Science.gov

Sample records for age gender weight

  1. Auditory brainstem response in neonates: influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio

    PubMed Central

    Angrisani, Rosanna M. Giaffredo; Bautzer, Ana Paula D.; Matas, Carla Gentile; de Azevedo, Marisa Frasson

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio on the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) in preterm (PT) and term (T) newborns. METHODS: 176 newborns were evaluated by ABR; 88 were preterm infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age) and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age). The preterm infants were compared to 88 term infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age) and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age). All newborns had bilateral presence of transient otoacoustic emissions and type A tympanometry. RESULTS: No interaural differences were found. ABR response did not differentiate newborns regarding weight/gestational age in males and females. Term newborn females showed statistically shorter absolute latencies (except on wave I) than males. This finding did not occur in preterm infants, who had longer latencies than term newborns, regardless of gender. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and gestational age influence term infants' ABR, with lower responses in females. The weight/gestational age ratio did not influence ABR response in either groups. PMID:24473955

  2. Association between socioeconomic status, weight, age and gender, and the body image and weight control practices of 6- to 19-year-old children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, J A; Caputi, P

    2001-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES), age, weight and gender on the body image and weight control practices of children and adolescents, and to investigate whether health education about weight issues should target low socioeconomic groups. The study participants were a randomly selected group of school children who completed a questionnaire, and had their height and weight measured. Participants (n = 1131) were aged 6-19 years from 12 schools in New South Wales. SES, age, gender, body weight, body image, skipping breakfast, physical self-esteem, attempts to lose or gain weight, and dietary and weight control advice received from others were examined. Log-linear, chi 2 and MANOVA analyses were used to determine interactions between variables. Low SES children were more likely to be overweight, to skip breakfast, to perceive themselves as 'too thin', to be trying to gain weight and less likely to receive dietary or weight control advice. Physical self-esteem was lowest among overweight girls of middle/upper SES and greatest among boys of low SES, despite the latter being more likely to be overweight. Being overweight does not appear to adversely affect the physical self-esteem of children of low SES, particularly boys. Health educators should examine these issues with young people to help make health education and nutrition education most relevant and appropriate.

  3. Determinants of appetite ratings: the role of age, gender, BMI, physical activity, smoking habits, and diet/weight concern

    PubMed Central

    Gregersen, Nikolaj T.; Møller, Bente K.; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Søren T.; Holm, Lotte; Flint, Anne; Astrup, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Background Appetite measures are often recorded by visual analogue scales (VAS), and are assumed to reflect central nervous system (CNS) perceptions and sensations. However, little is known about how physiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors influence VAS. Objective To investigate whether age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking habits, physical activity, diet behaviour, and menstruation cycle are determinants of appetite ratings. Design We investigated appetite ratings in different groups of a population during a single meal test, including 178 healthy women (98) and men (80), aged 20–60 years with a BMI of 18.5–35.0 kg/m2. Subjects consumed an evening meal composed to meet individual requirements of energy content and recommendations regarding macronutrient composition. Before and every half hour until 3 hours after the meal, subjects filled out VAS for satiety, fullness, hunger, and prospective food intake. They also filled in a questionnaire on eating/slimming behaviour. Results Multiple linear regression analyses showed that gender and age were the most powerful predictors of postprandial satiety (p<0.001, adj. R2=0.19) and hunger (p<0.001, adj. R2=0.15). Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) analyses revealed that women felt more satisfied than men (p<0.001) and older subjects felt more satisfied than younger (p<0.01). Furthermore, light/no exercisers felt more satisfied and less hungry than hard/moderate exercisers (p<0.05), but these differences disappeared after adjusting for age and gender. Smokers rated their prospective consumption lower than non-smokers (p<005) and women in the ovulation phase felt less hungry than women in the menstruation phase (p<005). Neither BMI nor diet/weight concern were significantly associated with appetite ratings. Conclusions Appetite ratings differed according to age, gender, and physical activity and to a lesser degree for smoking habits and menstruation cycle. Appetite ratings were not

  4. The Association between Body Dissatisfaction and Depression: An Examination of the Moderating Effects of Gender, Age, and Weight Status in a Sample of Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gui; Guo, Guiping; Gong, Jingbo; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the moderating effects of gender, age, and weight status on the relationship between body dissatisfaction and depression among adolescents. Data were collected on body dissatisfaction, depression, and demographic characteristics from a convenience sample of 1,101 adolescents (505 girls, 596 boys). The relationship…

  5. Gender differences between hypocretin/orexin knockout and wild type mice: age, body weight, body composition, metabolic markers, leptin and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Lalini; Siegel, Jerome M

    2014-12-01

    Female hypocretin knockout (Hcrt KO) mice have increased body weight despite decreased food intake compared to wild type (WT) mice. In order to understand the nature of the increased body weight, we carried out a detailed study of Hcrt KO and WT, male, and female mice. Female KO mice showed consistently higher body weight than WT mice, from 4 to 20 months (20-60%). Fat, muscle, and free fluid levels were all significantly higher in adult (7-9 months) as well as old (18-20 months) female KO mice compared to age-matched WT mice. Old male KO mice showed significantly higher fat content (150%) compared to age-matched WT mice, but no significant change in body weight. Respiratory quotient (-19%) and metabolic rates (-14%) were significantly lower in KO mice compared to WT mice, regardless of gender or age. Female KO mice had significantly higher serum leptin levels (191%) than WT mice at 18-20 months, but no difference between male mice were observed. Conversely, insulin resistance was significantly higher in both male (73%) and female (93%) KO mice compared to age- and sex-matched WT mice. We conclude that absence of the Hcrt peptide has gender-specific effects. In contrast, Hcrt-ataxin mice and human narcoleptics, with loss of the whole Hcrt cell, show weight gain in both sexes.

  6. GENDER, WEIGHT, AND AGE EFFECTS ON PREVALENCE OF CAUDAL ABERRANT NASAL TURBINATES IN CLINICALLY HEALTHY ENGLISH BULLDOGS: A COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC STUDY AND CLASSIFICATION.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana Grosso, Federico; Haar, Gert Ter; Boroffka, Susanne A E B

    2015-01-01

    English Bulldogs have been reported to demonstrate abnormal growth and development of the nasal turbinates, which contribute to an increase in airway resistance and hence clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and severity of caudal aberrant turbinate protrusion via CT studies of English Bulldogs with, according to the owners, none or minimal clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. An additional objective was to propose a classification scheme for describing the degree of caudal aberrant turbinate protrusion in English Bulldogs and to apply this scheme in assessing the effect of gender, weight, and age on prevalence and severity of turbinate protrusion. The nasal cavities of 40 clinically healthy English Bulldogs were examined. The prevalence of caudal aberrant turbinates in this group was 100%. Using our proposed classification scheme, Grade 1 (minimal) was detected in 7 of 40 (17.5%), Grade 2 (mild) in 28 of 40 (70%), and Grade 3 (moderate) in 5 of 40 (12.5%) English Bulldogs. No significant effect of gender, weight, and age on degree of protrusion was found. In conclusion, this study identified minimal to moderate protrusion of caudal aberrant turbinates toward the nasopharynx in all the sampled English Bulldogs, despite the absence of clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome.

  7. Weight, Gender Appear to Play Part in Kidney Transplant Success

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164374.html Weight, Gender Appear to Play Part in Kidney Transplant Success ... THURSDAY, March 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Weight and gender differences between donors and recipients can affect the ...

  8. Relative Weights of the Backpacks of Elementary-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Benjamin P.; Bryant, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school students…

  9. College Freshman Stress and Weight Change: Differences by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economos, Christina D.; Hildebrandt, M. Lise; Hyatt, Raymond R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change by gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was…

  10. Gender Relations and Applied Research on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calasanti, Toni

    2010-01-01

    As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of…

  11. Age and Gender Differences in Instructional Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcheir, Marcia J.

    This study examines whether students' age and/or gender impact their preferences for instructional practices thought to improve learning, and their preparation for college and performance in college. Students were asked which of 38 instructional practices they preferred, how often they experienced each practice, and how well prepared they felt in…

  12. Age-related eye disease and gender.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, the prevalence of moderate to severe visual impairment and blindness is 285 millions, with 65% of visually impaired and 82% of all blind people being 50 years and older. Meta-analyses have shown that two out of three blind people are women, a gender discrepancy that holds true for both developed and developing countries. Cataract accounts for more than half of all blindness globally and gender inequity in access to cataract surgery is the major cause of the higher prevalence of blindness in women. In addition to gender differences in cataract surgical coverage, population-based studies on the prevalence of lens opacities indicate that women have a higher risk of developing cataract. Laboratory as well as epidemiologic studies suggest that estrogen may confer antioxidative protection against cataractogenesis, but the withdrawal effect of estrogen in menopause leads to increased risk of cataract in women. For the other major age-related eye diseases; glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy, data are inconclusive. Due to anatomic factors, angle closure glaucoma is more common in women, whereas the dominating glaucoma type; primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is more prevalent in men. Diabetic retinopathy also has a male predominance and vascular/circulatory factors have been implied both in diabetic retinopathy and in POAG. For AMD, data on gender differences are conflicting although some studies indicate increased prevalence of drusen and neovascular AMD in women. To conclude, both biologic and socioeconomic factors must be considered when investigating causes of gender differences in the prevalence of age-related eye disease.

  13. Gender and Weight Shape Brain Dynamics during Food Viewing

    PubMed Central

    Toepel, Ulrike; Knebel, Jean-François; Hudry, Julie; le Coutre, Johannes; Murray, Micah M.

    2012-01-01

    Hemodynamic imaging results have associated both gender and body weight to variation in brain responses to food-related information. However, the spatio-temporal brain dynamics of gender-related and weight-wise modulations in food discrimination still remain to be elucidated. We analyzed visual evoked potentials (VEPs) while normal-weighted men (n = 12) and women (n = 12) categorized photographs of energy-dense foods and non-food kitchen utensils. VEP analyses showed that food categorization is influenced by gender as early as 170 ms after image onset. Moreover, the female VEP pattern to food categorization co-varied with participants' body weight. Estimations of the neural generator activity over the time interval of VEP modulations (i.e. by means of a distributed linear inverse solution [LAURA]) revealed alterations in prefrontal and temporo-parietal source activity as a function of image category and participants' gender. However, only neural source activity for female responses during food viewing was negatively correlated with body-mass index (BMI) over the respective time interval. Women showed decreased neural source activity particularly in ventral prefrontal brain regions when viewing food, but not non-food objects, while no such associations were apparent in male responses to food and non-food viewing. Our study thus indicates that gender influences are already apparent during initial stages of food-related object categorization, with small variations in body weight modulating electrophysiological responses especially in women and in brain areas implicated in food reward valuation and intake control. These findings extend recent reports on prefrontal reward and control circuit responsiveness to food cues and the potential role of this reactivity pattern in the susceptibility to weight gain. PMID:22590605

  14. Relationships among gender, age, and intellectual development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hernandez, Lilian; Marek, Edmund A.; Renner, John W.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among gender, age, and intellectual development. Random samples of 70 females and 70 males were selected with each sex group equally divided into a low-age and a high-age group. The low-age group ranged in age from 16.25 years to 16.75 years and the high-age group from 16.76 years to 17.25 years. The Piaget tasks selected to measure cognitive development were: Conservation of Volume, Separation of Variables, and Equilibrium in the Balance and Combination of Colorless Chemical Liquids. Data from this research produced these findings: (1) males demonstrate a higher level of intellectual development than females, (2) males mature intellectually earlier than females, (3) the value of the conservation of volume task as a component of a battery of formal tasks depends upon whether the decisions are to be made on the basis of the total-task results or on individual task performance, and (4) there appear to be factors other than age and gender that are related to the development of formal operational reasoning. These investigators hypothesize that experiences is another important factor.

  15. The Meaning of Gender while Aging with Paralytic Polio

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tracie; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Walker, Janiece; Scott, Tiffany; Choban, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the influence of gender on aging with childhood onset paralytic polio. The hermeneutic phenomenological exploration of gender was done using multiple qualitative interviews with 25 women, age 55 to 75 years of age, who had polio since before 14 years of age. We noted three themes: 1) The movement of her body, 2) Integrating body and gender, and 3) Gender discrepancies. Findings are discussed in the context of gendered expectations and the women’s bodies. PMID:21240713

  16. Effects of age and gender on pharmacokinetics of cefepime.

    PubMed Central

    Barbhaiya, R H; Knupp, C A; Pittman, K A

    1992-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics of cefepime were examined in 48 volunteers following administration of a single 1,000-mg intravenous dose. Male and female subjects were divided into four groups, each consisting of 12 subjects, according to their age and gender. The young subjects were between 20 and 40 years of age and elderly subjects were between 65 and 81 years of age. Serial blood and urine samples were collected from each subject and were analyzed for cefepime by validated high-pressure liquid chromatographic assays with UV detection. Key pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental methods. There were no gender-related differences in elimination half-life (t1/2) and weight-normalized total body clearance (CLT), renal clearance (CLR), and steady-state volume of distribution (Vss). Statistically significant age-related effects were found for t1/2, CLT, CLR, and Vss parameters. In different study groups, Vss ranged from 0.21 to 0.24 liter/kg. The values for Vss were significant greater for elderly subjects than they were for young subjects. The cefepime t1/2 was significantly longer in elderly subjects (about 3 h) than that observed in young subjects (about 2.2 h). The mean values for CLT and CLR in the four study groups ranged from 1.11 to 1.56 and 0.99 to 1.44 ml/min/kg, respectively. In elderly subjects, the estimates for CLT and CLR were significantly lower than those observed in young subjects. Linear regression revealed good correlations between clearance values of cefepime and creatinine. The magnitude of age-related changes in the pharmacokinetics of cefepime is not significant enough to recommend dosage adjustment in elderly patients with kidney functions normal for their age. PMID:1416818

  17. Does Gender Matter? an Exploratory Study of Perspectives Across Genders, Age and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist

    2009-11-01

    Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the social hierarchy. Analysis indicated that there were differences between male and female views on these dimensions of gender, and that age and educational levels were also influential. While younger respondents from both genders demonstrated flexibility in their definitions of gender and expressed strong support for gender equality, they were noticeably lacking in their knowledge of the historical context of gender relations and did not show the skills required to realise their ideals of gender equality, especially when compared to older respondents of both genders with higher levels of educational attainment.

  18. The Information Age vs. Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Considers gender equity in libraries and library education, particularly the identification of men with information science experience involving computers. Discusses the history of gender imbalance in library education; computers and gender; changes in library education; demographic implications of curriculum changes; the use of adjuncts; library…

  19. Does Gender Matter? An Exploratory Study of Perspectives across Genders, Age and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist

    2009-01-01

    Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the…

  20. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  1. Gendered perceptions of aging: an examination of college students.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Anne E; von Rohr, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Few studies examine how the gendered nature of aging impacts young adults--shaping their images of later life, attitudes toward elderly persons, aging anxieties, and conceptions of the start of "old age." We examine gender differences in young adults' views of elders and the aging process using a survey of college students and content analysis of student-drawn sketches of elders (N = 391). Results indicate that both genders hold more positive images of elderly women than men; however, they view "old age" as beginning at a younger age for women. In addition, we find that, compared with men, women report later starts of "old age" for both genders and more favorable attitudes toward elders, but also greater aging anxiety.

  2. Psychotherapists' Gender Stereotypes: Perceiver Characteristics, Target Age, and Target Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Barbara F.; And Others

    The literature on social cognition and intergroup relations suggests that gender and age are social concepts which, because they are at the same level of abstraction, may produce interactive effects on person perception judgments. The purpose of this study was to explore gender stereotypes that therapists hold about people who differ in age;…

  3. Antidepressant Prescription and Suicide Rates: Effect of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Sandor; Szanto, Katalin; Rihmer, Zoltan; Mazumdar, Sati; Harrison, Katrin; Mann, J. John

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether the effect of antidepressant exposure on suicide rate is modified by age and gender in Hungary, annual antidepressant prescription rates and suicide rates of about 10 million inhabitants between 1999-2005 were analyzed by age and gender groups. The suicide rate was inversely related to the increased use of antidepressants in…

  4. Effects of Antihistamine, Age, And Gender on Task Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    This investigation was designed to study the effects of the antihistamine, chlorpheniramine maleate, as well as the influence of age and gender...singly and in combination with chlorpheniramine maleate, on selected types of performance tasks. It was hypothesized that chiorpheniramine maleate would... chlorpheniramine maleate on any dependent measure for any performance task. However, several interactions of age and gender with chlorpheniramine maleate

  5. Measuring gender satisfaction among women aging with paralytic polio.

    PubMed

    Walker, Janiece L; Harrison, Tracie C

    2014-01-01

    In this study we tested the Gendered Outcome Scale as a measure of gender satisfaction among 295 women aging with the disabling effects of paralytic polio. Principal components analysis, reliability analyses, and content validity were analyzed on the scale. The scale had a Cronbach's alpha of.90. Younger women had more gender satisfaction (r =.181, p <.01), and women who had greater disability had greater gender satisfaction. (r = -.127, p <.05). The results support that the scale is a valid and reliable measure for determing gender satisfaction. Further work is needed to test the scale in diversified samples.

  6. Age and Gender Effects on Coping in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra; Petermann, Franz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate age and gender effects of children's and adolescents' coping with common stressors in 3 age groups (late childhood, early, and middle adolescence). Furthermore, age and developmental differences in situation-specific coping with 2 stress domains were examined. N = 1,123 participants (ages 8 to 13 years)…

  7. Normal facial age and gender perception in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Garga; Nakayama, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia is characterized by a severe deficit in face-identity recognition. Most developmental prosopagnosics do not report deficits of facial age or gender perception. We developed tasks for evaluating facial age and gender processing and used them in the largest group of developmental prosopagnosics (N = 18) tested on facial age and gender perception. Care was taken to ensure that the tests were sufficiently sensitive to subtle deficits and required holistic processing as assessed by strong inversion effects in control subjects. Despite severe facial identity deficits, developmental prosopagnosics largely performed these discriminations comparably to controls. The common descriptor "faceblind" implied by the term prosopagnosia is inaccurate as certain kinds of nonidentity facial information, which we call physiognomic features, are processed well by both prosopagnosics and age-matched controls alike. Normal facial age and gender perception in developmental prosopagnosics is consistent with parallel processing models in the cognitive architecture of face processing.

  8. Age and gender interactions in short distance triathlon performance.

    PubMed

    Etter, Franziska; Knechtle, Beat; Bukowski, Arkadiusz; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the participation and performance trends as well as the age and gender interaction at the Olympic distance 'Zürich Triathlon' (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle and 10 km run) from 2000 to 2010 in 7,939 total finishers (1,666 females and 6,273 males). Female triathletes aged from 40 to 54 years significantly (P < 0.05) increased their participation while the participation of younger females and males remained stable. Males of 50-54 years of age and females of 45-49 years of age improved their total race time. For elite top five overall triathletes, mean gender differences in swimming, cycling, running and overall race time were 15.2 ± 4.6%, 13.4 ± 2.3%, 17.1 ± 2.5%, and 14.8 ± 1.8%, respectively. For both elite and age group athletes, the gender difference in cycling time was significantly (P <0.001) lower than for swimming and running. The gender difference in overall Olympic distance triathlon performance increased after the age of 35 years, which appeared earlier compared to long distance triathlon as suggested by previous studies. Future investigations should compare gender difference in performance for different endurance events across age to confirm a possible effect of exercise duration on gender difference with advancing age.

  9. The Intersection of Gender and Age: An Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gander, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of gender inequality for women entering work has not been subject to significant research or theorizing. This small study indicated that young women entering the workplace are subject to direct discrimination and by using an intersectionality approach this paper proposes that the intersection of gender and young age results in…

  10. Perceiving the Black female body: Race and gender in police constructions of body weight.

    PubMed

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Threadcraft, Shatema

    2015-09-01

    Representations of Black women in United States popular culture and public discourse frequently depict them stereotypically as fat and in need of policing for moral failures. As well, research has shown that Black women are perceived and constructed as non-prototypical for their gender. Taken together, observers within a White dominant social frame could be said to have difficulty correctly seeing Black women's bodies and gender presentations. In this study we examined how Black women are seen in the context of New York City Police Department (NYPD) stops and searches (known as Stop & Frisk). We examined how officers categorized Black women's body weight; investigated whether stops took place in public or private space; and assessed the extent to which body weight brought additional sanctions (i.e., being frisked). We used publicly available datasets from the NYPD's Stop & Frisk program, in which stops numbering in the hundreds of thousands were recorded in yearly databases from 2003 to 2012. For each stop, officers record a number of attributes about the potential suspect and context, including race, gender, physique, date, and precinct. We conducted logistic regressions to model the odds of being categorized as heavy by race and gender, controlling for age, calculated BMI, location in a Black precinct, and season of the year. Results showed that across 10 years of data, Black women were more likely than White women to be labeled heavy. Black women were also much more likely than all other subgroups to be stopped inside rather than outside. Body size showed little association with stop locations or frisks. We interpret these findings as a reflection of Black women's positioning with regard to racial and gender representations and the disciplinary projects of the state.

  11. Perceiving the Black female body: Race and gender in police constructions of body weight

    PubMed Central

    Threadcraft, Shatema

    2015-01-01

    Representations of Black women in United States popular culture and public discourse frequently depict them stereotypically as fat and in need of policing for moral failures. As well, research has shown that Black women are perceived and constructed as non-prototypical for their gender. Taken together, observers within a White dominant social frame could be said to have difficulty correctly seeing Black women’s bodies and gender presentations. In this study we examined how Black women are seen in the context of New York City Police Department (NYPD) stops and searches (known as Stop & Frisk). We examined how officers categorized Black women’s body weight; investigated whether stops took place in public or private space; and assessed the extent to which body weight brought additional sanctions (i.e., being frisked). We used publicly available datasets from the NYPD’s Stop & Frisk program, in which stops numbering in the hundreds of thousands were recorded in yearly databases from 2003 to 2012. For each stop, officers record a number of attributes about the potential suspect and context, including race, gender, physique, date, and precinct. We conducted logistic regressions to model the odds of being categorized as heavy by race and gender, controlling for age, calculated BMI, location in a Black precinct, and season of the year. Results showed that across 10 years of data, Black women were more likely than White women to be labeled heavy. Black women were also much more likely than all other subgroups to be stopped inside rather than outside. Body size showed little association with stop locations or frisks. We interpret these findings as a reflection of Black women’s positioning with regard to racial and gender representations and the disciplinary projects of the state. PMID:26478750

  12. Effects of age and gender on physical performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to assess the effects of age and gender on physical performance using one-hour swimming performance and participation in 2,173 man and 2,098 women, aged 19 – 91 years from a long distance (one-hour) national competition. Decline in performance with aging was found to be quadratic rat...

  13. Age, Gender, and Treatment Attendance among Forensic Psychiatric Outpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Dianne C.; Reddon, John R.; Reddick, Robert D.

    2001-01-01

    Uses the records of forensic psychiatry outpatients (N=6,299) to evaluate absenteeism from treatment in relation to age and gender. Results reveal that females had a significantly higher absentee rate than males in all age groups. For both males and females, missed appointments declined significantly with age. (Contains 34 references and 1 table.)…

  14. Work Experience, Age, and Gender Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angle, John; Wissmann, David A.

    1983-01-01

    Age is a determinant of the gap between U.S. men's and women's work wages; young men are paid more as they age because of age; young women are not. Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of the Labor Market Experience were analyzed for 5,225 men and 5,159 women. (KC)

  15. Analysis of age and gender associated N-glycoproteome in human whole saliva

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glycoproteins comprise a large portion of the salivary proteome and have great potential for biomarker discovery and disease diagnosis. However, the rate of production and the concentration of whole saliva change with age, gender and physiological states of the human body. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the salivary glycoproteome of healthy individuals of different ages and genders is a prerequisite for saliva to have clinical utility. Methods Formerly N-linked glycopeptides were isolated from the pooled whole saliva of six age and gender groups by hydrazide chemistry and hydrophilic affinity methods followed by mass spectrometry identification. Selected physiochemical characteristics of salivary glycoproteins were analyzed, and the salivary glycoproteomes of different age and gender groups were compared based on their glycoprotein components and gene ontology. Results and discussion Among 85 N-glycoproteins identified in healthy human saliva, the majority were acidic proteins with low molecular weight. The numbers of salivary N-glycoproteins increased with age. Fifteen salivary glycoproteins were identified as potential age- or gender-associated glycoproteins, and many of them have functions related to innate immunity against microorganisms and oral cavity protection. Moreover, many salivary glycoproteins have been previously reported as disease related glycoproteins. This study reveals the important role of salivary glycoproteins in the maintenance of oral health and homeostasis and the great potential of saliva for biomarker discovery and disease diagnosis. PMID:24994967

  16. Age and sex or gender (sex/gender) and HIV vaccine preparedness.

    PubMed

    Dhalla, Shayesta

    2015-10-29

    An examination of age and sex or gender (sex/gender) in HIV vaccine preparedness studies can contribute to an understanding of these demographic variables in preparation for actual HIV vaccine trials. In this descriptive review, age and sex or gender (sex/gender) were examined in relation to willingness to participate (WTP) and retention in an HIV vaccine trial. Twenty-five articles were retrieved from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries and 28 articles were retrieved from the non-OECD countries. In US studies that involved mainly white MSM, older men were more likely to be WTP in a hypothetical HIV vaccine trial and more likely to be retained than younger men. In most OECD studies, sex/gender was not associated with WTP in a hypothetical HIV vaccine trial, while females were more likely to be retained in most studies. Largely, age was not associated with WTP in the non-OECD countries, but the results on sex/gender were more variable. The relationship between adolescent or adult WTP in hypothetical HIV vaccine trials in South Africa did not appear to be modified by high school student status. In addition, more studies in discordant couples in the context of HIV vaccine preparedness could be conducted to examine gender roles and inequalities in preparation for HIV vaccine trials.

  17. Age and Gender Correlates of Pulling in Pediatric Trichotillomania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Our goals were to examine clinical characteristics and age and gender correlates in pediatric trichotillomania. Method: A total of 62 children (8-17 years of age) were recruited for a pediatric trichotillomania treatment trial and characterized using structured rating scales of symptoms of hairpulling and common comorbid conditions. We…

  18. Age, Gender, and Reasons for Living among Australian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Reasons for living have been identified as protective factors in relation to suicide, and much research has documented gender differences in reasons for living. In contrast, little research has investigated age differences in reasons for living. In the current study, the relationship of age to reasons for living was investigated, as was whether…

  19. Gender, aging, and the economics of "active aging": Setting a new research agenda.

    PubMed

    Paz, Amira; Doron, Israel; Tur-Sinai, Aviad

    2017-04-03

    The world is aging, and the percentages of older people are on a dramatic ascent. This dramatic demographic aging of human society is not gender neutral; it is mostly about older women. One of the key policy approaches to address the aging revolution is known as "active aging," crystalized by the WHO in 2002 by three pillars: participation, health, and security. The active aging policy has financial and economic aspects and affects both men and women. However, as argued in this article, a gender-based approach has not been adopted within the existing active aging framework. Therefore, a new gender-specific research agenda is needed, one that focuses on an interrelation between gender and different economic aspects of "active aging" from international, comparative, cultural, and longitudinal perspectives.

  20. Gender and age do not influence the ability to work.

    PubMed

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; da Silva Valente, Luciana do Socorro; de Moraes, Mônica Vasconcelos; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Work capacity is related to physical, environmental and psychosocial factors and is influenced by individual characteristics and occupations. The aim of this study was to evaluated the relationship between work capacity, gender and age. 360 people employed at an institution of higher education of both genders and similar age were asked to participate in this study. The ability to work was analyzed using Work Ability Index (WAI). Descriptive statistical, Pearson correlations and ANOVA test was applied. Of these, 197 workers who participated in the study completed and returned the questionnaire. The results show there weren't any significant differences between work ability in relation to gender and age, but we observed an increase variability of responses for WAI score in older workers. No significant differences in the perception of the ability of work between men and women..

  1. Affective Computing and the Impact of Gender and Age.

    PubMed

    Rukavina, Stefanie; Gruss, Sascha; Hoffmann, Holger; Tan, Jun-Wen; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C

    2016-01-01

    Affective computing aims at the detection of users' mental states, in particular, emotions and dispositions during human-computer interactions. Detection can be achieved by measuring multimodal signals, namely, speech, facial expressions and/or psychobiology. Over the past years, one major approach was to identify the best features for each signal using different classification methods. Although this is of high priority, other subject-specific variables should not be neglected. In our study, we analyzed the effect of gender, age, personality and gender roles on the extracted psychobiological features (derived from skin conductance level, facial electromyography and heart rate variability) as well as the influence on the classification results. In an experimental human-computer interaction, five different affective states with picture material from the International Affective Picture System and ULM pictures were induced. A total of 127 subjects participated in the study. Among all potentially influencing variables (gender has been reported to be influential), age was the only variable that correlated significantly with psychobiological responses. In summary, the conducted classification processes resulted in 20% classification accuracy differences according to age and gender, especially when comparing the neutral condition with four other affective states. We suggest taking age and gender specifically into account for future studies in affective computing, as these may lead to an improvement of emotion recognition accuracy.

  2. Affective Computing and the Impact of Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Rukavina, Stefanie; Gruss, Sascha; Hoffmann, Holger; Tan, Jun-Wen; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C.

    2016-01-01

    Affective computing aims at the detection of users’ mental states, in particular, emotions and dispositions during human-computer interactions. Detection can be achieved by measuring multimodal signals, namely, speech, facial expressions and/or psychobiology. Over the past years, one major approach was to identify the best features for each signal using different classification methods. Although this is of high priority, other subject-specific variables should not be neglected. In our study, we analyzed the effect of gender, age, personality and gender roles on the extracted psychobiological features (derived from skin conductance level, facial electromyography and heart rate variability) as well as the influence on the classification results. In an experimental human-computer interaction, five different affective states with picture material from the International Affective Picture System and ULM pictures were induced. A total of 127 subjects participated in the study. Among all potentially influencing variables (gender has been reported to be influential), age was the only variable that correlated significantly with psychobiological responses. In summary, the conducted classification processes resulted in 20% classification accuracy differences according to age and gender, especially when comparing the neutral condition with four other affective states. We suggest taking age and gender specifically into account for future studies in affective computing, as these may lead to an improvement of emotion recognition accuracy. PMID:26939129

  3. Human Aging Is a Metabolome-related Matter of Gender.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Maté, Ianire; Naudí, Alba; Mota-Martorell, Natalia; Portero-Otín, Manuel; De la Fuente, Mónica; Pamplona, Reinald

    2016-05-01

    A molecular description of the mechanisms by which aging is produced is still very limited. Here, we have determined the plasma metabolite profile by using high-throughput metabolome profiling technologies of 150 healthy humans ranging from 30 to 100 years of age. Using a nontargeted approach, we detected 2,678 metabolite species in plasma, and the multivariate analyses separated perfectly two groups indicating a specific signature for each gender. In addition, there is a set of gender-shared metabolites, which change significantly during aging with a similar tendency. Among the identified molecules, we found vitamin D2-related compound, phosphoserine (40:5), monoacylglyceride (22:1), diacylglyceride (33:2), and resolvin D6, all of them decreasing with the aging process. Finally, we found three molecules that directly correlate with age and seven that inversely correlate with age, independently of gender. Among the identified molecules (6 of 10 according to exact mass and retention time), we found a proteolytic product (l-γ-glutamyl-l-leucine), which increased with age. On the contrary, a hydroxyl fatty acid (25-hydroxy-hexacosanoic), a polyunsaturated fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid), two phospholipids (phosphocholine [42:9]and phosphoserine [42:3]) and a prostaglandin (15-keto-prostaglandin F2α) decreased with aging. These results suggest that lipid species and their metabolism are closely linked to the aging process.

  4. Age, gender, dentures and oral mucosal disorders.

    PubMed

    MacEntee, M I; Glick, N; Stolar, E

    1998-03-01

    The numbers of participants over 75 years of age in previous studies of oral health have not been sufficient to permit a full investigation of the influence of age on the mouth. In this study a disproportionate stratified random sample of 255 independent elders was selected from a list of urban voters to provide similar numbers of men and women in three age groups. The subjects were interviewed and examined, and nearly half of them had mucosal disorders. There was a significant (P < 0.05) association between mucosal lesions and the use of dentures and tobacco, whereas stomatitis, denture-related hyperplasia and angular cheilitis in particular were associated significantly with men and with the use of defective dentures. Logistic regression revealed that neither age alone nor the quality of dentures predispose to mucosal lesions, but that the odds of finding stomatitis, denture-related hyperplasia and angular cheilitis in particular increased about three-fold in denture-users, and almost doubled in men.

  5. Effect of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin.

    PubMed

    Efthymiopoulos, C; Bramer, S L; Maroli, A

    1997-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics of the oral fluoroquinolone grepafloxacin were examined in 48 healthy middle-aged and elderly individuals, of whom half were male and half were female. Participants were stratified into 4 groups (each with n = 12), aged 40 to 49 years, 50 to 59 years, 60 to 69 years, and > 70 years. All received oral grepafloxacin 600 mg once daily for 7 days, and pharmacokinetic parameters were measured on days 1 and 7. Mean plasma grepafloxacin concentrations were consistently higher in females than in males. Peak concentrations, area under the concentration-time curve, apparent volume of distribution and apparent total clearance (but not renal clearance) differed significantly in females and males. There were no significant gender differences in the elimination half-life values. Further analysis of the data suggests that the gender-related pharmacokinetic differences were primarily due to differences in bodyweight, in particular to differences in lean body mass. The only parameters that changed significantly with age were renal clearance and the proportion of the dose excreted unchanged in the urine, but no clear trend was observed, and there was no correlation with creatinine clearance. We conclude that age and gender have no clinically significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin. Dose adjustment on the basis of these factors does not therefore seem necessary.

  6. Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

  7. Effect of Age, Country, and Gender on Music Listening Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Albert; Jin, Young Chang; Stamou, Lelouda; McCrary, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Examines the music listening preferences of 2,042 students from Greece, South Korea, and the United States using a survey that listed selections from art music, traditional jazz, and rock music. Finds that age, gender, and country all exerted influence, but the variables did not perform the same way in each country. (CMK)

  8. Professor Age and Gender Affect Student Perceptions and Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joye, Shauna W.; Wilson, Janie H.

    2015-01-01

    Student evaluations provide rich information about teaching performance, but a number of factors beyond teacher effectiveness influence student evaluations. In this study we examined the effects of professor gender and perceived age on ratings of effectiveness and rapport as well as academic performance. We also asked students to rate professor…

  9. Gender Scripts and Age at Marriage in India

    PubMed Central

    DESAI, SONALDE; ANDRIST, LESTER

    2010-01-01

    Research on marriage in developing countries has been somewhat narrow in scope because of both conceptual and data limitations. While the feminist literature recognizes marriage as a key institutional site for the production and reproduction of gender hierarchies, little is known about the processes through which this relationship operates. This article uses data from the newly collected India Human Development Survey 2005 for 27,365 ever-married women aged 25–49 to explore ways in which different dimensions of gender in Indian society shape the decisions regarding age at marriage. We explore the impact of three dimensions of gender: (1) economic factors, such as availability of wage employment, dowry expectations, and wedding expenses; (2) indicators of familial empowerment, such as women’s role in household decision making and access to and control over resources; and (3) markers of gender performance, such as observance of purdah and male-female separation in the household. Results from hierarchical linear models confirm the importance of markers of gender performance but fail to demonstrate a large role for economic factors and familial empowerment. PMID:20879683

  10. Gender scripts and age at marriage in India.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sonalde; Andrist, Lester

    2010-08-01

    Research on marriage in developing countries has been somewhat narrow in scope because of both conceptual and data limitations. While the feminist literature recognizes marriage as a key institutional site for the production and reproduction of gender hierarchies, little is known about the processes through which this relationship operates. This article uses data from the newly collected India Human Development Survey 2005 for 27,365 ever-married women aged 25-49 to explore ways in which different dimensions of gender in Indian society shape the decisions regarding age at marriage. We explore the impact of three dimensions of gender: (1) economic factors, such as availability of wage employment, dowry expectations, and wedding expenses; (2) indicators offamilial empowerment, such as women s role in household decision making and access to and control over resources; and (3) markers of gender performance, such as observance of purdah and male-female separation in the household. Results from hierarchical linear models confirm the importance of markers of gender performance but fail to demonstrate a large role for economic factors and familial empowerment.

  11. Distribution of GPs in Scotland by age, gender and deprivation.

    PubMed

    Blane, David N; McLean, Gary; Watt, Graham

    2015-11-01

    General practice in the UK is widely reported to be in crisis, with particular concerns about recruitment and retention of family doctors. This study assessed the distribution of GPs in Scotland by age, gender and deprivation, using routinely available data. We found that there are more GPs (and fewer patients per GP) in the least deprived deciles than there are in the most deprived deciles. Furthermore, there are a higher proportion of older GPs in the most deprived deciles. There are also important gender differences in the distribution of GPs. We discuss the implications of these findings for policymakers and practitioners.

  12. "Guys, She's Humongous!": Gender and Weight-Based Teasing in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nicole L.

    2011-01-01

    Ethnographic research, including individual interviews, focus groups, and participant observation, was conducted to examine how adolescents defined and negotiated the boundaries between normal/acceptable weight and overweight through direct and indirect teasing. In particular, this article focuses on gender differences in weight-based teasing and…

  13. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans.

    PubMed

    Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitations for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on (90)Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has a similar structure to the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly re-evaluated: gastrointestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0-80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general populations exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  14. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitation for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on 90Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has similar structure as the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly reevaluated: gastro-intestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0–80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general population exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  15. Bodacious Berry, Potency Wood and the Aging Monster: Gender and Age Relations in Anti-Aging Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calasanti, Toni

    2007-01-01

    This paper situates age discrimination within a broader system of age relations that intersects with other inequalities, and then uses that framework to analyze internet advertisements for the anti-aging industry. Such ads reinforce age and gender relations by positing old people as worthwhile only to the extent that they look and act like those…

  16. The interplay between gender, race and weight status: self perceptions and social consequences.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jason M

    2014-07-01

    This paper uses data from nearly 15,000 young adult respondents to the Add Health survey to examine racial and gender differences in the perceptions and social rewards to weight. The data include information on several typically unmeasured domains: self-perceptions of ideal weight, attractiveness ratings, and measured weight information, along with ties to a series of adult outcomes. Results show important gender and racial differences in ideal weight as well as differences for both self-perceived attractiveness and interviewer rated attractiveness. Findings also suggest the existence of large differences in socio-cultural rewards and sanctions for weight status. Black respondents, particularly women, appear to receive lower "obesity penalties" in both their self-perceived and interviewer accessed attractiveness ratings than other groups. These findings suggest the need to consider new classes of policies directed at shifting relative social benefits and consequences to weight status.

  17. Scientists Weight Facts, Theories on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some of the current theories on aging, such as biological time clocks for certain cells and on-off switches for genes, that were offered as explanations at the 140th annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (JR)

  18. Birth weight, postnatal growth, and age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Terry, Mary Beth; Ferris, Jennifer S; Tehranifar, Parisa; Wei, Ying; Flom, Julie D

    2009-07-01

    Larger body size in childhood is correlated with earlier age at menarche; whether birth and infant body size changes are also associated with age at menarche is less clear. The authors contacted female participants enrolled in the New York site of the US National Collaborative Perinatal Project born between 1959 and 1963 (n = 262). This racially and ethnically diverse cohort (38% white, 40% African American, and 22% Puerto Rican) was used to investigate whether maternal (body size, pregnancy weight gain, age at menarche, smoking) and birth (birth weight, birth length, placental weight) variables and early infant body size changes were associated with age at menarche even after considering later childhood body size. Higher percentile change in weight from ages 4 months to 1 year was associated with earlier age at menarche even after adjustment for later childhood growth (beta = -0.15, 95% confidence interval: -0.27, -0.02 years per 10-percentile change in weight from ages 4 months to 1 year). The association was in the same direction for all 3 racial/ethnic groups but was largest for the white group. These New York Women's Birth Cohort Adult Follow-up data (2001-2006) suggest that infant weight gain, in addition to childhood weight gain, may be associated with earlier age at menarche.

  19. Aging in precarious times: Exploring the role of gender in shaping views on aging.

    PubMed

    Craciun, Catrinel; Flick, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores views on aging and how these differ according to gender and precariousness status. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 men and 10 women with secure and insecure pensions. Themes like fear of illness and health decline were more present in men, while fear of losing their attractiveness in old age more present among women. For all participants, loss of autonomy and social roles represented a negative view of old age, while activity in the form of work, volunteering, or leisure represented positive views. Differences in views on aging were related to pension security and less to gender. Women with insecure pension plans displayed the most negative views of aging. Implications for practice and policy to prevent health and gender inequalities are discussed.

  20. Do body weight and gender shape the work force? The case of Iceland.

    PubMed

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey

    2011-03-01

    Most studies of the relationship between body weight - as well as its corollary, beauty - and labor-market outcomes have indicated that it is a function of a gender bias, the negative relationship between excess weight or obesity and labor-market outcomes being greater for women than for men. Iceland offers an exceptional opportunity to examine this hypothesis, given that it scores relatively well on an index of gender equality comprising economic, political, educational, labor-market, and health-based criteria. Equipped with an advanced level of educational attainment, on average, women are well represented in Iceland's labor force. When it comes to women's presence in the political sphere, Iceland is out of the ordinary as well; that Icelanders were the first in the world to elect a woman to be president may suggest a relatively gender-blind assessment in the labor market. In the current study, survey data collected by Gallup Iceland in 2002 are used to examine the relationship between weight and employment within this political and social setting. Point estimates indicate that, despite apparently lesser gender discrimination in Iceland than elsewhere, the bias against excess weight and obesity remains gender-based, showing a slightly negative relationship between weight and the employment rate of women, whereas a slightly positive relationship was found for men.

  1. Humor and gender roles: does age make a difference?

    PubMed

    Vitulli, William F

    2005-08-01

    Crawford's analysis in 2003 suggests that humor interacts with gender so that traditional social norms of femininity and masculinity may be reinforced or diinished. Yet age as a covariate was not considered. Assessment of the attitudes toward humor among 72 older women (M=72.0, SD=9.8, range=51-93 years) and 24 older men (M=69.8, SD=6.8, range=59-90 years) in 1996 by Vitulli and Parman suggest ratings on a Likert-type scale (anchored by 5: strongly agree and 1: strongly disagree) in which humor and gender interact. Moreover, a post hoc Scheffé test showed a significant sex effect on the female-oriented scale. Older women perceived humor as an important quality for women, whereas older men did not. Generational differences among studies on humor and sex underscore the need for contemporary research inclusive of age measures.

  2. Thyroid function and aging: gender-related differences.

    PubMed

    da Costa, V M; Moreira, D G; Rosenthal, D

    2001-10-01

    The effects of aging on human or animal thyroid function are still not well defined. We evaluated some aspects of thyroid function during aging using an animal model (young and old Dutch-Miranda rats). In old rats of both genders, serum thyroxine (T4) decreased but serum thyrotrophin (TSH) remained unaltered, suggesting a disturbance in the pituitary-thyroid feedback mechanism during aging. Serum tri-iodothyronine (T3) only decreased in old males, possibly because female rats are almost twice as efficient in hepatic T4 to T3 deiodination. Thyroidal T4-5'-deiodinase activity did not change much during aging, although it decreased slightly in males. Thyroidal iodothyronine-deiodinase type I mRNA expression but not total thyroidal enzymatic activity were higher in female than in male rats. Thus, ovarian/testicular hormones may modulate the expression and/or the activity of hepatic and thyroidal type I iodothyronine-deiodinase. Thyroperoxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) expression were higher in young male rats than in females. In males, TPO and Tg gene expression decreased with aging, suggesting that androgens might increase their expression. Our results showed that aging induces real changes in rat thyroid gland function and regulation, affecting at least pituitary, thyroid and liver functions. Furthermore, some of these changes were gender related, indicating that gonadal hormones may modulate thyroid gland function and regulation.

  3. Automatic age and gender classification using supervised appearance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukar, Ali Maina; Ugail, Hassan; Connah, David

    2016-11-01

    Age and gender classification are two important problems that recently gained popularity in the research community, due to their wide range of applications. Research has shown that both age and gender information are encoded in the face shape and texture, hence the active appearance model (AAM), a statistical model that captures shape and texture variations, has been one of the most widely used feature extraction techniques for the aforementioned problems. However, AAM suffers from some drawbacks, especially when used for classification. This is primarily because principal component analysis (PCA), which is at the core of the model, works in an unsupervised manner, i.e., PCA dimensionality reduction does not take into account how the predictor variables relate to the response (class labels). Rather, it explores only the underlying structure of the predictor variables, thus, it is no surprise if PCA discards valuable parts of the data that represent discriminatory features. Toward this end, we propose a supervised appearance model (sAM) that improves on AAM by replacing PCA with partial least-squares regression. This feature extraction technique is then used for the problems of age and gender classification. Our experiments show that sAM has better predictive power than the conventional AAM.

  4. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-03-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

  5. Body Weight Image and Gender Influence Emotional Response Patterns to Body Weight Related Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelRosario, Marlene W.; And Others

    Young adult females' attitudes toward body weight regulation contain important emotional components. To study the effects of body weight cues on emotionality, 160 college students (75 females, 85 males) completed either a body weight related (Q1) or control (Q2) questionnaire prior to taking the California Test of Personality (CTP). An analysis of…

  6. Age and Gender Differences in Motivational Manifestations of the Big Five from Age 16 to 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Regula; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Allemand, Mathias; Penke, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated age and gender differences in motivational manifestations of the Big Five in a large German-speaking Internet sample (N = 19,022). Participants ranging in age from 16 to 60 years completed the Five Individual Reaction Norms Inventory (FIRNI; Denissen & Penke, 2008a), and two traditional Big Five…

  7. The influence of stereotypical beliefs, participant gender, and survivor weight on sexual assault response.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Allyson K; Stermac, Lana

    2011-07-01

    The present study explored the influence of survivor weight and participant gender, rape myth acceptance, and antifat attitudes on perceptions of sexual assault. Using an online survey tool, a community sample of 413 adult Canadian residents reviewed a hypothetical sexual assault scenario and completed a series of evaluations and attitudinal questionnaires. Generalized linear model analyses revealed that participants were more likely to hold the survivor responsible, excuse the perpetrator's actions, and respond more negatively toward the survivor and more positively toward the perpetrator when the survivor was depicted as thin versus overweight. Interactions were found between rape myth acceptance and survivor weight, gender and survivor weight, and gender and antifat attitudes, for certain dependent variables. In addition, men and those with higher levels of rape myth acceptance and antifat attitudes were found to make more negative evaluations of the survivor and more positive evaluations of the perpetrator. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF GESTATIONAL AGE AND BIRTH WEIGHT OF THE NEWBORN ON TOOTH ERUPTION

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Sandra Regina Piovezani; Gugisch, Renato Cordeiro; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the beginning of eruption of the first deciduous tooth in preterm infants (<38 weeks) with full-term infants (38 and 42 weeks) of normal birth weight (32.500g), low birth weight (< 2.500g) and very low birth weight (<1.500g), in order to evaluate if premature birth and low birth weight would affect tooth eruption. Methods: The neonatal records and the moment of eruption of the first deciduous tooth of 146 infants - 77 preterm infants and 69 full-term infants, ranging from 5 to 36 months old, of both genders – were recorded. All of them were under care at the Pediatric Ambulatory of Hospital Universitário Evangélico at Curitiba – Parana. Data were analyzed considering biological age and post-conception, or corrected, age – which is the gestational age plus the infant's chronological age at the month of eruption of the first deciduous tooth. Results: Results showed that when chronological age is considered, tooth eruption in preterm and very low birth weight infants is importantly delayed. However, when corrected age is considered, no statistically significant differences were found among groups. Conclusion: The delayed eruption may be related to the premature birth and not to a delay in dental development. PMID:19089267

  9. Liking and identifying emotionally expressive music: age and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Patrick G; Glenn Schellenberg, E; Stalinski, Stephanie M

    2011-09-01

    Adults and children 5, 8, and 11 years of age listened to short excerpts of unfamiliar music that sounded happy, scary, peaceful, or sad. Listeners initially rated how much they liked each excerpt. They subsequently made a forced-choice judgment about the emotion that each excerpt conveyed. Identification accuracy was higher for young girls than for young boys, but both genders reached adult-like levels by age 11. High-arousal emotions (happiness and fear) were better identified than low-arousal emotions (peacefulness and sadness), and this advantage was exaggerated among younger children. Whereas children of all ages preferred excerpts depicting high-arousal emotions, adults favored excerpts depicting positive emotions (happiness and peacefulness). A preference for positive emotions over negative emotions was also evident among females of all ages. As identification accuracy improved, liking for positively valenced music increased among 5- and 8-year-olds but decreased among 11-year-olds.

