mainly been studied in older populations. The aim of this study was to better understand the course of PFL and associations with occupational factors by gender in a middle-aged working population. Methods The data came from 16,950 workers in the ESTEV (Enquête Santé Travail et Vieillissement) cohort in France. PFL were assessed using the physical abilities section of the Nottingham Health Profile. Occupational conditions were measured with a self-administered questionnaire covering physical and psychosocial factors in 1990 and 1995. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the associations. Results The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was the same by gender (6.3%); the rate of PFL recovery was higher in men (23.9% versus 20.9%). Age was an independent factor of PFL at age 47 years or older in both genders after adjusting for confounding factors. The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was higher with physical occupational exposure in 1990, such as awkward work with a dose relation in both genders, while the PFL recovery rate decreased significantly only for men. Exposure to psychosocial occupational conditions, such as having the means to produce quality work in 1990, was significantly associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 in both genders, and having high decision latitude in 1990 was associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 only in men. Changes in exposure to occupational factors between 1990 and 1995 were associated with the PFL appearance and recovery rates in 1995 in both genders. Conclusions After five years, the course of PFL in this working population changed and was associated with physical and psychosocial occupational factors. Relationships were stronger for the PFL appearance rate in both genders and were weaker for recovery from PFL, mainly among women. PMID:22494385

  18. Gendered occupational interests: prenatal androgen effects on psychological orientation to Things versus People.

    PubMed

    Beltz, Adriene M; Swanson, Jane L; Berenbaum, Sheri A

    2011-09-01

    There is considerable interest in understanding women's underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers. Career choices have been shown to be driven in part by interests, and gender differences in those interests have generally been considered to result from socialization. We explored the contribution of sex hormones to career-related interests, in particular studying whether prenatal androgens affect interests through psychological orientation to Things versus People. We examined this question in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), who have atypical exposure to androgens early in development, and their unaffected siblings (total N=125 aged 9 to 26 years). Females with CAH had more interest in Things versus People than did unaffected females, and variations among females with CAH reflected variations in their degree of androgen exposure. Results provide strong support for hormonal influences on interest in occupations characterized by working with Things versus People.

  19. Reflection of Confucianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism on gender relations and gender specific occupation in Thai society.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, M; Weber, K E

    1994-01-01

    It is posited that present-day Thai society is the product of different settlement patterns among Chinese Confucian followers and those ascribing to matrilocal practices. Chinese settled in urban areas and maintained Confucian dogma that barred women from high ranking positions and dictated a women's role of subservience to men. Matrilocal systems proliferated in rural areas. The village kinship system was egalitarian, until a class-state society was instituted and patriarchal systems dominated. At that time, women's status was reduced. Massive Chinese immigration occurred during the mid-19th century until World War II. Some Indians also migrated during this time period. The dominant use of the Thai language forced the Chinese to assimilate into Thai culture. Thai Buddhist practices were open and similar enough to Confucian ideology that religious assimilation also occurred. A small group of Chinese immigrants retained their ties to Chinese customs. The pattern of foreigners' involvement in the Thai economy was promoted by official policy. In the last several decades Thai policy shifted to an increasingly Thai-influenced economy. Other influences on gender patterns and Thai culture were the Hinduism of Indians who settled in Central Siam, the Mon aristocracy, and Brahmin cults. After the Khmers took over control of this region, the Indian caste system and the Hindu belief in Manu were integrated into Khmer culture. Women were considered the weaker and inferior sex and dependent upon men. The kings of Siam followed Brahmin rituals after the 15th century. Buddhism and the "sangha" became the central Thai religious institution. Even today Buddhist monks are given 3 months time off with pay for time spent as a monk, while maternity leave for women is limited to 45 days. The status of women is traced during the Sukothai period (1250-1350), the Ayudhaya period (1350-1767), and the Ratanakosin period (since 1782). Present occupational patterns reflect women's dominance in

  20. The Information Age vs. Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Considers gender equity in libraries and library education, particularly the identification of men with information science experience involving computers. Discusses the history of gender imbalance in library education; computers and gender; changes in library education; demographic implications of curriculum changes; the use of adjuncts; library…

  1. Does Gender Matter? An Exploratory Study of Perspectives across Genders, Age and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist

    2009-01-01

    Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the…

  2. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  3. Differentiation of Occupational Perceptions Among Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Hypothesizes that occupational perceptions are more specific for older age groups than for younger age groups. Hypothesis was tested by using latent root analysis and minimum residual factor analysis to analyze intercorrelations among six Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) scales for five large and diverse samples. Both analyses supported the…

  4. Abusive interactions and burnout: Examining occupation, gender, and the mediating role of community.

    PubMed

    Leiter, M P; Frizzell, C; Harvie, P; Churchill, L

    2001-09-01

    Abstract Two studies examined the association of gender and occupational group (nursing versus non-nursing) with perceived risk of abuse (sexual harassment and verbal and physical abuse) as well as the relationship of perceived abuse risk with burnout and sense of community. Study 1, comprising of two settings (tertiary care hospital, N = 3,062; psychiatric hospital, N = 383), found gender and occupational group associated with perceived risk of abuse (women felt greater risk than men; nurses felt greater risk than non-nurses). It also found a gender/occupational group interaction. Study 2, conducted at an Irish tertiary care hospital (N = 892), found nurses felt at greater risk for all three types of abuse than did non-nurses. Further, women perceived themselves at greater risk for sexual harassment and verbal abuse than did men; the study found no gender difference regarding physical abuse. The analysis identified a gender/occupational group interaction for sexual harassment. The study considers methods of reducing perceived risk in regard to the research literature on abuse at work.

  5. Gendered perceptions of aging: an examination of college students.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Anne E; von Rohr, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Few studies examine how the gendered nature of aging impacts young adults--shaping their images of later life, attitudes toward elderly persons, aging anxieties, and conceptions of the start of "old age." We examine gender differences in young adults' views of elders and the aging process using a survey of college students and content analysis of student-drawn sketches of elders (N = 391). Results indicate that both genders hold more positive images of elderly women than men; however, they view "old age" as beginning at a younger age for women. In addition, we find that, compared with men, women report later starts of "old age" for both genders and more favorable attitudes toward elders, but also greater aging anxiety.

  6. Psychotherapists' Gender Stereotypes: Perceiver Characteristics, Target Age, and Target Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Barbara F.; And Others

    The literature on social cognition and intergroup relations suggests that gender and age are social concepts which, because they are at the same level of abstraction, may produce interactive effects on person perception judgments. The purpose of this study was to explore gender stereotypes that therapists hold about people who differ in age;…

  7. Antidepressant Prescription and Suicide Rates: Effect of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Sandor; Szanto, Katalin; Rihmer, Zoltan; Mazumdar, Sati; Harrison, Katrin; Mann, J. John

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether the effect of antidepressant exposure on suicide rate is modified by age and gender in Hungary, annual antidepressant prescription rates and suicide rates of about 10 million inhabitants between 1999-2005 were analyzed by age and gender groups. The suicide rate was inversely related to the increased use of antidepressants in…

  8. Effects of Antihistamine, Age, And Gender on Task Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    This investigation was designed to study the effects of the antihistamine, chlorpheniramine maleate, as well as the influence of age and gender...singly and in combination with chlorpheniramine maleate, on selected types of performance tasks. It was hypothesized that chiorpheniramine maleate would... chlorpheniramine maleate on any dependent measure for any performance task. However, several interactions of age and gender with chlorpheniramine maleate

  9. Gender Differences in the Occupational Status of Undocumented Immigrants in the United States: Experience Before and After Legalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Mary G.; Seltzer, William; Shi, Jing

    1998-01-01

    Examines the incorporation of undocumented immigrants before and after application for legal status under the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA). Provides descriptive analysis of gender differences in labor-force participation and occupational status and multivariate analysis of variables in occupational status between genders.…

  10. Measuring gender satisfaction among women aging with paralytic polio.

    PubMed

    Walker, Janiece L; Harrison, Tracie C

    2014-01-01

    In this study we tested the Gendered Outcome Scale as a measure of gender satisfaction among 295 women aging with the disabling effects of paralytic polio. Principal components analysis, reliability analyses, and content validity were analyzed on the scale. The scale had a Cronbach's alpha of.90. Younger women had more gender satisfaction (r =.181, p <.01), and women who had greater disability had greater gender satisfaction. (r = -.127, p <.05). The results support that the scale is a valid and reliable measure for determing gender satisfaction. Further work is needed to test the scale in diversified samples.

  11. The Role of Educational Choice in Occupational Gender Segregation: Evidence from Trinidad and Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sookram, Sandra; Strobl, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the role of educational choice on the degree of occupational segregation in Trinidad and Tobago during a period in which educational policies intent on equating gender opportunities in education were implemented. To this end we utilize waves of the Trinidad and Tobago labour force survey over the period 1991-2004. Our results show that…

  12. Longitudinal Associations Between Gender-typed Skills and Interests and Their Links to Occupational Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bora; Lawson, Katie M.; McHale, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Although gender-based occupational segregation has declined in past decades, the world of work remains segregated by gender. Grounded in research showing that individuals tend to choose jobs that match their interests and skills, this study examined the longitudinal associations between gendered activity interests and skills from middle childhood through adolescence and tested gendered interests and skills, measured in adolescence, as predictors of occupational outcomes in young adulthood. Data were collected from 402 participants at four time points— when they averaged 10, 12, 16, and 25 years old. Results revealed that the longitudinal linkages between male-typed interests and skills were bidirectional, that both male-typed interests and skills in adolescence predicted working in male-typed occupations in young adulthood, and that skills, but not interests, predicted income. In contrast, female-typed interests predicted female-typed skills, but not the reverse, adolescent female-typed skills (but not interests) predicted working in female-typed occupations in young adulthood, and there were no links between female-typed interests or skills and income. Discussion focuses on the differential meanings and developmental implications of male-versus female-typed interests and skills. PMID:25843956

  13. The Impact of Gender, Occupation, and Presence of Children on Telecommuting Motivations and Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtarian, Patricia L.; Bagley, Michael N.; Salomon, Ilan

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of telecommuting motivations and constraints focuses on a study that analyzed differences in variables due to gender, occupation, and presence of children for 583 employees of the city of San Diego. Research hypotheses are discussed, and implications for forming policies to support telecommuting are suggested. (Author/LRW)

  14. Middle School Children's Career Aspirations: Relationship to Adult Occupations and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuette, Christine T.; Ponton, Michael K.; Charlton, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between the career aspirations of 89 preadolescents from low socioeconomic backgrounds and the actual occupations of the working adults in their homes with regard to status, job gender identification, and interest (Holland, 1997). There was a significant relationship between boys' career aspirations and the…

  15. Gender and Choosing a STEM Major in College: Femininity, Masculinity, Chilly Climate, and Occupational Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Richard M.; Wagner, Ashley; Killion, Brooke

    2017-01-01

    Masculinity and femininity have played a substantial role in how social scientists explain the gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. The masculine culture of science is thought to be inconsistent with occupational values associated with feminine personalities, and to create a discriminatory academic…

  16. Sex-Role Associations of Music Instruments and Occupations by Gender and Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Philip A.; Chroback, Denise A.

    1981-01-01

    Undergraduate music majors and nonmajors rated 17 musical instruments and two related musical occupations on a masculine/feminine scale. The harp, flute, and piccolo had high feminine ratings; the trumpet, string bass, and tuba had high masculine ratings. Instrument ratings were significantly different for major, but not for gender. (Author/SJL)

  17. Locating Gender: Occupational Segregation, Wages and Domestic Responsibilities. Cambridge Studies in Work and Social Inequality 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siltanen, Janet

    This text combines a case-study approach with significant theoretical development to challenge existing explanations of occupational segregation. Chapter 1 reviews issues raised by the conceptual status of "gender" in attempting to explain women's and men's employment experience and introduces the study that forms the core of the…

  18. Gender perspective in occupational medicine and workplace risk assessment: state of the art and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Protano, C; Magrini, A; Vitali, M; Sernia, S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the current situation and the research agenda in the field of gender differences, both generically in the occupational settings and in the specific activity of risk assessment. Gender is a key determinant of health; the evaluation of documents and scientific literature shows increasing attention to a gender oriented approach, as demonstrated by the development of Gender Medicine, actually cross-oriented in all medical specialties, the publication of books dedicated to this topic and the birth of "ad hoc" new scientific societies and journals. Even today, however, the gender differences are not considered as they should in the context of health disciplines, including occupational medicine. In this respect, in fact, the critical issues to be overcome are numerous, such as the phenomena of "segregation", the exposure to risk factors and their effects, related also to non-professional, socio-cultural features that differentiate male and female workers. All these factors can lead to situations of inequality in health. In fact, the European directives on safety at work repeatedly highlight the attention to gender differences in prevention, assessment and management of risks. In this regard, the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work advocates an approach "more sensitive" to gender in all the processes of assessment and risk management, from the research of all potential sources of risk to the decision-making processes, in order to address the prevention of risks in a holistic manner.

  19. Age and Gender Effects on Coping in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra; Petermann, Franz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate age and gender effects of children's and adolescents' coping with common stressors in 3 age groups (late childhood, early, and middle adolescence). Furthermore, age and developmental differences in situation-specific coping with 2 stress domains were examined. N = 1,123 participants (ages 8 to 13 years)…

  20. Normal facial age and gender perception in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Garga; Nakayama, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia is characterized by a severe deficit in face-identity recognition. Most developmental prosopagnosics do not report deficits of facial age or gender perception. We developed tasks for evaluating facial age and gender processing and used them in the largest group of developmental prosopagnosics (N = 18) tested on facial age and gender perception. Care was taken to ensure that the tests were sufficiently sensitive to subtle deficits and required holistic processing as assessed by strong inversion effects in control subjects. Despite severe facial identity deficits, developmental prosopagnosics largely performed these discriminations comparably to controls. The common descriptor "faceblind" implied by the term prosopagnosia is inaccurate as certain kinds of nonidentity facial information, which we call physiognomic features, are processed well by both prosopagnosics and age-matched controls alike. Normal facial age and gender perception in developmental prosopagnosics is consistent with parallel processing models in the cognitive architecture of face processing.

  1. Age and gender interactions in short distance triathlon performance.

    PubMed

    Etter, Franziska; Knechtle, Beat; Bukowski, Arkadiusz; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the participation and performance trends as well as the age and gender interaction at the Olympic distance 'Zürich Triathlon' (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle and 10 km run) from 2000 to 2010 in 7,939 total finishers (1,666 females and 6,273 males). Female triathletes aged from 40 to 54 years significantly (P < 0.05) increased their participation while the participation of younger females and males remained stable. Males of 50-54 years of age and females of 45-49 years of age improved their total race time. For elite top five overall triathletes, mean gender differences in swimming, cycling, running and overall race time were 15.2 ± 4.6%, 13.4 ± 2.3%, 17.1 ± 2.5%, and 14.8 ± 1.8%, respectively. For both elite and age group athletes, the gender difference in cycling time was significantly (P <0.001) lower than for swimming and running. The gender difference in overall Olympic distance triathlon performance increased after the age of 35 years, which appeared earlier compared to long distance triathlon as suggested by previous studies. Future investigations should compare gender difference in performance for different endurance events across age to confirm a possible effect of exercise duration on gender difference with advancing age.

  2. The Intersection of Gender and Age: An Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gander, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of gender inequality for women entering work has not been subject to significant research or theorizing. This small study indicated that young women entering the workplace are subject to direct discrimination and by using an intersectionality approach this paper proposes that the intersection of gender and young age results in…

  3. From Nurse to Nurse Anesthetist: The Influence of Age and Gender on Professional Socialization and Career Commitment of Advanced Practice Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waugaman, Wynne R.; Lohrer, Donna J.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 1,106 student nurse anesthetists (40% male) showed that increasing age was negatively correlated with socioeconomic rewards. Male gender was positively correlated with administrative/supervisory roles, female gender with holistic patient care. Men achieved socialization more readily in occupational orientation. (SK)

  4. Effects of age and gender on physical performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to assess the effects of age and gender on physical performance using one-hour swimming performance and participation in 2,173 man and 2,098 women, aged 19 – 91 years from a long distance (one-hour) national competition. Decline in performance with aging was found to be quadratic rat...

  5. Age, Gender, and Treatment Attendance among Forensic Psychiatric Outpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Dianne C.; Reddon, John R.; Reddick, Robert D.

    2001-01-01

    Uses the records of forensic psychiatry outpatients (N=6,299) to evaluate absenteeism from treatment in relation to age and gender. Results reveal that females had a significantly higher absentee rate than males in all age groups. For both males and females, missed appointments declined significantly with age. (Contains 34 references and 1 table.)…

  6. Effects of Learning about Historical Gender Discrimination on Early Adolescents' Occupational Judgments and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahlke, Erin; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Green, Vanessa A.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the consequences of learning about gender discrimination, early adolescents (n = 121, aged 10-14) were randomly assigned to receive either (a) standard biographical lessons about historical figures (standard condition) or (b) nearly identical lessons that included information about gender discrimination (discrimination condition).…

  7. Gender Differences in Life-Work Balance and Their Impact on Female Occupational Choice and Retention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    fact, their definition and priorities of balance have changed or evolved as their careers have progressed. Role Theory 1. Role theory, described by...and effects from one role /domain into another will be referred to as WFE and FWE, respectively. c. Work versus Non-Work Stressors by Gender Numerous... roles are continuously changing . In military occupations, specifically for women, as long as individuals value their home life more than work

  8. Work Experience, Age, and Gender Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angle, John; Wissmann, David A.

    1983-01-01

    Age is a determinant of the gap between U.S. men's and women's work wages; young men are paid more as they age because of age; young women are not. Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of the Labor Market Experience were analyzed for 5,225 men and 5,159 women. (KC)

  9. Age and sex or gender (sex/gender) and HIV vaccine preparedness.

    PubMed

    Dhalla, Shayesta

    2015-10-29

    An examination of age and sex or gender (sex/gender) in HIV vaccine preparedness studies can contribute to an understanding of these demographic variables in preparation for actual HIV vaccine trials. In this descriptive review, age and sex or gender (sex/gender) were examined in relation to willingness to participate (WTP) and retention in an HIV vaccine trial. Twenty-five articles were retrieved from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries and 28 articles were retrieved from the non-OECD countries. In US studies that involved mainly white MSM, older men were more likely to be WTP in a hypothetical HIV vaccine trial and more likely to be retained than younger men. In most OECD studies, sex/gender was not associated with WTP in a hypothetical HIV vaccine trial, while females were more likely to be retained in most studies. Largely, age was not associated with WTP in the non-OECD countries, but the results on sex/gender were more variable. The relationship between adolescent or adult WTP in hypothetical HIV vaccine trials in South Africa did not appear to be modified by high school student status. In addition, more studies in discordant couples in the context of HIV vaccine preparedness could be conducted to examine gender roles and inequalities in preparation for HIV vaccine trials.

  10. Comparing the Effects of Age, BMI and Gender on Severe Injury (AIS 3+) in Motor-Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Patrick M.; Flannagan, Carol A.C.; Reed, Matthew P.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Rupp, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of age, body mass index (BMI) and gender on motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries are not well understood and current prevention efforts do not effectively address variability in occupant characteristics. Objectives 1) Characterize the effects of age, BMI and gender on serious-to-fatal MVC injury 2) Identify the crash modes and body regions where the effects of occupant characteristics onthe numbers of occupants with injuryis largest, and thereby aid in prioritizing the need forhuman surrogates that the represent different types of occupant characteristics and adaptive restraint systems that consider these characteristics. Methods Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the effects of occupant characteristics (age, BMI, gender), vehicle and crash characteristics on serious-to-fatal injuries (AIS 3+) by body region and crash mode using the 2000-2010 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS-CDS) dataset. Logistic regression models were applied to weighted crash data to estimate the change in the number of annual injured occupants with AIS 3+ injury that would occur if occupant characteristics were limited to their 5th percentiles (age ≤ 17 years old, BMI ≤ 19 kg/m2) or male gender. Results Limiting age was associated with a decrease inthe total number of occupants with head [8,396, 95% CI 6,871-9,070] and thorax injuries [17,961, 95% CI 15,960 – 18,859] across all crash modes, decreased occupants with spine [3,843, 95% CI 3,065 – 4,242] and upper extremity [3,578, 95% CI 1,402 – 4,439] injuries in frontal and rollover crashes and decreased abdominal [1,368, 95% CI 1,062 – 1,417] and lower extremity [4,584, 95% CI 4,012 – 4,995] injuries in frontal impacts. The age effect was modulated by gender with older females morelikely to have thorax and upper extremity injuries than older males. Limiting BMI was associated with 2,069 [95% CI 1,107 – 2,775] fewer thorax injuries in nearside crashes, and 5,304 [95% CI 4,279 – 5

  11. Age and Gender Correlates of Pulling in Pediatric Trichotillomania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Our goals were to examine clinical characteristics and age and gender correlates in pediatric trichotillomania. Method: A total of 62 children (8-17 years of age) were recruited for a pediatric trichotillomania treatment trial and characterized using structured rating scales of symptoms of hairpulling and common comorbid conditions. We…

  12. Age, Gender, and Reasons for Living among Australian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Reasons for living have been identified as protective factors in relation to suicide, and much research has documented gender differences in reasons for living. In contrast, little research has investigated age differences in reasons for living. In the current study, the relationship of age to reasons for living was investigated, as was whether…

  13. The Influence of Age and Type of Job on Gender Differences in Pay Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Michael B.; Oliver, Jennifer A.; Tan, Rowena N.

    1998-01-01

    Elementary school, secondary school, and college students rated 12 jobs divided between primarily female, primarily male, and gender-neutral occupations according to how much they should make if they were in the occupation. A significant interaction was found between type of job and gender for pay expectations. Suggestions for use in applied…

  14. The Relationship between Adult Occupational Preferences and Childhood Gender Nonconformity among Samoan Women, Men, and Fa'afafine.

    PubMed

    Semenyna, Scott W; Vasey, Paul L

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has found that sex differences in occupational preferences are both substantial and cross-culturally universal. Androphilic males tend to display "gender-shifted" occupational preferences, with relatively female-typical interests. Past research has overwhelmingly relied on Western samples; this article offers new insights from a non-Western setting. Known locally as fa'afafine, androphilic males in Samoa occupy a third-gender category. Data were collected in Samoa from 103 men, 103 women, and 103 fa'afafine regarding occupational preferences and recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). A substantial sex difference was observed in the occupational preferences of men and women (d = 2.04). Interestingly, women and fa'afafine did not differ in their preferences (p = 0.89), indicating a complete gender inversion of occupational preferences in the latter. Although there was no correlation between women's CGN and masculine occupational preferences, there was a significant correlation (r = -0.62) between these variables in both men and fa'afafine. Among males (both men and fa'afafine), increased CGN was associated with preference for feminine occupations. The present research corroborates past findings and furnishes support for the conclusion that female-typical occupational preferences are a cross-culturally invariant aspect of male androphilia.

  15. Gender, aging, and the economics of "active aging": Setting a new research agenda.

    PubMed

    Paz, Amira; Doron, Israel; Tur-Sinai, Aviad

    2017-04-03

    The world is aging, and the percentages of older people are on a dramatic ascent. This dramatic demographic aging of human society is not gender neutral; it is mostly about older women. One of the key policy approaches to address the aging revolution is known as "active aging," crystalized by the WHO in 2002 by three pillars: participation, health, and security. The active aging policy has financial and economic aspects and affects both men and women. However, as argued in this article, a gender-based approach has not been adopted within the existing active aging framework. Therefore, a new gender-specific research agenda is needed, one that focuses on an interrelation between gender and different economic aspects of "active aging" from international, comparative, cultural, and longitudinal perspectives.

  16. Affective Computing and the Impact of Gender and Age.

    PubMed

    Rukavina, Stefanie; Gruss, Sascha; Hoffmann, Holger; Tan, Jun-Wen; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C

    2016-01-01

    Affective computing aims at the detection of users' mental states, in particular, emotions and dispositions during human-computer interactions. Detection can be achieved by measuring multimodal signals, namely, speech, facial expressions and/or psychobiology. Over the past years, one major approach was to identify the best features for each signal using different classification methods. Although this is of high priority, other subject-specific variables should not be neglected. In our study, we analyzed the effect of gender, age, personality and gender roles on the extracted psychobiological features (derived from skin conductance level, facial electromyography and heart rate variability) as well as the influence on the classification results. In an experimental human-computer interaction, five different affective states with picture material from the International Affective Picture System and ULM pictures were induced. A total of 127 subjects participated in the study. Among all potentially influencing variables (gender has been reported to be influential), age was the only variable that correlated significantly with psychobiological responses. In summary, the conducted classification processes resulted in 20% classification accuracy differences according to age and gender, especially when comparing the neutral condition with four other affective states. We suggest taking age and gender specifically into account for future studies in affective computing, as these may lead to an improvement of emotion recognition accuracy.

  17. Affective Computing and the Impact of Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Rukavina, Stefanie; Gruss, Sascha; Hoffmann, Holger; Tan, Jun-Wen; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C.

    2016-01-01

    Affective computing aims at the detection of users’ mental states, in particular, emotions and dispositions during human-computer interactions. Detection can be achieved by measuring multimodal signals, namely, speech, facial expressions and/or psychobiology. Over the past years, one major approach was to identify the best features for each signal using different classification methods. Although this is of high priority, other subject-specific variables should not be neglected. In our study, we analyzed the effect of gender, age, personality and gender roles on the extracted psychobiological features (derived from skin conductance level, facial electromyography and heart rate variability) as well as the influence on the classification results. In an experimental human-computer interaction, five different affective states with picture material from the International Affective Picture System and ULM pictures were induced. A total of 127 subjects participated in the study. Among all potentially influencing variables (gender has been reported to be influential), age was the only variable that correlated significantly with psychobiological responses. In summary, the conducted classification processes resulted in 20% classification accuracy differences according to age and gender, especially when comparing the neutral condition with four other affective states. We suggest taking age and gender specifically into account for future studies in affective computing, as these may lead to an improvement of emotion recognition accuracy. PMID:26939129

  18. Human Aging Is a Metabolome-related Matter of Gender.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Maté, Ianire; Naudí, Alba; Mota-Martorell, Natalia; Portero-Otín, Manuel; De la Fuente, Mónica; Pamplona, Reinald

    2016-05-01

    A molecular description of the mechanisms by which aging is produced is still very limited. Here, we have determined the plasma metabolite profile by using high-throughput metabolome profiling technologies of 150 healthy humans ranging from 30 to 100 years of age. Using a nontargeted approach, we detected 2,678 metabolite species in plasma, and the multivariate analyses separated perfectly two groups indicating a specific signature for each gender. In addition, there is a set of gender-shared metabolites, which change significantly during aging with a similar tendency. Among the identified molecules, we found vitamin D2-related compound, phosphoserine (40:5), monoacylglyceride (22:1), diacylglyceride (33:2), and resolvin D6, all of them decreasing with the aging process. Finally, we found three molecules that directly correlate with age and seven that inversely correlate with age, independently of gender. Among the identified molecules (6 of 10 according to exact mass and retention time), we found a proteolytic product (l-γ-glutamyl-l-leucine), which increased with age. On the contrary, a hydroxyl fatty acid (25-hydroxy-hexacosanoic), a polyunsaturated fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid), two phospholipids (phosphocholine [42:9]and phosphoserine [42:3]) and a prostaglandin (15-keto-prostaglandin F2α) decreased with aging. These results suggest that lipid species and their metabolism are closely linked to the aging process.

  19. Age, gender, dentures and oral mucosal disorders.

    PubMed

    MacEntee, M I; Glick, N; Stolar, E

    1998-03-01

    The numbers of participants over 75 years of age in previous studies of oral health have not been sufficient to permit a full investigation of the influence of age on the mouth. In this study a disproportionate stratified random sample of 255 independent elders was selected from a list of urban voters to provide similar numbers of men and women in three age groups. The subjects were interviewed and examined, and nearly half of them had mucosal disorders. There was a significant (P < 0.05) association between mucosal lesions and the use of dentures and tobacco, whereas stomatitis, denture-related hyperplasia and angular cheilitis in particular were associated significantly with men and with the use of defective dentures. Logistic regression revealed that neither age alone nor the quality of dentures predispose to mucosal lesions, but that the odds of finding stomatitis, denture-related hyperplasia and angular cheilitis in particular increased about three-fold in denture-users, and almost doubled in men.

  20. Effect of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin.

    PubMed

    Efthymiopoulos, C; Bramer, S L; Maroli, A

    1997-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics of the oral fluoroquinolone grepafloxacin were examined in 48 healthy middle-aged and elderly individuals, of whom half were male and half were female. Participants were stratified into 4 groups (each with n = 12), aged 40 to 49 years, 50 to 59 years, 60 to 69 years, and > 70 years. All received oral grepafloxacin 600 mg once daily for 7 days, and pharmacokinetic parameters were measured on days 1 and 7. Mean plasma grepafloxacin concentrations were consistently higher in females than in males. Peak concentrations, area under the concentration-time curve, apparent volume of distribution and apparent total clearance (but not renal clearance) differed significantly in females and males. There were no significant gender differences in the elimination half-life values. Further analysis of the data suggests that the gender-related pharmacokinetic differences were primarily due to differences in bodyweight, in particular to differences in lean body mass. The only parameters that changed significantly with age were renal clearance and the proportion of the dose excreted unchanged in the urine, but no clear trend was observed, and there was no correlation with creatinine clearance. We conclude that age and gender have no clinically significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin. Dose adjustment on the basis of these factors does not therefore seem necessary.

  1. Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

  2. Effect of Age, Country, and Gender on Music Listening Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Albert; Jin, Young Chang; Stamou, Lelouda; McCrary, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Examines the music listening preferences of 2,042 students from Greece, South Korea, and the United States using a survey that listed selections from art music, traditional jazz, and rock music. Finds that age, gender, and country all exerted influence, but the variables did not perform the same way in each country. (CMK)

  3. Professor Age and Gender Affect Student Perceptions and Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joye, Shauna W.; Wilson, Janie H.

    2015-01-01

    Student evaluations provide rich information about teaching performance, but a number of factors beyond teacher effectiveness influence student evaluations. In this study we examined the effects of professor gender and perceived age on ratings of effectiveness and rapport as well as academic performance. We also asked students to rate professor…

  4. Gender Scripts and Age at Marriage in India

    PubMed Central

    DESAI, SONALDE; ANDRIST, LESTER

    2010-01-01

    Research on marriage in developing countries has been somewhat narrow in scope because of both conceptual and data limitations. While the feminist literature recognizes marriage as a key institutional site for the production and reproduction of gender hierarchies, little is known about the processes through which this relationship operates. This article uses data from the newly collected India Human Development Survey 2005 for 27,365 ever-married women aged 25–49 to explore ways in which different dimensions of gender in Indian society shape the decisions regarding age at marriage. We explore the impact of three dimensions of gender: (1) economic factors, such as availability of wage employment, dowry expectations, and wedding expenses; (2) indicators of familial empowerment, such as women’s role in household decision making and access to and control over resources; and (3) markers of gender performance, such as observance of purdah and male-female separation in the household. Results from hierarchical linear models confirm the importance of markers of gender performance but fail to demonstrate a large role for economic factors and familial empowerment. PMID:20879683

  5. Gender scripts and age at marriage in India.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sonalde; Andrist, Lester

    2010-08-01

    Research on marriage in developing countries has been somewhat narrow in scope because of both conceptual and data limitations. While the feminist literature recognizes marriage as a key institutional site for the production and reproduction of gender hierarchies, little is known about the processes through which this relationship operates. This article uses data from the newly collected India Human Development Survey 2005 for 27,365 ever-married women aged 25-49 to explore ways in which different dimensions of gender in Indian society shape the decisions regarding age at marriage. We explore the impact of three dimensions of gender: (1) economic factors, such as availability of wage employment, dowry expectations, and wedding expenses; (2) indicators offamilial empowerment, such as women s role in household decision making and access to and control over resources; and (3) markers of gender performance, such as observance of purdah and male-female separation in the household. Results from hierarchical linear models confirm the importance of markers of gender performance but fail to demonstrate a large role for economic factors and familial empowerment.

  6. Work Characteristics and Occupational Well-Being: The Role of Age

    PubMed Central

    Zacher, Hannes; Schmitt, Antje

    2016-01-01

    Based on a lifespan perspective on work design, person-environment interaction and fit theories, models of successful aging at work, and role theory, we review research on the role of worker age in relationships between work characteristics and occupational well-being. We first focus on interaction effects of work characteristics and age on occupational well-being. Research has found that age can moderate associations between work characteristics and occupational well-being indicators, and that work characteristics can moderate associations between age and occupational well-being indicators. Next, we describe research showing that work characteristics can mediate associations between age and occupational well-being indicators. The relationships of age with specific work characteristics and occupational well-being indicators can be linear or non-linear. We conclude our literature review by discussing implications for future research. PMID:27713711

  7. Distribution of GPs in Scotland by age, gender and deprivation.

    PubMed

    Blane, David N; McLean, Gary; Watt, Graham

    2015-11-01

    General practice in the UK is widely reported to be in crisis, with particular concerns about recruitment and retention of family doctors. This study assessed the distribution of GPs in Scotland by age, gender and deprivation, using routinely available data. We found that there are more GPs (and fewer patients per GP) in the least deprived deciles than there are in the most deprived deciles. Furthermore, there are a higher proportion of older GPs in the most deprived deciles. There are also important gender differences in the distribution of GPs. We discuss the implications of these findings for policymakers and practitioners.

  8. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans.

    PubMed

    Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitations for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on (90)Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has a similar structure to the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly re-evaluated: gastrointestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0-80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general populations exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  9. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitation for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on 90Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has similar structure as the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly reevaluated: gastro-intestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0–80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general population exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  10. Does occupational gender segregation influence the association of effort-reward imbalance with myocardial infarction in the SHEEP study?

    PubMed

    Peter, Richard; Hammarström, Anne; Hallqvist, Johan; Siegrist, Johannes; Theorell, Töres

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether occupational gender segregation moderates the association between job stress in terms of effort-reward imbalance and the risk of myocardial infarction. This analysis was conducted in 1,381 cases and 1,697 referents of the Swedish SHEEP case control study aged 45-70 years. Information on myocardial infarction and biological coronary risk factors (e.g. hypertension, blood lipids) was achieved from clinical screenings. Information on socio-demographic variables, effort-reward imbalance, behavioral coronary risk factors (e.g., smoking), and additional coronary risk factors (e.g., diabetes, family history of coronary heart disease) was derived from well-tested standardized questionnaires. After adjustment for confounders the strongest association between overcommitment (the intrinsic component of effort-reward imbalance) and risk of belonging to the myocardial infarction group was found among women in male-dominated jobs (odds ratio [OR] = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.13-6.52) as compared to the remaining group (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.01-2.31). Moreover, a significant interaction between pronounced overcommitment and male domination in relation to myocardial infarction was observed among women (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.05-5.67). In men, an association between the ratio of effort and reward (the extrinsic component of the model) and risk of myocardial infarction was found for the majority, that is the group not working in women-dominated jobs (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.04-1.86). Despite methodological limitations, this study gives preliminary evidence of a moderating effect of occupational gender segregation on the association of effort-reward imbalance (i.e., the intrinsic model component overcommitment) with acute myocardial infarction risk among women, but not among men.

  11. Bodacious Berry, Potency Wood and the Aging Monster: Gender and Age Relations in Anti-Aging Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calasanti, Toni

    2007-01-01

    This paper situates age discrimination within a broader system of age relations that intersects with other inequalities, and then uses that framework to analyze internet advertisements for the anti-aging industry. Such ads reinforce age and gender relations by positing old people as worthwhile only to the extent that they look and act like those…

  12. Endotoxin and gender modify lung function recovery after occupational organic dust exposure: a 30 year study

    PubMed Central

    Valeri, Linda; Zhang, Feng-ying; Zheng, Bu-Yong; Mehta, Amar J.; Shi, Jing; Su, Li; Brown, Dan; Eisen, Ellen A; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to determine the trajectory of lung function change after exposure cessation to occupational organic dust exposure, and to identify factors that modify improvement. METHODS The Shanghai Textile Worker Study is a longitudinal study of 447 cotton workers exposed to endotoxin-containing dust and 472 silk workers exposed to non-endotoxin-containing dust. Spirometry was performed at 5 year intervals. Air sampling was performed to estimate individual cumulative exposures. The effect of work cessation on FEV1 was modeled using generalized additive mixed effects models to identify the trajectory of FEV1 recovery. Linear mixed effects models incorporating interaction terms were used to identify modifiers of FEV1 recovery. Loss to follow-up was accounted for with inverse probability of censoring weights. RESULTS 74.2% of the original cohort still alive participated in 2011. Generalized additive mixed models identified a non-linear improvement in FEV1 for all workers after exposure cessation, with no plateau noted 25 years after retirement. Linear mixed effects models incorporating interaction terms identified prior endotoxin exposure (p=0.01) and male gender (p=0.002) as risk factors for impaired FEV1 improvement after exposure cessation. After adjusting for gender, smoking delayed the onset of FEV1 gain but did not affect the overall magnitude of change. CONCLUSIONS Lung function improvement after cessation of exposure to organic dust is sustained. Endotoxin exposure and male gender are risk factors for less FEV1 improvement. PMID:25666844

  13. Gender differences in the association of age with physical workload and functioning

    PubMed Central

    Aittomaki, A; Lahelma, E; Roos, E; Leino-Arjas, P; Martikainen, P

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To test whether (1) physically demanding work is less frequent for older than younger employees, and whether (2) the association of physically demanding work with decline of physical functioning is stronger for older employees than their younger counterparts. The gender differences in these associations were examined. Methods: Subjects of the study were 40–60 year old employees of the City of Helsinki. Data (n = 5802) were collected with mail questionnaires in 2000 and 2001. Functioning was measured with the Role Limitations due to Physical Health Problems scale of the SF36 health questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to analyse the data. Results: There was a linear trend of less physically demanding work in older than in younger age groups. This trend was more marked for men than women. Age and physically demanding work were associated with poor functioning. In women the association of physically demanding work with poor functioning tended to be stronger for older than for younger age groups, while the opposite was observed in men. Conclusions: Results suggest that physically demanding work causes more ailments in women of high age than men. It is possible that less men than women are still employed in physically demanding occupations at high age, even though direct evidence of exit from physically demanding work cannot be obtained from cross-sectional data. In these data the physically demanding occupations for men and women were largely different. High physical workload among women working in social and health care is likely to contribute to the gender differences. PMID:15657190

  14. The joint effect of ethnicity and gender on occupational segregation. An approach based on the Mutual Information Index.

    PubMed

    Guinea-Martin, Daniel; Mora, Ricardo; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we study the effects of ethnicity and gender on occupational segregation. Traditionally, researchers have examined the two sources of segregation separately. In contrast, we measure their joint effect by applying a multigroup segregation index-the Mutual Information or M index-to the product of the seven ethnic groups and two genders distinguished in our 2001 Census data for England and Wales. We exploit M's additive decomposability property to pose the following two questions: (i) Is there an interaction effect? (ii) How much does each source contribute to occupational segregation, controlling for the effect of the other? Although the role of ethnicity is non-negligible in the areas where minorities are concentrated, our findings confirm the greater importance of gender over ethnicity as a source of segregation. Moreover, we find a small "dwindling" interaction effect between the two sources of segregation: ethnicity slightly weakens the segregating power of gender and vice versa.

  15. Aging in precarious times: Exploring the role of gender in shaping views on aging.

    PubMed

    Craciun, Catrinel; Flick, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores views on aging and how these differ according to gender and precariousness status. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 men and 10 women with secure and insecure pensions. Themes like fear of illness and health decline were more present in men, while fear of losing their attractiveness in old age more present among women. For all participants, loss of autonomy and social roles represented a negative view of old age, while activity in the form of work, volunteering, or leisure represented positive views. Differences in views on aging were related to pension security and less to gender. Women with insecure pension plans displayed the most negative views of aging. Implications for practice and policy to prevent health and gender inequalities are discussed.

  16. Effects of age and gender on pharmacokinetics of cefepime.

    PubMed Central

    Barbhaiya, R H; Knupp, C A; Pittman, K A

    1992-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics of cefepime were examined in 48 volunteers following administration of a single 1,000-mg intravenous dose. Male and female subjects were divided into four groups, each consisting of 12 subjects, according to their age and gender. The young subjects were between 20 and 40 years of age and elderly subjects were between 65 and 81 years of age. Serial blood and urine samples were collected from each subject and were analyzed for cefepime by validated high-pressure liquid chromatographic assays with UV detection. Key pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental methods. There were no gender-related differences in elimination half-life (t1/2) and weight-normalized total body clearance (CLT), renal clearance (CLR), and steady-state volume of distribution (Vss). Statistically significant age-related effects were found for t1/2, CLT, CLR, and Vss parameters. In different study groups, Vss ranged from 0.21 to 0.24 liter/kg. The values for Vss were significant greater for elderly subjects than they were for young subjects. The cefepime t1/2 was significantly longer in elderly subjects (about 3 h) than that observed in young subjects (about 2.2 h). The mean values for CLT and CLR in the four study groups ranged from 1.11 to 1.56 and 0.99 to 1.44 ml/min/kg, respectively. In elderly subjects, the estimates for CLT and CLR were significantly lower than those observed in young subjects. Linear regression revealed good correlations between clearance values of cefepime and creatinine. The magnitude of age-related changes in the pharmacokinetics of cefepime is not significant enough to recommend dosage adjustment in elderly patients with kidney functions normal for their age. PMID:1416818

  17. Humor and gender roles: does age make a difference?

    PubMed

    Vitulli, William F

    2005-08-01

    Crawford's analysis in 2003 suggests that humor interacts with gender so that traditional social norms of femininity and masculinity may be reinforced or diinished. Yet age as a covariate was not considered. Assessment of the attitudes toward humor among 72 older women (M=72.0, SD=9.8, range=51-93 years) and 24 older men (M=69.8, SD=6.8, range=59-90 years) in 1996 by Vitulli and Parman suggest ratings on a Likert-type scale (anchored by 5: strongly agree and 1: strongly disagree) in which humor and gender interact. Moreover, a post hoc Scheffé test showed a significant sex effect on the female-oriented scale. Older women perceived humor as an important quality for women, whereas older men did not. Generational differences among studies on humor and sex underscore the need for contemporary research inclusive of age measures.

  18. Thyroid function and aging: gender-related differences.

    PubMed

    da Costa, V M; Moreira, D G; Rosenthal, D

    2001-10-01

    The effects of aging on human or animal thyroid function are still not well defined. We evaluated some aspects of thyroid function during aging using an animal model (young and old Dutch-Miranda rats). In old rats of both genders, serum thyroxine (T4) decreased but serum thyrotrophin (TSH) remained unaltered, suggesting a disturbance in the pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism during aging. Serum tri-iodothyronine (T3) only decreased in old males, possibly because female rats are almost twice as efficient in hepatic T4 to T3 deiodination. Thyroidal T4-5'-deiodinase activity did not change much during aging, although it decreased slightly in males. Thyroidal iodothyronine-deiodinase type I mRNA expression but not total thyroidal enzymatic activity were higher in female than in male rats. Thus, ovarian/testicular hormones may modulate the expression and/or the activity of hepatic and thyroidal type I iodothyronine-deiodinase. Thyroperoxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) expression were higher in young male rats than in females. In males, TPO and Tg gene expression decreased with aging, suggesting that androgens might increase their expression. Our results showed that aging induces real changes in rat thyroid gland function and regulation, affecting at least pituitary, thyroid and liver functions. Furthermore, some of these changes were gender related, indicating that gonadal hormones may modulate thyroid gland function and regulation.

  19. Automatic age and gender classification using supervised appearance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukar, Ali Maina; Ugail, Hassan; Connah, David

    2016-11-01

    Age and gender classification are two important problems that recently gained popularity in the research community, due to their wide range of applications. Research has shown that both age and gender information are encoded in the face shape and texture, hence the active appearance model (AAM), a statistical model that captures shape and texture variations, has been one of the most widely used feature extraction techniques for the aforementioned problems. However, AAM suffers from some drawbacks, especially when used for classification. This is primarily because principal component analysis (PCA), which is at the core of the model, works in an unsupervised manner, i.e., PCA dimensionality reduction does not take into account how the predictor variables relate to the response (class labels). Rather, it explores only the underlying structure of the predictor variables, thus, it is no surprise if PCA discards valuable parts of the data that represent discriminatory features. Toward this end, we propose a supervised appearance model (sAM) that improves on AAM by replacing PCA with partial least-squares regression. This feature extraction technique is then used for the problems of age and gender classification. Our experiments show that sAM has better predictive power than the conventional AAM.