  10. Examining aging sexual stigma attitudes among adults by gender, age, and generational status

    PubMed Central

    Syme, Maggie L.; Cohn, Tracy J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Stigma related to later life sexuality could produce detrimental effects for older adults, through individual concerns and limited sexual healthcare for older adults. Identifying groups at risk for aging sexual stigma will help to focus interventions to reduce it. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional trends in aging sexual stigma attitudes by age group, generational status, and gender. Method An online survey was administered to a national sample of adults via a crowdsourcing tool, in order to examine aging sexual stigma across age groups, generational status, and gender (N=962; 47.0% male, 52.5% female, and .5% other; mean age = 45 yrs.). An aging sexual stigma index was formulated from the attitudinal items of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale. Results This sample reported moderately permissive attitudes toward aging sexuality, indicating a low level of aging sexual stigma. Though descriptive data showed trends of stigma attitudes increasing with age and later generations, there were no significant differences between age groups or generations in terms of aging sexual stigma beliefs. Men, regardless of age and/or generation, were found to espouse significantly higher stigmatic beliefs than women or those reporting “other” gender. Conclusions Aging sexual stigma beliefs may not be prevalent among the general population as cohorts become more sexually liberal over time, though men appear more susceptible to these beliefs. However, in order to more comprehensively assess aging sexual stigma, future research may benefit from measuring explicit and implicit aging sexual stigma beliefs. PMID:25703148

  11. Age- and Gender-Normalized Coronary Incidence and Mortality Risks in Primary and Secondary Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Iannetta, Loredana; Schiariti, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiologic differences in ischemic heart disease incidence between women and men remain largely unexplained. The reasons of women’s “protection” against coronary artery disease (CAD) are not still clear. However, there are subsets more likely to die of a first myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to underline different treatment strategies between genders and describe the role of classical and novel factors defined to evaluate CAD risk and mortality, aimed at assessing applicability and relevance for primary and secondary prevention. Women and men present different age-related risk patterns: it should be important to understand whether standard factors may index CAD risk, including mortality, in different ways and/or whether specific factors might be targeted gender-wise. Take home messages include: HDL-cholesterol levels, higher in pre-menopausal women than in men, are more strictly related to CAD. The same is true for high triglycerides and Lp(a). HDL-cholesterol levels are inversely related to incidence and mortality. In primary prevention the role of statins is not completely ascertained in women although in secondary prevention these agents are equally effective in both genders. Weight and glycemic control are effective to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women from middle to older age. Blood pressure is strongly and directly related to CVD mortality, from middle to older age, particularly in diabetic and over weighted women. Kidney dysfunction, defined using UAE and eGFR predicts primary CVD incidence and risk in both genders. In secondary prediction, kidney dysfunction predicts sudden death in women in conjunction with left ventricular ejection fraction evaluation. Serum uric acid does not differentiate gender-related CVD incidences, although it increases with age. Age-related differences between genders have been related to loss of ovarian function traditionally and to lower iron stores more recently. QT interval

  12. Maternal Exposure to Polybrominated and Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Infant Birth Weight and Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Givens, Marjory L.; Small, Chanley M.; Terrell, Metrecia L.; Cameron, Lorraine L.; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Tolbert, Paige E.; Rubin, Carol; Henderson, Alden K.; Marcus, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the influence of maternal exposures on gestational age and birth weight is essential given that pre-term and/or low birth weight infants are at risk for increased mortality and morbidity. We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) through accidental contamination of cattle feed and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) through residual contamination in the geographic region. Our study population consisted of 444 mothers and their 899 infants born between 1975 and 1997. Using restricted maximum likelihood estimation, no significant association was found between estimated maternal serum PBB at conception or enrollment PCB levels and gestational age or infant birth weight in unadjusted models or in models that adjusted for maternal age, smoking, parity, infant gender, and decade of birth. For enrollment maternal serum PBB, no association was observed for gestational age. However, a negative association with high levels of enrollment maternal serum PBB and birth weight was suggested. We also examined the birth weight and gestational age among offspring of women with the highest (10%) PBB or PCB exposure, and observed no significant association. Because brominated compounds are currently used in consumer products and therefore, are increasingly prevalent in the environment, additional research is needed to better understand the potential relationship between in utero exposure to brominated compounds and adverse health outcomes. PMID:17617441

  13. Perceiving wisdom: do age and gender play a part?

    PubMed

    Hira, F J; Faulkender, P J

    1997-01-01

    The wisdom perceived to be possessed by videotaped individuals of varying ages was evaluated using the Smith and Baltes definition of wisdom [1]. The Life-Planning Tasks (work-family dilemmas) and corresponding think-aloud protocols (responses) developed by Smith and Baltes were transformed into videotape stimuli to assess the presence of wisdom. Using an instrument derived from the Smith and Baltes description of wisdom, undergraduate respondents evaluated the wisdom they perceived to be contained in videotaped responses to Life-Planning Tasks. The age of the Life-Planning Task respondent was manipulated as either older or younger. A significant interaction between the age and gender of the videotape respondents and an interpretation of its effect on the perception of wisdom is discussed. Correlational results reveal a positive relationship between the lay person's definition of wisdom and that which was derived from Smith and Baltes.

  14. Age and gender dependency of physiological networks in sleep.

    PubMed

    Krefting, Dagmar; Jansen, Christoph; Penzel, Thomas; Han, Fang; Kantelhardt, Jan

    2017-02-17

    Recently, time delay stability analysis of biosignals has been successfully applied as a multivariate time series analysis method to assess the human physiological network in young adults. The degree of connectivity between different network nodes is described by the so-called link strength. Based on polysomnographic recordings (PSGs), it could be shown that the network changes with the sleep stage. Here, we apply the method to a large set of healthy controls spanning six decades of age. As it is well known, that the overall sleep architecture is dependent both on age and on gender, we particularly address the question, if these changes are also found in the network dynamics. We find moderate dependencies of the network on gender. Significantly higher link strengths up to 13\\% are found in women for some links in different frequency bands of central and occipital regions in REM and light sleep (N2). Higher link strengths are found in men consistently in cardio-cerebral links in N2, but not significant. Age dependency is more pronounced. In particular a significant overall weakening of the network is found for wakefulness and non-REM sleep stages. The largest overall decrease is observed in N2 with 0.017 per decade, for individual links decrease rates up to 0.08 per decade are found, in particular for intra-brain links in non-REM sleep. Many of them show a significant decrease with age. Non-linear regression employing an artificial neural network can predict the age with a mean absolute error (MAE) of about five years, suggesting that an age-resolution of about a decade would be appropriate in normative data for physiological networks.

  15. Spirituality, gender and age factors in cybergossip among Nigerian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, David Adebayo

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the patterns of spirituality, gender, and age in cybergossip practices among Nigerian adolescents. The study utilized a descriptive survey method. Five hundred thirty adolescent students, randomly selected from four major cities in Nigeria, participated in the study. Their age range was 16 to 21. General Spirituality and Gossip Purpose scales were used to collect data from the participants. Data collected were subjected to t test statistics. Findings showed that there is no significant difference in the cybergossiping practices of adolescents based on their levels of spirituality. This reveals that spirituality is not an inhibiting factor in cybergossiping practices among the adolescents. However, there is significant difference between male and female youths in their cybergossiping practices. The results showed that females are more likely than males to be involved in cybergossiping activities. There is also significant difference between early and late adolescents' cybergossiping activities. The implication is that gossip and cybergossip is a natural tendency that involves communicative expression with a pleasure-seeking purpose. It is a habit that excludes no one despite spiritual, gender, or age factors. Therefore, this behavior should be positively directed away from abusive computing and communication. This work is unique because of the need for parents, guardians, and psychologists to design measures to identify and manage various moderating variables in children's computing practices for optimal positive outcomes.

  16. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Gender, and Body Weight: Examining the Impact of Participation in Active Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight…

  17. High Blood Pressure in Adults with Disabilities: Influence of Gender, Body Weight and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Chien-Ting; Liou, Shih-Wen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore the mean and distribution of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and to examine the influence of gender, body weight and health behaviors on hypertension in adults with disabilities. We analyzed the 2010 annual community health examination chart of adults with disabilities in east Taiwan. The study samples…

  18. The Influence of Stereotypical Beliefs, Participant Gender, and Survivor Weight on Sexual Assault Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Allyson K.; Stermac, Lana

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored the influence of survivor weight and participant gender, rape myth acceptance, and antifat attitudes on perceptions of sexual assault. Using an online survey tool, a community sample of 413 adult Canadian residents reviewed a hypothetical sexual assault scenario and completed a series of evaluations and attitudinal…

  19. Age, Gender and Women's Health and the Patient.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Lesley A; Heitkemper, Margaret; Crowell, Michael; Emmanuel, Anton; Halpert, Albena; McRoberts, James A; Toner, Brenda

    2016-02-15

    Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) often experience distress, reduced quality of life, a perceived lack of validation, and an unsatisfactory experience with health care providers. A health care provider can provide the patient with a framework in which to understand and legitimize their symptoms, remove self-doubt or blame, and identify factors that contribute to symptoms that the patient can influence or control. This framework is implemented with the consideration of important factors that impact FGIDs, such as gender, age, society, and the patient's perspective. Although the majority of FGIDs, including globus, rumination syndrome, IBS, bloating, constipation, functional abdominal pain, sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia, pelvic floor dysfunction, and extra-intestinal manifestations, are more prevalent in women than men, functional chest pain, dyspepsia, vomiting, and anorectal pain do not appear to vary by gender. Studies suggest sex differences in somatic but not visceral pain perception, motility, and central processing of visceral pain; although further research is required in autonomic nervous system dysfunction, genetics and immunologic/microbiome. Gender differences in response to psychological treatments, antidepressants, fiber, probiotics, and anticholinergics have not been adequately studied. However, a greater clinical response to 5-HT3 antagonists but not 5-HT4 agonists has been reported in women compared with men.

  20. Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

  1. Gender-specific factors associated with shorter sleep duration at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Plancoulaine, Sabine; Lioret, Sandrine; Regnault, Nolwenn; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-12-01

    Total sleep duration has been decreasing among children in the last decades. Short sleep duration (SSD) has been associated with deleterious health consequences, such as excess weight/obesity. Risk factors for SSD have already been studied among school-aged children and adolescents, but inconsistent results have been reported regarding possible gender differences. Studies reporting such relationships are scarce in preschoolers, despite the importance of this period for adopting healthy behaviour. We aimed to investigate factors associated with SSD in 3-year-old boys (n = 546) and girls (n = 482) in a French Mother-Child Cohort (EDEN Study). Children were born between 2003 and 2006 in two French university hospitals. Clinical examinations and parent self-reported questionnaires allowed us to collect sociodemographic (e.g. income, education, family situation, child-minding system), maternal [e.g. body mass index (BMI), parity, depression, breastfeeding duration] and child's characteristics (e.g. gender, birth weight, term, physical activity and TV viewing duration, food consumption, usual sleep time). Sleep duration/24-h period was calculated and SSD was defined as <12 h. Analyses were performed using logistic regression. The mean sleep duration was 12 h 35 ± 56 min, with 91% of the children napping. Patterns of risk factors associated with SSD differed according to gender. In addition to parental presence when falling asleep, short sleep duration was associated strongly positively with high BMI Z-score and TV viewing duration among boys and with familial home child-minding and lower scores on the 'fruits and vegetables' dietary pattern among girls. These results suggest either a patterning of parental behaviours that differs according to gender, or a gender-specific sleep physiology, or both.

  2. Age, gender, kinship and caregiver burden in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tramonti, Francesco; Bongioanni, Paolo; Leotta, Rebecca; Puppi, Irene; Rossi, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease that affects the motor neurons and causes progressive physical impairment. Also, other functions, such as breathing, swallowing and speech are compromised, and the loss of independence makes caregiver burden extremely high. The present study aimed at evaluating the differences in the caregiver burden due to age, gender and kinship. Women reported a higher physical and social burden than men, and partners scored higher in several dimensions of the caregiver burden when compared to sons and daughters. With respect to adult child caregivers, daughters reported higher levels of developmental burden than sons. Age has a significant impact on the caregiver burden, especially for the time dedicated to assistance and physical burden; disease severity is significantly related to the physical burden as well, and also with the developmental burden.

  3. Patterns of Age Mixing and Gender Mixing among Children and Adolescents at an Ungraded School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter; Feldman, Jay

    1997-01-01

    Examined age and gender mixing among students, ages 4-19, at an ungraded, self-directed, democratically structured school. Found that age mixing was more frequent for 12- to 15-year-olds than for younger or older students, and that gender mixing was less frequent for 8- to 11-year-olds than for any other age group. (MDM)

  4. Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Years

    MedlinePlus

    2 to 20 years: Boys NAME Stature-for-age and Weight-for-age percentiles RECORD # Mother’s Stature Date Age in cm 160 62 S 155 60 T 150 ... 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 BMI* AGE (YEARS) cm 95 190 90 185 75 180 ...

  5. Age and gender dependence of human cardiac phosphorus metabolites determined by SLOOP 31P MR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Köstler, Herbert; Landschütz, Wilfried; Koeppe, Sabrina; Seyfarth, Tobias; Lipke, Claudia; Sandstede, Jörn; Spindler, Matthias; von Kienlin, Markus; Hahn, Dietbert; Beer, Meinrad

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to apply (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) using spatial localization with optimal point spread function (SLOOP) to investigate possible age and gender dependencies of the energy metabolite concentrations in the human heart. Thirty healthy volunteers (18 males and 12 females, 21-67 years old, mean = 40.7 years) were examined with the use of (31)P-MRS on a 1.5 T scanner. Intra- and interobserver variability measures (determined in eight of the volunteers) were both 3.8% for phosphocreatine (PCr), and 4.7% and 8.3%, respectively, for adenosine triphosphate (ATP). High-energy phosphate (HEP) concentrations in mmol/kg wet weight were 9.7 +/- 2.4 (age < 40 years, N = 16) and 7.7 +/- 2.5 (age >or= 40 years, N = 14) for PCr, and 5.1 +/- 1.0 (age < 40 years) and 4.1 +/- 0.8 (age >or= 40 years) for ATP, respectively. Separated by gender, PCr concentrations of 9.2 +/- 2.4 (men, N = 18) and 8.0 +/- 2.8 (women, N = 12) and ATP concentrations of 4.9 +/- 1.0 (men) and 4.2 +/- 0.9 (women) were measured. A significant decrease of PCr and ATP was found for volunteers older than 40 years (P < 0.05), but the differences in metabolic concentrations between both sexes were not significant. In conclusion, age has a minor but still significant impact on cardiac energy metabolism, and no significant gender differences were detected.

  6. Predictors of birth weight and gestational age among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harville, Emily W; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2012-10-01

    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994-1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24-32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context.

  7. Predictors of Birth Weight and Gestational Age Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2012-01-01

    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7–12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994–1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24–32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context. PMID:23035139

  8. Relationship between attack and pause in world taekwondo championship contests: effects of gender and weight category

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Victor Gustavo Ferreira; de Oliveira Pires, Flavio; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Frachini, Emerson; da Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos David; Peduti Dal Molin Kiss, Maria Augusta; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: the aim of this study was to compare between weight and gender categories the attack and pause times during the 2007 Taekwondo World Championship. Methods: a total of 88 rounds (47 male and 41 female contests) were analyzed. Results: there was no difference in attack/balancing times ratio between genders (0.13 ± 0.06 vs 0.13 ± 0.06, P > 0.05). The attack number was significantly higher in round 3 than in round 1 for all categories and genders. The balancing time was lower during the round 3 than round 1 for low-weight male and high-weight female categories. The delta of change from round 1 to 3 (round 3 - round 1) for attack time and attack/balancing times ratio were lower in male than female. Conclusions: female seems to intensify more the combat in the last round than male, and this seems be related to the weight division. PMID:25332922

  9. Gender, ageing & carework in East and Southern Africa: A review

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 58 million persons aged 60-plus live in sub-Saharan Africa; by 2050 that number will rise sharply to 215 million. Older Africans traditionally get care in their old age from the middle generation. But in East and Southern Africa, HIV has hollowed out that generation, leaving many older persons to provide care for their children’s children without someone to care for him or herself in old age. Simultaneously, the burden of disease among older persons is changing in this region. The result is a growing care deficit. This article examines the existing literature on care for and by older persons in this region, highlighting understudied aspects of older persons’ experiences of ageing and care – including the positive impacts of carework, variation in the region, and the role of resilience and pensions. We advance a conceptual framework of gendered identities – for both men and women – and intergenerational social exchange to help focus and understand the complex interdependent relationships around carework, which are paramount in addressing the needs of older persons in the current care deficit in this region, and the Global South more generally. PMID:25947225

  10. Weight status and bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Chen, Gui; Yan, Junxia; Luo, Jiayou

    2016-02-01

    This study was to examine the relationship between measured weight status and three experiences as victims, bullies and bully-victims. The participants were 10,587 Chinese school-aged students (girls: 5,527, boys: 5,060) who ranged in age from 7 to 18 years old. Height and weight were measured. Bullying behavior was obtained by one-to-one interview in 7-10 years older students and group-administered surveys in 11-18 years older students. The results showed that, obese girls were more likely to be victimized (OR=1.73, CI: 1.16-2.59) compared to normal students. For boys, obesity was not associated with victimization, but obese boys (OR=1.45, CI: 1.04-2.03), especially 7-13 years old boys (OR=1.98, CI: 1.35-2.90) were more likely to bully others; obese boys also were more likely to be victim/bullies (OR=1.67, CI: 1.05-2.64). Weight victimization in Chinese school-aged children is not as common as in the west countries, but obese girls clearly realize more victimization, and obese younger boys show obvious aggression. Related departments should provide specific intervention for school bullying according students' weight status, age and gender.

  11. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History.

    PubMed

    Giordimaina, Alicia M; Sheldon, Jane P; Kiedrowski, Lesli A; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-12-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey, nondiabetic Mexican Americans (n = 385), Blacks (n = 387), and Whites (n = 396) reported family histories of T2DM. Negative binomial regressions used age and gender to predict the number of affected relatives reported. Models were examined for the gender gap, parabolic age effect, and gender-by-age interaction predicted by kinkeeping. Results demonstrated support for gender and parabolic age effects but only among Whites. Kinkeeping may have application to the study of White family medical historians, but not Black or Mexican American historians, perhaps because of differences in family structure, salience of T2DM, and/or gender roles.

  12. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20–79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases. PMID:27598192

  13. Gender bias in the evaluation of new age music.

    PubMed

    Colley, Ann; North, Adrian; Hargreaves, David J

    2003-04-01

    Eminent composers in Western European art music continue to be predominantly male and eminence in contemporary pop music is similarly male dominated. One contributing factor may be the continuing under-valuation of women's music. Possible anti-female bias in a contemporary genre was investigated using the Goldberg paradigm to elicit judgments of New Age compositions. Since stronger stereotyping effects occur when information provided about individuals is sparse, fictitious male and female composers were presented either by name only or by name with a brief biography. Evidence for anti-female bias was found in the name-only condition and was stronger when liking for the music was controlled. Other findings were the tendency for females to give higher ratings, and the association of gender differences in liking of the music with ratings of quality in the name-only condition. These results are relevant to the design of formal assessment procedures for musical composition.

  14. The Effects of Age, Gender, and 4-H Involvement on Life Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Bruce E.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effects of age, gender, and 4-H involvement in clubs on life skill development of youth ages eight to 18 over a 12-month period. Regression analyses found age, gender, and 4-H involvement significantly influenced life skill development. Results found that females have higher levels of competencies in life…

  15. Rewriting age to overcome misaligned age and gender norms in later life.

    PubMed

    Morelock, Jeremiah C; Stokes, Jeffrey E; Moorman, Sara M

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we suggest that older adults undergo a misalignment between societal age norms and personal lived experience, and attempt reconciliation through discursive strategies: They rewrite how they frame chronological age as well as their subjective relations to it. Using a sample of 4041 midlife and older adults from the 2004-2006 wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS II), we explore associations of age and gender with subjective age and at what age respondents felt people enter later life. Our results confirm that as men and women age, they push up the age at which they think people enter later life, and slow down subjective aging (there is a growing gap between subjective and chronological age). Relations between a person's age and at what age they think people enter later life were stronger for men than for women. For every year they get older get older, men push up when they think people enter later life by 0.24years, women by 0.16years. Age norms surrounding the transition to later life may be more prominent for men than for women, and the difference in their tendencies to push up when they mark entry into later life may be a reflection of this greater prominence.

  16. Relation of arterial stiffness with gestational age and birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Y; Wong, K; Lam, B.; Tsoi, N

    2004-01-01

    Background: The cardiovascular risk of individuals who are born small as a result of prematurity remains controversial. Given the previous findings of stiffer peripheral conduit arteries in growth restricted donor twins in twin–twin transfusion syndrome regardless of gestational age, we hypothesised that among children born preterm, only those with intrauterine growth retardation are predisposed to an increase in cardiovascular risks. Aim: To compare brachioradial arterial stiffness and systemic blood pressure (BP) among children born preterm and small for gestational age (group 1, n = 15), those born preterm but having birth weight appropriate for gestational age (group 2, n = 36), and those born at term with birth weight appropriate for gestational age (group 3, n = 35). Methods: Systemic BP was measured by an automated device (Dinamap), while stiffness of the brachioradial arterial segment was assessed by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV). The birth weight was adjusted for gestational age and expressed as a z score for analysis. Results: The 86 children were studied at a mean (SD) age of 8.2 (1.7) years. Subjects from group 1, who were born at 32.3 (2.0) weeks' gestation had a significantly lower z score of birth weight (-2.29 (0.63), p<0.001), compared with those from groups 2 and 3. They had a significantly higher mean blood pressure (p<0.001) and their diastolic blood pressure also tended to be higher (p = 0.07). Likewise, their brachioradial PWV, and hence arterial stiffness, was the highest of the three groups (p<0.001). While subjects from group 2 were similarly born preterm, their PWV was not significantly different from that of group 3 subjects (p = 1.00) and likewise their z score of birth weight did not differ (-0.01 (0.71) v -0.04 (1.1), p = 1.00). Brachioradial PWV correlated significantly with systolic (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), diastolic (r = 0.38, p<0.001), and mean (0.47, p<0.001) BP, and with z score of birth weight (r = -0.43, p<0

  17. Weight gain in infancy and early childhood is associated with school age body mass index but not intelligence and blood pressure in very low birth weight children.

    PubMed

    Washburn, L; Nixon, P; Snively, B; Tennyson, A; O'Shea, T M

    2010-10-01

    Rates of weight gain in infancy and early childhood can influence later neurocognitive, metabolic and cardiovascular health. We studied the relationship of weight gain during infancy and early childhood to intelligence quotient (IQ), blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) at age 9 in children born with very low birth weight (VLBW). Sixty-five children born prematurely with VLBW were followed longitudinally and at 9 years IQ, BP and BMI were measured. The mean weight z-scores at birth, neonatal intensive care discharge, 1 year corrected for prematurity, 5 and 9 years were -0.17, -2.09, -1.3, -0.68 and 0.06, respectively. Weight gain during infancy (discharge to 1 year corrected for prematurity) and early childhood (1 year corrected age to 5 years) was expressed as rate of change in weight, rate of change in weight z-score and interval change in weight z-score. In multiple regression analyses that adjusted for race, gender, maternal education, antenatal steroids, birth weight z-score, major intracranial lesions on ultrasound and chronic lung disease, rates of weight gain in infancy and early childhood were predictive of BMI z-score at 9 years, regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals); 0.19 (0.02, 0.36) and 0.37 (0.11, 0.63), respectively, expressed as change in BMI z-score per 10 g/week weight increase. Rates of weight gain were not predictive of systolic BP z-score, Verbal IQ or Performance IQ. In VLBW infants, more rapid weight gain during infancy, and especially early childhood, is associated with higher BMI at school age.

  18. The effects of age and gender on lipreading abilities.

    PubMed

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Sommers, Mitchell S; Spehar, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Age-related declines for many sensory and cognitive abilities are greater for males than for females. The primary purpose of the present investigation was to consider whether age-related changes in lipreading abilities are similar for men and women by comparing the lipreading abilities of separate groups of younger and older adults. Older females, older males, younger females and younger males completed vision-only speech recognition tests of: (1) 13 consonants in a vocalic /i/-C-/i/ environment; (2) words in a carrier phrase; and (3) meaningful sentences. In addition to percent correct performance, consonant data were analyzed for performance within viseme categories. The results suggest that while older adults do not lipread as well as younger adults, the difference between older and younger participants was comparable across gender. We also found no differences in the lipreading abilities of males and females, regardless of stimulus type (i.e., consonants, words, sentences), a finding that differs from some reports by previous investigators (e.g., Dancer, Krain, Thompson, Davis, & Glenn, 1994).

  19. Implementation of age and gender recognition system for intelligent digital signage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Myoung-Kyu; Kim, Hyunduk

    2015-12-01

    Intelligent digital signage systems transmit customized advertising and information by analyzing users and customers, unlike existing system that presented advertising in the form of broadcast without regard to type of customers. Currently, development of intelligent digital signage system has been pushed forward vigorously. In this study, we designed a system capable of analyzing gender and age of customers based on image obtained from camera, although there are many different methods for analyzing customers. We conducted age and gender recognition experiments using public database. The age/gender recognition experiments were performed through histogram matching method by extracting Local binary patterns (LBP) features after facial area on input image was normalized. The results of experiment showed that gender recognition rate was as high as approximately 97% on average. Age recognition was conducted based on categorization into 5 age classes. Age recognition rates for women and men were about 67% and 68%, respectively when that conducted separately for different gender.

  20. The gender-specific association between age at first drink and later alcohol drinking patterns in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minsun; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the association between the age at first drink and later alcohol drinking patterns, and analyzed whether differences in the association exist among Korean adults according to gender. The subjects included 10,649 adults (5,405 men and 5,244 women) from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2009, which extracted the standard survey household by using the proportional systematic sampling method. Baseline individual characteristics, the age at first drink, and individual alcohol drinking patterns were obtained by specially trained interviewers or examiners. The association between the age at first drink and the adult alcohol drinking patterns was summarized with odds ratios and their confidence intervals obtained from multiple logistic regression analysis with sampling weights of KNHANES complex sample survey design. The results of this study show that age, co-habitation, occupation, smoking, and self-rated stress level were significantly related to the drinking patterns for men, whereas education, co-habitation, smoking, and self-rated stress level were significant factors for the drinking patterns of women. The association between the age at first drink and the adult alcohol consumption was significant for both genders and, interestingly, the alcohol drinking patterns were significantly differed by gender even after controlling for the individual characteristics. These results imply a need for gender-specific strategies to prevent hazardous alcohol consumption at a later time for Korean.

  1. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012–2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132–1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673–0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094–1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China. PMID:27455322

  2. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-07-23

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012-2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132-1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673-0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094-1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China.

  3. Age, height and weight of female Olympic finalists.

    PubMed

    Khosla, T; McBroom, V C

    1985-06-01

    Age, height and weight are intricately related to performance in a specific sporting activity. Optimum standards derived from 32 female Olympic finalists from two jumping events are listed as a sample from a much larger set of 824 finalists from 47 events. An example of variation is that high jumpers are taller by 6.3 cm and younger by 2.9 years than long jumpers. Conversely, considerable variation in body weight is shown for a group of finalists all with a height of 171 cm. The weights of these finalists range from 56 kg for a 400 m runner to 85 kg for a discus thrower. Many other events are listed between these examples and a number of events are found to share the same combination of height and weight (height 171 cm, weight 59-62 kg) swimming freestyle and medley, 200 m run, rowing, canoeing, volleyball and handball. These findings are expected to be of use for potential champions looking for optimum standards in specific events. They are also of use for trainers counselling athletes in the most appropriate selection of the event befitting her physique. Many sporting activities are found to be seriously biased in favour of the taller members of the population. This is a cause for concern as is the need for some remedial action.

  4. Age, height and weight of female Olympic finalists.

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, T; McBroom, V C

    1985-01-01

    Age, height and weight are intricately related to performance in a specific sporting activity. Optimum standards derived from 32 female Olympic finalists from two jumping events are listed as a sample from a much larger set of 824 finalists from 47 events. An example of variation is that high jumpers are taller by 6.3 cm and younger by 2.9 years than long jumpers. Conversely, considerable variation in body weight is shown for a group of finalists all with a height of 171 cm. The weights of these finalists range from 56 kg for a 400 m runner to 85 kg for a discus thrower. Many other events are listed between these examples and a number of events are found to share the same combination of height and weight (height 171 cm, weight 59-62 kg) swimming freestyle and medley, 200 m run, rowing, canoeing, volleyball and handball. These findings are expected to be of use for potential champions looking for optimum standards in specific events. They are also of use for trainers counselling athletes in the most appropriate selection of the event befitting her physique. Many sporting activities are found to be seriously biased in favour of the taller members of the population. This is a cause for concern as is the need for some remedial action. Images p96-a p96-b PMID:4027502

  5. Relationship of amniotic fluid index (AFI) in third trimester with fetal weight and gender in a southeast Nigerian population

    PubMed Central

    Ugwu, Anthony C; Shem, Samuel L; Abba, Muhammed

    2016-01-01

    Background Amniotic fluid (AF) is one of the major determinants of fetal biophysical profile and can predict pregnancy outcome. Abnormal value of amniotic fluid index (AFI) may indicate fetal and maternal disorders. Purpose To establish reference standards for AFI for this population after 28 weeks of pregnancy and evaluate the relationship between AFI, the estimated fetal weight (EFWT), and fetal gender. Material and Methods A prospective cross-sectional estimation of AFI and FWT was done in 385 apparently healthy pregnant women in the gestational age range of 28–42 weeks. General scanning in longitudinal, transverse, and oblique directions of the abdomen was done to assess the fetal wellbeing and determine the fetal gender for each participant. AF was measured in each of the quadrants of the abdomen. The four values of the AF were summed to get the AFI. Measurement of the head circumference, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, and femoral length of the fetus were obtained. The EFWT was calculated using Hadlock’s formula. The data were divided into five groups: 28–30 weeks 6 days; 31–33 weeks 6 days; 34–36 weeks 6 days; 37–39 weeks 6 days; and 40–42 weeks. AFI for the different gestational age group studied and their percentiles were obtained. Results AFI normogram for the local population was established. Positive and significant correlations of AF and EFWT were seen in all the gestational age groups of the women. No significant correlations between AF and EFWT was seen in male fetuses. Regression equations of EFWT and AFI were obtained for female fetuses. Conclusion The normal range for AFI values for the third trimester was established and could be used to evaluate AFI in the studied population. Established fetal weight should be taken into account when interpreting AFI for female fetuses but this need not be applied for male fetuses. PMID:27570636

  6. The Relationship between Gender and Age of First Concern in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Turygin, Nicole; Beighley, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    The age at which parents first developed concerns over their child's development was examined in 965 toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and atypical development to examine the potential role of gender. A two-way analysis of covariance was conducted with gender and diagnosis entered as independent variables, age at assessment entered as…

  7. Age and Gender Differences in Depression across Adolescence: Real or "Bias"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…

  8. Awkward or Amazing: Gender and Age Trends in First Intercourse Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jennifer L.; Ward, L. Monique; Caruthers, Allison; Merriwether, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Although research continues to highlight significant gender differences in first coital experiences, developmental approaches suggest that some of these patterns may be age-related. Therefore, this study investigated both gender and age differences in first intercourse experiences. Open-ended responses regarding reasons for, and descriptions of,…

  9. Pituitary resistin gene expression: effects of age, gender and obesity.

    PubMed

    Morash, Barbara A; Ur, Ehud; Wiesner, Glen; Roy, Jeremy; Wilkinson, Michael

    2004-03-01

    Resistin is a new adipocytokine which is expressed in rat, mouse and possibly human adipose tissue. Its putative role as a mediator of insulin resistance is controversial. We hypothesized that resistin, like leptin, would have multiple roles in non-adipose tissues and we reported that resistin is expressed in mouse brain and pituitary. Moreover, resistin expression in female mouse pituitary is developmentally regulated and maximal expression occurs peripubertally. Although the role of endogenous resistin in mouse brain and pituitary has not been determined, our data suggest that resistin could be important in the postnatal maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary system. In the present study we compared the ontogeny of resistin gene expression in the pituitary of male and female mice using semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. We show that resistin expression is developmentally regulated in the pituitary of male and female CD1 mice. However, significant gender differences were evident (male > female at postnatal day 28 and 42) and this was not modified by neonatal treatment of female pups with testosterone. Since resistin expression in adipose tissue is also influenced by obesity, we evaluated resistin expression in fat, brain and pituitary of the obese ob/ob mouse. Resistin mRNA was significantly increased in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots in postnatal day 28 ob/ob mice compared to controls, but pituitary resistin expression was significantly reduced. In contrast to the prepubertal levels, and in agreement with other reports, adipose resistin expression was reduced in adult ob/ob mice. In a third set of experiments we examined the influence of food deprivation on pituitary and fat resistin mRNA. Resistin gene expression was severely down-regulated by a 24-hour fast in adipose and pituitary tissue but not in hypothalamus. In conclusion, pituitary resistin expression is age- and gender-dependent. In ob/ob mice, and in fasted mice, resistin is regulated

  10. Fertility Decline, Gender Composition of Families, and Expectations of Old Age Support

    PubMed Central

    Allendorf, Keera

    2017-01-01

    Recent fertility declines in non-Western countries may have the potential to transform gender systems. One pathway for such transformations is the creation of substantial proportions of families with children of only one gender. Such families, particularly those with only daughters, may facilitate greater symmetry between sons and daughters. This article explores whether such shifts may influence gendered expectations of old age support. In keeping with patriarchal family systems, old age support is customarily provided by sons, but not daughters, in India. Using data from the 2005 Indian Human Development Survey, I find that women with sons overwhelmingly expect old age support from a son. By contrast, women with only daughters largely expect support from a daughter or a source besides a child. These findings suggest that fertility decline may place demographic pressure on gendered patterns of old age support and the gender system more broadly.

  11. Gender stereotypes across the ages: On-line processing in school-age children, young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group - young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside "headmaster") or feminine roles (badante "social care worker"), followed by a male (padre "father") or female kinship term (madre "mother"). The task was to decide if the two words - the role noun and the kinship term - could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press 'yes,' when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries.

  12. Gender stereotypes across the ages: On-line processing in school-age children, young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group – young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside “headmaster”) or feminine roles (badante “social care worker”), followed by a male (padre “father”) or female kinship term (madre “mother”). The task was to decide if the two words – the role noun and the kinship term – could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press ‘yes,’ when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries. PMID:26441763

  13. "It's your badge of inclusion": the Red Hat Society as a gendered subculture of aging.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Anne E; Pai, Manacy; Redmond, Rebecca

    2012-12-01

    Although studies document the health-enhancing effects of social engagement, they reveal little about the underlying mechanisms operating within specific organizational contexts. Limited attention is given to the role of inequality--particularly age and gender--in shaping either the organizations to which we belong or their consequences for our well-being. We address this issue by examining the Red Hat Society, a social organization for middle-aged and older women. Interviews with members (n=52) illustrate how age and gender inequality interact to shape the organization, which can be viewed as a gendered subculture of aging. Drawing on this framework, we discuss four processes through which participation generates benefits for older women involved in age- and gender-segregated organizations: enhancing social networks, countering invisibility, creating positive frames for aging experiences, and promoting youthful identities.

  14. Correlations among brain gray matter volumes, age, gender, and hemisphere in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Thyreau, Benjamin; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    To determine the relationship between age and gray matter structure and how interactions between gender and hemisphere impact this relationship, we examined correlations between global or regional gray matter volume and age, including interactions of gender and hemisphere, using a general linear model with voxel-based and region-of-interest analyses. Brain magnetic resonance images were collected from 1460 healthy individuals aged 20-69 years; the images were linearly normalized and segmented and restored to native space for analysis of global gray matter volume. Linearly normalized images were then non-linearly normalized and smoothed for analysis of regional gray matter volume. Analysis of global gray matter volume revealed a significant negative correlation between gray matter ratio (gray matter volume divided by intracranial volume) and age in both genders, and a significant interaction effect of age × gender on the gray matter ratio. In analyzing regional gray matter volume, the gray matter volume of all regions showed significant main effects of age, and most regions, with the exception of several including the inferior parietal lobule, showed a significant age × gender interaction. Additionally, the inferior temporal gyrus showed a significant age × gender × hemisphere interaction. No regional volumes showed significant age × hemisphere interactions. Our study may contribute to clarifying the mechanism(s) of normal brain aging in each brain region.

  15. Social physique anxiety and physical self-esteem: gender and age effects.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Martin S; Stevenson, Andy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the generalisability of the factor pattern, structural parameters, factor correlations and latent mean structure of social physique anxiety and physical self-esteem across gender, age and gender x age. The social physique anxiety scale and general physical self-esteem scale from the physical self-perception profile was administered to high school and university students aged 11-24 years (N = 2334). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the adequacy of a two-factor correlated model in the full sample, and separately by gender, age and gender x age sub-samples. The CFA model satisfied criteria for goodness-of-fit with the data in all sub-samples, the only exception was for females aged 21 and over. Tests of invariance of the factor pattern, structural parameters and correlations across age, gender and age x gender revealed few decrements in goodness-of-fit. Latent means analysis revealed that females had consistently higher levels of social physique anxiety and lower levels of physical self-esteem than males, with the exception of the 11-12 age group. Results extend previous findings that females tend to report higher levels of social physique anxiety and lower levels of physical self-esteem than males by demonstrating that these differences are consistent across age group.

  16. Unique Roles of Mothering and Fathering in Child Anxiety; Moderation by Child's Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Bogels, Susan M.; van der Bruggen, Corine C.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the associations between the parenting dimensions autonomy granting, over control, and rejection and children's anxiety, in relation to parent and child gender and child age. Elementary school-aged children (n = 179, M[subscript age] = 10.27, SD = 1.30), adolescents (n = 127, M[subscript age] = 15.02, SD = 1.54) and both their parents…

  17. Cross-sectional study of height and weight in the population of Andalusia from age 3 to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    López-Siguero, Juan Pedro; García, Juan Manuel Fernández; Castillo, Juan de Dios Luna; Molina, Jose Antonio Moreno; Cosano, Carlos Ruiz; Ortiz, Antonio Jurado

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives In Andalusia there were no studies including a representative sample of children and adolescent population assessing growth and weight increase. Our objectives were to develop reference standards for weight, height and BMI for the Andalusian pediatric population, from 3 to 18 years of age for both genders, and to identify the final adult height in Andalusia. Subjects and methods Two samples were collected. The first included individuals from 3 to 18 years of age (3592 girls and 3605 boys). They were stratified according type of study center, size of population of origin, age (32 categories of 0.5 years) and gender, using cluster sampling. Subjects from >18 to 23 years of age (947 women and 921 men) were sampled in 6 non-university educational centers and several university centers in Granada. Exclusion criteria included sons of non-Spanish mother or father, and individuals with chronic conditions and/or therapies affecting growth. Two trained fellows collected the data through February to December 2004, for the first sample, and through January to May 2005, for the second. Reference curves were adjusted using Cole's LMS method, and the quality of the adjustment was assessed using the tests proposed by Royston. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was applied to the final models obtained. Results Data for 9065 cases (4539 women and 4526 men) were obtained; 79.39% (n = 7197) in the up to 18 years of age group. In the first sampling only 0.07% (3 girls and 2 boys) refused to participate in the study. In addition, 327 students (4.5%) were absent when sampling was done. We present mean and standard deviation fort height, weight and BMI at 0.5 years intervals, from 3 to 23 years of age, for both genders. After adjustment with the different models, percentiles for height, weight (percentiles 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, 95, and 97) and BMI (percentiles 3, 5, 50, 85, 95, and 97) are presented for both genders. Conclusion This is the first study in

  18. Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  19. Cannabis use, gender and age of onset of schizophrenia: data from the ÆSOP study.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, Kim; Doody, Gillian A; Murray, Robin M; Jones, Peter B; Morgan, Craig; Dazzan, Paola; Hart, Jozella; Mazzoncini, Rodolfo; Maccabe, James H

    2014-03-30

    An earlier age of onset of schizophrenia has been identified as a poor prognostic indicator. The current study examines the interaction effect of gender and cannabis use on age of onset of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. This research forms part of a two-centre epidemiological study of first-episode psychosis and included individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and an age of onset between age 16 and 45. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to compare the effects of cannabis use and gender on age of first symptom of schizophrenia. Akaike's information criteria were used to find the model with the best fit to the data. Cannabis users had an earlier age of first symptom than non-users. There was an interaction with gender; the gender difference in age of onset was diminished in cannabis smokers compared with non-cannabis smokers. The model including cannabis use interacting with gender was the most parsimonious model, followed by cannabis use alone. The addition of other illegal drug use did not improve the model. Cannabis use is associated with an earlier age of onset of schizophrenia, and the gender difference in age of onset is reduced among cannabis smokers.

  20. Investigation of age and gender effects on positive orientation in Italian twins.

    PubMed

    Fagnani, Corrado; Medda, Emanuela; Stazi, Maria A; Caprara, Gian V; Alessandri, Guido

    2014-12-01

    We investigated age and gender effects on "Positive Orientation" (POS)-an individual's tendency to view life with a positive outlook-using a genetically informed design. Study subjects were 1016 twins aged 22-75 from the Italian twin registry. We assessed POS by the recently developed P-scale. First, we used confirmatory factor analysis to investigate scale's measurement invariance by age and gender. Then, we applied biometric modelling to estimate genetic and environmental components of POS score. Overall, we found a satisfactory degree of measurement invariance by both age and gender. Results from these analyses further indicated an increasing mean level of POS across the lifespan. Additive genetic and unshared environmental factors explained respectively 58% and 42% of variance in POS score, with no significant gender differences; furthermore, the pattern of change of gene-environment architecture of POS over time was consistent with a greater plasticity of personality at older ages.

  1. Age- and gender-specific norms for the German version of the Three-Factor Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ).

    PubMed

    Löffler, Antje; Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S; Luppa, Melanie; Sikorski, Claudia; Kovacs, Peter; Tönjes, Anke; Böttcher, Yvonne; Breitfeld, Jana; Horstmann, Annette; Löffler, Markus; Engel, Christoph; Thiery, Joachim; Stumvoll, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2015-08-01

    The 'Fragebogen zum Essverhalten' (FEV) is the German version of the Three-factor-Eating-Questionnaire (TFEQ). This questionnaire covers three domains of eating behaviour ('cognitive restraint', 'disinhibition' and 'hunger') as well as common problems (e.g. craving for sweets). So far, there is a lack of normative data of the FEV especially for the middle-aged and older population. Aim of this study therefore was to provide age- and gender-specific norms of the FEV for the general population aged 40-79 years. We studied 3144 participants of the ongoing large community-based Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) Health Care Study. We provided age- (four age groups: 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 years) and gender-specific percentile ranks and T-scores for the three domains of the FEV as well as age- and gender-specific frequencies of the common problems in eating behaviour. Females scored significantly higher than males in all three domains of the FEV (p < 0.001). Older individuals showed significantly higher mean scores than the younger ones in the domain of cognitive restraint, but lower mean scores in disinhibition and hunger (p < 0.001). 45.1% of the males and 69.9% of the females reported specific problems in eating. The main problem in both genders was craving for sweets (38.6%). Eating in response to stress was mostly reported in younger individuals. The present study offers current normative data for the FEV in the middle-aged and older general population that can be applied in clinical and non-clinical settings. Information on eating behaviour can be helpful in understanding body weight modulation, and thus, may help to improve interventive and preventive programmes for overweight, obesity, and eating disorders.

  2. The Effects of Age, Authority, and Gender on Perceptions of Statutory Rape Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahl, Daniel; Keene, Jennifer Reid

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 2,838 students from a Southwestern university in the United States, the authors examine the effect of respondent's gender, the adult's gender, the age gap between the adult and teen, and the adult's authority, on students' perceptions of vignettes describing adult-teen sexual relationships. Specifically, the authors investigate…

  3. Age and Input in the Acquisition of Grammatical Gender in Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of age of first exposure and the quantity and quality of input to which non-native acquirers (L2ers) are exposed in their acquisition of grammatical gender in Dutch. Data from 103 English-speaking children, preteens and adults were analyzed for gender agreement on definite determiners. It was observed that…

  4. Media Representations of Bullying toward Queer Youth: Gender, Race, and Age Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paceley, Megan S.; Flynn, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, media coverage on the bullying of queer youth increased dramatically. This study examined online news media's portrayal of the gender, race, and age of bullying victims. Content analyses of ten sources were compared to research on the dynamics of sexuality-based bullying. Discrepancies were found for gender and race (with White males…

  5. Gender and age effects in structural brain asymmetry as measured by MRI texture analysis.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, Vassili A; Kruggel, Frithjof; von Cramon, D Yves

    2003-07-01

    Effects of gender and age on structural brain asymmetry were studied by 3D texture analysis in 380 adults. Asymmetry is detected by comparing the complex 3D gray-scale image patterns in the left and right cerebral hemispheres as revealed by anatomical T1-weighted MRI datasets. The Talairach and Tournoux parcellation system was applied to study the asymmetry on five levels: the whole cerebrum, nine coronal sections, 12 axial sections, boxes resulting from both coronal and axial subdivisions, and by a sliding spherical window of 9 mm diameter. The analysis revealed that the brain asymmetry increases in the anterior-posterior direction starting from the central region onward. Male brains were found to be more asymmetric than female. This gender-related effect is noticeable in all brain areas but is most significant in the superior temporal gyrus, Heschl's gyrus, the adjacent white matter regions in the temporal stem and the knee of the optic radiation, the thalamus, and the posterior cingulate. The brain asymmetry increases significantly with age in the inferior frontal gyrus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus, retrosplenial cortex, coronal radiata, and knee region of the internal capsule. Asymmetry decreases with age in the optic radiation, precentral gyrus, and angular gyrus. The texture-based method reported here is based on extended multisort cooccurrence matrices that employ intensity, gradient, and anisotropy features in a uniform way. It is sensitive, simple to reproduce, robust, and unbiased in the sense that segmentation of brain compartments and spatial transformations are not necessary. Thus, it should be considered as another tool for digital morphometry in neuroscience.

  6. Maternal pregravid weight, age, and smoking status as risk factors for low birth weight births.

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, C; Nelson, M R

    1992-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Public Health, in cooperation with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), monitors trends in the prevalence of prenatal risk factors that are major predictors of infant mortality and low birth weight (LBW). Analyzed data from CDC are available to the department annually. During 1988, a total of 26,767 records of Illinois women giving birth were submitted to CDC. These surveillance data support the fact that women older than 30 years who smoke and enter pregnancy underweight are at greatest risk of delivering LBW babies. Overall, 13.9 percent of underweight smokers had LBW infants compared with 8 percent of underweight nonsmokers. Prevalence of LBW among underweight and smoking women older than 34 years was much higher (29.6 percent) than among those between ages 30 and 34 (15.2 percent). The prevalence of LBW decreased as the pregravid weight increased among normal weight smokers (10 percent) and overweight smokers (8.6 percent). PMID:1333619

  7. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, “BMIref”), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m2, respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders’ and ethnicities’ trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40–50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  8. [Determinants of active aging according to quality of life and gender].

    PubMed

    Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigenia; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte

    2015-07-01

    The scope of this study was to construct an indicator of active aging and assess its association with quality of life and possible determinants according to gender. The AGEQOL (Aging, Gender and Quality of Life) study was used to interview 2052 individuals aged 60 years and older residing in Sete Lagoas in the State of Minas Gerais. The association between active aging, quality of life and possible determinants was performed by multiple logistic regression with a 5% level of statistical significance separately for each gender. Most men were in the active aging group (58%), and 51.8% of women were in the normal aging group (p < 0.001). The quality of life in the Physical, Psychological, and total Score domains remained associated with the outcome in the final model for both genders. Among the men, the behavioral and community participation factors were positive predictors of active aging. Women with higher incomes, who did not suffer falls and engaged in community participation, had a better chance of belonging to the active aging group. The conclusion drawn is that quality of life and participation in groups are the main determinants of active aging, and the other factors associated with active aging are different for each gender.

  9. Child Weight Growth Trajectory and its Determinants in a Sample of Iranian Children from Birth until 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Sayed-Mohsen; Maracy, Mohamad-Reza; Sarrafzade, Sheida; Kelishadi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth is one of the most important indices in child health. The best and most effective way to investigate child health is measuring the physical growth indices such as weight, height and head circumference. Among these measures, weight growth is the simplest and the most effective way to determine child growth status. Weight trend at a given age is the result of cumulative growth experience, whereas growth velocity represents what is happening at the time. Methods: This longitudinal study was conducted among 606 children repeatedly measured from birth until 2 years of age. We used linear mixed model to analyze repeated measures and to determine factors affecting the growth trajectory. LOWESS smooth curve was used to draw velocity curves. Results: Gender, child rank, birth status and feeding mode had a significant effect on weight trajectory. Boys had higher weight during the study. Infants with exclusive breast feeding had higher weight than other infants. Boys had higher growth velocity up to age 6 month. Breast fed infants had higher growth velocity up to 6 month, but thereafter the velocity was higher in other infants. Conclusions: Many of the studies have investigated child growth, but most of them used cross-sectional design. In this study, we used longitudinal method to determine effective factors on weight trend in children from birth until 2-year-old. The effects of perinatal factors on further growth should be considered for prevention of growth disorders and their late complications. PMID:24829720

  10. Exploiting quality and texture features to estimate age and gender from fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, Emanuela; Lugini, Luca; Cukic, Bojan

    2014-05-01

    Age and gender of an individual, when available, can contribute to identification decisions provided by primary biometrics and help improve matching performance. In this paper, we propose a system which automatically infers age and gender from the fingerprint image. Current approaches for predicting age and gender generally exploit features such as ridge count, and white lines count that are manually extracted. Existing automated approaches have significant limitations in accuracy especially when dealing with data pertaining to elderly females. The model proposed in this paper exploits image quality features synthesized from 40 different frequency bands, and image texture properties captured using the Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and the Local Phase Quantization (LPQ) operators. We evaluate the performance of the proposed approach using fingerprint images collected from 500 users with an optical sensor. The approach achieves prediction accuracy of 89.1% for age and 88.7% for gender.

  11. Age, gender, and hemispheric differences in iron deposition in the human brain: an in vivo MRI study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojun; Wang, Qidong; Zhang, Minming

    2008-03-01

    It is well known that iron accumulates in the brains of patients with various neurodegenerative diseases. To better understand disease-related iron changes, it is necessary to know the physiological distribution and accumulation of iron in the human brain. Studies have shown that brain iron levels increase with aging. However, the effects of gender and hemispheric laterality on iron accumulation and distribution are not well established. In this study, we estimated the brain iron levels in vivo in 78 healthy adults ranging in age 22 to 78 years using magnetic susceptibility-weighted phase imaging. The effects of age, gender, and hemispheric location on brain iron levels were evaluated within the framework of a general linear model. We found that the left hemisphere had higher iron levels than the right in the putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, thalamus, and frontal white matter. We argue that the hemispheric asymmetry of iron content may underlie that of the dopaminergic system and may be related to motor lateralization in humans. In addition, significant age-related iron accumulation occurred in the putamen, red nucleus, and frontal white matter, but no gender-related differences in iron levels were detected. The results of this study extend our knowledge of the physiological distribution and accumulation of iron in the human brain.

  12. An Investigation of Gender and Age Differences in Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah; St. Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated gender- and age-related differences in academic motivation and classroom behaviour in adolescents. Eight hundred and fifty-five students (415 girls and 440 boys) aged 11-16 ("M" age = 13.96, "SD" = 1.47) filled in a questionnaire that examined student academic motivation and teachers completed a…

  13. Age and Gender's Interactive Effects on Learning Satisfaction among Senior University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Stephanie; Hsu, Wan-Chen; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2016-01-01

    With the growing number of older adults becoming a global concern, developed countries have focused on education as a means to promote successful aging. Previous research has focused on the effects of gender and age on learning satisfaction among senior students. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the interactive effects of age and…

  14. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  15. Child gender and weight status moderate the relation of maternal feeding practices to body esteem in 1st grade children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Harrist, Amanda W; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of body dissatisfaction development is critical for minimizing adverse effects of poor body esteem on eating behaviors, self-esteem, and overall health. Research has examined body esteem and its correlates largely in pre-adolescents and adolescents; however, important questions remain about factors influencing body esteem of younger children. The main purpose of this study was to test moderation by children's gender and weight status of the relation of maternal controlling feeding practices to 1st graders' body esteem. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) and anthropometric measurements were completed during one-on-one child interviews at school. Mothers completed the Child Feeding Questionnaire (restriction, monitoring, concern, self-assessed maternal weight). A total of 410 mother/child dyads (202 girls) participated. Percent of children classified as overweight (BMI-for-age ≥85th) was: girls - 29%; boys - 27%. Gender moderated the relation between restriction and body esteem (β = -.140, p = .05), with maternal restriction predicting body esteem in girls but not boys. The hypothesized three-way interaction among gender, child weight status, and monitoring was confirmed. Monitoring was significantly inversely related to body esteem only for overweight/obese girls (b = -1.630). The moderating influence of gender or gender and weight status on the link between maternal feeding practices and body esteem suggests the importance of body esteem interventions for girls as early as first grade.

  16. Older women and sexuality: Narratives of gender, age, and living environment.

    PubMed

    Jen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Little research has explored the intersection of aging and sexuality. This qualitative study is informed by a life course approach and narrative gerontology methods. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 women age 55 and older to explore the effects of gender, aging, and living environment on past and current sexual experiences. Subthemes from each major theme are discussed, including: (a) messages about and perceived effects of gender, (b) perceived effects of aging, and (c) perceived effects of living environment. Findings support the use of dynamical systems theory to study women's sexual experiences.

  17. Differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Veeraganta, Sumanth K.; Savadi, Ravindra C.; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Z.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose was to investigate the differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color among a sample of the local population in Bengaluru, India. Methodology: The study comprised 100 subjects belonging to both gender between the age groups of 16 years to 55 years. Tooth shade values of permanent maxillary left or right central incisors were recorded using the Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide. Skin color was matched using the Radiance compact makeup shades as a guide. Results: Chi-square statistical test demonstrated that younger subjects have lighter tooth shade values. No statistically significant differences were recorded in tooth shade value according to gender or skin color. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that tooth shade value is significantly influenced by age. Gender and skin color appear not to have a significant relation to tooth shade value. PMID:26929500

  18. Let me guess how old you are: effects of age, gender, and facial expression on perceptions of age.

    PubMed

    Voelkle, Manuel C; Ebner, Natalie C; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

    2012-06-01

    Perceptions of age influence how we evaluate, approach, and interact with other people. Based on a paramorphic human judgment model, the present study investigates possible determinants of accuracy and bias in age estimation across the adult life span. For this purpose, 154 young, middle-aged, and older participants of both genders estimated the age of 171 faces of young, middle-aged, and older men and women, portrayed on a total of 2,052 photographs. Each face displayed either an angry, fearful, disgusted, happy, sad, or neutral expression (FACES database; Ebner, Riediger, & Lindenberger, 2010). We found that age estimation ability decreased with age. Older and young adults, however, were more accurate and less biased in estimating the age of members of their own as compared with those of the other age group. In contrast, no reliable own-gender advantage was observed. Generally, the age of older faces was more difficult to estimate than the age of younger faces. Furthermore, facial expressions had a substantial impact on accuracy and bias of age estimation. Relative to other facial expressions, the age of neutral faces was estimated most accurately, while the age of faces displaying happy expressions was most likely underestimated. Results are discussed in terms of methodological and practical implications for research on age estimation.

  19. The effects of age and gender on plasma levels of 63 cytokines.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Anders; Carlsson, Lena; Gordh, Torsten; Lind, Anne-Li; Thulin, Måns; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood

    2015-10-01

    Cytokines play important roles as regulators of cell functions, and over the last decades a number of cytokine assays have been developed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of age and gender on a large number of cytokines. Plasma samples were collected from 33 healthy blood donors. The samples were analyzed using a multiplex proximity extension assay (PEA) allowing simultaneous measurement of 92 cytokines and four technical controls. Biomarkers with less than 80% quantitative results were excluded leaving 63 cytokines that were analyzed for the effects of gender and age. The plasma level of three of the investigated biomarkers (DNER, MCP-4 and MMP-10) were found to be significantly different for the two genders (adjusted p-value<0.05), and 15 of the biomarkers (CCL11, CCL25, CDCP1, CSF-1, CXCL11, CXCL9, FGF-23, Flt3L, HGF, IL-10RB, MCP-3, MCP-4, MMP-10, OPG, VEGF-A) were significantly associated with age. This study reveals the effects of age and gender on a large number of cytokine assays. CXCL5 and TNFB were significantly higher in females, while the other markers with significant gender-dependent differences were higher in males. For the markers that were significantly associated with age, only CXCL6 was found to decrease with age, while the other biomarkers increased with age.

  20. Gender differences and cognitive correlates of mathematical skills in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

    2009-05-01

    Published information concerning the influence of gender on mathematical ability tests has been controversial. The present study examines the performance of school-aged boys and girls from two age groups on several mathematical tasks and analyzes the predictive value of a verbal fluency test and a spatial test on those mathematical tasks. More specifically, our research attempts to answer the following two questions: (1) Are gender differences in mathematical test performance among children interrelated with age and (2) do verbal and spatial nonmathematical tests mediate gender effects on mathematical test performance? Two hundred and seventy-eight 7- to 10-year-old children and 248 13- to 16-year-olds were selected from schools in Colombia and Mexico (231 boys and 295 girls). The age effect was found to be significant for all measures, with scores improving with age. Results showed that boys and girls in both age groups scored similarly in most subtests, but that differences emerged in the performance of mental mathematical operations and in resolving arithmetical problems. In the latter - but not in mental math - older boys outperformed older girls, whereas no gender differences were observed in the younger groups. After controlling for age, it was found that the spatial test was, indeed, a significant mediator of gender effects, while the verbal task was not.

  1. Age- and gender-related incisor changes in different vertical craniofacial relationships

    PubMed Central

    Linjawi, Amal I

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the age- and gender-related changes in upper and lower incisors' position and inclination in different vertical craniofacial relationships. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study on patients' records of age 8–48 years. The sample was divided based on Frankfort mandibular plane angle into three groups; normal, high, and low angle groups. It was then subdivided according to age. Upper and lower incisors' inclinations and positions were assessed from lateral cephalometric radiographs. Gender and age associations and effects size were calculated using two-way ANOVA tests. Significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results: Four hundred and twenty records (F = 272, M = 148) were included; 115 had normal, 81 low, and 250 had high vertical relationships with no significant age and gender distribution differences (P > 0.05). All significant associations and effects were found in the low angle group only. A significant association was found between gender and upper incisor inclination (P < 0.05) with medium effect size (0.13 ≤ ηp2 < 0.26). An association is also found between age × gender interaction and upper incisor inclination and lower incisor position (P < 0.05) with large effect size (0.26 ≤ ηp2). Conclusion: Age- and gender-related upper and lower incisor changes were found to be significant in subjects with decreased vertical skeletal pattern only. The upper incisor inclination and the lower incisor position were the most affected variables with age and gender. PMID:27843888

  2. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ∼25%, women: ∼32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women. PMID:25368586

  3. Body weight status, eating behavior, sensitivity to reward/punishment, and gender: relationships and interdependencies.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Anja; Federbusch, Martin; Grellmann, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and personality characteristics are factors that may jointly regulate body weight. This study explored the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported behavioral and personality measures. These measures included eating behavior (based on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Stunkard and Messick, 1985), sensitivity to reward and punishment (based on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales) (Carver and White, 1994) and self-reported impulsivity (based on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11; Patton et al., 1995). We found an inverted U-shaped relationship between restrained eating and BMI. This relationship was moderated by the level of disinhibited eating. Independent of eating behavior, BIS and BAS responsiveness were associated with BMI in a gender-specific manner with negative relationships for men and positive relationships for women. Together, eating behavior and BIS/BAS responsiveness accounted for a substantial proportion of BMI variance (men: ∼25%, women: ∼32%). A direct relationship between self-reported impulsivity and BMI was not observed. In summary, our results demonstrate a system of linear and non-linear relationships between the investigated factors and BMI. Moreover, body weight status was not only associated with eating behavior (cognitive restraint and disinhibition), but also with personality factors not inherently related to an eating context (BIS/BAS). Importantly, these relationships differ between men and women.

  4. Effects of gestational length, gender, postnatal age, and birth order on visual contrast sensitivity in infants

    PubMed Central

    Dobkins, Karen R.; Bosworth, Rain G.; McCleery, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate effects of visual experience versus preprogrammed mechanisms on visual development, we used multiple regression analysis to determine the extent to which a variety of variables (that differ in the extent to which they are tied to visual experience) predict luminance and chromatic (red/green) contrast sensitivity (CS), which are mediated by the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) subcortical pathways, respectively. Our variables included gestational length (GL), birth weight (BW), gender, postnatal age (PNA), and birth order (BO). Two-month-olds (n = 60) and 6-month-olds (n = 122) were tested. Results revealed that (1) at 2 months, infants with longer GL have higher luminance CS; (2) at both ages, CS significantly increases over a ~21-day range of PNA, but this effect is stronger in 2- than 6-month-olds and stronger for chromatic than luminance CS; (3) at 2 months, boys have higher luminance CS than girls; and (4) at 2 months, firstborn infants have higher CS, while at 6 months, non-firstborn infants have higher CS. The results for PNA/GL are consistent with the possibility that P pathway development is more influenced by variables tied to visual experience (PNA), while M pathway development is more influenced by variables unrelated to visual experience (GL). Other variables, including prenatal environment, are also discussed. PMID:19810800

  5. Effects of gestational length, gender, postnatal age, and birth order on visual contrast sensitivity in infants.

    PubMed

    Dobkins, Karen R; Bosworth, Rain G; McCleery, Joseph P

    2009-09-30

    To investigate effects of visual experience versus preprogrammed mechanisms on visual development, we used multiple regression analysis to determine the extent to which a variety of variables (that differ in the extent to which they are tied to visual experience) predict luminance and chromatic (red/green) contrast sensitivity (CS), which are mediated by the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) subcortical pathways, respectively. Our variables included gestational length (GL), birth weight (BW), gender, postnatal age (PNA), and birth order (BO). Two-month-olds (n = 60) and 6-month-olds (n = 122) were tested. Results revealed that (1) at 2 months, infants with longer GL have higher luminance CS; (2) at both ages, CS significantly increases over a approximately 21-day range of PNA, but this effect is stronger in 2- than 6-month-olds and stronger for chromatic than luminance CS; (3) at 2 months, boys have higher luminance CS than girls; and (4) at 2 months, firstborn infants have higher CS, while at 6 months, non-firstborn infants have higher CS. The results for PNA/GL are consistent with the possibility that P pathway development is more influenced by variables tied to visual experience (PNA), while M pathway development is more influenced by variables unrelated to visual experience (GL). Other variables, including prenatal environment, are also discussed.

  6. Profile of oxidant and antioxidant activity in prepubertal children related to age, gender, exercise, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Cantarero, Francisco Jesus; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Benitez-Sillero, Juan de Dios; Muñoz-Villanueva, Maria Carmen; Tasset, Inmaculada; Pérez-Navero, Juan Luis

    2013-04-01

    Tissue damage resulting from oxidative stress induced by a pathological condition might have more serious consequences in children than in adults. Researchers have not yet identified particular markers - alone or in combination with others - of oxidative stress, or their role in pediatric diseases. The aim of this study was to identify gender-based biomarkers for measuring oxidative stress. Oxidative biomarkers were studied in 138 healthy Spanish children (85 boys, 53 girls) 7 to 12 years of age, at the prepubertal (Tanner I) stage, independent of body mass index (BMI), age, fitness (measured by 20-m shuttle run test), and physical activity (measured by participation in an after-school exercise program). The oxidative biomarkers measured were lipid peroxidation products, total nitrites, protein carbonyls, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The antioxidant biomarkers measured were total glutathione (TG), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase activity. In the study population, height, weight, waist circumference, and BMI were lower in girls than in boys. For oxidative biomarkers, boys had higher levels of protein carbonyl than girls (p < 0.001). In spite of this, girls had higher levels of GSSG (p < 0.001) and TG (p = 0.001), and a lower GSH/GSSG ratio (p < 0.001) than boys. For the antioxidant response, girls had higher levels of SOD (p = 0.002) than boys. All analyses were adjusted for BMI, age, fitness, and physical activity. In conclusion, prepubertal girls had higher oxidative stress than boys, in addition to higher levels of SOD, independent of age, BMI, fitness, and physical activity.

  7. Radiographic Evaluation of Mandible to Predict the Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jyothi Shiv; Mohan, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study is been conducted using digital panoramic radiographs for predicting age in various age groups and the accuracy of the parameters were accessed as age advances. Materials and Methods: The selected 300 panoramic images were divided into 3 age group of Group A (25-34 years), Group B (35-44 years), and Group C (45 -54 years). Each group comprised of 100 subjects in which 50 were males & 50 females. The age changes were evaluated using five parameters collectively, which were: Gonial angle, Antegonial angle, Mental foramen, Mandibular canal, Mandibular foramen. These parameters were evaluated on panoramic radiographs for age prediction and changes in their position as age advances. Results: Among all the parameters changes in Mandibular canal and mandibular foramen was found to be highly significant (p value ≤0.05) as age advances. Conclusion: These parameters can be used to predict the age of the individual as there were significant changes in Mandibular canal and Mandibular foramen as age advances. For Further studies large sample size, and recent modalities in radiography like CBCT or CT scan are required. PMID:25478451

  8. Clinimetric Testing in Mexican Elders: Associations with Age, Gender, and Place of Residence

    PubMed Central

    Tavano-Colaizzi, Lorena; Arroyo, Pedro; Loria, Alvar; Pérez-Lizaur, Ana Bertha; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the ability of five clinimetric instruments to discriminate between subjects >60 years of age living at home versus those living in a residency. Methods: Trained nutritionists applied five instruments (cognition/depression/functionality/nutrition/appetite) to 285 subjects with majorities of women (64%), aged <80 years (61%), and home residents (54%). Results: Multivariable regression models were generated for each instrument using age, gender, and residency as independent variables. Age was associated with worsening scores in the five instruments whereas residency showed association in three instruments, and gender in two. Score-age regressions by place of residency showed differences suggesting that Mundet residents had increasingly worse scores with increasing age than home dwellers for cognition, depression, and nutrition. Also, living at home prevented the worsening of depression with increasing age. In contrast, functionality and appetite deteriorated at a similar rate for home and Mundet residents suggesting an inability of these two instruments to discriminate between settings. Score-age regressions by gender suggested that males have less cognitive problems at 60 and 80 years of age but not at 100 years, and better appetite than women at all ages. Conclusion: Increasing age proved to be associated to worsening scores in the five instruments but only three were able to detect differences according to setting. An interesting observation was that living at home appeared to prevent the depression increase with increasing age seen in Mundet residents. PMID:25593910

  9. Interleukin-6 regulates the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in body weight in a gender-dependent way.

    PubMed

    Señarís, R M; Trujillo, M L; Navia, B; Comes, G; Ferrer, B; Giralt, M; Hidalgo, J

    2011-08-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 has been involved in the control of body weight and body fat. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not completely understood because central and peripheral actions of IL-6 are plausible. To gain further insight into the central effects of IL-6, we used transgenic mice expressing the IL-6 gene under the control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter (GFAP-IL-6 mice), therefore with central nervous system-restricted over-expression of IL-6, and we studied the expression of the main neuropeptides responsible for energy homeostasis in specific hypothalamic nuclei. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), prepro-orexin (preproOX) (orexigenic and anabolic neuropeptides), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) (anorexigenic and catabolic peptides) mRNA levels were determined using in situ hybridisation in young (2-4 month-old) and old (10-12 month-old) female and male mice under different feeding conditions: normal diet (control) and high-fat diet (HFD), and 24 h-food deprivation. In GFAP-IL-6 females fed a control diet (GFAP-IL-6-control), we showed a significant decrease in NPY and AgRP mRNA levels at all ages, and a late increase in POMC expression (only significant in older animals). These differences were blunted in HFD mice. By contrast, GFAP-IL-6-control males showed a decrease in CRH mRNA content at early ages (2-4 months), and an increase in older mice (10-12 months). Interestingly, these differences were again blunted in HFD mice. Finally, central IL-6 was not able to counteract the effects of 24 h of fasting on body weight, plasma glucose levels and the mRNA content of the peptides evaluated in the present study. Our results demonstrate that IL-6 may regulate the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of body weight and body fat acting at the central level in a gender- and age-dependent way.

  10. Gender Differences in the Associations among Body Mass Index, Weight Loss, Exercise, and Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Whiteman, Shawn; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.; Jensen, Alexander C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore gender differences regarding weight management behaviors of college drinkers. Participants: Nationally representative sample of college students from the fall 2008 American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment II ("N" = 26,062 students). Methods: Structural equation modeling was used…

  11. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  12. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  13. Computers and Young Children: Software Types, Social Contexts, Gender, Age, and Emotional Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Daniel D.

    1994-01-01

    Videotaped four- to eight-year olds as they interacted with computer software at different levels of developmental appropriateness. Facial expressions and other affective behaviors were analyzed as a function of age, presence of a peer, and appropriateness of software. Found that responses were mediated more by age, gender, and social condition…

  14. Cutaneous Resonance Running Time Varies with Age, Body Site and Gender in a Normal Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Shujun; Man, Wenyan; Fluhr, Joachim W.; Song, Shunpeng; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Background/objectives One phenomenon of skin aging is loss of cutaneous elasticity. Measurement of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT) is a method to assess skin elasticity. Yet, information regarding directional changes of CRRT associated with age, body sites and gender is not yet available. In the present study, we assessed whether changes in CRRT vary with age, body sites and gender in a normal Chinese population. Methods A Reviscometer was used to measure CRRTs in various directions on the left dorsal hand, the forehead and the left canthus of 806 normal Chinese volunteers, aged 2.5-94 years. Results With aging, CRRTs decreased in all directions on the hand, the forehead, and the canthus. A more dramatic reduction of CRRTs on the forehead and the canthus were observed at both the 2–8 and 3–9 o’clock directions. CRRTs in males aged 11– 20 years old were longer than those in females at some directions on all three body sites. Females between 21 and 40 years old showed longer CRRTs than males in some directions of the hand. There were no gender differences in subjects aged 0–10 (except on the canthus) and over 81 years old. Conclusion CRRTs vary with age, body sites and gender. PMID:21039906

  15. Adolescents' Definitions of Bullying: The Contribution of Age, Gender, and Experience of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Hollie; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dolphin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine adolescents' definitions of bullying in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Ireland. Definitions of bullying were examined according to age, gender, and bullying experiences. A sample of 4358 adolescents aged 12-19 years (M = 14.99 years, SD = 1.63) provided their definitions of…

  16. Interactive Effects of Gender Ideology and Age at First Marriage on Women's Marital Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Shannon N.; Greenstein, Theodore N.

    2004-01-01

    A sample of ever-married women from the NLSY79 is analyzed to examine the effects of age at first marriage and gender ideology on the likelihood of experiencing marital disruption. The authors hypothesize that age at first marriage will have no effect on the likelihood of experiencing marital disruption for non-traditional women, but that there…

  17. Measurement Invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale across Gender and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…

  18. Impact of IQ, Age, SES, Gender, and Race on Autistic Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine differences in autism severity and symptoms as a function of IQ, age, SES, gender, and race while simultaneously controlling these variables in 777 children with autism using a comprehensive measure evaluating 30 core and associated symptoms of autism. The children were 1-17 years of age with IQs from 9 to…

  19. Age, Gender, and Living Circumstances: Discriminating Older Adults on Death Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madnawat, A. V. Singh; Kachhawa, P. Singh

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of age, gender, and living circumstances on elderly persons' death anxiety. For this purpose, 299 persons attending public parks (average age = 70 years) were interviewed using the Death Anxiety Survey Schedule, which is a set of 10 questions related to death anxiety from an Indian perspective. Women, those…

  20. Age, Race, and Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms: A Lifespan Developmental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…

  1. The Effect of Target Age on the Activation of Gender Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powlishta, Kimberly K.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the impact of target age on gender stereotyping. College and elementary students viewed photographs of men, women, boys, and girls, rating each for masculine, feminine, and neutral personality traits. Adults also rated likelihood of masculine and feminine traits in adults versus children. Target age had important implications for…

  2. The Effects of Age, Gender and Language on Children's Singing Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mang, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Literature on children's singing development is largely skewed towards findings based on English-speaking children. The present study aims to fill the gap in research through an investigation of the effects of age, gender and language on the singing competency of Cantonese-speaking children. One hundred and twenty children aged 7 and 9 years…

  3. Gender Specific Re-organization of Resting-State Networks in Older Age

    PubMed Central

    Goldstone, Aimée; Mayhew, Stephen D.; Przezdzik, Izabela; Wilson, Rebecca S.; Hale, Joanne R.; Bagshaw, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Advancing age is commonly associated with changes in both brain structure and function. Recently, the suggestion that alterations in brain connectivity may drive disruption in cognitive abilities with age has been investigated. However, the interaction between the effects of age and gender on the re-organization of resting-state networks is not fully understood. This study sought to investigate the effect of both age and gender on intra- and inter-network functional connectivity (FC) and the extent to which resting-state network (RSN) node definition may alter with older age. We obtained resting-state functional magnetic resonance images from younger (n = 20) and older (n = 20) adults and assessed the FC of three main cortical networks: default mode (DMN), dorsal attention (DAN), and saliency (SN). Older adults exhibited reduced DMN intra-network FC and increased inter-network FC between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and nodes of the DAN, in comparison to younger participants. Furthermore, this increase in ACC-DAN inter-network FC with age was driven largely by male participants. However, further analyses suggested that the spatial location of ACC, bilateral anterior insula and orbitofrontal cortex RSN nodes changed with older age and that age-related gender differences in FC may reflect spatial re-organization rather than increases or decreases in FC strength alone. These differences in both the FC and spatial distribution of RSNs between younger and older adults provide evidence of re-organization of fundamental brain networks with age, which is modulated by gender. These results highlight the need to further investigate changes in both intra- and inter-network FC with age, whilst also exploring the modifying effect of gender. They also emphasize the difficulties in directly comparing the FC of RSN nodes between groups and suggest that caution should be taken when using the same RSN node definitions for different age or patient groups to investigate FC

  4. NMR imaging estimates of muscle volume and intramuscular fat infiltration in the thigh: variations with muscle, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Barnouin, Yoann; Azzabou, Noura; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Voit, Thomas; Moraux, Amélie; Leroux, Gaëlle; Behin, Anthony; McPhee, Jamie S; Carlier, Pierre G

    2015-06-01

    Muscle mass is particularly relevant to follow during aging, owing to its link with physical performance and autonomy. The objectives of this work were to assess muscle volume (MV) and intramuscular fat (IMF) for all the muscles of the thigh in a large population of young and elderly healthy individuals using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to test the effect of gender and age on MV and IMF and to determine the best representative slice for the estimation of MV and IMF. The study enrolled 105 healthy young (range 20-30 years) and older (range 70-80 years) subjects. MRI scans were acquired along the femur length using a three-dimension three-point Dixon proton density-weighted gradient echo sequence. MV and IMF were estimated from all the slices. The effects of age and gender on MV and IMF were assessed. Predictive equations for MV and IMF were established using a single slice at various femur levels for each muscle in order to reduce the analysis process. MV was decreased with aging in both genders, particularly in the quadriceps femoris. IMF was largely increased with aging in men and, to a lesser extent, in women. Percentages of MV decrease and IMF increase with aging varied according to the muscle. Predictive equations to predict MV and IMF from single slices are provided and were validated. This study is the first one to provide muscle volume and intramuscular fat infiltration in all the muscles of the thigh in a large population of young and elderly healthy subjects.

  5. Age and gender as independent predictors of violence under the influence of alcohol in Zurich, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Mica, Ladislav; Oesterle, Linda; Werner, Clément M L; Simmen, Hans-Peter

    2015-04-08

    Violent behaviour associated with alcohol consumption is frequently reported by different media. Clinical data analysing the correlation between alcohol intoxication, age, gender and violence are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age, gender and blood alcohol content on violent behaviour under the influence of alcohol under central European conditions. Three hundred patients admitted to the emergency department were included into this study in the time period from January 01. to December 31. 2009. The inclusion criteria were a blood alcohol content (BAC) of ≥10 mmol/l, any traumatic injury and an age ≥16 years. Violence was defined as an evitable act committed by others leading to patient's hospitalisation. The data were compared with Wilcoxon and χ2-test for proportions. The data were considered as significant if p<0,05. Predictive quality was evaluated by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Independent predictors were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The average age was 36,9±16,9 years (range: 16-84 years), 259 (86%) males and 41 (24%) females. There was a significant difference in gender (odds ratio for gender male 2,88; CI 95%: 1,24-6,67; p<0,001) and age dependent (odds ratio for each year of age 0,94; CI 95%: 0,93-0,96; p<0,0001) violence with no correlation to blood alcohol content found. Logistic regression analysis revealed male gender and young age as an independent predictor for violence. These results clarify the relationship between alcohol, age, gender and violence and have important implications for municipal-level alcohol policies.

  6. Short-Term Heart Rate Variability—Influence of Gender and Age in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Heitmann, Andreas; Peters, Annette; Perz, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, short-term heart rate variability (HRV) describing complex variations of beat-to-beat interval series that are mainly controlled by the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been increasingly analyzed to assess the ANS activity in different diseases and under various conditions. In contrast to long-term HRV analysis, short-term investigations (<30 min) provide a test result almost immediately. Thus, short-term HRV analysis is suitable for ambulatory care, patient monitoring and all those applications where the result is urgently needed. In a previous study, we could show significant variations of 5-min HRV indices according to age in almost all domains (linear and nonlinear) in 1906 healthy subjects from the KORA S4 cohort. Based on the same group of subjects, general gender-related influences on HRV indices are to be determined in this study. Short-term 5-min HRV indices from linear time and frequency domain and from nonlinear methods (compression entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis, traditional and segmented Poincaré plot analysis, irreversibility analysis, symbolic dynamics, correlation and mutual information analysis) were determined from 782 females and 1124 males. First, we examined the gender differences in two age clusters (25–49 years and 50–74 years). Secondly, we investigated the gender-specific development of HRV indices in five age decade categories, namely for ages 25–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64 and 65–74 years. In this study, significant modifications of the indices according to gender could be obtained, especially in the frequency domain and correlation analyses. Furthermore, there were significant modifications according to age in nearly all of the domains. The gender differences disappeared within the last two age decades and the age dependencies disappeared in the last decade. To summarize gender and age influences need to be considered when performing HRV studies even if these influences only partly differ. PMID

  7. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: The Contributions of Weight-Related Concerns and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Christine A.; Halpern, Carolyn T.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence was evaluated using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The theoretical model under examination was primarily informed by the gender-additive model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence…

  8. Age-gender differences in the postural sway during squat and stand-up movement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Won; Kwon, Yuri; Ho, Yeji; Jeon, Hyeong-Min; Bang, Min-Jung; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Eom, Gwang-Moon; Park, Byung Kyu; Cho, Yeong Bin

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of falling among elderly female has been reported to be much higher than that of elderly male. Although the gender differences in the elderly were reported for the static postural sway, there has been no investigation of the gender difference for the dynamic postural sway. This study investigates how age and gender affect the postural sway during dynamic squat and stand-up movement. 124 subjects (62 subjects for each of young and elderly) performed consecutive squat and stand-up movement, 2 times in one session, and 2 sessions per subject. Center of pressure (COP) was measured using force platform during the test. Outcome measures included peak-to-peak sways of the COP (COP sway) in the sagittal plane (anteroposterior) and frontal plane (mediolateral) and also those normalized by body height. Two-way ANOVA and post-hoc comparisons were performed for the outcome measures with the independent factors of age and gender. All outcome measures, excluding mediolateral COP sway, showed significant interaction of age and gender (p<0.05). Post-hoc test revealed that only female showed increase in COP sway with age. When normalized by height, increase in COP sways (both directions) with age significant only in women resulted in greater sways in elderly female than elderly male. This may be related to the greater fall rate of elderly female than that of elderly men while performing dynamic activities.

  9. Influence of age and gender on mental health literacy of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hadjimina, Eleana; Furnham, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    This study explored the influence of age and gender on Mental Health Literacy (MHL) of various anxiety disorders. The aim was to determine whether the gender and age of participants and gender of the disorders character had a significant effect on their ability to recognise a range of anxiety disorders. A convenience sample of 162 individuals (aged 18-70yrs) completed one of two questionnaires, which differed only on the gender of the vignette's character. Participants had to label the "problems" of individual in six vignettes and state their opinion on how well adjusted the characters were in terms of happiness and work and personal relationships. 'Correct' labelling (using the official/technical term) of the different disorders varied from 3% to 29% of all participants. Gender differences of participants had a significant effect on literacy where females demonstrated higher MHL than males and the youngest group (18-29yrs) showed better MHL than older groups. There was a non-significant effect of vignette gender on recognition rates. The research points to the evidence that MHL remains relatively low for all anxiety disorders.

  10. Effects of gender and body weight on fibroblast growth factor 23 responsiveness to estimated dietary phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hiroyuki; Sakuma, Masae; Suzuki, Akitsu; Morimoto, Yuuka; Ishikawa, Makoto; Umeda, Minako; Arai, Hidekazu

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a molecule involved in regulating phosphorus homeostasis. Although some studies indicated an association between serum FGF23 levels and sex, the association has not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether sex could influence FGF23 responsiveness to dietary phosphorus intake in healthy individuals. Thirty two healthy subjects between 21 and 28 years were recruited for this study. Subjects performed 24-hour urine collection and blood samples were collected. We estimated phosphorus intake (UC-P) from the urine collection (UC), and evaluated any association between UC-P and serum FGF23 levels. Subsequently, we compared serum FGF23 levels between males and females. Positive correlation was observed between UC-P and serum FGF23 levels. Serum FGF23 levels were significantly higher in males than in females. Serum FGF23 levels/UC-P was significantly higher in females than in males. There was no significant difference in serum FGF23 levels/UC-P/BW between the male and female groups. Our results indicate that there was no gender difference between FGF23 responsiveness to phosphorus intake per body weight.

  11. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  12. Pronounced gender and age differences are evident in personal health care spending per person.

    PubMed

    Cylus, Jonathan; Hartman, Micah; Washington, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly; Catlin, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines differences in national health care spending by gender and age. Our research found significant variations in per person spending by gender across age groups, health services, and types of payers. For example, in 2004 per capita health care spending for females was 32 percent more than for males. Per capita differences were most pronounced among the working-age population, largely because of spending for maternity care. Except for children, total spending for and by females was greater than that for and by males, for most services and payers. The gender difference in total spending was most pronounced in the elderly, as a result of the longer life expectancy of women.

  13. The Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory: Factorial invariance in problem behaviors across gender and age.

    PubMed

    Hukkelberg, Silje

    2016-08-01

    The Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) assesses problem behaviors in children, and is a widely used instrument in both clinical work and research. Evidence suggests that the short ECBI version, comprising 22 items, can be reduced into the three oblique factors: Oppositional defiant behavior; Conduct problem behavior; and Inattentive behavior. The present study aimed to evaluate this three-factor model in a Norwegian sample of 554 children, and examine multi-group invariance across gender and age. Consistent with previous research, results confirmed a tripartite model, with the same residual covariances and cross-loading appearing across groups. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated partial measurement invariance across gender and age. Overall, findings support a meaningful comparison of the short ECBI across gender and age. The study makes a contribution to the generalizability issue of the ECBI.

  14. Comparing the Effects of Age, BMI and Gender on Severe Injury (AIS 3+) in Motor-Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Patrick M.; Flannagan, Carol A.C.; Reed, Matthew P.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Rupp, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of age, body mass index (BMI) and gender on motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries are not well understood and current prevention efforts do not effectively address variability in occupant characteristics. Objectives 1) Characterize the effects of age, BMI and gender on serious-to-fatal MVC injury 2) Identify the crash modes and body regions where the effects of occupant characteristics onthe numbers of occupants with injuryis largest, and thereby aid in prioritizing the need forhuman surrogates that the represent different types of occupant characteristics and adaptive restraint systems that consider these characteristics. Methods Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the effects of occupant characteristics (age, BMI, gender), vehicle and crash characteristics on serious-to-fatal injuries (AIS 3+) by body region and crash mode using the 2000-2010 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS-CDS) dataset. Logistic regression models were applied to weighted crash data to estimate the change in the number of annual injured occupants with AIS 3+ injury that would occur if occupant characteristics were limited to their 5th percentiles (age ≤ 17 years old, BMI ≤ 19 kg/m2) or male gender. Results Limiting age was associated with a decrease inthe total number of occupants with head [8,396, 95% CI 6,871-9,070] and thorax injuries [17,961, 95% CI 15,960 – 18,859] across all crash modes, decreased occupants with spine [3,843, 95% CI 3,065 – 4,242] and upper extremity [3,578, 95% CI 1,402 – 4,439] injuries in frontal and rollover crashes and decreased abdominal [1,368, 95% CI 1,062 – 1,417] and lower extremity [4,584, 95% CI 4,012 – 4,995] injuries in frontal impacts. The age effect was modulated by gender with older females morelikely to have thorax and upper extremity injuries than older males. Limiting BMI was associated with 2,069 [95% CI 1,107 – 2,775] fewer thorax injuries in nearside crashes, and 5,304 [95% CI 4,279 – 5

  15. Prediction of age and gender using digital radiographic method: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Poongodi, V.; Kanmani, R.; Anandi, M. S.; Krithika, C. L.; Kannan, A.; Raghuram, P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Objective: To investigate age, sex based on gonial angle, width and breadth of the ramus of the mandible by digital orthopantomograph. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 panoramic radiographic images were selected. The age of the individuals ranged between 4 and 75 years of both the gender - males (113) and females (87) and selected radiographic images were measured using KLONK image measurement software tool with linear, angular measurement. The investigated radiographs were collected from the records of SRM Dental College, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Radiographs with any pathology, facial deformities, if no observation of mental foramen, congenital deformities, magnification, and distortion were excluded. Results: Mean, median, standard deviation, derived to check the first and third quartile, linear regression is used to check age and gender correlation with angle of mandible, height and width of the ramus of mandible. Conclusion: The radiographic method is a simpler and cost-effective method of age identification compared with histological and biochemical methods. Mandible is strongest facial bone after the skull, pelvic bone. It is validatory to predict age and gender by many previous studies. Radiographic and tomographic images have become an essential aid for human identification in forensic dentistry forensic dentists can choose the most appropriate one since the validity of age and gender estimation crucially depends on the method used and its proper application. PMID:26538907

  16. Gender Transitions in Later Life: A Queer Perspective on Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Fabbre, Vanessa D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Most understandings of successful aging are developed within a heteronormative cultural framework, leading to a dearth of theoretical and empirical scholarship relevant to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) older adults. This study explores the experiences of transgender persons who contemplate or pursue a gender transition in later life in order to develop culturally diverse conceptualizations of health and wellness in older age. Design and Methods: Using the extended case method, in-depth interviews were conducted with male-to-female-identified persons (N = 22) who have seriously contemplated or pursued a gender transition past the age of 50. In addition, 170hr of participant observation was carried out at 3 national transgender conferences generating ethnographic field notes on the topics of aging and gender transitions in later life. Results: Interpretive analyses suggest that many transgender older adults experience challenges to their gender identities that put their emotional and physical well-being at risk. Contemporary queer theory is used to understand these experiences and argue that greater attention to experiences of queer “failure” and negotiating “success on new terms” may be integral aspects of growth and development for transgender older adults. Implications: The Baby Boom generation is aging in a post-Stonewall, LGBTQ civil rights era, yet gerontology’s approach to gender and sexual identity has largely been formulated from a heteronormative perspective. A framework for understanding older transgender persons’ experiences informed by queer theory offers a new orientation for conceptualizing successful aging in the lives of marginalized gender and sexual minorities. PMID:25161264

  17. Gender, Race, and Age: The Content of Compound Stereotypes Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Andreoletti, Carrie; Leszczynski, Jennifer P; Disch, William B

    2015-07-01

    While stereotypes about gender, race, and age (particularly old age) have been studied independently, few have examined the content of compound stereotypes that consider the intersection of gender, race, and age. Using a within-subjects design, we examined stereotypes as a function of target gender (male, female), race (Black, White), and age across the life span (adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old). Participants rated 20 target groups on 10 attributes representative of either an agentic (e.g., ambitious) or communal (e.g., considerate) orientation. Participants were presented only with categorical information (e.g., Black, 85-year-old, males), and ordering of categorical information and target groups was counterbalanced across participants. We hypothesized differential effects of target gender and race as a function of age. Multivariate analyses of variance on each attribute revealed significant main effects that supported traditional stereotype research, but significant interactions revealed a more complicated picture. Overall, results showed that while gender stereotypes about agency and communion generally hold up across the life span, they are more applicable to White than Black targets. Results also supported the notion that we hold unique stereotypes based on multiple social categories rather than simply perceiving one social category as more salient than another, which was best exemplified in the case of Black female targets that were less likely to be perceived in gender stereotypic ways across the life span. We suggest stereotype research needs to shift to accommodate for the complexity and diversity of real people.

  18. Derivation of an Age and Weight Handicap for the 5K Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.; Laubach, Lloyd L.

    2007-01-01

    The adverse effect of increasing age and/or body weight on distance run performance has been well documented. Accordingly, nearly all five kilometer (5K) road races employ age categories and, sometimes, a heavier body weight classification. Problems with such conventions include small numbers of runners within older age categories and the…

  19. How Do You Know You're Old? Gender Differences in Cues Triggering the Experience of Personal Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panek, Paul E.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Pruett, Jessica H.

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the gender differences on the experience of aging, 142 individuals 50 years of age and older completed an interview regarding experiences with another individual conveying the message that they were "old." Interviewees were asked about the type of situation, the age and gender of the response person, and the…

  20. School Anxiety Inventory-Short Version: Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Differences Across Gender and Age in Spanish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Marzo, Juan C.; Martinez-Monteagudo, Maria C.; Estevez, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short Version across gender and age groups for 2,367 Spanish students, ranging in age from 12 to 18 years. Configural and measurement invariance were found across gender and age samples for all dimensions of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short…

  1. GMM-based speaker age and gender classification in Czech and Slovak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Přibil, Jiří; Přibilová, Anna; Matoušek, Jindřich

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes an experiment with using the Gaussian mixture models (GMM) for automatic classification of the speaker age and gender. It analyses and compares the influence of different number of mixtures and different types of speech features used for GMM gender/age classification. Dependence of the computational complexity on the number of used mixtures is also analysed. Finally, the GMM classification accuracy is compared with the output of the conventional listening tests. The results of these objective and subjective evaluations are in correspondence.

  2. How diversity gets lost: Age and gender in design practices of information and communication technologies.

    PubMed

    Oudshoorn, Nelly; Neven, Louis; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an intersectional approach to investigate how age, gender, and diversity are represented, silenced, or prioritized in design. Based on a comparative study of design practices of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for young girls and older people, this article describes differences and similarities in the ways in which designers tried to cope with diversity. Ultimately diversity was neglected, and the developers relied on hegemonic views of gender and age, constructed older people and young girls as an "other," and consequently their input was neglected. These views were thus materialized in design and reinforce such views in powerful yet unobtrusive ways.

  3. Intact recognition of facial expression, gender, and age in patients with impaired recognition of face identity.

    PubMed

    Tranel, D; Damasio, A R; Damasio, H

    1988-05-01

    We conducted a series of experiments to assess the ability to recognize the meaning of facial expressions, gender, and age in four patients with severe impairments of the recognition of facial identity. In three patients the recognition of face identity could be dissociated from that of facial expression, age, and gender. In one, all forms of face recognition were impaired. Thus, a given lesion may preclude one type of recognition but not another. We conclude that (1) the cognitive demands posed by different forms of recognition are met at different processing levels, and (2) different levels depend on different neural substrates.

  4. Liking and Identifying Emotionally Expressive Music: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Patrick G.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Stalinski, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Adults and children 5, 8, and 11 years of age listened to short excerpts of unfamiliar music that sounded happy, scary, peaceful, or sad. Listeners initially rated how much they liked each excerpt. They subsequently made a forced-choice judgment about the emotion that each excerpt conveyed. Identification accuracy was higher for young girls than…

  5. Added mass in human swimmers: age and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Caspersen, Cecilie; Berthelsen, Petter A; Eik, Mari; Pâkozdi, Csaba; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik

    2010-08-26

    In unstationary swimming (changing velocity), some of the water around the swimmer is set in motion. This can be thought of as an added mass (M(a)) of water. The purpose of this study was to find added mass on human swimmers and investigate the effect of shape and body size. Thirty subjects were connected to a 2.8m long bar with handles, attached with springs (stiffness k = 318 N/m) and a force cell. By oscillating this system vertically and registering the period of oscillations it was possible to find the added mass of the swimmer, given the known masses of the bar and swimmer. Relative added mass (M(a)%) for boys, women and men were, respectively, 26.8 +/- 2.9%, 23.6 +/- 1.6% and 26.8 +/- 2.3% of the subjects total mass. This study reported significantly lower added mass (p < 0.001) and relative added mass (p < 0.002) for women compared to men, which indicate that the possible body shape differences between genders may be an important factor for determining added mass. Boys had significantly lower (p < 0.001) added mass than men. When added mass was scaled for body size there were no significant differences (p = 0.996) between boys and men, which indicated that body size is an important factor that influences added mass. The added mass in this study seems to be lower and within a smaller range than previously reported (Klauck, 1999; Eik et al., 2008). It is concluded that the added mass in human swimmers, in extended gliding position, is approximately 1/4 of the subjects' body mass.

  6. Menopause Weight Gain: Stop the Middle Age Spread

    MedlinePlus

    ... al. Diet and adipose tissue distributions: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases. 2016;26:185. Greenberg JA, et al. Chocolate-candy consumption and three-year weight gain among postmenopausal U.S. ...

  7. Gender differences in episodic memory and visual working memory including the effects of age.

    PubMed

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed.

  8. Microglial Function across the Spectrum of Age and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, Jillian C.

    2017-01-01

    Microglia constitute the resident immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system. Although much work has focused on their ability to mount an inflammatory response in reaction to pathology, recent studies have delved into their role in maintaining homeostasis in the healthy brain. It is important to note that the function of these cells is more complex than originally conceived, as there is increasing evidence that microglial responses can vary greatly among individuals. Here, this review will describe the changing behavior of microglia from development and birth through to the aged brain. Further, it is not only age that impacts the state of the neuroimmune milieu, as microglia have been shown to play a central role in the sexual differentiation of the brain. Finally, this review will discuss the implications this has for the differences in the incidence of neurodegenerative disorders between males and females, and between the young and old. PMID:28273860

  9. Brazilian Normative Data on Letter and Category Fluency Tasks: Effects of Gender, Age, and Geopolitical Region

    PubMed Central

    Hazin, Izabel; Leite, Gilmara; Oliveira, Rosinda M.; Alencar, João C.; Fichman, Helenice C.; Marques, Priscila d. N.; de Mello, Claudia Berlim

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a basic function of language that refers to the ability to produce fluent speech. Despite being an essentially linguistic function, its measurements are also used to evaluate executive aspects of verbal behavior. Performance in verbal fluency (VF) tasks varies according to age, education, and cognitive development. Neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the functioning of frontal areas tend to cause lower performance in VF tasks. Despite the relative consensus that has been reached in terms of the use of VF tasks for the diagnosis of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, few studies have considered regional variations in Brazil. The present study sought to provide normative data on VF tasks in children by considering gender, age, education, and geopolitical region of origin with auxiliary purposes in neuropsychological diagnosis of disorders that occur with executive changes The study included 298 participants, 7–10 years of age of both genders, who performed three letter fluency tasks and three category fluency tasks. The data were subjected to correlational and variance analyses, with age and gender as factors. No effect of gender on the children's performance was found. However, significant differences between age groups were observed, with better performance in letter tasks in older children and better performance in letter tasks compared with category tasks. Significant regional differences in performance on the letter VF task were observed. These results reinforce the importance of regional normative data in countries with high regional cultural variations, such as Brazil. PMID:27242598

  10. The effects of road-surface conditions, age, and gender on driver-injury severities.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Abigail; Mannering, Fred L

    2011-09-01

    Drivers' adaptation to weather-induced changes in roadway-surface conditions is a complex process that can potentially be influenced by many factors including age and gender. Using a mixed logit analysis, this research assesses the effects that age, gender, and other factors have on crash severities by considering single-vehicle crashes that occurred on dry, wet, and snow/ice-covered roadway surfaces. With an extensive database of single-vehicle crashes from Indiana in 2007 and 2008, estimation results showed that there were substantial differences across age/gender groups under different roadway-surface conditions. For example, for all females and older males, the likelihood of severe injuries increased when crashes occurred on wet or snow/ice surfaces-but for male drivers under 45 years of age, the probability of severe injuries decreased on wet and snow/ice surfaces - relative to dry-surface crashes. This and many other significant differences among age and gender groups suggest that drivers perceive and react to pavement-surface conditions in very different ways, and this has important safety implications. Furthermore, the empirical findings of this study highlight the value of considering subsets of data to unravel the complex relationships within crash-injury severity analysis.

  11. Correlation between age and gender in Candida species infections of complete denture wearers: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Loster, Jolanta E; Wieczorek, Aneta; Loster, Bartłomiej W

    2016-01-01

    Aim Denture-related stomatitis is a disorder that often affects denture wearers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intensity, genera, and frequency of yeasts in the oral cavity of complete denture wearers in terms of subject gender and age. Materials and methods Nine hundred twenty patients (307 males and 613 females) with complete upper dentures were selected for the study and divided into four age groups: ≤50 years, 51–60, 61–70, and >70 years. Yeast samples were taken as a smear from the palate. The data were collected from January 15, 2007 to January 15, 2012. Results The distribution of the number of yeast colonies by gender was statistically significant (P=0.02). Across all subjects, there was a statistically significant relationship between the intensity of yeast growth and the gender (P=0.01). In every age group, the number of infection-free individuals was greater among males than females. Intermediate, intense, and abundant growth of yeast occurred most frequently in the youngest group of females. Conclusion The genera of Candida species and the frequency of yeast infection in denture wearers appear to be influenced by both age and gender. The complete denture wearers ≤50 years of age appeared to have the greatest proclivity to oral Candida infections. PMID:27920509

  12. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years: Influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, J B; Magnusson, S P; Slinde, F; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Aagaard, P

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age.