  20. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-03-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

  1. Age and Gender Differences in Motivational Manifestations of the Big Five from Age 16 to 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Regula; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Allemand, Mathias; Penke, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated age and gender differences in motivational manifestations of the Big Five in a large German-speaking Internet sample (N = 19,022). Participants ranging in age from 16 to 60 years completed the Five Individual Reaction Norms Inventory (FIRNI; Denissen & Penke, 2008a), and two traditional Big Five…

  2. Liking and identifying emotionally expressive music: age and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Patrick G; Glenn Schellenberg, E; Stalinski, Stephanie M

    2011-09-01

    Adults and children 5, 8, and 11 years of age listened to short excerpts of unfamiliar music that sounded happy, scary, peaceful, or sad. Listeners initially rated how much they liked each excerpt. They subsequently made a forced-choice judgment about the emotion that each excerpt conveyed. Identification accuracy was higher for young girls than for young boys, but both genders reached adult-like levels by age 11. High-arousal emotions (happiness and fear) were better identified than low-arousal emotions (peacefulness and sadness), and this advantage was exaggerated among younger children. Whereas children of all ages preferred excerpts depicting high-arousal emotions, adults favored excerpts depicting positive emotions (happiness and peacefulness). A preference for positive emotions over negative emotions was also evident among females of all ages. As identification accuracy improved, liking for positively valenced music increased among 5- and 8-year-olds but decreased among 11-year-olds.

  3. Gender Differences in Perceptions of Resources and Turnover Intentions of Work-Linked Couples in Masculine Occupations.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Ann Hergatt; Olson, Kristine J

    2016-09-28

    Employees in work-linked marriages have spouses that share the same family and the same workplace and/or occupation. Whereas, in recent years, there has been increasingly more research on dual-career marriages (i.e. both spouses work, but not necessarily at the same workplace and/or occupation), there has been very little research on work-linked marriages. The current study focuses on work resources (i.e. family supportive supervisor behaviour and job control) as key mediating processes that explain the effect of gender on turnover intentions among work-linked employees in masculine occupations (i.e. military). Investigating gender differences is important because, compared with men, women are more likely to be in work-linked marriages and to leave their jobs. Based on role theory and conservation of resource theory, we predicted that gender was related to turnover intentions, and this relationship would be mediated by key explanatory variables (i.e. family supportive supervisor behaviours, job control and psychological distress). Mediation analyses, conducted on a sample of men and women in work-linked marriages (n = 309), provide support for the hypothesized model. These findings offer guidance for understanding gender differences among work-linked employees in masculine occupations, and how these differences can affect important outcomes such as turnover intentions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The Franck Test for Gender Identity: Correlation with Occupation and Long-Term Stability of Score in Normal Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Roland

    1985-01-01

    A correlation was found between high (independent) occupational positions and masculine scores on the Franck Drawing Completion Test (FDCT). Acceptable individual long-term stability was also evident. The FDCT appears to be useful in assessing gender identity. (Author/ABB)

  5. Examining aging sexual stigma attitudes among adults by gender, age, and generational status

    PubMed Central

    Syme, Maggie L.; Cohn, Tracy J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Stigma related to later life sexuality could produce detrimental effects for older adults, through individual concerns and limited sexual healthcare for older adults. Identifying groups at risk for aging sexual stigma will help to focus interventions to reduce it. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional trends in aging sexual stigma attitudes by age group, generational status, and gender. Method An online survey was administered to a national sample of adults via a crowdsourcing tool, in order to examine aging sexual stigma across age groups, generational status, and gender (N=962; 47.0% male, 52.5% female, and .5% other; mean age = 45 yrs.). An aging sexual stigma index was formulated from the attitudinal items of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale. Results This sample reported moderately permissive attitudes toward aging sexuality, indicating a low level of aging sexual stigma. Though descriptive data showed trends of stigma attitudes increasing with age and later generations, there were no significant differences between age groups or generations in terms of aging sexual stigma beliefs. Men, regardless of age and/or generation, were found to espouse significantly higher stigmatic beliefs than women or those reporting “other” gender. Conclusions Aging sexual stigma beliefs may not be prevalent among the general population as cohorts become more sexually liberal over time, though men appear more susceptible to these beliefs. However, in order to more comprehensively assess aging sexual stigma, future research may benefit from measuring explicit and implicit aging sexual stigma beliefs. PMID:25703148

  6. Engagement in patterns of daily occupations and perceived health among women of working age.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Carita; Lissner, Lauren; Björkelund, Cecilia; Sonn, Ulla

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to examine how subjective experiences of engagement in patterns of daily occupations (gainful employment, domestic work, enjoyable and recreational occupations) were associated with perceived health among women of working age. The sample (n=488) was drawn from a longitudinal cohort study of women of working age in Gothenburg, Sweden. Participants were women 38 (n=202) and 50 (n=286) years of age. They completed a questionnaire including questions about occupational experiences in relation to their patterns of daily occupations, perceived health, and socioeconomic factors. The results of the present study showed that a combination of different experience dimensions of patterns of daily occupations was associated with perceived health among women of working age, even when adjusted for socioeconomic factors and age. The results provided occupational pattern-related health indicators, i.e. manageability, personally meaningful occupations, and occupational balance. To combine these health indicators can be a way for occupational therapists to enable women to develop strategies to promote health and to prevent stress and sick leave.

  7. Gender inequalities in occupational health related to the unequal distribution of working and employment conditions: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Gender inequalities exist in work life, but little is known about their presence in relation to factors examined in occupation health settings. The aim of this study was to identify and summarize the working and employment conditions described as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health in studies related to occupational health published between 1999 and 2010. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken of studies available in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Sociological Abstracts, LILACS, EconLit and CINAHL between 1999 and 2010. Epidemiologic studies were selected by applying a set of inclusion criteria to the title, abstract, and complete text. The quality of the studies was also assessed. Selected studies were qualitatively analysed, resulting in a compilation of all differences between women and men in the prevalence of exposure to working and employment conditions and work-related health problems as outcomes. Results Most of the 30 studies included were conducted in Europe (n=19) and had a cross-sectional design (n=24). The most common topic analysed was related to the exposure to work-related psychosocial hazards (n=8). Employed women had more job insecurity, lower control, worse contractual working conditions and poorer self-perceived physical and mental health than men did. Conversely, employed men had a higher degree of physically demanding work, lower support, higher levels of effort-reward imbalance, higher job status, were more exposed to noise and worked longer hours than women did. Conclusions This systematic review has identified a set of working and employment conditions as determinants of gender inequalities in occupational health from the occupational health literature. These results may be useful to policy makers seeking to reduce gender inequalities in occupational health, and to researchers wishing to analyse these determinants in greater depth. PMID:23915121

  8. Occupational Therapy for School-Aged Children in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Asha; Jatar, Anuradha; Bijlani, Jyothika

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapists exploring international opportunities should understand how the profession is practiced globally. This paper describes the framework under which occupational therapy services can be accessed by families of children with disabilities in urban India. Background information about the country, its health care, and occupational…

  9. The gender-specific association between age at first drink and later alcohol drinking patterns in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minsun; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the association between the age at first drink and later alcohol drinking patterns, and analyzed whether differences in the association exist among Korean adults according to gender. The subjects included 10,649 adults (5,405 men and 5,244 women) from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2009, which extracted the standard survey household by using the proportional systematic sampling method. Baseline individual characteristics, the age at first drink, and individual alcohol drinking patterns were obtained by specially trained interviewers or examiners. The association between the age at first drink and the adult alcohol drinking patterns was summarized with odds ratios and their confidence intervals obtained from multiple logistic regression analysis with sampling weights of KNHANES complex sample survey design. The results of this study show that age, co-habitation, occupation, smoking, and self-rated stress level were significantly related to the drinking patterns for men, whereas education, co-habitation, smoking, and self-rated stress level were significant factors for the drinking patterns of women. The association between the age at first drink and the adult alcohol consumption was significant for both genders and, interestingly, the alcohol drinking patterns were significantly differed by gender even after controlling for the individual characteristics. These results imply a need for gender-specific strategies to prevent hazardous alcohol consumption at a later time for Korean.

  10. Perceiving wisdom: do age and gender play a part?

    PubMed

    Hira, F J; Faulkender, P J

    1997-01-01

    The wisdom perceived to be possessed by videotaped individuals of varying ages was evaluated using the Smith and Baltes definition of wisdom [1]. The Life-Planning Tasks (work-family dilemmas) and corresponding think-aloud protocols (responses) developed by Smith and Baltes were transformed into videotape stimuli to assess the presence of wisdom. Using an instrument derived from the Smith and Baltes description of wisdom, undergraduate respondents evaluated the wisdom they perceived to be contained in videotaped responses to Life-Planning Tasks. The age of the Life-Planning Task respondent was manipulated as either older or younger. A significant interaction between the age and gender of the videotape respondents and an interpretation of its effect on the perception of wisdom is discussed. Correlational results reveal a positive relationship between the lay person's definition of wisdom and that which was derived from Smith and Baltes.

  11. Age and gender dependency of physiological networks in sleep.

    PubMed

    Krefting, Dagmar; Jansen, Christoph; Penzel, Thomas; Han, Fang; Kantelhardt, Jan

    2017-02-17

    Recently, time delay stability analysis of biosignals has been successfully applied as a multivariate time series analysis method to assess the human physiological network in young adults. The degree of connectivity between different network nodes is described by the so-called link strength. Based on polysomnographic recordings (PSGs), it could be shown that the network changes with the sleep stage. Here, we apply the method to a large set of healthy controls spanning six decades of age. As it is well known, that the overall sleep architecture is dependent both on age and on gender, we particularly address the question, if these changes are also found in the network dynamics. We find moderate dependencies of the network on gender. Significantly higher link strengths up to 13\\% are found in women for some links in different frequency bands of central and occipital regions in REM and light sleep (N2). Higher link strengths are found in men consistently in cardio-cerebral links in N2, but not significant. Age dependency is more pronounced. In particular a significant overall weakening of the network is found for wakefulness and non-REM sleep stages. The largest overall decrease is observed in N2 with 0.017 per decade, for individual links decrease rates up to 0.08 per decade are found, in particular for intra-brain links in non-REM sleep. Many of them show a significant decrease with age. Non-linear regression employing an artificial neural network can predict the age with a mean absolute error (MAE) of about five years, suggesting that an age-resolution of about a decade would be appropriate in normative data for physiological networks.

  12. Spirituality, gender and age factors in cybergossip among Nigerian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, David Adebayo

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the patterns of spirituality, gender, and age in cybergossip practices among Nigerian adolescents. The study utilized a descriptive survey method. Five hundred thirty adolescent students, randomly selected from four major cities in Nigeria, participated in the study. Their age range was 16 to 21. General Spirituality and Gossip Purpose scales were used to collect data from the participants. Data collected were subjected to t test statistics. Findings showed that there is no significant difference in the cybergossiping practices of adolescents based on their levels of spirituality. This reveals that spirituality is not an inhibiting factor in cybergossiping practices among the adolescents. However, there is significant difference between male and female youths in their cybergossiping practices. The results showed that females are more likely than males to be involved in cybergossiping activities. There is also significant difference between early and late adolescents' cybergossiping activities. The implication is that gossip and cybergossip is a natural tendency that involves communicative expression with a pleasure-seeking purpose. It is a habit that excludes no one despite spiritual, gender, or age factors. Therefore, this behavior should be positively directed away from abusive computing and communication. This work is unique because of the need for parents, guardians, and psychologists to design measures to identify and manage various moderating variables in children's computing practices for optimal positive outcomes.

  13. Age, Gender and Women's Health and the Patient.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Lesley A; Heitkemper, Margaret; Crowell, Michael; Emmanuel, Anton; Halpert, Albena; McRoberts, James A; Toner, Brenda

    2016-02-15

    Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) often experience distress, reduced quality of life, a perceived lack of validation, and an unsatisfactory experience with health care providers. A health care provider can provide the patient with a framework in which to understand and legitimize their symptoms, remove self-doubt or blame, and identify factors that contribute to symptoms that the patient can influence or control. This framework is implemented with the consideration of important factors that impact FGIDs, such as gender, age, society, and the patient's perspective. Although the majority of FGIDs, including globus, rumination syndrome, IBS, bloating, constipation, functional abdominal pain, sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia, pelvic floor dysfunction, and extra-intestinal manifestations, are more prevalent in women than men, functional chest pain, dyspepsia, vomiting, and anorectal pain do not appear to vary by gender. Studies suggest sex differences in somatic but not visceral pain perception, motility, and central processing of visceral pain; although further research is required in autonomic nervous system dysfunction, genetics and immunologic/microbiome. Gender differences in response to psychological treatments, antidepressants, fiber, probiotics, and anticholinergics have not been adequately studied. However, a greater clinical response to 5-HT3 antagonists but not 5-HT4 agonists has been reported in women compared with men.

  14. Gender and snow crab occupational asthma in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Howse, Dana; Gautrin, Denyse; Neis, Barbara . E-mail: bneis@mun.ca; Cartier, Andre; Horth-Susin, Lise; Jong, Michael; Swanson, Mark C.

    2006-06-15

    Fish and shellfish processing employs many thousands of people globally, with shellfish processing becoming more important in recent years. Shellfish processing is associated with multiple occupational health and safety (OHS) risks. Snow crab occupational asthma (OA) is work-related asthma associated with processing snow crab. We present a gender analysis of findings from a 3-year multifaceted study of snow crab OA in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The study was carried out in four snow crab processing communities between 2001 and 2004. An anonymous survey questionnaire on knowledge, beliefs, and concerns related to processing snow crab administered to 158 workers attending community meetings at the start of the research found that women were significantly more likely than men to associate certain health problems, especially chest tightness, difficulty breathing, and cough, with crab processing (P<0.001). Worker health assessments carried out with 215 processing workers (187 current/28 former; 120 female/95 male) found that female participants were more likely to be diagnosed as almost certain/highly probable snow crab OA and allergy (P=0.001) and to be sensitized to snow crab (P=0.01) than male participants. Work histories from the health assessments were used to classify processing jobs as male or female. Allergen sampling (211 allergen samples: 115 area, 96 personal breathing zone) indicated that the plant areas where these male jobs were concentrated were associated with lower levels of aerosolized crab allergens (the agents responsible for OA to snow crab) than areas associated with female jobs. This difference was statistically significant in the two plants with poor ventilation (p<0.001 and P=0.017 for these plants). A gender analysis of work history data showed that female health assessment participants were likely to have worked longer processing snow crab than males (5 years versus 3.5 years, respectively). Cross-referencing of work history results

  15. Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

  16. Age, gender, kinship and caregiver burden in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tramonti, Francesco; Bongioanni, Paolo; Leotta, Rebecca; Puppi, Irene; Rossi, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease that affects the motor neurons and causes progressive physical impairment. Also, other functions, such as breathing, swallowing and speech are compromised, and the loss of independence makes caregiver burden extremely high. The present study aimed at evaluating the differences in the caregiver burden due to age, gender and kinship. Women reported a higher physical and social burden than men, and partners scored higher in several dimensions of the caregiver burden when compared to sons and daughters. With respect to adult child caregivers, daughters reported higher levels of developmental burden than sons. Age has a significant impact on the caregiver burden, especially for the time dedicated to assistance and physical burden; disease severity is significantly related to the physical burden as well, and also with the developmental burden.

  17. Patterns of Age Mixing and Gender Mixing among Children and Adolescents at an Ungraded School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter; Feldman, Jay

    1997-01-01

    Examined age and gender mixing among students, ages 4-19, at an ungraded, self-directed, democratically structured school. Found that age mixing was more frequent for 12- to 15-year-olds than for younger or older students, and that gender mixing was less frequent for 8- to 11-year-olds than for any other age group. (MDM)

  18. Gender, ageing & carework in East and Southern Africa: A review

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 58 million persons aged 60-plus live in sub-Saharan Africa; by 2050 that number will rise sharply to 215 million. Older Africans traditionally get care in their old age from the middle generation. But in East and Southern Africa, HIV has hollowed out that generation, leaving many older persons to provide care for their children’s children without someone to care for him or herself in old age. Simultaneously, the burden of disease among older persons is changing in this region. The result is a growing care deficit. This article examines the existing literature on care for and by older persons in this region, highlighting understudied aspects of older persons’ experiences of ageing and care – including the positive impacts of carework, variation in the region, and the role of resilience and pensions. We advance a conceptual framework of gendered identities – for both men and women – and intergenerational social exchange to help focus and understand the complex interdependent relationships around carework, which are paramount in addressing the needs of older persons in the current care deficit in this region, and the Global South more generally. PMID:25947225

  19. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History.

    PubMed

    Giordimaina, Alicia M; Sheldon, Jane P; Kiedrowski, Lesli A; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-12-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey, nondiabetic Mexican Americans (n = 385), Blacks (n = 387), and Whites (n = 396) reported family histories of T2DM. Negative binomial regressions used age and gender to predict the number of affected relatives reported. Models were examined for the gender gap, parabolic age effect, and gender-by-age interaction predicted by kinkeeping. Results demonstrated support for gender and parabolic age effects but only among Whites. Kinkeeping may have application to the study of White family medical historians, but not Black or Mexican American historians, perhaps because of differences in family structure, salience of T2DM, and/or gender roles.

  20. Gender bias in the evaluation of new age music.

    PubMed

    Colley, Ann; North, Adrian; Hargreaves, David J

    2003-04-01

    Eminent composers in Western European art music continue to be predominantly male and eminence in contemporary pop music is similarly male dominated. One contributing factor may be the continuing under-valuation of women's music. Possible anti-female bias in a contemporary genre was investigated using the Goldberg paradigm to elicit judgments of New Age compositions. Since stronger stereotyping effects occur when information provided about individuals is sparse, fictitious male and female composers were presented either by name only or by name with a brief biography. Evidence for anti-female bias was found in the name-only condition and was stronger when liking for the music was controlled. Other findings were the tendency for females to give higher ratings, and the association of gender differences in liking of the music with ratings of quality in the name-only condition. These results are relevant to the design of formal assessment procedures for musical composition.

  1. The Effects of Age, Gender, and 4-H Involvement on Life Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Bruce E.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effects of age, gender, and 4-H involvement in clubs on life skill development of youth ages eight to 18 over a 12-month period. Regression analyses found age, gender, and 4-H involvement significantly influenced life skill development. Results found that females have higher levels of competencies in life…

  2. Rewriting age to overcome misaligned age and gender norms in later life.

    PubMed

    Morelock, Jeremiah C; Stokes, Jeffrey E; Moorman, Sara M

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we suggest that older adults undergo a misalignment between societal age norms and personal lived experience, and attempt reconciliation through discursive strategies: They rewrite how they frame chronological age as well as their subjective relations to it. Using a sample of 4041 midlife and older adults from the 2004-2006 wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS II), we explore associations of age and gender with subjective age and at what age respondents felt people enter later life. Our results confirm that as men and women age, they push up the age at which they think people enter later life, and slow down subjective aging (there is a growing gap between subjective and chronological age). Relations between a person's age and at what age they think people enter later life were stronger for men than for women. For every year they get older get older, men push up when they think people enter later life by 0.24years, women by 0.16years. Age norms surrounding the transition to later life may be more prominent for men than for women, and the difference in their tendencies to push up when they mark entry into later life may be a reflection of this greater prominence.

  3. Update on productive aging research in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 2012.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a review of articles on productive aging published in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (AJOT) during 2012 in light of the Centennial Vision charge of supporting practice through evidence. Seventeen AJOT articles published in 2012 specifically addressed productive aging. Of 6 Level I studies, 4 were systematic reviews that identified effective occupational therapy interventions for community-dwelling older adults; 1 randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of writing life reviews for residents of senior residences, and 1 meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of fall-related efficacy and engagement in activity or occupation. Two Level II studies and 2 Level III studies produced support for the effectiveness of individual and group-based occupational therapy interventions. Of 7 descriptive studies addressing a variety of areas, 4 addressed the reliability and validity of assessments. In 2012, AJOT published more and higher quality studies addressing a variety of issues related to productive aging.

  4. Equal Work, Unequal Pay: Gender Discrimination within Work-Similar Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Alice Abel; Beck, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an empirical method to identify work-similar occupations using selected measures from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Examines male-female earnings differences within a group of work-similar occupations and finds that discrimination against females is extensive. (Author/CH)

  5. The effects of age and gender on lipreading abilities.

    PubMed

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Sommers, Mitchell S; Spehar, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Age-related declines for many sensory and cognitive abilities are greater for males than for females. The primary purpose of the present investigation was to consider whether age-related changes in lipreading abilities are similar for men and women by comparing the lipreading abilities of separate groups of younger and older adults. Older females, older males, younger females and younger males completed vision-only speech recognition tests of: (1) 13 consonants in a vocalic /i/-C-/i/ environment; (2) words in a carrier phrase; and (3) meaningful sentences. In addition to percent correct performance, consonant data were analyzed for performance within viseme categories. The results suggest that while older adults do not lipread as well as younger adults, the difference between older and younger participants was comparable across gender. We also found no differences in the lipreading abilities of males and females, regardless of stimulus type (i.e., consonants, words, sentences), a finding that differs from some reports by previous investigators (e.g., Dancer, Krain, Thompson, Davis, & Glenn, 1994).

  6. Implementation of age and gender recognition system for intelligent digital signage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Myoung-Kyu; Kim, Hyunduk

    2015-12-01

    Intelligent digital signage systems transmit customized advertising and information by analyzing users and customers, unlike existing system that presented advertising in the form of broadcast without regard to type of customers. Currently, development of intelligent digital signage system has been pushed forward vigorously. In this study, we designed a system capable of analyzing gender and age of customers based on image obtained from camera, although there are many different methods for analyzing customers. We conducted age and gender recognition experiments using public database. The age/gender recognition experiments were performed through histogram matching method by extracting Local binary patterns (LBP) features after facial area on input image was normalized. The results of experiment showed that gender recognition rate was as high as approximately 97% on average. Age recognition was conducted based on categorization into 5 age classes. Age recognition rates for women and men were about 67% and 68%, respectively when that conducted separately for different gender.

  7. A National Study of Gender-Based Occupational Segregation in Municipal Bureaucracies: Persistence of Glass Walls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Will; Kerr, Brinck; Reid, Margaret

    1999-01-01

    Investigates gender-based municipal employment patterns in discrete functional-policy areas. Indicates that even though cities have achieved gender balance in redistributive functions, women are severely underrepresented in distributive and regulatory agencies. (Author)

  8. The contribution of gender-role orientation, work factors and home stressors to psychological well-being and sickness absence in male- and female-dominated occupational groups.

    PubMed

    Evans, Olga; Steptoe, Andrew

    2002-02-01

    The associations of work stress, types of work and gender-role orientation with psychological well-being and sickness absence were investigated in a questionnaire survey of 588 male and female nurses and 387 male and female accountants. We hypothesised that health might be impaired among women working in the male-dominated occupation (accountancy), and men in the female-dominated occupation (nursing), but that effects might be moderated by job strain (perceptions of high demand and low control), work and home hassles, and traditional male (instrumentality) and female (expressivity) psychological characteristics. Responses were analysed from 172 female and 61 male nurses, and from 53 female and 81 male commercial accountants. Female accountants were more likely than other groups to have high anxiety scores on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales, while male nurses had the highest rates of sickness absence. Male nurses and female accountants also reported more work-related hassles than did female nurses and male accountants. Men and women in the same occupation did not differ in job strain or job social support, but nurses reported greater job strain than accountants, due to higher ratings of demands and lower skill utilisation. After adjusting for age, sex, occupation, paid work hours and a measure of social desirability bias, risk of elevated anxiety was independently associated with higher job strain, lower job social support, more work hassles, more domestic responsibility, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The association between sex and anxiety was no longer significant after instrumentality had been entered into the regression model. Sickness absence of more than three days over the past 12 months was independently associated with higher job strain, more work hassles, lower instrumentality and higher expressivity. The results suggest that when men and women occupy jobs in which they are in the cultural and numerical minority, there may be

  9. Remaining time and opportunities at work: Relationships between age, work characteristics, and occupational future time perspective.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    2009-06-01

    The authors adapted the concept of future time perspective (FTP) to the work context and examined its relationships with age and work characteristics (job complexity and control). Structural equation modeling of data from 176 employees of various occupations showed that age is negatively related to 2 distinct dimensions of occupational FTP: remaining time and remaining opportunities. Work characteristics (job complexity and control) were positively related to remaining opportunities and moderated the relationship between age and remaining opportunities, such that the relationship became weaker with increasing levels of job complexity and control.

  10. The Relationship between Gender and Age of First Concern in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Turygin, Nicole; Beighley, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    The age at which parents first developed concerns over their child's development was examined in 965 toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and atypical development to examine the potential role of gender. A two-way analysis of covariance was conducted with gender and diagnosis entered as independent variables, age at assessment entered as…

  11. Age and Gender Differences in Depression across Adolescence: Real or "Bias"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…

  12. Awkward or Amazing: Gender and Age Trends in First Intercourse Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Ward, L. Monique; Caruthers, Allison; Merriwether, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Although research continues to highlight significant gender differences in first coital experiences, developmental approaches suggest that some of these patterns may be age-related. Therefore, this study investigated both gender and age differences in first intercourse experiences. Open-ended responses regarding reasons for, and descriptions of,…

  13. Effects of Aging and Adult Development Education and Service Learning on Attitude, Anxiety, and Occupational Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a semester-long aging and adult development course that included an intergenerational, service-learning component on attitudes toward older adult men and women, aging anxiety, and interest in occupations that serve older adults among individuals training for careers in healthcare and social services. It also…

  14. Occupational segregation, gender essentialism and male primacy as major barriers to equity in HIV/AIDS caregiving: Findings from Lesotho

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gender segregation of occupations, which typically assigns caring/nurturing jobs to women and technical/managerial jobs to men, has been recognized as a major source of inequality worldwide with implications for the development of robust health workforces. In sub-Saharan Africa, gender inequalities are particularly acute in HIV/AIDS caregiving (90% of which is provided in the home), where women and girls make up the informal (and mostly unpaid) workforce. Men's and boy's entry into HIV/AIDS caregiving in greater numbers would both increase the equity and sustainability of national and community-level HIV/AIDS caregiving and mitigate health workforce shortages, but notions of gender essentialism and male primacy make this far from inevitable. In 2008 the Capacity Project partnered with the Lesotho Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in a study of the gender dynamics of HIV/AIDS caregiving in three districts of Lesotho to account for men's absence in HIV/AIDS caregiving and investigate ways in which they might be recruited into the community and home-based care (CHBC) workforce. Methods The study used qualitative methods, including 25 key informant interviews with village chiefs, nurse clinicians, and hospital administrators and 31 focus group discussions with community health workers, community members, ex-miners, and HIV-positive men and women. Results Study participants uniformly perceived a need to increase the number of CHBC providers to deal with the heavy workload from increasing numbers of patients and insufficient new entries. HIV/AIDS caregiving is a gender-segregated job, at the core of which lie stereotypes and beliefs about the appropriate work of men and women. This results in an inequitable, unsustainable burden on women and girls. Strategies are analyzed for their potential effectiveness in increasing equity in caregiving. Conclusions HIV/AIDS and human resources stakeholders must address occupational segregation and the underlying gender

  15. Occupational exposure to natural UV radiation and premature skin ageing.

    PubMed

    Lastowiecka-Moras, Elżbieta; Bugajska, Joanna; Młynarczyk, Beata

    2014-01-01

    The skin is the part of the human body most vulnerable to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The spectrum of the negative effects of UV radiation on the skin ranges from acute erythema to carcinogenesis. Between these extreme conditions, there are other common skin lesions, e.g., photoageing. The aim of this study was to assess the skin for signs of photoageing in a group of 52 men occupationally exposed to natural UV radiation. There were 2 types of examinations: an examination of skin condition (moisture, elasticity, sebum, porosity, smoothness, discolourations and wrinkles) with a device for diagnosing the skin, and a dermatological examination. The results of both examinations revealed a higher percentage of skin characteristics typical for photoageing in outdoor workers compared to the general population.

  16. Pituitary resistin gene expression: effects of age, gender and obesity.

    PubMed

    Morash, Barbara A; Ur, Ehud; Wiesner, Glen; Roy, Jeremy; Wilkinson, Michael

    2004-03-01

    Resistin is a new adipocytokine which is expressed in rat, mouse and possibly human adipose tissue. Its putative role as a mediator of insulin resistance is controversial. We hypothesized that resistin, like leptin, would have multiple roles in non-adipose tissues and we reported that resistin is expressed in mouse brain and pituitary. Moreover, resistin expression in female mouse pituitary is developmentally regulated and maximal expression occurs peripubertally. Although the role of endogenous resistin in mouse brain and pituitary has not been determined, our data suggest that resistin could be important in the postnatal maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary system. In the present study we compared the ontogeny of resistin gene expression in the pituitary of male and female mice using semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. We show that resistin expression is developmentally regulated in the pituitary of male and female CD1 mice. However, significant gender differences were evident (male > female at postnatal day 28 and 42) and this was not modified by neonatal treatment of female pups with testosterone. Since resistin expression in adipose tissue is also influenced by obesity, we evaluated resistin expression in fat, brain and pituitary of the obese ob/ob mouse. Resistin mRNA was significantly increased in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots in postnatal day 28 ob/ob mice compared to controls, but pituitary resistin expression was significantly reduced. In contrast to the prepubertal levels, and in agreement with other reports, adipose resistin expression was reduced in adult ob/ob mice. In a third set of experiments we examined the influence of food deprivation on pituitary and fat resistin mRNA. Resistin gene expression was severely down-regulated by a 24-hour fast in adipose and pituitary tissue but not in hypothalamus. In conclusion, pituitary resistin expression is age- and gender-dependent. In ob/ob mice, and in fasted mice, resistin is regulated

  17. Occupational Memory Practice and Memory Beliefs with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huet, Nathalie; Marquie, Jean-Claude; Bacon, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study examined effects of intensive memory use during one's profession on metamemory beliefs. Fifty-one actors and 60 controls aged from 20 to 73 years were compared with the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood. Both intensive job-related memory practice and younger age were associated with stronger memory self-efficacy beliefs. Irrespective of…

  18. The Skinny on Success: Body Mass, Gender and Occupational Standing across the Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Christy M.; Haas, Steven A.; Reither, Eric N.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have analyzed the impact of obesity on occupational standing. This study extends previous research by estimating the influence of body mass on occupational attainment over three decades of the career using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. In a series of covariance structure analyses, we considered three mechanisms that…

  19. Quantitative Genetic Analyses of Gender Differences in Educational and Occupational Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Siv; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Influences of heredity and environment on educational and occupational choice in mid-life and elderly cohorts were studied using longitudinal twin data (413 pairs). For both education and occupation there is a trend toward increasing genetic variance for females in comparison to males in the younger cohort. (SLD)

  20. Traditionality of Children's Interests as Related to Their Parents' Gender Stereotypes and Traditionality of Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Azy; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Parental sex stereotypes, maternal employment status, and the traditionality of parental occupations were studied in relation to the traditionality of 113 preschool children's vocational interests. Only the traditionality of the mother's occupation related significantly with that of the children's interests. Discusses the role model in gender…

  1. Fertility Decline, Gender Composition of Families, and Expectations of Old Age Support

    PubMed Central

    Allendorf, Keera

    2017-01-01

    Recent fertility declines in non-Western countries may have the potential to transform gender systems. One pathway for such transformations is the creation of substantial proportions of families with children of only one gender. Such families, particularly those with only daughters, may facilitate greater symmetry between sons and daughters. This article explores whether such shifts may influence gendered expectations of old age support. In keeping with patriarchal family systems, old age support is customarily provided by sons, but not daughters, in India. Using data from the 2005 Indian Human Development Survey, I find that women with sons overwhelmingly expect old age support from a son. By contrast, women with only daughters largely expect support from a daughter or a source besides a child. These findings suggest that fertility decline may place demographic pressure on gendered patterns of old age support and the gender system more broadly.

  2. Gender stereotypes across the ages: On-line processing in school-age children, young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group - young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside "headmaster") or feminine roles (badante "social care worker"), followed by a male (padre "father") or female kinship term (madre "mother"). The task was to decide if the two words - the role noun and the kinship term - could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press 'yes,' when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries.

  3. Gender stereotypes across the ages: On-line processing in school-age children, young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group – young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside “headmaster”) or feminine roles (badante “social care worker”), followed by a male (padre “father”) or female kinship term (madre “mother”). The task was to decide if the two words – the role noun and the kinship term – could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press ‘yes,’ when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries. PMID:26441763

  4. "It's your badge of inclusion": the Red Hat Society as a gendered subculture of aging.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Anne E; Pai, Manacy; Redmond, Rebecca

    2012-12-01

    Although studies document the health-enhancing effects of social engagement, they reveal little about the underlying mechanisms operating within specific organizational contexts. Limited attention is given to the role of inequality--particularly age and gender--in shaping either the organizations to which we belong or their consequences for our well-being. We address this issue by examining the Red Hat Society, a social organization for middle-aged and older women. Interviews with members (n=52) illustrate how age and gender inequality interact to shape the organization, which can be viewed as a gendered subculture of aging. Drawing on this framework, we discuss four processes through which participation generates benefits for older women involved in age- and gender-segregated organizations: enhancing social networks, countering invisibility, creating positive frames for aging experiences, and promoting youthful identities.

  5. Correlations among brain gray matter volumes, age, gender, and hemisphere in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Thyreau, Benjamin; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    To determine the relationship between age and gray matter structure and how interactions between gender and hemisphere impact this relationship, we examined correlations between global or regional gray matter volume and age, including interactions of gender and hemisphere, using a general linear model with voxel-based and region-of-interest analyses. Brain magnetic resonance images were collected from 1460 healthy individuals aged 20-69 years; the images were linearly normalized and segmented and restored to native space for analysis of global gray matter volume. Linearly normalized images were then non-linearly normalized and smoothed for analysis of regional gray matter volume. Analysis of global gray matter volume revealed a significant negative correlation between gray matter ratio (gray matter volume divided by intracranial volume) and age in both genders, and a significant interaction effect of age × gender on the gray matter ratio. In analyzing regional gray matter volume, the gray matter volume of all regions showed significant main effects of age, and most regions, with the exception of several including the inferior parietal lobule, showed a significant age × gender interaction. Additionally, the inferior temporal gyrus showed a significant age × gender × hemisphere interaction. No regional volumes showed significant age × hemisphere interactions. Our study may contribute to clarifying the mechanism(s) of normal brain aging in each brain region.

  6. Social physique anxiety and physical self-esteem: gender and age effects.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Stevenson, Andy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the generalisability of the factor pattern, structural parameters, factor correlations and latent mean structure of social physique anxiety and physical self-esteem across gender, age and gender x age. The social physique anxiety scale and general physical self-esteem scale from the physical self-perception profile was administered to high school and university students aged 11-24 years (N = 2334). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the adequacy of a two-factor correlated model in the full sample, and separately by gender, age and gender x age sub-samples. The CFA model satisfied criteria for goodness-of-fit with the data in all sub-samples, the only exception was for females aged 21 and over. Tests of invariance of the factor pattern, structural parameters and correlations across age, gender and age x gender revealed few decrements in goodness-of-fit. Latent means analysis revealed that females had consistently higher levels of social physique anxiety and lower levels of physical self-esteem than males, with the exception of the 11-12 age group. Results extend previous findings that females tend to report higher levels of social physique anxiety and lower levels of physical self-esteem than males by demonstrating that these differences are consistent across age group.

  7. Unique Roles of Mothering and Fathering in Child Anxiety; Moderation by Child's Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Bogels, Susan M.; van der Bruggen, Corine C.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the associations between the parenting dimensions autonomy granting, over control, and rejection and children's anxiety, in relation to parent and child gender and child age. Elementary school-aged children (n = 179, M[subscript age] = 10.27, SD = 1.30), adolescents (n = 127, M[subscript age] = 15.02, SD = 1.54) and both their parents…

  8. Gender Asymmetry in Family Migration: Occupational Inequality or Interspousal Comparative Advantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shauman, Kimberlee A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines gender inequality in the determinants of job-related long-distance migration among married dual-earner couples during the 1980s and 1990s. The analysis tested the structural explanation, which attributes gender asymmetry in family migration to structural inequality in the labor market, and the comparative advantage explanation…

  9. Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  10. Cannabis use, gender and age of onset of schizophrenia: data from the ÆSOP study.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, Kim; Doody, Gillian A; Murray, Robin M; Jones, Peter B; Morgan, Craig; Dazzan, Paola; Hart, Jozella; Mazzoncini, Rodolfo; Maccabe, James H

    2014-03-30

    An earlier age of onset of schizophrenia has been identified as a poor prognostic indicator. The current study examines the interaction effect of gender and cannabis use on age of onset of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. This research forms part of a two-centre epidemiological study of first-episode psychosis and included individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and an age of onset between age 16 and 45. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to compare the effects of cannabis use and gender on age of first symptom of schizophrenia. Akaike's information criteria were used to find the model with the best fit to the data. Cannabis users had an earlier age of first symptom than non-users. There was an interaction with gender; the gender difference in age of onset was diminished in cannabis smokers compared with non-cannabis smokers. The model including cannabis use interacting with gender was the most parsimonious model, followed by cannabis use alone. The addition of other illegal drug use did not improve the model. Cannabis use is associated with an earlier age of onset of schizophrenia, and the gender difference in age of onset is reduced among cannabis smokers.

  11. Investigation of age and gender effects on positive orientation in Italian twins.

    PubMed

    Fagnani, Corrado; Medda, Emanuela; Stazi, Maria A; Caprara, Gian V; Alessandri, Guido

    2014-12-01

    We investigated age and gender effects on "Positive Orientation" (POS)-an individual's tendency to view life with a positive outlook-using a genetically informed design. Study subjects were 1016 twins aged 22-75 from the Italian twin registry. We assessed POS by the recently developed P-scale. First, we used confirmatory factor analysis to investigate scale's measurement invariance by age and gender. Then, we applied biometric modelling to estimate genetic and environmental components of POS score. Overall, we found a satisfactory degree of measurement invariance by both age and gender. Results from these analyses further indicated an increasing mean level of POS across the lifespan. Additive genetic and unshared environmental factors explained respectively 58% and 42% of variance in POS score, with no significant gender differences; furthermore, the pattern of change of gene-environment architecture of POS over time was consistent with a greater plasticity of personality at older ages.

  12. Comparative pharmacokinetic study of the role of gender and developmental differences in occupational and environmental exposure to benzene. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.A.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, it shows that physiological differences between men and women result in gender-specific exposures with respect to benzene. Second, it assesses the potential for a lactating woman's occupational and personal benzene exposure to impact a nursing infant's exposure, highlighting the possibility of subjecting an infant to the effects of industrial chemicals via breast feeding. This study employs physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to investigate the influence of physiological parameters and to evaluate the ability of inhaled benzene to transfer from mother to infant through breastmilk. The models are run through scenarios that simulate occupational, smoking, and background exposures. The gender comparison is facilitated by a sensitivity analysis. The blood/air partition coefficient and maximum velocity of metabolism were found to substantially impact model output. These values were both higher in women and caused an increase in the percentage of benzene metabolized in all of the exposure scenarios. The study of lactating women and infants is essentially theoretical. There is evidence that over 65% of an infant's benzene exposure can be attributed to contaminated breastmilk. A large portion of the ingested exposure can be eliminated by adjusting the mother's working or nursing schedule. Benzene, Physiologically based pharmacokinetics, PBPK.

  13. Occupational exposure to phthalates in relation to gender, consumer practices and body composition.

    PubMed

    Petrovičová, Ida; Kolena, Branislav; Šidlovská, Miroslava; Pilka, Tomáš; Wimmerová, Soňa; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-12-01

    The aim of our work was to find associations between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and occupation, consumer practices and body composition. We divided our cohort (n = 129) into occupationally exposed subjects, community service workers (group A; n = 45) and workers from plastic industry (group B; n = 35) and group of general population (control group C, n = 49). To estimate levels of five phthalate metabolites, we used high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. We found in plastic industry workers compared to community service workers and subjects of the control group significantly higher urinary concentration mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono (2-etylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), sum di-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (DEHP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP). We identified by multivariate analysis of covariance inverse relationship between MEHP and body parameters as waist-to-height ratio, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, hip circumference and waist circumference among females, whereas in males, no significant association was found. Results of our study show, despite of variability in terms of occupational exposure to phthalates, that plastic manufactory represents a higher occupational risk in comparison with waste management. The differences in anthropometric parameters between the two occupationally exposed groups and the general population are suggesting a detrimental effect of occupational exposure on body weight homeostasis.

  14. The Effects of Age, Authority, and Gender on Perceptions of Statutory Rape Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahl, Daniel; Keene, Jennifer Reid

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 2,838 students from a Southwestern university in the United States, the authors examine the effect of respondent's gender, the adult's gender, the age gap between the adult and teen, and the adult's authority, on students' perceptions of vignettes describing adult-teen sexual relationships. Specifically, the authors investigate…

  15. Age and Input in the Acquisition of Grammatical Gender in Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of age of first exposure and the quantity and quality of input to which non-native acquirers (L2ers) are exposed in their acquisition of grammatical gender in Dutch. Data from 103 English-speaking children, preteens and adults were analyzed for gender agreement on definite determiners. It was observed that…

  16. Media Representations of Bullying toward Queer Youth: Gender, Race, and Age Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paceley, Megan S.; Flynn, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, media coverage on the bullying of queer youth increased dramatically. This study examined online news media's portrayal of the gender, race, and age of bullying victims. Content analyses of ten sources were compared to research on the dynamics of sexuality-based bullying. Discrepancies were found for gender and race (with White males…

  17. Younger age at onset of sporadic Parkinson's disease among subjects occupationally exposed to metals and pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Farb, David H.; Ozer, Josef; Feldman, Robert G.; Durso, Raymon

    2014-01-01

    An earlier age at onset of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been reported to be associated with occupational exposures to manganese and hydrocarbon solvents suggesting that exposure to neurotoxic chemicals may hasten the progression of idiopathic PD. In this study the role of occupational exposure to metals and pesticides in the progression of idiopathic PD was assessed by looking at age at disease onset. The effects of heritable genetic risk factors, which may also influence age at onset, was minimized by including only sporadic cases of PD with no family history of the disease (n=58). Independent samples Student t-test revealed that subjects with occupational exposure to metals and/or pesticides (n=36) were significantly (p=0.013) younger than unexposed controls (n=22). These subjects were then divided into three groups [high (n=18), low (n=18), and unexposed (n=22)] to ascertain if duration of exposure further influenced age at onset of PD. One-way ANOVA revealed that subjects in the high exposure group were significantly (p=0.0121) younger (mean age: 50.33 years) than unexposed subjects (mean age: 60.45 years). Subjects were also stratified by exposure type (metals vs. pesticides). These results suggest that chronic exposure to metals and pesticides is associated with a younger age at onset of PD among patients with no family history of the disease and that duration of exposure is a factor in the magnitude of this effect. PMID:26109889

  18. [Determinants of active aging according to quality of life and gender].

    PubMed

    Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigenia; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte

    2015-07-01

    The scope of this study was to construct an indicator of active aging and assess its association with quality of life and possible determinants according to gender. The AGEQOL (Aging, Gender and Quality of Life) study was used to interview 2052 individuals aged 60 years and older residing in Sete Lagoas in the State of Minas Gerais. The association between active aging, quality of life and possible determinants was performed by multiple logistic regression with a 5% level of statistical significance separately for each gender. Most men were in the active aging group (58%), and 51.8% of women were in the normal aging group (p < 0.001). The quality of life in the Physical, Psychological, and total Score domains remained associated with the outcome in the final model for both genders. Among the men, the behavioral and community participation factors were positive predictors of active aging. Women with higher incomes, who did not suffer falls and engaged in community participation, had a better chance of belonging to the active aging group. The conclusion drawn is that quality of life and participation in groups are the main determinants of active aging, and the other factors associated with active aging are different for each gender.