  13. Hemodynamic responses to laboratory stressors in children and adolescents: the influences of age, race, and gender.

    PubMed

    Allen, M T; Matthews, K A

    1997-05-01

    The objectives of the present study were threefold: (a) to compare the patterns of hemodynamic responding of children and adolescents during behavioral challenges, (b) to examine whether previously reported cardiovascular reactivity differences between Black and White children are dependent on pubertal status, and (c) to assess whether gender differences in hemodynamic response reported for adults is similar in children. One hundred fifty-nine children (ages 8-10 years) and adolescents (ages 15-17 years), equally divided along gender and racial lines, participated in a laboratory protocol consisting of a reaction time task, a mirror tracing task, a cold forehead challenge, and a stress interview. Results indicated that adolescents responded with greater beta-adrenergic activation than did children and that gender differences in reactivity often reported for adults emerged more clearly in the adolescents than in the children. This study failed to replicate prior findings of greater vasoconstrictive responses in Black children as compared with White children.

  14. The role of gender in very old age: profiles of functioning and everyday life patterns.

    PubMed

    Smith, J; Baltes, M M

    1998-12-01

    Older men and women have different life contexts as a function of differential longevity and socio-structural opportunities over the life course. The question is whether gender-related differences also occur in psychological and everyday functioning in older adults. Examined were 258 men and 258 women between the ages of 70 and 103 years (M = 85 years), participants in the Berlin Aging Study. Significant gender differences were observed in 13 of 28 aspects of personality, social relationships, everyday activity patterns, and reported well-being. Cluster analysis identified 11 subgroups whose profiles of life conditions and health and psychological functioning could be categorized as more or less desirable (functional). The relative risk of a less desirable profile was 1.6 times higher for women than for men. For older adults, gender as a variable carries differences in physical frailty and life conditions that likely have consequences for psychological functioning.

  15. Infant temperament: stability by age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (< 9 months) interassessment intervals and small to medium for longer (> 10 months) intervals.

  16. Infant Temperament: Stability by Age, Gender, Birth Order, Term Status, and SES

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O’Connor, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the first year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time-points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (<9 months) inter-assessment intervals and small to medium for longer (>10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034

  17. Gender, aging and longevity in humans: an update of an intriguing/neglected scenario paving the way to a gender-specific medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ostan, Rita; Monti, Daniela; Gueresi, Paola; Bussolotto, Mauro; Franceschi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Data showing a remarkable gender difference in life expectancy and mortality, including survival to extreme age, are reviewed starting from clinical and demographic data and stressing the importance of a comprehensive historical perspective and a gene–environment/lifestyle interaction. Gender difference regarding prevalence and incidence of the most important age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, Type 2 diabetes, disability, autoimmunity and infections, are reviewed and updated with particular attention to the role of the immune system and immunosenescence. On the whole, gender differences appear to be pervasive and still poorly considered and investigated despite their biomedical relevance. The basic biological mechanisms responsible for gender differences in aging and longevity are quite complex and still poorly understood. The present review focuses on centenarians and their offspring as a model of healthy aging and summarizes available knowledge on three basic biological phenomena, i.e. age-related X chromosome inactivation skewing, gut microbiome changes and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA genetic variants. In conclusion, an appropriate gender-specific medicine approach is urgently needed and should be systematically pursued in studies on healthy aging, longevity and age-related diseases, in a globalized world characterized by great gender differences which have a high impact on health and diseases. PMID:27555614

  18. Age and gender disparities in the risk of carotid revascularization procedures.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Vasdekis, Spyros N; Boviatsis, Efstathios; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos Iota; Tsivgoulis, Georgios

    2013-10-01

    The potential effect of age and gender stratification in the outcome of patients with carotid artery stenosis undergoing carotid revascularization procedures (CRP) may have important implications in clinical practice. Both European Stroke Organization and American Heart Association guidelines suggest that age and sex should be taken into account when selecting a CRP for an individual patient. We reviewed available literature data through Medline and Embase. Our search was based on the combination of terms: age, gender, sex, carotid artery stenosis, carotid artery stenting (CAS) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Postoperative stroke and mortality rates increased with age after any CRP (CEA or CAS), especially in patients aged over 75 years. Older patients with carotid artery stenosis undergoing CAS were found to have a nearly double risk of stroke or death compared with CEA, while CEA was found to benefit more patients aged over 70 years with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Male patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis had lower stroke/mortality rates and benefited more from CEA compared with females. For the periprocedural risk of stroke or death in patients with carotid artery stenosis after CAS no sex differences were found. Therefore, CEA appears to have lower perioperative risks than CAS in patients aged over 70 years, and thus should be the treatment of choice if not contraindicated. The periprocedural risk of CEA is lower in men than in women, while there was no effect of gender on the periprocedural risk of CAS.

  19. Alcohol expectancies: effects of gender, age, and family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, L H; Davis, T M; Adesso, V J; Lukas, S E

    1997-01-01

    To explore the effects of gender, age, and positive (FH+) and negative (FH-) family history of alcoholism on alcohol-related expectancies, the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) was administered to 627 college students (female n = 430). In an attempt to control for consumption effects, only individuals who described themselves as heavy drinkers were included in the study. A 2 (Family History) x 2 (Gender) x 2 (Age Range) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted on the six scales of the AEQ. Results indicated that FH+ females under the age of 20 years reported stronger expectancies of social and physical pleasure than did FH- females. Results also suggested that females over the age of 20 reported significantly lower expectancies of global, positive effects compared to all other subjects, regardless of family history of alcoholism. Finally, both male and female subjects under the age of 20 reported greater expectancies of global, positive effects, sexual enhancement, feelings of increased power and aggression, and social assertion compared to individuals over the age of 20. These results indicate that alcohol-related expectancies vary as a function of age, gender, and family history of alcoholism.

  20. Age-specific mortality among advanced-age Chinese citizens and its difference between the two genders.

    PubMed

    Gan, J; Zheng, Z; Li, G

    1998-01-01

    This study describes the patterns of age-specific mortality among the elderly in China. Data were obtained from the 1990 census. The age groups ending in zero were validated with the Weber Index and found to be of good quality among those aged under 97 years. Differences were found between censuses and genders. The data for the aged were adjusted with 2-year moving averages in order to smooth the data. The end age of interval mortality is used. Tables provide single years of age between 60 years and 104 years by sex for the actual number and the adjusted number of each census year: 1953, 1964, 1982, and 1990. The pattern of change in age specific mortality rates (ASMRs) was similar in all census years. Mortality rates were highest among infants aged under 1 year, declined with increased age, and were lowest among 10 year olds. Mortality rose gradually after 10 years and sharply after 40-50 years. ASMRs were "U" shaped. Age-specific interval mortality rates among the elderly show that mortality increased drastically as it approached 90 years of age and then grew more slowly or declined. The Gompers rule about exponential increases among the extremely old (over 90 years) does not apply. Male mortality was higher than female mortality until the very old ages, which showed lower male mortality. The ratio declined with rising age until the two genders were equal. Mortality rose to a point and then declined to a lesser extent. The peak was 93 years in 1953, with a sex ratio (SR) of 32.48; 90 years in 1964, with an SR of 35.22; 93 years in 1982, with an SR of 35.96; and 95 years in 1990, with an SR of 32.94.

  1. Medical Marijuana Laws and Suicides by Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D. Mark; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association between legalizing medical marijuana and suicides. Methods. We obtained state-level suicide data from the National Vital Statistics System’s Mortality Detail Files for 1990–2007. We used regression analysis to examine the association between medical marijuana legalization and suicides per 100 000 population. Results. After adjustment for economic conditions, state policies, and state-specific linear time trends, the association between legalizing medical marijuana and suicides was not statistically significant at the .05 level. However, legalization was associated with a 10.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = −17.1%, −3.7%) and 9.4% (95% CI = −16.1%, −2.4%) reduction in the suicide rate of men aged 20 through 29 years and 30 through 39 years, respectively. Estimates for females were less precise and sensitive to model specification. Conclusions. Suicides among men aged 20 through 39 years fell after medical marijuana legalization compared with those in states that did not legalize. The negative relationship between legalization and suicides among young men is consistent with the hypothesis that marijuana can be used to cope with stressful life events. However, this relationship may be explained by alcohol consumption. The mechanism through which legalizing medical marijuana reduces suicides among young men remains a topic for future study. PMID:24432945

  2. How can computerized interpretation algorithms adapt to gender/age differences in ECG measurements?

    PubMed

    Xue, Joel; Farrell, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that there are gender differences in 12 lead ECG measurements, some of which can be statistically significant. It is also an accepted practice that we should consider those differences when we interpret ECGs, by either a human overreader or a computerized algorithm. There are some major gender differences in 12 lead ECG measurements based on automatic algorithms, including global measurements such as heart rate, QRS duration, QT interval, and lead-by-lead measurements like QRS amplitude, ST level, etc. The interpretation criteria used in the automatic algorithms can be adapted to the gender differences in the measurements. The analysis of a group of 1339 patients with acute inferior MI showed that for patients under age 60, women had lower ST elevations at the J point in lead II than men (57±91μV vs. 86±117μV, p<0.02). This trend was reversed for patients over age 60 (lead aVF: 102±126μV vs. 84±117μV, p<0.04; lead III: 130±146μV vs. 103±131μV, p<0.007). Therefore, the ST elevation thresholds were set based on available gender and age information, which resulted in 25% relative sensitivity improvement for women under age 60, while maintaining a high specificity of 98%. Similar analyses were done for prolonged QT interval and LVH cases. The paper uses several design examples to demonstrate (1) how to design a gender-specific algorithm, and (2) how to design a robust ECG interpretation algorithm which relies less on absolute threshold-based criteria and is instead more reliant on overall morphology features, which are especially important when gender information is unavailable for automatic analysis.

  3. Piagetian Conservation Tasks in Ghanaian Children: The Role of Geographical Location, Gender and Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assan, Evelyn Ama; Sarfo, Jacob Owusu

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of geographical location, gender and age on the performance of Piagetian Conservation tasks. Four conservation tasks; conservation of liquid, length, substance amount and number respectively were administered to children [4-6 years] from rural and urban Ghana and their performance on each task were recorded.…

  4. Effects of Age, Gender, School Class on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills of Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin; Onyeaso, Chukwudi Ochi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need for training of schoolchildren on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as potential bystander CPR providers is growing globally but Nigeria is still behind and lacks basic necessary data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender and school class on CPR skills of Nigerian secondary school…

  5. Gender, Age, Attendance at a Place of Worship and Young People's Attitudes towards the Bible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freathy, R. J. K.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the outcomes of a questionnaire survey which sought to ascertain the attitudes of young people towards the Bible. One thousand and sixty-six pupils from Years 6, 9 and 12 in nine English schools participated. The young people's attitudes are discussed in relation to gender, age and attendance at a place of worship. The…

  6. How to Improve Adolescents' Sun Protection Behavior? Age and Gender Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Christine; Tzelepis, Flora; Parfitt, Nicholas; Girgis, Afaf

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore adolescents' self-reported reasons for sun protection, as adolescents as a group continue to have poor sun protection practices. Methods: Seventeen age- and gender-segregated focus groups were conducted in Australian high schools. Results: Reasons for using sun protection included personal comfort, appearance, policies, fear…

  7. Age and Gender Differences in Beliefs about Personal Power and Injustice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degelman, Douglas; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Compared college students and community-dwelling older adults (total n=171) on Injustice and Personal Power scales and measures of religiosity. Personal Power scores varied significantly as function of age and gender (significantly lower belief in personal power for older women). Injustice scores were significantly higher for women than for men.…

  8. Sweepnet captures of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera:Miridae) adult genders and age-classes in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, in cotton usually relies on population estimates obtained using the sweepnet. Recent studies indicated adult L. hesperus gender and physiological age influence feeding behavior, within-plant distribution, and injury to cotton. W...

  9. The effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Talalaj, Izabela Anna Walery, Maria

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • An effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was presented. • The waste accumulation index is influenced by a number of unemployed women. • Greater share of women in society contributes to greater waste production. • A model describing the analyzed dependences was determined. - Abstract: In this study the effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was investigated. The data from 10-year period, from 2001 to 2010 year, were taken into consideration. The following parameters of gender and age structure were analyzed: men and woman quantity, female to male ratio, number of working, pre-working and post-working age men/women, number of unemployed men/women. The results have showed a strong correlation of annual per capita waste generation rate with number of unemployed women (r = 0.70) and female to male ratio (r = 0.81). This indicates that waste generation rate is more depended on ratio of men and women that on quantitative size of each group. Using the regression analysis a model describing the dependence between female to male ratio, number of unemployed woman and waste quantity was determined. The model explains 70% of waste quantity variation. Obtained results can be used both to improve waste management and to a fuller understanding of gender behavior.

  10. The effects of gestational age and gender on grief after pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, K R; Dunn, D S; Toedter, L J; Lasker, J N

    1991-07-01

    The roles of gestational age and gender in grief reactions following loss of pregnancy were explored. Parents with losses later in pregnancy reported more intense grief than did those whose losses were earlier. Women expressed higher levels of grief than did men six to eight weeks after the loss; however, this difference had decreased by one and two years after the loss.

  11. Gender Differences in Food Preferences of School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…

  12. Age, Gender and Job Satisfaction among Elementary School Head Teachers in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazi, Safdar Rehman; Maringe, Felix

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore general job satisfaction of elementary school head teachers in Pakistan with respect to their age and gender. One hundred and eighty head teachers were sampled from government elementary schools of Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan, to collect the relevant data using a modified version of the Minnesota…

  13. Social Cognitive Predictors of Peer Acceptance at Age 5 and the Moderating Effects of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Munoz, Jose M.; Carreras, Maria R.; Braza, Paloma; Garcia, Ainhoa; Sorozabal, Aizpea; Sanchez-Martin, Jose R.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of social intelligence, empathy, verbal ability and appearance-reality distinction on the level of peer acceptance, as well as the moderating role of gender. Participants were 98 five-year-old children (43 boys and 55 girls; mean age 5 years 3 months for boys and girls). Our results showed a main effect of…

  14. Acceptance of Genetic Testing in a General Population: Age, Education and Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, A. R.; Hakonen, A.; Hietala, M.; Lonnqvist, J.; Niemela, P.; Peltonen, L; Aula, P.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of age, education, and gender on acceptance of genetic testing were studied. Finnish participants responded to a questionnaire presenting reasons for and against genetic testing (N=1,967). Intentions to take genetic tests, worries, and experience of genetic test or hereditary disease were also assessed. Results are presented and discussed.…

  15. Transferable Skills Representations in a Portuguese College Sample: Gender, Age, Adaptability and Vocational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Magda

    2012-01-01

    The departing point of this study is the theoretical framework of "Making the Match project" (Evers and Rush in Management Learning 27:275-299, 1996) about how to develop a common language among stakeholders regarding transferable skills. Thus, the paper examines the impact of demographic variables (age and gender) and developmental…

  16. Do Age and Gender Make a Difference in the Relationship between Intellectual Styles and Abilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-Fang

    2010-01-01

    This article reports two studies that aim at further distinguishing intellectual styles from abilities by taking into account the confounding effects of age and gender on the relationship between these two constructs. Two independent groups of secondary school students responded to the "Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised" and took the…

  17. A Way Forward: Nurturing the Imagination at the Intersection of Race, Class, Gender, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockhart-Gilroy, Annie A.

    2016-01-01

    Those who are oppressed often find themselves internalizing voices that limit their ability. This article focuses on a population that falls on the non-hegemonic side of the intersection of race, class, gender, and age: Black girls from poor and working-class backgrounds. From my work with youth, I have noticed that internalizing these limiting…

  18. Gender, Age, and the MBA: An Analysis of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Career Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Ruth; Sturges, Jane; Woods, Adrian; Altman, Yochanan

    2005-01-01

    Against the background of an earlier study, this article presents the findings of a Canadian-based survey of career benefits from the MBA. Results indicate first that gender and age interact to influence perceptions of career outcomes and second that both men and women gain intrinsic benefits from the MBA. However, intrinsic benefits vary by…

  19. Gender Differences in the Age-Changing Relationship between Instrumentality and Family Contact in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Joel R.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Gilligan, Carol; Chen, Henian; Crawford, Thomas N.; Kasen, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study were used to examine gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of finance and romance instrumentality from ages 17 to 27 years. Family contact decreased among both men and women across emerging adulthood, although it decreased more rapidly in men than in women.…

  20. Gender and Age Differences in How Children Cope with Daily Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales Rodriguez, Francisco Manuel; Trianes Torres, Maria Victoria; Miranda Paez, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study of coping among students accounts for an interesting subject, as having coping skills guarantees a healthy lifestyle and quality of life. The present study aims to analyze the role played by age and gender on the coping strategies used by Andalusian school students to cope with situations of daily stress. These situations…

  1. The Relationship of Time Perspective to Age, Gender, and Academic Achievement among Academically Talented Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…

  2. Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

  3. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: A Validation Study Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools…

  4. Students' Perspective (Age Wise, Gender Wise and Year Wise) of Parameters Affecting the Undergraduate Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumari, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the students' perspective (age wise, gender wise and year wise) of parameters affecting the undergraduate engineering education system present in a private technical institution in NCR [National Capital Region], Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research in nature. The data has been collected with the…

  5. Invariance of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model Across Gender and Age Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the likelihood of a TAME (extended technology acceptance model), in which the interrelationships among computer self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, intention to use and self-reported use of computer-mediated technology were tested. In addition, the gender- and age-invariant of its causal structure were evaluated. The…

  6. Attachment and Self-Evaluation in Chinese Adolescents: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hairong; Thompson, Ross A.; Ferrer, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated age and gender differences in the quality of attachment to mothers, fathers, and peers, and the association of attachment with measures of self-evaluation in 584 Chinese adolescents in junior high, high school, and university. Their responses to the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment indexed attachment quality, and…

  7. Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems in Child Instrumentalists: The Influence of Gender, Age and Instrument Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranelli, Sonia; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon

    2011-01-01

    Playing-related musculoskeletal problems (PRMP) are common in adult musicians. The limited available evidence suggests PRMP are common in children and adolescents and that risk factors may be similar. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMP in children and adolescents and their associations with female gender, age and…

  8. Adolescents' Perceptions of Male Involvement in Relational Aggression: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Curt; Heath, Melissa Allen; Bailey, Benjamin M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Yamawaki, Niwako; Eggett, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared age and gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of male involvement in relational aggression (RA). After viewing two of four video clips portraying RA, each participating adolescent (N = 314; Grades 8-12) answered questions related to rationalizing bullying behaviors--specifically minimizing bullying, blaming victims,…

  9. Intersectionality and Disability Harassment: The Interactive Effects of Disability, Race, Age, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Linda R.; Chan, Fong; McMahon, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    A possible interaction among the characteristics of disability, race, gender, and age was examined with respect to formal allegations of disability harassment. Using data from the National Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Research Project, the authors examined whether there was an interaction…

  10. Mathematics Confidence, Grade-Level Choice, Gender, and Age in Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lesley Knoth

    2012-01-01

    Problem: The purpose of the study was to determine whether teachers' mathematics confidence influenced their choice of grade level. The study also examined whether there was a difference in teachers' mathematics confidence based on their age or gender. Method: A 6-item Mathematics Survey was distributed to 83 single-and multiple-subject preservice…

  11. The Effects of Person versus Performance Praise on Children's Motivation: Gender and Age as Moderating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Lepper, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine how gender and age moderate the long-term and post-failure motivational consequences of person versus performance praise. In Study 1, fourth- and fifth-grade students (n = 93) engaged in a puzzle task while receiving either no praise, person praise, product praise, or process praise. Following a subsequent…

  12. Gender Differences in Throwing Form of Children Ages 6-8 Years during a Throwing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorson, Kevin M.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2008-01-01

    The study purposes were to describe throwing form and gender differences before and after instruction during a game. Children's (ages 6-8, n = 105) throwing form was assessed while they played a game (snowball) using the Body Component Assessment for Throwing in Games to determine the modal developmental levels for the step, trunk, and forearm…

  13. Age and gender differences in ability emotional intelligence in adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the Mayer and Salovey EI model. The authors examined effects of gender on ability EI, as well as the linear and quadratic effects of age. Results suggest that gender affects the total ability EI score as well as scores on the 4 EI branches. Ability EI was greater in women than men. Ability EI varied with age according to an inverted-U curve: Younger and older adults scored lower on ability EI than middle-aged adults, except for the branch of understanding emotions. These findings strongly support the idea that both gender and age significantly influence ability EI during aging. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Effects of age, gender, and gonadectomy on neurochemistry and behavior in animal models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tamás, Andrea; Lubics, Andrea; Lengvári, István; Reglodi, Dóra

    2006-04-01

    The effects of aging and gender on the neurochemistry of the dopaminergic system have been studied extensively; however, data on comparative behavioral consequences of lesions of the dopaminergic system in aging and in female animals are limited. This study presents experimental results on the behavioral and morphological outcome in young, aging, and gonadectomized male and female rats in the 6-OHDA model of Parkinson's disease. Both young and aging male animals were more susceptible to 6-OHDA than females: female rats had significantly less dopaminergic cell loss and showed a higher degree of behavioral recovery. Although the dopaminergic cell loss was only slightly more in the aging rats of the same sex, they showed more severe behavioral deficits in both gender groups. Ovariectomy did not significantly influence the dopaminergic cell loss, but behavioral recovery was worse when compared to non-ovariectomized females. In contrast, castrated males had significantly less dopaminergic cell loss than non-castrated males, but the behavioral recovery was not significantly better. The obtained results are discussed in light of the available literature on the age and gender differences in animals models of Parkinson's disease.

  15. Evaluating the Role of Birth Weight and Gestational Age on Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Risk Among Those of Hispanic Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Barahmani, Nadia; Dorak, M Tevfik; Forman, Michele R; Sprehe, Michael R; Scheurer, Michael E; Bondy, Melissa L; Okcu, M Fatih; Lupo, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    High birth weight is an established risk factor for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially in children younger than 5 years of age at diagnosis. The goal of this study was to explore the association between being born large for gestational age and the risk for ALL by race/ethnicity to determine if the role of this risk factor differed by these characteristics. The authors compared birth certificate data of 575 children diagnosed with ALL who were younger than 5 years and included in the Texas Cancer Registry, Texas Department of Health, between the years 1995 and 2003 with 11,379 controls matched by birth year. Stratified odds ratios were calculated for risk of ALL by birth weight for gestational age, categorized in 3 groups, small, appropriate, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA, respectively), for each race/ethnicity group. The risk of developing ALL was higher among Hispanics who were LGA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-2.68) compared with LGA non-Hispanic whites (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.87-1.86) after adjusting for infant gender, year of birth, maternal age, birth order, and presence of Down syndrome. However, the difference was not statistically significant. These results suggest that there may be differences in the association between higher growth in utero and risk of childhood ALL among Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites.

  16. Frequent self-weighing with electronic graphic feedback to prevent age-related weight gain in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bertz, Fredrik; Pacanowski, Carly R.; Levitsky, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Young adults display substantial weight gain. Preventing this age-related weight gain would reduce overweight and obesity. Objective We evaluated an internet based intervention using Internet-connected scales and graphic email feedback; the Caloric Titration Method (CTM), to reduce age-related weight gain over the course of 1 y among first-year college students. Design First-year college students (n=167) were randomized to (CTM) or control (C) group. Both groups were provided Internet-connected scales. CTM group was instructed to weigh daily, view a weight graph emailed to them after weighing, and try to maintain their weight as indicated in the graph. The C group could weigh at any time, but did not receive feedback. At six months and 1 year the C group were notified to provide weights. Intention to treat analysis, using a mixed model adjusted for baseline weight, BMI and gender was used to analyze the effect of the intervention. Results Baseline Body Mass Index was 22.9 ± 3.0 kg/m2. Frequency of self-weighing (median) was 5 times/week in the CTM group, compared to 1 time/week in C (p<0.001). Ninety-five percent of the CTM participants weighed ≥3 times/week, compared to 15% in C group (p<0.001). After 1 year the C group had gained 1.1 ± 4.4 kg whereas the CTM group lost 0.5 ± 3.7 kg, yielding a significant overall time*group interaction (F=3.39, p=0.035). The difference in weight change between the two groups at 1 year was significant (p=0.004). Weight change of the CTM group was not different from zero whereas weight gain in C group was significant. Retention was 81%. Conclusions The internet based frequent self-weighing CTM system was effective in preventing age-related weight gain in young adults over one year and thus offers promise to reduce overweight and obesity. PMID:26414563

  17. Attitudes about Aging and Gender among Young, Middle Age, and Older College-Based Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Fischer, Mary; Laditka, James N.; Segal, David R.

    2004-01-01

    Using an updated version of the Aging Semantic Differential, 534 younger, middle age, and older participants from a college community rated female and male targets categorized as ages 21-34 and 75-85. Participants also provided views about their own aging. Repeated measures of analysis of variance examined attitudinal differences by age and gender…

  18. Gender Agreement in Adult Second Language Learners and Spanish Heritage Speakers: The Effects of Age and Context of Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Foote, Rebecca; Perpinan, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates knowledge of gender agreement in Spanish L2 learners and heritage speakers, who differ in age and context/mode of acquisition. On some current theoretical accounts, persistent difficulty with grammatical gender in adult L2 acquisition is due to age. These accounts predict that heritage speakers should be more accurate on…

  19. Gender, aging, poverty and health: Survival strategies of older men and women in Nairobi slums

    PubMed Central

    Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups. PMID:19907648

  20. Age, gender, and living circumstances: discriminating older adults on death anxiety.

    PubMed

    Madnawat, A V Singh; Kachhawa, P Singh

    2007-09-01

    The present study examines the effect of age, gender, and living circumstances on elderly persons' death anxiety. For this purpose, 299 persons attending public parks (average age = 70 years) were interviewed using the Death Anxiety Survey Schedule, which is a set of 10 questions related to death anxiety from an Indian perspective. Women, those relatively older, and those living with family were significantly more anxious about the word death. The gender and age results in this Indian sample are similar to that in some western samples. The results that those living with family have significantly higher death anxiety are not in agreement with past western studies and may reflect cultural differences in anxiety about death.

  1. The Relationships Between Victim Age, Gender, and Relationship Polymorphism and Sexual Recidivism.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Skye; Seto, Michael C; Goodwill, Alasdair M; Cantor, James M

    2016-02-19

    Victim choice polymorphism refers to victim inconsistency in a series of offenses by the same perpetrator, such as in the domains of victim age, victim gender, and victim-offender relationship. Past studies have found that victim age polymorphic offenders have higher rates of sexual recidivism than offenders against adults only and offenders against children only. Few studies, however, have examined gender and relationship polymorphism, or accounted for the impact of the number of past victims. The present study analyzed the relationship between polymorphism and sexual recidivism, while controlling for the number of victims. The sample consisted of 751 male adult sexual offenders followed for an average of 10 years, 311 of whom were polymorphic (41% of the total sample). The main finding suggested that there was an association between sexual recidivism and age and relationship polymorphism; however, these associations were no longer significant after controlling for the number of victims.

  2. A field study on thermal comfort in an Italian hospital considering differences in gender and age.

    PubMed

    Del Ferraro, S; Iavicoli, S; Russo, S; Molinaro, V

    2015-09-01

    The hospital is a thermal environment where comfort must be calibrated by taking into account two different groups of people, that is, patients and medical staff. The study involves 30 patients and 19 medical staff with a view to verifying if Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) index can accurately predict thermal sensations of both groups also taking into account any potential effects of age and gender. The methodology adopted is based on the comparison between PMV values (calculated according to ISO 7730 after having collected environmental data and estimated personal parameters) and perceptual judgments (Actual Mean Vote, AMV), expressed by the subjects interviewed. Different statistical analyses show that PMV model finds his best correlation with AMV values in a sample of male medical staff under 65 years of age. It has been observed that gender and age are factors that must be taken into account in the assessment of thermal comfort in the hospital due to very weak correlation between AMV and PMV values.

  3. Effects of age, gender, and stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Kunimi, Mitsunobu

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on age-related changes in visual short-term memory using visual stimuli that did not allow verbal encoding. Experiment 1 examined the effects of age and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. Experiment 2 examined the effects of age, gender, and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. The worst memory performance and the largest performance difference between the age groups were observed in the shortest stimulus presentation period conditions. The performance difference between the age groups became smaller as the stimulus presentation period became longer; however, it did not completely disappear. Although gender did not have a significant effect on d' regardless of the presentation period in the young group, a significant gender-based difference was observed for stimulus presentation periods of 500 ms and 1,000 ms in the older group. This study indicates that the decline in visual short-term memory observed in the older group is due to the interaction of several factors.

  4. Regional and Gender Study of Neuronal Density in Brain during Aging and in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Ordóñez, Cristina; del Valle, Eva; Navarro, Ana; Tolivia, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Learning processes or language development are only some of the cognitive functions that differ qualitatively between men and women. Gender differences in the brain structure seem to be behind these variations. Indeed, this sexual dimorphism at neuroanatomical level is accompanied unequivocally by differences in the way that aging and neurodegenerative diseases affect men and women brains. Objective: The aim of this study is the analysis of neuronal density in four areas of the hippocampus, and entorhinal and frontal cortices to analyze the possible gender influence during normal aging and in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Human brain tissues of different age and from both sexes, without neurological pathology and with different Braak's stages of AD, were studied. Neuronal density was quantified using the optical dissector. Results: Our results showed the absence of a significant neuronal loss during aging in non-pathological brains in both sexes. However, we have demonstrated specific punctual significant variations in neuronal density related with the age and gender in some regions of these brains. In fact, we observed a higher neuronal density in CA3 and CA4 hippocampal areas of non-pathological brains of young men compared to women. During AD, we observed a negative correlation between Braak's stages and neuronal density in hippocampus, specifically in CA1 for women and CA3 for men, and in frontal cortex for both, men and women. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated a sexual dimorphism in the neuronal vulnerability to degeneration suggesting the need to consider the gender of the individuals in future studies, regarding neuronal loss in aging and AD, in order to avoid problems in interpreting data. PMID:27679571

  5. Assessment of Oro-Maxillofacial Trauma According to Gender, Age, Cause and Type of the Injury

    PubMed Central

    Matijević, Marko; Sikora, Miroslav; Leović, Dinko; Mumlek, Ivan; Macan, Darko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The occurrence and causes of maxillofacial trauma varies in different regions of the world. The aim of this study was to identify the occurrence, types and causes of maxillofacial injuries according to the age and gender differences in patients treated at the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Center Osijek, between January 2011 and December 2013. Materials and methods A total of 64 patients, 41 males (64.1%) and 23 females (35.9%), aged from 18 to 86 years (mean age 42) participated in the study. Data collected and analyzed included gender, age, cause of injury and the type of maxillofacial injuries. Results The most common cause of injuries in both gender groups was falling down (39% males; 65% females). The second leading cause of injuries in males was interpersonal violence (29%) and in females traffic accident (26%) (p<0.05). The most common type of injury in both gender groups was bone injury (50%; in males zygomatic bones 55%, in females mandible 40%) (p>0.05). The most common causes of injuries in the youngest patients was violence (43%), and in others fall (50-70%; p<0.05). The most common reported type of injury in all age groups was bone injury (more than 50%; p>0.05). The majority of the falls and violence caused bone tissue injuries, and soft tissue and dentalveolar injuries were detected in traffic and sports accidents (p>0.05). Conclusion Falling down was the most common cause of oro-maxillofacial injuries in both men and women and in all three age groups. The leading type of injury was bone injury. The data obtained from this study provide important information for future prevention from injuries. PMID:27688419

  6. Age, education, and the gender gap in the sense of control.

    PubMed

    Slagsvold, Britt; Sørensen, Annemette

    2008-01-01

    High sense of control is related to benefits in many aspects of life, and education is known to be strongly related to sense of control. In this article we explore why women tend to feel a lower sense of control than men, and why the sense of control tends to be lower among the elderly than among younger people. In particular we explore the role played by education in explaining age- and gender differences in sense of control. The analysis is based on data from the first wave of the Norwegian NorLAG study, with a representative sample of adults aged 40-79 in 30 municipalities. We find that education accounts for some of the age and gender differences in sense of control, but the mediating effects of education are rather modest. We find an increasing gender gap in sense of control with age, and this increasing gap is completely explained by differences in education. Gender differences in sense of control is explained completely by four factors, which are related to resources and power; physical health, education, living with a partner, and leadership experience. Age differences in sense of control are only partially explained. Education, physical health and employment status cuts the age effect on sense of control to half. The effect of education on sense of control is partly mediated through what we suggest are tangible benefits of education, namely health, employment, and leadership experience. Education also influences individuals through socialization mechanisms. We view agentive orientation as a psychological benefit of education, and measure this characteristic with Bem's (1981) sex-role scale on masculinity. Agentive orientation completely explains the remaining effect of education on sense of control.

  7. Production activities and economic dependency by age and gender in Europe: A cross-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Bernhard; Prskawetz, Alexia; Freund, Inga

    2015-01-01

    We compare selected European countries using an economic dependency ratio which emphasizes the role of age-specific levels of production and consumption. Our analysis reveals large differences in the age- and gender-specific level and type of production activities across selected European countries and identifies possible strategies to adjust age-specific economic behaviour to an ageing population. The cross-country differences in economic dependency of children and elderly persons are largely determined by the age at which people enter, respectively exit, the labour market. The ability of the working age population to support children and elderly persons in turn is strongly influenced by the participation of women in paid work. We also provide a measure for the age-specific production and consumption in form of unpaid household work. The inclusion of unpaid household work leads to a decrease of the gender differences in production activities and indicates that the working age population supports children and elderly persons not only through monetary transfers but also through services produced by unpaid work (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning…). Given the available data, we cannot distinguish the age profile of consumption by gender and have to assume – in case of unpaid work - that each member of the household consumes the same. Hence, our results have to be regarded as a first approximation only. Our paper aims to argue that a reform of the welfare system needs to take into account not only public transfers but also private transfers, in particular the transfers in form of goods and services produced through unpaid household work. PMID:26110107

  8. Production activities and economic dependency by age and gender in Europe: A cross-country comparison.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Bernhard; Prskawetz, Alexia; Freund, Inga

    2015-04-01

    We compare selected European countries using an economic dependency ratio which emphasizes the role of age-specific levels of production and consumption. Our analysis reveals large differences in the age- and gender-specific level and type of production activities across selected European countries and identifies possible strategies to adjust age-specific economic behaviour to an ageing population. The cross-country differences in economic dependency of children and elderly persons are largely determined by the age at which people enter, respectively exit, the labour market. The ability of the working age population to support children and elderly persons in turn is strongly influenced by the participation of women in paid work. We also provide a measure for the age-specific production and consumption in form of unpaid household work. The inclusion of unpaid household work leads to a decrease of the gender differences in production activities and indicates that the working age population supports children and elderly persons not only through monetary transfers but also through services produced by unpaid work (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning…). Given the available data, we cannot distinguish the age profile of consumption by gender and have to assume - in case of unpaid work - that each member of the household consumes the same. Hence, our results have to be regarded as a first approximation only. Our paper aims to argue that a reform of the welfare system needs to take into account not only public transfers but also private transfers, in particular the transfers in form of goods and services produced through unpaid household work.

  9. Assessment of gingival thickness with regards to age, gender and arch location

    PubMed Central

    Kolte, Rajashri; Kolte, Abhay; Mahajan, Aaditi

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a considerable intra and inter-individual variation in both width and thickness of the facial gingiva. As the attached gingiva is an important anatomic and functional landmark in the periodontium, the identification of gingival biotype is important in clinical practice since differences in gingival and osseous architecture have been shown to exhibit a significant impact on the outcome of restorative therapy. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the variation in width and thickness of facial gingiva in the anterior segment with respect to age, gender and dental arch location. Materials and Methods: 120 subjects were divided into three age groups: The younger age group (16-24 years), the middle age group (25-39 years) and the older age group (>40 years) with 20 males and 20 females in each group. The width of the gingiva was assessed by William's graduated probe and the thickness was determined using transgingival probing in the maxillary and mandibular anterior segment. Results: It was observed that the younger age group had significantly thicker gingiva but less width than that of the older age group. The gingiva was found to be thinner and with less width in females than males. The mandibular arch had thicker gingiva with less width compared to the maxillary arch. Conclusion: In the present study, we concluded that gingival thickness and width varies with age, gender and dental arch location. PMID:25210263

  10. Gender Transitions in Later Life: The Significance of Time in Queer Aging

    PubMed Central

    Fabbre, Vanessa D.

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of time are ubiquitous in studies of aging. This article integrates an existential perspective on time with a notion of queer time based on the experiences of older transgender persons who contemplate or pursue a gender transition in later life. Interviews were conducted with male-to-female identified persons aged 50 years or older (N=22), along with participant observation at three national transgender conferences (N=170 hours). Interpretive analyses suggest that an awareness of “time left to live” and a feeling of “time served” play a significant role in later life development and help expand gerontological perspectives on time and queer aging. PMID:24798691

  11. Local patient dose diagnostic reference levels in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile using age bands and patient weight values

    SciTech Connect

    Ubeda, Carlos; Miranda, Patricia; Vano, Eliseo

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To present the results of a patient dose evaluation program in pediatric cardiology and propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of procedure and age range, in addition to suggesting approaches to correlate patient dose values with patient weight. This study was the first conducted in Latin America for pediatric interventional cardiology under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Methods: Over three years, the following data regarding demographic and patient dose values were collected: age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time (FT), and two dosimetric quantities, dose-area product (DAP) and cumulative dose (CD), at the patient entrance reference point. The third quartile values for FT, DAP, CD, number of cine series, and the DAP/body weight ratio were proposed as the set of quantities to use as local DRLs. Results: Five hundred and seventeen patients were divided into four age groups. Sample sizes by age group were 120 for <1 yr; 213 for 1 to <5 yr; 82 for 5 to <10 yr; and 102 for 10 to <16 yr. The third quartile values obtained for DAP by diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and age range were 1.17 and 1.11 Gy cm{sup 2} for <1 yr; 1.74 and 1.90 Gy cm{sup 2} for 1 to <5 yr; 2.83 and 3.22 Gy cm{sup 2} for 5 to <10 yr; and 7.34 and 8.68 Gy cm{sup 2} for 10 to <16 yr, respectively. The third quartile value obtained for the DAP/body weight ratio for the full sample of procedures was 0.17 (Gy cm{sup 2}/kg) for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Conclusions: The data presented in this paper are an initial attempt at establishing local DRLs in pediatric interventional cardiology, from a large sample of procedures for the standard age bands used in Europe, complemented with the values of the ratio between DAP and patient weight. This permits a rough estimate of DRLs for different patient weights and the refining of these values for the age bands when there

  12. Brief Report: Phenotypic Differences and their Relationship to Paternal Age and Gender in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Vierck, Esther; Silverman, Jeremy M

    2015-06-01

    Two modes of inheritance have been proposed in autism spectrum disorder, transmission though pre-existing variants and de novo mutations. Different modes may lead to different symptom expressions in affected individuals. De novo mutations become more likely with advancing paternal age suggesting that paternal age may predict phenotypic differences. To test this possibility we measured IQ, adaptive behavior, and autistic symptoms in 830 probands from simplex families. We conducted multiple linear regression analysis to estimate the predictive value of paternal age, maternal age, and gender on behavioral measures and IQ. We found a differential effect of parental age and sex on repetitive and restricted behaviors. Findings suggest effects of paternal age on phenotypic differences in simplex families with ASD.

  13. Estimating the color of maxillary central incisors based on age and gender

    PubMed Central

    Gozalo-Diaz, David; Johnston, William M.; Wee, Alvin G.

    2008-01-01

    Statement of problem There is no scientific information regarding the selection of the color of teeth for edentulous patients. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate linear regression models that may be used to predict color parameters for central incisors of edentulous patients based on some characteristics of dentate subjects. Material and methods A spectroradiometer and an external light source were set in a noncontacting 45/0 degree (45-degree illumination and 0-degree observer) optical configuration to measure the color of subjects’ vital craniofacial structures (maxillary central incisor, attached gingiva, and facial skin). The subjects (n=120) were stratified into 5 age groups with 4 racial groups and balanced for gender. Linear first-order regression was used to determine the significant factors (α=.05) in the prediction model for each color direction of the color of the maxillary central incisor. Age, gender, and color of the other craniofacial structures were studied as potential predictors. Final predictions in each color direction were based only on the statistically significant factors, and then the color differences between observed and predicted CIELAB values for the central incisors were calculated and summarized. Results The statistically significant predictors of age and gender accounted for 36% of the total variability in L*. The statistically significant predictor of age accounted for 16% of the total variability in a*. The statistically significant predictors of age and gender accounted for 21% of the variability in b*. The mean ΔE (SD) between predicted and observed CIELAB values for the central incisor was 5.8 (3.2). Conclusions Age and gender were found to be statistically significant determinants in predicting the natural color of central incisors. Although the precision of these predictions was less than the median color difference found for all pairs of teeth studied, and may be considered an acceptable precision, further

  14. Online communication preferences across age, gender, and duration of Internet use.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Stacy E; Ray, Sukanya

    2006-08-01

    The present study explored variations in online communication and relationship preferences for friends, family, coworkers, and unknown individuals across gender (men, women), age (young, middle, late), and duration of Internet use (low, medium, high). A total of 174 individuals participated in this study. They were divided into two gender (86 men and 88 women), three age (60 young, 60 middle, and 54 late) and three Internet use duration (60 low, 58 medium, and 54 high) groups. All participants completed several questionnaires that assessed online communication and relationship building preferences. Results indicated no significant main effect for gender and online communication and relationship preferences. The main effect for age was significant for online communication with friends and unknown individuals. Young adults indicated their higher preferences for online communication with friends and unknown individuals compared to middle and late adult age groups. The main effect for duration of Internet use was significant for online communication and relationship preferences. High Internet users indicated higher scores on online communication and relationship building, compared to their counterparts. No significant main effects for duration of Internet use were significant on any of the offline characteristics. Implications of these findings and their relevance to mental health issues and organizational environment were discussed.

  15. Immunohistochemical Patterns in the Interfollicular Caucasian Scalps: Influences of Age, Gender, and Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Loussouarn, Geneviève; Panhard, Ségolène; Saint Léger, Didier; Mellul, Myriam; Piérard, Gérald E.

    2013-01-01

    Skin ageing and gender influences on the scalp have been seldom studied. We revisited the changes in the interfollicular scalp. The study was performed on a population of 650 volunteers (300 women and 350 men) for over 7 years. Three age groups were selected in both genders, namely, subjects aged 20–35, 50–60, and 60–70 years. The hair status was further considered according to nonalopecic and alopecic patterns and severity (discrete, moderate, and severe). Biopsies from the parietal area were processed for immunohistochemistry. Stromal cells were distinguished according to the presence of vimentin, Factor XIIIa, CD117, and versican. Blood and lymphatic vessels were highlighted by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and human podoplanin immunoreactivities, respectively. Actinic elastosis was identified by the lysozyme coating of elastic fibres. The epidermis was explored using the CD44 variant 3 and Ki67 immunolabellings. Biplot analyses were performed. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prominent gender effect in young adults. Both Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes and the microvasculature size decreased with scalp ageing. Alopecia changes mimicked stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:24455724

  16. Level of emotional awareness in the general French population: effects of gender, age, and education level.

    PubMed

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange

    2013-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample.

  17. The effects of age, authority, and gender on perceptions of statutory rape offenders.

    PubMed

    Sahl, Daniel; Keene, Jennifer Reid

    2012-12-01

    Using a sample of 2,838 students from a Southwestern university in the United States, the authors examine the effect of respondent's gender, the adult's gender, the age gap between the adult and teen, and the adult's authority, on students' perceptions of vignettes describing adult-teen sexual relationships. Specifically, the authors investigate four dependent variables related to perceptions of the crime: the adult offender's emotional motivation, whether the adult is a sexual predator, whether the adult should have limited interactions with children, and whether the adult should be included on a sex offender registry. ANOVA analysis revealed that a large age gap between the adult and teen, the presence of authority in the relationship, and respondent's gender were significant predictors of perceptions of the offender as a predator and sex offender. The offender's gender significantly predicted respondents' perceived motivations but had no effect on opinions regarding sex offender registration. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for perceptions of statutory rape.

  18. Using weight-for-age percentiles to screen for overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gamliel, Adir; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Siegel, Robert M; Fogelman, Yacov; Dubnov-Raz, Gal

    2015-12-01

    There are relatively low rates of screening for overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in primary care. A simplified method for such screening is needed. The study objective was to examine if weight-for-age percentiles are sufficiently sensitive in identifying overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. We used data from two distinct sources: four consecutive cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from the years 2005 to 2012, using participants aged 2-17.9 years for whom data on age, sex, weight, and height were available (n=12,884), and primary care clinic measurements (n=15,152). Primary outcomes were the threshold values of weight-for-age percentiles which best discriminated between normal weight, overweight, and obesity status. Receiver operating characteristic analyses demonstrated that weight-for-age percentiles well discriminated between normal weight and overweight and between non-obese and obese individuals (area under curve=0.956 and 0.977, respectively, both p<0.001). Following Classification and Regression Trees analysis, the 90th and 75th weight-for-age percentiles were chosen as appropriate cutoffs for obesity and overweight, respectively. These cutoffs had high sensitivity and negative predictive value in identifying obese participants (94.3% and 98.6%, respectively, for the 90th percentile) and in identifying overweight participants (93.2% and 95.9%, respectively, for the 75th percentile). The sensitivities and specificities were nearly identical across race and sex, and in the validation data from NHANES 2011 to 2012 and primary care. We conclude that weight-for-age percentiles can discriminate between normal weight, overweight and obese children, and adolescents. The 75th and 90th weight-for-age percentiles correspond well with the BMI cutoffs for pediatric overweight and obesity, respectively.

  19. Lateralization of Resting State Networks and Relationship to Age and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Agcaoglu, O.; Miller, R.; Mayer, A.R.; Hugdahl, K.; Calhoun, V.D.

    2014-01-01

    Brain lateralization is a widely studied topic, however there has been little work focused on lateralization of intrinsic networks (regions showing similar patterns of covariation among voxels) in the resting brain. In this study, we evaluate resting state network lateralization in an age and gender-balanced functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset comprising over 600 healthy subjects ranging in age from 12 to 71. After establishing sample-wide network lateralization properties, we continue with an investigation of age and gender effects on network lateralization. All data was gathered on the same scanner and preprocessed using an automated pipeline (Scott et al., 2011). Networks were extracted via group independent component analysis (gICA) (Calhoun, Adali, Pearlson, & Pekar, 2001). Twenty-eight resting state networks discussed in previous (Allen et al., 2011) work were re-analyzed with a focus on lateralization. We calculated homotopic voxelwise measures of laterality in addition to a global lateralization measure, called the laterality cofactor, for each network. As expected, many of the intrinsic brain networks were lateralized. For example, the visual network was strongly right lateralized, auditory network and default mode networks were mostly left lateralized. Attentional and frontal networks included nodes that were left lateralized and other nodes that were right lateralized. Age was strongly related to lateralization in multiple regions including sensorimotor network regions precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus and supramarginal gyrus; and visual network regions lingual gyrus; attentional network regions inferior parietal lobule, superior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus; and frontal network regions including the inferior frontal gyrus. Gender showed significant effects mainly in two regions, including visual and frontal networks. For example, the inferior frontal gyrus was more right lateralized in males. Significant effects of age

  20. Age and gender effects on bone mass density variation: finite elements simulation.

    PubMed

    Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Ben Kahla, Rabeb; Merzouki, Tarek; Hambli, Ridha

    2017-04-01

    Bone remodeling is a physiological process by which bone constantly adapts its structure to changes in long-term loading manifested by interactions between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. This process can be influenced by many local factors, via effects on bone cells differentiation and proliferation, which are produced by bone cells and act in a paracrine or autocrine way. The aim of the current work is to provide mechanobiological finite elements modeling coupling both cellular activities and mechanical behavior in order to investigate age and gender effects on bone remodeling evolution. A series of computational simulations have been performed on a 2D and 3D human proximal femur. An age- and gender-related impacts on bulk density alteration of trabecular bone have been noticed, and the major actors responsible of this phenomenon have been then discussed.

  1. Self-esteem and emotional health in adolescents--gender and age as potential moderators.

    PubMed

    Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A

    2012-12-01

    The present paper investigates possible gender and age differences on emotional states (depression and anxiety) and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and emotional states. The cross-sectional sectional sample consists of 1,209 adolescents 13-18 years from public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway. The results showed that girls reported higher scores on state anxiety and state depression, whereas boys consistently scored higher on self-esteem in all age groups. Self-esteem was strongly and inversely associated with both state depression and state anxiety. An interaction effect of gender by self-esteem was found on state depression, where the association was stronger for girls than for boys. The associations found give support for the positive role of self-esteem in relation to adolescents' emotional health and well-being.

  2. The effect of gender and age differences on media selection in small and medium tourism enterprises.

    PubMed

    Dehkordi, Majid A; Zarei, Behrouz; Dehkordi, Shabnam A

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact that gender and age differences have on the communication media selection within the context of small and medium tourism enterprises (SMEs). Media Richness Theory (MRT) was used to assess media preferences in the firms. Using a mail questionnaire, data from 78 firms were collected on seven popular media in use. Historical data of the firms, media characteristics, and other firm-specific factors were included in the analysis. The results indicated that there are substantial gender and age differences in term of communication media selection. This is consistent with MRT and highlights the importance of choosing the appropriate media in SMEs, according with the employee's behaviors, in order to achieve better outcomes and to smooth the path towards good performance in the future.

  3. Age and gender-invariant features of handwritten signatures for verification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdAli, Sura; Putz-Leszczynska, Joanna

    2014-11-01

    Handwritten signature is one of the most natural biometrics, the study of human physiological and behavioral patterns. Behavioral biometrics includes signatures that may be different due to its owner gender or age because of intrinsic or extrinsic factors. This paper presents the results of the author's research on age and gender influence on verification factors. The experiments in this research were conducted using a database that contains signatures and their associated metadata. The used algorithm is based on the universal forgery feature idea, where the global classifier is able to classify a signature as a genuine one or, as a forgery, without the actual knowledge of the signature template and its owner. Additionally, the reduction of the dimensionality with the MRMR method is discussed.

  4. Impact of gender, age and experience of pilots on general aviation accidents.

    PubMed

    Bazargan, Massoud; Guzhva, Vitaly S

    2011-05-01

    General aviation (GA) accounts for more than 82% of all air transport-related accidents and air transport-related fatalities in the U.S. In this study, we conduct a series of statistical analyses to investigate the significance of a pilot's gender, age and experience in influencing the risk for pilot errors and fatalities in GA accidents. There is no evidence from the Chi-square tests and logistic regression models that support the likelihood of an accident caused by pilot error to be related to pilot gender. However, evidence is found that male pilots, those older than 60 years of age, and with more experience, are more likely to be involved in a fatal accident.

  5. Sources of variation in emotional awareness: Age, gender, and socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    Mankus, Annette M.; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined associations between emotional awareness facets (type clarity, source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, involuntary attention) and sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES)) in a large US sample (N = 919). Path analyses—controlling for variance shared between sociodemographic variables and allowing emotional awareness facets to correlate—demonstrated that (a) age was positively associated with type clarity and source clarity, and inversely associated with involuntary attention; (b) gender was associated with all facets but type clarity, with higher source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, and involuntary attention reported by women then men; and (c) SES was positively associated with type clarity with a very small effect. These findings extend our understanding of emotional awareness and identify future directions for research to elucidate the causes and consequences of individual differences in emotional awareness. PMID:26500384

  6. Sources of variation in emotional awareness: Age, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Mankus, Annette M; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined associations between emotional awareness facets (type clarity, source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, involuntary attention) and sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES)) in a large US sample (N = 919). Path analyses-controlling for variance shared between sociodemographic variables and allowing emotional awareness facets to correlate-demonstrated that (a) age was positively associated with type clarity and source clarity, and inversely associated with involuntary attention; (b) gender was associated with all facets but type clarity, with higher source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, and involuntary attention reported by women then men; and (c) SES was positively associated with type clarity with a very small effect. These findings extend our understanding of emotional awareness and identify future directions for research to elucidate the causes and consequences of individual differences in emotional awareness.

  7. The Internet and health information: differences in pet owners based on age, gender, and education

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Lori R.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Viera, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The research assessed the attitudes and behaviors of pet owners pertaining to online search behavior for pet health information. Methods: A survey was conducted with a random sample of pet owners drawn from two US metropolitan areas and surrounding cities. Participating clinics were chosen randomly, and each participating clinic was asked to distribute 100 surveys to their clients until all surveys were disbursed. Results: Although some perceptions and behaviors surrounding the use of the Internet for pet health information differ based on gender, age, or education level of pet owners, there are many aspects in which there are no differences based on these demographics. Conclusions: Results of the study suggest that closer examination of the common perception that gender, age, or education level has an effect on Internet behavior as it relates to veterinary medicine is required. Recommendations are made pertaining to the growing presence of the Internet and its impact on veterinary medicine. PMID:22879809

  8. [Adolescents with gender identity disorder: reconsideration of the age limits for endocrine treatment and surgery].

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2012-01-01

    The third versions of the guideline for treatment of people with gender identity disorder (GID) of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology does not include puberty-delaying hormone therapy. It is recommended that feminizing/masculinizing hormone therapy and genital surgery should not be carried out until 18 year old and 20 year old, respectively. On the other hand, the sixth (2001) and the seventh (2011) versions of the standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender nonconforming people of World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) recommend that transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2, [mainly 12-13 years of age]) are treated by the endocrinologists to suppress puberty with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists until age 16 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. A questionnairing on 181 people with GID diagnosed in the Okayama University Hospital (Japan) showed that female to male (FTM) transsexuals hoped to begin masculinizing hormone therapy at age of 15.6 +/- 4.0 (mean +/- S.D.) whereas male to female (MTF) transsexuals hoped to begin feminizing hormone therapy as early as age 12.5 +/- 4.0, before presenting secondary sex characters. After confirmation of strong and persistent cross-gender identification, adolescents with GID should be treated with cross-gender hormone or puberty-delaying hormone to prevent developing undesired sex characters. These treatments may prevent transsexual adolescents from attempting suicide, being depressive, and refusing to attend school. Subsequent early breast and genital surgery may help being employed in desired sexuality.

  9. Effects of age, gender and educational background on strength of motivation for medical school.

    PubMed

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures the willingness of the medical students to pursue medical education even in the face of difficulty and sacrifice. GE students (59.64 ± 7.30) had higher strength of motivation as compared to NGE students (55.26 ± 8.33), so did females (57.05 ± 8.28) as compared to males (54.30 ± 8.08). 7.9% of the variance in the SMMS scores could be explained with the help of a linear regression model with age, gender and educational background/selection as predictor variables. Age was the single largest predictor. Maturity, taking developmental differences between sexes into account, was used as a predictor to correct for differences in the maturation of males and females. Still, the gender differences prevailed, though they were reduced. Pre-entrance educational background and selection also predicted the strength of motivation, but the effect of the two was confounded. Strength of motivation appears to be a dynamic entity, changing primarily with age and maturity and to a small extent with gender and experience.

  10. Influence of Age and Gender on Jet-Lag Syndrome: Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    deployment. Before environmental parameters. studying effects of this particular type of jet-lag and It is usual to say that age and sometimes gender...protocol, we compared three situations : placebo - to facilitate sleep recovery, it is not recommended to versus melatonin versus slow release caffeine (a...RESULTS AND DISCUSSION But in an operational setting, we do not recommand taking melatonin as an hypnotic or a chronobiotic - Sumnnarv of the

  11. Anthropometric difference of the knee on MRI according to gender and age groups.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyuksoo; Oh, Sohee; Chang, Chong Bum; Kang, Seung-Baik

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data from MRI images that were obtained from the non-arthritic knees in Asian adults, and to identify the existence of morphologic differences between age groups. This cross-sectional study included knee MR images of 535 patients (273 males, 262 females) taken for the evaluation of soft-tissue injuries, excluding cases with cartilage defect and malalignment. The age, gender, height, and BMI were also assessed. The patients were grouped into three different 20-year age groups (20-39, 40-59, and 60-79). The MRI analysis was performed on the anthropometric parameters of distal femur and posterior tibial slope. Age-related differences were found in femoral width, distance from the distal and posterior cartilage surface to the medial/lateral epicondyle, medial posterior condylar offset (PCO), and posterior condylar angle (PCA) (all P < 0.001), but not in lateral PCO, and medial/lateral tibial slopes. In the analysis of covariance analyses, significant interaction between gender and age groups was found in most parameters, but not in PCA, distance from the posterior cartilage surface to the medial epicondyle, or medial tibial slope. We found anthropometric differences among age groups exist in most of distal femoral parameters, but not in posterior tibial slope. The results of this study can be used by manufacturers to modify prostheses to be suitable for the future Asian elderly population.

  12. Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Infant Size for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Sneha B.; Xu, Fei; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain is known to influence fetal growth. However, it is unclear whether the associations between gestational weight gain and fetal growth vary by trimester. In a diverse cohort of 8,977 women who delivered a singleton between 2011 and 2013, we evaluated the associations between trimester-specific gestational weight gain and infant size for gestational age. Gestational weight gain was categorized per the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; meeting the recommendations was the referent. Large for gestational age and small for gestational age were defined as birthweight > 90th percentile or <10th percentile, respectively, based on a national reference standard birthweight distribution. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of having a large or small for gestational age versus an appropriate for gestational age infant. Only gestational weight gain exceeding the IOM recommendations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters independently increased the odds of delivering a large for gestational age infant (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 1st: 1.17 [0.94, 1.44], 2nd: 1.47 [1.13, 1.92], 3rd: 1.70 [1.30, 2.22]). Gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester only (1.76 [1.23, 2.52]). There was effect modification, and gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester and only among women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index from 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 (2.06 [1.35, 3.15]). These findings indicate that gestational weight gain during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters is more strongly associated with infant growth. Interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain may optimize infant size at birth. PMID:27442137

  13. Haploinsufficiency in the PPAR{alpha} and LDL receptor genes leads to gender- and age-specific obesity and hyperinsulinemia

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Eiko . E-mail: eikoyoko@nagano-kentan.ac.jp; Tanaka, Naoki; Nakajima, Tamie; Kamijo, Yuji; Yokoyama, Shin; Li Yufeng; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2006-11-17

    When preparing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}:low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) (-/-) double knockout mice, we unexpectedly found a unique gender- and age-specific obesity in the F1 generation, PPAR{alpha} (+/-):LDLR (+/-), even in mice fed standard chow. Body weights of the male heterozygous mice increased up to about 60 g at 75 weeks of age, then decreased by about 30 g at 100 weeks of age. More than 95% of the heterozygous mice between 35- and 75-week-olds were overweight. Of interest, the obese heterozygous mice also exhibited hyperinsulinemia correlating with moderate insulin resistance. Hepatic gene expression of LDLR was lower than expected in the heterozygous mice, particularly at 50 and 75 weeks of age. In contrast, the hepatic expression of PPAR{alpha} was higher than expected in obese heterozygous mice, but decreased in non-obese older heterozygous mice. Modulated expression of these genes may be partially associated with the onset of the hyperinsulinemia.

  14. Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Pincus, S. M.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to quantify the complex dynamics of beat-to-beat sinus rhythm heart rate fluctuations and to determine their differences as a function of gender and age. BACKGROUND. Recently, measures of heart rate variability and the nonlinear "complexity" of heart rate dynamics have been used as indicators of cardiovascular health. Because women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men, we postulated that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. METHODS. We analyzed heart rate dynamics during 8-min segments of continuous electrocardiographic recording in healthy young (20 to 39 years old), middle-aged (40 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 90 years old) men (n = 40) and women (n = 27) while they performed spontaneous and metronomic (15 breaths/min) breathing. Relatively high (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) and low (0.01 to 0.15 Hz) frequency components of heart rate variability were computed using spectral analysis. The overall "complexity" of each heart rate time series was quantified by its approximate entropy, a measure of regularity derived from nonlinear dynamics ("chaos" theory). RESULTS. Mean heart rate did not differ between the age groups or genders. High frequency heart rate power and the high/low frequency power ratio decreased with age in both men and women (p < 0.05). The high/low frequency power ratio during spontaneous and metronomic breathing was greater in women than men (p < 0.05). Heart rate approximate entropy decreased with age and was higher in women than men (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS. High frequency heart rate spectral power (associated with parasympathetic activity) and the overall complexity of heart rate dynamics are higher in women than men. These complementary findings indicate the need to account for gender-as well as age-related differences in heart rate dynamics. Whether these gender differences are related to lower cardiovascular disease risk and greater longevity in

  15. Gender, aging, and work: aging workers' strategies to confront the demands of production in maquiladora plants in nogales, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Adarga, Mireya Scarone; Becerril, Leonor Cedillo; Champion, Catalina Denman

    2010-01-01

    This work is part of a qualitative socio-cultural investigation with a group of men and women 40 years and older in the maquila export industry in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. In 1994, as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement, maquila plants combined traditional intensive work methods with new "just in time" production norms that impacted work and health conditions, particularly in older, or aging, workers. The workers that were interviewed for this study show a reduction in their functional ability to work starting at 40 years of age. Work organization demands, general health conditions, and a decrease in physical abilities brings these 40-year-old workers to prematurely construct an image of themselves as aging workers and to develop coping strategies that vary by gender.

  16. Association between psychosomatic health symptoms and common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents: Age and gender as potential moderators.

    PubMed

    Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J

    2016-02-22

    Little is known about the role of age and gender in the association between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined age and gender as moderators between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness using data from a school-based survey (N = 770). Males reported higher psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness, while younger adolescents reported higher common mental illness only. Psychosomatic symptoms were positively associated with common mental illness, but age and gender did not moderate this association. Interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence rate in psychosomatic symptoms are crucial in decreasing common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents.

  17. Influences of sex, age, and education on attitudes toward gender inequitable norms and practices in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M.; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes toward gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age, and education to inform programming. Methods Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age, and education. Results Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male, and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e. early marriage, forced marriage, and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all p<0.03) except for forced marriage (p=0.07), and few significant differences were observed when these responses were stratified by sex and age. Conclusion The study reveals agreement with gender inequitable norms in the household, but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices. PMID:25026024

  18. Influences of sex, age and education on attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age and education to inform programming. Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age and education. Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e., early marriage, forced marriage and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all p < 0.03) except for forced marriage (p = 0.07), and few significant differences were observed when these responses were stratified by sex and by age. The study reveals agreement with gender inequitable norms in the household but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices.

  19. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  20. Racial and Gender Differences in Weight Status and Dietary Practices among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita DiGioacchino; Sargent, Roger G.; Topping, Marvette

    2001-01-01

    The nutritional intake, weight status, and dietary practices of college (N=630) students were assessed. The majority did not consume recommended servings of foods each day. Findings that African Americans skip meals and consume fast foods may contribute to the greater amount of weight gain for females since returning to school. Presents…

  1. Characteristics of women age 15-24 at risk for excess weight gain during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tammy; Moniz, Michelle H.; Plegue, Melissa A.; Richardson, Caroline R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Excess weight gain during pregnancy is a serious health concern among young pregnant women in the US. This study aimed to characterize young women at highest risk for gaining over the recommended amount of weight during pregnancy. Methods Using a database that is representative of births in large U.S. cities, The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we identified mothers of singleton term-infants age 15–24 years at the time of delivery. Institute of Medicine guidelines were used to categorize each mother’s weight gain as less than, within, or more than recommended during pregnancy. Multinomial logistic regression models for weight gain category were performed, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, federal poverty level (FPL), health status, and prepregnancy BMI. Results Among the weighted sample (n = 1,034, N = 181,375), the mean (SD) age was 21 (3) years, 32% were black, 39% were Hispanic, 44% reported income under the Federal Poverty Level, 45% were overweight or obese before pregnancy, and 55% gained more weight than recommended during pregnancy. Women who were overweight or obese before pregnancy were at increased risk for gaining more pregnancy weight than recommended, compared to normal-weight women (adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) = 3.82, p = 0.01; RRR = 3.27, p = 0.03, respectively). Hispanics were less likely than non-Hispanics to gain more weight than recommended (RRR = 0.39, p = 0.03). Conclusions The majority of mothers ages 15–24 gained excess weight during pregnancy, a strong risk factor for later obesity. Prepregnancy overweight or obesity and non-Hispanic ethnicity predicted excess pregnancy weight gain. Interventions and policies should target these high-risk young women to prevent excess weight gain. PMID:28291802

  2. Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ajduković, Marina; Sušac, Nika; Rajter, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine age and gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse, the level of acquaintance of the child and the perpetrator, and correlations between experiencing family violence and sexual abuse on a nationally representative sample of 11, 13, and 16 years old children. Method A probabilistic stratified cluster sample included 2.62% of the overall population of children aged 11 (n = 1223), 13 (n = 1188), and 16 (n = 1233) from 40 primary and 29 secondary schools. A modified version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children's Version was used. Five items referred to child sexual abuse (CSA) for all age groups. Results In Croatia, 10.8% of children experienced some form of sexual abuse (4.8% to 16.5%, depending on the age group) during childhood and 7.7% of children experienced it during the previous year (3.7% to 11.1%, depending on the age group). Gender comparison showed no difference in the prevalence of contact sexual abuse, whereas more girls than boys experienced non-contact sexual abuse. Correlations between sexual abuse and physical and psychological abuse in the family were small, but significant. Conclusion Comparisons with international studies show that Croatia is a country with a low prevalence of CSA. The fact that the majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are male and female peers indicates the urgent need to address risks of sexual victimization in the health education of children. PMID:24170726

  3. Variations of immune parameters in terrestrial isopods: a matter of gender, aging and Wolbachia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Mathieu; Chevalier, Frédéric; de Vlechouver, Mickaël; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Ecological factors modulate animal immunocompetence and potentially shape the evolution of their immune systems. Not only environmental parameters impact on immunocompetence: Aging is one major cause of variability of immunocompetence between individuals, and sex-specific levels of immunocompetence have also been frequently described. Moreover, a growing core of data put in light that vertically transmitted symbionts can dramatically modulate the immunocompetence of their hosts. In this study, we addressed the influence of gender, age and the feminising endosymbiont Wolbachia ( wVulC) on variations in haemocyte density, total PO activity and bacterial load in the haemolymph of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. This host-symbiont system is of particular interest to address this question since: (1) wVulC was previously shown as immunosuppressive in middle-aged females and (2) wVulC influences sex determination. We show that age, gender and Wolbachia modulate together immune parameters in A. vulgare. However, wVulC, which interacts with aging, appears to be the prominent factor interfering with both PO activity and haemocyte density. This interference with immune parameters is not the only aspect of wVulC virulence on its host, as reproduction and survival are also altered.

  4. Effect of consanguinity on birth weight for gestational age in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Ghina; Tamim, Hala; Kanaan, Mona; Khawaja, Marwan; Khogali, Mustafa; Wakim, Gerard; Yunis, Khalid A

    2007-04-01

    Consanguinity, the marriage between relatives, has been associated with adverse child health outcomes because it increases homozygosity of recessive alleles. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of consanguinity on the birth weight of newborns in Greater Beirut, Lebanon. Cross-sectional data were collected on 10,289 consecutive liveborn singleton newborns admitted to eight hospitals belonging to the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network during the years 2000 and 2001. Birth weight was modeled by use of the fetal growth ratio, defined as the ratio of the observed birth weight to the median birth weight for gestational age. A mixed-effect multiple linear regression model was used to predict the net effect of first- and second-cousin marriage on the birth weight for gestational age, accounting for within-hospital clustering of data. After controlling for medical and sociodemographic covariates, the authors found a statistically significant negative association between consanguinity and birth weight at each gestational age. No significant difference was observed in the decrease in birth weight between the first- and second-cousin marriages. Overall, consanguinity was associated with a decrease in birth weight for gestational age by 1.8% (beta = -0.018, 95% confidence interval: -0.027, -0.008). The largest effects on fetal growth were seen with lower parity and smoking during pregnancy.

  5. Associations of Student Temperament and Educational Competence with Academic Achievement: The Role of Teacher Age and Teacher and Student Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullola, Sari; Jokela, Markus; Ravaja, Niklas; Lipsanen, Jari; Hintsanen, Mirka; Alatupa, Saija; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    We examined associations of teacher-perceived student temperament and educational competence with school achievement, and how these associations were modified by students' gender and teachers' gender and age. Participants were 1063 Finnish ninth-graders (534 boys) and their 29 Mother Language teachers (all female) and 43 Mathematics teachers (17…

  6. A gender-based approach to developing a healthy lifestyle and healthy weight intervention for diverse Utah women.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Sara E; Digre, Kathleen B; Ralls, Brenda; Mukundente, Valentine; Davis, France A; Rickard, Sylvia; Tavake-Pasi, Fahina; Napia, Eru Ed; Aiono, Heather; Chirpich, Meghan; Stark, Louisa A; Sunada, Grant; Keen, Kassy; Johnston, Leanne; Frost, Caren J; Varner, Michael W; Alder, Stephen C

    2015-08-01

    Utah women from some cultural minority groups have higher overweight/obesity rates than the overall population. We utilized a gender-based mixed methods approach to learn about the underlying social, cultural and gender issues that contribute to the increased obesity risk among these women and to inform intervention development. A literature review and analysis of Utah's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data informed the development of a focus group guide. Focus groups were conducted with five groups of women: African immigrants from Burundi and Rwanda, African Americans, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Hispanics/Latinas, and Pacific Islanders. Six common themes emerged: (1) health is multidimensional and interventions must address health in this manner; (2) limited resources and time influence health behaviors; (3) norms about healthy weight vary, with certain communities showing more preference to heavier women; (4) women and men have important but different influences on healthy lifestyle practices within households; (5) women have an influential role on the health of families; and (6) opportunities exist within each group to improve health. Seeking insights from these five groups of women helped to identify common and distinct cultural and gender themes related to obesity, which can be used to help elucidate core obesity determinants.

  7. Gender differentials and old age survival in the Nairobi slums, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Rachel; Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane

    2016-08-01

    This paper examines gender differentials in survival amongst older people (50+ years) in the Nairobi slums and to the best of our knowledge is the first study of its kind in an urban African setting. The results provide evidence contrary to the expected paradox of poorer self-rated health yet better survival amongst older women. Older women in the Nairobi slums have poorer self-rated health and poorer circumstances across other factors, including disability and socio-economic status. Further, older women in the slums do not have better survival. The conventional female advantage in mortality only becomes apparent after accounting for the cumulative influence of individual characteristics, social networks, health and socio-economic status, suggesting the female advantage in unadjusted old-age mortality does not apply to contexts where women experience significant disadvantage across multiple life domains. This highlights the urgent need to redress the support, status and opportunities available for women across the life course in contexts such as the Nairobi slums. In addition, a greater number of factors differentiate mortality risk amongst men than amongst women, suggesting inequality amongst slum dwelling older men and highlighting the need for gender sensitive interventions which account for the particular needs of both genders in old age.

  8. Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932

    PubMed Central

    Shenkin, S; Starr, J; Pattie, A; Rush, M; Whalley, L; Deary, I; PHARAOH, E. P.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class.
METHODS—Retrospective cohort study based on birth records from 1921 and cognitive function measured while at school at age 11 in 1932.Subjects were 985 live singletons born in the Edinburgh Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital in 1921. Moray House Test scores from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 were traced on 449of these children.
RESULTS—Mean score on Moray House Test increased from 30.6 at a birth weight of <2500 g to 44.7 at 4001-4500 g, after correcting for gestational age, maternal age, parity, social class, and legitimacy of birth. Multiple regression showed that 15.6% of the variance in Moray House Test score is contributed by a combination of social class (6.6%), birth weight (3.8%), child's exact age (2.4%), maternal parity (2.0%), and illegitimacy (1.5%). Structural equation modelling confirmed the independent contribution from each of these variables in predicting cognitive ability. A model in which birth weight acted as a mediator of social class had poor fit statistics.
CONCLUSION—In this 1921 birth cohort, social class and birth weight have independent effects on cognitive function at age 11. Future research will relate these childhood data to health and cognition in old age.

 PMID:11517097

  9. Do gender differences in audio-visual benefit and visual influence in audio-visual speech perception emerge with age?

    PubMed

    Alm, Magnus; Behne, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Gender and age have been found to affect adults' audio-visual (AV) speech perception. However, research on adult aging focuses on adults over 60 years, who have an increasing likelihood for cognitive and sensory decline, which may confound positive effects of age-related AV-experience and its interaction with gender. Observed age and gender differences in AV speech perception may also depend on measurement sensitivity and AV task difficulty. Consequently both AV benefit and visual influence were used to measure visual contribution for gender-balanced groups of young (20-30 years) and middle-aged adults (50-60 years) with task difficulty varied using AV syllables from different talkers in alternative auditory backgrounds. Females had better speech-reading performance than males. Whereas no gender differences in AV benefit or visual influence were observed for young adults, visually influenced responses were significantly greater for middle-aged females than middle-aged males. That speech-reading performance did not influence AV benefit may be explained by visual speech extraction and AV integration constituting independent abilities. Contrastingly, the gender difference in visually influenced responses in middle adulthood may reflect an experience-related shift in females' general AV perceptual strategy. Although young females' speech-reading proficiency may not readily contribute to greater visual influence, between young and middle-adulthood recurrent confirmation of the contribution of visual cues induced by speech-reading proficiency may gradually shift females AV perceptual strategy toward more visually dominated responses.

  10. Social cognitive predictors of peer acceptance at age 5 and the moderating effects of gender.

    PubMed

    Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Muñoz, José M; Carreras, María R; Braza, Paloma; García, Ainhoa; Sorozabal, Aizpea; Sánchez-Martín, José R

    2009-09-01

    In this study we examined the effects of social intelligence, empathy, verbal ability and appearance-reality distinction on the level of peer acceptance, as well as the moderating role of gender. Participants were 98 five-year-old children (43 boys and 55 girls; mean age 5 years 3 months for boys and girls). Our results showed a main effect of social intelligence on peer acceptance, as well as several other effects that were moderated by gender: a significant and positive effect of verbal ability on social acceptance was found for boys; appearance-reality distinction was found to have a positive effect on social acceptance in the case of girls; and although empathy had a significant positive effect on social acceptance for both boys and girls, this effect was more pronounced among boys. Our results suggest that abilities promoting peer acceptance are different for boys and girls.

  11. Gender differences in apolipoprotein D expression during aging and in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Cristina; Navarro, Ana; Pérez, Cristina; Martínez, Eva; del Valle, Eva; Tolivia, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    Apolipoprotein D (Apo D) is a lipocalin expressed in a wide variety of mammalian tissues. Different studies have shown that this protein is upregulated in the central nervous system (CNS) in several neuropathological conditions, after traumatic brain injury and in aging. The Apo D promoter shows 3 estrogen response elements and it has been shown that its expression is influenced by estrogens in breast cyst fluid. The aim of this work is to study the possible relationship between gender and Apo D expression in human hippocampus and in the entorhinal and frontal cortices during aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We visualized Apo D immunohistochemically and then performed a quantification of the chromogen signal strength. Our findings show that Apo D expression is influenced by age, Braak stage, and sex. In most of the studied areas, Apo D expression is increased with age in women but not in men, and in AD progression in both genders. Apo D is always expressed by neurons with no signs of degeneration or death.

  12. Epidemiology of fractures in 15,000 adults: the influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Singer, B R; McLauchlan, G J; Robinson, C M; Christie, J

    1998-03-01

    We report a prospective study of the incidence of fractures in the adult population of Edinburgh, related to age and gender. Over a two-year period, 15,293 adults, 7428 males and 7865 females, sustained a fracture, and 5208 (34.0%) required admission. Between 15 and 49 years of age, males were 2.9 times more likely to sustain a fracture than females (95% CI 2.7 to 3.1). Over the age of 60 years, females were 2.3 times more likely to sustain a fracture than males (95% CI 2.1 to 2.4). There were three main peaks of fracture distribution: the first was in young adult males, the second was in elderly patients of both genders, mainly in metaphyseal bone such as the proximal femur, although diaphyseal fractures also showed an increase in incidence. The third increase in the incidence of fractures, especially of the wrist, was seen to start at 40 years of age in women. Our study has also shown that 'osteoporotic' fractures became evident in women earlier than expected, and that they were not entirely a postmenopausal phenomenon.

  13. Cerebral glucose metabolic patterns in Alzheimer's disease. Effect of gender and age at dementia onset

    SciTech Connect

    Small, G.W.; Kuhl, D.E.; Riege, W.H.; Fujikawa, D.G.; Ashford, J.W.; Metter, E.J.; Mazziotta, J.C.

    1989-06-01

    No previous study of Alzheimer's disease has, to our knowledge, assessed the effect of both age at dementia onset and gender on cerebral glucose metabolic patterns. To this end, we used positron emission tomography (fludeoxyglucose F 18 method) to study 24 patients with clinical diagnoses of probable Alzheimer's disease. Comparisons of the 13 patients with early-onset dementia (less than 65 years of age) with the 11 patients with late-onset dementia (greater than 65 years of age) revealed significantly lower left parietal metabolic ratios (left posterior parietal region divided by the hemispheric average) in the early-onset group. The metabolic ratio of posterior parietal cortex divided by the relatively disease-stable average of caudate and thalamus also separated patients with early-onset dementia from those with late-onset dementia, but not men from women. Further comparisons between sexes showed that, in all brain regions studied, the 9 postmenopausal women had higher nonweighted mean metabolic rates than the 15 men from the same age group, with hemispheric sex differences of 9% on the right and 7% on the left. These results demonstrate decreased parietal ratios in early-onset dementia of Alzheimer's disease, independent of a gender effect.

  14. Gender differences in age of smoking initiation and its association with health

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Azure B.; Tebes, Jacob K.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    Background It is generally accepted that smoking starts in adolescence and earlier initiation is associated with more negative health outcomes. Some research suggests that women initiate smoking at later ages and have more negative health outcomes than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in age of initiation and its association with health. Methods The sample included men (n=8,506) and women (n=8,479) with a history of smoking from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol Related Conditions. Logistic regression was used to examine gender differences in the effect of late smoking initiation on physical and mental health status after adjusting for covariates. Results At mostly all ages after 16, women exceeded men in rates of smoking initiation (59.8% vs. 50.3%, p<.001). Among late initiators (≥16), women were more likely than men to have hypertension (OR:1.24,CI:1.09-1.41), heart disease (OR:1.20,CI:1.00-1.45), major depressive disorder (OR:2.54,CI:2.22-2.92) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR:2.34,CI:1.84-2.99). Among early initiators (<16), women were more likely than men to have major depressive disorder (OR:2.42,CI:2.11-2.77) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR:2.01,CI:1.59-2.54) but there were no gender differences in the likelihood of having hypertension (OR:1.04,CI:0.89-1.22) and heart disease (OR:1.11,CI:0.90-1.36). Conclusions In late adolescence and adulthood, women exceed men in smoking initiation. Late initiation was associated with more significant physical health risks for women than men. Our findings raise questions about generally accepted notions on the age at which smoking initiation occurs and its association with health. PMID:27499723

  15. The effects of age, gender, and crash types on drivers' injury-related health care costs.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M

    2015-04-01

    There are many studies that evaluate the effects of age, gender, and crash types on crash related injury severity. However, few studies investigate the effects of those crash factors on the crash related health care costs for drivers that are transported to hospital. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between drivers' age, gender, and the crash types, as well as other crash characteristics (e.g., not wearing a seatbelt, weather condition, and fatigued driving), on the crash related health care costs. The South Carolina Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (SC CODES) from 2005 to 2007 was used to construct six separate hierarchical linear regression models based on drivers' age and gender. The results suggest that older drivers have higher health care costs than younger drivers and male drivers tend to have higher health care costs than female drivers in the same age group. Overall, single vehicle crashes had the highest health care costs for all drivers. For males older than 64-years old sideswipe crashes are as costly as single vehicle crashes. In general, not wearing a seatbelt, airbag deployment, and speeding were found to be associated with higher health care costs. Distraction-related crashes are more likely to be associated with lower health care costs in most cases. Furthermore this study highlights the value of considering drivers in subgroups, as some factors have different effects on health care costs in different driver groups. Developing an understanding of longer term outcomes of crashes and their characteristics can lead to improvements in vehicle technology, educational materials, and interventions to reduce crash-related health care costs.

  16. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Maekawa, Keiko; Saito, Kosuke; Senoo, Yuya; Urata, Masayo; Murayama, Mayumi; Tajima, Yoko; Kumagai, Yuji; Saito, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1) investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma) that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2) elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3) examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group) of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively) males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum). Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites is important

  17. Candidate Gene Association Study of BMI-Related Loci, Weight, and Adiposity in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Most genome-wide association studies are confined to middle-aged populations. It is unclear whether associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and obesity persist in old age. We aimed to relate 10 body mass index (BMI)–associated SNPs to weight, BMI, % fat, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in Health ABC and AGES-Reykjavik comprising 4,846 individuals of European Ancestry, and 1,139 African Americans over age 65. SNPs were scaled using effect estimates from candidate SNPs. In Health ABC, a SNP near GNPDA2 was modestly associated with weight and SAT area (p = .008, p = .001). Risk score (sum of scaled SNPs) was associated with weight, BMI, and SAT area (p < .0001 for all), but neither GNPDA2 nor risk score was associated with weight, BMI, visceral adippose tissue, subcutaneous adipose tissue, or % fat in AGES-Reykjavik. In African Americans, a SNP near SEC16B was weakly associated with weight (p = .04). In this sample of older adults, no BMI-associated SNPs were associated with weight or adiposity. PMID:23160366

  18. Age-related factors in the relationship between foot measurements and living stature and body weight.

    PubMed

    Atamturk, Derya; Duyar, Izzet

    2008-11-01

    The measurements of feet and footprints are especially important in forensic identification, as they have been used to predict the body height and weight of victims or suspects. It can be observed that the subjects of forensic-oriented studies are generally young adults. That is to say, researchers rarely take into consideration the body's proportional changes with age. Hence, the aim of this study is to generate equations which take age and sex into consideration, when stature and body weight are estimated from foot and footprints dimensions. With this aim in mind, we measured the stature, body weight, foot length and breadth, heel breadth, footprint length and breadth, and footprint heel breadth of 516 volunteers (253 males and 263 females) aged between 17.6 and 82.9 years using standard measurement techniques. The sample population was divided randomly into two groups. Group 1, the study group, consisted of 80% of the sample (n = 406); the remaining 20% were assigned to the cross-validation group or Group 2 (n = 110). In the first stage of the study, we produced equations for estimating stature and weight using a stepwise regression technique. Then, their reliability was tested on Group 2 members. Statistical analyses showed that the ratios of foot dimensions to stature and body weight change considerably with age and sex. Consequently, the regression equations which include these variables yielded more reliable results. Our results indicated that age and sex should be taken into consideration when predicting human body height and weight for forensic purposes.

  19. Influence of age, gender, and race on nitric oxide release over acupuncture points-meridians

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Sheng-Xing; Lee, Paul C.; Jiang, Isabelle; Ma, Eva; Hu, Jay S.; Li, Xi-Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of age, gender and race on nitric oxide (NO) release over acupuncture points, meridian without acupoint, and non-meridian regions of the Pericardium (PC) and Bladder (BL) meridian as well as aging on LU meridian in 61 healthy subjects. Biocapture tubes were attached to the skin surface, and total nitrite and nitrate was biocaptured and quantified using chemiluminescence. In elder ages compared to adults, NO levels over the ventral forearm were significantly decreased over LU on radial regions but not altered over PC on medial regions. Conversely, NO content was elevated over BL regions only in overweight/obesity of elder ages. NO levels over PC regions were marginally elevated in overweight/obese males compared to females but did not alter between races. These results suggest a selective reduction of NO release over LU meridian with aging, which is consistent with a progressive decline in lung function and increase in chronic respiratory disease in elder ages. Increased NO levels along the BL meridian in older obese subjects may reflect a modified NO level along somatic-bladder pathway for counteracting bladder dysfunctions with aging. Both of them support somatic-organ connections in the meridian system associated with potential pathophysiological changes with aging. PMID:26621821

  20. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  1. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  2. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

  3. The effect of exercise training on body weight and peptide hormone patterns in normal weight college-age men.

    PubMed

    Hurley, R S; Bossetti, B M; O'Dorisio, T M; Tenison, E B; Welch, M A; Rice, R R

    1991-03-01

    Resting and peak glucose, insulin, glucagon, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) levels were evaluated pretraining, 3 weeks and 10 weeks posttraining in seven college age males. The exercise consisted of thrice weekly session of jogging at 70% VO2max for 20 minutes plus warmup and cool down. Following the 10 weeks, VO2max increased significantly. Body weight remained constant and body fat decreased significantly. Fasting and peak blood glucose levels were normal at the beginning of the study yet improved with training. As expected, fasting and peak insulin levels decreased significantly with training. Although GIP did not change significantly with training, an uncoupling of GIP and insulin peak responses was observed. Glucagon levels were essentially unchanged. Fasting and peak PP levels increased slightly as training occurred. These hormone responses suggest that perhaps body weight and/or changes in body fat stores and fuel use might influence peptide hormone responses with training.

  4. Gestation length, birth weight and offspring gender ratio of in vitro-produced Gyr (Bos indicus) cattle embryos.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Luiz Sergio Almeida; Freitas, Celio; de Sa, Wanderlei Ferreira; de Moraes Ferreira, Ademir; Serapiao, Raquel Varela; Viana, João Henrique Moreira

    2010-07-01

    In vitro embryo production (IVP) has been suggested to result in a greater proportion of male calves, longer gestation and heavier offspring than artificial insemination in Bos taurus cattle. Despite the increasing use of IVP in tropical countries, its effects upon these traits in Bos indicus have not been conclusively investigated. Gyr is a B. indicus dairy breed with known physiological differences from B. taurus, such as a longer gestation period and lighter offspring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of IVP on gestation length, birth weight and gender ratio in Gyr offspring. Oocytes were recovered from Gyr cows by ovum pick-up and were matured and fertilized with thawed Gyr semen in vitro. Embryos were cultured in CR2aa medium with cumulus cells and 10% fetal calf serum under 5% CO(2) at 38.5 degrees C in air. Seven- to eight-day blastocysts were transferred to synchronized recipients. Data on gestation length and birth weight of calves from in vitro-produced embryos were compared to data obtained from Gyr calves produced by artificial insemination (AI) and natural breeding (NB) during the same period using analysis of variance, and the gender ratio was compared to the expected 1:1 ratio using a chi-square test. IVP increased (P<0.01) the percentage of male offspring (76.9%) compared to the expected 1:1 ratio, while no difference (P>0.05) was observed in the AI and NB groups. Gestation length was similar (P>0.05) between the IVP and AI groups, but IVP-derived offspring were heavier (P<0.05) than AI- and NB-derived ones, mainly for male calves (P<0.05). These data show that in vitro production affects the subsequent development of Gyr embryos, resulting in a skewed sex ratio and increased birth weight.

  5. Ramelteon attenuates age-associated hypertension and weight gain in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Oxenkrug, Gregory F; Summergrad, Paul

    2010-06-01

    The neuroendocrine theory of aging suggests the common mechanisms of developmental (prereproductive) and aging (postreproductive) processes and identified a cluster of conditions (hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, menopause, late onset depression, vascular cognitive impairment, impairment of immune defense, and some forms of cancer) as age-associated neuroendocrine disorders (AAND). Obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes were later described as metabolic syndrome (MetS). Because melatonin attenuated development of MetS is age-dependent, that is, in young and old, but not in middle-aged rats, we studied the effect of the selective melatonin agonist, Ramelteon, on the two core symptoms of MetS/AAND: hypertension and body weight gain in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto male rats (WKY). SHR rats developed hypertension at the time of maximal weight gain that coincided with the onset of reproductive activity (8-10 weeks old). Chronic (but not acute) administration of Ramelteon (in drinking water, 8 mg/kg/day, from 4 to 12 weeks of age) attenuated age-associated increase of systolic blood pressure (tail-cuff method) by 45%, and age-associated body weight gain by 30%. Acute and chronic Ramelteon did not affect blood pressure and body weight in normotensive WKY rats. Ramelteon-induced attenuation of age-associated hypertension and weight gain suggests that Ramelteon might attenuate the other symptoms of MetS/AAND and might be useful in the treatment of MetS/AAND during puberty, menopause, and old age.

  6. Evidence-based sentencing: Public openness and opposition to using gender, age, and race as risk factors for recidivism.

    PubMed

    Scurich, Nicholas; Monahan, John

    2016-02-01

    The incarceration of criminal offenders in the United States has reached epidemic proportions. One way to scale back the prison population is by using empirical risk assessment methods to apportion prison sentences based on the likelihood of the offender recidivating, so-called "evidence-based sentencing." This practice has been denounced by some legal scholars, who claim that the use of certain empirically relevant risk factors--including gender, age, and race--is plainly immoral. This study tested whether lay individuals share their sentiment. More than 600 participants weighted to be representative of the United States population were asked about the extent to which they would support imposing shorter sentences for old versus young offenders, female versus male offenders, and white versus black offenders, all else being equal. The results indicate that very few participants (<3%) had no settled opinion about using evidence-based sentencing, and approximately half were unequivocally opposed to the practice. Whereas more than 3-quarters of participants were against using race to determine prison sentences, almost half were open to the possibility of using gender and more than 3-quarters of the participants were open to the possibility of using age to determine prison sentences. Individual differences as a function of participants' own demographic characteristics, or of their belief in "just deserts" as the primary purpose of sentencing, or of their political outlook, were either inconsistently or meagerly related to these findings. The profoundly disparate views held by the general public regarding the use of specific risk factors do not bode well for the use of demographic risk factors in sentencing as a way to roll back mass incarceration.

  7. Age- and gender-adjusted normative data for the German version of Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test from healthy subjects aged between 50 and 70 years.

    PubMed

    Speer, Paula; Wersching, Heike; Bruchmann, Sabine; Bracht, Dorothea; Stehling, Christoph; Thielsch, Meinald; Knecht, Stefan; Lohmann, Hubertus

    2014-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) is widely used to evaluate dysfunctional episodic memory. The current study aimed to provide extended age- and gender-specific norms for the German AVLT for individuals older than 50 years. In 690 subjects, a comprehensive medical examination including a structural 3.0-tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan was administered, as well as extensive neuropsychological tests. After controlling for exclusion criteria, 407 subjects were included in the analysis. AVLT performance decreased with age, and women outperformed men. We present age- and gender-specific normative data for the German AVLT from subjects aged between 50 and 70 years.

  8. Gender differences in age effect on brain atrophy measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, R.C.; Mozley, P.D.; Resnick.S.M.; Gottlieb, G.L.; Kohn, M.; Zimmerman, R.; Herman, G.; Atlas, S.; Grossman, R.; Berretta, D.; Erwin, R.; Gur, R.E. )

    1991-04-01

    A prospective sample of 69 healthy adults, age range 18-80 years, was studied with magnetic resonance imaging scans of the entire cranium. Volumes were obtained by a segmentation algorithm that uses proton density and T{sub 2} pixel values to correct field inhomogeneities (shading). Average ({plus minus}SD) brain volume, excluding cerebellum, was 1090.91 ml and cerebrospinal fluid (DSF) volume was 127.91 ml. Brain volume was higher (by 5 ml) in the right hemisphere. Men had 91 ml higher brain and 20 ml higher CSF volume than women. Age was negatively correlated with brain volume and positively correlated with CSF volume. The slope fo the regression line with age for CSF was steeper for men than women. This difference in slopes was significant for sulca but not ventricular, CSF. The greatest amount of atrophy in elderly men was in the left hemisphere, whereas is women age effects were symmetric. The findings may point to neuroanatomic substrates of hemispheric specialization and gender differences in age-related changes in brain function. They suggest that women are less vulnerable to age-related changes in mental abilities, whereas men are particularly susceptible to aging effects on left hemispheric functions.

  9. The role of donor age and gender in the success of human muscle precursor cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Stölting, Meline N L; Hefermehl, Lukas J; Tremp, Mathias; Azzabi, Fahd; Sulser, Tullio; Eberli, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Autologous cell transplantation for the treatment of muscle damage is envisioned to involve the application of muscle precursor cells (MPCs) isolated from adult skeletal muscle. At the onset of trauma, these cells are recruited to proliferate and rebuild injured muscle fibres. However, a variety of donor-specific cues may directly influence the yield and quality of cells isolated from a muscle biopsy. In this study, we isolated human MPCs and assessed the role of donor gender and age on the ability of these MPCs to form functional bioengineered muscle. We analysed the cell yield, growth and molecular expression in vitro, and the muscle tissue formation and contractility of the bioengineered muscle, from cells isolated from men and women in three different age groups: young (20-39 years), adult (40-59 years) and elderly (60-80 years). Our results suggest that human MPCs can be successfully isolated and grown from patients of all ages and both genders. However, young female donors provide fast-growing cells in vitro with an optimum contractile output in vivo and are therefore an ideal cell source for muscle reconstruction. Taken together, these findings describe the donor-related limitations of MPC transplantation and provide insights for a straightforward and unbiased clinical application of these cells for muscle reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents: factorial invariance across gender and age in Hispanic American adolescents.

    PubMed

    La Greca, Annette M; Ingles, Candido J; Lai, Betty S; Marzo, Juan C

    2015-04-01

    Social anxiety is a common psychological disorder that often emerges during adolescence and is associated with significant impairment. Efforts to prevent social anxiety disorder require sound assessment measures for identifying anxious youth, especially those from minority backgrounds. We examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) across gender and age groups in Hispanic American adolescents (N = 1,191; 56% girls; 15-18 years) using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Results indicated that the factorial configuration of the correlated three-factor model of the SAS-A was invariant across gender and age. Analyses of latent mean differences revealed that boys exhibited higher structured means than girls on the Social Avoidance and Distress-General (SAD-General) subscale. On all SAS-A subscales, Fear of Negative Evaluation, Social Avoidance and Distress-New, and SAD-General, estimates of the structured means decreased with adolescent age. Implications for further research and clinical practice are discussed.

  11. How avoidant attachment influences subjective well-being: an investigation about the age and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianyuan; Fung, Helene H

    2014-01-01

    Intimate relationship is a significant factor that influences older adults' subjective well-being. Avoidant attachment reflects a basic working model regarding interpersonal relationships. The current study aims to test how age and gender moderate the effect of avoidant attachment to spouse on subjective well-being. Fifty-six married couples aged from 20 to 79 years in Hong Kong were recruited for the study. Their avoidant attachment to spouse and subjective well-being were measured by questionnaires. In general, avoidant attachment to spouse was found to undermine subjective well-being. More importantly, age significantly moderated the negative association between avoidant attachment and subjective well-being, but the direction of the moderating effect was opposite for husbands and wives. Compared with their younger counterparts, the detrimental effect of avoidant attachment on subjective well-being was weaker for older wives but stronger for older husbands. The results suggest that marital relationship may play different roles in different life stages for the two genders. In later adulthood, males may become more dependent on the marital relationship to maintain subjective well-being, whereas females can be relatively independent.

  12. Gender and Age-Related Differences in Bilateral Lower Extremity Mechanics during Treadmill Running

    PubMed Central

    Phinyomark, Angkoon; Hettinga, Blayne A.; Osis, Sean T.; Ferber, Reed

    2014-01-01

    Female runners have a two-fold risk of sustaining certain running-related injuries as compared to their male counterparts. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the sex-related differences in running kinematics is necessary. However, previous studies have either used discrete time point variables and inferential statistics and/or relatively small subject numbers. Therefore, the first purpose of this study was to use a principal component analysis (PCA) method along with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to examine the differences in running gait kinematics between female and male runners across a large sample of the running population as well as between two age-specific sub-groups. Bilateral 3-dimensional lower extremity gait kinematic data were collected during treadmill running. Data were analysed on the complete sample (n = 483: female 263, male 220), a younger subject group (n = 56), and an older subject group (n = 51). The PC scores were first sorted by the percentage of variance explained and we also employed a novel approach wherein PCs were sorted based on between-gender statistical effect sizes. An SVM was used to determine if the sex and age conditions were separable and classifiable based on the PCA. Forty PCs explained 84.74% of the variance in the data and an SVM classification accuracy of 86.34% was found between female and male runners. Classification accuracies between genders for younger subjects were higher than a subgroup of older runners. The observed interactions between age and gender suggest these factors must be considered together when trying to create homogenous sub-groups for research purposes. PMID:25137240

  13. Weight Estimation Tool for Children Aged 6 to 59 Months in Limited-Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Importance A simple, reliable anthropometric tool for rapid estimation of weight in children would be useful in limited-resource settings where current weight estimation tools are not uniformly reliable, nearly all global under-five mortality occurs, severe acute malnutrition is a significant contributor in approximately one-third of under-five mortality, and a weight scale may not be immediately available in emergencies to first-response providers. Objective To determine the accuracy and precision of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and height as weight estimation tools in children under five years of age in low-to-middle income countries. Design This was a retrospective observational study. Data were collected in 560 nutritional surveys during 1992–2006 using a modified Expanded Program of Immunization two-stage cluster sample design. Setting Locations with high prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition. Participants A total of 453,990 children met inclusion criteria (age 6–59 months; weight ≤ 25 kg; MUAC 80–200 mm) and exclusion criteria (bilateral pitting edema; biologically implausible weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) values). Exposures Weight was estimated using Broselow Tape, Hong Kong formula, and database MUAC alone, height alone, and height and MUAC combined. Main Outcomes and Measures Mean percentage difference between true and estimated weight, proportion of estimates accurate to within ± 25% and ± 10% of true weight, weighted Kappa statistic, and Bland-Altman bias were reported as measures of tool accuracy. Standard deviation of mean percentage difference and Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement were reported as measures of tool precision. Results Database height was a more accurate and precise predictor of weight compared to Broselow Tape 2007 [B], Broselow Tape 2011 [A], and MUAC. Mean percentage difference between true and estimated weight was +0.49% (SD = 10

  14. Effects of body weight and age on the time and pairing of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.

  15. Effect of age and gender on sudomotor and cardiovagal function and blood pressure response to tilt in normal subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Denq, J. C.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Dyck, P. J.; O'Brien, P. C.; Slezak, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Normative data are limited on autonomic function tests, especially beyond age 60 years. We therefore evaluated these tests in a total of 557 normal subjects evenly distributed by age and gender from 10 to 83 years. Heart rate (HR) response to deep breathing fell with increasing age. Valsalva ratio varied with both age and gender. QSART (quantitative sudomotor axon-reflex test) volume was consistently greater in men (approximately double) and progressively declined with age for all three lower extremity sites but not the forearm site. Orthostatic blood pressure reduction was greater with increasing age. HR at rest was significantly higher in women, and the increment with head-up tilt fell with increasing age. For no tests did we find a regression to zero, and some tests seem to level off with increasing age, indicating that diagnosis of autonomic failure was possible to over 80 years of age.