  19. Exploiting quality and texture features to estimate age and gender from fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, Emanuela; Lugini, Luca; Cukic, Bojan

    2014-05-01

    Age and gender of an individual, when available, can contribute to identification decisions provided by primary biometrics and help improve matching performance. In this paper, we propose a system which automatically infers age and gender from the fingerprint image. Current approaches for predicting age and gender generally exploit features such as ridge count, and white lines count that are manually extracted. Existing automated approaches have significant limitations in accuracy especially when dealing with data pertaining to elderly females. The model proposed in this paper exploits image quality features synthesized from 40 different frequency bands, and image texture properties captured using the Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and the Local Phase Quantization (LPQ) operators. We evaluate the performance of the proposed approach using fingerprint images collected from 500 users with an optical sensor. The approach achieves prediction accuracy of 89.1% for age and 88.7% for gender.

  20. The Skinny on Success: Body Mass, Gender and Occupational Standing Across the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Christy M.; Haas, Steven A.; Reither, Eric N.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have analyzed the impact of obesity on occupational standing. This study extends previous research by estimating the influence of body mass on occupational attainment over three decades of the career using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. In a series of covariance structure analyses, we considered three mechanisms that may alter the career trajectories of heavy individuals: (1. employment-based discrimination, (2. educational attainment, and (3. marriage market processes. Unlike previous studies, we found limited evidence that employment-based discrimination impaired the career trajectories of either men or women. Instead, we found that heavy women received less post-secondary schooling than their thinner peers, which in turn adversely affected their occupational standing at each point in their careers. PMID:20936045

  1. An Investigation of Gender and Age Differences in Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah; St. Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated gender- and age-related differences in academic motivation and classroom behaviour in adolescents. Eight hundred and fifty-five students (415 girls and 440 boys) aged 11-16 ("M" age = 13.96, "SD" = 1.47) filled in a questionnaire that examined student academic motivation and teachers completed a…

  2. Age and Gender's Interactive Effects on Learning Satisfaction among Senior University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Stephanie; Hsu, Wan-Chen; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2016-01-01

    With the growing number of older adults becoming a global concern, developed countries have focused on education as a means to promote successful aging. Previous research has focused on the effects of gender and age on learning satisfaction among senior students. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the interactive effects of age and…

  3. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  4. Occupational Complexity and Cognitive Reserve in a Middle-Aged Cohort at Risk for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boots, Elizabeth A.; Schultz, Stephanie A.; Almeida, Rodrigo P.; Oh, Jennifer M.; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Dowling, Maritza N.; Gallagher, Catherine L.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Rowley, Howard A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Asthana, Sanjay; Sager, Mark A.; Hermann, Bruce P.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.

    2015-01-01

    Higher occupational attainment has previously been associated with increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology when individuals are matched for cognitive function, indicating occupation could provide cognitive reserve. We examined whether occupational complexity (OCC) associates with decreased hippocampal volume and increased whole-brain atrophy given comparable cognitive function in middle-aged adults at risk for AD. Participants (n = 323) underwent structural MRI, cognitive evaluation, and work history assessment. Three complexity ratings (work with data, people, and things) were obtained, averaged across up to 3 reported jobs, weighted by years per job, and summed to create a composite OCC rating. Greater OCC was associated with decreased hippocampal volume and increased whole-brain atrophy when matched for cognitive function; results remained substantively unchanged after adjusting for several demographic, AD risk, vascular, mental health, and socioeconomic characteristics. These findings suggest that, in people at risk for AD, OCC may confer resilience to the adverse effects of neuropathology on cognition. PMID:26156334

  5. Occupational, Gender, and Geographic Representation of Information Sources in U.S. and Canadian Business Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Steven L.

    1995-01-01

    Finds that business magazines rely heavily on senior executives as information sources; female sources are significantly underrepresented in most occupational groups; United States business magazines significantly overrepresent sources in the mid-Atlantic region while underrepresenting the Midwestern and Southwestern regions; and Canadian…

  6. Occupation and Industry Sex Segregation, Gender, and Workplace Support: The Use of Flexible Scheduling Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnotte, Krista Lynn; Cook, Alison; Minnotte, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how industry and occupation sex segregation are related to the use of flexible scheduling policies and perceptions of the career repercussions of using such policies. The analysis is performed on data from the 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce (N = 2,810). Findings suggest that the percentage of women per industry…

  7. Older women and sexuality: Narratives of gender, age, and living environment.

    PubMed

    Jen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Little research has explored the intersection of aging and sexuality. This qualitative study is informed by a life course approach and narrative gerontology methods. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 women age 55 and older to explore the effects of gender, aging, and living environment on past and current sexual experiences. Subthemes from each major theme are discussed, including: (a) messages about and perceived effects of gender, (b) perceived effects of aging, and (c) perceived effects of living environment. Findings support the use of dynamical systems theory to study women's sexual experiences.

  8. Differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Veeraganta, Sumanth K.; Savadi, Ravindra C.; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Z.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose was to investigate the differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color among a sample of the local population in Bengaluru, India. Methodology: The study comprised 100 subjects belonging to both gender between the age groups of 16 years to 55 years. Tooth shade values of permanent maxillary left or right central incisors were recorded using the Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide. Skin color was matched using the Radiance compact makeup shades as a guide. Results: Chi-square statistical test demonstrated that younger subjects have lighter tooth shade values. No statistically significant differences were recorded in tooth shade value according to gender or skin color. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that tooth shade value is significantly influenced by age. Gender and skin color appear not to have a significant relation to tooth shade value. PMID:26929500

  9. Let me guess how old you are: effects of age, gender, and facial expression on perceptions of age.

    PubMed

    Voelkle, Manuel C; Ebner, Natalie C; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

    2012-06-01

    Perceptions of age influence how we evaluate, approach, and interact with other people. Based on a paramorphic human judgment model, the present study investigates possible determinants of accuracy and bias in age estimation across the adult life span. For this purpose, 154 young, middle-aged, and older participants of both genders estimated the age of 171 faces of young, middle-aged, and older men and women, portrayed on a total of 2,052 photographs. Each face displayed either an angry, fearful, disgusted, happy, sad, or neutral expression (FACES database; Ebner, Riediger, & Lindenberger, 2010). We found that age estimation ability decreased with age. Older and young adults, however, were more accurate and less biased in estimating the age of members of their own as compared with those of the other age group. In contrast, no reliable own-gender advantage was observed. Generally, the age of older faces was more difficult to estimate than the age of younger faces. Furthermore, facial expressions had a substantial impact on accuracy and bias of age estimation. Relative to other facial expressions, the age of neutral faces was estimated most accurately, while the age of faces displaying happy expressions was most likely underestimated. Results are discussed in terms of methodological and practical implications for research on age estimation.

  10. The effects of age and gender on plasma levels of 63 cytokines.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Anders; Carlsson, Lena; Gordh, Torsten; Lind, Anne-Li; Thulin, Måns; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood

    2015-10-01

    Cytokines play important roles as regulators of cell functions, and over the last decades a number of cytokine assays have been developed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of age and gender on a large number of cytokines. Plasma samples were collected from 33 healthy blood donors. The samples were analyzed using a multiplex proximity extension assay (PEA) allowing simultaneous measurement of 92 cytokines and four technical controls. Biomarkers with less than 80% quantitative results were excluded leaving 63 cytokines that were analyzed for the effects of gender and age. The plasma level of three of the investigated biomarkers (DNER, MCP-4 and MMP-10) were found to be significantly different for the two genders (adjusted p-value<0.05), and 15 of the biomarkers (CCL11, CCL25, CDCP1, CSF-1, CXCL11, CXCL9, FGF-23, Flt3L, HGF, IL-10RB, MCP-3, MCP-4, MMP-10, OPG, VEGF-A) were significantly associated with age. This study reveals the effects of age and gender on a large number of cytokine assays. CXCL5 and TNFB were significantly higher in females, while the other markers with significant gender-dependent differences were higher in males. For the markers that were significantly associated with age, only CXCL6 was found to decrease with age, while the other biomarkers increased with age.

  11. Gender differences and cognitive correlates of mathematical skills in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

    2009-05-01

    Published information concerning the influence of gender on mathematical ability tests has been controversial. The present study examines the performance of school-aged boys and girls from two age groups on several mathematical tasks and analyzes the predictive value of a verbal fluency test and a spatial test on those mathematical tasks. More specifically, our research attempts to answer the following two questions: (1) Are gender differences in mathematical test performance among children interrelated with age and (2) do verbal and spatial nonmathematical tests mediate gender effects on mathematical test performance? Two hundred and seventy-eight 7- to 10-year-old children and 248 13- to 16-year-olds were selected from schools in Colombia and Mexico (231 boys and 295 girls). The age effect was found to be significant for all measures, with scores improving with age. Results showed that boys and girls in both age groups scored similarly in most subtests, but that differences emerged in the performance of mental mathematical operations and in resolving arithmetical problems. In the latter - but not in mental math - older boys outperformed older girls, whereas no gender differences were observed in the younger groups. After controlling for age, it was found that the spatial test was, indeed, a significant mediator of gender effects, while the verbal task was not.

  12. Age- and gender-related incisor changes in different vertical craniofacial relationships

    PubMed Central

    Linjawi, Amal I

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the age- and gender-related changes in upper and lower incisors' position and inclination in different vertical craniofacial relationships. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study on patients' records of age 8–48 years. The sample was divided based on Frankfort mandibular plane angle into three groups; normal, high, and low angle groups. It was then subdivided according to age. Upper and lower incisors' inclinations and positions were assessed from lateral cephalometric radiographs. Gender and age associations and effects size were calculated using two-way ANOVA tests. Significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results: Four hundred and twenty records (F = 272, M = 148) were included; 115 had normal, 81 low, and 250 had high vertical relationships with no significant age and gender distribution differences (P > 0.05). All significant associations and effects were found in the low angle group only. A significant association was found between gender and upper incisor inclination (P < 0.05) with medium effect size (0.13 ≤ ηp2 < 0.26). An association is also found between age × gender interaction and upper incisor inclination and lower incisor position (P < 0.05) with large effect size (0.26 ≤ ηp2). Conclusion: Age- and gender-related upper and lower incisor changes were found to be significant in subjects with decreased vertical skeletal pattern only. The upper incisor inclination and the lower incisor position were the most affected variables with age and gender. PMID:27843888

  13. The Effects of Sex and Gender Role Orientation on Mentorship in Male-Dominated Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scandura, Terri A.; Ragins, Belle Rose

    1993-01-01

    Responses from 608 certified public accountants who had mentors showed that biological sex was not related to mentoring, but gender role orientation was. Those with androgynous sex role orientation reported more mentoring functions than did those with masculine or feminine orientations. (SK)

  14. Gender Integration of a Traditionally Male Field: A Definition of the Occupation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Policing, Washington, D.C.: Police Foundation, 1980. Sulton, Cynthia G. Review and Critique of "Title VII: Legal Protection Against Sexual Harrassment ...The Workplace 24 5.1 The Training Academy 24 Physical Plant 24 The Staff 25 Curriculum 26 Teaching Techniques 30 Evaluation 31 Recruit Profile 32...itionally male work? And with regard to the workplace itself: Do occupational norms refer to how work is to be done, or to how social relations are to

  15. Immigration, gender and the process of occupational change in the United States, 1970-1980.

    PubMed

    Tienda, M; Jensen, L; Bach, R L

    1984-01-01

    Since World War II, the industrial shifts from agriculture to services have transformed the nature of employment opportunities in the US and generally resulted in occupational upgrading. This reorganization of occupations, which continued into the 1970s, has reduced the proportion of workers employed in the least skilled manual jobs. The most important result of this trend is that immigrant women--in fact women and men-- experienced both an improvement and deterioration in their occupational position. While the national pattern involved a decrease in relative employment of native workers as laborers and farm laborers, immigrant women increased their share of these jobs. Immigrant men moved into 4 occupational categories largely being abandoned by native-born workers--jobs as operatives, service workers, laborers and farm laborers. The shift of immigrant women into laborer jobs was made possible through changes in the organization of work within industries, rather than a change in the availability of the types of employers needing them. The well-advertised promise of employment in new growth industries, such as electronics, and the expansion of jobs requiring greater skills, is not uniformly available to all groups of women. Thus, jobs requiring few skills and offering few opportunities for advancement are usually filled by migrant ethnic workers, particularly women, who also lack leverage for demanding and securing higher status positions. The combination of the relative increase in the proportion of immigrant men and women in the least skilled manual jobs left behind by native-born workers, and the apparent concentration of specific national origin groups in these jobs, renders this important segment of the labor market clearly identifiable on political and ethnic ground. It also contributes to the understanding of the on-going debate as to whether immigrant workers displace or complement native work force.

  16. Analysis of age and gender associated N-glycoproteome in human whole saliva

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glycoproteins comprise a large portion of the salivary proteome and have great potential for biomarker discovery and disease diagnosis. However, the rate of production and the concentration of whole saliva change with age, gender and physiological states of the human body. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the salivary glycoproteome of healthy individuals of different ages and genders is a prerequisite for saliva to have clinical utility. Methods Formerly N-linked glycopeptides were isolated from the pooled whole saliva of six age and gender groups by hydrazide chemistry and hydrophilic affinity methods followed by mass spectrometry identification. Selected physiochemical characteristics of salivary glycoproteins were analyzed, and the salivary glycoproteomes of different age and gender groups were compared based on their glycoprotein components and gene ontology. Results and discussion Among 85 N-glycoproteins identified in healthy human saliva, the majority were acidic proteins with low molecular weight. The numbers of salivary N-glycoproteins increased with age. Fifteen salivary glycoproteins were identified as potential age- or gender-associated glycoproteins, and many of them have functions related to innate immunity against microorganisms and oral cavity protection. Moreover, many salivary glycoproteins have been previously reported as disease related glycoproteins. This study reveals the important role of salivary glycoproteins in the maintenance of oral health and homeostasis and the great potential of saliva for biomarker discovery and disease diagnosis. PMID:24994967

  17. Gender differences in the effect of occupational endotoxin exposure on impaired lung function and death: the Shanghai Textile Worker Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng-ying; Lin, Xinyi; Zheng, Bu-yong; Dai, Hei-Lian; Su, Li; Cai, Tianxi; Christiani, David C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Airborne endotoxin exposure has both adverse and protective health effects. Studies show males have augmented acute inflammatory responses to endotoxin. In this longitudinal cohort study we investigated the effect of long-term exposure to endotoxin in cotton dust on health, and determined whether these effects differ by gender. METHODS In the Shanghai Textile Worker Study, 447 cotton and 472 control silk textile workers were followed from 1981 to 2011 with repeated measures of occupational endotoxin exposure, spirometry, and health questionnaires. Impaired lung function was defined as a decline in forced expiratory volume in one second to less than the 5th percentile of population predicted. Death was ascertained by death registries. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the effect of endotoxin exposure on the time to development of impaired lung function and death. RESULTS 128 deaths and 164 diagnoses of impaired lung function were ascertained between 1981 and 2011. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the composite endpoint of impaired lung function or death was 1.47 (95% CI 1.09-1.97) for cotton vs. silk workers and 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.07) per 10,000 endotoxin units (EU)/m3-years increase in exposure. HRs for all-cause mortality was 1.36 (95% CI 0.93-1.99) for cotton vs. silk workers and 1.04 (95% CI 0.99-1.08) per 10,000 EU/m3-years. The risk associated with occupational endotoxin exposure was elevated only in men. CONCLUSIONS Occupational endotoxin exposure is associated with an increase in the risk of impaired lung function and all-cause mortality in men. PMID:24297825

  18. Radiographic Evaluation of Mandible to Predict the Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jyothi Shiv; Mohan, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study is been conducted using digital panoramic radiographs for predicting age in various age groups and the accuracy of the parameters were accessed as age advances. Materials and Methods: The selected 300 panoramic images were divided into 3 age group of Group A (25-34 years), Group B (35-44 years), and Group C (45 -54 years). Each group comprised of 100 subjects in which 50 were males & 50 females. The age changes were evaluated using five parameters collectively, which were: Gonial angle, Antegonial angle, Mental foramen, Mandibular canal, Mandibular foramen. These parameters were evaluated on panoramic radiographs for age prediction and changes in their position as age advances. Results: Among all the parameters changes in Mandibular canal and mandibular foramen was found to be highly significant (p value ≤0.05) as age advances. Conclusion: These parameters can be used to predict the age of the individual as there were significant changes in Mandibular canal and Mandibular foramen as age advances. For Further studies large sample size, and recent modalities in radiography like CBCT or CT scan are required. PMID:25478451

  19. Parental socioeconomic status and unintentional injury deaths in early childhood: consideration of injury mechanisms, age at death, and gender.

    PubMed

    Hong, Juhee; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the socioeconomic status (SES) of parents influences early childhood unintentional injury deaths for different injury mechanisms and the gender and age at death of the child. Study design is a population-based retrospective study. Death certificate data from 1995 to 2004 were linked to birth certificate data from 1995 to 1996 for each child who died when aged < or = 8 years. Parental age, birth order, marital status, residence area, educational level, and occupation were used as indices for SES. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was employed. Our results indicate that nonmetropolitan residence, low parental education level, and a father working in a nonadministrative job or as a farmer were associated with a higher risk of death from injury for both boys and girls. A mother aged younger than 20 years and parents working in manual jobs were associated with a higher risk in boys only. The risks of some socioeconomic factors (low parental education and a father working in a manual job or as a farmer) were evident for children aged 1-4 years. The risks of rural residency tended to increase in older children, and the risk of injury from having a mother aged younger than 20 years increased for younger children. The risks of childhood injury deaths from traffic accidents, falls, and fire/burns were associated with the SES of the parents. Younger parents were associated with higher risks of injury deaths from traffic accidents (hazard ratio [HR]: father, 7.9; mother, 1.9) and falls (HR: father, 2.0; mother, 2.5). A father working as a farmer was associated with a higher risk of childhood injury death from fire/burns (HR = 4.0). In conclusion, the parental SES risk profiles of childhood injury deaths varied with the age and gender of the child, and with the injury mechanism. Therefore, reducing excess injury deaths during early childhood requires preventive efforts targeted at high-risk parents, and based on injury mechanism

  20. Lung, gastric and colorectal cancer mortality by occupation and industry among working-aged men in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji; Prieto-Merino, David; Smith, Derek R.

    2017-01-01

    We examined occupational and industrial differences in lung, gastric, and colorectal cancer risk among Japanese men of working age (25–64 years) using the 2010 Japanese national survey data for occupation and industry-specific death rates. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the age-adjusted incident rate ratios by lung, gastric, and colorectal cancers, with manufacturing used as the referent occupation or industry. Unemployed Japanese men and those in manufacturing had an 8–11-fold increased risk of lung, gastric and colorectal cancer. The highest mortality rates for lung and colorectal cancer by occupation were “administrative and managerial” (by occupation) and “mining” (by industry). For gastric cancer, the highest mortality rate was “agriculture” (by occupation) and “mining” (by industry). By occupation; Japanese men in service occupations, those in administrative and managerial positions, those in agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and those in professional and engineering categories had higher relative mortality risks for lung, gastric, and colorectal cancers. By industry; mining, electricity and gas, fisheries, and agriculture and forestry had the higher mortality risks for those cancers. Unemployed men had higher mortality rates than men in any occupation and industry for all three cancers. Overall, this study suggests that for Japanese men, occupations and industries may be a key social determinant of health. PMID:28230191

  1. Lung, gastric and colorectal cancer mortality by occupation and industry among working-aged men in Japan.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji; Prieto-Merino, David; Smith, Derek R

    2017-02-23

    We examined occupational and industrial differences in lung, gastric, and colorectal cancer risk among Japanese men of working age (25-64 years) using the 2010 Japanese national survey data for occupation and industry-specific death rates. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the age-adjusted incident rate ratios by lung, gastric, and colorectal cancers, with manufacturing used as the referent occupation or industry. Unemployed Japanese men and those in manufacturing had an 8-11-fold increased risk of lung, gastric and colorectal cancer. The highest mortality rates for lung and colorectal cancer by occupation were "administrative and managerial" (by occupation) and "mining" (by industry). For gastric cancer, the highest mortality rate was "agriculture" (by occupation) and "mining" (by industry). By occupation; Japanese men in service occupations, those in administrative and managerial positions, those in agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and those in professional and engineering categories had higher relative mortality risks for lung, gastric, and colorectal cancers. By industry; mining, electricity and gas, fisheries, and agriculture and forestry had the higher mortality risks for those cancers. Unemployed men had higher mortality rates than men in any occupation and industry for all three cancers. Overall, this study suggests that for Japanese men, occupations and industries may be a key social determinant of health.

  2. Clinimetric Testing in Mexican Elders: Associations with Age, Gender, and Place of Residence

    PubMed Central

    Tavano-Colaizzi, Lorena; Arroyo, Pedro; Loria, Alvar; Pérez-Lizaur, Ana Bertha; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the ability of five clinimetric instruments to discriminate between subjects >60 years of age living at home versus those living in a residency. Methods: Trained nutritionists applied five instruments (cognition/depression/functionality/nutrition/appetite) to 285 subjects with majorities of women (64%), aged <80 years (61%), and home residents (54%). Results: Multivariable regression models were generated for each instrument using age, gender, and residency as independent variables. Age was associated with worsening scores in the five instruments whereas residency showed association in three instruments, and gender in two. Score-age regressions by place of residency showed differences suggesting that Mundet residents had increasingly worse scores with increasing age than home dwellers for cognition, depression, and nutrition. Also, living at home prevented the worsening of depression with increasing age. In contrast, functionality and appetite deteriorated at a similar rate for home and Mundet residents suggesting an inability of these two instruments to discriminate between settings. Score-age regressions by gender suggested that males have less cognitive problems at 60 and 80 years of age but not at 100 years, and better appetite than women at all ages. Conclusion: Increasing age proved to be associated to worsening scores in the five instruments but only three were able to detect differences according to setting. An interesting observation was that living at home appeared to prevent the depression increase with increasing age seen in Mundet residents. PMID:25593910

  3. Maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and small for gestational age offspring

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Peter H.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Lupo, Philip J.; Lawson, Christina C.; Waters, Martha A.; Rocheleau, Carissa M.; Shaw, Gary M.; Romitti, Paul A.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Malik, Sadia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While some of the highest maternal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur in the workplace, there is only one previous study of occupational PAH exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to extend this literature using interview data combined with detailed exposure assessment. Methods Data for 1997–2002 were analysed from mothers of infants without major birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the USA. Maternal telephone interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before conception through delivery. From 6252 eligible control mothers, 2803 completed the interview, had a job, met other selection criteria, and were included in the analysis. Two industrial hygienists independently assessed occupational exposure to PAHs from the interview and reviewed results with a third to reach consensus. Small for gestational age (SGA) was the only adverse pregnancy outcome with enough exposed cases to yield meaningful results. Logistic regression estimated crude and adjusted ORs. Results Of the 2803 mothers, 221 (7.9%) had infants who were SGA. Occupational PAH exposure was found for 17 (7.7%) of the mothers with SGA offspring and 102 (4.0%) of the remaining mothers. Almost half the jobs with exposure were related to food preparation and serving. After adjustment for maternal age, there was a significant association of occupational exposure with SGA (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8). Conclusions Maternal occupational exposure to PAHs was found to be associated with increased risk of SGA offspring. PMID:24893704

  4. Exploring the literature on relationships between gender roles, intimate partner violence, occupational status, and organizational benefits.

    PubMed

    Kwesiga, Eileen; Bell, Myrtle P; Pattie, Marshall; Moe, Angela M

    2007-03-01

    Studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) and work have been primarily conducted with women in low-wage low-status (LWLS) positions, as much of this research has focused on poverty, welfare, and homelessness. Although women in LWLS positions represent a large percentage of working women in the United States, it is also important to investigate experiences of women in high-wage high-status (HWHS) positions because a growing number of women are employed within such jobs. We propose gender role theory can be used to explain occurrences of IPV among women in HWHS positions and their utilization of organizational benefits. We suggest those in HWHS positions may be likely to have access to organizational benefits (e.g., medical, vacation, and flexible work schedules) and the ability to utilize the Family and Medical Leave Act. However, prevailing gender roles existing in organizations may render women in HWHS positions unlikely to use benefits or to take leave.

  5. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  6. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  7. Computers and Young Children: Software Types, Social Contexts, Gender, Age, and Emotional Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Daniel D.

    1994-01-01

    Videotaped four- to eight-year olds as they interacted with computer software at different levels of developmental appropriateness. Facial expressions and other affective behaviors were analyzed as a function of age, presence of a peer, and appropriateness of software. Found that responses were mediated more by age, gender, and social condition…

  8. Cutaneous Resonance Running Time Varies with Age, Body Site and Gender in a Normal Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Shujun; Man, Wenyan; Fluhr, Joachim W.; Song, Shunpeng; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Background/objectives One phenomenon of skin aging is loss of cutaneous elasticity. Measurement of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT) is a method to assess skin elasticity. Yet, information regarding directional changes of CRRT associated with age, body sites and gender is not yet available. In the present study, we assessed whether changes in CRRT vary with age, body sites and gender in a normal Chinese population. Methods A Reviscometer was used to measure CRRTs in various directions on the left dorsal hand, the forehead and the left canthus of 806 normal Chinese volunteers, aged 2.5-94 years. Results With aging, CRRTs decreased in all directions on the hand, the forehead, and the canthus. A more dramatic reduction of CRRTs on the forehead and the canthus were observed at both the 2–8 and 3–9 o’clock directions. CRRTs in males aged 11– 20 years old were longer than those in females at some directions on all three body sites. Females between 21 and 40 years old showed longer CRRTs than males in some directions of the hand. There were no gender differences in subjects aged 0–10 (except on the canthus) and over 81 years old. Conclusion CRRTs vary with age, body sites and gender. PMID:21039906

  9. Adolescents' Definitions of Bullying: The Contribution of Age, Gender, and Experience of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Hollie; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dolphin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine adolescents' definitions of bullying in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Ireland. Definitions of bullying were examined according to age, gender, and bullying experiences. A sample of 4358 adolescents aged 12-19 years (M = 14.99 years, SD = 1.63) provided their definitions of…

  10. Interactive Effects of Gender Ideology and Age at First Marriage on Women's Marital Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shannon N.; Greenstein, Theodore N.

    2004-01-01

    A sample of ever-married women from the NLSY79 is analyzed to examine the effects of age at first marriage and gender ideology on the likelihood of experiencing marital disruption. The authors hypothesize that age at first marriage will have no effect on the likelihood of experiencing marital disruption for non-traditional women, but that there…

  11. Measurement Invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale across Gender and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…

  12. Impact of IQ, Age, SES, Gender, and Race on Autistic Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine differences in autism severity and symptoms as a function of IQ, age, SES, gender, and race while simultaneously controlling these variables in 777 children with autism using a comprehensive measure evaluating 30 core and associated symptoms of autism. The children were 1-17 years of age with IQs from 9 to…

  13. Age, Gender, and Living Circumstances: Discriminating Older Adults on Death Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madnawat, A. V. Singh; Kachhawa, P. Singh

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of age, gender, and living circumstances on elderly persons' death anxiety. For this purpose, 299 persons attending public parks (average age = 70 years) were interviewed using the Death Anxiety Survey Schedule, which is a set of 10 questions related to death anxiety from an Indian perspective. Women, those…

  14. Age, Race, and Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms: A Lifespan Developmental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…

  15. The Effect of Target Age on the Activation of Gender Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powlishta, Kimberly K.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the impact of target age on gender stereotyping. College and elementary students viewed photographs of men, women, boys, and girls, rating each for masculine, feminine, and neutral personality traits. Adults also rated likelihood of masculine and feminine traits in adults versus children. Target age had important implications for…

  16. The Effects of Age, Gender and Language on Children's Singing Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mang, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Literature on children's singing development is largely skewed towards findings based on English-speaking children. The present study aims to fill the gap in research through an investigation of the effects of age, gender and language on the singing competency of Cantonese-speaking children. One hundred and twenty children aged 7 and 9 years…

  17. Gender Specific Re-organization of Resting-State Networks in Older Age

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, Aimée; Mayhew, Stephen D.; Przezdzik, Izabela; Wilson, Rebecca S.; Hale, Joanne R.; Bagshaw, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Advancing age is commonly associated with changes in both brain structure and function. Recently, the suggestion that alterations in brain connectivity may drive disruption in cognitive abilities with age has been investigated. However, the interaction between the effects of age and gender on the re-organization of resting-state networks is not fully understood. This study sought to investigate the effect of both age and gender on intra- and inter-network functional connectivity (FC) and the extent to which resting-state network (RSN) node definition may alter with older age. We obtained resting-state functional magnetic resonance images from younger (n = 20) and older (n = 20) adults and assessed the FC of three main cortical networks: default mode (DMN), dorsal attention (DAN), and saliency (SN). Older adults exhibited reduced DMN intra-network FC and increased inter-network FC between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and nodes of the DAN, in comparison to younger participants. Furthermore, this increase in ACC-DAN inter-network FC with age was driven largely by male participants. However, further analyses suggested that the spatial location of ACC, bilateral anterior insula and orbitofrontal cortex RSN nodes changed with older age and that age-related gender differences in FC may reflect spatial re-organization rather than increases or decreases in FC strength alone. These differences in both the FC and spatial distribution of RSNs between younger and older adults provide evidence of re-organization of fundamental brain networks with age, which is modulated by gender. These results highlight the need to further investigate changes in both intra- and inter-network FC with age, whilst also exploring the modifying effect of gender. They also emphasize the difficulties in directly comparing the FC of RSN nodes between groups and suggest that caution should be taken when using the same RSN node definitions for different age or patient groups to investigate FC

  18. Age and gender as independent predictors of violence under the influence of alcohol in Zurich, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Mica, Ladislav; Oesterle, Linda; Werner, Clément M L; Simmen, Hans-Peter

    2015-04-08

    Violent behaviour associated with alcohol consumption is frequently reported by different media. Clinical data analysing the correlation between alcohol intoxication, age, gender and violence are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age, gender and blood alcohol content on violent behaviour under the influence of alcohol under central European conditions. Three hundred patients admitted to the emergency department were included into this study in the time period from January 01. to December 31. 2009. The inclusion criteria were a blood alcohol content (BAC) of ≥10 mmol/l, any traumatic injury and an age ≥16 years. Violence was defined as an evitable act committed by others leading to patient's hospitalisation. The data were compared with Wilcoxon and χ2-test for proportions. The data were considered as significant if p<0,05. Predictive quality was evaluated by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Independent predictors were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The average age was 36,9±16,9 years (range: 16-84 years), 259 (86%) males and 41 (24%) females. There was a significant difference in gender (odds ratio for gender male 2,88; CI 95%: 1,24-6,67; p<0,001) and age dependent (odds ratio for each year of age 0,94; CI 95%: 0,93-0,96; p<0,0001) violence with no correlation to blood alcohol content found. Logistic regression analysis revealed male gender and young age as an independent predictor for violence. These results clarify the relationship between alcohol, age, gender and violence and have important implications for municipal-level alcohol policies.

  19. Short-Term Heart Rate Variability—Influence of Gender and Age in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Heitmann, Andreas; Peters, Annette; Perz, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, short-term heart rate variability (HRV) describing complex variations of beat-to-beat interval series that are mainly controlled by the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been increasingly analyzed to assess the ANS activity in different diseases and under various conditions. In contrast to long-term HRV analysis, short-term investigations (<30 min) provide a test result almost immediately. Thus, short-term HRV analysis is suitable for ambulatory care, patient monitoring and all those applications where the result is urgently needed. In a previous study, we could show significant variations of 5-min HRV indices according to age in almost all domains (linear and nonlinear) in 1906 healthy subjects from the KORA S4 cohort. Based on the same group of subjects, general gender-related influences on HRV indices are to be determined in this study. Short-term 5-min HRV indices from linear time and frequency domain and from nonlinear methods (compression entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis, traditional and segmented Poincaré plot analysis, irreversibility analysis, symbolic dynamics, correlation and mutual information analysis) were determined from 782 females and 1124 males. First, we examined the gender differences in two age clusters (25–49 years and 50–74 years). Secondly, we investigated the gender-specific development of HRV indices in five age decade categories, namely for ages 25–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64 and 65–74 years. In this study, significant modifications of the indices according to gender could be obtained, especially in the frequency domain and correlation analyses. Furthermore, there were significant modifications according to age in nearly all of the domains. The gender differences disappeared within the last two age decades and the age dependencies disappeared in the last decade. To summarize gender and age influences need to be considered when performing HRV studies even if these influences only partly differ. PMID

  20. Effects of Learning about Gender Discrimination on Adolescent Girls' Attitudes toward and Interest in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgram, Erica S.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2007-01-01

    Gender discrimination has contributed to the gender imbalance in scientific fields. However, research on the effects of informing adolescent girls about gender discrimination in these fields is rare and controversial. To examine the consequences of learning about gender-based occupational discrimination, adolescent girls (n= 158, ages 11 to 14)…

  1. Age-gender differences in the postural sway during squat and stand-up movement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Won; Kwon, Yuri; Ho, Yeji; Jeon, Hyeong-Min; Bang, Min-Jung; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Eom, Gwang-Moon; Park, Byung Kyu; Cho, Yeong Bin

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of falling among elderly female has been reported to be much higher than that of elderly male. Although the gender differences in the elderly were reported for the static postural sway, there has been no investigation of the gender difference for the dynamic postural sway. This study investigates how age and gender affect the postural sway during dynamic squat and stand-up movement. 124 subjects (62 subjects for each of young and elderly) performed consecutive squat and stand-up movement, 2 times in one session, and 2 sessions per subject. Center of pressure (COP) was measured using force platform during the test. Outcome measures included peak-to-peak sways of the COP (COP sway) in the sagittal plane (anteroposterior) and frontal plane (mediolateral) and also those normalized by body height. Two-way ANOVA and post-hoc comparisons were performed for the outcome measures with the independent factors of age and gender. All outcome measures, excluding mediolateral COP sway, showed significant interaction of age and gender (p<0.05). Post-hoc test revealed that only female showed increase in COP sway with age. When normalized by height, increase in COP sways (both directions) with age significant only in women resulted in greater sways in elderly female than elderly male. This may be related to the greater fall rate of elderly female than that of elderly men while performing dynamic activities.

  2. Influence of age and gender on mental health literacy of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hadjimina, Eleana; Furnham, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    This study explored the influence of age and gender on Mental Health Literacy (MHL) of various anxiety disorders. The aim was to determine whether the gender and age of participants and gender of the disorders character had a significant effect on their ability to recognise a range of anxiety disorders. A convenience sample of 162 individuals (aged 18-70yrs) completed one of two questionnaires, which differed only on the gender of the vignette's character. Participants had to label the "problems" of individual in six vignettes and state their opinion on how well adjusted the characters were in terms of happiness and work and personal relationships. 'Correct' labelling (using the official/technical term) of the different disorders varied from 3% to 29% of all participants. Gender differences of participants had a significant effect on literacy where females demonstrated higher MHL than males and the youngest group (18-29yrs) showed better MHL than older groups. There was a non-significant effect of vignette gender on recognition rates. The research points to the evidence that MHL remains relatively low for all anxiety disorders.

  3. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  4. Pronounced gender and age differences are evident in personal health care spending per person.

    PubMed

    Cylus, Jonathan; Hartman, Micah; Washington, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly; Catlin, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines differences in national health care spending by gender and age. Our research found significant variations in per person spending by gender across age groups, health services, and types of payers. For example, in 2004 per capita health care spending for females was 32 percent more than for males. Per capita differences were most pronounced among the working-age population, largely because of spending for maternity care. Except for children, total spending for and by females was greater than that for and by males, for most services and payers. The gender difference in total spending was most pronounced in the elderly, as a result of the longer life expectancy of women.

  5. The Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Factorial invariance in problem behaviors across gender and age.

    PubMed

    Hukkelberg, Silje

    2016-08-01

    The Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) assesses problem behaviors in children, and is a widely used instrument in both clinical work and research. Evidence suggests that the short ECBI version, comprising 22 items, can be reduced into the three oblique factors: Oppositional defiant behavior; Conduct problem behavior; and Inattentive behavior. The present study aimed to evaluate this three-factor model in a Norwegian sample of 554 children, and examine multi-group invariance across gender and age. Consistent with previous research, results confirmed a tripartite model, with the same residual covariances and cross-loading appearing across groups. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated partial measurement invariance across gender and age. Overall, findings support a meaningful comparison of the short ECBI across gender and age. The study makes a contribution to the generalizability issue of the ECBI.

  6. The Role of Occupational Complexity in Trajectories of Cognitive Aging Before and After Retirement

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Deborah; Andel, Ross; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between complexity of the main lifetime occupation and changes in cognitive ability in later life. Data on complexity of work with data, people, and things and on four cognitive factors (verbal, spatial, memory, and speed) were available from 462 individuals in the longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Mean age at the first measurement wave was 64.3 (s.d. = 7.2) and 65% of the sample had at least 3 waves of data. Occupational complexity with people and data were both correlated with cognitive performance. Individuals with more complex work demonstrated higher mean performance on the verbal, spatial, and speed factors. Latent growth curve analyses indicated that, after correcting for education, only complexity with people was associated with differences in cognitive performance and rate of cognitive change. Continued engagement as a result of occupational complexity with people helped to facilitate verbal function before retirement, while a previous high level of complexity of work with people was associated with faster decline after retirement on the spatial factor. PMID:19739912

  7. Prediction of age and gender using digital radiographic method: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Poongodi, V.; Kanmani, R.; Anandi, M. S.; Krithika, C. L.; Kannan, A.; Raghuram, P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Objective: To investigate age, sex based on gonial angle, width and breadth of the ramus of the mandible by digital orthopantomograph. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 panoramic radiographic images were selected. The age of the individuals ranged between 4 and 75 years of both the gender - males (113) and females (87) and selected radiographic images were measured using KLONK image measurement software tool with linear, angular measurement. The investigated radiographs were collected from the records of SRM Dental College, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Radiographs with any pathology, facial deformities, if no observation of mental foramen, congenital deformities, magnification, and distortion were excluded. Results: Mean, median, standard deviation, derived to check the first and third quartile, linear regression is used to check age and gender correlation with angle of mandible, height and width of the ramus of mandible. Conclusion: The radiographic method is a simpler and cost-effective method of age identification compared with histological and biochemical methods. Mandible is strongest facial bone after the skull, pelvic bone. It is validatory to predict age and gender by many previous studies. Radiographic and tomographic images have become an essential aid for human identification in forensic dentistry forensic dentists can choose the most appropriate one since the validity of age and gender estimation crucially depends on the method used and its proper application. PMID:26538907

  8. Gender Transitions in Later Life: A Queer Perspective on Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Fabbre, Vanessa D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Most understandings of successful aging are developed within a heteronormative cultural framework, leading to a dearth of theoretical and empirical scholarship relevant to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) older adults. This study explores the experiences of transgender persons who contemplate or pursue a gender transition in later life in order to develop culturally diverse conceptualizations of health and wellness in older age. Design and Methods: Using the extended case method, in-depth interviews were conducted with male-to-female-identified persons (N = 22) who have seriously contemplated or pursued a gender transition past the age of 50. In addition, 170hr of participant observation was carried out at 3 national transgender conferences generating ethnographic field notes on the topics of aging and gender transitions in later life. Results: Interpretive analyses suggest that many transgender older adults experience challenges to their gender identities that put their emotional and physical well-being at risk. Contemporary queer theory is used to understand these experiences and argue that greater attention to experiences of queer “failure” and negotiating “success on new terms” may be integral aspects of growth and development for transgender older adults. Implications: The Baby Boom generation is aging in a post-Stonewall, LGBTQ civil rights era, yet gerontology’s approach to gender and sexual identity has largely been formulated from a heteronormative perspective. A framework for understanding older transgender persons’ experiences informed by queer theory offers a new orientation for conceptualizing successful aging in the lives of marginalized gender and sexual minorities. PMID:25161264

  9. Gender, Race, and Age: The Content of Compound Stereotypes Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Andreoletti, Carrie; Leszczynski, Jennifer P; Disch, William B

    2015-07-01

    While stereotypes about gender, race, and age (particularly old age) have been studied independently, few have examined the content of compound stereotypes that consider the intersection of gender, race, and age. Using a within-subjects design, we examined stereotypes as a function of target gender (male, female), race (Black, White), and age across the life span (adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old). Participants rated 20 target groups on 10 attributes representative of either an agentic (e.g., ambitious) or communal (e.g., considerate) orientation. Participants were presented only with categorical information (e.g., Black, 85-year-old, males), and ordering of categorical information and target groups was counterbalanced across participants. We hypothesized differential effects of target gender and race as a function of age. Multivariate analyses of variance on each attribute revealed significant main effects that supported traditional stereotype research, but significant interactions revealed a more complicated picture. Overall, results showed that while gender stereotypes about agency and communion generally hold up across the life span, they are more applicable to White than Black targets. Results also supported the notion that we hold unique stereotypes based on multiple social categories rather than simply perceiving one social category as more salient than another, which was best exemplified in the case of Black female targets that were less likely to be perceived in gender stereotypic ways across the life span. We suggest stereotype research needs to shift to accommodate for the complexity and diversity of real people.

  10. How Do You Know You're Old? Gender Differences in Cues Triggering the Experience of Personal Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panek, Paul E.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Pruett, Jessica H.

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the gender differences on the experience of aging, 142 individuals 50 years of age and older completed an interview regarding experiences with another individual conveying the message that they were "old." Interviewees were asked about the type of situation, the age and gender of the response person, and the…

  11. School Anxiety Inventory-Short Version: Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Differences Across Gender and Age in Spanish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Marzo, Juan C.; Martinez-Monteagudo, Maria C.; Estevez, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short Version across gender and age groups for 2,367 Spanish students, ranging in age from 12 to 18 years. Configural and measurement invariance were found across gender and age samples for all dimensions of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short…

  12. GMM-based speaker age and gender classification in Czech and Slovak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Přibil, Jiří; Přibilová, Anna; Matoušek, Jindřich

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes an experiment with using the Gaussian mixture models (GMM) for automatic classification of the speaker age and gender. It analyses and compares the influence of different number of mixtures and different types of speech features used for GMM gender/age classification. Dependence of the computational complexity on the number of used mixtures is also analysed. Finally, the GMM classification accuracy is compared with the output of the conventional listening tests. The results of these objective and subjective evaluations are in correspondence.

  13. How diversity gets lost: Age and gender in design practices of information and communication technologies.

    PubMed

    Oudshoorn, Nelly; Neven, Louis; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an intersectional approach to investigate how age, gender, and diversity are represented, silenced, or prioritized in design. Based on a comparative study of design practices of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for young girls and older people, this article describes differences and similarities in the ways in which designers tried to cope with diversity. Ultimately diversity was neglected, and the developers relied on hegemonic views of gender and age, constructed older people and young girls as an "other," and consequently their input was neglected. These views were thus materialized in design and reinforce such views in powerful yet unobtrusive ways.

  14. Intact recognition of facial expression, gender, and age in patients with impaired recognition of face identity.

    PubMed

    Tranel, D; Damasio, A R; Damasio, H

    1988-05-01

    We conducted a series of experiments to assess the ability to recognize the meaning of facial expressions, gender, and age in four patients with severe impairments of the recognition of facial identity. In three patients the recognition of face identity could be dissociated from that of facial expression, age, and gender. In one, all forms of face recognition were impaired. Thus, a given lesion may preclude one type of recognition but not another. We conclude that (1) the cognitive demands posed by different forms of recognition are met at different processing levels, and (2) different levels depend on different neural substrates.