  16. Effects of gender on locomotor sensitivity to amphetamine, body weight, and fat mass in regulator of G protein signaling 9 (RGS9) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Walker, Paul D; Jarosz, Patricia A; Bouhamdan, Mohamad; MacKenzie, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein 9-2 is enriched in the striatum where it modulates dopamine and opioid receptor-mediated signaling. RGS9 knockout (KO) mice show increased psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization, as well as exhibit higher body weights and greater fat accumulation compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. In the present study, we found gender influences on each of these phenotypic characteristics. Female RGS9 KO mice exhibited greater locomotor sensitization to amphetamine (1.0mg/kg) treatment as compared to male RGS9 KO mice. Male RGS9 KO mice showed increased body weights as compared to male WT littermates, while no such differences were detected in female mice. Quantitative magnetic resonance showed that male RGS9 KO mice accumulated greater fat mass vs. WT littermates at 5months of age. Such observations could not be explained by increased caloric consumption since male and female RGS9 KO mice demonstrated equivalent daily food intake as compared to their respective WT littermates. Although indirect calorimetry methods found decreased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during the 12-hour dark phase in male RGS9 KO vs. WT mice which are indicative of less energy expenditure, male RGS9 KO mice exhibited lower levels of locomotor activity during this period. Genotype had no effect on metabolic activities when KO and WT groups were compared under fasting vs. feeding treatments. In summary, these results highlight the importance of factoring gender into the experimental design since many studies conducted in RGS9 KO mice utilize locomotor activity as a measured outcome.

  17. Effects of age, gender and holding on pain response during infant immunization.

    PubMed

    Ipp, Moshe; Taddio, Anna; Goldbach, Morton; Ben David, Shlomit; Stevens, Bonnie; Koren, Gideon

    2004-01-01

    Determinants of infant pain responses are important when assessing the efficacy of analgesics. In a randomized controlled trial, 106 infants aged 2 to 6 months were positioned either supine (SUP) on the examination table or held (HLD) by a parent during routine immunization in a community pediatric office. There was no difference between the SUP and HLD infants in duration of crying, facial grimacing or visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores. Similarly gender did not affect pain response. In contrast, 2-month-old infants displayed more pain during immunization than did 4 or 6-month-old infants.

  18. African American patients' intent to screen for colorectal cancer: Do cultural factors, health literacy, knowledge, age and gender matter?

    PubMed

    Brittain, Kelly; Christy, Shannon M; Rawl, Susan M

    2016-02-01

    African Americans have higher colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates. Research suggests that CRC screening interventions targeting African Americans be based upon cultural dimensions. Secondary analysis of data from African-Americans who were not up-to-date with CRC screening (n=817) was conducted to examine: 1) relationships among cultural factors (i.e., provider trust, cancer fatalism, health temporal orientation (HTO)), health literacy, and CRC knowledge; 2) age and gender differences; and 3) relationships among the variables and CRC screening intention. Provider trust, fatalism, HTO, health literacy and CRC knowledge had significant relationships among study variables. The FOBT intention model explained 43% of the variance with age and gender being significant predictors. The colonoscopy intention model explained 41% of the variance with gender being a significant predictor. Results suggest that when developing CRC interventions for African Americans, addressing cultural factors remain important, but particular attention should be given to the age and gender of the patient.

  19. African American patients’ intent to screen for colorectal cancer: Do cultural factors, health literacy, knowledge, age and gender matter?

    PubMed Central

    Brittain, Kelly; Christy, Shannon M.; Rawl, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    African Americans have higher colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates. Research suggests that CRC screening interventions targeting African Americans be based upon cultural dimensions. Secondary analysis of data from African-Americans who were not up-to-date with CRC screening (n=817) was conducted to examine: 1) relationships among cultural factors (i.e., provider trust, cancer fatalism, health temporal orientation (HTO)), health literacy, and CRC knowledge; 2) age and gender differences; and 3) relationships among the variables and CRC screening intention. Provider trust, fatalism, HTO, health literacy and CRC knowledge had significant relationships among study variables. The FOBT intention model explained 43% of the variance with age and gender being significant predictors. The colonoscopy intention model explained 41% of the variance with gender being a significant predictor. Results suggest that when developing CRC interventions for African Americans, addressing cultural factors remain important, but particular attention should be given to the age and gender of the patient. PMID:27182187

  20. Gender-Specific Effects on Gestational Length and Birth Weight by Early Pregnancy BPA Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Liao, Chunyang; Ye, Wen; Domino, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Context and Objective: Effects of prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) on gestational and birth outcomes are controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between prenatal exposure to BPA and birth and gestational outcomes. Design, Setting, Participants, and Outcome: Levels of unconjugated (uBPA) and BPA glucuronide in 80 matching samples of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and at delivery and matching term cord blood obtained from a prospective study conducted at the University of Michigan Hospitals were determined using a methodology validated in the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences funded Round Robin study and related to pregnancy outcomes. Results: Highest levels of uBPA were found in maternal term samples followed by first trimester maternal (M1) samples and cord blood. A 2-fold increase in M1 uBPA was associated with 55-g less birth weight when male and female pregnancies were combined and 183-g less birth weight with only female pregnancies. A 2-fold increase in maternal term uBPA was associated with an increased gestational length of 0.7 days for all pregnancies and 1.1 days for only female pregnancies. Conclusion: Higher uBPA exposure levels during first trimester and term are associated with sex-specific reduction in birth weight and increase in gestational length, respectively. Race, parity, and employment have an effect on BPA exposure. Because low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes, effect of early pregnancy BPA levels on reducing birth weight highlights the risk posed by developmental exposure to BPA. PMID:26406292

  1. Effects of age, sex, and treatment on weight-loss dynamics in overweight people.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Tirado, Miguel A; Benito, Pedro J; Atienza, David; Rincón, Emiliano; Calderón, Francisco J

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate how sex, age, and the kind of treatment followed affect weight loss in overweight men and women, as well as to develop an explanation for the evolution of weight-loss dynamics. The study consisted of 119 overweight participants (18-50 years old, body mass index >25 and <29.9 kg·m(-2)), who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment programs, namely, strength training (n = 30), endurance training (n = 30), a combination of strength training and endurance training (n = 30), and a careful treatment including diet and physical recommendations (n = 29). Each of the training groups exercised 3 times per week for 24 weeks, and their daily diet was restricted to a specific protocol during the testing period and controlled carefully. Body weight changes in the participants were evaluated every 15 days. Based on this study, we developed and validated different sets of equations to accurately capture the weight-loss dynamics. There were no significant differences in terms of global body weight changes from the statistical viewpoint, either regarding the carried out treatment or the individuals' ages. However, significant differences in weight-loss tendency were found depending on participant sex. We concluded that the effectiveness of different possible treatments for weight loss varies by sex and, based on our experimental observations, a quadratic function provides the most accurate model for capturing specific weight-loss dynamics. This trial is registered at Clinical Trials Gov.: number NCT01116856.

  2. Gender and genetic contributions to weight identity among adolescents and young adults in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Wedow, Robbee; Briley, Daniel A; Short, Susan E; Boardman, Jason D

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the possibility that genetic variation contributes to self-perceived weight status among adolescents and young adults in the U.S. Using samples of identical and fraternal twins across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) study, we calculate heritability estimates for objective body mass index (BMI) that are in line with previous estimates. We also show that perceived weight status is heritable (h(2) ∼ 0.47) and most importantly that this trait continues to be heritable above and beyond objective BMI (h(2) ∼ 0.25). We then demonstrate significant sex differences in the heritability of weight identity across the four waves of the study, where h(2)women = 0.39, 0.35, 0.40, and 0.50 for each wave, respectively, and h(2)men = 0.10, 0.10, 0.23, and 0.03. These results call for a deeper consideration of both identity and gender in genetics research.

  3. Effect of ATP-dependent channel modulators on ischemia-induced arrhythmia change depending on age and gender.

    PubMed

    Bozdogan, Ömer; Kaya, Salih Tunç; Yasar, Selçuk; Orallar, Hayriye

    2013-10-01

    The number of ATP-dependent potassium channels in myocardial cells has been previously shown to change depending on gender and age. Different effects of the ATP-dependent potassium channel blocker, glybenclamide and ATP-dependent potassium channel opener, pinacidil on ischemia or reperfusion-induced arrhythmia observed in various research might depend on different ages and genders of the animals used. The aim of this study is to research the effect of ATP-dependent potassium channel modulators on ischemia-induced arrhythmia in animals of different ages and genders. Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages and genders were used in this study. Ischemia was produced by the ligation of the left coronary artery for 30 min. Electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, infarct area and blood glucose were determined during the 30 min of ischemia. An arrhythmia score from an ECG recorded during 30 min of ischemia was determined by examining the duration and type of arrhythmia. Different effects of glybenclamide and pinacidil on the arrhythmias were observed in male and female young and middle-age rats. Pinacidil decreased the infarct zone in younger female rats, but differences in the type and length of ischemia-induced arrhythmias between females and males disappeared in older age. The results of this study showed that the effect of ATP-dependent potassium channel modulators on ischemia-induced arrhythmia changed due to the age and gender of rats.

  4. Gender differences in the association of age with physical workload and functioning

    PubMed Central

    Aittomaki, A; Lahelma, E; Roos, E; Leino-Arjas, P; Martikainen, P

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To test whether (1) physically demanding work is less frequent for older than younger employees, and whether (2) the association of physically demanding work with decline of physical functioning is stronger for older employees than their younger counterparts. The gender differences in these associations were examined. Methods: Subjects of the study were 40–60 year old employees of the City of Helsinki. Data (n = 5802) were collected with mail questionnaires in 2000 and 2001. Functioning was measured with the Role Limitations due to Physical Health Problems scale of the SF36 health questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to analyse the data. Results: There was a linear trend of less physically demanding work in older than in younger age groups. This trend was more marked for men than women. Age and physically demanding work were associated with poor functioning. In women the association of physically demanding work with poor functioning tended to be stronger for older than for younger age groups, while the opposite was observed in men. Conclusions: Results suggest that physically demanding work causes more ailments in women of high age than men. It is possible that less men than women are still employed in physically demanding occupations at high age, even though direct evidence of exit from physically demanding work cannot be obtained from cross-sectional data. In these data the physically demanding occupations for men and women were largely different. High physical workload among women working in social and health care is likely to contribute to the gender differences. PMID:15657190

  5. Age-specific absolute and relative organ weight distributions for Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Marino, Dale J

    2012-01-01

    The Fischer 344 (F344) rat has been the standard rat strain used in toxicology studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP). However, the numerous reports published to date on growth, survival, and tumor incidence have not included an overall compilation of organ weight data. Notably, dose-related organ weight effects are endpoints used by regulatory agencies to develop toxicity reference values (TRVs) for use in human health risk assessments. In addition, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models, which utilize relative organ weights, are increasingly being used to develop TRVs. Because a compilation of organ weights for F344 rats could prove beneficial for TRV development and PBPK modeling, all available absolute and relative organ weight data for untreated control F344 rats were collected from NCI/NTP feed, drinking-water, and inhalation studies in order to develop age-specific distributions. Results showed that organ weights were collected more frequently at 2-wk (59 studies), 3-mo (148 studies), and 15-mo (38 studies) intervals than at other intervals and more frequently from feeding and inhalation than from drinking-water studies. Liver, right kidney, lung, heart, thymus, and brain weights were most frequently collected. From the collected data, the mean and standard deviation for absolute and relative organ weights were calculated. Findings showed age-related increases in absolute weights and decreases in relative weights for brain, liver, right kidney, lung, heart, thyroid, and right testis. The results suggest a general variability trend in absolute organ weights of brain < right testis < heart < right kidney < liver < lung < thymus < thyroid.

  6. Parental perspectives regarding primary-care weight-management strategies for school-age children.

    PubMed

    Turer, Christy Boling; Mehta, Megha; Durante, Richard; Wazni, Fatima; Flores, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    To identify parental perspectives regarding weight-management strategies for school-age children, focus groups were conducted of parents of overweight and obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) 6-12-year-old children recruited from primary-care clinics. Questions focused on the role of the primary-care provider, effective components of weight-management strategies and feasibility of specific dietary strategies. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed using margin coding and grounded theory. Six focus groups were held. The mean age (in years) for parents was 32, and for children, eight; 44% of participants were Latino, 33%, African-American and 23%, white. Parents' recommendations on the primary-care provider's role in weight management included monitoring weight, providing guidance regarding health risks and lifestyle changes, consistent follow-up and using discretion during weight discussions. Weight-management components identified as key included emphasising healthy lifestyles and enjoyment, small changes to routines and parental role modelling. Parents prefer guidance regarding healthy dietary practices rather than specific weight-loss diets, but identified principles that could enhance the acceptability of these diets. For dietary guidance to be feasible, parents recommended easy-to-follow instructions and emphasising servings over counting calories. Effective weight-management strategies identified by parents include primary-care provider engagement in weight management, simple instructions regarding healthy lifestyle changes, parental involvement and deemphasising specific weight-loss diets. These findings may prove useful in developing primary-care weight-management strategies for children that maximise parental acceptance.

  7. Category fluency in a latino sample: associations with age, education, gender, and language.

    PubMed

    Mack, Wendy J; Teng, Evelyn; Zheng, Ling; Paz, Sylvia; Chui, Helena; Varma, Rohit

    2005-07-01

    The authors know of no published studies that have evaluated the effect of Spanish- versus English-language on category fluency within a sample of United States Latinos only. As part of a pilot study for the institution of a cognitive screening program in a cohort of Latinos, we assessed category fluency (fruits, vegetables, and "other" supermarket items) in a sample of 90 self-identified Latino community residents (aged 52-84, 0-18 years of education). The primary demographic correlates of category fluency were age and education. The decrement in naming of fruits with age was limited to the older old subjects (>age 70). Relatively younger old subjects (aged 61-70) did not differ from middle-aged subjects on category fluency. Gender showed little relationship to category naming. Persons naming in Spanish named significantly fewer 'other supermarket' items, but did not differ from English speakers in the more common fluency categories of fruits and vegetables. This analysis of category fluency in an ethnically homogenous sample with a wide range of formal education provided an evaluation of the effects of chosen language free of possible confounding by cultural differences, and also provided a more complete evaluation of the influence of education on category fluency.

  8. Spatial gender-age-period-cohort analysis of pancreatic cancer mortality in Spain (1990–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Etxeberria, Jaione; Goicoa, Tomás; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Riebler, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the interest in studying pancreatic cancer mortality has increased due to its high lethality. In this work a detailed analysis of pancreatic cancer mortality in Spanish provinces was performed using recent data. A set of multivariate spatial gender-age-period-cohort models was considered to look for potential candidates to analyze pancreatic cancer mortality rates. The selected model combines features of APC (age-period-cohort) models with disease mapping approaches. To ensure model identifiability sum-to-zero constraints were applied. A fully Bayesian approach based on integrated nested Laplace approximations (INLA) was considered for model fitting and inference. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted. In general, estimated average rates by age, cohort, and period are higher in males than in females. The higher differences according to age between males and females correspond to the age groups [65, 70), [70, 75), and [75, 80). Regarding the cohort, the greatest difference between men and women is observed for those born between the forties and the sixties. From there on, the younger the birth cohort is, the smaller the difference becomes. Some cohort differences are also identified by regions and age-groups. The spatial pattern indicates a North-South gradient of pancreatic cancer mortality in Spain, the provinces in the North being the ones with the highest effects on mortality during the studied period. Finally, the space-time evolution shows that the space pattern has changed little over time. PMID:28199327

  9. Health and weight - gender-specific linkages under heterogeneity, interdependence and resilience factors.

    PubMed

    Hübler, Olaf

    2017-03-11

    Many studies have shown that obesity is a serious health problem for our society. Empirical analyses often neglect a number of methodological issues and relevant influences on health. This paper investigates empirically whether neglecting these items leads to systematically different estimates. Based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, this study derives the following results. (1) Many combinations of weight and height lead to the same health status. (2) The relationship between health and body mass index is nonlinear. (3) Underweight strengthens individual health and severe obesity has a clear negative impact on health status. Underweight women are more affected than men but obese men are hit harder than women. (4) The hypothesis has to be rejected that weight has an exogenous influence on health. (5) A worse health status is linked with weight fluctuations and deviations between desired and actual working hours. (6) A healthy diet and long but not too long sleeping contribute to a good health status. Moreover, a good parental education and a high parental social status act favorably on health as does personal high income. (7) Four of the big five components of personality, namely openness, extraversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness, contribute to resilience against health problems.

  10. TTV DNA plasma load and its association with age, gender, and HCMV IgG serostatus in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Haloschan, Mats; Bettesch, Rainer; Görzer, Irene; Weseslindtner, Lukas; Kundi, Michael; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Understanding immunosenescence and changes in antimicrobial immune response with age is of high importance. The association of immunosenescence with gender and persistent infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a matter of intensive research. We determined whether replication of another persistent and highly prevalent virus, Torque teno virus (TTV), is related to age, gender, and HCMV IgG serostatus of the host. TTV DNA load in plasma was assessed by real-time PCR in 313 healthy persons: 20-30 years old (young, n = 104), 50-60 years old (middle-aged, n = 101), or >80 years old (elderly, n = 108). TTV DNA loads were further associated with age-groups, gender, and HCMV IgG serostatus. TTV load was significantly higher in the elderly compared to the young group (p < 0.001; Tukey's honest significant difference (HSD)), and the higher TTV DNA levels over age were found to be gender-specific (p = 0.002; ANOVA), with young women showing the lowest TTV load compared to young men (p = 0.009, t test) and compared to the other female age-groups (middle-aged p = 0.005; elderly p < 0.001; Tukey's HSD). TTV load of HCMV IgG-seropositive persons was significantly higher than that of the HCMV IgG seronegative in the young (p = 0.005; t test) and middle-aged (p = 0.016; t test) groups. These results indicate that the host's immune control of TTV replication decreases with age and is gender-specific. Persistent HCMV infection is significantly related to higher TTV DNA loads, especially at a younger age. Therefore, the influence of gender and HCMV on immunosenescence earlier in life should be further explored.

  11. Perceived weight discrimination in England: a population-based study of adults aged ⩾50 years

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, S E; Steptoe, A; Beeken, R J; Croker, H; Wardle, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite a wealth of experimental studies on weight bias, little is known about weight discrimination at the population level. This study examined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of perceived weight discrimination in a large population-based sample of older adults. Methods: Data were from 5307 adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; a population-based cohort of men and women aged ⩾50 years. Weight discrimination was reported for five domains (less respect/courtesy; treated as less clever; poorer treatment in medical settings; poorer service in restaurants/stores; threatened/harassed) at wave 5 (2010–2011). Height and weight were measured at wave 4 (2008–2009). We used logistic regression to test the odds of weight discrimination in relation to weight status, age, sex, wealth, education and marital status. Results: Perceived weight discrimination in any domain was reported by 4.6% of participants, ranging from 0.8% in the normal-weight participants through 0.9, 6.7, 24.2 and 35.1% in individuals who were overweight or met criteria for class I, II and III obesity. Overall, and in each situation, odds of perceived weight discrimination were higher in younger and less wealthy individuals. There was no interaction between weight status and any socio-demographic variable. Relative to normal-weight participants, odds ratios for any perceived weight discrimination were 1.13 (95% confidence interval 0.53–2.40) in those who were overweight, 8.86 (4.65–16.88) in those with class I obesity, 35.06 (18.30–67.16) in class II obese and 56.43 (27.72–114.87) in class III obese. Conclusions: Our results indicate that rates of perceived weight discrimination are comparatively low in individuals who are overweight or have class I obesity, but for those with class II/III obesity, >10% had experienced discrimination in each domain, and >20% had been treated with less respect or courtesy. These findings have implications for public

  12. A reexamination of age-related variation in body weight and morphometry of Maryland nutria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, M.H.; Mollett, T.A.; McGowan, K.R.; Daugherty, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Age-related variation in morphometry has been documented for many species. Knowledge of growth patterns can be useful for modeling energetics, detecting physiological influences on populations, and predicting age. These benefits have shown value in understanding population dynamics of invasive species, particularly in developing efficient control and eradication programs. However, development and evaluation of descriptive and predictive models is a critical initial step in this process. Accordingly, we used data from necropsies of 1,544 nutria (Myocastor coypus) collected in Maryland, USA, to evaluate the accuracy of previously published models for prediction of nutria age from body weight. Published models underestimated body weights of our animals, especially for ages <3. We used cross-validation procedures to develop and evaluate models for describing nutria growth patterns and for predicting nutria age. We derived models from a randomly selected model-building data set (n = 192-193 M, 217-222 F) and evaluated them with the remaining animals (n = 487-488 M, 642-647 F). We used nonlinear regression to develop Gompertz growth-curve models relating morphometric variables to age. Predicted values of morphometric variables fell within the 95% confidence limits of their true values for most age classes. We also developed predictive models for estimating nutria age from morphometry, using linear regression of log-transformed age on morphometric variables. The evaluation data set corresponded with 95% prediction intervals from the new models. Predictive models for body weight and length provided greater accuracy and less bias than models for foot length and axillary girth. Our growth models accurately described age-related variation in nutria morphometry, and our predictive models provided accurate estimates of ages from morphometry that will be useful for live-captured individuals. Our models offer better accuracy and precision than previously published models

  13. Adjusting Measured Weight Loss of Aged Graphite Fabric/PMR-15 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the growth of the surface damage layer in polymer matrix composites (PMC's) fabricated with graphite fabric reinforcement and to determine the effects of the cut-surface degradation on the overall thermo-oxidative (TOS) stability of these materials. Four important conclusions were made about the TOS behavior of T650-35/PNIR- 15 fabric-reinforced composites: (1) Three stages of composite weight loss were seen on the plot of weight loss versus aging time; (2) the depth of the cut-edge damage is related to the composite thickness; (3) the actual weight loss realized by a mechanical test specimen that has had all the aging-induced cut-edge damage removed during the preparation process is significantly less than the weight loss measured using specimens with a high percentage of cut edges exposed to the damaging environment; and (4) an extrapolation of a section of the weight loss curve can be used to obtain a more correct estimate of the actual weight loss after extended periods of aging at elevated temperatures.

  14. Anatomy of the larynx and pharynx: effects of age, gender and height revealed by multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Inamoto, Y; Saitoh, E; Okada, S; Kagaya, H; Shibata, S; Baba, M; Onogi, K; Hashimoto, S; Katada, K; Wattanapan, P; Palmer, J B

    2015-09-01

    Although oropharyngeal and laryngeal structures are essential for swallowing, the three-dimensional (3D) anatomy is not well understood, due in part to limitations of available measuring techniques. This study uses 3D images acquired by 320-row area detector computed tomography ('320-ADCT'), to measure the pharynx and larynx and to investigate the effects of age, gender and height. Fifty-four healthy volunteers (30 male, 24 female, 23-77 years) underwent one single-phase volume scan (0.35 s) with 320-ADCT during resting tidal breathing. Six measurements of the pharynx and two of larynx were performed. Bivariate statistical methods were used to analyse the effects of gender, age and height on these measurements. Length and volume were significantly larger for men than for women for every measurement (P < 0.05) and increased with height (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis was performed to understand the interactions of gender, height and age. Gender, height and age each had significant effects on certain values. The volume of the larynx and hypopharynx was significantly affected by height and age. The length of pharynx was associated with gender and age. Length of the vocal folds and distance from the valleculae to the vocal folds were significantly affected by gender (P < 0.05). These results suggest that age, gender and height have independent and interacting effects on the morphology of the pharynx and larynx. Three-dimensional imaging and morphometrics using 320-ADCT are powerful tools for efficiently and reliably observing and measuring the pharynx and larynx.

  15. The young hunter hypothesis: age-related weight gain--a tribute to the thrifty theories.

    PubMed

    Vardi, P; Pinhas-Hamiel, O

    2000-12-01

    A gradual and persistent physiologic increase in body weight of 3-5 kg per decade occurs between the third to the fifth decade. The thrifty genotype theory explains weight gain in large populations, the thrifty phenotype theory explains weight gain in subjects with intrauterine growth retardation. The young hunter theory explains the physiologic age-related weight gain. We believe this is nature's method of preservation by default. According to the young hunter theory, in the past food providers needed an appropriate muscular apparatus to cope with continual hunting expeditions to ensure maximal survival. At the end of the chronological 'hunting' age, there was a gradual redirection of metabolic processes toward energy conservation in anticipation of aging. According to our hypothesis, muscle loss allows for the full expression of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, which allows the fuel previously directed to the muscle to be deposited as adipose tissue. Thus, weight gain is an adaptive process engineered to compensate for adult muscle mass loss, guaranteeing survival and longevity beyond the age of hunting.

  16. Gender and age differences in mixed metal exposure and urinary excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, Marika; Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Yunus, Mohammad; Grander, Margaretha; Loennerdal, Bo; Vahter, Marie

    2011-11-15

    Background: Little is known about the variation in exposure to toxic metals by age and gender and other potential modifying factors. We evaluated age and gender differences by measurements of metal/element concentrations in urine in a rural population in Matlab, Bangladesh, in three age groups: 8-12 (N=238), 14-15 (N=107) and 30-88 (N=710) years of age, living in an area with no point sources of metal exposure but where elevated water arsenic concentrations are prevalent. Results: We found marked differences in urine concentrations of metals and trace elements by gender, age, tobacco use, socioeconomic and nutritional status. Besides a clearly elevated urinary arsenic concentration in all age groups (medians 63-85 {mu}g As/L), and despite the low degree of contamination from industries and traffic, the urine concentrations of toxic metals such as cadmium and lead were clearly elevated, especially in children (median 0.31 {mu}g Cd/L and 2.9 {mu}g Pb/L, respectively). In general, women had higher urinary concentrations of toxic metals, especially Cd (median 0.81 {mu}g/L) compared to men (0.66 {mu}g/L) and U (median 10 ng/L in women, compared to 6.4 ng/L in men), while men had higher urinary concentrations of the basic and essential elements Ca (69 mg/L in men, 30-50 years, compared to 52 mg/L in women), Mg (58 mg/L in men compared to 50 mg/L in women), Zn (182 {mu}g/L in men compared to 117 {mu}g/L in women) and Se (9.9 {mu}g/L in men compared to 8.7 {mu}g/L in women). Manganese was consistently higher in females than in males in all age groups, suggesting a biological difference between females and males in Mn metabolism. Increasing socioeconomic status decreased the toxic metal exposure significantly in children and especially in men. Poor iron status was detected in 17% of children, adolescents and women, but only in 6% of men. Also zinc deficiency was more prevalent in females than in males. Conclusions: Women and children seemed to be more at risk for toxic

  17. [Gender and age differences in the cognitive, psychophysiological, and behavioral responses of social anxiety in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Inglés, Cándido J; Piqueras, José A; García-Fernández, José M; García-López, Luis J; Delgado, Beatriz; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze gender and age differences in adolescents' social anxiety in the factor scores of the Social Phobia subscale from the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SP-SPAI): Social Interactions, Focus of Attention, Cognitive and Somatic Symptoms and Avoidance and Escape Behaviors. The sample consisted of 2,543 students of Secondary Education between 12 and 17 years. Results are shown for the general sample (N= 2,543) and for the sample of adolescents classified as high social anxiety group (n= 317). Regarding the first group, girls obtained higher total scores on the Social Phobia scale and on all factors except for Avoidance and Escape (d= .32 - .35). Concerning the high anxiety group, the analyses revealed that boys avoid and escape from social situations more frequently than girls (d= .23). No age differences were found in the factor scores for any of the two samples.

  18. Consistency of the Proteome in Primary Human Keratinocytes With Respect to Gender, Age, and Skin Localization*

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Adrian; Weber, Sebastian; Zarai, Mostafa; Engelke, Rudolf; Nascimento, Juliana M.; Gretzmeier, Christine; Hilpert, Martin; Boerries, Melanie; Has, Cristina; Busch, Hauke; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Dengjel, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    Keratinocytes account for 95% of all cells of the epidermis, the stratified squamous epithelium forming the outer layer of the skin, in which a significant number of skin diseases takes root. Immortalized keratinocyte cell lines are often used as research model systems providing standardized, reproducible, and homogenous biological material. Apart from that, primary human keratinocytes are frequently used for medical studies because the skin provides an important route for drug administration and is readily accessible for biopsies. However, comparability of these cell systems is not known. Cell lines may undergo phenotypic shifts and may differ from the in vivo situation in important aspects. Primary cells, on the other hand, may vary in biological functions depending on gender and age of the donor and localization of the biopsy specimen. Here we employed metabolic labeling in combination with quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics to assess A431 and HaCaT cell lines for their suitability as model systems. Compared with cell lines, comprehensive profiling of the primary human keratinocyte proteome with respect to gender, age, and skin localization identified an unexpected high proteomic consistency. The data were analyzed by an improved ontology enrichment analysis workflow designed for the study of global proteomics experiments. It enables a quick, comprehensive and unbiased overview of altered biological phenomena and links experimental data to literature. We guide through our workflow, point out its advantages compared with other methods and apply it to visualize differences of cell lines compared with primary human keratinocytes. PMID:23722187

  19. Gender and Age Related Effects While Watching TV Advertisements: An EEG Study.

    PubMed

    Cartocci, Giulia; Cherubino, Patrizia; Rossi, Dario; Modica, Enrica; Maglione, Anton Giulio; di Flumeri, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment 1) and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment 2 showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population.

  20. Effects of age, gender, and immunosuppressive agents on in vivo toll-like receptor pathway responses.

    PubMed

    Khan, Niamat; Summers, Colin W; Helbert, Matthew R; Arkwright, Peter D

    2010-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important in the initiation of immune responses in both health and disease. How TLR activity alters with age, gender, and also with immunosuppressive agents is still largely unexplored. We studied TLR activity in 49 healthy individuals as well as in 26 patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs. TLR activity did not alter significantly between the ages of 2 and 67 years. However, females had twice the TLR7 ligand-induced interferon-I response of males (OR [95% CI] 2.7 [1.4-5.1]), whereas TLR3 and four activities were not significantly different between the sexes. The T-cell immunosuppressant agents cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and azathioprine, as well as low dose glucocorticosteroids did not significantly alter TLR pathway responses. In contrast, high dose glucocorticosteroids reduced in vivo TLR responses by 70%-90%. We suggest that gender differences in TLR responses may help to explain the female preponderance of some autoimmune disorders. Furthermore, an understanding the effects of immunosuppressive agents on TLR-pathway activity should allow more focused therapy for autoimmune disorders.

  1. Gender and Age Related Effects While Watching TV Advertisements: An EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Cartocci, Giulia; Cherubino, Patrizia; Rossi, Dario; Modica, Enrica; Maglione, Anton Giulio; di Flumeri, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment 1) and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment 2 showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population. PMID:27313602

  2. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: A Validation Study Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools in the southeastern United States participated in the investigation. Results indicated high internal consistency for the six GRS-S scales: Intellectual Ability, Academic Ability, Creativity, Artistic Talent, Leadership, and Motivation. Results revealed no effect of race/ethnicity, age, or rater familiarity with the student. There was no significant effect for gender, although a trend was noted for girls rated slightly higher than boys across all scales. This trend was consistent with analyses of the standardization data and with cross-cultural findings using translated versions of the GRS-S. The present findings provided support for the GRS-S as a valid gifted screening instrument. PMID:26366036

  3. Effects of age and gender on finger coordination in MVC and submaximal force-matching tasks.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Minoru; Li, Sheng; Kang, Ning; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the effects of age and gender on finger coordination. Twelve young (24 +/- 8 yr; 6 men and 6 women) and 12 elderly (75 +/- 5 yr; 6 men and 6 women) subjects performed single-finger maximal contraction [maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)], four-finger MVC, and four-finger ramp force production tasks by pressing on individual force transducers. A drop in the force of individual fingers during four-finger MVC tasks compared with single-finger MVC tasks (force deficit) was larger, whereas unintended force production by other fingers during single-finger MVC tasks (enslaving) was smaller, in elderly than in young subjects and in women than in men. Force deficit was smaller and enslaving was larger in subjects with higher peak force. During the ramp task, the difference between the variance of total force and the sum of variances of individual forces showed a logarithmic relation to the level of total force, across all subject groups. These findings suggest that indexes of finger coordination scale with force-generating capabilities across gender and age groups.

  4. Energy-related parameters and their association with age, gender, and morphometric measurements in healthy donkeys.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, F J; Estepa, J C; Gonzalez-De Cara, C A; Aguilera-Aguilera, R; Toribio, R E; Perez-Ecija, A

    2015-05-01

    Donkeys are commonly afflicted by endocrine and metabolic disturbances but few studies have investigated endocrine variables involved in energy regulation and their association with morphometric indices, age or gender in this species. Hemostatic and clinical differences have been demonstrated between horses and donkeys, so to consider both species as metabolically and endocrinologically similar could lead to misdiagnosis. In this study, plasma concentrations of glucose, triglycerides and endocrine factors involved in energy homeostasis (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin and insulin-like growth factor [IGF]-1) were measured and their association with morphometric variables (body condition score, neck scoring and body mass index), gender and age was determined in 62 healthy donkeys. In addition, a neck scoring system specific for donkeys was developed. Insulin, glucagon, leptin and IGF-1 concentrations were found to be similar between donkeys and other species, but adiponectin and active ghrelin were lower in donkeys than horses. Donkeys with larger neck scores and body mass indices had higher triglyceride, leptin and IGF-1 concentrations. A sexual dimorphism was observed on all morphometric measurements and plasma glucose concentrations independent of adiposity. Younger animals had lower morphometric measurements and triglyceride and leptin concentrations.

  5. The influence of age and gender on antioxidant enzyme activities in humans and laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Giergiel, Marta; Lopucki, Maciej; Stachowicz, Norbert; Kankofer, Marta

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidative/oxidative balance is one of the important factors for homeostasis. Antioxidative systems which protect from peroxidative damage are supposed to be under the influence of steroid hormones. The implications of this influence are age and gender as well as tissue dependent alterations in antioxidative enzyme activities. Apart from hormonal influence, antioxidative enzymes require the presence of microelements in their active centers as well as concerted action of non enzymatic antioxidants which support enzymes in their scavenging action. The aim of this review is to analyze and compare existing knowledge about the changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes in human and animal females and males of different age. Evidence as regards participation of oxidative stress in senescence are specific diseases which, to some extent, are gender dependent and appear more frequently in males or females. Several experiments in laboratory animals revealed that changes in enzyme activities are reflected in histopathological pictures of cells. The alterations observed during perimenopausal period provide with additional evidence of the participation of steroid hormones in the regulation of antioxidative system activity. Moreover, estrogens themselves exhibit antioxidative activity which is receptor independent. In conclusion, apart from genetic-related influences, also diet and style of life may have an impact on the antioxidative system which requires appropriate supplementation in microelements and vitamins for its effective function of scavenging excess of free radicals.

  6. The Gender-Dependent Association between Obesity and Age-Related Cataracts in Middle-Aged Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Lee, Sae-Young; Park, Young-Hoon; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Kang-Sook; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Na, Kyung-Sun; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of central and abdominal obesity with the prevalence of cataracts in a middle-aged Korean population. This retrospective cross-sectional study was based on the data collected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2009, in which 4,914 subjects were examined. Ophthalmological examinations were performed to determine the presence of a nuclear, cortical, or posterior subcapsular cataract. Both general obesity (a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (a waist circumference ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women) were significantly associated with the occurrence of cataracts among middle-aged women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.69; and aOR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.06–1.85, respectively], while abdominal obesity was significantly inversely associated with the occurrence of cataracts among middle-aged men (aOR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58–1.01; and aOR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49–0.89, respectively). We report a difference in the association between obesity and the prevalence of cataracts based on gender. PMID:25974257

  7. Noninvasive markers of bone metabolism in the rhesus monkey: normal effects of age and gender

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, S.; Boden, S. D.; Gould, K. G.; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of bone turnover in conditions such as osteoporosis has been limited by the need for invasive iliac bone biopsy to reliably determine parameters of bone metabolism. Recent advances in the area of serum and urinary markers of bone metabolism have raised the possibility for noninvasive measurements; however, little nonhuman primate data exist for these parameters. The purpose of this experiment was to define the normal range and variability of several of the newer noninvasive bone markers which are currently under investigation in humans. The primary intent was to determine age and gender variability, as well as provide some normative data for future experiments in nonhuman primates. Twenty-four rhesus macaques were divided into equal groups of male and female according to the following age groupings: 3 years, 5-10 years, 15-20 years, and > 25 years. Urine was collected three times daily for a four-day period and measured for several markers of bone turnoverm including pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyrodinoline (DPD), hydroxyproline, and creatinine. Bone mineral density measurements of the lumbar spine were performed at the beginning and end of the study period. Serum was also obtained at the time of bone densitometry for measurement of osteocalcin levels by radioimmunoassay. There were no significant differences in bone mineral density, urine PYD, or urine DPD based on gender. Bone density was lowest in the youngest animals, peaked in the 15-20-year group, but again decreased in the oldest animals. The osteocalcin, PYD, and DPD levels followed an inversely related pattern to bone density. The most important result was the relative age insensitivity of the ratio of PYD:DPD in monkeys up to age 20 years. Since bone density changes take months or years to become measurable and iliac biopsies are invasive, the PYD/DPD marker ratio may have important implications for rapid noninvasive measurement of the effects of potential treatments for osteoporosis in the non

  8. Asymmetries of the central sulcus in young adults: Effects of gender, age and sulcal pattern.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Ge, Haitao; Tang, Yuchun; Hou, Zhongyu; Xu, Junhai; Lin, Xiangtao; Liu, Shuwei

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we clarified the gender and age-related asymmetries of the central sulcus (CS) in early adulthood using a parametric ribbon method. The CS was reconstructed and parameterized automatically from 3D MR images of 112 healthy right-handed subjects. The 3D anatomic morphology of the CS was presented using 5 sulcal parameters, including sulcal depth position-based profile (DPP), average depth (AD), average width (AW), top length (TL) and bottom length (BL). Asymmetry differences in DPPs were found in the medial and lateral part of the CS. In addition, significant gender differences were observed in the medial and middle parts of the right CS DPPs but scattered in the left side. We found leftward asymmetries of TL in males, but rightward asymmetries of AW in females. Males had a greater AW than females in the right hemisphere. Moreover, the females had bilateral longer TL and a longer left BL than did males. We also found significant age-related reductions in bilateral TL and increases in bilateral AW, with males presenting more obvious age-related change than females. There were sexual differences of the CS patterns, in which Type b was the most dominant sulcal pattern in males, whereas Type a was dominant in females. Three-way ANOVA revealed sexual and asymmetry changes of TL and BL among different CS patterns. Our findings indicate that the lateralization performances of the CS manifest as sexually and regionally different. In addition, it is suggested that males may undergo a faster progress of aging compared to females.

  9. How Family Support and Internet Self-Efficacy Influence the Effects of E-Learning among Higher Aged Adults--Analyses of Gender and Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Regina Ju-chun

    2010-01-01

    Gender and age differences in the effects of e-learning, including students' satisfaction and Internet self-efficacy, have been supported in prior research. What is less understood is how these differences are shaped, especially for higher aged adults. This article examines the utility of family support (tangible and emotional) and Internet…

  10. Everything under control? The effects of age, gender, and education on trajectories of perceived control in a nationally representative German sample.

    PubMed

    Specht, Jule; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2013-02-01

    Perceived control is an important variable for various demands involved in successful aging. However, perceived control is not set in stone but rather changes throughout the life course. The aim of this study was to identify cross-sectional age differences and longitudinal mean-level changes as well as rank-order changes in perceived control with respect to gender and education. Furthermore, changes in income and health were analyzed to explain trajectories of perceived control. In a large and representative sample of Germans across all of adulthood, 9,484 individuals gave information about their perceived control twice over a period of 6 years. Using locally weighted smoothing (LOESS) curves and latent structural equation modeling, four main findings were revealed: (a) Perceived control increased until ages 30-40, then decreased until about age 60, and increased slightly afterwards. (b) The rank order of individuals in perceived control was relatively unstable, especially in young adulthood, and reached a plateau at about age 40. (c) Men perceived that they had more control than did women, but there were no gender differences in the development of perceived control. (d) Individuals with more education perceived that they had more control than those with less education, and there were slight differences in the development of perceived control dependent on education. Taken together, these findings offer important insights into the development of perceived control across the life span.

  11. Medical officers, bodies, gender and weight fluctuation in irish convict prisons, 1877-95.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Ciara

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the function of the convict prison infirmary and views it as a site of arbitration, resistance and 'contested power'. In accordance with the rules and regulations periods of incarceration in convict prisons began and ended with an obligatory medical examination. While the primary function of the initial test was to measure the convict body in order ascertain physical ability to conduct hard labour it also provided a thorough bio-metrical description for future identification purposes. The final examination was not as comprehensively undertaken but also concerned itself with anthropometrical observations. It would be reasonable to assume that the balance of power was weighted in the authority's favour but this research has found evidence to the contrary. For instance, that there was a fair degree of physiological knowledge within the convict population and that some convicts used the infirmary for dietary gains and reprieve from hard labour. Using body mass index (BMI) as an instrument to measure physical wellbeing this article views the doctor-convict interface as a crucial component of the penal experience. It analyses 251 convict medical records to show that the balance of diet and work led to what might be considered a counterintuitive outcome - a preponderance of weight gain, particularly for males in Irish prisons.

  12. Effects of message framing on self-report and accelerometer-assessed physical activity across age and gender groups.

    PubMed

    Li, Kin-Kit; Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Fung, Helene H

    2014-02-01

    This study compared message-framing effects on physical activity (PA) across age and gender groups. Participants included 111 younger and 100 older adults (68% were women), randomly assigned to read gain-framed or loss-framed PA messages in promotion pamphlets, and who wore accelerometers for the following 14 days. Using regression analyses controlling for demographic and health factors, we found significant age-by-gender-by-framing interactions predicting self-report (B = -4.39, p = .01) and accelerometer-assessed PA (B = -2.44, p = .02) during the follow-up period. Gain-framed messages were more effective than loss-framed messages in promoting PA behaviors only among older men. We speculated that the age-related positivity effect, as well as the age and gender differences in issue involvement, explained the group differences in framing. In addition, more time availability and higher self-efficacy among older men might have contributed to the results.

  13. Influence of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds analyzed by an electronic nose

    PubMed Central

    Dragonieri, Silvano; Quaranta, Vitaliano Nicola; Carratu, Pierluigi; Ranieri, Teresa; Resta, Onofrio

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds. We evaluated 68 healthy adult never-smokers, comparing them by age and by gender. Exhaled breath samples were analyzed by an electronic nose (e-nose), resulting in "breathprints". Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis showed that older subjects (≥ 50 years of age) could not be distinguished from younger subjects on the basis of their breathprints, as well as that the breathprints of males could not distinguished from those of females (cross-validated accuracy, 60.3% and 57.4%, respectively).Therefore, age and gender do not seem to affect the overall profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds measured by an e-nose. PMID:27167436

  14. Does whom you work with matter? Effects of referent group gender and age composition on managers' compensation.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, Cheri; Atwater, Leanne E

    2003-08-01

    Much research has examined gender and age effects on compensation, concluding that a wage gap exists favoring men and negative stereotypes against older workers persist. Although the effect of an employee's gender or age has been widely studied, little work has examined the impact of the demographic characteristics of a focal employee's immediate referent groups (e.g., subordinates, peers, or supervisors) on pay. The effect of the gender and age composition of a focal manager's subordinates, peers, and supervisor on the manager's compensation levels was investigated in a sample of 2,178 managers across a wide range of organizations and functional areas. After controlling for a number of human capital variables, results indicated that not only does a wage gap favoring men exist, but also managerial pay is lower when managers' referent groups are largely female, when subordinates are outside the prime age group, and when peers and supervisors are younger.

  15. The effects of changing exercise levels on weight and age-relatedweight gain

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.; Wood, Peter D.

    2004-06-01

    To determine prospectively whether physical activity canprevent age-related weight gain and whether changing levels of activityaffect body weight. DESIGN/SUBJECTS: The study consisted of 8,080 maleand 4,871 female runners who completed two questionnaires an average(+/-standard deviation (s.d.)) of 3.20+/-2.30 and 2.59+/-2.17 yearsapart, respectively, as part of the National Runners' Health Study.RESULTS: Changes in running distance were inversely related to changes inmen's and women's body mass indices (BMIs) (slope+/-standard error(s.e.): -0.015+/-0.001 and -0.009+/-0.001 kg/m(2) per Deltakm/week,respectively), waist circumferences (-0.030+/-0.002 and -0.022+/-0.005 cmper Deltakm/week, respectively) and percent changes in body weight(-0.062+/-0.003 and -0.041+/-0.003 percent per Deltakm/week,respectively, all P<0.0001). The regression slopes were significantlysteeper (more negative) in men than women for DeltaBMI and Deltapercentbody weight (P<0.0001). A longer history of running diminishedthe impact of changing running distance on men's weights. When adjustedfor Deltakm/week, years of aging in men and years of aging in women wereassociated with increases of 0.066+/-0.005 and 0.056+/-0.006 kg/m(2) inBMI, respectively, increases of 0.294+/-0.019 and 0.279+/-0.028 percentin Delta percentbody weight, respectively, and increases of 0.203+/-0.016and 0.271+/-0.033 cm in waist circumference, respectively (allP<0.0001). These regression slopes suggest that vigorous exercise mayneed to increase 4.4 km/week annually in men and 6.2 km/week annually inwomen to compensate for the expected gain in weight associated with aging(2.7 and 3.9 km/week annually when correct for the attenuation due tomeasurement error). CONCLUSIONS: Age-related weight gain occurs evenamong the most active individuals when exercise is constant.Theoretically, vigorous exercise must increase significantly with age tocompensate for the expected gain in weight associated withaging.

  16. Normative Data on Nasalance Scores for Swedish as Measured on the Nasometer: Influence of Dialect, Gender, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnegard, Karin; van Doorn, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish normative nasalance values for Swedish speaking children as measured with the Nasometer[TM] II, and to investigate differences due to regional dialect, gender, and age. Two hundred and twenty healthy children aged 4-5, 6-7, and 9-11 years were included. Group mean nasalance scores for four speech stimuli were…

  17. The Role of Adolescents' Morality and Identity in Volunteering. Age and Gender Differences in a Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Goethem, Anne A. J.; van Hoof, Anne; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Boom, Jan; de Castro, Bram Orobio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explain adolescents' volunteering in terms of their morality and identity and to examine the moderation effect of gender and age in this process. Data were collected among 698 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 20 (M = 15.19; SD = 1.43). Adolescents' moral reasoning was positively associated with understanding moral issues…

  18. Jump into the Void? Factors Related to a Preferred Retirement Age: Gender, Social Interests, and Leisure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaisen, Magnhild; Thorsen, Kirsten; Eriksen, Sissel H.

    2012-01-01

    Using the frameworks of the life course perspective and continuity theory, this study focuses on the association among working people between gender and specific leisure activities, social interests and individuals' preferred retirement age. The study is based on the first wave of the Norwegian Life Course, Aging and Generation (NorLAG) study,…

  19. Bullying in German Primary Schools: Gender Differences, Age Trends and Influence of Parents' Migration and Educational Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Marees, Nandoli; Petermann, Franz

    2010-01-01

    The study discussed herein assessed the prevalence of bullying and analysed possible predictors for bullying in a sample of urban primary school-age children. Factors considered were students' gender and age differences as well as parents' educational level and migration backgrounds. Using a cross-informant approach (self- and teacher-reports),…

  20. The Interaction Effect of Gender and Socioeconomic Status on Development of Preschool-Aged Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and describe the effect of gender and socioeconomic status (SES) on preschool-aged children's overall development. Two hundred fifty-five preschoolers (125 boys and 130 girls), with a mean age of 56 plus or minus 9 months, were randomly selected from day care centers and kindergartens of different areas of…

  1. Gender and Age Effects Interact in Preschoolers' Help-Seeking: Evidence for Differential Responses to Changes in Task Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Cothran, Thomas; McCall, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study explored preschool age and gender differences in help-seeking within the theoretical framework of scaffolded problem-solving and self-regulation (Bruner, 1986; Rogoff, 1990; Vygotsky, 1978; 1986). Within-subject analyses tracked changes in help-seeking among 62 preschoolers (34 boys, 28 girls, mean age 4.22 years) solving a challenging…

  2. The Influence of Moral Disengagement, Morally Based Self-Esteem, Age, and Gender on Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Claire; Witenberg, Rivka T.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated moral disengagement, morally based self-esteem, age, and gender as predictors of traditional bullying and cyberbullying. The participants were 210 Australian school students aged 12 to 15, evenly split between males and females. Salient predictors of traditional bullying were overall moral disengagement, and the…

  3. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751

  4. Effects of age on recovery of body weight following REM sleep deprivation of rats.

    PubMed

    Koban, Michael; Stewart, Craig V

    2006-01-30

    Chronically enforced rapid eye (paradoxical) movement sleep deprivation (REM-SD) of rats leads to a host of pathologies, of which hyperphagia and loss of body weight are among the most readily observed. In recent years, the etiology of many REM-SD-associated pathologies have been elucidated, but one unexplored area is whether age affects outcomes. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats at 2, 6, and 12 months of age were REM sleep-deprived with the platform (flowerpot) method for 10-12 days. Two-month-old rats resided on 7-cm platforms, while 10-cm platforms were used for 6- and 12-month-old rats; rats on 15-cm platforms served as tank controls (TCs). Daily changes in food consumption (g/kg(0.67)) and body weight (g) during baseline, REM-SD or TCs, and post-experiment recovery in home cages were determined. Compared to TCs, REM-SD resulted in higher food intake and decreases in body weight. When returned to home cages, food intake rapidly declined to baseline levels. Of primary interest was that rates of body weight gain during recovery differed between the age groups. Two-month-old rats rapidly restored body weight to pre-REM-SD mass within 5 days; 6-month-old rats were extrapolated by linear regression to have taken about 10 days, and for 12-month-old rats, the estimate was about 35 days. The observation that restoration of body weight following its loss during REM-SD may be age-dependent is in general agreement with the literature on aging effects on how mammals respond to stress.