  15. Liking and Identifying Emotionally Expressive Music: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Patrick G.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Stalinski, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Adults and children 5, 8, and 11 years of age listened to short excerpts of unfamiliar music that sounded happy, scary, peaceful, or sad. Listeners initially rated how much they liked each excerpt. They subsequently made a forced-choice judgment about the emotion that each excerpt conveyed. Identification accuracy was higher for young girls than…

  16. Added mass in human swimmers: age and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Caspersen, Cecilie; Berthelsen, Petter A; Eik, Mari; Pâkozdi, Csaba; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik

    2010-08-26

    In unstationary swimming (changing velocity), some of the water around the swimmer is set in motion. This can be thought of as an added mass (M(a)) of water. The purpose of this study was to find added mass on human swimmers and investigate the effect of shape and body size. Thirty subjects were connected to a 2.8m long bar with handles, attached with springs (stiffness k = 318 N/m) and a force cell. By oscillating this system vertically and registering the period of oscillations it was possible to find the added mass of the swimmer, given the known masses of the bar and swimmer. Relative added mass (M(a)%) for boys, women and men were, respectively, 26.8 +/- 2.9%, 23.6 +/- 1.6% and 26.8 +/- 2.3% of the subjects total mass. This study reported significantly lower added mass (p < 0.001) and relative added mass (p < 0.002) for women compared to men, which indicate that the possible body shape differences between genders may be an important factor for determining added mass. Boys had significantly lower (p < 0.001) added mass than men. When added mass was scaled for body size there were no significant differences (p = 0.996) between boys and men, which indicated that body size is an important factor that influences added mass. The added mass in this study seems to be lower and within a smaller range than previously reported (Klauck, 1999; Eik et al., 2008). It is concluded that the added mass in human swimmers, in extended gliding position, is approximately 1/4 of the subjects' body mass.

  17. Gender differences in episodic memory and visual working memory including the effects of age.

    PubMed

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed.

  18. Auditory brainstem response in neonates: influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio

    PubMed Central

    Angrisani, Rosanna M. Giaffredo; Bautzer, Ana Paula D.; Matas, Carla Gentile; de Azevedo, Marisa Frasson

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio on the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) in preterm (PT) and term (T) newborns. METHODS: 176 newborns were evaluated by ABR; 88 were preterm infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age) and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age). The preterm infants were compared to 88 term infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age) and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age). All newborns had bilateral presence of transient otoacoustic emissions and type A tympanometry. RESULTS: No interaural differences were found. ABR response did not differentiate newborns regarding weight/gestational age in males and females. Term newborn females showed statistically shorter absolute latencies (except on wave I) than males. This finding did not occur in preterm infants, who had longer latencies than term newborns, regardless of gender. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and gestational age influence term infants' ABR, with lower responses in females. The weight/gestational age ratio did not influence ABR response in either groups. PMID:24473955

  19. Microglial Function across the Spectrum of Age and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Jillian C.

    2017-01-01

    Microglia constitute the resident immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system. Although much work has focused on their ability to mount an inflammatory response in reaction to pathology, recent studies have delved into their role in maintaining homeostasis in the healthy brain. It is important to note that the function of these cells is more complex than originally conceived, as there is increasing evidence that microglial responses can vary greatly among individuals. Here, this review will describe the changing behavior of microglia from development and birth through to the aged brain. Further, it is not only age that impacts the state of the neuroimmune milieu, as microglia have been shown to play a central role in the sexual differentiation of the brain. Finally, this review will discuss the implications this has for the differences in the incidence of neurodegenerative disorders between males and females, and between the young and old. PMID:28273860

  20. Brazilian Normative Data on Letter and Category Fluency Tasks: Effects of Gender, Age, and Geopolitical Region

    PubMed Central

    Hazin, Izabel; Leite, Gilmara; Oliveira, Rosinda M.; Alencar, João C.; Fichman, Helenice C.; Marques, Priscila d. N.; de Mello, Claudia Berlim

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a basic function of language that refers to the ability to produce fluent speech. Despite being an essentially linguistic function, its measurements are also used to evaluate executive aspects of verbal behavior. Performance in verbal fluency (VF) tasks varies according to age, education, and cognitive development. Neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the functioning of frontal areas tend to cause lower performance in VF tasks. Despite the relative consensus that has been reached in terms of the use of VF tasks for the diagnosis of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, few studies have considered regional variations in Brazil. The present study sought to provide normative data on VF tasks in children by considering gender, age, education, and geopolitical region of origin with auxiliary purposes in neuropsychological diagnosis of disorders that occur with executive changes The study included 298 participants, 7–10 years of age of both genders, who performed three letter fluency tasks and three category fluency tasks. The data were subjected to correlational and variance analyses, with age and gender as factors. No effect of gender on the children's performance was found. However, significant differences between age groups were observed, with better performance in letter tasks in older children and better performance in letter tasks compared with category tasks. Significant regional differences in performance on the letter VF task were observed. These results reinforce the importance of regional normative data in countries with high regional cultural variations, such as Brazil. PMID:27242598

  1. The effects of road-surface conditions, age, and gender on driver-injury severities.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Abigail; Mannering, Fred L

    2011-09-01

    Drivers' adaptation to weather-induced changes in roadway-surface conditions is a complex process that can potentially be influenced by many factors including age and gender. Using a mixed logit analysis, this research assesses the effects that age, gender, and other factors have on crash severities by considering single-vehicle crashes that occurred on dry, wet, and snow/ice-covered roadway surfaces. With an extensive database of single-vehicle crashes from Indiana in 2007 and 2008, estimation results showed that there were substantial differences across age/gender groups under different roadway-surface conditions. For example, for all females and older males, the likelihood of severe injuries increased when crashes occurred on wet or snow/ice surfaces-but for male drivers under 45 years of age, the probability of severe injuries decreased on wet and snow/ice surfaces - relative to dry-surface crashes. This and many other significant differences among age and gender groups suggest that drivers perceive and react to pavement-surface conditions in very different ways, and this has important safety implications. Furthermore, the empirical findings of this study highlight the value of considering subsets of data to unravel the complex relationships within crash-injury severity analysis.

  2. Correlation between age and gender in Candida species infections of complete denture wearers: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Loster, Jolanta E; Wieczorek, Aneta; Loster, Bartłomiej W

    2016-01-01

    Aim Denture-related stomatitis is a disorder that often affects denture wearers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intensity, genera, and frequency of yeasts in the oral cavity of complete denture wearers in terms of subject gender and age. Materials and methods Nine hundred twenty patients (307 males and 613 females) with complete upper dentures were selected for the study and divided into four age groups: ≤50 years, 51–60, 61–70, and >70 years. Yeast samples were taken as a smear from the palate. The data were collected from January 15, 2007 to January 15, 2012. Results The distribution of the number of yeast colonies by gender was statistically significant (P=0.02). Across all subjects, there was a statistically significant relationship between the intensity of yeast growth and the gender (P=0.01). In every age group, the number of infection-free individuals was greater among males than females. Intermediate, intense, and abundant growth of yeast occurred most frequently in the youngest group of females. Conclusion The genera of Candida species and the frequency of yeast infection in denture wearers appear to be influenced by both age and gender. The complete denture wearers ≤50 years of age appeared to have the greatest proclivity to oral Candida infections. PMID:27920509

  3. Gender and occupational perspectives on adaptation to climate extremes in the Afram Plains of Ghana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Codjoe, Samuel N.A.; Atidoh, Lucy K.; Burkett, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Although sub-Saharan Africa does not contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions, significant adverse impacts of climate change are anticipated in this region. Countries in West Africa, which are heavily dependent on rain-fed agriculture, are projected to experience more frequent and intense droughts, altered rainfall patterns and increases in temperature through the end of this century. Changes in hydrology and temperature are likely to affect crop yields, thereby placing pressure on scarce resources in a region that is characterised by limited social, political, technical and financial resources. The success with which communities cope with the impacts of climate change is influenced by existing conditions, forces and characteristics which are peculiar to each of these communities. This paper assesses the preferred adaptation strategies during floods and droughts of males and females in three different occupations (farming, fishing, and charcoal production). Findings are based upon an analysis of focus group discussions and a ranking of preferred adaptation options in three communities in the Afram Plains of Ghana. Assessments of this nature should aid in the selection and implementation of adaptation options for communities and households, which is the level at which climate change adaptation is likely to occur in West Africa.

  4. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years: Influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, J B; Magnusson, S P; Slinde, F; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Aagaard, P

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age.

  5. Hemodynamic responses to laboratory stressors in children and adolescents: the influences of age, race, and gender.

    PubMed

    Allen, M T; Matthews, K A

    1997-05-01

    The objectives of the present study were threefold: (a) to compare the patterns of hemodynamic responding of children and adolescents during behavioral challenges, (b) to examine whether previously reported cardiovascular reactivity differences between Black and White children are dependent on pubertal status, and (c) to assess whether gender differences in hemodynamic response reported for adults is similar in children. One hundred fifty-nine children (ages 8-10 years) and adolescents (ages 15-17 years), equally divided along gender and racial lines, participated in a laboratory protocol consisting of a reaction time task, a mirror tracing task, a cold forehead challenge, and a stress interview. Results indicated that adolescents responded with greater beta-adrenergic activation than did children and that gender differences in reactivity often reported for adults emerged more clearly in the adolescents than in the children. This study failed to replicate prior findings of greater vasoconstrictive responses in Black children as compared with White children.

  6. The role of gender in very old age: profiles of functioning and everyday life patterns.

    PubMed

    Smith, J; Baltes, M M

    1998-12-01

    Older men and women have different life contexts as a function of differential longevity and socio-structural opportunities over the life course. The question is whether gender-related differences also occur in psychological and everyday functioning in older adults. Examined were 258 men and 258 women between the ages of 70 and 103 years (M = 85 years), participants in the Berlin Aging Study. Significant gender differences were observed in 13 of 28 aspects of personality, social relationships, everyday activity patterns, and reported well-being. Cluster analysis identified 11 subgroups whose profiles of life conditions and health and psychological functioning could be categorized as more or less desirable (functional). The relative risk of a less desirable profile was 1.6 times higher for women than for men. For older adults, gender as a variable carries differences in physical frailty and life conditions that likely have consequences for psychological functioning.

  7. Infant temperament: stability by age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (< 9 months) interassessment intervals and small to medium for longer (> 10 months) intervals.

  8. Infant Temperament: Stability by Age, Gender, Birth Order, Term Status, and SES

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O’Connor, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the first year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time-points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (<9 months) inter-assessment intervals and small to medium for longer (>10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034

  9. Gender, aging and longevity in humans: an update of an intriguing/neglected scenario paving the way to a gender-specific medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ostan, Rita; Monti, Daniela; Gueresi, Paola; Bussolotto, Mauro; Franceschi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Data showing a remarkable gender difference in life expectancy and mortality, including survival to extreme age, are reviewed starting from clinical and demographic data and stressing the importance of a comprehensive historical perspective and a gene–environment/lifestyle interaction. Gender difference regarding prevalence and incidence of the most important age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, Type 2 diabetes, disability, autoimmunity and infections, are reviewed and updated with particular attention to the role of the immune system and immunosenescence. On the whole, gender differences appear to be pervasive and still poorly considered and investigated despite their biomedical relevance. The basic biological mechanisms responsible for gender differences in aging and longevity are quite complex and still poorly understood. The present review focuses on centenarians and their offspring as a model of healthy aging and summarizes available knowledge on three basic biological phenomena, i.e. age-related X chromosome inactivation skewing, gut microbiome changes and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA genetic variants. In conclusion, an appropriate gender-specific medicine approach is urgently needed and should be systematically pursued in studies on healthy aging, longevity and age-related diseases, in a globalized world characterized by great gender differences which have a high impact on health and diseases. PMID:27555614

  10. Age and gender disparities in the risk of carotid revascularization procedures.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Vasdekis, Spyros N; Boviatsis, Efstathios; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos Iota; Tsivgoulis, Georgios

    2013-10-01

    The potential effect of age and gender stratification in the outcome of patients with carotid artery stenosis undergoing carotid revascularization procedures (CRP) may have important implications in clinical practice. Both European Stroke Organization and American Heart Association guidelines suggest that age and sex should be taken into account when selecting a CRP for an individual patient. We reviewed available literature data through Medline and Embase. Our search was based on the combination of terms: age, gender, sex, carotid artery stenosis, carotid artery stenting (CAS) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Postoperative stroke and mortality rates increased with age after any CRP (CEA or CAS), especially in patients aged over 75 years. Older patients with carotid artery stenosis undergoing CAS were found to have a nearly double risk of stroke or death compared with CEA, while CEA was found to benefit more patients aged over 70 years with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Male patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis had lower stroke/mortality rates and benefited more from CEA compared with females. For the periprocedural risk of stroke or death in patients with carotid artery stenosis after CAS no sex differences were found. Therefore, CEA appears to have lower perioperative risks than CAS in patients aged over 70 years, and thus should be the treatment of choice if not contraindicated. The periprocedural risk of CEA is lower in men than in women, while there was no effect of gender on the periprocedural risk of CAS.

  11. Alcohol expectancies: effects of gender, age, and family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, L H; Davis, T M; Adesso, V J; Lukas, S E

    1997-01-01

    To explore the effects of gender, age, and positive (FH+) and negative (FH-) family history of alcoholism on alcohol-related expectancies, the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) was administered to 627 college students (female n = 430). In an attempt to control for consumption effects, only individuals who described themselves as heavy drinkers were included in the study. A 2 (Family History) x 2 (Gender) x 2 (Age Range) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted on the six scales of the AEQ. Results indicated that FH+ females under the age of 20 years reported stronger expectancies of social and physical pleasure than did FH- females. Results also suggested that females over the age of 20 reported significantly lower expectancies of global, positive effects compared to all other subjects, regardless of family history of alcoholism. Finally, both male and female subjects under the age of 20 reported greater expectancies of global, positive effects, sexual enhancement, feelings of increased power and aggression, and social assertion compared to individuals over the age of 20. These results indicate that alcohol-related expectancies vary as a function of age, gender, and family history of alcoholism.

  12. Age-specific mortality among advanced-age Chinese citizens and its difference between the two genders.

    PubMed

    Gan, J; Zheng, Z; Li, G

    1998-01-01

    This study describes the patterns of age-specific mortality among the elderly in China. Data were obtained from the 1990 census. The age groups ending in zero were validated with the Weber Index and found to be of good quality among those aged under 97 years. Differences were found between censuses and genders. The data for the aged were adjusted with 2-year moving averages in order to smooth the data. The end age of interval mortality is used. Tables provide single years of age between 60 years and 104 years by sex for the actual number and the adjusted number of each census year: 1953, 1964, 1982, and 1990. The pattern of change in age specific mortality rates (ASMRs) was similar in all census years. Mortality rates were highest among infants aged under 1 year, declined with increased age, and were lowest among 10 year olds. Mortality rose gradually after 10 years and sharply after 40-50 years. ASMRs were "U" shaped. Age-specific interval mortality rates among the elderly show that mortality increased drastically as it approached 90 years of age and then grew more slowly or declined. The Gompers rule about exponential increases among the extremely old (over 90 years) does not apply. Male mortality was higher than female mortality until the very old ages, which showed lower male mortality. The ratio declined with rising age until the two genders were equal. Mortality rose to a point and then declined to a lesser extent. The peak was 93 years in 1953, with a sex ratio (SR) of 32.48; 90 years in 1964, with an SR of 35.22; 93 years in 1982, with an SR of 35.96; and 95 years in 1990, with an SR of 32.94.

  13. Medical Marijuana Laws and Suicides by Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D. Mark; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association between legalizing medical marijuana and suicides. Methods. We obtained state-level suicide data from the National Vital Statistics System’s Mortality Detail Files for 1990–2007. We used regression analysis to examine the association between medical marijuana legalization and suicides per 100 000 population. Results. After adjustment for economic conditions, state policies, and state-specific linear time trends, the association between legalizing medical marijuana and suicides was not statistically significant at the .05 level. However, legalization was associated with a 10.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = −17.1%, −3.7%) and 9.4% (95% CI = −16.1%, −2.4%) reduction in the suicide rate of men aged 20 through 29 years and 30 through 39 years, respectively. Estimates for females were less precise and sensitive to model specification. Conclusions. Suicides among men aged 20 through 39 years fell after medical marijuana legalization compared with those in states that did not legalize. The negative relationship between legalization and suicides among young men is consistent with the hypothesis that marijuana can be used to cope with stressful life events. However, this relationship may be explained by alcohol consumption. The mechanism through which legalizing medical marijuana reduces suicides among young men remains a topic for future study. PMID:24432945

  14. How can computerized interpretation algorithms adapt to gender/age differences in ECG measurements?

    PubMed

    Xue, Joel; Farrell, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that there are gender differences in 12 lead ECG measurements, some of which can be statistically significant. It is also an accepted practice that we should consider those differences when we interpret ECGs, by either a human overreader or a computerized algorithm. There are some major gender differences in 12 lead ECG measurements based on automatic algorithms, including global measurements such as heart rate, QRS duration, QT interval, and lead-by-lead measurements like QRS amplitude, ST level, etc. The interpretation criteria used in the automatic algorithms can be adapted to the gender differences in the measurements. The analysis of a group of 1339 patients with acute inferior MI showed that for patients under age 60, women had lower ST elevations at the J point in lead II than men (57±91μV vs. 86±117μV, p<0.02). This trend was reversed for patients over age 60 (lead aVF: 102±126μV vs. 84±117μV, p<0.04; lead III: 130±146μV vs. 103±131μV, p<0.007). Therefore, the ST elevation thresholds were set based on available gender and age information, which resulted in 25% relative sensitivity improvement for women under age 60, while maintaining a high specificity of 98%. Similar analyses were done for prolonged QT interval and LVH cases. The paper uses several design examples to demonstrate (1) how to design a gender-specific algorithm, and (2) how to design a robust ECG interpretation algorithm which relies less on absolute threshold-based criteria and is instead more reliant on overall morphology features, which are especially important when gender information is unavailable for automatic analysis.

  15. Piagetian Conservation Tasks in Ghanaian Children: The Role of Geographical Location, Gender and Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assan, Evelyn Ama; Sarfo, Jacob Owusu

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of geographical location, gender and age on the performance of Piagetian Conservation tasks. Four conservation tasks; conservation of liquid, length, substance amount and number respectively were administered to children [4-6 years] from rural and urban Ghana and their performance on each task were recorded.…

  16. Effects of Age, Gender, School Class on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills of Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin; Onyeaso, Chukwudi Ochi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need for training of schoolchildren on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as potential bystander CPR providers is growing globally but Nigeria is still behind and lacks basic necessary data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender and school class on CPR skills of Nigerian secondary school…

  17. Gender, Age, Attendance at a Place of Worship and Young People's Attitudes towards the Bible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freathy, R. J. K.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the outcomes of a questionnaire survey which sought to ascertain the attitudes of young people towards the Bible. One thousand and sixty-six pupils from Years 6, 9 and 12 in nine English schools participated. The young people's attitudes are discussed in relation to gender, age and attendance at a place of worship. The…

  18. How to Improve Adolescents' Sun Protection Behavior? Age and Gender Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Christine; Tzelepis, Flora; Parfitt, Nicholas; Girgis, Afaf

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore adolescents' self-reported reasons for sun protection, as adolescents as a group continue to have poor sun protection practices. Methods: Seventeen age- and gender-segregated focus groups were conducted in Australian high schools. Results: Reasons for using sun protection included personal comfort, appearance, policies, fear…

  19. Age and Gender Differences in Beliefs about Personal Power and Injustice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degelman, Douglas; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Compared college students and community-dwelling older adults (total n=171) on Injustice and Personal Power scales and measures of religiosity. Personal Power scores varied significantly as function of age and gender (significantly lower belief in personal power for older women). Injustice scores were significantly higher for women than for men.…

  20. Sweepnet captures of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera:Miridae) adult genders and age-classes in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, in cotton usually relies on population estimates obtained using the sweepnet. Recent studies indicated adult L. hesperus gender and physiological age influence feeding behavior, within-plant distribution, and injury to cotton. W...

  1. The effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Talalaj, Izabela Anna Walery, Maria

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • An effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was presented. • The waste accumulation index is influenced by a number of unemployed women. • Greater share of women in society contributes to greater waste production. • A model describing the analyzed dependences was determined. - Abstract: In this study the effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was investigated. The data from 10-year period, from 2001 to 2010 year, were taken into consideration. The following parameters of gender and age structure were analyzed: men and woman quantity, female to male ratio, number of working, pre-working and post-working age men/women, number of unemployed men/women. The results have showed a strong correlation of annual per capita waste generation rate with number of unemployed women (r = 0.70) and female to male ratio (r = 0.81). This indicates that waste generation rate is more depended on ratio of men and women that on quantitative size of each group. Using the regression analysis a model describing the dependence between female to male ratio, number of unemployed woman and waste quantity was determined. The model explains 70% of waste quantity variation. Obtained results can be used both to improve waste management and to a fuller understanding of gender behavior.

  2. The effects of gestational age and gender on grief after pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, K R; Dunn, D S; Toedter, L J; Lasker, J N

    1991-07-01

    The roles of gestational age and gender in grief reactions following loss of pregnancy were explored. Parents with losses later in pregnancy reported more intense grief than did those whose losses were earlier. Women expressed higher levels of grief than did men six to eight weeks after the loss; however, this difference had decreased by one and two years after the loss.

  3. Gender Differences in Food Preferences of School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…

  4. Age, Gender and Job Satisfaction among Elementary School Head Teachers in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazi, Safdar Rehman; Maringe, Felix

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore general job satisfaction of elementary school head teachers in Pakistan with respect to their age and gender. One hundred and eighty head teachers were sampled from government elementary schools of Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan, to collect the relevant data using a modified version of the Minnesota…

  5. Social Cognitive Predictors of Peer Acceptance at Age 5 and the Moderating Effects of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Munoz, Jose M.; Carreras, Maria R.; Braza, Paloma; Garcia, Ainhoa; Sorozabal, Aizpea; Sanchez-Martin, Jose R.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of social intelligence, empathy, verbal ability and appearance-reality distinction on the level of peer acceptance, as well as the moderating role of gender. Participants were 98 five-year-old children (43 boys and 55 girls; mean age 5 years 3 months for boys and girls). Our results showed a main effect of…

  6. Acceptance of Genetic Testing in a General Population: Age, Education and Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, A. R.; Hakonen, A.; Hietala, M.; Lonnqvist, J.; Niemela, P.; Peltonen, L; Aula, P.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of age, education, and gender on acceptance of genetic testing were studied. Finnish participants responded to a questionnaire presenting reasons for and against genetic testing (N=1,967). Intentions to take genetic tests, worries, and experience of genetic test or hereditary disease were also assessed. Results are presented and discussed.…

  7. Transferable Skills Representations in a Portuguese College Sample: Gender, Age, Adaptability and Vocational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Magda

    2012-01-01

    The departing point of this study is the theoretical framework of "Making the Match project" (Evers and Rush in Management Learning 27:275-299, 1996) about how to develop a common language among stakeholders regarding transferable skills. Thus, the paper examines the impact of demographic variables (age and gender) and developmental…

  8. Do Age and Gender Make a Difference in the Relationship between Intellectual Styles and Abilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-Fang

    2010-01-01

    This article reports two studies that aim at further distinguishing intellectual styles from abilities by taking into account the confounding effects of age and gender on the relationship between these two constructs. Two independent groups of secondary school students responded to the "Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised" and took the…

  9. A Way Forward: Nurturing the Imagination at the Intersection of Race, Class, Gender, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockhart-Gilroy, Annie A.

    2016-01-01

    Those who are oppressed often find themselves internalizing voices that limit their ability. This article focuses on a population that falls on the non-hegemonic side of the intersection of race, class, gender, and age: Black girls from poor and working-class backgrounds. From my work with youth, I have noticed that internalizing these limiting…

  10. Gender, Age, and the MBA: An Analysis of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Career Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Ruth; Sturges, Jane; Woods, Adrian; Altman, Yochanan

    2005-01-01

    Against the background of an earlier study, this article presents the findings of a Canadian-based survey of career benefits from the MBA. Results indicate first that gender and age interact to influence perceptions of career outcomes and second that both men and women gain intrinsic benefits from the MBA. However, intrinsic benefits vary by…

  11. Gender Differences in the Age-Changing Relationship between Instrumentality and Family Contact in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Joel R.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Gilligan, Carol; Chen, Henian; Crawford, Thomas N.; Kasen, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study were used to examine gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of finance and romance instrumentality from ages 17 to 27 years. Family contact decreased among both men and women across emerging adulthood, although it decreased more rapidly in men than in women.…

  12. Gender and Age Differences in How Children Cope with Daily Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales Rodriguez, Francisco Manuel; Trianes Torres, Maria Victoria; Miranda Paez, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study of coping among students accounts for an interesting subject, as having coping skills guarantees a healthy lifestyle and quality of life. The present study aims to analyze the role played by age and gender on the coping strategies used by Andalusian school students to cope with situations of daily stress. These situations…

  13. The Relationship of Time Perspective to Age, Gender, and Academic Achievement among Academically Talented Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…

  14. Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

  15. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: A Validation Study Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools…

  16. Students' Perspective (Age Wise, Gender Wise and Year Wise) of Parameters Affecting the Undergraduate Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumari, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the students' perspective (age wise, gender wise and year wise) of parameters affecting the undergraduate engineering education system present in a private technical institution in NCR [National Capital Region], Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research in nature. The data has been collected with the…

  17. Invariance of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model Across Gender and Age Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the likelihood of a TAME (extended technology acceptance model), in which the interrelationships among computer self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, intention to use and self-reported use of computer-mediated technology were tested. In addition, the gender- and age-invariant of its causal structure were evaluated. The…

  18. Attachment and Self-Evaluation in Chinese Adolescents: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hairong; Thompson, Ross A.; Ferrer, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated age and gender differences in the quality of attachment to mothers, fathers, and peers, and the association of attachment with measures of self-evaluation in 584 Chinese adolescents in junior high, high school, and university. Their responses to the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment indexed attachment quality, and…

  19. Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems in Child Instrumentalists: The Influence of Gender, Age and Instrument Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranelli, Sonia; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon

    2011-01-01

    Playing-related musculoskeletal problems (PRMP) are common in adult musicians. The limited available evidence suggests PRMP are common in children and adolescents and that risk factors may be similar. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMP in children and adolescents and their associations with female gender, age and…

  20. Adolescents' Perceptions of Male Involvement in Relational Aggression: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Curt; Heath, Melissa Allen; Bailey, Benjamin M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Yamawaki, Niwako; Eggett, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared age and gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of male involvement in relational aggression (RA). After viewing two of four video clips portraying RA, each participating adolescent (N = 314; Grades 8-12) answered questions related to rationalizing bullying behaviors--specifically minimizing bullying, blaming victims,…

  1. Intersectionality and Disability Harassment: The Interactive Effects of Disability, Race, Age, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Linda R.; Chan, Fong; McMahon, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    A possible interaction among the characteristics of disability, race, gender, and age was examined with respect to formal allegations of disability harassment. Using data from the National Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Research Project, the authors examined whether there was an interaction…

  2. Mathematics Confidence, Grade-Level Choice, Gender, and Age in Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lesley Knoth

    2012-01-01

    Problem: The purpose of the study was to determine whether teachers' mathematics confidence influenced their choice of grade level. The study also examined whether there was a difference in teachers' mathematics confidence based on their age or gender. Method: A 6-item Mathematics Survey was distributed to 83 single-and multiple-subject preservice…

  3. The Effects of Person versus Performance Praise on Children's Motivation: Gender and Age as Moderating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Lepper, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine how gender and age moderate the long-term and post-failure motivational consequences of person versus performance praise. In Study 1, fourth- and fifth-grade students (n = 93) engaged in a puzzle task while receiving either no praise, person praise, product praise, or process praise. Following a subsequent…

  4. Gender Differences in Throwing Form of Children Ages 6-8 Years during a Throwing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorson, Kevin M.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2008-01-01

    The study purposes were to describe throwing form and gender differences before and after instruction during a game. Children's (ages 6-8, n = 105) throwing form was assessed while they played a game (snowball) using the Body Component Assessment for Throwing in Games to determine the modal developmental levels for the step, trunk, and forearm…

  5. Occupational Stress and Turnover Issues Relating to Gender and Ethnicity: The Mediating Effects of Social Support, Locus of Control, and Employment Expectations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-31

    Viator 1994; Gregson 1990; Senatra 1980), gender (Dalton et al. 1997; Collins 1993), and ethnicity ( Mynatt et al. 1997). Through the development and...1995). Additionally, the demographics of the American workforce are also undergoing rapid change ( Mynatt et al. 1997). With a large portion of new...ethnicity ( Mynatt et al. 1997). One factor in particular, occupational stress, has been linked to turnover in a wide variety of environments including

  6. Age and gender differences in ability emotional intelligence in adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the Mayer and Salovey EI model. The authors examined effects of gender on ability EI, as well as the linear and quadratic effects of age. Results suggest that gender affects the total ability EI score as well as scores on the 4 EI branches. Ability EI was greater in women than men. Ability EI varied with age according to an inverted-U curve: Younger and older adults scored lower on ability EI than middle-aged adults, except for the branch of understanding emotions. These findings strongly support the idea that both gender and age significantly influence ability EI during aging. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Effects of age, gender, and gonadectomy on neurochemistry and behavior in animal models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tamás, Andrea; Lubics, Andrea; Lengvári, István; Reglodi, Dóra

    2006-04-01

    The effects of aging and gender on the neurochemistry of the dopaminergic system have been studied extensively; however, data on comparative behavioral consequences of lesions of the dopaminergic system in aging and in female animals are limited. This study presents experimental results on the behavioral and morphological outcome in young, aging, and gonadectomized male and female rats in the 6-OHDA model of Parkinson's disease. Both young and aging male animals were more susceptible to 6-OHDA than females: female rats had significantly less dopaminergic cell loss and showed a higher degree of behavioral recovery. Although the dopaminergic cell loss was only slightly more in the aging rats of the same sex, they showed more severe behavioral deficits in both gender groups. Ovariectomy did not significantly influence the dopaminergic cell loss, but behavioral recovery was worse when compared to non-ovariectomized females. In contrast, castrated males had significantly less dopaminergic cell loss than non-castrated males, but the behavioral recovery was not significantly better. The obtained results are discussed in light of the available literature on the age and gender differences in animals models of Parkinson's disease.

  8. Attitudes about Aging and Gender among Young, Middle Age, and Older College-Based Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Fischer, Mary; Laditka, James N.; Segal, David R.

    2004-01-01

    Using an updated version of the Aging Semantic Differential, 534 younger, middle age, and older participants from a college community rated female and male targets categorized as ages 21-34 and 75-85. Participants also provided views about their own aging. Repeated measures of analysis of variance examined attitudinal differences by age and gender…

  9. The age of the Lower Paleolithic occupation at Schöningen.

    PubMed

    Richter, Daniel; Krbetschek, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) data are presented for eight samples of heated flint collected at the archaeological site of Schöningen 13/I-1 (Cycle I), for which a Holsteinian age is suggested by palynology of stratigraphically similar positions within a cyclic sedimentological model for the Quaternary sequence of Schöningen. Although the fire responsible for the zeroing of the TL-signal cannot be unequivocally attributed to human activities, any time difference between a natural fire and the human occupation is negligible for a site of this antiquity. The weighted mean age of 321 ± 16 ka places the last heating of the flints nominally in the age range of Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 10 to 8. By inference this data would suggest an attribution of the Holsteinian to MIS 9 and may also serve as a maximum age estimate for the spear site of Schöningen 13/II-4 (Cycle II). Considering the chronometric data available and following an alternative sedimentological model the age of these two sites at Schöningen can be considered as belonging to the same climatic cycle. This suggests an attribution to MIS 9, and by inference provides an age estimate of 337-300 ka for the oldest spears in human history.

  10. Gender Agreement in Adult Second Language Learners and Spanish Heritage Speakers: The Effects of Age and Context of Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Foote, Rebecca; Perpinan, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates knowledge of gender agreement in Spanish L2 learners and heritage speakers, who differ in age and context/mode of acquisition. On some current theoretical accounts, persistent difficulty with grammatical gender in adult L2 acquisition is due to age. These accounts predict that heritage speakers should be more accurate on…

  11. Gender, aging, poverty and health: Survival strategies of older men and women in Nairobi slums

    PubMed Central

    Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups. PMID:19907648

  12. Age, gender, and living circumstances: discriminating older adults on death anxiety.

    PubMed

    Madnawat, A V Singh; Kachhawa, P Singh

    2007-09-01

    The present study examines the effect of age, gender, and living circumstances on elderly persons' death anxiety. For this purpose, 299 persons attending public parks (average age = 70 years) were interviewed using the Death Anxiety Survey Schedule, which is a set of 10 questions related to death anxiety from an Indian perspective. Women, those relatively older, and those living with family were significantly more anxious about the word death. The gender and age results in this Indian sample are similar to that in some western samples. The results that those living with family have significantly higher death anxiety are not in agreement with past western studies and may reflect cultural differences in anxiety about death.

  13. The Relationships Between Victim Age, Gender, and Relationship Polymorphism and Sexual Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Skye; Seto, Michael C; Goodwill, Alasdair M; Cantor, James M

    2016-02-19

    Victim choice polymorphism refers to victim inconsistency in a series of offenses by the same perpetrator, such as in the domains of victim age, victim gender, and victim-offender relationship. Past studies have found that victim age polymorphic offenders have higher rates of sexual recidivism than offenders against adults only and offenders against children only. Few studies, however, have examined gender and relationship polymorphism, or accounted for the impact of the number of past victims. The present study analyzed the relationship between polymorphism and sexual recidivism, while controlling for the number of victims. The sample consisted of 751 male adult sexual offenders followed for an average of 10 years, 311 of whom were polymorphic (41% of the total sample). The main finding suggested that there was an association between sexual recidivism and age and relationship polymorphism; however, these associations were no longer significant after controlling for the number of victims.

  14. A field study on thermal comfort in an Italian hospital considering differences in gender and age.

    PubMed

    Del Ferraro, S; Iavicoli, S; Russo, S; Molinaro, V

    2015-09-01

    The hospital is a thermal environment where comfort must be calibrated by taking into account two different groups of people, that is, patients and medical staff. The study involves 30 patients and 19 medical staff with a view to verifying if Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) index can accurately predict thermal sensations of both groups also taking into account any potential effects of age and gender. The methodology adopted is based on the comparison between PMV values (calculated according to ISO 7730 after having collected environmental data and estimated personal parameters) and perceptual judgments (Actual Mean Vote, AMV), expressed by the subjects interviewed. Different statistical analyses show that PMV model finds his best correlation with AMV values in a sample of male medical staff under 65 years of age. It has been observed that gender and age are factors that must be taken into account in the assessment of thermal comfort in the hospital due to very weak correlation between AMV and PMV values.

  15. Effects of age, gender, and stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Kunimi, Mitsunobu

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on age-related changes in visual short-term memory using visual stimuli that did not allow verbal encoding. Experiment 1 examined the effects of age and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. Experiment 2 examined the effects of age, gender, and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. The worst memory performance and the largest performance difference between the age groups were observed in the shortest stimulus presentation period conditions. The performance difference between the age groups became smaller as the stimulus presentation period became longer; however, it did not completely disappear. Although gender did not have a significant effect on d' regardless of the presentation period in the young group, a significant gender-based difference was observed for stimulus presentation periods of 500 ms and 1,000 ms in the older group. This study indicates that the decline in visual short-term memory observed in the older group is due to the interaction of several factors.

  16. Regional and Gender Study of Neuronal Density in Brain during Aging and in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Ordóñez, Cristina; del Valle, Eva; Navarro, Ana; Tolivia, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Learning processes or language development are only some of the cognitive functions that differ qualitatively between men and women. Gender differences in the brain structure seem to be behind these variations. Indeed, this sexual dimorphism at neuroanatomical level is accompanied unequivocally by differences in the way that aging and neurodegenerative diseases affect men and women brains. Objective: The aim of this study is the analysis of neuronal density in four areas of the hippocampus, and entorhinal and frontal cortices to analyze the possible gender influence during normal aging and in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Human brain tissues of different age and from both sexes, without neurological pathology and with different Braak's stages of AD, were studied. Neuronal density was quantified using the optical dissector. Results: Our results showed the absence of a significant neuronal loss during aging in non-pathological brains in both sexes. However, we have demonstrated specific punctual significant variations in neuronal density related with the age and gender in some regions of these brains. In fact, we observed a higher neuronal density in CA3 and CA4 hippocampal areas of non-pathological brains of young men compared to women. During AD, we observed a negative correlation between Braak's stages and neuronal density in hippocampus, specifically in CA1 for women and CA3 for men, and in frontal cortex for both, men and women. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated a sexual dimorphism in the neuronal vulnerability to degeneration suggesting the need to consider the gender of the individuals in future studies, regarding neuronal loss in aging and AD, in order to avoid problems in interpreting data. PMID:27679571

  17. Assessment of Oro-Maxillofacial Trauma According to Gender, Age, Cause and Type of the Injury

    PubMed Central

    Matijević, Marko; Sikora, Miroslav; Leović, Dinko; Mumlek, Ivan; Macan, Darko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The occurrence and causes of maxillofacial trauma varies in different regions of the world. The aim of this study was to identify the occurrence, types and causes of maxillofacial injuries according to the age and gender differences in patients treated at the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Center Osijek, between January 2011 and December 2013. Materials and methods A total of 64 patients, 41 males (64.1%) and 23 females (35.9%), aged from 18 to 86 years (mean age 42) participated in the study. Data collected and analyzed included gender, age, cause of injury and the type of maxillofacial injuries. Results The most common cause of injuries in both gender groups was falling down (39% males; 65% females). The second leading cause of injuries in males was interpersonal violence (29%) and in females traffic accident (26%) (p<0.05). The most common type of injury in both gender groups was bone injury (50%; in males zygomatic bones 55%, in females mandible 40%) (p>0.05). The most common causes of injuries in the youngest patients was violence (43%), and in others fall (50-70%; p<0.05). The most common reported type of injury in all age groups was bone injury (more than 50%; p>0.05). The majority of the falls and violence caused bone tissue injuries, and soft tissue and dentalveolar injuries were detected in traffic and sports accidents (p>0.05). Conclusion Falling down was the most common cause of oro-maxillofacial injuries in both men and women and in all three age groups. The leading type of injury was bone injury. The data obtained from this study provide important information for future prevention from injuries. PMID:27688419

  18. Age, education, and the gender gap in the sense of control.

    PubMed

    Slagsvold, Britt; Sørensen, Annemette

    2008-01-01

    High sense of control is related to benefits in many aspects of life, and education is known to be strongly related to sense of control. In this article we explore why women tend to feel a lower sense of control than men, and why the sense of control tends to be lower among the elderly than among younger people. In particular we explore the role played by education in explaining age- and gender differences in sense of control. The analysis is based on data from the first wave of the Norwegian NorLAG study, with a representative sample of adults aged 40-79 in 30 municipalities. We find that education accounts for some of the age and gender differences in sense of control, but the mediating effects of education are rather modest. We find an increasing gender gap in sense of control with age, and this increasing gap is completely explained by differences in education. Gender differences in sense of control is explained completely by four factors, which are related to resources and power; physical health, education, living with a partner, and leadership experience. Age differences in sense of control are only partially explained. Education, physical health and employment status cuts the age effect on sense of control to half. The effect of education on sense of control is partly mediated through what we suggest are tangible benefits of education, namely health, employment, and leadership experience. Education also influences individuals through socialization mechanisms. We view agentive orientation as a psychological benefit of education, and measure this characteristic with Bem's (1981) sex-role scale on masculinity. Agentive orientation completely explains the remaining effect of education on sense of control.

  19. Production activities and economic dependency by age and gender in Europe: A cross-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Bernhard; Prskawetz, Alexia; Freund, Inga

    2015-01-01

    We compare selected European countries using an economic dependency ratio which emphasizes the role of age-specific levels of production and consumption. Our analysis reveals large differences in the age- and gender-specific level and type of production activities across selected European countries and identifies possible strategies to adjust age-specific economic behaviour to an ageing population. The cross-country differences in economic dependency of children and elderly persons are largely determined by the age at which people enter, respectively exit, the labour market. The ability of the working age population to support children and elderly persons in turn is strongly influenced by the participation of women in paid work. We also provide a measure for the age-specific production and consumption in form of unpaid household work. The inclusion of unpaid household work leads to a decrease of the gender differences in production activities and indicates that the working age population supports children and elderly persons not only through monetary transfers but also through services produced by unpaid work (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning…). Given the available data, we cannot distinguish the age profile of consumption by gender and have to assume – in case of unpaid work - that each member of the household consumes the same. Hence, our results have to be regarded as a first approximation only. Our paper aims to argue that a reform of the welfare system needs to take into account not only public transfers but also private transfers, in particular the transfers in form of goods and services produced through unpaid household work. PMID:26110107

  20. Production activities and economic dependency by age and gender in Europe: A cross-country comparison.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Bernhard; Prskawetz, Alexia; Freund, Inga

    2015-04-01

    We compare selected European countries using an economic dependency ratio which emphasizes the role of age-specific levels of production and consumption. Our analysis reveals large differences in the age- and gender-specific level and type of production activities across selected European countries and identifies possible strategies to adjust age-specific economic behaviour to an ageing population. The cross-country differences in economic dependency of children and elderly persons are largely determined by the age at which people enter, respectively exit, the labour market. The ability of the working age population to support children and elderly persons in turn is strongly influenced by the participation of women in paid work. We also provide a measure for the age-specific production and consumption in form of unpaid household work. The inclusion of unpaid household work leads to a decrease of the gender differences in production activities and indicates that the working age population supports children and elderly persons not only through monetary transfers but also through services produced by unpaid work (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning…). Given the available data, we cannot distinguish the age profile of consumption by gender and have to assume - in case of unpaid work - that each member of the household consumes the same. Hence, our results have to be regarded as a first approximation only. Our paper aims to argue that a reform of the welfare system needs to take into account not only public transfers but also private transfers, in particular the transfers in form of goods and services produced through unpaid household work.

  1. An Empirical Exploration of the Occupational Satisfaction of Counselor Educators: The Influence of Gender, Tenure Status, and Minority Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nicole R.

    2009-01-01

    In higher education, occupational satisfaction is influenced by the environment as well as by the dispositional variables explored for occupational satisfaction in general. Within the context of counselor education, there are no empirical studies that explore the occupational satisfaction of counselor educators. This article provides an overview…

  2. Assessment of gingival thickness with regards to age, gender and arch location

    PubMed Central

    Kolte, Rajashri; Kolte, Abhay; Mahajan, Aaditi

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a considerable intra and inter-individual variation in both width and thickness of the facial gingiva. As the attached gingiva is an important anatomic and functional landmark in the periodontium, the identification of gingival biotype is important in clinical practice since differences in gingival and osseous architecture have been shown to exhibit a significant impact on the outcome of restorative therapy. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the variation in width and thickness of facial gingiva in the anterior segment with respect to age, gender and dental arch location. Materials and Methods: 120 subjects were divided into three age groups: The younger age group (16-24 years), the middle age group (25-39 years) and the older age group (>40 years) with 20 males and 20 females in each group. The width of the gingiva was assessed by William's graduated probe and the thickness was determined using transgingival probing in the maxillary and mandibular anterior segment. Results: It was observed that the younger age group had significantly thicker gingiva but less width than that of the older age group. The gingiva was found to be thinner and with less width in females than males. The mandibular arch had thicker gingiva with less width compared to the maxillary arch. Conclusion: In the present study, we concluded that gingival thickness and width varies with age, gender and dental arch location. PMID:25210263

  3. Gender Transitions in Later Life: The Significance of Time in Queer Aging

    PubMed Central

    Fabbre, Vanessa D.

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of time are ubiquitous in studies of aging. This article integrates an existential perspective on time with a notion of queer time based on the experiences of older transgender persons who contemplate or pursue a gender transition in later life. Interviews were conducted with male-to-female identified persons aged 50 years or older (N=22), along with participant observation at three national transgender conferences (N=170 hours). Interpretive analyses suggest that an awareness of “time left to live” and a feeling of “time served” play a significant role in later life development and help expand gerontological perspectives on time and queer aging. PMID:24798691

  4. College Students' Perceptions of Job Demands, Recommended Retirement Ages, and Age of Optimal Performance in Selected Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panek, Paul E.; Staats, Sara; Hiles, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    Two studies were conducted. In study one 100 participants rated 60 occupations on the amount of cognitive/intellectual, physical, sensory-perceptual, and perceptual-motor demands they perceived as required for successful performance in that particular occupation. Results of a cluster analysis determined four clusters of occupations on the basis of…

  5. Brief Report: Phenotypic Differences and their Relationship to Paternal Age and Gender in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Vierck, Esther; Silverman, Jeremy M

    2015-06-01

    Two modes of inheritance have been proposed in autism spectrum disorder, transmission though pre-existing variants and de novo mutations. Different modes may lead to different symptom expressions in affected individuals. De novo mutations become more likely with advancing paternal age suggesting that paternal age may predict phenotypic differences. To test this possibility we measured IQ, adaptive behavior, and autistic symptoms in 830 probands from simplex families. We conducted multiple linear regression analysis to estimate the predictive value of paternal age, maternal age, and gender on behavioral measures and IQ. We found a differential effect of parental age and sex on repetitive and restricted behaviors. Findings suggest effects of paternal age on phenotypic differences in simplex families with ASD.

  6. Estimating the color of maxillary central incisors based on age and gender

    PubMed Central

    Gozalo-Diaz, David; Johnston, William M.; Wee, Alvin G.

    2008-01-01

    Statement of problem There is no scientific information regarding the selection of the color of teeth for edentulous patients. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate linear regression models that may be used to predict color parameters for central incisors of edentulous patients based on some characteristics of dentate subjects. Material and methods A spectroradiometer and an external light source were set in a noncontacting 45/0 degree (45-degree illumination and 0-degree observer) optical configuration to measure the color of subjects’ vital craniofacial structures (maxillary central incisor, attached gingiva, and facial skin). The subjects (n=120) were stratified into 5 age groups with 4 racial groups and balanced for gender. Linear first-order regression was used to determine the significant factors (α=.05) in the prediction model for each color direction of the color of the maxillary central incisor. Age, gender, and color of the other craniofacial structures were studied as potential predictors. Final predictions in each color direction were based only on the statistically significant factors, and then the color differences between observed and predicted CIELAB values for the central incisors were calculated and summarized. Results The statistically significant predictors of age and gender accounted for 36% of the total variability in L*. The statistically significant predictor of age accounted for 16% of the total variability in a*. The statistically significant predictors of age and gender accounted for 21% of the variability in b*. The mean ΔE (SD) between predicted and observed CIELAB values for the central incisor was 5.8 (3.2). Conclusions Age and gender were found to be statistically significant determinants in predicting the natural color of central incisors. Although the precision of these predictions was less than the median color difference found for all pairs of teeth studied, and may be considered an acceptable precision, further

  7. Online communication preferences across age, gender, and duration of Internet use.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Stacy E; Ray, Sukanya

    2006-08-01

    The present study explored variations in online communication and relationship preferences for friends, family, coworkers, and unknown individuals across gender (men, women), age (young, middle, late), and duration of Internet use (low, medium, high). A total of 174 individuals participated in this study. They were divided into two gender (86 men and 88 women), three age (60 young, 60 middle, and 54 late) and three Internet use duration (60 low, 58 medium, and 54 high) groups. All participants completed several questionnaires that assessed online communication and relationship building preferences. Results indicated no significant main effect for gender and online communication and relationship preferences. The main effect for age was significant for online communication with friends and unknown individuals. Young adults indicated their higher preferences for online communication with friends and unknown individuals compared to middle and late adult age groups. The main effect for duration of Internet use was significant for online communication and relationship preferences. High Internet users indicated higher scores on online communication and relationship building, compared to their counterparts. No significant main effects for duration of Internet use were significant on any of the offline characteristics. Implications of these findings and their relevance to mental health issues and organizational environment were discussed.

  8. Immunohistochemical Patterns in the Interfollicular Caucasian Scalps: Influences of Age, Gender, and Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Loussouarn, Geneviève; Panhard, Ségolène; Saint Léger, Didier; Mellul, Myriam; Piérard, Gérald E.

    2013-01-01

    Skin ageing and gender influences on the scalp have been seldom studied. We revisited the changes in the interfollicular scalp. The study was performed on a population of 650 volunteers (300 women and 350 men) for over 7 years. Three age groups were selected in both genders, namely, subjects aged 20–35, 50–60, and 60–70 years. The hair status was further considered according to nonalopecic and alopecic patterns and severity (discrete, moderate, and severe). Biopsies from the parietal area were processed for immunohistochemistry. Stromal cells were distinguished according to the presence of vimentin, Factor XIIIa, CD117, and versican. Blood and lymphatic vessels were highlighted by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and human podoplanin immunoreactivities, respectively. Actinic elastosis was identified by the lysozyme coating of elastic fibres. The epidermis was explored using the CD44 variant 3 and Ki67 immunolabellings. Biplot analyses were performed. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prominent gender effect in young adults. Both Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes and the microvasculature size decreased with scalp ageing. Alopecia changes mimicked stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:24455724

  9. Level of emotional awareness in the general French population: effects of gender, age, and education level.

    PubMed

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange

    2013-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample.

  10. The effects of age, authority, and gender on perceptions of statutory rape offenders.

    PubMed

    Sahl, Daniel; Keene, Jennifer Reid

    2012-12-01

    Using a sample of 2,838 students from a Southwestern university in the United States, the authors examine the effect of respondent's gender, the adult's gender, the age gap between the adult and teen, and the adult's authority, on students' perceptions of vignettes describing adult-teen sexual relationships. Specifically, the authors investigate four dependent variables related to perceptions of the crime: the adult offender's emotional motivation, whether the adult is a sexual predator, whether the adult should have limited interactions with children, and whether the adult should be included on a sex offender registry. ANOVA analysis revealed that a large age gap between the adult and teen, the presence of authority in the relationship, and respondent's gender were significant predictors of perceptions of the offender as a predator and sex offender. The offender's gender significantly predicted respondents' perceived motivations but had no effect on opinions regarding sex offender registration. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for perceptions of statutory rape.

  11. Age- and Gender-Normalized Coronary Incidence and Mortality Risks in Primary and Secondary Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Iannetta, Loredana; Schiariti, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiologic differences in ischemic heart disease incidence between women and men remain largely unexplained. The reasons of women’s “protection” against coronary artery disease (CAD) are not still clear. However, there are subsets more likely to die of a first myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to underline different treatment strategies between genders and describe the role of classical and novel factors defined to evaluate CAD risk and mortality, aimed at assessing applicability and relevance for primary and secondary prevention. Women and men present different age-related risk patterns: it should be important to understand whether standard factors may index CAD risk, including mortality, in different ways and/or whether specific factors might be targeted gender-wise. Take home messages include: HDL-cholesterol levels, higher in pre-menopausal women than in men, are more strictly related to CAD. The same is true for high triglycerides and Lp(a). HDL-cholesterol levels are inversely related to incidence and mortality. In primary prevention the role of statins is not completely ascertained in women although in secondary prevention these agents are equally effective in both genders. Weight and glycemic control are effective to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women from middle to older age. Blood pressure is strongly and directly related to CVD mortality, from middle to older age, particularly in diabetic and over weighted women. Kidney dysfunction, defined using UAE and eGFR predicts primary CVD incidence and risk in both genders. In secondary prediction, kidney dysfunction predicts sudden death in women in conjunction with left ventricular ejection fraction evaluation. Serum uric acid does not differentiate gender-related CVD incidences, although it increases with age. Age-related differences between genders have been related to loss of ovarian function traditionally and to lower iron stores more recently. QT interval

  12. Lateralization of Resting State Networks and Relationship to Age and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Agcaoglu, O.; Miller, R.; Mayer, A.R.; Hugdahl, K.; Calhoun, V.D.

    2014-01-01

    Brain lateralization is a widely studied topic, however there has been little work focused on lateralization of intrinsic networks (regions showing similar patterns of covariation among voxels) in the resting brain. In this study, we evaluate resting state network lateralization in an age and gender-balanced functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset comprising over 600 healthy subjects ranging in age from 12 to 71. After establishing sample-wide network lateralization properties, we continue with an investigation of age and gender effects on network lateralization. All data was gathered on the same scanner and preprocessed using an automated pipeline (Scott et al., 2011). Networks were extracted via group independent component analysis (gICA) (Calhoun, Adali, Pearlson, & Pekar, 2001). Twenty-eight resting state networks discussed in previous (Allen et al., 2011) work were re-analyzed with a focus on lateralization. We calculated homotopic voxelwise measures of laterality in addition to a global lateralization measure, called the laterality cofactor, for each network. As expected, many of the intrinsic brain networks were lateralized. For example, the visual network was strongly right lateralized, auditory network and default mode networks were mostly left lateralized. Attentional and frontal networks included nodes that were left lateralized and other nodes that were right lateralized. Age was strongly related to lateralization in multiple regions including sensorimotor network regions precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus and supramarginal gyrus; and visual network regions lingual gyrus; attentional network regions inferior parietal lobule, superior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus; and frontal network regions including the inferior frontal gyrus. Gender showed significant effects mainly in two regions, including visual and frontal networks. For example, the inferior frontal gyrus was more right lateralized in males. Significant effects of age

  13. Age and gender effects on bone mass density variation: finite elements simulation.

    PubMed

    Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Ben Kahla, Rabeb; Merzouki, Tarek; Hambli, Ridha

    2017-04-01

    Bone remodeling is a physiological process by which bone constantly adapts its structure to changes in long-term loading manifested by interactions between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. This process can be influenced by many local factors, via effects on bone cells differentiation and proliferation, which are produced by bone cells and act in a paracrine or autocrine way. The aim of the current work is to provide mechanobiological finite elements modeling coupling both cellular activities and mechanical behavior in order to investigate age and gender effects on bone remodeling evolution. A series of computational simulations have been performed on a 2D and 3D human proximal femur. An age- and gender-related impacts on bulk density alteration of trabecular bone have been noticed, and the major actors responsible of this phenomenon have been then discussed.

  14. Self-esteem and emotional health in adolescents--gender and age as potential moderators.

    PubMed

    Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A

    2012-12-01

    The present paper investigates possible gender and age differences on emotional states (depression and anxiety) and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and emotional states. The cross-sectional sectional sample consists of 1,209 adolescents 13-18 years from public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway. The results showed that girls reported higher scores on state anxiety and state depression, whereas boys consistently scored higher on self-esteem in all age groups. Self-esteem was strongly and inversely associated with both state depression and state anxiety. An interaction effect of gender by self-esteem was found on state depression, where the association was stronger for girls than for boys. The associations found give support for the positive role of self-esteem in relation to adolescents' emotional health and well-being.

  15. The effect of gender and age differences on media selection in small and medium tourism enterprises.

    PubMed

    Dehkordi, Majid A; Zarei, Behrouz; Dehkordi, Shabnam A

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact that gender and age differences have on the communication media selection within the context of small and medium tourism enterprises (SMEs). Media Richness Theory (MRT) was used to assess media preferences in the firms. Using a mail questionnaire, data from 78 firms were collected on seven popular media in use. Historical data of the firms, media characteristics, and other firm-specific factors were included in the analysis. The results indicated that there are substantial gender and age differences in term of communication media selection. This is consistent with MRT and highlights the importance of choosing the appropriate media in SMEs, according with the employee's behaviors, in order to achieve better outcomes and to smooth the path towards good performance in the future.

  16. Age and gender-invariant features of handwritten signatures for verification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdAli, Sura; Putz-Leszczynska, Joanna

    2014-11-01

    Handwritten signature is one of the most natural biometrics, the study of human physiological and behavioral patterns. Behavioral biometrics includes signatures that may be different due to its owner gender or age because of intrinsic or extrinsic factors. This paper presents the results of the author's research on age and gender influence on verification factors. The experiments in this research were conducted using a database that contains signatures and their associated metadata. The used algorithm is based on the universal forgery feature idea, where the global classifier is able to classify a signature as a genuine one or, as a forgery, without the actual knowledge of the signature template and its owner. Additionally, the reduction of the dimensionality with the MRMR method is discussed.

  17. Impact of gender, age and experience of pilots on general aviation accidents.

    PubMed

    Bazargan, Massoud; Guzhva, Vitaly S

    2011-05-01

    General aviation (GA) accounts for more than 82% of all air transport-related accidents and air transport-related fatalities in the U.S. In this study, we conduct a series of statistical analyses to investigate the significance of a pilot's gender, age and experience in influencing the risk for pilot errors and fatalities in GA accidents. There is no evidence from the Chi-square tests and logistic regression models that support the likelihood of an accident caused by pilot error to be related to pilot gender. However, evidence is found that male pilots, those older than 60 years of age, and with more experience, are more likely to be involved in a fatal accident.

  18. Sources of variation in emotional awareness: Age, gender, and socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    Mankus, Annette M.; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined associations between emotional awareness facets (type clarity, source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, involuntary attention) and sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES)) in a large US sample (N = 919). Path analyses—controlling for variance shared between sociodemographic variables and allowing emotional awareness facets to correlate—demonstrated that (a) age was positively associated with type clarity and source clarity, and inversely associated with involuntary attention; (b) gender was associated with all facets but type clarity, with higher source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, and involuntary attention reported by women then men; and (c) SES was positively associated with type clarity with a very small effect. These findings extend our understanding of emotional awareness and identify future directions for research to elucidate the causes and consequences of individual differences in emotional awareness. PMID:26500384

  19. Sources of variation in emotional awareness: Age, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Mankus, Annette M; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined associations between emotional awareness facets (type clarity, source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, involuntary attention) and sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES)) in a large US sample (N = 919). Path analyses-controlling for variance shared between sociodemographic variables and allowing emotional awareness facets to correlate-demonstrated that (a) age was positively associated with type clarity and source clarity, and inversely associated with involuntary attention; (b) gender was associated with all facets but type clarity, with higher source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, and involuntary attention reported by women then men; and (c) SES was positively associated with type clarity with a very small effect. These findings extend our understanding of emotional awareness and identify future directions for research to elucidate the causes and consequences of individual differences in emotional awareness.

  20. The Internet and health information: differences in pet owners based on age, gender, and education

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Lori R.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Viera, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The research assessed the attitudes and behaviors of pet owners pertaining to online search behavior for pet health information. Methods: A survey was conducted with a random sample of pet owners drawn from two US metropolitan areas and surrounding cities. Participating clinics were chosen randomly, and each participating clinic was asked to distribute 100 surveys to their clients until all surveys were disbursed. Results: Although some perceptions and behaviors surrounding the use of the Internet for pet health information differ based on gender, age, or education level of pet owners, there are many aspects in which there are no differences based on these demographics. Conclusions: Results of the study suggest that closer examination of the common perception that gender, age, or education level has an effect on Internet behavior as it relates to veterinary medicine is required. Recommendations are made pertaining to the growing presence of the Internet and its impact on veterinary medicine. PMID:22879809

  1. Who Tweets? Deriving the Demographic Characteristics of Age, Occupation and Social Class from Twitter User Meta-Data

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Luke; Morgan, Jeffrey; Burnap, Pete; Williams, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This paper specifies, designs and critically evaluates two tools for the automated identification of demographic data (age, occupation and social class) from the profile descriptions of Twitter users in the United Kingdom (UK). Meta-data data routinely collected through the Collaborative Social Media Observatory (COSMOS: http://www.cosmosproject.net/) relating to UK Twitter users is matched with the occupational lookup tables between job and social class provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) using SOC2010. Using expert human validation, the validity and reliability of the automated matching process is critically assessed and a prospective class distribution of UK Twitter users is offered with 2011 Census baseline comparisons. The pattern matching rules for identifying age are explained and enacted following a discussion on how to minimise false positives. The age distribution of Twitter users, as identified using the tool, is presented alongside the age distribution of the UK population from the 2011 Census. The automated occupation detection tool reliably identifies certain occupational groups, such as professionals, for which job titles cannot be confused with hobbies or are used in common parlance within alternative contexts. An alternative explanation on the prevalence of hobbies is that the creative sector is overrepresented on Twitter compared to 2011 Census data. The age detection tool illustrates the youthfulness of Twitter users compared to the general UK population as of the 2011 Census according to proportions, but projections demonstrate that there is still potentially a large number of older platform users. It is possible to detect “signatures” of both occupation and age from Twitter meta-data with varying degrees of accuracy (particularly dependent on occupational groups) but further confirmatory work is needed. PMID:25729900

  2. Who tweets? Deriving the demographic characteristics of age, occupation and social class from twitter user meta-data.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Luke; Morgan, Jeffrey; Burnap, Pete; Williams, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This paper specifies, designs and critically evaluates two tools for the automated identification of demographic data (age, occupation and social class) from the profile descriptions of Twitter users in the United Kingdom (UK). Meta-data data routinely collected through the Collaborative Social Media Observatory (COSMOS: http://www.cosmosproject.net/) relating to UK Twitter users is matched with the occupational lookup tables between job and social class provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) using SOC2010. Using expert human validation, the validity and reliability of the automated matching process is critically assessed and a prospective class distribution of UK Twitter users is offered with 2011 Census baseline comparisons. The pattern matching rules for identifying age are explained and enacted following a discussion on how to minimise false positives. The age distribution of Twitter users, as identified using the tool, is presented alongside the age distribution of the UK population from the 2011 Census. The automated occupation detection tool reliably identifies certain occupational groups, such as professionals, for which job titles cannot be confused with hobbies or are used in common parlance within alternative contexts. An alternative explanation on the prevalence of hobbies is that the creative sector is overrepresented on Twitter compared to 2011 Census data. The age detection tool illustrates the youthfulness of Twitter users compared to the general UK population as of the 2011 Census according to proportions, but projections demonstrate that there is still potentially a large number of older platform users. It is possible to detect "signatures" of both occupation and age from Twitter meta-data with varying degrees of accuracy (particularly dependent on occupational groups) but further confirmatory work is needed.

  3. [Adolescents with gender identity disorder: reconsideration of the age limits for endocrine treatment and surgery].

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2012-01-01

    The third versions of the guideline for treatment of people with gender identity disorder (GID) of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology does not include puberty-delaying hormone therapy. It is recommended that feminizing/masculinizing hormone therapy and genital surgery should not be carried out until 18 year old and 20 year old, respectively. On the other hand, the sixth (2001) and the seventh (2011) versions of the standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender nonconforming people of World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) recommend that transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2, [mainly 12-13 years of age]) are treated by the endocrinologists to suppress puberty with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists until age 16 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. A questionnairing on 181 people with GID diagnosed in the Okayama University Hospital (Japan) showed that female to male (FTM) transsexuals hoped to begin masculinizing hormone therapy at age of 15.6 +/- 4.0 (mean +/- S.D.) whereas male to female (MTF) transsexuals hoped to begin feminizing hormone therapy as early as age 12.5 +/- 4.0, before presenting secondary sex characters. After confirmation of strong and persistent cross-gender identification, adolescents with GID should be treated with cross-gender hormone or puberty-delaying hormone to prevent developing undesired sex characters. These treatments may prevent transsexual adolescents from attempting suicide, being depressive, and refusing to attend school. Subsequent early breast and genital surgery may help being employed in desired sexuality.

  4. Effects of age, gender and educational background on strength of motivation for medical school.

    PubMed

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures the willingness of the medical students to pursue medical education even in the face of difficulty and sacrifice. GE students (59.64 ± 7.30) had higher strength of motivation as compared to NGE students (55.26 ± 8.33), so did females (57.05 ± 8.28) as compared to males (54.30 ± 8.08). 7.9% of the variance in the SMMS scores could be explained with the help of a linear regression model with age, gender and educational background/selection as predictor variables. Age was the single largest predictor. Maturity, taking developmental differences between sexes into account, was used as a predictor to correct for differences in the maturation of males and females. Still, the gender differences prevailed, though they were reduced. Pre-entrance educational background and selection also predicted the strength of motivation, but the effect of the two was confounded. Strength of motivation appears to be a dynamic entity, changing primarily with age and maturity and to a small extent with gender and experience.

  5. Influence of Age and Gender on Jet-Lag Syndrome: Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    deployment. Before environmental parameters. studying effects of this particular type of jet-lag and It is usual to say that age and sometimes gender...protocol, we compared three situations : placebo - to facilitate sleep recovery, it is not recommended to versus melatonin versus slow release caffeine (a...RESULTS AND DISCUSSION But in an operational setting, we do not recommand taking melatonin as an hypnotic or a chronobiotic - Sumnnarv of the

  6. Anthropometric difference of the knee on MRI according to gender and age groups.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyuksoo; Oh, Sohee; Chang, Chong Bum; Kang, Seung-Baik

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data from MRI images that were obtained from the non-arthritic knees in Asian adults, and to identify the existence of morphologic differences between age groups. This cross-sectional study included knee MR images of 535 patients (273 males, 262 females) taken for the evaluation of soft-tissue injuries, excluding cases with cartilage defect and malalignment. The age, gender, height, and BMI were also assessed. The patients were grouped into three different 20-year age groups (20-39, 40-59, and 60-79). The MRI analysis was performed on the anthropometric parameters of distal femur and posterior tibial slope. Age-related differences were found in femoral width, distance from the distal and posterior cartilage surface to the medial/lateral epicondyle, medial posterior condylar offset (PCO), and posterior condylar angle (PCA) (all P < 0.001), but not in lateral PCO, and medial/lateral tibial slopes. In the analysis of covariance analyses, significant interaction between gender and age groups was found in most parameters, but not in PCA, distance from the posterior cartilage surface to the medial epicondyle, or medial tibial slope. We found anthropometric differences among age groups exist in most of distal femoral parameters, but not in posterior tibial slope. The results of this study can be used by manufacturers to modify prostheses to be suitable for the future Asian elderly population.

  7. Achieving Ecological Validity of Occupation-Based Interventions for Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Orellano-Colón, Elsa M.; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Bernal, Guillermo; Mountain, Gail A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To develop a culturally sensitive occupation-based health promotion intervention for older Hispanic adults who live alone. Methods We used a mixed method design for the content validation of the intervention and the Ecological Validity Model (EVM) to culturally center the intervention. In the quantitative phase, aging experts as well as community members from two activity centers for the elderly in Puerto Rico completed a content validity ratio exercise. In the qualitative phase, we conducted three focus groups with these participants. Data analysis included content validity ratio and a directed content analysis. Results This resulted in a working version of the intervention protocol addressing the eight dimensions of the EVM. Conclusions The EVM can be used to culturally center preventive interventions to other ethnic minority groups to augment the external validity and cultural competence of interventions. Future research must test the feasibility of this new intervention. PMID:25632170

  8. Sex differences in personality traits and gender-related occupational preferences across 53 nations: testing evolutionary and social-environmental theories.

    PubMed

    Lippa, Richard A

    2010-06-01

    Using data from over 200,000 participants from 53 nations, I examined the cross-cultural consistency of sex differences for four traits: extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, and male-versus-female-typical occupational preferences. Across nations, men and women differed significantly on all four traits (mean ds = -.15, -.56, -.41, and 1.40, respectively, with negative values indicating women scoring higher). The strongest evidence for sex differences in SDs was for extraversion (women more variable) and for agreeableness (men more variable). United Nations indices of gender equality and economic development were associated with larger sex differences in agreeableness, but not with sex differences in other traits. Gender equality and economic development were negatively associated with mean national levels of neuroticism, suggesting that economic stress was associated with higher neuroticism. Regression analyses explored the power of sex, gender equality, and their interaction to predict men's and women's 106 national trait means for each of the four traits. Only sex predicted means for all four traits, and sex predicted trait means much more strongly than did gender equality or the interaction between sex and gender equality. These results suggest that biological factors may contribute to sex differences in personality and that culture plays a negligible to small role in moderating sex differences in personality.

  9. Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Pincus, S. M.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to quantify the complex dynamics of beat-to-beat sinus rhythm heart rate fluctuations and to determine their differences as a function of gender and age. BACKGROUND. Recently, measures of heart rate variability and the nonlinear "complexity" of heart rate dynamics have been used as indicators of cardiovascular health. Because women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men, we postulated that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. METHODS. We analyzed heart rate dynamics during 8-min segments of continuous electrocardiographic recording in healthy young (20 to 39 years old), middle-aged (40 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 90 years old) men (n = 40) and women (n = 27) while they performed spontaneous and metronomic (15 breaths/min) breathing. Relatively high (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) and low (0.01 to 0.15 Hz) frequency components of heart rate variability were computed using spectral analysis. The overall "complexity" of each heart rate time series was quantified by its approximate entropy, a measure of regularity derived from nonlinear dynamics ("chaos" theory). RESULTS. Mean heart rate did not differ between the age groups or genders. High frequency heart rate power and the high/low frequency power ratio decreased with age in both men and women (p < 0.05). The high/low frequency power ratio during spontaneous and metronomic breathing was greater in women than men (p < 0.05). Heart rate approximate entropy decreased with age and was higher in women than men (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS. High frequency heart rate spectral power (associated with parasympathetic activity) and the overall complexity of heart rate dynamics are higher in women than men. These complementary findings indicate the need to account for gender-as well as age-related differences in heart rate dynamics. Whether these gender differences are related to lower cardiovascular disease risk and greater longevity in

  10. Age and gender dependence of human cardiac phosphorus metabolites determined by SLOOP 31P MR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Köstler, Herbert; Landschütz, Wilfried; Koeppe, Sabrina; Seyfarth, Tobias; Lipke, Claudia; Sandstede, Jörn; Spindler, Matthias; von Kienlin, Markus; Hahn, Dietbert; Beer, Meinrad

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to apply (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) using spatial localization with optimal point spread function (SLOOP) to investigate possible age and gender dependencies of the energy metabolite concentrations in the human heart. Thirty healthy volunteers (18 males and 12 females, 21-67 years old, mean = 40.7 years) were examined with the use of (31)P-MRS on a 1.5 T scanner. Intra- and interobserver variability measures (determined in eight of the volunteers) were both 3.8% for phosphocreatine (PCr), and 4.7% and 8.3%, respectively, for adenosine triphosphate (ATP). High-energy phosphate (HEP) concentrations in mmol/kg wet weight were 9.7 +/- 2.4 (age < 40 years, N = 16) and 7.7 +/- 2.5 (age >or= 40 years, N = 14) for PCr, and 5.1 +/- 1.0 (age < 40 years) and 4.1 +/- 0.8 (age >or= 40 years) for ATP, respectively. Separated by gender, PCr concentrations of 9.2 +/- 2.4 (men, N = 18) and 8.0 +/- 2.8 (women, N = 12) and ATP concentrations of 4.9 +/- 1.0 (men) and 4.2 +/- 0.9 (women) were measured. A significant decrease of PCr and ATP was found for volunteers older than 40 years (P < 0.05), but the differences in metabolic concentrations between both sexes were not significant. In conclusion, age has a minor but still significant impact on cardiac energy metabolism, and no significant gender differences were detected.

  11. Gender, aging, and work: aging workers' strategies to confront the demands of production in maquiladora plants in nogales, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Adarga, Mireya Scarone; Becerril, Leonor Cedillo; Champion, Catalina Denman

    2010-01-01

    This work is part of a qualitative socio-cultural investigation with a group of men and women 40 years and older in the maquila export industry in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. In 1994, as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement, maquila plants combined traditional intensive work methods with new "just in time" production norms that impacted work and health conditions, particularly in older, or aging, workers. The workers that were interviewed for this study show a reduction in their functional ability to work starting at 40 years of age. Work organization demands, general health conditions, and a decrease in physical abilities brings these 40-year-old workers to prematurely construct an image of themselves as aging workers and to develop coping strategies that vary by gender.

  12. Association between psychosomatic health symptoms and common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents: Age and gender as potential moderators.

    PubMed

    Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J

    2016-02-22

    Little is known about the role of age and gender in the association between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined age and gender as moderators between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness using data from a school-based survey (N = 770). Males reported higher psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness, while younger adolescents reported higher common mental illness only. Psychosomatic symptoms were positively associated with common mental illness, but age and gender did not moderate this association. Interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence rate in psychosomatic symptoms are crucial in decreasing common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents.

  13. Influences of sex, age, and education on attitudes toward gender inequitable norms and practices in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M.; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes toward gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age, and education to inform programming. Methods Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age, and education. Results Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male, and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e. early marriage, forced marriage, and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all p<0.03) except for forced marriage (p=0.07), and few significant differences were observed when these responses were stratified by sex and age. Conclusion The study reveals agreement with gender inequitable norms in the household, but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices. PMID:25026024

  14. Influences of sex, age and education on attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age and education to inform programming. Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age and education. Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e., early marriage, forced marriage and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all p < 0.03) except for forced marriage (p = 0.07), and few significant differences were observed when these responses were stratified by sex and by age. The study reveals agreement with gender inequitable norms in the household but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices.

  15. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  16. Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ajduković, Marina; Sušac, Nika; Rajter, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine age and gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse, the level of acquaintance of the child and the perpetrator, and correlations between experiencing family violence and sexual abuse on a nationally representative sample of 11, 13, and 16 years old children. Method A probabilistic stratified cluster sample included 2.62% of the overall population of children aged 11 (n = 1223), 13 (n = 1188), and 16 (n = 1233) from 40 primary and 29 secondary schools. A modified version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children's Version was used. Five items referred to child sexual abuse (CSA) for all age groups. Results In Croatia, 10.8% of children experienced some form of sexual abuse (4.8% to 16.5%, depending on the age group) during childhood and 7.7% of children experienced it during the previous year (3.7% to 11.1%, depending on the age group). Gender comparison showed no difference in the prevalence of contact sexual abuse, whereas more girls than boys experienced non-contact sexual abuse. Correlations between sexual abuse and physical and psychological abuse in the family were small, but significant. Conclusion Comparisons with international studies show that Croatia is a country with a low prevalence of CSA. The fact that the majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are male and female peers indicates the urgent need to address risks of sexual victimization in the health education of children. PMID:24170726

  17. Variations of immune parameters in terrestrial isopods: a matter of gender, aging and Wolbachia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Mathieu; Chevalier, Frédéric; de Vlechouver, Mickaël; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Ecological factors modulate animal immunocompetence and potentially shape the evolution of their immune systems. Not only environmental parameters impact on immunocompetence: Aging is one major cause of variability of immunocompetence between individuals, and sex-specific levels of immunocompetence have also been frequently described. Moreover, a growing core of data put in light that vertically transmitted symbionts can dramatically modulate the immunocompetence of their hosts. In this study, we addressed the influence of gender, age and the feminising endosymbiont Wolbachia ( wVulC) on variations in haemocyte density, total PO activity and bacterial load in the haemolymph of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. This host-symbiont system is of particular interest to address this question since: (1) wVulC was previously shown as immunosuppressive in middle-aged females and (2) wVulC influences sex determination. We show that age, gender and Wolbachia modulate together immune parameters in A. vulgare. However, wVulC, which interacts with aging, appears to be the prominent factor interfering with both PO activity and haemocyte density. This interference with immune parameters is not the only aspect of wVulC virulence on its host, as reproduction and survival are also altered.

  18. Effects of Age, Gender and Occupation on Perceived Workplace Learning Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harteis, Christian; Billett, Stephen; Goller, Michael; Rausch, Andreas; Seifried, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The provision of workplace support is central to how and what is and can be learnt at work. Hence, the distribution of those experiences is an important factor in the quality of workplace learning experiences. The study reported and discussed here aims to identify differences in levels of support and opportunities for applying knowledge in…

  19. Associations of Student Temperament and Educational Competence with Academic Achievement: The Role of Teacher Age and Teacher and Student Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullola, Sari; Jokela, Markus; Ravaja, Niklas; Lipsanen, Jari; Hintsanen, Mirka; Alatupa, Saija; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    We examined associations of teacher-perceived student temperament and educational competence with school achievement, and how these associations were modified by students' gender and teachers' gender and age. Participants were 1063 Finnish ninth-graders (534 boys) and their 29 Mother Language teachers (all female) and 43 Mathematics teachers (17…

  20. Gender differentials and old age survival in the Nairobi slums, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Rachel; Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane

    2016-08-01

    This paper examines gender differentials in survival amongst older people (50+ years) in the Nairobi slums and to the best of our knowledge is the first study of its kind in an urban African setting. The results provide evidence contrary to the expected paradox of poorer self-rated health yet better survival amongst older women. Older women in the Nairobi slums have poorer self-rated health and poorer circumstances across other factors, including disability and socio-economic status. Further, older women in the slums do not have better survival. The conventional female advantage in mortality only becomes apparent after accounting for the cumulative influence of individual characteristics, social networks, health and socio-economic status, suggesting the female advantage in unadjusted old-age mortality does not apply to contexts where women experience significant disadvantage across multiple life domains. This highlights the urgent need to redress the support, status and opportunities available for women across the life course in contexts such as the Nairobi slums. In addition, a greater number of factors differentiate mortality risk amongst men than amongst women, suggesting inequality amongst slum dwelling older men and highlighting the need for gender sensitive interventions which account for the particular needs of both genders in old age.

  1. Perceived Gender-Based Challenges Endured by Zimbabwean Secondary School Girls in Their Academic and Occupational Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutekwe, Edmore; Modiba, Maropeng

    2013-01-01

    This study explores and unmasks factors in the Zimbabwean school curricula that predispose or channel girls into particular occupational trajectories, in particular occupations or careers traditionally stereotyped as feminine. As a qualitative research study of the culture of the schooling system within this country, it employs the views of a…

  2. Do gender differences in audio-visual benefit and visual influence in audio-visual speech perception emerge with age?

    PubMed

    Alm, Magnus; Behne, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Gender and age have been found to affect adults' audio-visual (AV) speech perception. However, research on adult aging focuses on adults over 60 years, who have an increasing likelihood for cognitive and sensory decline, which may confound positive effects of age-related AV-experience and its interaction with gender. Observed age and gender differences in AV speech perception may also depend on measurement sensitivity and AV task difficulty. Consequently both AV benefit and visual influence were used to measure visual contribution for gender-balanced groups of young (20-30 years) and middle-aged adults (50-60 years) with task difficulty varied using AV syllables from different talkers in alternative auditory backgrounds. Females had better speech-reading performance than males. Whereas no gender differences in AV benefit or visual influence were observed for young adults, visually influenced responses were significantly greater for middle-aged females than middle-aged males. That speech-reading performance did not influence AV benefit may be explained by visual speech extraction and AV integration constituting independent abilities. Contrastingly, the gender difference in visually influenced responses in middle adulthood may reflect an experience-related shift in females' general AV perceptual strategy. Although young females' speech-reading proficiency may not readily contribute to greater visual influence, between young and middle-adulthood recurrent confirmation of the contribution of visual cues induced by speech-reading proficiency may gradually shift females AV perceptual strategy toward more visually dominated responses.

  3. Gender-specific factors associated with shorter sleep duration at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Plancoulaine, Sabine; Lioret, Sandrine; Regnault, Nolwenn; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-12-01

    Total sleep duration has been decreasing among children in the last decades. Short sleep duration (SSD) has been associated with deleterious health consequences, such as excess weight/obesity. Risk factors for SSD have already been studied among school-aged children and adolescents, but inconsistent results have been reported regarding possible gender differences. Studies reporting such relationships are scarce in preschoolers, despite the importance of this period for adopting healthy behaviour. We aimed to investigate factors associated with SSD in 3-year-old boys (n = 546) and girls (n = 482) in a French Mother-Child Cohort (EDEN Study). Children were born between 2003 and 2006 in two French university hospitals. Clinical examinations and parent self-reported questionnaires allowed us to collect sociodemographic (e.g. income, education, family situation, child-minding system), maternal [e.g. body mass index (BMI), parity, depression, breastfeeding duration] and child's characteristics (e.g. gender, birth weight, term, physical activity and TV viewing duration, food consumption, usual sleep time). Sleep duration/24-h period was calculated and SSD was defined as <12 h. Analyses were performed using logistic regression. The mean sleep duration was 12 h 35 ± 56 min, with 91% of the children napping. Patterns of risk factors associated with SSD differed according to gender. In addition to parental presence when falling asleep, short sleep duration was associated strongly positively with high BMI Z-score and TV viewing duration among boys and with familial home child-minding and lower scores on the 'fruits and vegetables' dietary pattern among girls. These results suggest either a patterning of parental behaviours that differs according to gender, or a gender-specific sleep physiology, or both.

  4. Social cognitive predictors of peer acceptance at age 5 and the moderating effects of gender.

    PubMed

    Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Muñoz, José M; Carreras, María R; Braza, Paloma; García, Ainhoa; Sorozabal, Aizpea; Sánchez-Martín, José R

    2009-09-01

    In this study we examined the effects of social intelligence, empathy, verbal ability and appearance-reality distinction on the level of peer acceptance, as well as the moderating role of gender. Participants were 98 five-year-old children (43 boys and 55 girls; mean age 5 years 3 months for boys and girls). Our results showed a main effect of social intelligence on peer acceptance, as well as several other effects that were moderated by gender: a significant and positive effect of verbal ability on social acceptance was found for boys; appearance-reality distinction was found to have a positive effect on social acceptance in the case of girls; and although empathy had a significant positive effect on social acceptance for both boys and girls, this effect was more pronounced among boys. Our results suggest that abilities promoting peer acceptance are different for boys and girls.

  5. Gender differences in apolipoprotein D expression during aging and in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Cristina; Navarro, Ana; Pérez, Cristina; Martínez, Eva; del Valle, Eva; Tolivia, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    Apolipoprotein D (Apo D) is a lipocalin expressed in a wide variety of mammalian tissues. Different studies have shown that this protein is upregulated in the central nervous system (CNS) in several neuropathological conditions, after traumatic brain injury and in aging. The Apo D promoter shows 3 estrogen response elements and it has been shown that its expression is influenced by estrogens in breast cyst fluid. The aim of this work is to study the possible relationship between gender and Apo D expression in human hippocampus and in the entorhinal and frontal cortices during aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We visualized Apo D immunohistochemically and then performed a quantification of the chromogen signal strength. Our findings show that Apo D expression is influenced by age, Braak stage, and sex. In most of the studied areas, Apo D expression is increased with age in women but not in men, and in AD progression in both genders. Apo D is always expressed by neurons with no signs of degeneration or death.

  6. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20–79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases. PMID:27598192

  7. Epidemiology of fractures in 15,000 adults: the influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Singer, B R; McLauchlan, G J; Robinson, C M; Christie, J

    1998-03-01

    We report a prospective study of the incidence of fractures in the adult population of Edinburgh, related to age and gender. Over a two-year period, 15,293 adults, 7428 males and 7865 females, sustained a fracture, and 5208 (34.0%) required admission. Between 15 and 49 years of age, males were 2.9 times more likely to sustain a fracture than females (95% CI 2.7 to 3.1). Over the age of 60 years, females were 2.3 times more likely to sustain a fracture than males (95% CI 2.1 to 2.4). There were three main peaks of fracture distribution: the first was in young adult males, the second was in elderly patients of both genders, mainly in metaphyseal bone such as the proximal femur, although diaphyseal fractures also showed an increase in incidence. The third increase in the incidence of fractures, especially of the wrist, was seen to start at 40 years of age in women. Our study has also shown that 'osteoporotic' fractures became evident in women earlier than expected, and that they were not entirely a postmenopausal phenomenon.

  8. Cerebral glucose metabolic patterns in Alzheimer's disease. Effect of gender and age at dementia onset

    SciTech Connect

    Small, G.W.; Kuhl, D.E.; Riege, W.H.; Fujikawa, D.G.; Ashford, J.W.; Metter, E.J.; Mazziotta, J.C.

    1989-06-01

    No previous study of Alzheimer's disease has, to our knowledge, assessed the effect of both age at dementia onset and gender on cerebral glucose metabolic patterns. To this end, we used positron emission tomography (fludeoxyglucose F 18 method) to study 24 patients with clinical diagnoses of probable Alzheimer's disease. Comparisons of the 13 patients with early-onset dementia (less than 65 years of age) with the 11 patients with late-onset dementia (greater than 65 years of age) revealed significantly lower left parietal metabolic ratios (left posterior parietal region divided by the hemispheric average) in the early-onset group. The metabolic ratio of posterior parietal cortex divided by the relatively disease-stable average of caudate and thalamus also separated patients with early-onset dementia from those with late-onset dementia, but not men from women. Further comparisons between sexes showed that, in all brain regions studied, the 9 postmenopausal women had higher nonweighted mean metabolic rates than the 15 men from the same age group, with hemispheric sex differences of 9% on the right and 7% on the left. These results demonstrate decreased parietal ratios in early-onset dementia of Alzheimer's disease, independent of a gender effect.

  9. Occupational Therapy Practitioners' Perceptions of Important Competencies for Handwriting Evaluation and Intervention in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Peter; Woodall, William; Weber, Mark; Bailey, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to identify the practitioner competencies that occupational therapists perceive as important for handwriting evaluation and intervention in school-aged children. A secondary purpose was to compare the practitioner perceptions of those in school-based practice with those from other primary practice…

  10. Gender differences in age of smoking initiation and its association with health

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Azure B.; Tebes, Jacob K.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally accepted that smoking starts in adolescence and earlier initiation is associated with more negative health outcomes. Some research suggests that women initiate smoking at later ages and have more negative health outcomes than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in age of initiation and its association with health. Methods The sample included men (n=8,506) and women (n=8,479) with a history of smoking from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol Related Conditions. Logistic regression was used to examine gender differences in the effect of late smoking initiation on physical and mental health status after adjusting for covariates. Results At mostly all ages after 16, women exceeded men in rates of smoking initiation (59.8% vs. 50.3%, p<.001). Among late initiators (≥16), women were more likely than men to have hypertension (OR:1.24,CI:1.09-1.41), heart disease (OR:1.20,CI:1.00-1.45), major depressive disorder (OR:2.54,CI:2.22-2.92) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR:2.34,CI:1.84-2.99). Among early initiators (<16), women were more likely than men to have major depressive disorder (OR:2.42,CI:2.11-2.77) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR:2.01,CI:1.59-2.54) but there were no gender differences in the likelihood of having hypertension (OR:1.04,CI:0.89-1.22) and heart disease (OR:1.11,CI:0.90-1.36). Conclusions In late adolescence and adulthood, women exceed men in smoking initiation. Late initiation was associated with more significant physical health risks for women than men. Our findings raise questions about generally accepted notions on the age at which smoking initiation occurs and its association with health. PMID:27499723

  11. The effects of age, gender, and crash types on drivers' injury-related health care costs.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M

    2015-04-01

    There are many studies that evaluate the effects of age, gender, and crash types on crash related injury severity. However, few studies investigate the effects of those crash factors on the crash related health care costs for drivers that are transported to hospital. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between drivers' age, gender, and the crash types, as well as other crash characteristics (e.g., not wearing a seatbelt, weather condition, and fatigued driving), on the crash related health care costs. The South Carolina Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (SC CODES) from 2005 to 2007 was used to construct six separate hierarchical linear regression models based on drivers' age and gender. The results suggest that older drivers have higher health care costs than younger drivers and male drivers tend to have higher health care costs than female drivers in the same age group. Overall, single vehicle crashes had the highest health care costs for all drivers. For males older than 64-years old sideswipe crashes are as costly as single vehicle crashes. In general, not wearing a seatbelt, airbag deployment, and speeding were found to be associated with higher health care costs. Distraction-related crashes are more likely to be associated with lower health care costs in most cases. Furthermore this study highlights the value of considering drivers in subgroups, as some factors have different effects on health care costs in different driver groups. Developing an understanding of longer term outcomes of crashes and their characteristics can lead to improvements in vehicle technology, educational materials, and interventions to reduce crash-related health care costs.

  12. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Maekawa, Keiko; Saito, Kosuke; Senoo, Yuya; Urata, Masayo; Murayama, Mayumi; Tajima, Yoko; Kumagai, Yuji; Saito, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1) investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma) that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2) elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3) examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group) of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively) males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum). Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites is important

  13. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Zytoon, Mohamed A; Basahel, Abdulrahman M

    2017-02-24

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels.

  14. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Zytoon, Mohamed A.; Basahel, Abdulrahman M.

    2017-01-01

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels. PMID:28245578

  15. Influence of age, gender, and race on nitric oxide release over acupuncture points-meridians

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Sheng-Xing; Lee, Paul C.; Jiang, Isabelle; Ma, Eva; Hu, Jay S.; Li, Xi-Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of age, gender and race on nitric oxide (NO) release over acupuncture points, meridian without acupoint, and non-meridian regions of the Pericardium (PC) and Bladder (BL) meridian as well as aging on LU meridian in 61 healthy subjects. Biocapture tubes were attached to the skin surface, and total nitrite and nitrate was biocaptured and quantified using chemiluminescence. In elder ages compared to adults, NO levels over the ventral forearm were significantly decreased over LU on radial regions but not altered over PC on medial regions. Conversely, NO content was elevated over BL regions only in overweight/obesity of elder ages. NO levels over PC regions were marginally elevated in overweight/obese males compared to females but did not alter between races. These results suggest a selective reduction of NO release over LU meridian with aging, which is consistent with a progressive decline in lung function and increase in chronic respiratory disease in elder ages. Increased NO levels along the BL meridian in older obese subjects may reflect a modified NO level along somatic-bladder pathway for counteracting bladder dysfunctions with aging. Both of them support somatic-organ connections in the meridian system associated with potential pathophysiological changes with aging. PMID:26621821

  16. Is sitting worse than static standing? How a gender analysis can move us toward understanding determinants and effects of occupational standing and walking.