  5. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  6. Associations of Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticide Metabolites with Gestational Age and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Stephen A.; Braun, Joe M.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Calafat, Antonia M.; Khoury, Jane; Montesano, M. Angela; Yolton, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate (OP) insecticides, a widely used class of pesticides, may be associated with decreased gestational age and lower birth weight. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in paroxanase (PON1) enzyme genotypes may modify the relationships between OP exposure and perinatal outcomes. Objective: We examined the relationship of prenatal OP insecticide exposure, measured using urinary dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolite concentrations, with gestational age and birth weight. Methods: We measured the concentrations of six nonspecific DAP metabolites of OP insecticides in two maternal spot urine samples collected in a prospective birth cohort. We performed multivariable regression to examine associations between the sum of six DAP concentrations (ΣDAP) with gestational age and birth weight. We also examined whether these associations differed according to infant PON1192 and PON1–108 genotypes. Results: Among 306 mother–infant dyads, a 10-fold increase in ΣDAP concentrations was associated with a decrease in covariate-adjusted gestational age [–0.5 weeks; 95% confidence interval (CI): –0.8, –0.1] and birth weight (–151 g; CI: –287, –16); the decrements in birth weight were attenuated after adjusting for gestational age. The relationship between ΣDAP concentrations and gestational age was stronger for white (–0.7 weeks; CI: –1.1, –0.3) than for black (–0.1 weeks; 95% CI: –0.9, 0.6) newborns. In contrast, there was a greater decrease in birth weight with increasing urinary ΣDAP concentrations for black (–188 g; CI: –395, 19) than for white (–118 g; CI: –296, 60) newborns. Decrements in birth weight and gestational age associated with ΣDAP concentrations were greatest among infants with PON1192QR and PON–108CT genotypes. Conclusions: Prenatal urinary ΣDAP concentrations were associated with shortened gestation and reduced birth weight in this cohort, but the effects differed by race/ethnicity and PON

  7. Associations of gender and age groups on the knowledge and use of drug information resources by American pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Manuel J.; Clauson, Kevin A.; Gershman, Jennifer; Polen, Hyla H.

    Objective To explore knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists and identify patterns influenced by gender and age-group classification. Methods A survey questionnaire was mailed nationwide to 1,000 practitioners working in community (n = 500) and hospital (n = 500) settings who answer drug information questions as part of their expected job responsibilities. Responses pertaining to drug information resource use and knowledge of different types of drug-related queries, resource media preferences, and perceived adequacy of resources maintained in the pharmacy were analyzed by gender and age group. The t statistic was used to test for significant differences of means and percentages between genders and between age groups. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize other findings. Results Gender and age group classification influenced patterns of knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists. They also affected pharmacists’ perceptions of the most common types of questions prompting them to consult a drug information reference, as well as the resources consulted. Micromedex, exclusively available in electronic format, was the most commonly consulted resource overall by pharmacists. Lexi-Comp Online was the leading choice by women, preferred over Micromedex, but was not one of the top two resources selected by men. Conclusions This study successfully identified the influence of gender and age-group classification in assessing drug information resource knowledge and use of general and specific types of drug-related queries. PMID:24155853

  8. Height, weight and menarcheal age of Oslo schoolchildren during the last 60 years.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G H; Liestøl, K; Walløe, L

    1980-01-01

    Every 5th year since 1920 the heights and weights of all Oslo schoolchildren (aged 7 to 18 years) have been measured, and the measurements processed centrally. For ages between 8 and 14 the mean height increased by about 4 cm per decade between 1920 and 1940 for both sexes. A drop of about 1.5 cm occurred during World War II, followed by a rapid catch-up. Since 1950, height has increased only moderately. A weight increase of between 1.5 kg (8 years old) and 3.5 kg (13 years old) per decade before 1940 was followed by a drop during the war equivalent to somewhat less than one decade's gain. A rapid catch-up after the war was followed by a slight decrease since 1950, especially for ages above puberty. A stable difference in the social composition of the eastern and western districts of Oslo allowed comparison of the trends for lower and higher social strata. Before the war, children from higher strata were taller than children from lower strata, but this difference has now practically disappeared. Children from the higher strata weighed more until about 1955, but later those from the lower strata weighed markedly more, especially during adolescence. The difference in menarcheal age between social strata was examined in 1928, 1952, 1970 and 1975. The time trend parallels that for weight: menarcheal age was lowest among higher strata until the 1950s, but after that the lower strata experienced the lowest menarcheal age.

  9. The suppression of appetite and food consumption by methylphenidate: the moderating effects of gender and weight status in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Davis, Caroline; Fattore, Liana; Kaplan, Allan S; Carter, Jacqueline C; Levitan, Robert D; Kennedy, James L

    2012-03-01

    Females typically show greater behavioural responses to stimulant drugs than males, including loss of appetite; as seen, for example, in those who use methylphenidate (MP) therapeutically for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This is a relevant issue because of the strong link between ADHD and obesity. In a sample (n=132) of normal-weight (BMI <25) and obese (BMI >30) men and women we assessed appetite, cravings, and snack-food intake in response to MP (0.5 mg/kg) and placebo. Results indicated a significant three-way interaction for the three dependent variables--food-related responding diminishing in all groups from placebo to MP, except in obese males who showed no decreases to the MP challenge. These data show for the first time the existence of gender differences in the appetite response to MP, and are relevant for finding a dopamine pathway to new weight-loss medications, which would be utilized differently in males than in females.

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk Factors and Autistic Traits in Gender Dysphoric Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanderLaan, Doug P.; Leef, Jonathan H.; Wood, Hayley; Hughes, S. Kathleen; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated. In 49 GD children (40 natal males), we examined ASD risk factors (i.e., birth weight, parental age, sibling sex ratio) in relation to autistic traits. Data were gathered on autistic traits, birth weight, parents' ages at birth, sibling sex ratio, gender nonconformity, age,…

  11. Selective deficit in spatial location memory in extremely low birth weight children at age six: the PETIT study.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ida Sue; Brandt, Jason; Ahronovich, Margot D; Baker, Robin; Erickson, Kristine; Litman, Fern R

    2012-01-01

    Spatial location memory has rarely been assessed in young children due to a scarcity of developmentally appropriate tests. This study sought to compare nonverbal learning and recall in children born extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) and less than 33 gestational weeks (GW) with term-born children at early school age using a recently developed and adapted test. We administered a modification of the Hopkins Board to 210 children at age six; 84 born ELBW (35 born < 26 GW; 49 born 26-33 GW) and 126 term-born. Six measures were obtained: naming, trials-to-criterion, errors-to-criterion, delayed item recall, delayed location recall, and percent retention. After age correction, ELBW children had worse general cognition, item naming, delayed item recall, delayed location recall, and percent retention than term-born children. Delayed item recall and percent retention performances of ELBW children remained worse after correction for general cognition. ELBW groups (< 26 GW and 26-33 GW) groups performed worse than term-born children in naming and delayed item recall with chronological age as covariate. Those born before 26 GW, but not 26-33 GW, performed worse than term-born children in delayed location recall and percent retention. Differences remained significant after controlling for gender, maternal education, and delivery type. All three groups' performance declined from final learning trial to delayed location recall, with a decline greater for less than 26 GW than term-born children. Extreme prematurity (< 26 GW) and ELBW are significant risk factors for spatial location memory deficit. The modified Hopkins Board discriminated high-risk preterm and term-born children at early school age and appears to be a useful test to measure this rarely studied cognitive capacity.

  12. Effects of age, available response time and gender on ability to stop suddenly when walking.

    PubMed

    Cao; A Ashton-Miller J; Schultz; Alexander

    1998-10-01

    Background: Injuries may occur during walking when a sudden stop to avoid a gait path obstacle is called for unexpectedly, but cannot be completed in the time available. Little is known about abilities, particularly those of older adults, to stop suddenly. Methods: Twenty young (mean age 23.4 years) and 20 older (72.6 years) healthy and physically active adults with equal numbers of females and males in each age group were studied. While walking straight ahead at approximately 1.3 m/s, they were cued by a light at one of five possible locations to stop as quickly as possible. Subjects were given available response times (ART), the times between the visual cue to stop and potential passage through a virtual wall that was outlined by the array of lights used to cue the subjects, ranging from 375 to 825 ms in 75-ms increments. The rate of success (RS) in completing the stops as prescribed was determined and the effects on RS of age, available response time and gender were examined. Regression analyses were used to interpolate the RS data. Results: At all ART, older female (OF) subjects had a significantly lower rate of success (RS) than either older male (OM) or young adult (YA) subjects. At an ART of 525 ms, for example, RS was 58% for YA and 51% for OM, but only 23% for OF. The regression analyses suggested that OM in the mean would have needed 10 ms longer and OF 70 ms longer than YA to achieve a 50% RS. No significant gender difference in RS were found among YA. Conclusions: The healthy and physically active older female subjects in this study needed longer available response times, and thus longer available stopping distances, than did the young adults or the older males to succeed as well in stopping suddenly while walking at their comfortable gait speed. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance.

    PubMed

    Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; Borleffs, Jan C C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-05-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands. All applicants for the academic year 2015-2016 were included and had to choose between learning communities Global Health (n = 126), Sustainable Care (n = 149), Intramural Care (n = 225), or Molecular Medicine (n = 116). This choice was used as a proxy for vocational interest. In addition, all graduate-entry applicants for academic year 2015-2016 (n = 213) were included to examine the effect of previous academic experience on performance. We used MANCOVA analyses with Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparisons tests for applicant performance on a six-scenario SJT. The MANCOVA analyses showed that for all scenarios, the independent variables were significantly related to performance (Pillai's Trace: 0.02-0.47, p < .01). Vocational interest was related to performance on three scenarios (p < .01). Graduate-entry applicants outperformed all other groups on three scenarios (p < .01) and at least one other group on the other three scenarios (p < .01). Female applicants outperformed male applicants on three scenarios (p < .01) and age was positively related to performance on two scenarios (p < .05). A good fit between applicants' vocational interests and SJT scenario was related to better performance, as was previous academic experience. Gender and age were related to performance on SJT scenarios in different settings. Especially the first effect might be helpful in selecting appropriate candidates for areas of health care in which more professionals are needed.

  14. Left/right neck rotation judgments are affected by age, gender, handedness and image rotation.

    PubMed

    Wallwork, Sarah B; Butler, David S; Fulton, Ian; Stewart, Halton; Darmawan, Igusti; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2013-06-01

    Understanding motor imagery of the hands and feet has led to promising new treatments for neurological and chronic pain disorders. We aimed to extend this line of research to the neck with a view to developing the definitive platform study upon which clinical and experimental studies can be based. In a cross-sectional experiment with a convenience sample, volunteers were shown 40 photographs of a model with their head turned to the left or right. Images were presented in random order and orientation. Participants judged the direction of neck rotation. They also completed a left/right hand judgment task. 1361 pain-free participants volunteered. Mean ± standard deviation response time (RT) for making left/right judgments of neck rotation was 1.621 ± 0.501 s. Median accuracy was 92.5%. RT was related to age, gender, and handedness (p < 0.001). That is, RT increased with age, was greater in females than in males and was greater in left-handers than in right-handers. Accuracy reduced with age (p < 0.001), but was unaffected by gender or handedness. Judgments were more accurate when images showed a neck rotated to the right than when they showed a neck rotated to the left (p < 0.001). The magnitude of image rotation affected both response time and accuracy (p < 0.001). In general, the performance parameters established for left/right limb judgments also apply for left/right neck rotation judgments. The current work establishes the definitive normative values against which clinical and experimental groups can be compared and reveals unpredicted effects of the direction neck rotation and the orientation of the image.

  15. Gender and education impact on brain aging: a general cognitive factor approach.

    PubMed

    Proust-Lima, Cécile; Amieva, Hélène; Letenneur, Luc; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2008-09-01

    In cognitive aging research, the study of a general cognitive factor has been shown to have a substantial explanatory power over the study of isolated tests. The authors aimed at differentiating the impact of gender and education on global cognitive change with age from their differential impact on 4 psychometric tests using a new latent process approach, which intermediates between a single-factor longitudinal model for sum scores and an item-response theory approach for longitudinal data. The analysis was conducted on a sample of 2,228 subjects from PAQUID, a population-based cohort of older adults followed for 13 years with repeated measures of cognition. Adjusted for vascular factors, the analysis confirmed that women performed better in tests involving verbal components, while men performed better in tests involving visuospatial skills. In addition, the model suggested that women had a slightly steeper global cognitive decline with oldest age than men, even after excluding incident dementia or death. Subjects with higher education exhibited a better mean score for the 4 tests, but this difference tended to attenuate with age for tests involving a speed component.

  16. Variation of Biophysical Parameters of the Skin with Age, Gender, and Body Region

    PubMed Central

    Firooz, Alireza; Sadr, Bardia; Babakoohi, Shahab; Sarraf-Yazdy, Maryam; Fanian, Ferial; Kazerouni-Timsar, Ali; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Dowlati, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    Background. Understanding the physiological, chemical, and biophysical characteristics of the skin helps us to arrange a proper approach to the management of skin diseases. Objective. The aim of this study was to measure 6 biophysical characteristics of normal skin (sebum content, hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity) in a normal population and assess the effect of sex, age, and body location on them. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers in 5 age groups (5 males and females in each) were enrolled in this study. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor (Courage & Khazaka electronic GmbH, Germany) was used to measure skin sebum content, hydration, TEWL, erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity in 8 different locations of the body. Results. There were significant differences between the hydration, melanin index, and elasticity of different age groups. Regarding the locations, forehead had the highest melanin index, where as palm had the lowest value. The mean values of erythema index and melanin index and TEWL were significantly higher in males and anatomic location was a significant independent factor for all of 6 measured parameters. Conclusion. Several biophysical properties of the skin vary among different gender, age groups, and body locations. PMID:22536139

  17. Predicting body fat percentage based on gender, age and BMI by using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Kupusinac, Aleksandar; Stokić, Edita; Doroslovački, Rade

    2014-02-01

    In the human body, the relation between fat and fat-free mass (muscles, bones etc.) is necessary for the diagnosis of obesity and prediction of its comorbidities. Numerous formulas, such as Deurenberg et al., Gallagher et al., Jackson and Pollock, Jackson et al. etc., are available to predict body fat percentage (BF%) from gender (GEN), age (AGE) and body mass index (BMI). These formulas are all fairly similar and widely applicable, since they provide an easy, low-cost and non-invasive prediction of BF%. This paper presents a program solution for predicting BF% based on artificial neural network (ANN). ANN training, validation and testing are done by randomly divided dataset that includes 2755 subjects: 1332 women (GEN = 0) and 1423 men (GEN = 1), with AGE from 18 to 88 y and BMI from 16.60 to 64.60 kg/m(2). BF% was estimated by using Tanita bioelectrical impedance measurements (Tanita Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). ANN inputs are: GEN, AGE and BMI, and output is BF%. The predictive accuracy of our solution is 80.43%. The main goal of this paper is to promote a new approach to predicting BF% that has same complexity and costs but higher predictive accuracy than above-mentioned formulas.

  18. Breed, slaughter weight and ageing time effects on physico-chemical characteristics of lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cerezo, S; Sañudo, C; Panea, B; Medel, I; Delfa, R; Sierra, I; Beltrán, J A; Cepero, R; Olleta, J L

    2005-02-01

    The effects of breed, slaughter weight and ageing time on the meat quality of the three most important Spanish breeds were considered. Two hundred and twenty-five lambs of Rasa Aragonesa-local meat breed-, Churra-local dairy breed- and Spanish Merino were used. Animals (75 of each breed) were slaughtered at three different live weights (10-12, 20-22 or 30-32 kg), and the meat was aged for 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 days. The meat pH, colour, amount of haem pigments, intramuscular fat, moisture, hydroxyproline content and sarcomere length were measured at 24 h post-mortem. Meat texture was measured by compression after each ageing time. The pH of the samples ranged from 5.50 to 5.58. Meat colour varied with breed and slaughter weight (P⩽0.01), the M. longissimus thoracis was lighter in the youngest animals and in the Churra breed and redder in Merinos. Intramuscular fat increased and moisture decreased for heavier lambs. Differences in collagen were associated with breed (P⩽0.01); total and insoluble collagen contents were higher in the Churra breed. Sarcomere length was only slightly affected by slaughter weight. Meat from the Churra breed had the highest values at high levels of compression. Suckling lambs (10-12 kg) had greater myofibrillar toughness than heavier lambs and ageing strongly influenced myofibrillar tenderness.

  19. Breed, slaughter weight and ageing time effects on sensory characteristics of lamb.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cerezo, S; Sañudo, C; Medel, I; Olleta, J L

    2005-03-01

    The longissimus lumborum (right and left) from 180 entire male lambs were tasted by a nine-member trained taste panel. The samples were from lambs from three Spanish breeds; Rasa Aragonesa (local meat breed), Churra (local dairy breed) and Spanish Merino. Within breed, three slaughter live weights were considered (10-12, 20-22 or 30-32 kg) and meat was aged in a vacuum package for 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 days. Panellists assessed a total of eight descriptors. Lamb odour and lamb flavour intensities increased with slaughter weight. However, fat flavour intensity was significantly influenced by breed, with the highest score for Rasa Aragonesa. Off-flavour intensity was influenced by breed and ageing, with higher scores for Rasa Aragonesa and longer ageing times. Tenderness and juiciness were influenced by all three effects (P⩽0.001, each) and there was a significant interaction between breed and slaughter live weight. Meat was juicier and more tender in the lightest Churra lambs, and in the Spanish Merino lambs for the heavier weight animals. Tenderness and juiciness increased with ageing. The best quality flavour was for the Spanish Merino and the intermediate and heavier lambs.

  20. Gender and iron genes may modify associations between brain iron and memory in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Bartzokis, George; Lu, Po H; Tingus, Kathleen; Peters, Douglas G; Amar, Chetan P; Tishler, Todd A; Finn, J Paul; Villablanca, Pablo; Altshuler, Lori L; Mintz, Jim; Neely, Elizabeth; Connor, James R

    2011-06-01

    Brain iron increases with age and is abnormally elevated early in the disease process in several neurodegenerative disorders that impact memory including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Higher brain iron levels are associated with male gender and presence of highly prevalent allelic variants in genes encoding for iron metabolism proteins (hemochromatosis H63D (HFE H63D) and transferrin C2 (TfC2)). In this study, we examined whether in healthy older individuals memory performance is associated with increased brain iron, and whether gender and gene variant carrier (IRON+) vs noncarrier (IRON-) status (for HFE H63D/TfC2) modify the associations. Tissue iron deposited in ferritin molecules can be measured in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging utilizing the field-dependent relaxation rate increase (FDRI) method. FDRI was assessed in hippocampus, basal ganglia, and white matter, and IRON+ vs IRON- status was determined in a cohort of 63 healthy older individuals. Three cognitive domains were assessed: verbal memory (delayed recall), working memory/attention, and processing speed. Independent of gene status, worse verbal-memory performance was associated with higher hippocampal iron in men (r=-0.50, p=0.003) but not in women. Independent of gender, worse verbal working memory performance was associated with higher basal ganglia iron in IRON- group (r=-0.49, p=0.005) but not in the IRON+ group. Between-group interactions (p=0.006) were noted for both of these associations. No significant associations with white matter or processing speed were observed. The results suggest that in specific subgroups of healthy older individuals, higher accumulations of iron in vulnerable gray matter regions may adversely impact memory functions and could represent a risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline. Combining genetic and MRI biomarkers may provide opportunities to design primary prevention clinical trials that target high-risk groups.

  1. Weather and age-gender effects on the projection of future emergency ambulance demand in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lai, Poh-Chin; Wong, Ho-Ting

    2015-03-01

    An accurate projection for ambulance demand is essential to enable better resource planning for the future that strives to either maintain current levels of services or reconsider future standards and expectations. More than 2 million cases of emergency room attendance in 2008 were obtained from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority to project the demand for its ambulance services in 2036. The projection of ambulance demand in 2036 was computed in consideration of changes in the age-gender structure between 2008 and 2036. The quadratic relation between average daily temperature and daily ambulance demand in 2036 was further explored by including and excluding age-gender demographic changes. Without accounting for changes in the age-gender structure, the 2036 ambulance demand for age groups of 65 and above were consistently underestimated (by 38%-65%), whereas those of younger age groups were overestimated (by 6%-37%). Moreover, changes in the 2008 to 2036 age-gender structure also shift upward and emphasize relationships between average daily temperature and daily ambulance demand at both ends of the quadratic U-shaped curve. Our study reveals a potential societal implication of ageing population on the demand for ambulance services.

  2. Clinical and surgical implications regarding morphometric variations of the medial wall of the orbit in relation to age and gender.

    PubMed

    Morales-Avalos, Rodolfo; Santos-Martínez, Arlette Gabriela; Ávalos-Fernández, Cesia Gisela; Mohamed-Noriega, Karim; Sánchez-Mejorada, Gabriela; Montemayor-Alatorre, Adolfo; Martínez-Fernández, David A; Espinosa-Uribe, Abraham G; Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran; Cuervo-Lozano, Edgar E; Mohamed-Hamsho, Jesús; Quiroga-García, Oscar; Lugo-Guillen, Roberto A; Guzmán-López, Santos; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo E

    2016-09-01

    The ethmoidal foramens are located on the medial wall of the orbit and are key reference points for intraoperative orientation. Detailed knowledge of the anatomy, bony landmarks and morphometric characteristics of the medial wall of the orbit is essential for various surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric variations in the medial wall of the orbit and establish significant variations regarding age and gender. A total of 110 orbits were analyzed and subdivided by age (over or under 40 years) and gender. The distances of the medial wall of the orbit between the anterior lacrimal crest, the ethmoidal foramen, the optic canal and the interforamina were determined. Safe surgical areas were sought. Statistical tests were used to determine the differences between groups. In men, there is a safe surgical area proximal to the anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramen. In women, this area is in the posterior third of the medial wall of the orbit between the posterior ethmoidal foramen and the optic canal. Regarding variation according to age, the results of this study suggested that the anteroposterior diameter of the medial wall increases with age. This study showed that the anteroposterior total length of the medial orbit wall is similar between genders of similar age, increases with age, and has significant variations in the distances between the various structures that make up the medial orbit wall with regard to gender and age.

  3. Effect of age, gender and exercise on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone circadian rhythm profile in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Al-Turk, Walid; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S

    2016-02-01

    There has been a lot of effort by scientists to elucidate the multi functions of the naturally occurring hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). However, to plan research experiments optimally, it is important first to characterize the diurnal rhythm in healthy individuals. The aim of this research was to investigate the daily circadian rhythms of DHEA among the 2 genders, and the effect of age and exercise on salivary DHEA circadian rhythms. Volunteers (20-39 and 40-60 years) were recruited for 2 studies investigating the salivary DHEA circadian rhythm. The first study looked at the effect of gender and age on DHEA levels on 2 non-consecutive days, and the second study explored the effect of exercise on DHEA circadian rhythm in males. DHEA levels were estimated by a sensitive and specific ELISA method. The results showed a clear daily circadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants groups, however the profile was flatter in the older female group. There was a significant difference between age and gender groups particularly at 8.00 h. In young males DHEA reduced from 541.1 ± 101.3 (mean ± sd) at 8.00 h to 198.9 ± 90.7 pg/mL at 18.00 h; p<0.0001, and young females from 401.6 ± 149.5 to 215.4 ± 95.3 pg/mL; p<0.001. In older males DHEA reduced from 267.5 ± 32.4 to 132.5 ± 46.7 pg/mL; p<0.001, and older females from 147.7 ± 78.1 to 89.5 ± 29.1 pg/mL; p=0.05. DHEA levels on 2 non-consecutive days showed some variations but this was not significant. Aerobic exercise has significantly increased DHEA levels at 2 time points of the day (p=0.05) in male subjects. In conclusion, our study showed a clear daily circadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants was observed, but the profile was flatter in the older groups.

  4. Intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and its association with postconceptional age

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmeyer, Rodrigo L.; Farias, Lucas; Mendonça, Taís; Filho, João Borges Fortes; Procianoy, Renato S.; Silveira, Rita C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and correlate it with postconceptional age. METHODS: The intraocular pressure in a prospective cohort of very low birth weight premature infants (defined as a birth weight ≤1,500 g and gestational age ≤32 weeks) admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil was evaluated weekly. The evaluated outcome was the variation in the intraocular pressure following changes in the postconceptional age (defined as the gestational age at birth plus the age in weeks at the time of examination) in the weeks following preterm birth. Mixed-effects models were used for the statistical analysis to determine the intraocular pressure variation according to postconceptional age, and means and 10th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the intraocular pressure values. RESULTS: Fifty preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 29.7±1.6 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1,127.7±222.7 g were evaluated. The mean intraocular pressure for the entire cohort considering both eyes was 14.9±4.5 mmHg, and 13.5% of all recorded intraocular pressure values were greater than 20 mmHg. The analysis revealed a mean reduction in the intraocular pressure of 0.29 mmHg for each increase in postconceptional age (p = 0.047; 95% CI: −0.58 to −0.0035). The mean intraocular pressure (P10–P90) decreased from 16.3 mmHg (10.52–22.16) at 26.3 weeks to 13.1 mmHg (7.28–18.92) at 37.6 weeks of postconceptional age. CONCLUSIONS: The mean intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants was 14.9±4.5 mmHg. This value decreased 0.29 mmHg per week as the postconceptional age increased. PMID:23184197

  5. Age and gender differential relationship between employment status and body mass index among middle-aged and elderly adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the influence of age and gender, respectively, on the association between employment status and body mass index (BMI) in Korean adults using a large, nationally representative sample. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting South Korea. Participants 7228 from fourth wave of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA), the survey's short form and year: ‘KLoSA 2012’. Main outcome measures BMI. Results BMI among the employed was higher than among the unemployed for those under 60. In terms of gender, employed men reported higher BMI than their unemployed counterparts, whereas employed women reported lower BMI than did unemployed women. Conclusions Employment status showed varying impacts on obesity by age and gender. Both unemployment at or after 60, as well as unemployment among women, is associated with increased BMI compared with unemployment among younger individuals or men, respectively. PMID:27852710

  6. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation Between Age Cohort and Three-Dimensional Wisdom in Iranian Culture.

    PubMed

    Cheraghi, Fereshte; Kadivar, Parvin; Ardelt, Monika; Asgari, Ali; Farzad, Valiollah

    2015-07-01

    This study examined whether gender moderated the association between age cohort and the cognitive, reflective, and compassionate dimensions of wisdom, using an Iranian sample of 439 adults from three age cohorts: young (18-34), middle-aged (35-54), and older (55 and above). Results indicated that the interaction effect between gender and age cohort was significant for three-dimensional wisdom and all three wisdom dimensions. Compared with younger women and older men, older women tended to have less education and to score lower on the cognitive wisdom dimension, but they had similar average scores as older men on the compassionate wisdom dimension. Overall, the association between age and wisdom was only positive for men, due mainly to the positive relation between age and the reflective and compassionate wisdom dimensions for men after adjusting for education. The results are interpreted with reference to generation gaps, socialization of men versus women, and life experiences and opportunities.

  7. Gender differences and the will-to-live in old age.

    PubMed

    Carmel, Sara

    2012-01-01

    International statistical data show that compared to men, women are underprivileged in personal resources, such as education and income, physical health and function, and in psychological characteristics, all of which are expressed in lower levels of subjective wellbeing (SWB). Literature shows that SWB is evaluated by numerous scales, which refer to various aspects of SWB. The purpose of this paper is threefold: a) to demonstrate the worldwide phenomenon of gender difference; b) to present a relatively new and unique indicator of wellbeing that is especially appropriate for older adults--the Will-to-Live (WTL), and a scale to evaluate it; c) to examine whether in old age, women differ from men in the strength of their wish to continue living. Results of a series of studies on older persons using the WTL scale indicate that the WTL is a multifaceted generalized indicator of wellbeing that systematically depicts the existing gender differences, indicating that women rank lower on SWB, and have a lower commitment to life than men. The WTL also predicts mortality among women, and is explained by different factors among men and women. As a measure, the WTL is a simple, parsimonious, easy to use tool, and well accepted by older people. Due to its diagnostic and prognostic values, as well as its good psychometric features, the WTL is recommended for practical use in monitoring changes in wellbeing, and evaluating effectiveness of intervention programs directed towards improving the wellbeing of older adults.

  8. Molecular seasonal, age and gender distributions of Cryptosporidium in diarrhoeic Egyptians: distinct endemicity.

    PubMed

    El-Badry, A A; Al-Antably, A S A; Hassan, M A; Hanafy, N A; Abu-Sarea, E Y

    2015-12-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a worldwide gastrointestinal disease caused by the protozoan Cryptosporidium parasite. It has a broad range of seasonal and age-related prevalence. We aimed to study the molecular prevalence and seasonality of Cryptosporidium over a period of 1 year in a cohort of Egyptian diarrhoeic patients. Stool samples were collected from 865 diarrhoeic patients attending outpatient clinics of Cairo University hospitals, from all age groups over a 12-month period, examined microscopically for faecal Cryptosporidium oocysts by the acid-fast staining method and for copro-DNA detection using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assays. PCR-positive samples were characterised molecularly by nPCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine Cryptosporidium genotypes. Cryptosporidium copro-DNA was detected in 19.5% of the collected samples throughout the year, with a major peak in summer (August) and a small rise in spring (April). Infection was mainly C. hominis (95.8%) followed by C. parvum (3.0%), affecting all age groups, with predominance in the pre-school age group, and decrease with age. There were statistically significant associations between the detection of Cryptosporidium and season, diarrhoea, patient age and drinking water, while gender, contact with animals and presence of mucus in stool showed no association. Cryptosporidium in diarrhoeic Egyptians was of distinct endemicity, with the bi-model mostly influenced by population dynamics, with a clear high prevalence in pre-school children and predominating anthroponotic (C. hominis) transmission throughout the year. The obtained results highlight Cryptosporidium as a water contaminant and an important cause of health problems in Egypt, necessitating further studies of the risk factors.

  9. Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children's ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6-16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modeled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children's ability to recognize facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6-16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers.

  10. Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children’s ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6–16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modeled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children’s ability to recognize facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6–16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers. PMID:26136697

  11. Indirectly Estimating International Net Migration Flows by Age and Gender: The Community Demographic Model International Migration (CDM-IM) Dataset.

    PubMed

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Jiang, Leiwen

    Although data for the total number of international migrant flows is now available, no global dataset concerning demographic characteristics, such as the age and gender composition of migrant flows exists. This paper reports on the methods used to generate the CDM-IM dataset of age and gender specific profiles of bilateral net (not gross) migrant flows. We employ raw data from the United Nations Global Migration Database and estimate net migrant flows by age and gender between two time points around the year 2000, accounting for various demographic processes (fertility, mortality). The dataset contains information on 3,713 net migrant flows. Validation analyses against existing data sets and the historical, geopolitical context demonstrate that the CDM-IM dataset is of reasonably high quality.

  12. Indirectly Estimating International Net Migration Flows by Age and Gender: The Community Demographic Model International Migration (CDM-IM) Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Jiang, Leiwen

    2015-01-01

    Although data for the total number of international migrant flows is now available, no global dataset concerning demographic characteristics, such as the age and gender composition of migrant flows exists. This paper reports on the methods used to generate the CDM-IM dataset of age and gender specific profiles of bilateral net (not gross) migrant flows. We employ raw data from the United Nations Global Migration Database and estimate net migrant flows by age and gender between two time points around the year 2000, accounting for various demographic processes (fertility, mortality). The dataset contains information on 3,713 net migrant flows. Validation analyses against existing data sets and the historical, geopolitical context demonstrate that the CDM-IM dataset is of reasonably high quality. PMID:26692590

  13. Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in micronutrient intakes of US adults with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Joan A; Huffman, Fatma G

    2013-03-01

    Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of US adults ≥  21 years were assessed from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. The participants included Black non-Hispanics, Mexican-American and White non-Hispanics who signed an informed consent form for the interview and who completed the in-person 24-h recall. Micronutrient intakes were based on the Institute of Medicines' classifications of recommended dietary allowances specific for age and gender. Likelihood of many micronutrient insufficiencies was associated with being female, over 65 years, having diabetes and minority status. Younger and female adults had a greater likelihood of iron insufficiency than male and older adults. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the intersection of age, gender and race in setting policies for micronutrient deficiency screening, particularly in young female adults and minorities.

  14. Gender and age differences in quality of life and the impact of psychopathological symptoms among HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marco; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine gender and age differences and interaction effects on the quality of life (QoL) domains in a sample of Portuguese HIV-positive patients, and to examine to what degree psychopathological symptoms are associated with QoL in addition to sociodemographic and clinical variables. The sample consisted of 1191 HIV-positive patients, and measures included the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref and the Brief Symptom Inventory. Controlling for clinical status, there was a significant effect of gender on QoL. Women reported lower scores of Psychological and Spirituality QoL. Younger patients reported higher scores on Physical and Level of Independence domains. Age by gender interactions emerged on all domains of QoL except on the Level of Independence domain. Overall, women over 45 years old showed lower QoL scores. Psychopathological symptoms contributed significantly to the variance of all QoL domains. Gender differences in the association of HIV infection with QoL and psychopathological symptoms seemed to be modulated by age. Understanding gender and age differences (and their interaction) may provide potentially useful information for planning interventions to improve QoL and mental health among people infected with HIV/AIDS, especially among older women.

  15. The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women. PMID:19017195

  16. Breed, slaughter weight and ageing time effects on consumer appraisal of three muscles of lamb.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cerezo, S; Sañudo, C; Panea, B; Olleta, J L

    2005-04-01

    Consumers (n=265) tasted semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM) and gluteo biceps (GB) (right and left) from 180 entire male lambs. Muscles were from three Spanish breeds: Rasa Aragonesa (local meat breed), Churra (local dairy breed) and Spanish Merino. Within breed, three slaughter live weights were considered (10-12, 20-22 or 30-32 kg). Isolated muscles were aged under vacuum package for 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 days. Consumers evaluated tenderness, flavour quality and overall acceptability. Globally, the three attributes were significantly influenced by breed, slaughter live weight and ageing. Considering breed effect, Churra had the lowest scores for tenderness in the heaviest lambs while Spanish Merino was the most tender at 20-22 kg but there were no differences between either for 10-12 kg lambs. Muscles from the heaviest lambs were considered the toughest and those from the 10-12 kg lambs the most tender. Tenderness improved with ageing, but more for SM and GB. Flavour was better in the lightest lambs and, in general, it was not affected negatively by ageing. Consumers preferred meat from the 10-12 kg lambs in all breeds (the most tender and with the best flavour) and aged for intermediate to long periods (4-16 days). For the three attributes, the ST muscle had the best ratings at short ageing times and GB at long ageing times.

  17. The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20-60 years old)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Land, S.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.; Monk, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density were assessed in a group of 100 subjects aged 20 to 60 years. We propose a new statistical strategy (mixed-model using fixed-knot regression splines) to analyze quantitative EEG measures. The effect of gender varied according to frequency, but no interactions emerged between age and gender, suggesting that the aging process does not differentially influence men and women. Women had higher power density than men in delta, theta, low alpha, and high spindle frequency range. The effect of age varied according to frequency and across the night. The decrease in power with age was not restricted to slow-wave activity, but also included theta and sigma activity. With increasing age, the attenuation over the night in power density between 1.25 and 8.00 Hz diminished, and the rise in power between 12.25 and 14.00 Hz across the night decreased. Increasing age was associated with higher power in the beta range. These results suggest that increasing age may be related to an attenuation of homeostatic sleep pressure and to an increase in cortical activation during sleep.

  18. Changes in hip fracture epidemiology: redistribution between ages, genders and fracture types.

    PubMed

    Löfman, O; Berglund, K; Larsson, L; Toss, G

    2002-01-01

    After several reports of increasing hip fracture incidence some studies have suggested a trend-break. In a previous study of hip fractures we forecast a 70% increase in the total number of fractures from 1985 up to year 2000. We therefore studied the incidence trend for the last 15 years and supply a new prognosis up to year 2010. We recorded all incident hip fractures treated in the county of Ostergötland, Sweden (approximately 400,000 inhabitants) 1982-96. A total of 11,517 hip fractures in men and women aged 50 years and above were included in the study after cross-validation between a computerized register of radiologic investigations and the hospital records. The projected number of fractures up to year 2010 was estimated by a Poisson regression model, considering both age and year of fracture in every single year 1982-96 for the respective fracture type and gender, and applied to the projected population. The annual number of hip fractures increased by 39% in men and 25% in women during the study period. Amongst men, the age-adjusted incidence of cervical fractures increased from 188 to 220/100,000 and of trochanteric fractures from 138 to 170/100,000. In women the incidence of cervical fractures decreased from 462/100,000 to 418/100,000 and of trochanteric fractures from 407/100,000 to 361/100,000. Cervical/trochanteric fracture incidence rate ratio leveled off, and also the female/male fracture rate ratio declined. A prognosis assuming that the incidence development will continue as during 1982-96, and a population in agreement with the forecast, predicts that the total age- and sex-adjusted number of hip fractures will decrease by 11% up to year 2010 compared with 1996. In women and men, however, a decrease of 19% and an increase of 7% respectively were projected. If the age- and sex-specific incidence remains at the same level as at the end of the study period, no significant change in the total numbers will occur. A trend-break was thus found in hip

  19. The relation of femoral osteon geometry to age, sex, height and weight.

    PubMed

    Britz, Hayley M; Thomas, C David L; Clement, John G; Cooper, David M L

    2009-07-01

    As computational modeling becomes an increasingly common tool for probing the regulation of bone remodeling, the need for experimental data to refine and validate such models also grows. For example, van Oers et al. (R.F. van Oers, R. Ruimerman, B. van Rietbergen, P.A. Hilbers, R. Huiskes, Relating osteon diameter to strain. Bone 2008;43: 476-482.) recently described a mechanism by which osteon size may be regulated (inversely) by strain. Empirical data supporting this relation, particularly in humans, are sparse. Therefore, we sought to determine if there is a link between body weight (the only measure related to loading available for a cadaveric population) and osteon geometry in human bone. We hypothesized that after controlling for age, sex and height, weight would be inversely related to femoral osteon size (area, On.Ar; diameter, On.Dm). Secondarily we sought to describe the relation between osteon circularity (On.Cr) and these parameters. Osteons (n=12,690) were mapped within microradiographs of femoral mid-diaphyseal specimens (n=88; 45 male, 43 female; 17-97 yrs). Univariate analysis of covariance was conducted (n=87; 1 outlier) with sex as a fixed factor and height, weight and log-transformed age as covariates. Weight was negatively related to On.Ar and On.Dm (p=0.006 and p=0.004, respectively). Age was significantly related to osteon and, it was also significantly related to circularity (all p<0.001). This relation was negative for On.Ar and On.Dm and positive for On.Cr (increasing circularity with age). On.Ar and On.Dm were found to be significantly different between the sexes (p=0.021 and p=0.019, respectively), with females having smaller osteons. No relation between sex and On.Cr was detected (p=0.449). Height was not significantly related to any of the geometric parameters. Partial eta-squared values revealed that age accounted for the largest proportion (On.Ar: 28%, On.Dm: 18%, On.Cr: 30%), weight accounted for the second largest (On.Ar: 9%, On

  20. Gender and age are associated with healthy food purchases via grocery voucher redemption

    PubMed Central

    Hardin-Fanning, F; Gokun, Y

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Grocery vouchers that specifically target foods associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk result in increased consumption of those foods. In regions with disproportionately high CVD rates, there is little research concerning the impact of vouchers on purchases of risk-reducing foods when there are no restrictions placed on grocery voucher redemption. Since many food assistance programs place few restrictions on type of foods that can be purchased, identifying demographic factors associated with purchasing habits is a prerequisite to promoting healthy eating. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of age, gender, education and income level with purchasing of healthful foods through the use of a grocery voucher in a rural food desert (poverty rate of ≥20% and ≥33% of residents living >16 km from a large grocery store) with high rates of chronic disease. Methods The effectiveness of an intervention that included a media campaign, a $5 grocery voucher, local heart healthy food branding and a grocery store event was tested. Brief nutritional articles were published in both local newspapers during four consecutive weeks. These articles explained the physiological actions of healthy foods and listed a health-promoting recipe. During the fourth week of the media campaign, a voucher for a $5 grocery gift card redeemable at one of either community grocery stores was also printed in both local newspapers. In each store, foods that are known to be associated with a reduced risk of CVD were marked with a blue logo. Participants (N=311) completed a questionnaire that assessed demographics and usual servings of fruits, vegetables and grains. Participants received a $5 grocery card and a list of labelled foods. Returned grocery receipts were stapled to the questionnaires to analyse the relationship between demographics and food choices. Results Participants who bought at least one labelled food item were older (M=48.5, SD=14

  1. Nonverbal and verbal cognitive discrepancy profiles in autism spectrum disorders: influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ > verbal IQ [NVIQ > VIQ], verbal IQ > nonverbal IQ [VIQ > NVIQ], and no split) and the relationship of gender, age, and ASD symptomatology to IQ discrepancy profile in a large sample of children with ASD. The NVIQ > VIQ profile occurred at a higher frequency than expected, had more young males, and showed more autism symptoms than the other groups. Results suggest that the NVIQ > VIQ profile may be less likely to represent a subtype of ASD, but rather a common developmental pathway for children with ASD and other disorders.

  2. Variations in Decision-Making Profiles by Age and Gender: A Cluster-Analytic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Rebecca; Strough, JoNell; Parker, Andrew M.; de Bruin, Wandi Bruine

    2015-01-01

    Using cluster-analysis, we investigated whether rational, intuitive, spontaneous, dependent, and avoidant styles of decision making (Scott & Bruce, 1995) combined to form distinct decision-making profiles that differed by age and gender. Self-report survey data were collected from 1,075 members of RAND’s American Life Panel (56.2% female, 18–93 years, Mage = 53.49). Three decision-making profiles were identified: affective/experiential, independent/self-controlled, and an interpersonally-oriented dependent profile. Older people were less likely to be in the affective/experiential profile and more likely to be in the independent/self-controlled profile. Women were less likely to be in the affective/experiential profile and more likely to be in the interpersonally-oriented dependent profile. Interpersonally-oriented profiles are discussed as an overlooked but important dimension of how people make important decisions. PMID:26005238

  3. Changing Attitudes Toward Care of Aging Parents: The Influence of Education, International Travel, and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Compernolle, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Population aging is a key public health issue facing many nations, and is particularly pronounced in many Asian countries. At the same time, attitudes toward filial obligation are also rapidly changing, with a decreasing sense that children are responsible for caring for elderly parents. This investigation blends the family versus nonfamily mode of social organization framework with a life course perspective to provide insight into the processes of ideational change regarding filial responsibility, highlighting the influence of education and international travel. Using data from a longitudinal study in Nepal—the Chitwan Valley Family Study—results demonstrate that education and international travel are associated with a decrease in attitudes toward filial obligation. However, findings further reveal that the impact of education and international travel vary both across the life course and by gender. PMID:25866415

  4. Social integration and healthy aging in Japan: how gender and rurality matter.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kimiko; Johnson, Nan E

    2010-06-01

    The current study analyzed the 1999 and 2001 waves of the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging. Two measures of social integration were associated with lower risks of being physically disabled or depressed at Wave 1 and with a lower risk of progressing into deeper levels of physical disability and depression by Wave 2. Ceteris paribus, compared to elderly urbanites, elderly ruralites had a much higher risk of being physically disabled but much lower odds of being depressed. And compared to elderly men, elderly women had similar risks of being physically disabled but much higher odds of being depressed. Suggestions are made on how future research on longevity in Japan, the world's most longevous nation, can explore the links among social integration, place, gender, and the postponement of mortality.

  5. Regularity of daily life in relation to personality, age, gender, sleep quality and circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Petrie, S. R.; Hayes, A. J.; Kupfer, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    A diary-like instrument to measure lifestyle regularity (the 'Social Rhythm Metric'-SRM) was given to 96 subjects (48 women, 48 men), 39 of whom repeated the study after at least one year, with additional objective measures of rest/activity. Lifestyle regularity as measured by the SRM related to age, morningness, subjective sleep quality and time-of-day variations in alertness, but not to gender, extroversion or neuroticism. Statistically significant test-retest correlations of about 0.4 emerged for SRM scores over the 12-30 month delay. Diary-based estimates of bedtime and waketime appeared fairly reliable. In a further study of healthy young men, 4 high SRM scorers ('regular') had a deeper nocturnal body temperature trough than 5 low SRM scorers ('irregular'), suggesting a better functioning circadian system in the 'regular' group.

  6. Gender and Age Differences in Trauma and PTSD Among Dutch Treatment-Seeking Police Officers.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Christianne A I; Bakker, Anne; Smit, Annika S; van Buschbach, Susanne; den Dekker, Melissa; Westerveld, Gré J; Hutter, Renée C; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about how age and gender are associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and traumatic experiences in treatment-seeking police offers. In this study, we examined 967 diagnostic files of police officers seeking treatment for PTSD. Six hundred twelve (63%) of the referred police officers were diagnosed with PTSD (n = 560) or partial PTSD (n = 52). Police officers reported on average 19.5 different types of traumatic events (range 1-43). Those who experienced a greater variety of traumatic events suffered from more PTSD symptoms. Also, women reported more often direct life-threatening or private events as their index trauma than men and suffered from more PTSD symptoms than their male colleagues. Results indicate that police officers experience a considerable number of different traumatic events, which is significantly associated with PTSD symptoms. The results highlight the importance of early detection of PTSD symptoms in the police force.

  7. Variations in Decision-Making Profiles by Age and Gender: A Cluster-Analytic Approach.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Rebecca; Strough, JoNell; Parker, Andrew M; de Bruin, Wandi Bruine

    2015-10-01

    Using cluster-analysis, we investigated whether rational, intuitive, spontaneous, dependent, and avoidant styles of decision making (Scott & Bruce, 1995) combined to form distinct decision-making profiles that differed by age and gender. Self-report survey data were collected from 1,075 members of RAND's American Life Panel (56.2% female, 18-93 years, Mage = 53.49). Three decision-making profiles were identified: affective/experiential, independent/self-controlled, and an interpersonally-oriented dependent profile. Older people were less likely to be in the affective/experiential profile and more likely to be in the independent/self-controlled profile. Women were less likely to be in the affective/experiential profile and more likely to be in the interpersonally-oriented dependent profile. Interpersonally-oriented profiles are discussed as an overlooked but important dimension of how people make important decisions.

  8. Exploring Links to Unorganized and Organized Physical Activity during Adolescence: The Role of Gender, Socioeconomic Status, Weight Status, and Enjoyment of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Ahmed, Rashid; Farnoush, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    There is limited research on participation context in studies of physical activity correlates during adolescence. Using an ecological approach, this study explored the association of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), weight status, and physical education enjoyment with participation in organized and unorganized physical activity contexts in a…

  9. Human GH pulsatility: an ensemble property regulated by age and gender.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, J D; Bowers, C Y

    2003-09-01

    Age and gender impact the full repertoire of neurohormone systems, including most prominently the somatotropic, gonadotropic and lactotropic axes. For example, daily GH production is approximately 2-fold higher in young women than men and varies by 20-fold by sexual developmental status and age. Deconvolution estimates of 24-h GH secretion rates exceed 1200 microg/m2 in adolescents and fall below 60 microg/m2 in aged individuals. The present overview highlights plausible factors driving such lifetime variations in GH availability, i.e., estrogen, aromatizable androgen, hypothalamic peptides and negative feedback by GH and IGF-I. In view of the daunting complexity of potential neuromodulatory signals, we underline the utility of conceptualizing a simplified three-peptide regulatory ensemble of GHRH, GHRP (ghrelin) and somatostatin. The foregoing signals act as individual and conjoint mediators of adaptive GH control. Regulation is enforced at 3-fold complementary time scales, which embrace pulsatile (burst-like), entropic (orderly) and 24-h rhythmic (nycthemeral) modes of GH release. This unifying platform offers a convergent perspective of multivalent control of GH outflow.