    PubMed

    Messing, Karen; Stock, Susan; Côté, Julie; Tissot, France

    2015-01-01

    The Yant Award was established in 1964 to honor the contributions of William P. Yant, the first president of the American Industrial Hygiene Association. It is presented annually for outstanding contributions in industrial hygiene or allied fields to an individual residing outside the United States. The 2014 award recipient is Dr. Karen Messing, Professor emeritus, Department of Biological Sciences, Université du Québec à Montréal and Researcher, CINBIOSE Research Centre. Gender (socially determined) differences in occupations, employment, and working conditions, task assignments, and work methods that affect exposure to health risks are increasingly documented. Interactions of (biologically influenced) sex differences with workplace parameters may also influence exposure levels. During field studies, ergonomists learn a lot about gender and sex that can be important when generating and testing hypotheses about the mechanisms that link workplace exposures to health outcomes. Prolonged standing is common in North America; almost half (45%) of Québec workers spend more than three-quarters of their working time on their feet and 40% of these cannot sit at will. This posture has been linked to chronic back pain and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the lower limbs, but many health professionals suggest workers should stand rather than sit at work. We ask: (1) Given the fact that roughly the same proportion of men and women stand at work, what does a gender-sensitive analysis add to our ability to detect and thus prevent work-related MSDs?; (2) How does ergonomics research inform gender-sensitive analysis of occupational health data?; and (3) What do researchers need to know to orient interventions to improve general working postures? We have sought answers to these questions through collaborative research with specialists in epidemiology, occupational medicine, biomechanics, and physiology, carried out in partnership with public health organisations, community

  17. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

  18. Occupational justice--bridging theory and practice. Previously published in Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy 2010; 17: 57-63.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Ingeborg; Townsend, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The evolving theory of occupational justice links the concept to social justice and to concerns for a justice of difference: a justice that recognizes occupational rights to inclusive participation in everyday occupations for all persons in society, regardless of age, ability, gender, social class, or other differences. The purpose of this descriptive paper is to inspire and empower health professionals to build a theoretical bridge to practice with an occupational justice lens. Using illustrations from a study of leisure and the use of everyday technology in the lives of very old people in Northern Sweden, the authors argue that an occupational justice lens may inspire and empower health professionals to engage in critical dialogue on occupational justice; use global thinking about occupation, health, justice, and the environment; and combine population and individualized approaches. The authors propose that taking these initiatives to bridge theory and practice will energize health professionals to enable inclusive participation in everyday occupations in diverse contexts.

  19. Fatal accident distribution by age, gender and head injury, and death probability at accident scene in Mashhad, Iran, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Zangooei Dovom, Hossein; Shafahi, Yousef; Zangooei Dovom, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have investigated road traffic deaths, but few have compared by road user type. Iran, with an estimated 44 road traffic deaths per 100,000 population in 2002 had higher road traffic deaths than any other country for which reliable estimates can be made. So, the present study was conducted on road death data and identified fatal accident distribution by age, gender and head injury as well as the influences of age and gender on deaths at accident scenes for all road user groups. Data used in this study are on fatal road accidents recorded by forensic medicine experts of the Khorasan Razavi province in Mashhad, the capital of the province, the second largest city and the largest place of pilgrimage, immigration and tourism in Iran. Chi-square test and odds ratio were used to identify the relation of death place with age and gender in 2495 fatal road accidents from 2006 to 2009. The t-test and analysis of variance were employed for continues variable, age, to compare males' and females' mean age for all road user categories. For two genders, all three groups of fatalities (pedestrian, motorcyclist and motor vehicle occupant) had a peak at the ages of 21-30. The youngest were male motorcyclists (mean age = 28). Old pedestrians were included in road deaths very much, too. Male/female overall ratio was 3.41 and the highest male/female ratio was related to motorcyclists (14). The overall ratio of head injury to other organ injuries (torso and underbody) was 2.51 and pedestrians had the largest amount of head injury (38.2%). Regarding death at accident scene, for all road users, gender did not have any significant relation with death at the scene (P-value > 0.1); on the contrary, age had significant relation (P-value < 0.05). Females were more vulnerable at accident scenes (male/female ratio at accident sense < 1). Pedestrians aged 21-30, motorcyclists 41-50 and motor vehicle occupants 31-40 died the most at accident scenes. Identifying the most

  20. Age- and gender-adjusted normative data for the German version of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test from healthy subjects aged between 50 and 70 years.

    PubMed

    Speer, Paula; Wersching, Heike; Bruchmann, Sabine; Bracht, Dorothea; Stehling, Christoph; Thielsch, Meinald; Knecht, Stefan; Lohmann, Hubertus

    2014-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is widely used to evaluate dysfunctional episodic memory. The current study aimed to provide extended age- and gender-specific norms for the German AVLT for individuals older than 50 years. In 690 subjects, a comprehensive medical examination including a structural 3.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan was administered, as well as extensive neuropsychological tests. After controlling for exclusion criteria, 407 subjects were included in the analysis. AVLT performance decreased with age, and women outperformed men. We present age- and gender-specific normative data for the German AVLT from subjects aged between 50 and 70 years.

  1. Gender differences in age effect on brain atrophy measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, R.C.; Mozley, P.D.; Resnick.S.M.; Gottlieb, G.L.; Kohn, M.; Zimmerman, R.; Herman, G.; Atlas, S.; Grossman, R.; Berretta, D.; Erwin, R.; Gur, R.E. )

    1991-04-01

    A prospective sample of 69 healthy adults, age range 18-80 years, was studied with magnetic resonance imaging scans of the entire cranium. Volumes were obtained by a segmentation algorithm that uses proton density and T{sub 2} pixel values to correct field inhomogeneities (shading). Average ({plus minus}SD) brain volume, excluding cerebellum, was 1090.91 ml and cerebrospinal fluid (DSF) volume was 127.91 ml. Brain volume was higher (by 5 ml) in the right hemisphere. Men had 91 ml higher brain and 20 ml higher CSF volume than women. Age was negatively correlated with brain volume and positively correlated with CSF volume. The slope fo the regression line with age for CSF was steeper for men than women. This difference in slopes was significant for sulca but not ventricular, CSF. The greatest amount of atrophy in elderly men was in the left hemisphere, whereas is women age effects were symmetric. The findings may point to neuroanatomic substrates of hemispheric specialization and gender differences in age-related changes in brain function. They suggest that women are less vulnerable to age-related changes in mental abilities, whereas men are particularly susceptible to aging effects on left hemispheric functions.

  2. The role of donor age and gender in the success of human muscle precursor cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Stölting, Meline N L; Hefermehl, Lukas J; Tremp, Mathias; Azzabi, Fahd; Sulser, Tullio; Eberli, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Autologous cell transplantation for the treatment of muscle damage is envisioned to involve the application of muscle precursor cells (MPCs) isolated from adult skeletal muscle. At the onset of trauma, these cells are recruited to proliferate and rebuild injured muscle fibres. However, a variety of donor-specific cues may directly influence the yield and quality of cells isolated from a muscle biopsy. In this study, we isolated human MPCs and assessed the role of donor gender and age on the ability of these MPCs to form functional bioengineered muscle. We analysed the cell yield, growth and molecular expression in vitro, and the muscle tissue formation and contractility of the bioengineered muscle, from cells isolated from men and women in three different age groups: young (20-39 years), adult (40-59 years) and elderly (60-80 years). Our results suggest that human MPCs can be successfully isolated and grown from patients of all ages and both genders. However, young female donors provide fast-growing cells in vitro with an optimum contractile output in vivo and are therefore an ideal cell source for muscle reconstruction. Taken together, these findings describe the donor-related limitations of MPC transplantation and provide insights for a straightforward and unbiased clinical application of these cells for muscle reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents: factorial invariance across gender and age in Hispanic American adolescents.

    PubMed

    La Greca, Annette M; Ingles, Candido J; Lai, Betty S; Marzo, Juan C

    2015-04-01

    Social anxiety is a common psychological disorder that often emerges during adolescence and is associated with significant impairment. Efforts to prevent social anxiety disorder require sound assessment measures for identifying anxious youth, especially those from minority backgrounds. We examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) across gender and age groups in Hispanic American adolescents (N = 1,191; 56% girls; 15-18 years) using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Results indicated that the factorial configuration of the correlated three-factor model of the SAS-A was invariant across gender and age. Analyses of latent mean differences revealed that boys exhibited higher structured means than girls on the Social Avoidance and Distress-General (SAD-General) subscale. On all SAS-A subscales, Fear of Negative Evaluation, Social Avoidance and Distress-New, and SAD-General, estimates of the structured means decreased with adolescent age. Implications for further research and clinical practice are discussed.

  4. How avoidant attachment influences subjective well-being: an investigation about the age and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianyuan; Fung, Helene H

    2014-01-01

    Intimate relationship is a significant factor that influences older adults' subjective well-being. Avoidant attachment reflects a basic working model regarding interpersonal relationships. The current study aims to test how age and gender moderate the effect of avoidant attachment to spouse on subjective well-being. Fifty-six married couples aged from 20 to 79 years in Hong Kong were recruited for the study. Their avoidant attachment to spouse and subjective well-being were measured by questionnaires. In general, avoidant attachment to spouse was found to undermine subjective well-being. More importantly, age significantly moderated the negative association between avoidant attachment and subjective well-being, but the direction of the moderating effect was opposite for husbands and wives. Compared with their younger counterparts, the detrimental effect of avoidant attachment on subjective well-being was weaker for older wives but stronger for older husbands. The results suggest that marital relationship may play different roles in different life stages for the two genders. In later adulthood, males may become more dependent on the marital relationship to maintain subjective well-being, whereas females can be relatively independent.

  5. Gender and Age-Related Differences in Bilateral Lower Extremity Mechanics during Treadmill Running

    PubMed Central

    Phinyomark, Angkoon; Hettinga, Blayne A.; Osis, Sean T.; Ferber, Reed

    2014-01-01

    Female runners have a two-fold risk of sustaining certain running-related injuries as compared to their male counterparts. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the sex-related differences in running kinematics is necessary. However, previous studies have either used discrete time point variables and inferential statistics and/or relatively small subject numbers. Therefore, the first purpose of this study was to use a principal component analysis (PCA) method along with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to examine the differences in running gait kinematics between female and male runners across a large sample of the running population as well as between two age-specific sub-groups. Bilateral 3-dimensional lower extremity gait kinematic data were collected during treadmill running. Data were analysed on the complete sample (n = 483: female 263, male 220), a younger subject group (n = 56), and an older subject group (n = 51). The PC scores were first sorted by the percentage of variance explained and we also employed a novel approach wherein PCs were sorted based on between-gender statistical effect sizes. An SVM was used to determine if the sex and age conditions were separable and classifiable based on the PCA. Forty PCs explained 84.74% of the variance in the data and an SVM classification accuracy of 86.34% was found between female and male runners. Classification accuracies between genders for younger subjects were higher than a subgroup of older runners. The observed interactions between age and gender suggest these factors must be considered together when trying to create homogenous sub-groups for research purposes. PMID:25137240

  6. Effect of age and gender on sudomotor and cardiovagal function and blood pressure response to tilt in normal subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Denq, J. C.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Dyck, P. J.; O'Brien, P. C.; Slezak, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Normative data are limited on autonomic function tests, especially beyond age 60 years. We therefore evaluated these tests in a total of 557 normal subjects evenly distributed by age and gender from 10 to 83 years. Heart rate (HR) response to deep breathing fell with increasing age. Valsalva ratio varied with both age and gender. QSART (quantitative sudomotor axon-reflex test) volume was consistently greater in men (approximately double) and progressively declined with age for all three lower extremity sites but not the forearm site. Orthostatic blood pressure reduction was greater with increasing age. HR at rest was significantly higher in women, and the increment with head-up tilt fell with increasing age. For no tests did we find a regression to zero, and some tests seem to level off with increasing age, indicating that diagnosis of autonomic failure was possible to over 80 years of age.

  7. Effects of age, gender and holding on pain response during infant immunization.

    PubMed

    Ipp, Moshe; Taddio, Anna; Goldbach, Morton; Ben David, Shlomit; Stevens, Bonnie; Koren, Gideon

    2004-01-01

    Determinants of infant pain responses are important when assessing the efficacy of analgesics. In a randomized controlled trial, 106 infants aged 2 to 6 months were positioned either supine (SUP) on the examination table or held (HLD) by a parent during routine immunization in a community pediatric office. There was no difference between the SUP and HLD infants in duration of crying, facial grimacing or visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores. Similarly gender did not affect pain response. In contrast, 2-month-old infants displayed more pain during immunization than did 4 or 6-month-old infants.

  8. African American patients' intent to screen for colorectal cancer: Do cultural factors, health literacy, knowledge, age and gender matter?

    PubMed

    Brittain, Kelly; Christy, Shannon M; Rawl, Susan M

    2016-02-01

    African Americans have higher colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates. Research suggests that CRC screening interventions targeting African Americans be based upon cultural dimensions. Secondary analysis of data from African-Americans who were not up-to-date with CRC screening (n=817) was conducted to examine: 1) relationships among cultural factors (i.e., provider trust, cancer fatalism, health temporal orientation (HTO)), health literacy, and CRC knowledge; 2) age and gender differences; and 3) relationships among the variables and CRC screening intention. Provider trust, fatalism, HTO, health literacy and CRC knowledge had significant relationships among study variables. The FOBT intention model explained 43% of the variance with age and gender being significant predictors. The colonoscopy intention model explained 41% of the variance with gender being a significant predictor. Results suggest that when developing CRC interventions for African Americans, addressing cultural factors remain important, but particular attention should be given to the age and gender of the patient.

  9. African American patients’ intent to screen for colorectal cancer: Do cultural factors, health literacy, knowledge, age and gender matter?

    PubMed Central

    Brittain, Kelly; Christy, Shannon M.; Rawl, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    African Americans have higher colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates. Research suggests that CRC screening interventions targeting African Americans be based upon cultural dimensions. Secondary analysis of data from African-Americans who were not up-to-date with CRC screening (n=817) was conducted to examine: 1) relationships among cultural factors (i.e., provider trust, cancer fatalism, health temporal orientation (HTO)), health literacy, and CRC knowledge; 2) age and gender differences; and 3) relationships among the variables and CRC screening intention. Provider trust, fatalism, HTO, health literacy and CRC knowledge had significant relationships among study variables. The FOBT intention model explained 43% of the variance with age and gender being significant predictors. The colonoscopy intention model explained 41% of the variance with gender being a significant predictor. Results suggest that when developing CRC interventions for African Americans, addressing cultural factors remain important, but particular attention should be given to the age and gender of the patient. PMID:27182187

  10. New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, James M.; Johnston, Harvey; Olley, Jon M.; Prescott, John R.; Roberts, Richard G.; Shawcross, Wilfred; Spooner, Nigel A.

    2003-02-01

    Australia's oldest human remains, found at Lake Mungo, include the world's oldest ritual ochre burial (Mungo III) and the first recorded cremation (Mungo I). Until now, the importance of these finds has been constrained by limited chronologies and palaeoenvironmental information. Mungo III, the source of the world's oldest human mitochondrial DNA, has been variously estimated at 30 thousand years (kyr) old, 42-45kyr old and 62 +/- 6kyr old, while radiocarbon estimates placed the Mungo I cremation near 20-26kyr ago. Here we report a new series of 25 optical ages showing that both burials occurred at 40 +/- 2kyr ago and that humans were present at Lake Mungo by 50-46kyr ago, synchronously with, or soon after, initial occupation of northern and western Australia. Stratigraphic evidence indicates fluctuations between lake-full and drier conditions from 50 to 40kyr ago, simultaneously with increased dust deposition, human arrival and continent-wide extinction of the megafauna. This was followed by sustained aridity between 40 and 30kyr ago. This new chronology corrects previous estimates for human burials at this important site and provides a new picture of Homo sapiens adapting to deteriorating climate in the world's driest inhabited continent.

  11. New ages for human occupation and climatic change at Lake Mungo, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowler, James M; Johnston, Harvey; Olley, Jon M; Prescott, John R; Roberts, Richard G; Shawcross, Wilfred; Spooner, Nigel A

    2003-02-20

    Australia's oldest human remains, found at Lake Mungo, include the world's oldest ritual ochre burial (Mungo III) and the first recorded cremation (Mungo I). Until now, the importance of these finds has been constrained by limited chronologies and palaeoenvironmental information. Mungo III, the source of the world's oldest human mitochondrial DNA, has been variously estimated at 30 thousand years (kyr) old, 42-45 kyr old and 62 +/- 6 kyr old, while radiocarbon estimates placed the Mungo I cremation near 20-26 kyr ago. Here we report a new series of 25 optical ages showing that both burials occurred at 40 +/- 2 kyr ago and that humans were present at Lake Mungo by 50-46 kyr ago, synchronously with, or soon after, initial occupation of northern and western Australia. Stratigraphic evidence indicates fluctuations between lake-full and drier conditions from 50 to 40 kyr ago, simultaneously with increased dust deposition, human arrival and continent-wide extinction of the megafauna. This was followed by sustained aridity between 40 and 30 kyr ago. This new chronology corrects previous estimates for human burials at this important site and provides a new picture of Homo sapiens adapting to deteriorating climate in the world's driest inhabited continent.

  12. Inequality in mortality by occupation related to economic crisis from 1980 to 2010 among working-age Japanese males.

    PubMed

    Wada, Koji; Gilmour, Stuart

    2016-03-03

    The mortality rate for Japanese males aged 30-59 years in managerial and professional spiked in 2000 and remains worse than that of other occupations possibly associated with the economic downturn of the 1990s and the global economic stagnation after 2008. The present study aimed to assess temporal occupation-specific mortality trends from 1980 to 2010 for Japanese males aged 30-59 years for major causes of death. We obtained data from the Occupation-specific Vital Statistics. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for the four leading causes of death (all cancers, suicide, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease). We used a generalized estimating equation model to determine specific effects of the economic downturn after 2000. The age-standardized mortality rate for the total working-age population steadily declined up to 2010 in all major causes of death except suicide. Managers had a higher risk of mortality in all leading causes of death compared with before 1995. Mortality rates among unemployed people steadily decreased for all cancers and ischaemic heart disease. Economic downturn may have caused the prolonged increase in suicide mortality. Unemployed people did not experience any change in mortality due to suicide and cerebrovascular disease and saw a decline in cancer and ischemic heart disease mortality, perhaps because the basic properties of Japan's social welfare system were maintained even during economic recession.

  13. Inequality in mortality by occupation related to economic crisis from 1980 to 2010 among working-age Japanese males

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Koji; Gilmour, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The mortality rate for Japanese males aged 30–59 years in managerial and professional spiked in 2000 and remains worse than that of other occupations possibly associated with the economic downturn of the 1990s and the global economic stagnation after 2008. The present study aimed to assess temporal occupation-specific mortality trends from 1980 to 2010 for Japanese males aged 30–59 years for major causes of death. We obtained data from the Occupation-specific Vital Statistics. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for the four leading causes of death (all cancers, suicide, ischaemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease). We used a generalized estimating equation model to determine specific effects of the economic downturn after 2000. The age-standardized mortality rate for the total working-age population steadily declined up to 2010 in all major causes of death except suicide. Managers had a higher risk of mortality in all leading causes of death compared with before 1995. Mortality rates among unemployed people steadily decreased for all cancers and ischaemic heart disease. Economic downturn may have caused the prolonged increase in suicide mortality. Unemployed people did not experience any change in mortality due to suicide and cerebrovascular disease and saw a decline in cancer and ischemic heart disease mortality, perhaps because the basic properties of Japan’s social welfare system were maintained even during economic recession. PMID:26936097

  14. Effect of ATP-dependent channel modulators on ischemia-induced arrhythmia change depending on age and gender.

    PubMed

    Bozdogan, Ömer; Kaya, Salih Tunç; Yasar, Selçuk; Orallar, Hayriye

    2013-10-01

    The number of ATP-dependent potassium channels in myocardial cells has been previously shown to change depending on gender and age. Different effects of the ATP-dependent potassium channel blocker, glybenclamide and ATP-dependent potassium channel opener, pinacidil on ischemia or reperfusion-induced arrhythmia observed in various research might depend on different ages and genders of the animals used. The aim of this study is to research the effect of ATP-dependent potassium channel modulators on ischemia-induced arrhythmia in animals of different ages and genders. Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages and genders were used in this study. Ischemia was produced by the ligation of the left coronary artery for 30 min. Electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, infarct area and blood glucose were determined during the 30 min of ischemia. An arrhythmia score from an ECG recorded during 30 min of ischemia was determined by examining the duration and type of arrhythmia. Different effects of glybenclamide and pinacidil on the arrhythmias were observed in male and female young and middle-age rats. Pinacidil decreased the infarct zone in younger female rats, but differences in the type and length of ischemia-induced arrhythmias between females and males disappeared in older age. The results of this study showed that the effect of ATP-dependent potassium channel modulators on ischemia-induced arrhythmia changed due to the age and gender of rats.

  15. Occupational Mobility in Queensland's Aged Care, Automotive and Civil Construction Sectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haukka, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Current trends in workforce development indicate the movement of workers within and across occupations to be the norm. In 2009, only one in three vocational education and training (VET) graduates in Australia ended up working in an occupation for which they were trained. This implies that VET enhances the employability of its graduates by…

  16. Category fluency in a latino sample: associations with age, education, gender, and language.

    PubMed

    Mack, Wendy J; Teng, Evelyn; Zheng, Ling; Paz, Sylvia; Chui, Helena; Varma, Rohit

    2005-07-01

    The authors know of no published studies that have evaluated the effect of Spanish- versus English-language on category fluency within a sample of United States Latinos only. As part of a pilot study for the institution of a cognitive screening program in a cohort of Latinos, we assessed category fluency (fruits, vegetables, and "other" supermarket items) in a sample of 90 self-identified Latino community residents (aged 52-84, 0-18 years of education). The primary demographic correlates of category fluency were age and education. The decrement in naming of fruits with age was limited to the older old subjects (>age 70). Relatively younger old subjects (aged 61-70) did not differ from middle-aged subjects on category fluency. Gender showed little relationship to category naming. Persons naming in Spanish named significantly fewer 'other supermarket' items, but did not differ from English speakers in the more common fluency categories of fruits and vegetables. This analysis of category fluency in an ethnically homogenous sample with a wide range of formal education provided an evaluation of the effects of chosen language free of possible confounding by cultural differences, and also provided a more complete evaluation of the influence of education on category fluency.

  17. Spatial gender-age-period-cohort analysis of pancreatic cancer mortality in Spain (1990–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Etxeberria, Jaione; Goicoa, Tomás; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Riebler, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the interest in studying pancreatic cancer mortality has increased due to its high lethality. In this work a detailed analysis of pancreatic cancer mortality in Spanish provinces was performed using recent data. A set of multivariate spatial gender-age-period-cohort models was considered to look for potential candidates to analyze pancreatic cancer mortality rates. The selected model combines features of APC (age-period-cohort) models with disease mapping approaches. To ensure model identifiability sum-to-zero constraints were applied. A fully Bayesian approach based on integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA) was considered for model fitting and inference. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted. In general, estimated average rates by age, cohort, and period are higher in males than in females. The higher differences according to age between males and females correspond to the age groups [65, 70), [70, 75), and [75, 80). Regarding the cohort, the greatest difference between men and women is observed for those born between the forties and the sixties. From there on, the younger the birth cohort is, the smaller the difference becomes. Some cohort differences are also identified by regions and age-groups. The spatial pattern indicates a North-South gradient of pancreatic cancer mortality in Spain, the provinces in the North being the ones with the highest effects on mortality during the studied period. Finally, the space-time evolution shows that the space pattern has changed little over time. PMID:28199327

  18. TTV DNA plasma load and its association with age, gender, and HCMV IgG serostatus in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Haloschan, Mats; Bettesch, Rainer; Görzer, Irene; Weseslindtner, Lukas; Kundi, Michael; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Understanding immunosenescence and changes in antimicrobial immune response with age is of high importance. The association of immunosenescence with gender and persistent infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a matter of intensive research. We determined whether replication of another persistent and highly prevalent virus, Torque teno virus (TTV), is related to age, gender, and HCMV IgG serostatus of the host. TTV DNA load in plasma was assessed by real-time PCR in 313 healthy persons: 20-30 years old (young, n = 104), 50-60 years old (middle-aged, n = 101), or >80 years old (elderly, n = 108). TTV DNA loads were further associated with age-groups, gender, and HCMV IgG serostatus. TTV load was significantly higher in the elderly compared to the young group (p < 0.001; Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD)), and the higher TTV DNA levels over age were found to be gender-specific (p = 0.002; ANOVA), with young women showing the lowest TTV load compared to young men (p = 0.009, t test) and compared to the other female age-groups (middle-aged p = 0.005; elderly p < 0.001; Tukey's HSD). TTV load of HCMV IgG-seropositive persons was significantly higher than that of the HCMV IgG seronegative in the young (p = 0.005; t test) and middle-aged (p = 0.016; t test) groups. These results indicate that the host's immune control of TTV replication decreases with age and is gender-specific. Persistent HCMV infection is significantly related to higher TTV DNA loads, especially at a younger age. Therefore, the influence of gender and HCMV on immunosenescence earlier in life should be further explored.

  19. GENDERED CHALLENGE, GENDERED RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, ERIN L.; AMMONS, SAMANTHA K.; CHERMACK, KELLY; MOEN, PHYLLIS

    2010-01-01

    This article integrates research on gendered organizations and the work-family interface to investigate an innovative workplace initiative, the Results-Only Work Environment (ROWE), implemented in the corporate headquarters of Best Buy, Inc. While flexible work policies common in other organizations “accommodate” individuals, this initiative attempts a broader and deeper critique of the organizational culture. We address two research questions: How does this initiative attempt to change the masculinized ideal worker norm? And what do women's and men's responses reveal about the persistent ways that gender structures work and family life? Data demonstrate the ideal worker norm is pervasive and powerful, even as employees begin critically examining expectations regarding work time that have historically privileged men. Employees' responses to ROWE are also gendered. Women (especially mothers) are more enthusiastic, while men are more cautious. Ambivalence about and resistance to change is expressed in different ways depending on gender and occupational status. PMID:20625518

  20. Anatomy of the larynx and pharynx: effects of age, gender and height revealed by multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Inamoto, Y; Saitoh, E; Okada, S; Kagaya, H; Shibata, S; Baba, M; Onogi, K; Hashimoto, S; Katada, K; Wattanapan, P; Palmer, J B

    2015-09-01

    Although oropharyngeal and laryngeal structures are essential for swallowing, the three-dimensional (3D) anatomy is not well understood, due in part to limitations of available measuring techniques. This study uses 3D images acquired by 320-row area detector computed tomography ('320-ADCT'), to measure the pharynx and larynx and to investigate the effects of age, gender and height. Fifty-four healthy volunteers (30 male, 24 female, 23-77 years) underwent one single-phase volume scan (0.35 s) with 320-ADCT during resting tidal breathing. Six measurements of the pharynx and two of larynx were performed. Bivariate statistical methods were used to analyse the effects of gender, age and height on these measurements. Length and volume were significantly larger for men than for women for every measurement (P < 0.05) and increased with height (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis was performed to understand the interactions of gender, height and age. Gender, height and age each had significant effects on certain values. The volume of the larynx and hypopharynx was significantly affected by height and age. The length of pharynx was associated with gender and age. Length of the vocal folds and distance from the valleculae to the vocal folds were significantly affected by gender (P < 0.05). These results suggest that age, gender and height have independent and interacting effects on the morphology of the pharynx and larynx. Three-dimensional imaging and morphometrics using 320-ADCT are powerful tools for efficiently and reliably observing and measuring the pharynx and larynx.

  1. Gender and age differences in mixed metal exposure and urinary excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, Marika; Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Yunus, Mohammad; Grander, Margaretha; Loennerdal, Bo; Vahter, Marie

    2011-11-15

    Background: Little is known about the variation in exposure to toxic metals by age and gender and other potential modifying factors. We evaluated age and gender differences by measurements of metal/element concentrations in urine in a rural population in Matlab, Bangladesh, in three age groups: 8-12 (N=238), 14-15 (N=107) and 30-88 (N=710) years of age, living in an area with no point sources of metal exposure but where elevated water arsenic concentrations are prevalent. Results: We found marked differences in urine concentrations of metals and trace elements by gender, age, tobacco use, socioeconomic and nutritional status. Besides a clearly elevated urinary arsenic concentration in all age groups (medians 63-85 {mu}g As/L), and despite the low degree of contamination from industries and traffic, the urine concentrations of toxic metals such as cadmium and lead were clearly elevated, especially in children (median 0.31 {mu}g Cd/L and 2.9 {mu}g Pb/L, respectively). In general, women had higher urinary concentrations of toxic metals, especially Cd (median 0.81 {mu}g/L) compared to men (0.66 {mu}g/L) and U (median 10 ng/L in women, compared to 6.4 ng/L in men), while men had higher urinary concentrations of the basic and essential elements Ca (69 mg/L in men, 30-50 years, compared to 52 mg/L in women), Mg (58 mg/L in men compared to 50 mg/L in women), Zn (182 {mu}g/L in men compared to 117 {mu}g/L in women) and Se (9.9 {mu}g/L in men compared to 8.7 {mu}g/L in women). Manganese was consistently higher in females than in males in all age groups, suggesting a biological difference between females and males in Mn metabolism. Increasing socioeconomic status decreased the toxic metal exposure significantly in children and especially in men. Poor iron status was detected in 17% of children, adolescents and women, but only in 6% of men. Also zinc deficiency was more prevalent in females than in males. Conclusions: Women and children seemed to be more at risk for toxic

  2. [Gender and age differences in the cognitive, psychophysiological, and behavioral responses of social anxiety in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Inglés, Cándido J; Piqueras, José A; García-Fernández, José M; García-López, Luis J; Delgado, Beatriz; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze gender and age differences in adolescents' social anxiety in the factor scores of the Social Phobia subscale from the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SP-SPAI): Social Interactions, Focus of Attention, Cognitive and Somatic Symptoms and Avoidance and Escape Behaviors. The sample consisted of 2,543 students of Secondary Education between 12 and 17 years. Results are shown for the general sample (N= 2,543) and for the sample of adolescents classified as high social anxiety group (n= 317). Regarding the first group, girls obtained higher total scores on the Social Phobia scale and on all factors except for Avoidance and Escape (d= .32 - .35). Concerning the high anxiety group, the analyses revealed that boys avoid and escape from social situations more frequently than girls (d= .23). No age differences were found in the factor scores for any of the two samples.

  3. Consistency of the Proteome in Primary Human Keratinocytes With Respect to Gender, Age, and Skin Localization*

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Adrian; Weber, Sebastian; Zarai, Mostafa; Engelke, Rudolf; Nascimento, Juliana M.; Gretzmeier, Christine; Hilpert, Martin; Boerries, Melanie; Has, Cristina; Busch, Hauke; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Dengjel, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    Keratinocytes account for 95% of all cells of the epidermis, the stratified squamous epithelium forming the outer layer of the skin, in which a significant number of skin diseases takes root. Immortalized keratinocyte cell lines are often used as research model systems providing standardized, reproducible, and homogenous biological material. Apart from that, primary human keratinocytes are frequently used for medical studies because the skin provides an important route for drug administration and is readily accessible for biopsies. However, comparability of these cell systems is not known. Cell lines may undergo phenotypic shifts and may differ from the in vivo situation in important aspects. Primary cells, on the other hand, may vary in biological functions depending on gender and age of the donor and localization of the biopsy specimen. Here we employed metabolic labeling in combination with quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics to assess A431 and HaCaT cell lines for their suitability as model systems. Compared with cell lines, comprehensive profiling of the primary human keratinocyte proteome with respect to gender, age, and skin localization identified an unexpected high proteomic consistency. The data were analyzed by an improved ontology enrichment analysis workflow designed for the study of global proteomics experiments. It enables a quick, comprehensive and unbiased overview of altered biological phenomena and links experimental data to literature. We guide through our workflow, point out its advantages compared with other methods and apply it to visualize differences of cell lines compared with primary human keratinocytes. PMID:23722187

  4. Gender and Age Related Effects While Watching TV Advertisements: An EEG Study.

    PubMed

    Cartocci, Giulia; Cherubino, Patrizia; Rossi, Dario; Modica, Enrica; Maglione, Anton Giulio; di Flumeri, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment 1) and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment 2 showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population.

  5. Effects of age, gender, and immunosuppressive agents on in vivo toll-like receptor pathway responses.

    PubMed

    Khan, Niamat; Summers, Colin W; Helbert, Matthew R; Arkwright, Peter D

    2010-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important in the initiation of immune responses in both health and disease. How TLR activity alters with age, gender, and also with immunosuppressive agents is still largely unexplored. We studied TLR activity in 49 healthy individuals as well as in 26 patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs. TLR activity did not alter significantly between the ages of 2 and 67 years. However, females had twice the TLR7 ligand-induced interferon-I response of males (OR [95% CI] 2.7 [1.4-5.1]), whereas TLR3 and four activities were not significantly different between the sexes. The T-cell immunosuppressant agents cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and azathioprine, as well as low dose glucocorticosteroids did not significantly alter TLR pathway responses. In contrast, high dose glucocorticosteroids reduced in vivo TLR responses by 70%-90%. We suggest that gender differences in TLR responses may help to explain the female preponderance of some autoimmune disorders. Furthermore, an understanding the effects of immunosuppressive agents on TLR-pathway activity should allow more focused therapy for autoimmune disorders.

  6. Gender and Age Related Effects While Watching TV Advertisements: An EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Cartocci, Giulia; Cherubino, Patrizia; Rossi, Dario; Modica, Enrica; Maglione, Anton Giulio; di Flumeri, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment 1) and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment 2 showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population. PMID:27313602

  7. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: A Validation Study Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools in the southeastern United States participated in the investigation. Results indicated high internal consistency for the six GRS-S scales: Intellectual Ability, Academic Ability, Creativity, Artistic Talent, Leadership, and Motivation. Results revealed no effect of race/ethnicity, age, or rater familiarity with the student. There was no significant effect for gender, although a trend was noted for girls rated slightly higher than boys across all scales. This trend was consistent with analyses of the standardization data and with cross-cultural findings using translated versions of the GRS-S. The present findings provided support for the GRS-S as a valid gifted screening instrument. PMID:26366036

  8. Effects of age and gender on finger coordination in MVC and submaximal force-matching tasks.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Minoru; Li, Sheng; Kang, Ning; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the effects of age and gender on finger coordination. Twelve young (24 +/- 8 yr; 6 men and 6 women) and 12 elderly (75 +/- 5 yr; 6 men and 6 women) subjects performed single-finger maximal contraction [maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)], four-finger MVC, and four-finger ramp force production tasks by pressing on individual force transducers. A drop in the force of individual fingers during four-finger MVC tasks compared with single-finger MVC tasks (force deficit) was larger, whereas unintended force production by other fingers during single-finger MVC tasks (enslaving) was smaller, in elderly than in young subjects and in women than in men. Force deficit was smaller and enslaving was larger in subjects with higher peak force. During the ramp task, the difference between the variance of total force and the sum of variances of individual forces showed a logarithmic relation to the level of total force, across all subject groups. These findings suggest that indexes of finger coordination scale with force-generating capabilities across gender and age groups.

  9. Energy-related parameters and their association with age, gender, and morphometric measurements in healthy donkeys.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, F J; Estepa, J C; Gonzalez-De Cara, C A; Aguilera-Aguilera, R; Toribio, R E; Perez-Ecija, A

    2015-05-01

    Donkeys are commonly afflicted by endocrine and metabolic disturbances but few studies have investigated endocrine variables involved in energy regulation and their association with morphometric indices, age or gender in this species. Hemostatic and clinical differences have been demonstrated between horses and donkeys, so to consider both species as metabolically and endocrinologically similar could lead to misdiagnosis. In this study, plasma concentrations of glucose, triglycerides and endocrine factors involved in energy homeostasis (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin and insulin-like growth factor [IGF]-1) were measured and their association with morphometric variables (body condition score, neck scoring and body mass index), gender and age was determined in 62 healthy donkeys. In addition, a neck scoring system specific for donkeys was developed. Insulin, glucagon, leptin and IGF-1 concentrations were found to be similar between donkeys and other species, but adiponectin and active ghrelin were lower in donkeys than horses. Donkeys with larger neck scores and body mass indices had higher triglyceride, leptin and IGF-1 concentrations. A sexual dimorphism was observed on all morphometric measurements and plasma glucose concentrations independent of adiposity. Younger animals had lower morphometric measurements and triglyceride and leptin concentrations.

  10. The influence of age and gender on antioxidant enzyme activities in humans and laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Giergiel, Marta; Lopucki, Maciej; Stachowicz, Norbert; Kankofer, Marta

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidative/oxidative balance is one of the important factors for homeostasis. Antioxidative systems which protect from peroxidative damage are supposed to be under the influence of steroid hormones. The implications of this influence are age and gender as well as tissue dependent alterations in antioxidative enzyme activities. Apart from hormonal influence, antioxidative enzymes require the presence of microelements in their active centers as well as concerted action of non enzymatic antioxidants which support enzymes in their scavenging action. The aim of this review is to analyze and compare existing knowledge about the changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes in human and animal females and males of different age. Evidence as regards participation of oxidative stress in senescence are specific diseases which, to some extent, are gender dependent and appear more frequently in males or females. Several experiments in laboratory animals revealed that changes in enzyme activities are reflected in histopathological pictures of cells. The alterations observed during perimenopausal period provide with additional evidence of the participation of steroid hormones in the regulation of antioxidative system activity. Moreover, estrogens themselves exhibit antioxidative activity which is receptor independent. In conclusion, apart from genetic-related influences, also diet and style of life may have an impact on the antioxidative system which requires appropriate supplementation in microelements and vitamins for its effective function of scavenging excess of free radicals.

  11. Occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy associated with sex-specific neurobehavioral deficits in the children at school age.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Helle R; Debes, Fróði; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to pesticides may affect neurodevelopment, while the impact of modern pesticides is unclear. From 1997-2001, women working in greenhouse horticultures were recruited at the beginning of their pregnancy. Based on detailed interview of the women and their employers, those categorized as occupationally exposed to pesticides were moved to unexposed work functions or went on paid leave, while women without any exposure were considered unexposed controls. Of the resulting birth cohort of 203 children, 133 (65%) were examined at age 6 to 11 years together with 44 newly recruited children of same age whose mothers were not occupationally exposed to pesticides in pregnancy. All children underwent a standardized examination including a battery of neurodevelopmental tests. Maternal occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy was associated with prolonged brainstem auditory evoked potential latencies in the children as a whole and with impaired neuropsychological function in girls, while no effect was apparent in boys. In girls, language and motor speed functions were significantly inversely associated with prenatal exposure, and a non-significant tendency toward decreased function was also seen for other neuropsychological outcomes. A structural equation model that combined all these test results showed an overall impaired neuropsychological function in girls prenatally exposed to pesticides. Thus, our findings suggest an adverse effect of maternal occupational pesticide exposure on their children's neurodevelopment, despite the fact that the exposures occurred solely during early pregnancy and under well regulated working conditions, where special measures to protect pregnant women were applied.

  12. The Gender-Dependent Association between Obesity and Age-Related Cataracts in Middle-Aged Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Lee, Sae-Young; Park, Young-Hoon; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Kang-Sook; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Na, Kyung-Sun; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of central and abdominal obesity with the prevalence of cataracts in a middle-aged Korean population. This retrospective cross-sectional study was based on the data collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2009, in which 4,914 subjects were examined. Ophthalmological examinations were performed to determine the presence of a nuclear, cortical, or posterior subcapsular cataract. Both general obesity (a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (a waist circumference ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women) were significantly associated with the occurrence of cataracts among middle-aged women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.69; and aOR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.06–1.85, respectively], while abdominal obesity was significantly inversely associated with the occurrence of cataracts among middle-aged men (aOR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58–1.01; and aOR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49–0.89, respectively). We report a difference in the association between obesity and the prevalence of cataracts based on gender. PMID:25974257

  13. Noninvasive markers of bone metabolism in the rhesus monkey: normal effects of age and gender

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, S.; Boden, S. D.; Gould, K. G.; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of bone turnover in conditions such as osteoporosis has been limited by the need for invasive iliac bone biopsy to reliably determine parameters of bone metabolism. Recent advances in the area of serum and urinary markers of bone metabolism have raised the possibility for noninvasive measurements; however, little nonhuman primate data exist for these parameters. The purpose of this experiment was to define the normal range and variability of several of the newer noninvasive bone markers which are currently under investigation in humans. The primary intent was to determine age and gender variability, as well as provide some normative data for future experiments in nonhuman primates. Twenty-four rhesus macaques were divided into equal groups of male and female according to the following age groupings: 3 years, 5-10 years, 15-20 years, and > 25 years. Urine was collected three times daily for a four-day period and measured for several markers of bone turnoverm including pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyrodinoline (DPD), hydroxyproline, and creatinine. Bone mineral density measurements of the lumbar spine were performed at the beginning and end of the study period. Serum was also obtained at the time of bone densitometry for measurement of osteocalcin levels by radioimmunoassay. There were no significant differences in bone mineral density, urine PYD, or urine DPD based on gender. Bone density was lowest in the youngest animals, peaked in the 15-20-year group, but again decreased in the oldest animals. The osteocalcin, PYD, and DPD levels followed an inversely related pattern to bone density. The most important result was the relative age insensitivity of the ratio of PYD:DPD in monkeys up to age 20 years. Since bone density changes take months or years to become measurable and iliac biopsies are invasive, the PYD/DPD marker ratio may have important implications for rapid noninvasive measurement of the effects of potential treatments for osteoporosis in the non

  14. Asymmetries of the central sulcus in young adults: Effects of gender, age and sulcal pattern.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Ge, Haitao; Tang, Yuchun; Hou, Zhongyu; Xu, Junhai; Lin, Xiangtao; Liu, Shuwei

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we clarified the gender and age-related asymmetries of the central sulcus (CS) in early adulthood using a parametric ribbon method. The CS was reconstructed and parameterized automatically from 3D MR images of 112 healthy right-handed subjects. The 3D anatomic morphology of the CS was presented using 5 sulcal parameters, including sulcal depth position-based profile (DPP), average depth (AD), average width (AW), top length (TL) and bottom length (BL). Asymmetry differences in DPPs were found in the medial and lateral part of the CS. In addition, significant gender differences were observed in the medial and middle parts of the right CS DPPs but scattered in the left side. We found leftward asymmetries of TL in males, but rightward asymmetries of AW in females. Males had a greater AW than females in the right hemisphere. Moreover, the females had bilateral longer TL and a longer left BL than did males. We also found significant age-related reductions in bilateral TL and increases in bilateral AW, with males presenting more obvious age-related change than females. There were sexual differences of the CS patterns, in which Type b was the most dominant sulcal pattern in males, whereas Type a was dominant in females. Three-way ANOVA revealed sexual and asymmetry changes of TL and BL among different CS patterns. Our findings indicate that the lateralization performances of the CS manifest as sexually and regionally different. In addition, it is suggested that males may undergo a faster progress of aging compared to females.

  15. How Family Support and Internet Self-Efficacy Influence the Effects of E-Learning among Higher Aged Adults--Analyses of Gender and Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Regina Ju-chun

    2010-01-01

    Gender and age differences in the effects of e-learning, including students' satisfaction and Internet self-efficacy, have been supported in prior research. What is less understood is how these differences are shaped, especially for higher aged adults. This article examines the utility of family support (tangible and emotional) and Internet…

  16. Effects of message framing on self-report and accelerometer-assessed physical activity across age and gender groups.

    PubMed

    Li, Kin-Kit; Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Fung, Helene H

    2014-02-01

    This study compared message-framing effects on physical activity (PA) across age and gender groups. Participants included 111 younger and 100 older adults (68% were women), randomly assigned to read gain-framed or loss-framed PA messages in promotion pamphlets, and who wore accelerometers for the following 14 days. Using regression analyses controlling for demographic and health factors, we found significant age-by-gender-by-framing interactions predicting self-report (B = -4.39, p = .01) and accelerometer-assessed PA (B = -2.44, p = .02) during the follow-up period. Gain-framed messages were more effective than loss-framed messages in promoting PA behaviors only among older men. We speculated that the age-related positivity effect, as well as the age and gender differences in issue involvement, explained the group differences in framing. In addition, more time availability and higher self-efficacy among older men might have contributed to the results.

  17. Influence of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds analyzed by an electronic nose

    PubMed Central

    Dragonieri, Silvano; Quaranta, Vitaliano Nicola; Carratu, Pierluigi; Ranieri, Teresa; Resta, Onofrio

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds. We evaluated 68 healthy adult never-smokers, comparing them by age and by gender. Exhaled breath samples were analyzed by an electronic nose (e-nose), resulting in "breathprints". Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis showed that older subjects (≥ 50 years of age) could not be distinguished from younger subjects on the basis of their breathprints, as well as that the breathprints of males could not distinguished from those of females (cross-validated accuracy, 60.3% and 57.4%, respectively).Therefore, age and gender do not seem to affect the overall profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds measured by an e-nose. PMID:27167436

  18. Does whom you work with matter? Effects of referent group gender and age composition on managers' compensation.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, Cheri; Atwater, Leanne E

    2003-08-01

    Much research has examined gender and age effects on compensation, concluding that a wage gap exists favoring men and negative stereotypes against older workers persist. Although the effect of an employee's gender or age has been widely studied, little work has examined the impact of the demographic characteristics of a focal employee's immediate referent groups (e.g., subordinates, peers, or supervisors) on pay. The effect of the gender and age composition of a focal manager's subordinates, peers, and supervisor on the manager's compensation levels was investigated in a sample of 2,178 managers across a wide range of organizations and functional areas. After controlling for a number of human capital variables, results indicated that not only does a wage gap favoring men exist, but also managerial pay is lower when managers' referent groups are largely female, when subordinates are outside the prime age group, and when peers and supervisors are younger.

  19. Normative Data on Nasalance Scores for Swedish as Measured on the Nasometer: Influence of Dialect, Gender, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnegard, Karin; van Doorn, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish normative nasalance values for Swedish speaking children as measured with the Nasometer[TM] II, and to investigate differences due to regional dialect, gender, and age. Two hundred and twenty healthy children aged 4-5, 6-7, and 9-11 years were included. Group mean nasalance scores for four speech stimuli were…

  20. The Role of Adolescents' Morality and Identity in Volunteering. Age and Gender Differences in a Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Goethem, Anne A. J.; van Hoof, Anne; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Boom, Jan; de Castro, Bram Orobio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explain adolescents' volunteering in terms of their morality and identity and to examine the moderation effect of gender and age in this process. Data were collected among 698 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 20 (M = 15.19; SD = 1.43). Adolescents' moral reasoning was positively associated with understanding moral issues…

  1. Jump into the Void? Factors Related to a Preferred Retirement Age: Gender, Social Interests, and Leisure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaisen, Magnhild; Thorsen, Kirsten; Eriksen, Sissel H.

    2012-01-01

    Using the frameworks of the life course perspective and continuity theory, this study focuses on the association among working people between gender and specific leisure activities, social interests and individuals' preferred retirement age. The study is based on the first wave of the Norwegian Life Course, Aging and Generation (NorLAG) study,…

  2. Bullying in German Primary Schools: Gender Differences, Age Trends and Influence of Parents' Migration and Educational Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Marees, Nandoli; Petermann, Franz

    2010-01-01

    The study discussed herein assessed the prevalence of bullying and analysed possible predictors for bullying in a sample of urban primary school-age children. Factors considered were students' gender and age differences as well as parents' educational level and migration backgrounds. Using a cross-informant approach (self- and teacher-reports),…

  3. The Interaction Effect of Gender and Socioeconomic Status on Development of Preschool-Aged Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and describe the effect of gender and socioeconomic status (SES) on preschool-aged children's overall development. Two hundred fifty-five preschoolers (125 boys and 130 girls), with a mean age of 56 plus or minus 9 months, were randomly selected from day care centers and kindergartens of different areas of…

  4. Gender and Age Effects Interact in Preschoolers' Help-Seeking: Evidence for Differential Responses to Changes in Task Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Cothran, Thomas; McCall, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study explored preschool age and gender differences in help-seeking within the theoretical framework of scaffolded problem-solving and self-regulation (Bruner, 1986; Rogoff, 1990; Vygotsky, 1978; 1986). Within-subject analyses tracked changes in help-seeking among 62 preschoolers (34 boys, 28 girls, mean age 4.22 years) solving a challenging…

  5. The Influence of Moral Disengagement, Morally Based Self-Esteem, Age, and Gender on Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Claire; Witenberg, Rivka T.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated moral disengagement, morally based self-esteem, age, and gender as predictors of traditional bullying and cyberbullying. The participants were 210 Australian school students aged 12 to 15, evenly split between males and females. Salient predictors of traditional bullying were overall moral disengagement, and the…

  6. Developing Occupation-Based Preventive Programs for Late-Middle-Aged Latino Patients in Safety-Net Health Systems

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Mike; Martínez, Jenny; Guzmán, Laura; Mahajan, Anish; Clark, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Latino adults between ages 50 and 60 yr are at high risk for developing chronic conditions that can lead to early disability. We conducted a qualitative pilot study with 11 Latinos in this demographic group to develop a foundational schema for the design of health promotion programs that could be implemented by occupational therapy practitioners in primary care settings for this population. One-on-one interviews addressing routines and activities, health management, and health care utilization were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed. Results of a content analysis of the qualitative data revealed the following six domains of most concern: Weight Management; Disease Management; Mental Health and Well-Being; Personal Finances; Family, Friends, and Community; and Stress Management. A typology of perceived health-actualizing strategies was derived for each domain. This schema can be used by occupational therapy practitioners to inform the development of health-promotion lifestyle interventions designed specifically for late-middle-aged Latinos. PMID:26565102

  7. Associations of gender and age groups on the knowledge and use of drug information resources by American pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Manuel J.; Clauson, Kevin A.; Gershman, Jennifer; Polen, Hyla H.

    Objective To explore knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists and identify patterns influenced by gender and age-group classification. Methods A survey questionnaire was mailed nationwide to 1,000 practitioners working in community (n = 500) and hospital (n = 500) settings who answer drug information questions as part of their expected job responsibilities. Responses pertaining to drug information resource use and knowledge of different types of drug-related queries, resource media preferences, and perceived adequacy of resources maintained in the pharmacy were analyzed by gender and age group. The t statistic was used to test for significant differences of means and percentages between genders and between age groups. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize other findings. Results Gender and age group classification influenced patterns of knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists. They also affected pharmacists’ perceptions of the most common types of questions prompting them to consult a drug information reference, as well as the resources consulted. Micromedex, exclusively available in electronic format, was the most commonly consulted resource overall by pharmacists. Lexi-Comp Online was the leading choice by women, preferred over Micromedex, but was not one of the top two resources selected by men. Conclusions This study successfully identified the influence of gender and age-group classification in assessing drug information resource knowledge and use of general and specific types of drug-related queries. PMID:24155853

  8. The Relationship between Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction: The Case of Pakistani Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Abdul Qayyum

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to find out the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction based on age, gender, nature of job, cadre, work experience of university teachers, and sector of university. The Pearson correlation indicates: no significant relationship found between job satisfaction and overall occupational stress; inverse…

  9. Effects of age, available response time and gender on ability to stop suddenly when walking.

    PubMed

    Cao; A Ashton-Miller J; Schultz; Alexander

    1998-10-01

    Background: Injuries may occur during walking when a sudden stop to avoid a gait path obstacle is called for unexpectedly, but cannot be completed in the time available. Little is known about abilities, particularly those of older adults, to stop suddenly. Methods: Twenty young (mean age 23.4 years) and 20 older (72.6 years) healthy and physically active adults with equal numbers of females and males in each age group were studied. While walking straight ahead at approximately 1.3 m/s, they were cued by a light at one of five possible locations to stop as quickly as possible. Subjects were given available response times (ART), the times between the visual cue to stop and potential passage through a virtual wall that was outlined by the array of lights used to cue the subjects, ranging from 375 to 825 ms in 75-ms increments. The rate of success (RS) in completing the stops as prescribed was determined and the effects on RS of age, available response time and gender were examined. Regression analyses were used to interpolate the RS data. Results: At all ART, older female (OF) subjects had a significantly lower rate of success (RS) than either older male (OM) or young adult (YA) subjects. At an ART of 525 ms, for example, RS was 58% for YA and 51% for OM, but only 23% for OF. The regression analyses suggested that OM in the mean would have needed 10 ms longer and OF 70 ms longer than YA to achieve a 50% RS. No significant gender difference in RS were found among YA. Conclusions: The healthy and physically active older female subjects in this study needed longer available response times, and thus longer available stopping distances, than did the young adults or the older males to succeed as well in stopping suddenly while walking at their comfortable gait speed. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance.

    PubMed

    Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; Borleffs, Jan C C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-05-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands. All applicants for the academic year 2015-2016 were included and had to choose between learning communities Global Health (n = 126), Sustainable Care (n = 149), Intramural Care (n = 225), or Molecular Medicine (n = 116). This choice was used as a proxy for vocational interest. In addition, all graduate-entry applicants for academic year 2015-2016 (n = 213) were included to examine the effect of previous academic experience on performance. We used MANCOVA analyses with Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparisons tests for applicant performance on a six-scenario SJT. The MANCOVA analyses showed that for all scenarios, the independent variables were significantly related to performance (Pillai's Trace: 0.02-0.47, p < .01). Vocational interest was related to performance on three scenarios (p < .01). Graduate-entry applicants outperformed all other groups on three scenarios (p < .01) and at least one other group on the other three scenarios (p < .01). Female applicants outperformed male applicants on three scenarios (p < .01) and age was positively related to performance on two scenarios (p < .05). A good fit between applicants' vocational interests and SJT scenario was related to better performance, as was previous academic experience. Gender and age were related to performance on SJT scenarios in different settings. Especially the first effect might be helpful in selecting appropriate candidates for areas of health care in which more professionals are needed.

  11. Left/right neck rotation judgments are affected by age, gender, handedness and image rotation.

    PubMed

    Wallwork, Sarah B; Butler, David S; Fulton, Ian; Stewart, Halton; Darmawan, Igusti; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2013-06-01

    Understanding motor imagery of the hands and feet has led to promising new treatments for neurological and chronic pain disorders. We aimed to extend this line of research to the neck with a view to developing the definitive platform study upon which clinical and experimental studies can be based. In a cross-sectional experiment with a convenience sample, volunteers were shown 40 photographs of a model with their head turned to the left or right. Images were presented in random order and orientation. Participants judged the direction of neck rotation. They also completed a left/right hand judgment task. 1361 pain-free participants volunteered. Mean ± standard deviation response time (RT) for making left/right judgments of neck rotation was 1.621 ± 0.501 s. Median accuracy was 92.5%. RT was related to age, gender, and handedness (p < 0.001). That is, RT increased with age, was greater in females than in males and was greater in left-handers than in right-handers. Accuracy reduced with age (p < 0.001), but was unaffected by gender or handedness. Judgments were more accurate when images showed a neck rotated to the right than when they showed a neck rotated to the left (p < 0.001). The magnitude of image rotation affected both response time and accuracy (p < 0.001). In general, the performance parameters established for left/right limb judgments also apply for left/right neck rotation judgments. The current work establishes the definitive normative values against which clinical and experimental groups can be compared and reveals unpredicted effects of the direction neck rotation and the orientation of the image.

  12. Gender and age effects in structural brain asymmetry as measured by MRI texture analysis.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, Vassili A; Kruggel, Frithjof; von Cramon, D Yves

    2003-07-01

    Effects of gender and age on structural brain asymmetry were studied by 3D texture analysis in 380 adults. Asymmetry is detected by comparing the complex 3D gray-scale image patterns in the left and right cerebral hemispheres as revealed by anatomical T1-weighted MRI datasets. The Talairach and Tournoux parcellation system was applied to study the asymmetry on five levels: the whole cerebrum, nine coronal sections, 12 axial sections, boxes resulting from both coronal and axial subdivisions, and by a sliding spherical window of 9 mm diameter. The analysis revealed that the brain asymmetry increases in the anterior-posterior direction starting from the central region onward. Male brains were found to be more asymmetric than female. This gender-related effect is noticeable in all brain areas but is most significant in the superior temporal gyrus, Heschl's gyrus, the adjacent white matter regions in the temporal stem and the knee of the optic radiation, the thalamus, and the posterior cingulate. The brain asymmetry increases significantly with age in the inferior frontal gyrus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus, retrosplenial cortex, coronal radiata, and knee region of the internal capsule. Asymmetry decreases with age in the optic radiation, precentral gyrus, and angular gyrus. The texture-based method reported here is based on extended multisort cooccurrence matrices that employ intensity, gradient, and anisotropy features in a uniform way. It is sensitive, simple to reproduce, robust, and unbiased in the sense that segmentation of brain compartments and spatial transformations are not necessary. Thus, it should be considered as another tool for digital morphometry in neuroscience.

  13. Gender and education impact on brain aging: a general cognitive factor approach.

    PubMed

    Proust-Lima, Cécile; Amieva, Hélène; Letenneur, Luc; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2008-09-01

    In cognitive aging research, the study of a general cognitive factor has been shown to have a substantial explanatory power over the study of isolated tests. The authors aimed at differentiating the impact of gender and education on global cognitive change with age from their differential impact on 4 psychometric tests using a new latent process approach, which intermediates between a single-factor longitudinal model for sum scores and an item-response theory approach for longitudinal data. The analysis was conducted on a sample of 2,228 subjects from PAQUID, a population-based cohort of older adults followed for 13 years with repeated measures of cognition. Adjusted for vascular factors, the analysis confirmed that women performed better in tests involving verbal components, while men performed better in tests involving visuospatial skills. In addition, the model suggested that women had a slightly steeper global cognitive decline with oldest age than men, even after excluding incident dementia or death. Subjects with higher education exhibited a better mean score for the 4 tests, but this difference tended to attenuate with age for tests involving a speed component.

  14. Variation of Biophysical Parameters of the Skin with Age, Gender, and Body Region

    PubMed Central

    Firooz, Alireza; Sadr, Bardia; Babakoohi, Shahab; Sarraf-Yazdy, Maryam; Fanian, Ferial; Kazerouni-Timsar, Ali; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Dowlati, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    Background. Understanding the physiological, chemical, and biophysical characteristics of the skin helps us to arrange a proper approach to the management of skin diseases. Objective. The aim of this study was to measure 6 biophysical characteristics of normal skin (sebum content, hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity) in a normal population and assess the effect of sex, age, and body location on them. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers in 5 age groups (5 males and females in each) were enrolled in this study. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor (Courage & Khazaka electronic GmbH, Germany) was used to measure skin sebum content, hydration, TEWL, erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity in 8 different locations of the body. Results. There were significant differences between the hydration, melanin index, and elasticity of different age groups. Regarding the locations, forehead had the highest melanin index, where as palm had the lowest value. The mean values of erythema index and melanin index and TEWL were significantly higher in males and anatomic location was a significant independent factor for all of 6 measured parameters. Conclusion. Several biophysical properties of the skin vary among different gender, age groups, and body locations. PMID:22536139

  15. Predicting body fat percentage based on gender, age and BMI by using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kupusinac, Aleksandar; Stokić, Edita; Doroslovački, Rade

    2014-02-01

    In the human body, the relation between fat and fat-free mass (muscles, bones etc.) is necessary for the diagnosis of obesity and prediction of its comorbidities. Numerous formulas, such as Deurenberg et al., Gallagher et al., Jackson and Pollock, Jackson et al. etc., are available to predict body fat percentage (BF%) from gender (GEN), age (AGE) and body mass index (BMI). These formulas are all fairly similar and widely applicable, since they provide an easy, low-cost and non-invasive prediction of BF%. This paper presents a program solution for predicting BF% based on artificial neural network (ANN). ANN training, validation and testing are done by randomly divided dataset that includes 2755 subjects: 1332 women (GEN = 0) and 1423 men (GEN = 1), with AGE from 18 to 88 y and BMI from 16.60 to 64.60 kg/m(2). BF% was estimated by using Tanita bioelectrical impedance measurements (Tanita Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). ANN inputs are: GEN, AGE and BMI, and output is BF%. The predictive accuracy of our solution is 80.43%. The main goal of this paper is to promote a new approach to predicting BF% that has same complexity and costs but higher predictive accuracy than above-mentioned formulas.

  16. Gender and iron genes may modify associations between brain iron and memory in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Bartzokis, George; Lu, Po H; Tingus, Kathleen; Peters, Douglas G; Amar, Chetan P; Tishler, Todd A; Finn, J Paul; Villablanca, Pablo; Altshuler, Lori L; Mintz, Jim; Neely, Elizabeth; Connor, James R

    2011-06-01

    Brain iron increases with age and is abnormally elevated early in the disease process in several neurodegenerative disorders that impact memory including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Higher brain iron levels are associated with male gender and presence of highly prevalent allelic variants in genes encoding for iron metabolism proteins (hemochromatosis H63D (HFE H63D) and transferrin C2 (TfC2)). In this study, we examined whether in healthy older individuals memory performance is associated with increased brain iron, and whether gender and gene variant carrier (IRON+) vs noncarrier (IRON-) status (for HFE H63D/TfC2) modify the associations. Tissue iron deposited in ferritin molecules can be measured in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging utilizing the field-dependent relaxation rate increase (FDRI) method. FDRI was assessed in hippocampus, basal ganglia, and white matter, and IRON+ vs IRON- status was determined in a cohort of 63 healthy older individuals. Three cognitive domains were assessed: verbal memory (delayed recall), working memory/attention, and processing speed. Independent of gene status, worse verbal-memory performance was associated with higher hippocampal iron in men (r=-0.50, p=0.003) but not in women. Independent of gender, worse verbal working memory performance was associated with higher basal ganglia iron in IRON- group (r=-0.49, p=0.005) but not in the IRON+ group. Between-group interactions (p=0.006) were noted for both of these associations. No significant associations with white matter or processing speed were observed. The results suggest that in specific subgroups of healthy older individuals, higher accumulations of iron in vulnerable gray matter regions may adversely impact memory functions and could represent a risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline. Combining genetic and MRI biomarkers may provide opportunities to design primary prevention clinical trials that target high-risk groups.

  17. Weather and age-gender effects on the projection of future emergency ambulance demand in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lai, Poh-Chin; Wong, Ho-Ting

    2015-03-01

    An accurate projection for ambulance demand is essential to enable better resource planning for the future that strives to either maintain current levels of services or reconsider future standards and expectations. More than 2 million cases of emergency room attendance in 2008 were obtained from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority to project the demand for its ambulance services in 2036. The projection of ambulance demand in 2036 was computed in consideration of changes in the age-gender structure between 2008 and 2036. The quadratic relation between average daily temperature and daily ambulance demand in 2036 was further explored by including and excluding age-gender demographic changes. Without accounting for changes in the age-gender structure, the 2036 ambulance demand for age groups of 65 and above were consistently underestimated (by 38%-65%), whereas those of younger age groups were overestimated (by 6%-37%). Moreover, changes in the 2008 to 2036 age-gender structure also shift upward and emphasize relationships between average daily temperature and daily ambulance demand at both ends of the quadratic U-shaped curve. Our study reveals a potential societal implication of ageing population on the demand for ambulance services.

  18. Clinical and surgical implications regarding morphometric variations of the medial wall of the orbit in relation to age and gender.

    PubMed

    Morales-Avalos, Rodolfo; Santos-Martínez, Arlette Gabriela; Ávalos-Fernández, Cesia Gisela; Mohamed-Noriega, Karim; Sánchez-Mejorada, Gabriela; Montemayor-Alatorre, Adolfo; Martínez-Fernández, David A; Espinosa-Uribe, Abraham G; Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran; Cuervo-Lozano, Edgar E; Mohamed-Hamsho, Jesús; Quiroga-García, Oscar; Lugo-Guillen, Roberto A; Guzmán-López, Santos; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo E

    2016-09-01

    The ethmoidal foramens are located on the medial wall of the orbit and are key reference points for intraoperative orientation. Detailed knowledge of the anatomy, bony landmarks and morphometric characteristics of the medial wall of the orbit is essential for various surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric variations in the medial wall of the orbit and establish significant variations regarding age and gender. A total of 110 orbits were analyzed and subdivided by age (over or under 40 years) and gender. The distances of the medial wall of the orbit between the anterior lacrimal crest, the ethmoidal foramen, the optic canal and the interforamina were determined. Safe surgical areas were sought. Statistical tests were used to determine the differences between groups. In men, there is a safe surgical area proximal to the anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramen. In women, this area is in the posterior third of the medial wall of the orbit between the posterior ethmoidal foramen and the optic canal. Regarding variation according to age, the results of this study suggested that the anteroposterior diameter of the medial wall increases with age. This study showed that the anteroposterior total length of the medial orbit wall is similar between genders of similar age, increases with age, and has significant variations in the distances between the various structures that make up the medial orbit wall with regard to gender and age.

  19. Effect of age, gender and exercise on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone circadian rhythm profile in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Al-Turk, Walid; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S

    2016-02-01

    There has been a lot of effort by scientists to elucidate the multi functions of the naturally occurring hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). However, to plan research experiments optimally, it is important first to characterize the diurnal rhythm in healthy individuals. The aim of this research was to investigate the daily circadian rhythms of DHEA among the 2 genders, and the effect of age and exercise on salivary DHEA circadian rhythms. Volunteers (20-39 and 40-60 years) were recruited for 2 studies investigating the salivary DHEA circadian rhythm. The first study looked at the effect of gender and age on DHEA levels on 2 non-consecutive days, and the second study explored the effect of exercise on DHEA circadian rhythm in males. DHEA levels were estimated by a sensitive and specific ELISA method. The results showed a clear daily circadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants groups, however the profile was flatter in the older female group. There was a significant difference between age and gender groups particularly at 8.00 h. In young males DHEA reduced from 541.1 ± 101.3 (mean ± sd) at 8.00 h to 198.9 ± 90.7 pg/mL at 18.00 h; p<0.0001, and young females from 401.6 ± 149.5 to 215.4 ± 95.3 pg/mL; p<0.001. In older males DHEA reduced from 267.5 ± 32.4 to 132.5 ± 46.7 pg/mL; p<0.001, and older females from 147.7 ± 78.1 to 89.5 ± 29.1 pg/mL; p=0.05. DHEA levels on 2 non-consecutive days showed some variations but this was not significant. Aerobic exercise has significantly increased DHEA levels at 2 time points of the day (p=0.05) in male subjects. In conclusion, our study showed a clear daily circadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants was observed, but the profile was flatter in the older groups.

  20. Age and gender differential relationship between employment status and body mass index among middle-aged and elderly adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the influence of age and gender, respectively, on the association between employment status and body mass index (BMI) in Korean adults using a large, nationally representative sample. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting South Korea. Participants 7228 from fourth wave of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA), the survey's short form and year: ‘KLoSA 2012’. Main outcome measures BMI. Results BMI among the employed was higher than among the unemployed for those under 60. In terms of gender, employed men reported higher BMI than their unemployed counterparts, whereas employed women reported lower BMI than did unemployed women. Conclusions Employment status showed varying impacts on obesity by age and gender. Both unemployment at or after 60, as well as unemployment among women, is associated with increased BMI compared with unemployment among younger individuals or men, respectively. PMID:27852710

  1. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation Between Age Cohort and Three-Dimensional Wisdom in Iranian Culture.

    PubMed

    Cheraghi, Fereshte; Kadivar, Parvin; Ardelt, Monika; Asgari, Ali; Farzad, Valiollah

    2015-07-01

    This study examined whether gender moderated the association between age cohort and the cognitive, reflective, and compassionate dimensions of wisdom, using an Iranian sample of 439 adults from three age cohorts: young (18-34), middle-aged (35-54), and older (55 and above). Results indicated that the interaction effect between gender and age cohort was significant for three-dimensional wisdom and all three wisdom dimensions. Compared with younger women and older men, older women tended to have less education and to score lower on the cognitive wisdom dimension, but they had similar average scores as older men on the compassionate wisdom dimension. Overall, the association between age and wisdom was only positive for men, due mainly to the positive relation between age and the reflective and compassionate wisdom dimensions for men after adjusting for education. The results are interpreted with reference to generation gaps, socialization of men versus women, and life experiences and opportunities.

  2. Gender differences and the will-to-live in old age.

    PubMed

    Carmel, Sara

    2012-01-01

    International statistical data show that compared to men, women are underprivileged in personal resources, such as education and income, physical health and function, and in psychological characteristics, all of which are expressed in lower levels of subjective wellbeing (SWB). Literature shows that SWB is evaluated by numerous scales, which refer to various aspects of SWB. The purpose of this paper is threefold: a) to demonstrate the worldwide phenomenon of gender difference; b) to present a relatively new and unique indicator of wellbeing that is especially appropriate for older adults--the Will-to-Live (WTL), and a scale to evaluate it; c) to examine whether in old age, women differ from men in the strength of their wish to continue living. Results of a series of studies on older persons using the WTL scale indicate that the WTL is a multifaceted generalized indicator of wellbeing that systematically depicts the existing gender differences, indicating that women rank lower on SWB, and have a lower commitment to life than men. The WTL also predicts mortality among women, and is explained by different factors among men and women. As a measure, the WTL is a simple, parsimonious, easy to use tool, and well accepted by older people. Due to its diagnostic and prognostic values, as well as its good psychometric features, the WTL is recommended for practical use in monitoring changes in wellbeing, and evaluating effectiveness of intervention programs directed towards improving the wellbeing of older adults.

  3. Molecular seasonal, age and gender distributions of Cryptosporidium in diarrhoeic Egyptians: distinct endemicity.

    PubMed

    El-Badry, A A; Al-Antably, A S A; Hassan, M A; Hanafy, N A; Abu-Sarea, E Y

    2015-12-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a worldwide gastrointestinal disease caused by the protozoan Cryptosporidium parasite. It has a broad range of seasonal and age-related prevalence. We aimed to study the molecular prevalence and seasonality of Cryptosporidium over a period of 1 year in a cohort of Egyptian diarrhoeic patients. Stool samples were collected from 865 diarrhoeic patients attending outpatient clinics of Cairo University hospitals, from all age groups over a 12-month period, examined microscopically for faecal Cryptosporidium oocysts by the acid-fast staining method and for copro-DNA detection using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assays. PCR-positive samples were characterised molecularly by nPCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine Cryptosporidium genotypes. Cryptosporidium copro-DNA was detected in 19.5% of the collected samples throughout the year, with a major peak in summer (August) and a small rise in spring (April). Infection was mainly C. hominis (95.8%) followed by C. parvum (3.0%), affecting all age groups, with predominance in the pre-school age group, and decrease with age. There were statistically significant associations between the detection of Cryptosporidium and season, diarrhoea, patient age and drinking water, while gender, contact with animals and presence of mucus in stool showed no association. Cryptosporidium in diarrhoeic Egyptians was of distinct endemicity, with the bi-model mostly influenced by population dynamics, with a clear high prevalence in pre-school children and predominating anthroponotic (C. hominis) transmission throughout the year. The obtained results highlight Cryptosporidium as a water contaminant and an important cause of health problems in Egypt, necessitating further studies of the risk factors.

  4. Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children's ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6-16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modeled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children's ability to recognize facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6-16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers.

  5. Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children’s ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6–16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modeled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children’s ability to recognize facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6–16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers. PMID:26136697

  6. Indirectly Estimating International Net Migration Flows by Age and Gender: The Community Demographic Model International Migration (CDM-IM) Dataset.

    PubMed

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Jiang, Leiwen

    Although data for the total number of international migrant flows is now available, no global dataset concerning demographic characteristics, such as the age and gender composition of migrant flows exists. This paper reports on the methods used to generate the CDM-IM dataset of age and gender specific profiles of bilateral net (not gross) migrant flows. We employ raw data from the United Nations Global Migration Database and estimate net migrant flows by age and gender between two time points around the year 2000, accounting for various demographic processes (fertility, mortality). The dataset contains information on 3,713 net migrant flows. Validation analyses against existing data sets and the historical, geopolitical context demonstrate that the CDM-IM dataset is of reasonably high quality.

  7. Indirectly Estimating International Net Migration Flows by Age and Gender: The Community Demographic Model International Migration (CDM-IM) Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Jiang, Leiwen

    2015-01-01

    Although data for the total number of international migrant flows is now available, no global dataset concerning demographic characteristics, such as the age and gender composition of migrant flows exists. This paper reports on the methods used to generate the CDM-IM dataset of age and gender specific profiles of bilateral net (not gross) migrant flows. We employ raw data from the United Nations Global Migration Database and estimate net migrant flows by age and gender between two time points around the year 2000, accounting for various demographic processes (fertility, mortality). The dataset contains information on 3,713 net migrant flows. Validation analyses against existing data sets and the historical, geopolitical context demonstrate that the CDM-IM dataset is of reasonably high quality. PMID:26692590

  8. Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in micronutrient intakes of US adults with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Joan A; Huffman, Fatma G

    2013-03-01

    Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of US adults ≥  21 years were assessed from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. The participants included Black non-Hispanics, Mexican-American and White non-Hispanics who signed an informed consent form for the interview and who completed the in-person 24-h recall. Micronutrient intakes were based on the Institute of Medicines' classifications of recommended dietary allowances specific for age and gender. Likelihood of many micronutrient insufficiencies was associated with being female, over 65 years, having diabetes and minority status. Younger and female adults had a greater likelihood of iron insufficiency than male and older adults. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the intersection of age, gender and race in setting policies for micronutrient deficiency screening, particularly in young female adults and minorities.

  9. Gender and age differences in quality of life and the impact of psychopathological symptoms among HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marco; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine gender and age differences and interaction effects on the quality of life (QoL) domains in a sample of Portuguese HIV-positive patients, and to examine to what degree psychopathological symptoms are associated with QoL in addition to sociodemographic and clinical variables. The sample consisted of 1191 HIV-positive patients, and measures included the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref and the Brief Symptom Inventory. Controlling for clinical status, there was a significant effect of gender on QoL. Women reported lower scores of Psychological and Spirituality QoL. Younger patients reported higher scores on Physical and Level of Independence domains. Age by gender interactions emerged on all domains of QoL except on the Level of Independence domain. Overall, women over 45 years old showed lower QoL scores. Psychopathological symptoms contributed significantly to the variance of all QoL domains. Gender differences in the association of HIV infection with QoL and psychopathological symptoms seemed to be modulated by age. Understanding gender and age differences (and their interaction) may provide potentially useful information for planning interventions to improve QoL and mental health among people infected with HIV/AIDS, especially among older women.

  10. The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20-60 years old)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Land, S.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.; Monk, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density were assessed in a group of 100 subjects aged 20 to 60 years. We propose a new statistical strategy (mixed-model using fixed-knot regression splines) to analyze quantitative EEG measures. The effect of gender varied according to frequency, but no interactions emerged between age and gender, suggesting that the aging process does not differentially influence men and women. Women had higher power density than men in delta, theta, low alpha, and high spindle frequency range. The effect of age varied according to frequency and across the night. The decrease in power with age was not restricted to slow-wave activity, but also included theta and sigma activity. With increasing age, the attenuation over the night in power density between 1.25 and 8.00 Hz diminished, and the rise in power between 12.25 and 14.00 Hz across the night decreased. Increasing age was associated with higher power in the beta range. These results suggest that increasing age may be related to an attenuation of homeostatic sleep pressure and to an increase in cortical activation during sleep.

  11. Changes in hip fracture epidemiology: redistribution between ages, genders and fracture types.

    PubMed

    Löfman, O; Berglund, K; Larsson, L; Toss, G

    2002-01-01

    After several reports of increasing hip fracture incidence some studies have suggested a trend-break. In a previous study of hip fractures we forecast a 70% increase in the total number of fractures from 1985 up to year 2000. We therefore studied the incidence trend for the last 15 years and supply a new prognosis up to year 2010. We recorded all incident hip fractures treated in the county of Ostergötland, Sweden (approximately 400,000 inhabitants) 1982-96. A total of 11,517 hip fractures in men and women aged 50 years and above were included in the study after cross-validation between a computerized register of radiologic investigations and the hospital records. The projected number of fractures up to year 2010 was estimated by a Poisson regression model, considering both age and year of fracture in every single year 1982-96 for the respective fracture type and gender, and applied to the projected population. The annual number of hip fractures increased by 39% in men and 25% in women during the study period. Amongst men, the age-adjusted incidence of cervical fractures increased from 188 to 220/100,000 and of trochanteric fractures from 138 to 170/100,000. In women the incidence of cervical fractures decreased from 462/100,000 to 418/100,000 and of trochanteric fractures from 407/100,000 to 361/100,000. Cervical/trochanteric fracture incidence rate ratio leveled off, and also the female/male fracture rate ratio declined. A prognosis assuming that the incidence development will continue as during 1982-96, and a population in agreement with the forecast, predicts that the total age- and sex-adjusted number of hip fractures will decrease by 11% up to year 2010 compared with 1996. In women and men, however, a decrease of 19% and an increase of 7% respectively were projected. If the age- and sex-specific incidence remains at the same level as at the end of the study period, no significant change in the total numbers will occur. A trend-break was thus found in hip

  12. Gender and age are associated with healthy food purchases via grocery voucher redemption

    PubMed Central

    Hardin-Fanning, F; Gokun, Y

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Grocery vouchers that specifically target foods associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk result in increased consumption of those foods. In regions with disproportionately high CVD rates, there is little research concerning the impact of vouchers on purchases of risk-reducing foods when there are no restrictions placed on grocery voucher redemption. Since many food assistance programs place few restrictions on type of foods that can be purchased, identifying demographic factors associated with purchasing habits is a prerequisite to promoting healthy eating. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of age, gender, education and income level with purchasing of healthful foods through the use of a grocery voucher in a rural food desert (poverty rate of ≥20% and ≥33% of residents living >16 km from a large grocery store) with high rates of chronic disease. Methods The effectiveness of an intervention that included a media campaign, a $5 grocery voucher, local heart healthy food branding and a grocery store event was tested. Brief nutritional articles were published in both local newspapers during four consecutive weeks. These articles explained the physiological actions of healthy foods and listed a health-promoting recipe. During the fourth week of the media campaign, a voucher for a $5 grocery gift card redeemable at one of either community grocery stores was also printed in both local newspapers. In each store, foods that are known to be associated with a reduced risk of CVD were marked with a blue logo. Participants (N=311) completed a questionnaire that assessed demographics and usual servings of fruits, vegetables and grains. Participants received a $5 grocery card and a list of labelled foods. Returned grocery receipts were stapled to the questionnaires to analyse the relationship between demographics and food choices. Results Participants who bought at least one labelled food item were older (M=48.5, SD=14

  13. Nonverbal and verbal cognitive discrepancy profiles in autism spectrum disorders: influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ > verbal IQ [NVIQ > VIQ], verbal IQ > nonverbal IQ [VIQ > NVIQ], and no split) and the relationship of gender, age, and ASD symptomatology to IQ discrepancy profile in a large sample of children with ASD. The NVIQ > VIQ profile occurred at a higher frequency than expected, had more young males, and showed more autism symptoms than the other groups. Results suggest that the NVIQ > VIQ profile may be less likely to represent a subtype of ASD, but rather a common developmental pathway for children with ASD and other disorders.

  14. Variations in Decision-Making Profiles by Age and Gender: A Cluster-Analytic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Rebecca; Strough, JoNell; Parker, Andrew M.; de Bruin, Wandi Bruine

    2015-01-01

    Using cluster-analysis, we investigated whether rational, intuitive, spontaneous, dependent, and avoidant styles of decision making (Scott & Bruce, 1995) combined to form distinct decision-making profiles that differed by age and gender. Self-report survey data were collected from 1,075 members of RAND’s American Life Panel (56.2% female, 18–93 years, Mage = 53.49). Three decision-making profiles were identified: affective/experiential, independent/self-controlled, and an interpersonally-oriented dependent profile. Older people were less likely to be in the affective/experiential profile and more likely to be in the independent/self-controlled profile. Women were less likely to be in the affective/experiential profile and more likely to be in the interpersonally-oriented dependent profile. Interpersonally-oriented profiles are discussed as an overlooked but important dimension of how people make important decisions. PMID:26005238

  15. Changing Attitudes Toward Care of Aging Parents: The Influence of Education, International Travel, and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Compernolle, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Population aging is a key public health issue facing many nations, and is particularly pronounced in many Asian countries. At the same time, attitudes toward filial obligation are also rapidly changing, with a decreasing sense that children are responsible for caring for elderly parents. This investigation blends the family versus nonfamily mode of social organization framework with a life course perspective to provide insight into the processes of ideational change regarding filial responsibility, highlighting the influence of education and international travel. Using data from a longitudinal study in Nepal—the Chitwan Valley Family Study—results demonstrate that education and international travel are associated with a decrease in attitudes toward filial obligation. However, findings further reveal that the impact of education and international travel vary both across the life course and by gender. PMID:25866415

  16. Social integration and healthy aging in Japan: how gender and rurality matter.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kimiko; Johnson, Nan E

    2010-06-01

    The current study analyzed the 1999 and 2001 waves of the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging. Two measures of social integration were associated with lower risks of being physically disabled or depressed at Wave 1 and with a lower risk of progressing into deeper levels of physical disability and depression by Wave 2. Ceteris paribus, compared to elderly urbanites, elderly ruralites had a much higher risk of being physically disabled but much lower odds of being depressed. And compared to elderly men, elderly women had similar risks of being physically disabled but much higher odds of being depressed. Suggestions are made on how future research on longevity in Japan, the world's most longevous nation, can explore the links among social integration, place, gender, and the postponement of mortality.

  17. Regularity of daily life in relation to personality, age, gender, sleep quality and circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Petrie, S. R.; Hayes, A. J.; Kupfer, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    A diary-like instrument to measure lifestyle regularity (the 'Social Rhythm Metric'-SRM) was given to 96 subjects (48 women, 48 men), 39 of whom repeated the study after at least one year, with additional objective measures of rest/activity. Lifestyle regularity as measured by the SRM related to age, morningness, subjective sleep quality and time-of-day variations in alertness, but not to gender, extroversion or neuroticism. Statistically significant test-retest correlations of about 0.4 emerged for SRM scores over the 12-30 month delay. Diary-based estimates of bedtime and waketime appeared fairly reliable. In a further study of healthy young men, 4 high SRM scorers ('regular') had a deeper nocturnal body temperature trough than 5 low SRM scorers ('irregular'), suggesting a better functioning circadian system in the 'regular' group.

  18. Gender and Age Differences in Trauma and PTSD Among Dutch Treatment-Seeking Police Officers.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Christianne A I; Bakker, Anne; Smit, Annika S; van Buschbach, Susanne; den Dekker, Melissa; Westerveld, Gré J; Hutter, Renée C; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about how age and gender are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and traumatic experiences in treatment-seeking police offers. In this study, we examined 967 diagnostic files of police officers seeking treatment for PTSD. Six hundred twelve (63%) of the referred police officers were diagnosed with PTSD (n = 560) or partial PTSD (n = 52). Police officers reported on average 19.5 different types of traumatic events (range 1-43). Those who experienced a greater variety of traumatic events suffered from more PTSD symptoms. Also, women reported more often direct life-threatening or private events as their index trauma than men and suffered from more PTSD symptoms than their male colleagues. Results indicate that police officers experience a considerable number of different traumatic events, which is significantly associated with PTSD symptoms. The results highlight the importance of early detection of PTSD symptoms in the police force.

  19. Variations in Decision-Making Profiles by Age and Gender: A Cluster-Analytic Approach.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Rebecca; Strough, JoNell; Parker, Andrew M; de Bruin, Wandi Bruine

    2015-10-01

    Using cluster-analysis, we investigated whether rational, intuitive, spontaneous, dependent, and avoidant styles of decision making (Scott & Bruce, 1995) combined to form distinct decision-making profiles that differed by age and gender. Self-report survey data were collected from 1,075 members of RAND's American Life Panel (56.2% female, 18-93 years, Mage = 53.49). Three decision-making profiles were identified: affective/experiential, independent/self-controlled, and an interpersonally-oriented dependent profile. Older people were less likely to be in the affective/experiential profile and more likely to be in the independent/self-controlled profile. Women were less likely to be in the affective/experiential profile and more likely to be in the interpersonally-oriented dependent profile. Interpersonally-oriented profiles are discussed as an overlooked but important dimension of how people make important decisions.

  20. Occupational competence strategies in old age: a mixed-methods comparison between Hispanic women with different levels of daily participation.

    PubMed

    Orellano, Elsa M; Mountain, Gail; Varas, Nelson; Labault, Nirzka

    2014-01-01

    In this pilot study, we explored the difference in the use of occupational competence strategies for daily participation between more active and less active older Hispanic women. Twenty-nine women who were 70 and older and lived alone participated in this study. We used a mixed-methods design by which the principal investigator administered a tool to measure participation restrictions during the quantitative phase and conducted in-depth interviews with a subsample in the qualitative phase. More active women predominantly used transportation resources, emotional social support, and spirituality to support participation in life activities. Less active women used more practical social support, assistive technology, and environmental modifications. Personal facilitators seemed to directly modify these strategies. These results suggest that older women with different activity levels use distinct internal and external resources to maintain or enhance daily participation. Future studies should explore whether these resources remain consistent across gender, living status, and ethnicity.

  1. Education, Occupation and Career Expectations: Determinants of the Gender Pay Gap for UK Graduates. CEE DP 69

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Arnaud

    2006-01-01

    A large proportion of the gender wage gap is usually left unexplained. In this paper, we investigate whether the unexplained component is due to misspecification. Using a sample of recent UK graduates, we introduce variables on career expectations and character traits, variables that are typically not observed. The evidence indicates that women…

  2. Gender and Recent Graduates' Occupational Stratification: The Interactive Role of the Educational and Employment Sectors in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prix, Irene

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores whether polytechnic and university graduates are affected in the same way by gender differences in the graduate labour market in four countries: the Netherlands, Finland, Norway and Switzerland. Using data from the Research into Employment and Professional Flexibility (REFLEX) graduate survey, the analysis is based on…

  3. Human GH pulsatility: an ensemble property regulated by age and gender.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, J D; Bowers, C Y

    2003-09-01

    Age and gender impact the full repertoire of neurohormone systems, including most prominently the somatotropic, gonadotropic and lactotropic axes. For example, daily GH production is approximately 2-fold higher in young women than men and varies by 20-fold by sexual developmental status and age. Deconvolution estimates of 24-h GH secretion rates exceed 1200 microg/m2 in adolescents and fall below 60 microg/m2 in aged individuals. The present overview highlights plausible factors driving such lifetime variations in GH availability, i.e., estrogen, aromatizable androgen, hypothalamic peptides and negative feedback by GH and IGF-I. In view of the daunting complexity of potential neuromodulatory signals, we underline the utility of conceptualizing a simplified three-peptide regulatory ensemble of GHRH, GHRP (ghrelin) and somatostatin. The foregoing signals act as individual and conjoint mediators of adaptive GH control. Regulation is enforced at 3-fold complementary time scales, which embrace pulsatile (burst-like), entropic (orderly) and 24-h rhythmic (nycthemeral) modes of GH release. This unifying platform offers a convergent perspective of multivalent control of GH outflow.

  4. Perfluorinated chemicals in blood serum of inhabitants in central Poland in relation to gender and age.

    PubMed

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Pachocki, Krzysztof A; Hernik, Agnieszka; Struciński, Paweł; Czaja, Katarzyna; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lenters, Virissa; Korcz, Wojciech; Minorczyk, Maria; Matuszak, Małgorzata; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to determine concentrations of seven selected perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs): perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) in the blood serum of men and women of reproductive age from the central region of Poland. The relation between sex of tested subjects and the levels of compounds in blood serum of humans will also be considered and analysed as an element of the risk assessment. The study was made on the blood serum samples collected from 253 women and 176 men of reproductive age between 20 and 44 years from Warsaw and surrounding areas. Higher concentrations of five (PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA) from among seven selected PFASs were observed in men in comparison to women from the same populations. Only the concentrations of PFHxS and PFDoDA were slightly higher in women than in men. These differences were statistically significant in all cases, except for PFUnDA. The hypothesis that the concentrations of said compounds increase with age of the test subjects, regardless of gender has not been confirmed.

  5. Month of birth and life expectancy: role of gender and age in a comparative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerchl, Alexander

    2004-09-01

    The effects of month of birth (MOB) on life expectancy of a German subpopulation was investigated. Data from people who died in North Rhine Westphalia in the years 1984 (n=188,515) and 1999 (n=188,850) were analyzed. For comparative purposes, all deaths that occurred at an age of <50 years were excluded (1984: 8.4%; 1999: 6.2%). In general, individuals born in May through July had the lowest age at death (1984: 75.27±0.09 years; 1999: 77.58±0.09 years), while those born between October and December had the highest (1984: 75.98±0.08 years; 1999: 78.35±0.09 years), supporting earlier findings. The observed amplitudes (differences between highest and lowest values) were more pronounced in men than in women. When comparing these data of MOB effects on life expectancy with earlier findings in Australia, Austria, Denmark, Ukraine, and the USA, it is evident that a negative correlation exists between the average age at death and the MOB amplitudes. Separate analyses by gender, possible for the data from Germany, the Ukraine, and the USA, revealed a significant negative correlation for men, but not for women. A new hypothesis is therefore presented describing an influence of life quality, as reflected by average life expectancy, on the extent of MOB effects; for example, seasonally variable sensitivities during pregnancy/early childhood.

  6. Normal swallowing acoustics across age, gender, bolus viscosity, and bolus volume.

    PubMed

    Youmans, Scott R; Stierwalt, Julie A G

    2011-12-01

    Cervical auscultation has been proposed as an augmentative procedure for the subjective clinical swallowing examination due to the tangible differences between normal and dysphagic swallowing sounds. However, the research is incomplete regarding cervical auscultation and swallowing acoustics in that the differences between the sounds of normal versus dysphagic swallowing have yet to be fully understood or quantified. The swallows of 96 reportedly healthy adults, balanced for gender and divided into younger, middle, and older age groups, were audio-recorded while ingesting several boluses of varying viscosity and volume. The audio signals were then analyzed to determine their temporal and acoustic characteristics. Results indicated increasing pharyngeal swallowing duration with increasing age, bolus viscosity, and bolus volume. In addition, an increased duration to peak intensity with increasing age was found in one of our two analyses, as well as with some of the more viscous versus less viscous boluses. Men and older persons produced higher peak intensities and peak frequencies than women and younger persons. Thin liquids were produced with more intensity than honey or more viscous boluses, and with greater frequency than mechanical soft solids. Larger volumes resulted in greater peak frequency values. Some of the acoustic measurements appear to be more useful than others, including the duration of the acoustic swallowing signal and the within-subjects peak intensity variable. We noted that differences in swallowing acoustics were more related to changes in viscosity rather than volume. Finally, within-participant observations were more useful than between-participant observations.

  7. Gender differences in the occupational status of undocumented immigrants in the United States: experience before and after legalization.

    PubMed

    Powers, M G; Seltzer, W; Shi, J

    1998-01-01

    "This article examines the incorporation of a national sample of undocumented immigrants both before and after they applied to legalize their status under the provisions of the [U.S.] Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA). Data from the 1989 and 1992 Legalized Population Surveys (LPS-1 and LPS-2) are used. These surveys provide labor force and occupational data for three critical reference periods: as newly arrived undocumented immigrants, as experienced undocumented immigrants, and as documented immigrants.... The overall upward mobility of both men and women between first job and the occupation held at time of application for legalization continued after legalization. On average, men also continued to report higher status jobs than women, although women did somewhat better after their status was legalized." This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1997 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America.

  8. Brain perfusion SPECT in the mouse: normal pattern according to gender and age.

    PubMed

    Apostolova, Ivayla; Wunder, Andreas; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Michel, Roger; Stemmer, Nina; Lukas, Mathias; Derlin, Thorsten; Gregor-Mamoudou, Betina; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph

    2012-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is a useful surrogate marker of neuronal activity and a parameter of primary interest in the diagnosis of many diseases. The increasing use of mouse models spawns the demand for in vivo measurement of rCBF in the mouse. Small animal SPECT provides excellent spatial resolution at adequate sensitivity and is therefore a promising tool for imaging the mouse brain. This study evaluates the feasibility of mouse brain perfusion SPECT and assesses the regional pattern of normal Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake and the impact of age and gender. Whole-brain kinetics was compared between Tc-99m-HMPAO and Tc-99m-ECD using rapid dynamic planar scans in 10 mice. Assessment of the regional uptake pattern was restricted to the more suitable tracer, HMPAO. Two HMPAO SPECTs were performed in 18 juvenile mice aged 7.5 ± 1.5weeks, and in the same animals at young adulthood, 19.1 ± 4.0 weeks (nanoSPECT/CTplus, general purpose mouse apertures: 1.2kcps/MBq, 0.7mm FWHM). The 3-D MRI Digital Atlas Database of an adult C57BL/6J mouse brain was used for region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. SPECT images were stereotactically normalized using SPM8 and a custom made, left-right symmetric HMPAO template in atlas space. For testing lateral asymmetry, each SPECT was left-right flipped prior to stereotactical normalization. Flipped and unflipped SPECTs were compared by paired testing. Peak brain uptake was similar for ECD and HMPAO: 1.8 ± 0.2 and 2.1 ± 0.6 %ID (p=0.357). Washout after the peak was much faster for ECD than for HMPAO: 24 ± 7min vs. 4.6 ± 1.7h (p=0.001). The general linear model for repeated measures with gender as an intersubject factor revealed an increase in relative HMPAO uptake with age in the neocortex (p=0.018) and the hippocampus (p=0.012). A decrease was detected in the midbrain (p=0.025). Lateral asymmetry, with HMPAO uptake larger in the left hemisphere, was detected primarily in the neocortex, both at juvenile age (asymmetry index AI=2.7 ± 1

  9. Prevailing oral hygiene practices among urban Saudi Arabians in relation to age, gender and socio-economic background.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Meshari; Zimmerman, Mikael; Angmar-Månsson, Birgit

    2003-08-01

    The aim was to analyze prevailing oral hygiene practices among urban Saudi Arabians in relation to age, gender, and socio-economic background. Structured interviews were performed with 1155 regular patients at two centers providing dental care for university and military staff and their families, respectively, in the city of Makkah. Consecutive patients were stratified according to gender and age into 6 age categories from 10 to 60 years, with 50 male or female subjects in each group at each center. Oral hygiene habits were correlated with the subject's age and gender, and analyzed statistically using a generalized linear model. It was found that 73% used a toothbrush daily, while a miswak was used daily by 65%. Significant differences were found between genders and age groups, and between the centers. Regular miswak use was more prevalent among men (P < 0.01), while women used toothbrush more than miswak (P < 0.05). Regular miswak use was more frequent at older age (P < 0.001) and tooth brushing was less prevalent. Forty-four percent of the 51- to 60-year-old patients at the military center never used a toothbrush. Regular toothbrush use was more prevalent in the youngest age groups (P < 0.001). Among the 10- to 15-year-olds, 45% at the university center used only a toothbrush, while no adolescents at the military center used only a toothbrush. We conclude that there are large differences in current oral hygiene habits among Saudi Arabians, and that these are related mainly to age and socio-economic level, and to a lesser extent gender. This should be taken into account when planning oral health strategies for different categories.

  10. Healthy Eating Habits among the Population of Serbia: Gender and Age Differences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks’ Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the ‘knowledge’ variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia. PMID:25995724

  11. Effect of occupation-based groups on self-concept of children aged 5-8: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Scurlock, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this pilot study was to ascertain the effectiveness of an occupation-based after-school program for improving self-concept in children, ages five through eight. Fifty-four randomly selected children ages five through eight from two schools (one being the control group) with similar socioeconomic status along the Ohio River were involved in this research study. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PCSA; Harter & Pike, 1984) was administered to all participants (N = 54), four subtests were analyzed: cognitive competence, social competence with peers, physical competence in sports, and maternal acceptance. The experimental group (n = 25) attended occupation-based groups two times a week after school. The control group (n = 29) did not participate in an after-school program. Data from pre-test and post-test were analyzed using a t-test. Findings demonstrated that the experimental group improved their self-concept scores when compared to the control group in the areas of peer acceptance and cognitive competence. This would offer tentative evidence that an after-school program directed by occupational therapists that is designed to improve self-concept may be successful.

  12. Occupation and adult gliomas.

    PubMed

    Carozza, S E; Wrensch, M; Miike, R; Newman, B; Olshan, A F; Savitz, D A; Yost, M; Lee, M

    2000-11-01

    Lifetime job histories from a population-based, case-control study of gliomas diagnosed among adults in the San Francisco Bay area between August 1991 and April 1994 were evaluated to assess occupational risk factors. Occupational data for 476 cases and 462 controls were analyzed, with adjustment for age, gender, education, and race. Imprecise increased risks were observed for physicians and surgeons (odds ratio (OR) = 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7, 17.6), artists (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 0.5, 6.5), foundry and smelter workers (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 0.5, 13.1), petroleum and gas workers (OR = 4.9, 95% CI: 0.6, 42.2), and painters (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.5, 4.9). Legal and social service workers, shippers, janitors, motor vehicle operators, and aircraft operators had increased odds ratios only with longer duration of employment. Physicians and surgeons, foundry and smelter workers, petroleum and gas workers, and painters showed increased risk for both astrocytic and nonastrocytic tumors. Artists and firemen had increased risk for astrocytic tumors only, while messengers, textile workers, aircraft operators, and vehicle manufacturing workers showed increased risk only for nonastrocytic tumors. Despite study limitations, including small numbers for many of the occupational groups, a high percentage of proxy respondents among cases, and lack of specific exposure information, associations were observed for several occupations previously reported to be at higher risk for brain tumors generally and gliomas specifically.

  13. Observed Workplace Incivility toward Women, Perceptions of Interpersonal Injustice, and Observer Occupational Well-Being: Differential Effects for Gender of the Observer

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Kathi N.; Cortina, Lilia M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined perceptions of interpersonal injustice as a mediator of the relationship between observed incivility toward women at work and employees' occupational well-being. We also examined gender of the observer as a moderator of these mediational relationships. Using online survey data from 1702 (51% women; 92% White) employees, results showed that perceptions of injustice partially mediated the relationship between observed incivility toward women and job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and organizational trust. Men reported greater perceptions of injustice than did women the more they observed the uncivil treatment of women at work, and the indirect effects of observed incivility toward women on well-being were stronger for men compared to women. Observed incivility toward women also had direct relationships with the occupational well-being outcomes over and above the impact mediated through injustice, particularly for women. Specifically, observing incivility toward female coworkers directly related to lowered job satisfaction and perceptions of safety for female bystanders. In addition, although both male and female bystanders reported heightened turnover intentions and lowered trust in the organization with higher levels of observed incivility toward women, these relationships were stronger for female than male observers. Our findings both replicate and extend past research on vicarious workplace incivility toward women. PMID:27242558

  14. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in pooled human serum by age and gender.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Aleysha; Toms, Leisa-Maree Leontjew; Harden, Fiona A; Hobson, Peter; White, Nicole M; Mengersen, Kerrie L; Mueller, Jochen F

    2017-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been used for many decades in Australia with cessation of selected persistent and bioaccumulative OCPs ranging from the 1970s to as recently as 2007. The specific aims of this study were to use samples representative of an Australian population to assess age and gender differences in the concentration of OCPs in human blood sera and to investigate temporal trends in these chemicals. Serum was collected from de-identified, surplus pathology samples over five time periods (2002/03, 2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2012/13), with 183 serum pools made from 12,175 individual samples; 26 pools in 2002/03, 85 pools in 2006/07 and 24 pools each in 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2012/13. Samples were analyzed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), γ -hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) (γ-HCH), oxy-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT and Mirex. Stratification criteria included gender and age (0-4; 5-15; 16-30; 31-45; 46-60; and >60 years) with age additionally stratified by adults >16 years and children 0-4 and 5-15 years. All pools from all collection periods had detectable concentrations of OCPs with a detection frequency of >60% for HCB, β-HCH, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. The overall OCP concentrations increased with age with the highest concentrations in the >60 years groups. Females did not have higher mean OCP concentrations than males except for HCB concentrations (p=0.0006). Temporal trends showed overall decreasing serum concentrations by collection period with the exception of an increase in OCP concentrations between 2006/07 and 2008/09. Excluding this data point, HCB decreased from year to year by 7-76%; β-HCH concentrations decreased by 14 - 38%; trans-nonachlor concentrations decreased by 10 - 65%; p,p'-DDE concentrations decreased by 6 - 52%; and p,p'-DDT concentrations decreased by 7 - 30%. The results indicate that OCP concentrations have decreased over time as is to be

  15. Socioeconomic status overrides age and gender in determining health-seeking behaviour in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Tomson, Göran; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the health-seeking behaviour of elderly members (aged > 60 years) of households in rural Bangladesh, to ascertain how their behaviour differs from that of younger people (aged 20-59 years) living in the same household and to explore the determinants of health-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on the health-seeking behaviour of household members aged > 20 years. Respondents were asked about major illnesses occurring within 15 days prior to the interview. The sample consisted of 966 households that had at least one resident who was aged > 60 (32% of 3031 households). FINDINGS: We found no major differences in health-seeking behaviour between elderly people and younger adults. On average about 35% (405/1169) of those who reported having been ill during the previous 15 days in both age groups chose self-care/self-treatment; for both age groups the most commonly consulted type of provider was a paraprofessional such as a village doctor, a medical assistant or a community health worker. A household's poverty status emerged as a major determinant of health-seeking behaviour. The odds ratio (OR) that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from unqualified allopathic practitioners was 0.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.78); the odds ratio that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from qualified allopathic practitioners was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.60-0.95). For self-care or self-treatment it was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.43-2.36). Patients' level of education affected whether they avoided self-care/self-treatment and drugstore salespeople (who are usually unlicensed and untrained but who diagnose illnesses and sell medicine) and instead chose a formal allopathic practitioner (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.15-1.96). When a household's poverty status was controlled for, there were no differences in age or gender in terms of health-care expenditure. CONCLUSION: We found that socioeconomic

  16. Proteome-wide alterations on adipose tissue from obese patients as age-, diabetes- and gender-specific hallmarks

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Serrano, María; Camafeita, Emilio; García-Santos, Eva; López, Juan A.; Rubio, Miguel A.; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres, Antonio; Vázquez, Jesús; Peral, Belén

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a main global health issue and an outstanding cause of morbidity and mortality predisposing to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Huge research efforts focused on gene expression, cellular signalling and metabolism in obesity have improved our understanding of these disorders; nevertheless, to bridge the gap between the regulation of gene expression and changes in signalling/metabolism, protein levels must be assessed. We have extensively analysed visceral adipose tissue from age-, T2DM- and gender-matched obese patients using high-throughput proteomics and systems biology methods to identify new biomarkers for the onset of T2DM in obesity, as well as to gain insight into the influence of aging and gender in these disorders. About 250 proteins showed significant abundance differences in the age, T2DM and gender comparisons. In diabetic patients, remarkable gender-specific hallmarks were discovered regarding redox status, immune response and adipose tissue accumulation. Both aging and T2DM processes were associated with mitochondrial remodelling, albeit through well-differentiated proteome changes. Systems biology analysis highlighted mitochondrial proteins that could play a key role in the age-dependent pathophysiology of T2DM. Our findings could serve as a framework for future research in Translational Medicine directed at improving the quality of life of obese patients. PMID:27160966

  17. Analysis of gonial angle in relation to age, gender, and dentition status by radiological and anthropometric methods

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ram Ballabh; Upadhyay, Juhi; Agrawal, Pankaj; Rao, Nirmala N

    2012-01-01

    Background: With development and function, the mandibular angle has shown changes in size and shape. A variation in mandibular angle with age, gender, and even the dental status has been observed, which is supported by radiographic and anthropometric studies. Aims: The aim of this study were to evaluate relationship between complete loss of teeth and changes in the gonial angle; the study further intends to evaluate any variation in gonial angle with age and gender. The study intends to assess the reliability and accuracy of age and gender determination using gonial angle as a parameter. Materials and Methods: A total of 185 subjects (91 males; 89 females) were included in the study and were divided into five groups on the basis of the chronological age. Physico-forensic anthropometry and lateral cephalometric methods were used to record the gonial angle. Results: The present study shows a definite decrease in the gonial angle with advancing age, but the intergroup analysis does not follow a significant pattern. The study showed no correlation of gonial angle with gender. However, the study observed a 6° increase in gonial angle for edentulous subjects. Conclusion: Gonial angle has been used as an adjuvant forensic parameter, but its reliability is questionable, as the mandible does not follow one characteristic pattern. Gonial angle does show changes with dentition status, which may be attributed to physiologic function of the mandible. However, when evidence is scanty, it can be used to direct the investigation. PMID:23087579

  18. Narratives of attachment in middle childhood: do gender, age, and risk-status matter for the quality of attachment?

    PubMed

    Gloger-Tippelt, Gabriele; Kappler, Gregor

    2016-12-01

    Attachment in middle childhood increasingly attracts the interest of developmental psychologists and clinicians. Recent studies using attachment narratives elicited by story stems reported gender-specific aspects of attachment development, potentially evoked by developmental tasks during this period of the life span. There is evidence that children with risk factors present more insecure and disorganized attachment narratives compared to children without risk. Yet, there is little research concerning the joint effects of gender, risk, and age for attachment classifications. The paper presents a pooled analysis of 22 samples (eight risk samples) including 887 children (411 girls), aged between 4.5 and 8.5 years who were assessed with the same "German Attachment Story Completion Procedure" (GASCP). Girls were 1.8 times more likely to present secure and 0.4 times less likely to present disorganized narratives compared to boys when controlling for risk status and age. Children from risk samples were more likely (odd ratio 5.4) to display disorganized and less likely to show a secure attachment (odd ratio 0.3) compared to those from no-risk samples in multilevel logistic regressions. Remarkably, the effect of risk was not moderated by age and gender, and gender effects were not moderated by age.

  19. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012–2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132–1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673–0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094–1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China. PMID:27455322

  20. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-07-23

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012-2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132-1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673-0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094-1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China.

  1. Inter-Racial, Gender and Aging Influences in the Length of Anterior Commissure-Posterior Commissure Line

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae-One; De Salles, Antonio; Mattozo, Carlos; Pedroso, Alessandra G; Behnke, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Objective The length of anterior-posterior commissure (AC-PC) in racial groups, age, gender of patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) and pallidotomy were investigated. Methods From January 1996 to December 2003, 211 patients were treated with DBS and pallidotomy. There were 160 (76%) Caucasians, 35 (17%) Hispanics, 12 (5%) Asians and 4 Blacks (2%). There were 88 males and 52 females in DBS-surgery group and 44 males, 27 females in pallidotomy group. Mean age was 58 year-old. There were 19 males and 19 females and mean age was 54.7 years in the control group. Measurements were made on MRI and @Target software. Results The average AC-PC distance was 24.89 mm (range 32 to 19), which increased with aging until 75 years old in Caucasian and also increased with aging in Hispanic, but the AC-PC distance peaked at 45 years old in Hispanic. The order of AC-PC distance were 25.2±2 mm in Caucasian, 24.6±2.24 mm in Asian, 24.53 mm in Black, 23.6±1.98 mm in Hispanic. The average AC-PC distance in all groups was 24.22 mm in female who was mean age of 56.35, 25.28 mm in male who was mean age of 60.19 and 24.5±2 mm in control group that was excluded because of the difference of thickness of slice. According to multiple regression analysis, the AC-PC distance was significantly correlated with age, race, and gender. Conclusion The AC-PC distance is significantly correlated with age, gender, and race. The atlas of functional stereotaxis would be depended on the variation of indivisual brain that can influenced by aging, gender, and race. PMID:19096609

  2. A survey of cancer and occupation in young and middle aged men. I. Cancers of the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Osmond, C; Acheson, E D

    1986-05-01

    In a search for clues to previously industrial carcinogens the occupational and smoking histories of young and middle aged men with different types of cancer were compared. The study population comprised men aged 18-54 and resident in the counties of Cleveland, Humberside, and Cheshire (including the Wirral). From hospital and cancer registration records 2942 members of the study population in whom cancers were diagnosed during the period 1975-80 were identified retrospectively. The occupational and smoking histories of these patients were sought by a postal questionnaire addressed either to the patients themselves or, if they had died, to their next of kin. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 52.1%. Additionally, limited occupational information was obtained for 89% of cases from their hospital notes. Analysis of these data suggests that no serious bias arose as a consequence of the incomplete response to the questionnaire. This paper concentrates on the results for cancers of the respiratory tract and mesothelioma. Mesothelioma was found to cluster in laggers, electricians, and shipyard workers, and nasal carcinoma in woodworkers. Carcinomas of the larynx and of the bronchus were examined by formal statistical techniques, each being compared with a control group made up of all other cancers combined. Several interesting occupational and industrial associations were shown, in particular, an excess of bronchial carcinoma in the leather industry (RR = 2.6, CI 1.2-6.0), in building labourers (RR = 1.7, CI 1.0-2.9) and other construction workers (RR = 1.8, CI 1.0-3.0), in bakers and pastry cooks (RR = 3.6, CI 1.3-10.4). and in cooks (RR = 2.5, CI 1.2-5.1). In addition, a small cluster of lung tumours was observed in men who had worked as dental mechanics.

  3. A survey of cancer and occupation in young and middle aged men. I. Cancers of the respiratory tract.

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Osmond, C; Acheson, E D

    1986-01-01

    In a search for clues to previously industrial carcinogens the occupational and smoking histories of young and middle aged men with different types of cancer were compared. The study population comprised men aged 18-54 and resident in the counties of Cleveland, Humberside, and Cheshire (including the Wirral). From hospital and cancer registration records 2942 members of the study population in whom cancers were diagnosed during the period 1975-80 were identified retrospectively. The occupational and smoking histories of these patients were sought by a postal questionnaire addressed either to the patients themselves or, if they had died, to their next of kin. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 52.1%. Additionally, limited occupational information was obtained for 89% of cases from their hospital notes. Analysis of these data suggests that no serious bias arose as a consequence of the incomplete response to the questionnaire. This paper concentrates on the results for cancers of the respiratory tract and mesothelioma. Mesothelioma was found to cluster in laggers, electricians, and shipyard workers, and nasal carcinoma in woodworkers. Carcinomas of the larynx and of the bronchus were examined by formal statistical techniques, each being compared with a control group made up of all other cancers combined. Several interesting occupational and industrial associations were shown, in particular, an excess of bronchial carcinoma in the leather industry (RR = 2.6, CI 1.2-6.0), in building labourers (RR = 1.7, CI 1.0-2.9) and other construction workers (RR = 1.8, CI 1.0-3.0), in bakers and pastry cooks (RR = 3.6, CI 1.3-10.4). and in cooks (RR = 2.5, CI 1.2-5.1). In addition, a small cluster of lung tumours was observed in men who had worked as dental mechanics. PMID:3707871

  4. The Colorado Community College and Occupational Education System: Knowledge-Age Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhasin, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of a communication council by the Colorado Community College and Occupational Education System (CCCOES) for the purpose of consortial communication. Discusses the need for new approaches to marketing and communication, both at the individual colleges and consortially. Describes projects undertaken by the council,…

  5. Occupational Home Economics Education Series. Care and Independent Living Services for Aging. Competency Based Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler-Liston, Carol; And Others

    This large training module is intended to help prepare home helpers or others who can provide direct care and can utilize resources to assist older persons. The document presents first a general discussion of the background and rationale behind a series of occupational home economics modules. In addition, the particular module on serving the aging…

  6. Profile of oxidant and antioxidant activity in prepubertal children related to age, gender, exercise, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Cantarero, Francisco Jesus; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Benitez-Sillero, Juan de Dios; Muñoz-Villanueva, Maria Carmen; Tasset, Inmaculada; Pérez-Navero, Juan Luis

    2013-04-01

    Tissue damage resulting from oxidative stress induced by a pathological condition might have more serious consequences in children than in adults. Researchers have not yet identified particular markers - alone or in combination with others - of oxidative stress, or their role in pediatric diseases. The aim of this study was to identify gender-based biomarkers for measuring oxidative stress. Oxidative biomarkers were studied in 138 healthy Spanish children (85 boys, 53 girls) 7 to 12 years of age, at the prepubertal (Tanner I) stage, independent of body mass index (BMI), age, fitness (measured by 20-m shuttle run test), and physical activity (measured by participation in an after-school exercise program). The oxidative biomarkers measured were lipid peroxidation products, total nitrites, protein carbonyls, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The antioxidant biomarkers measured were total glutathione (TG), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase activity. In the study population, height, weight, waist circumference, and BMI were lower in girls than in boys. For oxidative biomarkers, boys had higher levels of protein carbonyl than girls (p < 0.001). In spite of this, girls had higher levels of GSSG (p < 0.001) and TG (p = 0.001), and a lower GSH/GSSG ratio (p < 0.001) than boys. For the antioxidant response, girls had higher levels of SOD (p = 0.002) than boys. All analyses were adjusted for BMI, age, fitness, and physical activity. In conclusion, prepubertal girls had higher oxidative stress than boys, in addition to higher levels of SOD, independent of age, BMI, fitness, and physical activity.

  7. Gender- and age-related treatment compliance in patients with osteoporosis in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hadji, Peyman; Jacob, Louis; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to analyze treatment compliance in osteoporotic patients treated with osteoporosis medications in Germany. Methods Patients included in the analysis had been diagnosed with osteoporosis with or without fractures and started anti-osteoporotic therapy (bisphosphonates, denosumab, or strontium ranelate) between 2011 and 2014 in a general (GP) or orthopedic practice (OP) setting in Germany. Data pertaining to 6,221 individuals followed in GP and 4,044 individuals followed in OP were analyzed retrospectively. The last follow-up was in December 2015. The main outcome measure was the compliance within the one-year period after the index prescription date. Compliance was measured indirectly and was based on the mean possession ratio (MPR). A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the association between MPR (dependent variable) and age, gender, type of practice, type of osteoporosis treatment, therapy frequency, and history of fracture (covariates). Results The mean age of the study group was 73.3 years, and 13.2% of subjects were men. Regarding type of practice, 60.6% of individuals were followed in GP and 39.4% in OP. Noncompliance was observed in 55.2% of the patients. Patients in the age group ≤60 years were at a higher risk of being noncompliant when compared to those in the age group of 61–70 years. Men and patients who received oral drugs were also more likely to be noncompliant than women and patients who received injectable or intravenous drugs. Finally, therapies that were given every three or six months were associated with a decrease in the risk of noncompliance when compared to weekly therapy, whereas daily and monthly treatments were associated with an increased risk. Conclusion Compliance is insufficient in osteoporotic patients treated with osteoporosis medications. PMID:27920504

  8. Homicides in Western Norway, 1985-2009, time trends, age and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, S; Lilleng, P K; Mæhle, B O; Morild, I

    2014-05-01

    This retrospective study from Western Norway is based on the cases of 196 homicide victims from 1985 to 2009. The median age of the victims was 35 years, in both genders. Within the cases, 113 of the victims were male and 83 female, 28 victims were under the age of 18, and 19 victims were not native Norwegians. Ethanol was detected in the blood of a higher proportion of male compared to female victims, whereas a higher proportion of female compared to male victims had both illegal/legal drugs detected in their blood. Most perpetrators were male. Men were most often killed by an acquaintance, women by their present or former intimate partner. In 14 cases of intimate partner homicide the perpetrator committed suicide after killing their female partner. The dominant scene of crime was private homes. Most victims were killed by blunt force, sharp force or gunshot. The head was the body region most often injured in the homicide victims. Female victims were more often killed by manual strangulation than male victims.

  9. Effects of gestational length, gender, postnatal age, and birth order on visual contrast sensitivity in infants

    PubMed Central

    Dobkins, Karen R.; Bosworth, Rain G.; McCleery, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate effects of visual experience versus preprogrammed mechanisms on visual development, we used multiple regression analysis to determine the extent to which a variety of variables (that differ in the extent to which they are tied to visual experience) predict luminance and chromatic (red/green) contrast sensitivity (CS), which are mediated by the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) subcortical pathways, respectively. Our variables included gestational length (GL), birth weight (BW), gender, postnatal age (PNA), and birth order (BO). Two-month-olds (n = 60) and 6-month-olds (n = 122) were tested. Results revealed that (1) at 2 months, infants with longer GL have higher luminance CS; (2) at both ages, CS significantly increases over a ~21-day range of PNA, but this effect is stronger in 2- than 6-month-olds and stronger for chromatic than luminance CS; (3) at 2 months, boys have higher luminance CS than girls; and (4) at 2 months, firstborn infants have higher CS, while at 6 months, non-firstborn infants have higher CS. The results for PNA/GL are consistent with the possibility that P pathway development is more influenced by variables tied to visual experience (PNA), while M pathway development is more influenced by variables unrelated to visual experience (GL). Other variables, including prenatal environment, are also discussed. PMID:19810800

  10. Gender Differences in Sleep Disturbance among Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Quan, Shan Ai; Li, Yong Chun; Li, Wen Jie; Li, Yan; Jeong, Jin Young; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2016-11-01

    Sleep is an important component in our lives as it is necessary throughout one's entire life span. This study was conducted to elucidate whether there are gender differences in sleep quality and what factors can affect sleep quality in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. A total of 382 subjects (175 males and 207 females) were recruited among elderly aged 45 or over who participated in the 2010 Hallym Aging Study (HAS). They were invited to a general hospital and were evaluated for socioeconomic status, smoking history, and various clinical measures. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A higher score indicates poorer subjective sleep quality, (PSQI global score > 5 suggests sleep disturbance). After adjusting for potential covariates, our results show that alcohol increases the odds for poor sleep (odds ratio [OR] = 3.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-10.10) in males. In females, lack of exercise was the major risk factor of poor sleep as they are 4.46 times more likely to suffer from low sleep quality than those who exercise regularly (95% CI=1.56-13.75). Stress was also a risk factor for poor sleep. It was 5.60 times higher in the "always have stress" group than the "do not have stress" group (95% CI = 1.54-20.34). Thus, alcohol consumption is associated with men's sleep quality, while exercise and stress level affect women's.

  11. e-Mental health in South Australia: impact of age, gender and region of residence.

    PubMed

    Keane, Miriam C; Roeger, Leigh S; Allison, Stephen; Reed, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Respondents to the 2008 South Australian Health Omnibus survey (n=2996) indicated whether, in the previous 12 months, they had searched for information on the Internet relating to emotional issues such as depression, anxiety or relationship problems. Logistic regression was used to examine the penetration of e-mental health in rural and metropolitan areas (region of residence), and determine if other demographic variables (age group, gender) also impacted on the likelihood of an individual reporting that they had used the Internet to obtain such information. Overall, 9% of respondents reported that they had used the Internet for this purpose. The multivariate model was significant, F(11, 2985)=4.82, P<0.0001, with middle-aged rural females most likely to report doing so (18.1%), whereas older rural males were least likely to report doing so (2.2.%). These findings have important implications for the design of e-mental health promotional programs that provide information and interventions to improve mental health.

  12. Effects of gestational length, gender, postnatal age, and birth order on visual contrast sensitivity in infants.

    PubMed

    Dobkins, Karen R; Bosworth, Rain G; McCleery, Joseph P

    2009-09-30

    To investigate effects of visual experience versus preprogrammed mechanisms on visual development, we used multiple regression analysis to determine the extent to which a variety of variables (that differ in the extent to which they are tied to visual experience) predict luminance and chromatic (red/green) contrast sensitivity (CS), which are mediated by the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) subcortical pathways, respectively. Our variables included gestational length (GL), birth weight (BW), gender, postnatal age (PNA), and birth order (BO). Two-month-olds (n = 60) and 6-month-olds (n = 122) were tested. Results revealed that (1) at 2 months, infants with longer GL have higher luminance CS; (2) at both ages, CS significantly increases over a approximately 21-day range of PNA, but this effect is stronger in 2- than 6-month-olds and stronger for chromatic than luminance CS; (3) at 2 months, boys have higher luminance CS than girls; and (4) at 2 months, firstborn infants have higher CS, while at 6 months, non-firstborn infants have higher CS. The results for PNA/GL are consistent with the possibility that P pathway development is more influenced by variables tied to visual experience (PNA), while M pathway development is more influenced by variables unrelated to visual experience (GL). Other variables, including prenatal environment, are also discussed.

  13. Age- and gender-related accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianshe; Zhang, Yating; Zhang, Fang; Yeung, Leo W Y; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamazaki, Eriko; Wang, Renping; Lam, Paul K S; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Dai, Jiayin

    2013-08-01

    Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in serum of the highly endangered captive Chinese alligators, whole body homogenates of six kinds of fish (alligator prey species), and pond water (alligator habitat) in the Anhui Research Center for Chinese Alligator Reproduction. Six PFASs, including PFOS and five perfluorinated carboxylates, were detected in all alligator samples. The most dominant PFAS was PFUnDA, with a mean value of 31.4 ng/mL. Significant positive correlations were observed among the six PFASs, suggesting that they shared similar sources of contamination. Significantly higher PFOS and PFUnDA levels were observed in males, but the other four PFCAs did not differ between genders. An age related PFAS bioaccumulation analysis showed a significant negative correlation of the concentrations for five PFCAs to age, which means that higher concentrations were found in younger animals. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) in fish for PFASs ranged from 21 to 28,000, with lower BAF for PFOA than that for longer carbon chain PFCAs, including PFUnDA, PFDA, and PFNA.

  14. Changes in Support Networks in Late Middle Age: The Extension of Gender and Educational Differences

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This paper tests whether differences by gender and by educational attainment in contact with friends and family and in support expected from friends and family narrow or widen in late middle age. Methods. The data are drawn from about 4,800 members of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey who answered questions about their frequency of contact with social ties and expectations of 3 kinds of help in both 1993, when they were in their early 50s, and again in 2004. Results. Using lagged dependent variable models, we find that between their 50s and 60s women’s network advantages over men and college graduates’ network advantages over high school graduates in frequency of social contact widened. The same was roughly true as well for expectations of social support, although here the divergences depended partly on the type of the support: Women gained relative to men in “talk” support and in help from nonkin if ill, but lost ground in financial support. The college-educated gained ground in all sorts of support from nonkin. Discussion. These results reinforce concern that late middle age is a period when men and the less educated become yet more disadvantaged in social support, making attention to connectedness yet more critical. PMID:24898029

  15. Aerobic exercise, subjective health and psychological well-being within age and gender subgroups.

    PubMed

    Ransford, H E; Palisi, B J

    1996-06-01

    This research examines relationships between different forms of aerobic exercise (swim, walk, jog, dance) and two measures of health: subjective health and psychological well-being. We hypothesize that the relationship between aerobic exercise and subjective health/well-being will be notably stronger for older than younger persons and females than males. This prediction is based on Homans' exchange theory of investments and rewards. Since social norms concerning aerobic exercise are likely to be weaker among older (than younger) persons and among women than men, older persons and women who do exercise are making special investments and should expect greater rewards (good health). The concept of 'exercise norms' implies social comparisons with others. Accordingly, age comparative data were analyzed to see if older persons who exercise see themselves as more active than their age peers than do younger persons. Data come from a national probability sample of 3025 adults (National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences). As predicted, exercise was much more strongly related to subjective health and well-being among older than younger respondents. In the main, the gender hypothesis was not supported.

  16. Income, neighborhood stressors, and harsh parenting: test of moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender.

    PubMed

    Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2014-12-01

    Family and neighborhood influences related to low-income were examined to understand their association with harsh parenting among an ethnically diverse sample of families. Specifically, a path model linking household income to harsh parenting via neighborhood disorder, fear for safety, maternal depressive symptoms, and family conflict was evaluated using cross-sectional data from 2,132 families with children ages 5-16 years from Chicago. The sample was 42% Mexican American, 41% African American, and 17% European American. Results provide support for a family process model where a lower income-to-needs ratio is associated with higher reports of neighborhood disorder, greater fear for safety, and more family conflict, which is in turn, associated with greater frequency of harsh parenting. Our tests for moderation by ethnicity/immigrant status, child gender, and child age (younger child vs. adolescent) indicate that although paths are similar for families of boys and girls, as well as for families of young children and adolescents, there are some differences by ethnic group. Specifically, we find the path from neighborhood disorder to fear for safety is stronger for Mexican American (United States born and immigrant) and European American families in comparison with African American families. We also find that the path from fear for safety to harsh parenting is significant for European American and African American families only. Possible reasons for such moderated effects are considered.

  17. Prevalence and severity of anaemia stratified by age and gender in rural India.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Naik, Praveen K; Midde, Manoranjan; Yalla, Pradeep S; Pakam, Raghavakalyan

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia is a major public health problem in India. Although nearly three quarters of the Indian population live in rural areas, the epidemiology of anaemia in rural settings is not well known. We performed a retrospective observational study using routine clinical data from patients attending the out-patient clinics of a rural hospital in India from June 2011 to August 2014. The study included 73,795 determinations of haemoglobin. 49.5% of patients were female. The median haemoglobin concentration was 11.3 g/dL (interquartile range (IQR), 9.8-12.4) in females and 12.5 g/dL (IQR, 10.6-14.2) in males. Anaemia was present in the majority of children <10 years, women after puberty, and older adults. Children <5 years had the highest prevalence of anaemia, especially children aged 1-2 years. The high proportion of microcytic anaemia and the fact that gender differences were only seen after the menarche period in women suggest that iron deficiency was the main cause of anaemia. However, the prevalence of normocytic anaemia increased with age. The results of this study can be used by public health programmes to design target interventions aimed at reducing the huge burden of anaemia in India. Further studies are needed to clarify the aetiology of anaemia among older adults.

  18. Age and Gender Differences in the Well-Being of Midlife and Aging Parents with Children with Mental Health or Developmental Problems: Report of a National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Jung-Hwa; Hong, Jinkuk; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the Study of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS), this article examines: (1) the effect of having children with developmental or mental health problems on parents mental and physical health, (2) the extent to which this effect varies by parental age and gender, and (3) the effects of disability-related factors on the well-being of…

  19. Bad marriage, broken heart? Age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risks among older adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

    2014-12-01

    Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57-85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework.

  20. Bad Marriage, Broken Heart? Age and Gender Differences in the Link between Marital Quality and Cardiovascular Risks among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57–85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts; and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. PMID:25413802

  1. Gender Differences in Vocational Rehabilitation Service Predictors of Successful Competitive Employment for Transition-Aged Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Connie; Sánchez, Jennifer; Kuo, Hung-Jen; Wang, Chia-Chiang; Leahy, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    As males and females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience different symptomology, their needs for vocational rehabilitation (VR) are unique as they transition into adulthood. This study examined the effects of gender differences in VR service predictors on employment outcomes for transition-aged individuals with ASD. A total of 1696…

  2. Do the Instructors Differ in Their Behavioral Intention to Adopt E-Learning Based on Age, Gender, and Internet Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altawallbeh, Manal; Thiam, Wun; Alshourah, Sultan; Fong, Soon Fook

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine if there are differences of the age, gender, and internet experience on behavioural intention to adopt e-learning of the instructors in Jordanian universities. The paper takes a social, and technical approach in its investigation by using a research model based on the ANOVA and t-test Analysis to identify if…

  3. A Study of Associations between Age, Race, Gender, and Adult Learners Graduating from a Distant-Learning Master's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, Deborah Trupp

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on adult learners' age, race, gender, and whether they graduated from a distant-learning, master in the art of teaching program at an accredited college during the three academic semesters that comprised the 2007-2008 school year. The dependent variable used in this study consisted of whether adult learners graduated from a…

  4. Investigation of Music Student Efficacy as Influenced by Age, Experience, Gender, Ethnicity, and Type of Instrument Played in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Norman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to quantitatively examine South Carolina high school instrumental music students' self-efficacy as measured by the Generalized Self-Efficacy (GSE) instrument (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1993). The independent variables of age, experience, gender, ethnicity, and type of instrument played) were correlated with…

  5. The Impact of Teachers' Age, Gender and Experience on the Use of Information and Communication Technology in EFL Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahdi, Hassan Saleh; Al-Dera, Abdullah Sa'ad

    2013-01-01

    The integration of information and communication technology (ICT) into language teaching and learning depends on many factors. Some of these factors are associated with teachers. Teachers play a crucial role in the integration of ICT. This study investigates the impact of teacher's age, experience, and gender on the integration of ICT into…

  6. Who Gets Ahead?: The Effect of Age, Disability, Ethnicity and Gender on Teachers' Careers and Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart; Davidson, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results from a 12-month study of teachers' career progress in schools in England and the ways in which headteachers and teachers perceive that age, disability, ethnicity and gender affect teachers' career prospects. Many teachers thought that they had been promoted because of their personal traits, such as drive,…

  7. The Relation of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Risk Behaviors to Self-Esteem among Students in Nonmainstream Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer M.; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two non-mainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a…

  8. The Impact of Gender, Family Type and Age on Undergraduate Parents' Perception of Causes of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onoyase, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Impact of Gender, Family type and Age on undergraduate parents' perception of causes of child Sexual Abuse. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested. There was a review of relevant literature. The population for the study were 2014 sandwich contact students of Delta State University, Abraka who…

  9. Disparity in Autism Spectrum Disorder Prevalence among Taiwan National Health Insurance Enrollees: Age, Gender and Urbanization Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Chiang, Po-Huang; Lin, Lam-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to characterize the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Taiwan while examining the effects of age, gender, and urbanization on ASD occurrence. A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze data from 895,639 random health insurance claimants who claimed medical services in the year 2007. Autism was defined…

  10. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and Adolescent and Adult Recidivism-- Considerations with Respect to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health…

  11. Diagnosing Intellectual Disability in a Forensic Sample: Gender and Age Effects on the Relationship between Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The relationship between adaptive behaviour and cognitive functioning in offenders with intellectual disabilities is not well researched. This study aims to examine gender and age effects on the relationship between these two areas of functioning. Method: The "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales" (VABS) and the "Kaufman…

  12. Ethnic and Gender Trends for Cardiovascular Risk Behaviors in Anglo and Mexican American Children, Ages Four to Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nader, Philip R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined gender and ethnic trends in Mexican American and Anglo preschoolers at home and school using physical, physiological, dietary, activity, and socioenvironmental assessments. Height and total skinfolds showed significant ethnic differences, confirming that preschool represents an age of rapid habit and behavior development…

  13. What's Age Got to Do with It? A Case Study Analysis of Power and Gender in Husband-Older Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyke, Karen; Adams, Michele

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study explores assumptions of family scholars who draw on age heterogamy and marriage-gradient approaches to suggest that marriages between older husbands and much younger wives are likely to be male-dominated, with traditional gender arrangements. Drawing on resource theory and marital power perspectives, we analyze the life…

  14. The Relationship between Age, Gender, Historical Change, and Adults' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currin, James B.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Temple, Jeff R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of age, historical change, and gender on perceptions of mental health and mental health services. Using multidimensional measures to assess such perceptions among older adults (1977, 1991, 2000), and younger adults (1991, 2000), we expected that older adults would have less positive mental health…

  15. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson "et al." ("Counsellor Education & Supervision" 41: 120-130, 1992) was…

  16. Attributions to Success and Failure in English Language Learning: The Effects of Gender, Age and Perceived Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genç, Gülten

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze Turkish tertiary level EFL learners' attributions to success and failure and the effects of gender, age, and perceived success on their attributions. The results indicated that EFL learners respectively attributed interest, ability, task difficulty, effort, luck and the influence of teacher and school…

  17. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  18. The Subtlety of Age, Gender, and Race Barriers: A Case Study of Early Career African American Female Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2013-01-01

    While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…

  19. UTAUT Model for Blended Learning: The Role of Gender and Age in the Intention to Use Webinars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khechine, Hager; Lakhal, Sawsen; Pascot, Daniel; Bytha, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to determine the factors that explain the acceptance of a webinar system (Elluminate) in a blended learning course by students. The effects of gender and age as moderating variables were also studied. Our hypotheses were based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of the technology model, which was proven to be…

  20. Effects of Autistic Traits on Social and School Adjustment in Children and Adolescents: The Moderating Roles of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…