  10. Perfluorinated chemicals in blood serum of inhabitants in central Poland in relation to gender and age.

    PubMed

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Pachocki, Krzysztof A; Hernik, Agnieszka; Struciński, Paweł; Czaja, Katarzyna; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lenters, Virissa; Korcz, Wojciech; Minorczyk, Maria; Matuszak, Małgorzata; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to determine concentrations of seven selected perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs): perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) in the blood serum of men and women of reproductive age from the central region of Poland. The relation between sex of tested subjects and the levels of compounds in blood serum of humans will also be considered and analysed as an element of the risk assessment. The study was made on the blood serum samples collected from 253 women and 176 men of reproductive age between 20 and 44 years from Warsaw and surrounding areas. Higher concentrations of five (PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA) from among seven selected PFASs were observed in men in comparison to women from the same populations. Only the concentrations of PFHxS and PFDoDA were slightly higher in women than in men. These differences were statistically significant in all cases, except for PFUnDA. The hypothesis that the concentrations of said compounds increase with age of the test subjects, regardless of gender has not been confirmed.

  11. Month of birth and life expectancy: role of gender and age in a comparative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerchl, Alexander

    2004-09-01

    The effects of month of birth (MOB) on life expectancy of a German subpopulation was investigated. Data from people who died in North Rhine Westphalia in the years 1984 (n=188,515) and 1999 (n=188,850) were analyzed. For comparative purposes, all deaths that occurred at an age of <50 years were excluded (1984: 8.4%; 1999: 6.2%). In general, individuals born in May through July had the lowest age at death (1984: 75.27±0.09 years; 1999: 77.58±0.09 years), while those born between October and December had the highest (1984: 75.98±0.08 years; 1999: 78.35±0.09 years), supporting earlier findings. The observed amplitudes (differences between highest and lowest values) were more pronounced in men than in women. When comparing these data of MOB effects on life expectancy with earlier findings in Australia, Austria, Denmark, Ukraine, and the USA, it is evident that a negative correlation exists between the average age at death and the MOB amplitudes. Separate analyses by gender, possible for the data from Germany, the Ukraine, and the USA, revealed a significant negative correlation for men, but not for women. A new hypothesis is therefore presented describing an influence of life quality, as reflected by average life expectancy, on the extent of MOB effects; for example, seasonally variable sensitivities during pregnancy/early childhood.

  12. Normal swallowing acoustics across age, gender, bolus viscosity, and bolus volume.

    PubMed

    Youmans, Scott R; Stierwalt, Julie A G

    2011-12-01

    Cervical auscultation has been proposed as an augmentative procedure for the subjective clinical swallowing examination due to the tangible differences between normal and dysphagic swallowing sounds. However, the research is incomplete regarding cervical auscultation and swallowing acoustics in that the differences between the sounds of normal versus dysphagic swallowing have yet to be fully understood or quantified. The swallows of 96 reportedly healthy adults, balanced for gender and divided into younger, middle, and older age groups, were audio-recorded while ingesting several boluses of varying viscosity and volume. The audio signals were then analyzed to determine their temporal and acoustic characteristics. Results indicated increasing pharyngeal swallowing duration with increasing age, bolus viscosity, and bolus volume. In addition, an increased duration to peak intensity with increasing age was found in one of our two analyses, as well as with some of the more viscous versus less viscous boluses. Men and older persons produced higher peak intensities and peak frequencies than women and younger persons. Thin liquids were produced with more intensity than honey or more viscous boluses, and with greater frequency than mechanical soft solids. Larger volumes resulted in greater peak frequency values. Some of the acoustic measurements appear to be more useful than others, including the duration of the acoustic swallowing signal and the within-subjects peak intensity variable. We noted that differences in swallowing acoustics were more related to changes in viscosity rather than volume. Finally, within-participant observations were more useful than between-participant observations.

  13. A re-examination of cremains weight: sex and age variation in a Northern California sample.

    PubMed

    Van Deest, Traci L; Murad, Turhon A; Bartelink, Eric J

    2011-03-01

    The reduction of modern commercially cremated remains into a fine powder negates the use of traditional methods of skeletal analysis. The literature on the use of cremains weight for estimating aspects of the biologic profile is limited, often with conflicting results. This study re-evaluates the value of weight in the assessment of biologic parameters from modern cremated remains. A sample of adults was collected in northern California (n = 756), with a cremains weight averaging 2737.1 g. Males were significantly heavier than females (mean = 3233.2 g versus mean = 2238.3 g, respectively; p<0.001). Comparison of this sample with other previously reported samples from southern California, Florida, and Tennessee indicates a consistent sex difference, with the most similar mean values to the Tennessee study. Although cremains weight decreases with age as expected, the relationship is weak; thus, cremains weight cannot accurately predict age-at-death. While sex estimation shows considerable accuracy (86.3% for males and 80.9% for females), sectioning points may be population specific.

  14. Predictors of early school age outcomes in very low birth weight children.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H G; Klein, N; Schatschneider, C; Hack, M

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of outcome in very low birth weight (< 1500 g) children. The very low birth weight sample consisted of 68 children weighing less than 750 g at birth and 65 children weighing 750 to 1499 g at birth who had been matched to the less than 750 g birth weight children in terms of hospital of birth, age, sex, and race. Mean ages for these two groups were 6.7 and 6.9 years, respectively. Outcomes were measured in terms of tests of cognitive function, neuropsychological abilities, and academic achievement and parent and teacher ratings of child behavior and school performance. A weighted sum of the number of major neonatal medical complications (Neonatal Risk Index) provided a composite measure of biological risk. Social risks were also assessed. Results indicated that the Neonatal Risk Index was the most consistent predictor of outcomes. Even after taking social risks into account, neonatal risk predicted overall cognitive ability and other achievement, neuropsychological, and behavior outcomes. Individual neonatal complications that predicted outcomes included severe cerebral ultrasonographic abnormality, chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, and apnea of prematurity. Research and therapy to prevent or reduce neonatal complications and amelioration of social risks are of critical importance in improving outcomes of very low birth weight.

  15. Interest in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program among women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Simas, Tiffany A Moore; Xiao, Rui S; Whited, Matthew C; Busch, Andrew M; Evans, Martinus M; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2016-06-01

    Weight management through the childbearing years is important, yet few women have access to efficacious weight loss programs. Online social network-delivered programs may increase reach and thus impact. The aim of this study was to gauge interest in a Twitter-based weight loss intervention among women of childbearing age and the feasibility of recruitment via Twitter. We recruited English-speaking women aged 18-45 years (N = 63) from Twitter to complete an anonymous online survey including open-ended questions about program advantages and concerns. Forty percent of participants were obese and 83 % were trying to lose weight. Eighty-one percent were interested in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program. Interest was high in all subgroups (62-100 %). Participants (59 %) cited program advantages, including convenience, support/accountability, and privacy. Concerns (59 %) included questions about privacy, support/accountability, engagement, efficacy, and technology barriers. Research is needed to develop and evaluate social media-delivered interventions, and to develop methods for recruiting participants directly from Twitter.

  16. Brain perfusion SPECT in the mouse: normal pattern according to gender and age.

    PubMed

    Apostolova, Ivayla; Wunder, Andreas; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Michel, Roger; Stemmer, Nina; Lukas, Mathias; Derlin, Thorsten; Gregor-Mamoudou, Betina; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph

    2012-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is a useful surrogate marker of neuronal activity and a parameter of primary interest in the diagnosis of many diseases. The increasing use of mouse models spawns the demand for in vivo measurement of rCBF in the mouse. Small animal SPECT provides excellent spatial resolution at adequate sensitivity and is therefore a promising tool for imaging the mouse brain. This study evaluates the feasibility of mouse brain perfusion SPECT and assesses the regional pattern of normal Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake and the impact of age and gender. Whole-brain kinetics was compared between Tc-99m-HMPAO and Tc-99m-ECD using rapid dynamic planar scans in 10 mice. Assessment of the regional uptake pattern was restricted to the more suitable tracer, HMPAO. Two HMPAO SPECTs were performed in 18 juvenile mice aged 7.5 ± 1.5weeks, and in the same animals at young adulthood, 19.1 ± 4.0 weeks (nanoSPECT/CTplus, general purpose mouse apertures: 1.2kcps/MBq, 0.7mm FWHM). The 3-D MRI Digital Atlas Database of an adult C57BL/6J mouse brain was used for region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. SPECT images were stereotactically normalized using SPM8 and a custom made, left-right symmetric HMPAO template in atlas space. For testing lateral asymmetry, each SPECT was left-right flipped prior to stereotactical normalization. Flipped and unflipped SPECTs were compared by paired testing. Peak brain uptake was similar for ECD and HMPAO: 1.8 ± 0.2 and 2.1 ± 0.6 %ID (p=0.357). Washout after the peak was much faster for ECD than for HMPAO: 24 ± 7min vs. 4.6 ± 1.7h (p=0.001). The general linear model for repeated measures with gender as an intersubject factor revealed an increase in relative HMPAO uptake with age in the neocortex (p=0.018) and the hippocampus (p=0.012). A decrease was detected in the midbrain (p=0.025). Lateral asymmetry, with HMPAO uptake larger in the left hemisphere, was detected primarily in the neocortex, both at juvenile age (asymmetry index AI=2.7 ± 1

  17. Prevailing oral hygiene practices among urban Saudi Arabians in relation to age, gender and socio-economic background.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Meshari; Zimmerman, Mikael; Angmar-Månsson, Birgit

    2003-08-01

    The aim was to analyze prevailing oral hygiene practices among urban Saudi Arabians in relation to age, gender, and socio-economic background. Structured interviews were performed with 1155 regular patients at two centers providing dental care for university and military staff and their families, respectively, in the city of Makkah. Consecutive patients were stratified according to gender and age into 6 age categories from 10 to 60 years, with 50 male or female subjects in each group at each center. Oral hygiene habits were correlated with the subject's age and gender, and analyzed statistically using a generalized linear model. It was found that 73% used a toothbrush daily, while a miswak was used daily by 65%. Significant differences were found between genders and age groups, and between the centers. Regular miswak use was more prevalent among men (P < 0.01), while women used toothbrush more than miswak (P < 0.05). Regular miswak use was more frequent at older age (P < 0.001) and tooth brushing was less prevalent. Forty-four percent of the 51- to 60-year-old patients at the military center never used a toothbrush. Regular toothbrush use was more prevalent in the youngest age groups (P < 0.001). Among the 10- to 15-year-olds, 45% at the university center used only a toothbrush, while no adolescents at the military center used only a toothbrush. We conclude that there are large differences in current oral hygiene habits among Saudi Arabians, and that these are related mainly to age and socio-economic level, and to a lesser extent gender. This should be taken into account when planning oral health strategies for different categories.

  18. Healthy Eating Habits among the Population of Serbia: Gender and Age Differences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks’ Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the ‘knowledge’ variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia. PMID:25995724

  19. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in pooled human serum by age and gender.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Aleysha; Toms, Leisa-Maree Leontjew; Harden, Fiona A; Hobson, Peter; White, Nicole M; Mengersen, Kerrie L; Mueller, Jochen F

    2017-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been used for many decades in Australia with cessation of selected persistent and bioaccumulative OCPs ranging from the 1970s to as recently as 2007. The specific aims of this study were to use samples representative of an Australian population to assess age and gender differences in the concentration of OCPs in human blood sera and to investigate temporal trends in these chemicals. Serum was collected from de-identified, surplus pathology samples over five time periods (2002/03, 2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2012/13), with 183 serum pools made from 12,175 individual samples; 26 pools in 2002/03, 85 pools in 2006/07 and 24 pools each in 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2012/13. Samples were analyzed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), γ -hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) (γ-HCH), oxy-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT and Mirex. Stratification criteria included gender and age (0-4; 5-15; 16-30; 31-45; 46-60; and >60 years) with age additionally stratified by adults >16 years and children 0-4 and 5-15 years. All pools from all collection periods had detectable concentrations of OCPs with a detection frequency of >60% for HCB, β-HCH, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. The overall OCP concentrations increased with age with the highest concentrations in the >60 years groups. Females did not have higher mean OCP concentrations than males except for HCB concentrations (p=0.0006). Temporal trends showed overall decreasing serum concentrations by collection period with the exception of an increase in OCP concentrations between 2006/07 and 2008/09. Excluding this data point, HCB decreased from year to year by 7-76%; β-HCH concentrations decreased by 14 - 38%; trans-nonachlor concentrations decreased by 10 - 65%; p,p'-DDE concentrations decreased by 6 - 52%; and p,p'-DDT concentrations decreased by 7 - 30%. The results indicate that OCP concentrations have decreased over time as is to be

  20. Predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes at preschool age for children with very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hsu, Yung-Wen; Wang, Tien-Ni; Wang, Lan-Wan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight children without major impairment at 5 years of age, as well as to identify the contribution of early neurodevelopmental assessment to preterm children's later developmental outcomes. The participants in this study included 126 children who were prematurely born with very low birth weight. Outcomes of the childrens' later development were measured in tests that factored cognitive function, motor performance, and adaptive behavior. The results indicated that more than 50% of full-scale intelligence and 30% of both motor performance and adaptive behavior at the age of 5 can be explained by four predictors. The four predictors include preterm children's medical complications at birth, maternal education, early motor assessments, and cognitive assessments. Adding each test score obtained in early ages provides additional information to predict children's cognitive, motor, and adaptive behavior at 5 years of age. Manifold assessments conducted in multiple time periods strengthen the predictive values of later developmental outcomes. In addition, the findings of this study indicate that very low birth weight children tend to have lower adaptive behavior at 5 years old. With regard to our findings, we believe that having adaptive function is a reflection of a child's overall integrated abilities. Further study is warranted to increase understanding of this topic, as well as to be able to predict adaptive strengths and weakness and pinpoint limiting factors that may be useful for targeting behaviors in intervention.

  1. Eating behaviour patterns in Chinese children aged 12-18 months and association with relative weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eating behaviours have been suggested relating to obesity development. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a parent-report measure constructed to assess multiple dimensions of eating behavior for children. This study aimed to test the validity of the Chinese version of Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) in Chinese children aged 12-18 months. We examined factor structure and the reliability of the Chinese version of the CEBQ, the associations between children's eating behaviours and children's weight (BMI SDS) were assessed. Methods 219 questionnaires were filled out by the caregivers, approached in community health care centers in two cities in China. BMI of each child was calculated and converted to BMI SDS. Factor validation (Principal Component Analysis, exploratory factor analysis) on all CEBQ items was performed and gender difference in eating behaviours was examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analyzed by linear regression analysis controlling for gender, parental combined weight, and education. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven-factor solution, with factor 'food responsiveness' (FR) split into two. 'Satiety responsiveness' (SR) and 'Enjoyment of food' (EF) factors were not detected. Interestingly, boys scored higher than girls in the FR scales, whereas girls had a higher score in 'food fussiness' (FF) scale. Conclusions We conclude that although a valuable psychometric instrument, CEBQ might be affected by age and cultural differences. Therefore, adjusting it in order to fit the Chinese population was suggested. We did not find an association between eating behaviours and children's BMI SDS, when it was controlled for gender and parental weight. PMID:22272572

  2. Socioeconomic status overrides age and gender in determining health-seeking behaviour in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Tomson, Göran; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the health-seeking behaviour of elderly members (aged > 60 years) of households in rural Bangladesh, to ascertain how their behaviour differs from that of younger people (aged 20-59 years) living in the same household and to explore the determinants of health-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on the health-seeking behaviour of household members aged > 20 years. Respondents were asked about major illnesses occurring within 15 days prior to the interview. The sample consisted of 966 households that had at least one resident who was aged > 60 (32% of 3031 households). FINDINGS: We found no major differences in health-seeking behaviour between elderly people and younger adults. On average about 35% (405/1169) of those who reported having been ill during the previous 15 days in both age groups chose self-care/self-treatment; for both age groups the most commonly consulted type of provider was a paraprofessional such as a village doctor, a medical assistant or a community health worker. A household's poverty status emerged as a major determinant of health-seeking behaviour. The odds ratio (OR) that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from unqualified allopathic practitioners was 0.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.78); the odds ratio that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from qualified allopathic practitioners was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.60-0.95). For self-care or self-treatment it was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.43-2.36). Patients' level of education affected whether they avoided self-care/self-treatment and drugstore salespeople (who are usually unlicensed and untrained but who diagnose illnesses and sell medicine) and instead chose a formal allopathic practitioner (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.15-1.96). When a household's poverty status was controlled for, there were no differences in age or gender in terms of health-care expenditure. CONCLUSION: We found that socioeconomic

  3. Effects of floor type, stocking density, slaughter age and gender on productive and qualitative traits of rabbits reared in collective pens.

    PubMed

    Trocino, A; Filiou, E; Tazzoli, M; Birolo, M; Zuffellato, A; Xiccato, G

    2015-05-01

    At 34 days of age, 376 crossbred rabbits of both sexes were housed in 16 open-top collective pens (1.68 m2) according to a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement with two types of pen floor (plastic v. wooden slatted), two stocking densities (12 v. 16 animals/m2) and two slaughter ages (76 v. 83 days). The rabbits were examined for growth performance, slaughter results and meat quality. The effect of gender was also examined. The percentage of rabbits with wounds due to aggression varied with stocking density (8.2% v. 26.2% for 12 v. 16 animals/m2; P⩽0.001), slaughter age (15.0% v. 22.0% at 76 v. 83 days; P⩽0.10) and gender (11.3% v. 25.8% for females v. males; P⩽0.001). Rearing rabbits on a plastic rather than a wooden slatted floor promoted slaughter weight (2795 v. 2567 g; P⩽0.001), dressing percentage (61.4% v. 60.9%; P⩽0.01), dissectible fat (2.4% v. 2.0%; P⩽0.01) and hind leg muscle-to-bone ratio (5.81 v. 5.35; P⩽0.001). Increased stocking density impaired daily growth (38.5 v. 35.9 g/day; P⩽0.05) and feed intake (140 v. 134 g/day; P⩽0.01) during the second period (55 days to slaughter) and decreased slaughter weight (2725 v. 2637 g; P⩽0.01). At the older slaughter age, the feed conversion ratio was impaired (2.98 v. 3.18; P⩽0.001); the slaughter weight (2574 g v. 2788 g; P⩽0.001), dissectible fat (2.0% v. 2.4%; P⩽0.01) and hind leg muscle-to-bone ratio (5.41 v. 5.75; P⩽0.01) increased; meat thawing losses, cooking losses and shear force decreased (P⩽0.05). The main differences between the females and males were found in the slaughter for transport losses (2.6% v. 2.2%; P⩽0.01) and longissimus lumborum proportions (13.0% v. 12.4%; P⩽0.01). In conclusion, the growth performance of pen-housed rabbits was largely determined by the type of floor and less affected by stocking density. The meat quality depended on ontogenetic factors, such as slaughter age and gender, and not on housing conditions. The differences in the percentages of

  4. Proteome-wide alterations on adipose tissue from obese patients as age-, diabetes- and gender-specific hallmarks

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Serrano, María; Camafeita, Emilio; García-Santos, Eva; López, Juan A.; Rubio, Miguel A.; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres, Antonio; Vázquez, Jesús; Peral, Belén

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a main global health issue and an outstanding cause of morbidity and mortality predisposing to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Huge research efforts focused on gene expression, cellular signalling and metabolism in obesity have improved our understanding of these disorders; nevertheless, to bridge the gap between the regulation of gene expression and changes in signalling/metabolism, protein levels must be assessed. We have extensively analysed visceral adipose tissue from age-, T2DM- and gender-matched obese patients using high-throughput proteomics and systems biology methods to identify new biomarkers for the onset of T2DM in obesity, as well as to gain insight into the influence of aging and gender in these disorders. About 250 proteins showed significant abundance differences in the age, T2DM and gender comparisons. In diabetic patients, remarkable gender-specific hallmarks were discovered regarding redox status, immune response and adipose tissue accumulation. Both aging and T2DM processes were associated with mitochondrial remodelling, albeit through well-differentiated proteome changes. Systems biology analysis highlighted mitochondrial proteins that could play a key role in the age-dependent pathophysiology of T2DM. Our findings could serve as a framework for future research in Translational Medicine directed at improving the quality of life of obese patients. PMID:27160966

  5. Analysis of gonial angle in relation to age, gender, and dentition status by radiological and anthropometric methods

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ram Ballabh; Upadhyay, Juhi; Agrawal, Pankaj; Rao, Nirmala N

    2012-01-01

    Background: With development and function, the mandibular angle has shown changes in size and shape. A variation in mandibular angle with age, gender, and even the dental status has been observed, which is supported by radiographic and anthropometric studies. Aims: The aim of this study were to evaluate relationship between complete loss of teeth and changes in the gonial angle; the study further intends to evaluate any variation in gonial angle with age and gender. The study intends to assess the reliability and accuracy of age and gender determination using gonial angle as a parameter. Materials and Methods: A total of 185 subjects (91 males; 89 females) were included in the study and were divided into five groups on the basis of the chronological age. Physico-forensic anthropometry and lateral cephalometric methods were used to record the gonial angle. Results: The present study shows a definite decrease in the gonial angle with advancing age, but the intergroup analysis does not follow a significant pattern. The study showed no correlation of gonial angle with gender. However, the study observed a 6° increase in gonial angle for edentulous subjects. Conclusion: Gonial angle has been used as an adjuvant forensic parameter, but its reliability is questionable, as the mandible does not follow one characteristic pattern. Gonial angle does show changes with dentition status, which may be attributed to physiologic function of the mandible. However, when evidence is scanty, it can be used to direct the investigation. PMID:23087579

  6. Narratives of attachment in middle childhood: do gender, age, and risk-status matter for the quality of attachment?

    PubMed

    Gloger-Tippelt, Gabriele; Kappler, Gregor

    2016-12-01

    Attachment in middle childhood increasingly attracts the interest of developmental psychologists and clinicians. Recent studies using attachment narratives elicited by story stems reported gender-specific aspects of attachment development, potentially evoked by developmental tasks during this period of the life span. There is evidence that children with risk factors present more insecure and disorganized attachment narratives compared to children without risk. Yet, there is little research concerning the joint effects of gender, risk, and age for attachment classifications. The paper presents a pooled analysis of 22 samples (eight risk samples) including 887 children (411 girls), aged between 4.5 and 8.5 years who were assessed with the same "German Attachment Story Completion Procedure" (GASCP). Girls were 1.8 times more likely to present secure and 0.4 times less likely to present disorganized narratives compared to boys when controlling for risk status and age. Children from risk samples were more likely (odd ratio 5.4) to display disorganized and less likely to show a secure attachment (odd ratio 0.3) compared to those from no-risk samples in multilevel logistic regressions. Remarkably, the effect of risk was not moderated by age and gender, and gender effects were not moderated by age.

  7. Inter-Racial, Gender and Aging Influences in the Length of Anterior Commissure-Posterior Commissure Line

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae-One; De Salles, Antonio; Mattozo, Carlos; Pedroso, Alessandra G; Behnke, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Objective The length of anterior-posterior commissure (AC-PC) in racial groups, age, gender of patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) and pallidotomy were investigated. Methods From January 1996 to December 2003, 211 patients were treated with DBS and pallidotomy. There were 160 (76%) Caucasians, 35 (17%) Hispanics, 12 (5%) Asians and 4 Blacks (2%). There were 88 males and 52 females in DBS-surgery group and 44 males, 27 females in pallidotomy group. Mean age was 58 year-old. There were 19 males and 19 females and mean age was 54.7 years in the control group. Measurements were made on MRI and @Target software. Results The average AC-PC distance was 24.89 mm (range 32 to 19), which increased with aging until 75 years old in Caucasian and also increased with aging in Hispanic, but the AC-PC distance peaked at 45 years old in Hispanic. The order of AC-PC distance were 25.2±2 mm in Caucasian, 24.6±2.24 mm in Asian, 24.53 mm in Black, 23.6±1.98 mm in Hispanic. The average AC-PC distance in all groups was 24.22 mm in female who was mean age of 56.35, 25.28 mm in male who was mean age of 60.19 and 24.5±2 mm in control group that was excluded because of the difference of thickness of slice. According to multiple regression analysis, the AC-PC distance was significantly correlated with age, race, and gender. Conclusion The AC-PC distance is significantly correlated with age, gender, and race. The atlas of functional stereotaxis would be depended on the variation of indivisual brain that can influenced by aging, gender, and race. PMID:19096609

  8. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy reduces body weight without accelerating age-related bone loss.

    PubMed

    Turner, Russell T; Dube, Michael; Branscum, Adam J; Wong, Carmen P; Olson, Dawn A; Zhong, Xiaoying; Kweh, Mercedes F; Larkin, Iske V; Wronski, Thomas J; Rosen, Clifford J; Kalra, Satya P; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-12-01

    Excessive weight gain in adults is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, dieting, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have had limited long-term success in weight control and can result in detrimental side effects, including accelerating age-related cancellous bone loss. We investigated the efficacy of using hypothalamic leptin gene therapy as an alternative method for reducing weight in skeletally-mature (9 months old) female rats and determined the impact of leptin-induced weight loss on bone mass, density, and microarchitecture, and serum biomarkers of bone turnover (CTx and osteocalcin). Rats were implanted with cannulae in the 3rd ventricle of the hypothalamus and injected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the gene for rat leptin (rAAV-Leptin, n=7) or a control vector encoding green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP, n=10) and sacrificed 18 weeks later. A baseline control group (n=7) was sacrificed at vector administration. rAAV-Leptin-treated rats lost weight (-4±2%) while rAAV-GFP-treated rats gained weight (14±2%) during the study. At study termination, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats weighed 17% less than rAAV-GFP-treated rats and had lower abdominal white adipose tissue weight (-80%), serum leptin (-77%), and serum IGF1 (-34%). Cancellous bone volume fraction in distal femur metaphysis and epiphysis, and in lumbar vertebra tended to be lower (P<0.1) in rAAV-GFP-treated rats (13.5 months old) compared to baseline control rats (9 months old). Significant differences in cancellous bone or biomarkers of bone turnover were not detected between rAAV-Leptin and rAAV-GFP rats. In summary, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats maintained a lower body weight compared to baseline and rAAV-GFP-treated rats with minimal effects on bone mass, density, microarchitecture, or biochemical markers of bone turnover.

  9. Gender- and age-related treatment compliance in patients with osteoporosis in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hadji, Peyman; Jacob, Louis; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to analyze treatment compliance in osteoporotic patients treated with osteoporosis medications in Germany. Methods Patients included in the analysis had been diagnosed with osteoporosis with or without fractures and started anti-osteoporotic therapy (bisphosphonates, denosumab, or strontium ranelate) between 2011 and 2014 in a general (GP) or orthopedic practice (OP) setting in Germany. Data pertaining to 6,221 individuals followed in GP and 4,044 individuals followed in OP were analyzed retrospectively. The last follow-up was in December 2015. The main outcome measure was the compliance within the one-year period after the index prescription date. Compliance was measured indirectly and was based on the mean possession ratio (MPR). A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the association between MPR (dependent variable) and age, gender, type of practice, type of osteoporosis treatment, therapy frequency, and history of fracture (covariates). Results The mean age of the study group was 73.3 years, and 13.2% of subjects were men. Regarding type of practice, 60.6% of individuals were followed in GP and 39.4% in OP. Noncompliance was observed in 55.2% of the patients. Patients in the age group ≤60 years were at a higher risk of being noncompliant when compared to those in the age group of 61–70 years. Men and patients who received oral drugs were also more likely to be noncompliant than women and patients who received injectable or intravenous drugs. Finally, therapies that were given every three or six months were associated with a decrease in the risk of noncompliance when compared to weekly therapy, whereas daily and monthly treatments were associated with an increased risk. Conclusion Compliance is insufficient in osteoporotic patients treated with osteoporosis medications. PMID:27920504

  10. A multinational study of the relationships between nighttime urinary melatonin production, age, gender, body size, and latitude.

    PubMed

    Wetterberg, L; Bratlid, T; von Knorring, L; Eberhard, G; Yuwiler, A

    1999-01-01

    Overnight urines were collected each month for 12-16 months from 321 normal subjects at 19 medical centers in 14 countries distributed on 5 continents at latitudes from 31 01 South to 77 00 North. Mean melatonin concentration was found to negatively correlate with age, weight, and height. When the sexes were considered separately melatonin only correlated with age for female and with age and weight for males. A weak correlation with latitude, but not longitude, was also found.

  11. Relation of cord blood thyroxine and thyrotropin levels to gestational age and birth weight.

    PubMed Central

    Prato, F S; Reese, L; Tevaarwerk, G J; Mackenzie, R; Hurst, C J

    1980-01-01

    A program of screening cord blood for evidence of primary neonatal hypothyroidism was implemented in a general hospital. In 13 months 3456 newborns were screened: the thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were measured in cord blood samples, and when the T4 level was below 8.0 micrograms/dl thyrotropin was also assayed in the sample. The two-tier program was effective. One hypothyroid newborn was detected and treated. More boys than girls had T4 levels below 8.0 micrograms/dl (9.7% v. 4.7%). The T4 level correlated with birth weight slightly better in the boys (r = 0.28 v. 0.21), and in the boys this correlation was stronger when the birth weight was lower. Regression analysis of the data for 54 sets of twins indicated that the T4 level was more strongly related to gestational age than to birth weight. PMID:7192594

  12. Effect of age, weight, and sire on embryo and fetal survival in sheep.

    PubMed

    Shorten, P R; O'Connell, A R; Demmers, K J; Edwards, S J; Cullen, N G; Juengel, J L

    2013-10-01

    The goal was to estimate the heritabilities and genetic variances for embryo and fetal survival (ES) in sheep along with the effect of premating ewe weight, age, and bilateral or unilateral ovulation on ES. The data consisted of 11,369 records on ovulation rate and litter size. Statistical models for ES included year and ovulation rate as fixed effects, premating ewe weight, and age as covariates, and sire of embryo, maternal grandsire (MGS), and permanent maternal environmental effects of the ewe as random effects. The variance components were estimated using REML. In ewes that survived to yr 6, the mean litter size was 1.87, 2.05, 2.01, 2.07, and 1.91 ± 0.04 in ewes of age 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 yr, respectively. Litter size was less in ewes of age 2 and 6 yr compared to ewes of age 3, 4, and 5 yr (P < 0.01). Ovulation rate was lower at age 2 yr and increased from age 2 to 6 yr (P < 0.05). Two-year-old ewes had lower ES than 3-yr-old ewes (P < 0.01) and the probability of ES decreased after age 3 yr (P < 0.01). Thus, ES contributes significantly to lower fertility in 2-yr-old ewes. In ewes with high ovulation rates (i.e., 5 corpora lutea, CL), more balanced ovulations (i.e., 2 or 3 CL on each ovary) tended (P = 0.06) to be associated with increased ES. A quadratic relationship was observed between ewe weight and litter size (P < 0.01) and a positive linear relationship between premating ewe weight and ovulation rate (P < 0.01). A quadratic effect of ewe weight on ES was observed, with decreased ES for low and high ewe weights (P < 0.01). The optimal ewe weight for ES increased with ovulation rate, which is consistent with the requirement of greater body reserves for maintaining a larger number of fetuses during gestation. A quadratic relationship between ewe weight and the probability that a ewe is able to maintain a pregnancy was also observed (P < 0.05). Pregnancy loss is due to failure of the embryo or fetus or failure of the dam to maintain the pregnancy. The

  13. Homicides in Western Norway, 1985-2009, time trends, age and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, S; Lilleng, P K; Mæhle, B O; Morild, I

    2014-05-01

    This retrospective study from Western Norway is based on the cases of 196 homicide victims from 1985 to 2009. The median age of the victims was 35 years, in both genders. Within the cases, 113 of the victims were male and 83 female, 28 victims were under the age of 18, and 19 victims were not native Norwegians. Ethanol was detected in the blood of a higher proportion of male compared to female victims, whereas a higher proportion of female compared to male victims had both illegal/legal drugs detected in their blood. Most perpetrators were male. Men were most often killed by an acquaintance, women by their present or former intimate partner. In 14 cases of intimate partner homicide the perpetrator committed suicide after killing their female partner. The dominant scene of crime was private homes. Most victims were killed by blunt force, sharp force or gunshot. The head was the body region most often injured in the homicide victims. Female victims were more often killed by manual strangulation than male victims.

  14. Gender Differences in Sleep Disturbance among Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Quan, Shan Ai; Li, Yong Chun; Li, Wen Jie; Li, Yan; Jeong, Jin Young; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2016-11-01

    Sleep is an important component in our lives as it is necessary throughout one's entire life span. This study was conducted to elucidate whether there are gender differences in sleep quality and what factors can affect sleep quality in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. A total of 382 subjects (175 males and 207 females) were recruited among elderly aged 45 or over who participated in the 2010 Hallym Aging Study (HAS). They were invited to a general hospital and were evaluated for socioeconomic status, smoking history, and various clinical measures. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A higher score indicates poorer subjective sleep quality, (PSQI global score > 5 suggests sleep disturbance). After adjusting for potential covariates, our results show that alcohol increases the odds for poor sleep (odds ratio [OR] = 3.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-10.10) in males. In females, lack of exercise was the major risk factor of poor sleep as they are 4.46 times more likely to suffer from low sleep quality than those who exercise regularly (95% CI=1.56-13.75). Stress was also a risk factor for poor sleep. It was 5.60 times higher in the "always have stress" group than the "do not have stress" group (95% CI = 1.54-20.34). Thus, alcohol consumption is associated with men's sleep quality, while exercise and stress level affect women's.

  15. e-Mental health in South Australia: impact of age, gender and region of residence.

    PubMed

    Keane, Miriam C; Roeger, Leigh S; Allison, Stephen; Reed, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Respondents to the 2008 South Australian Health Omnibus survey (n=2996) indicated whether, in the previous 12 months, they had searched for information on the Internet relating to emotional issues such as depression, anxiety or relationship problems. Logistic regression was used to examine the penetration of e-mental health in rural and metropolitan areas (region of residence), and determine if other demographic variables (age group, gender) also impacted on the likelihood of an individual reporting that they had used the Internet to obtain such information. Overall, 9% of respondents reported that they had used the Internet for this purpose. The multivariate model was significant, F(11, 2985)=4.82, P<0.0001, with middle-aged rural females most likely to report doing so (18.1%), whereas older rural males were least likely to report doing so (2.2.%). These findings have important implications for the design of e-mental health promotional programs that provide information and interventions to improve mental health.

  16. Age- and gender-related accumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances in captive Chinese alligators (Alligator sinensis).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianshe; Zhang, Yating; Zhang, Fang; Yeung, Leo W Y; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamazaki, Eriko; Wang, Renping; Lam, Paul K S; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Dai, Jiayin

    2013-08-01

    Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in serum of the highly endangered captive Chinese alligators, whole body homogenates of six kinds of fish (alligator prey species), and pond water (alligator habitat) in the Anhui Research Center for Chinese Alligator Reproduction. Six PFASs, including PFOS and five perfluorinated carboxylates, were detected in all alligator samples. The most dominant PFAS was PFUnDA, with a mean value of 31.4 ng/mL. Significant positive correlations were observed among the six PFASs, suggesting that they shared similar sources of contamination. Significantly higher PFOS and PFUnDA levels were observed in males, but the other four PFCAs did not differ between genders. An age related PFAS bioaccumulation analysis showed a significant negative correlation of the concentrations for five PFCAs to age, which means that higher concentrations were found in younger animals. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) in fish for PFASs ranged from 21 to 28,000, with lower BAF for PFOA than that for longer carbon chain PFCAs, including PFUnDA, PFDA, and PFNA.

  17. Changes in Support Networks in Late Middle Age: The Extension of Gender and Educational Differences

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This paper tests whether differences by gender and by educational attainment in contact with friends and family and in support expected from friends and family narrow or widen in late middle age. Methods. The data are drawn from about 4,800 members of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey who answered questions about their frequency of contact with social ties and expectations of 3 kinds of help in both 1993, when they were in their early 50s, and again in 2004. Results. Using lagged dependent variable models, we find that between their 50s and 60s women’s network advantages over men and college graduates’ network advantages over high school graduates in frequency of social contact widened. The same was roughly true as well for expectations of social support, although here the divergences depended partly on the type of the support: Women gained relative to men in “talk” support and in help from nonkin if ill, but lost ground in financial support. The college-educated gained ground in all sorts of support from nonkin. Discussion. These results reinforce concern that late middle age is a period when men and the less educated become yet more disadvantaged in social support, making attention to connectedness yet more critical. PMID:24898029

  18. Aerobic exercise, subjective health and psychological well-being within age and gender subgroups.

    PubMed

    Ransford, H E; Palisi, B J

    1996-06-01

    This research examines relationships between different forms of aerobic exercise (swim, walk, jog, dance) and two measures of health: subjective health and psychological well-being. We hypothesize that the relationship between aerobic exercise and subjective health/well-being will be notably stronger for older than younger persons and females than males. This prediction is based on Homans' exchange theory of investments and rewards. Since social norms concerning aerobic exercise are likely to be weaker among older (than younger) persons and among women than men, older persons and women who do exercise are making special investments and should expect greater rewards (good health). The concept of 'exercise norms' implies social comparisons with others. Accordingly, age comparative data were analyzed to see if older persons who exercise see themselves as more active than their age peers than do younger persons. Data come from a national probability sample of 3025 adults (National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences). As predicted, exercise was much more strongly related to subjective health and well-being among older than younger respondents. In the main, the gender hypothesis was not supported.

  19. Income, neighborhood stressors, and harsh parenting: test of moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender.

    PubMed

    Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2014-12-01

    Family and neighborhood influences related to low-income were examined to understand their association with harsh parenting among an ethnically diverse sample of families. Specifically, a path model linking household income to harsh parenting via neighborhood disorder, fear for safety, maternal depressive symptoms, and family conflict was evaluated using cross-sectional data from 2,132 families with children ages 5-16 years from Chicago. The sample was 42% Mexican American, 41% African American, and 17% European American. Results provide support for a family process model where a lower income-to-needs ratio is associated with higher reports of neighborhood disorder, greater fear for safety, and more family conflict, which is in turn, associated with greater frequency of harsh parenting. Our tests for moderation by ethnicity/immigrant status, child gender, and child age (younger child vs. adolescent) indicate that although paths are similar for families of boys and girls, as well as for families of young children and adolescents, there are some differences by ethnic group. Specifically, we find the path from neighborhood disorder to fear for safety is stronger for Mexican American (United States born and immigrant) and European American families in comparison with African American families. We also find that the path from fear for safety to harsh parenting is significant for European American and African American families only. Possible reasons for such moderated effects are considered.

  20. Prevalence and severity of anaemia stratified by age and gender in rural India.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Naik, Praveen K; Midde, Manoranjan; Yalla, Pradeep S; Pakam, Raghavakalyan

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia is a major public health problem in India. Although nearly three quarters of the Indian population live in rural areas, the epidemiology of anaemia in rural settings is not well known. We performed a retrospective observational study using routine clinical data from patients attending the out-patient clinics of a rural hospital in India from June 2011 to August 2014. The study included 73,795 determinations of haemoglobin. 49.5% of patients were female. The median haemoglobin concentration was 11.3 g/dL (interquartile range (IQR), 9.8-12.4) in females and 12.5 g/dL (IQR, 10.6-14.2) in males. Anaemia was present in the majority of children <10 years, women after puberty, and older adults. Children <5 years had the highest prevalence of anaemia, especially children aged 1-2 years. The high proportion of microcytic anaemia and the fact that gender differences were only seen after the menarche period in women suggest that iron deficiency was the main cause of anaemia. However, the prevalence of normocytic anaemia increased with age. The results of this study can be used by public health programmes to design target interventions aimed at reducing the huge burden of anaemia in India. Further studies are needed to clarify the aetiology of anaemia among older adults.

  1. The influence of premedication, anaesthesia, age and weight on glucose uptake into human isolated skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, M J; Leighton, M; Turner, P

    1976-01-01

    The effect of the anaesthetic procedures and of the sex, age and weight of each patient on glucose uptake and glycogen content of human skeletal muscle has been studied in vitro in the presence and absence of insulin. Statistical analysis indicated that the relationships between age and both glucose uptake and the response to insulin were significant, older patients in general having higher uptakes. The blucose uptake was highly correlated with the three obesity indices (ponderal index, body mass index and percentage of the ideal weight). The anaesthetic agents had no significant effect on glucose uptake. The choice of premedication appeared to have a small effect on the basal glucose uptake level, but as the choice of premedication was also age related and age itself was a significant factor, this effect may not be of importance. It is concluded that the age and the degree of obesity of the patients ought to be taken into account when studying samples of human muscle. PMID:973964

  2. Age and Gender Differences in the Well-Being of Midlife and Aging Parents with Children with Mental Health or Developmental Problems: Report of a National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Jung-Hwa; Hong, Jinkuk; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the Study of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS), this article examines: (1) the effect of having children with developmental or mental health problems on parents mental and physical health, (2) the extent to which this effect varies by parental age and gender, and (3) the effects of disability-related factors on the well-being of…

  3. Weight changes in wild Wolves, Canis lupus, from ages 2 to 24 months

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Mech L.

    2008-01-01

    Weights of 118 female and 141 male Minnesota Wolves (Canis lupus) aged 2-24 months increased almost linearly from about 8 kg for females and 10 kg for males at 3 months to 30 kg for females and 32 kg for males at 10-12 months and then tended to increase much more slowly in an overall curvilinear trend. Considerable variation was apparent for both sexes during their first year.

  4. Differential association of socio-economic status with gender- and age-defined suicidal ideation among adult and elderly individuals in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Hahm, Myung-Il; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2013-11-30

    South Korea has the highest suicide rate among countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), with a rising trend that contrasts with the trend in most other OECD countries. This study assessed differential associations of socio-demographic factors with suicidal ideation in South Korea. We used five waves of data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Study subjects included 5803 men and women aged >25 years. We analysed weighted percentages with consideration of the complex survey sample design and unequal weights. Surveylogistic regressions were applied. Protective effects against suicidal ideation were found for higher household income, higher educational attainment, and being married. Functional limitations and depressive symptoms were risk factors for suicidal ideation. However, these significant factors may exert different effects on vulnerability for suicidal ideation among different genders and age groups. Thus, household income was mainly protective for women and subjects aged 25-44 years, and educational attainment was protective for individuals aged >65 years. Our findings suggest the need for extended social protection policies for the less privileged population and special strategies for different groups.

  5. Age, gender, and level of activity as moderators of personal incentives to physical activity in Israel.

    PubMed

    Raviv, Shulamith; Netz, Yael

    2007-05-01

    The authors conducted an exploratory study with Israeli adults examining their personal incentives for physical activity (e.g., appearance, weight management). The participants formed a sample of 379 physically active Israelis, aged 20-89 years, divided into 3 age groups and 3 levels of activity. The authors found a similar profile for men and women for most incentives, with men scoring more highly than did women on only competition and fitness. Participants in the highest level of activity attributed greater importance to all incentives than did those in the other levels, and older adults attributed less importance to all incentives except for health benefits. The findings are relevant for planning activities intended to encourage adults to engage in more physical activity.

  6. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    PubMed

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were severe cerebral injuries, neurosensory disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (< 1 SD) at 6 years. The presence of learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school.

  7. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age

    PubMed Central

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L.; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001–2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were severe cerebral injuries, neurosensory disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (< 1 SD) at 6 years. The presence of learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9–10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school. PMID:27445952

  8. Bad marriage, broken heart? Age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risks among older adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

    2014-12-01

    Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57-85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework.

  9. Bad Marriage, Broken Heart? Age and Gender Differences in the Link between Marital Quality and Cardiovascular Risks among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57–85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts; and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. PMID:25413802

  10. Gender Differences in Vocational Rehabilitation Service Predictors of Successful Competitive Employment for Transition-Aged Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Connie; Sánchez, Jennifer; Kuo, Hung-Jen; Wang, Chia-Chiang; Leahy, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    As males and females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience different symptomology, their needs for vocational rehabilitation (VR) are unique as they transition into adulthood. This study examined the effects of gender differences in VR service predictors on employment outcomes for transition-aged individuals with ASD. A total of 1696…

  11. Do the Instructors Differ in Their Behavioral Intention to Adopt E-Learning Based on Age, Gender, and Internet Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altawallbeh, Manal; Thiam, Wun; Alshourah, Sultan; Fong, Soon Fook

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine if there are differences of the age, gender, and internet experience on behavioural intention to adopt e-learning of the instructors in Jordanian universities. The paper takes a social, and technical approach in its investigation by using a research model based on the ANOVA and t-test Analysis to identify if…

  12. A Study of Associations between Age, Race, Gender, and Adult Learners Graduating from a Distant-Learning Master's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, Deborah Trupp

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on adult learners' age, race, gender, and whether they graduated from a distant-learning, master in the art of teaching program at an accredited college during the three academic semesters that comprised the 2007-2008 school year. The dependent variable used in this study consisted of whether adult learners graduated from a…

  13. Investigation of Music Student Efficacy as Influenced by Age, Experience, Gender, Ethnicity, and Type of Instrument Played in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Norman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to quantitatively examine South Carolina high school instrumental music students' self-efficacy as measured by the Generalized Self-Efficacy (GSE) instrument (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1993). The independent variables of age, experience, gender, ethnicity, and type of instrument played) were correlated with…

  14. The Impact of Teachers' Age, Gender and Experience on the Use of Information and Communication Technology in EFL Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahdi, Hassan Saleh; Al-Dera, Abdullah Sa'ad

    2013-01-01

    The integration of information and communication technology (ICT) into language teaching and learning depends on many factors. Some of these factors are associated with teachers. Teachers play a crucial role in the integration of ICT. This study investigates the impact of teacher's age, experience, and gender on the integration of ICT into…

  15. Who Gets Ahead?: The Effect of Age, Disability, Ethnicity and Gender on Teachers' Careers and Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart; Davidson, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results from a 12-month study of teachers' career progress in schools in England and the ways in which headteachers and teachers perceive that age, disability, ethnicity and gender affect teachers' career prospects. Many teachers thought that they had been promoted because of their personal traits, such as drive,…

  16. The Relation of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Risk Behaviors to Self-Esteem among Students in Nonmainstream Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer M.; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two non-mainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a…

  17. The Impact of Gender, Family Type and Age on Undergraduate Parents' Perception of Causes of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onoyase, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Impact of Gender, Family type and Age on undergraduate parents' perception of causes of child Sexual Abuse. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested. There was a review of relevant literature. The population for the study were 2014 sandwich contact students of Delta State University, Abraka who…

  18. Disparity in Autism Spectrum Disorder Prevalence among Taiwan National Health Insurance Enrollees: Age, Gender and Urbanization Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Chiang, Po-Huang; Lin, Lam-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to characterize the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Taiwan while examining the effects of age, gender, and urbanization on ASD occurrence. A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze data from 895,639 random health insurance claimants who claimed medical services in the year 2007. Autism was defined…

  19. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and Adolescent and Adult Recidivism-- Considerations with Respect to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health…

  20. Diagnosing Intellectual Disability in a Forensic Sample: Gender and Age Effects on the Relationship between Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The relationship between adaptive behaviour and cognitive functioning in offenders with intellectual disabilities is not well researched. This study aims to examine gender and age effects on the relationship between these two areas of functioning. Method: The "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales" (VABS) and the "Kaufman…

  1. Ethnic and Gender Trends for Cardiovascular Risk Behaviors in Anglo and Mexican American Children, Ages Four to Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nader, Philip R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined gender and ethnic trends in Mexican American and Anglo preschoolers at home and school using physical, physiological, dietary, activity, and socioenvironmental assessments. Height and total skinfolds showed significant ethnic differences, confirming that preschool represents an age of rapid habit and behavior development…

  2. What's Age Got to Do with It? A Case Study Analysis of Power and Gender in Husband-Older Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyke, Karen; Adams, Michele

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study explores assumptions of family scholars who draw on age heterogamy and marriage-gradient approaches to suggest that marriages between older husbands and much younger wives are likely to be male-dominated, with traditional gender arrangements. Drawing on resource theory and marital power perspectives, we analyze the life…

  3. The Relationship between Age, Gender, Historical Change, and Adults' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currin, James B.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Temple, Jeff R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of age, historical change, and gender on perceptions of mental health and mental health services. Using multidimensional measures to assess such perceptions among older adults (1977, 1991, 2000), and younger adults (1991, 2000), we expected that older adults would have less positive mental health…

  4. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson "et al." ("Counsellor Education & Supervision" 41: 120-130, 1992) was…

  5. Attributions to Success and Failure in English Language Learning: The Effects of Gender, Age and Perceived Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genç, Gülten

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze Turkish tertiary level EFL learners' attributions to success and failure and the effects of gender, age, and perceived success on their attributions. The results indicated that EFL learners respectively attributed interest, ability, task difficulty, effort, luck and the influence of teacher and school…

  6. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  7. The Subtlety of Age, Gender, and Race Barriers: A Case Study of Early Career African American Female Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2013-01-01

    While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…

  8. UTAUT Model for Blended Learning: The Role of Gender and Age in the Intention to Use Webinars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khechine, Hager; Lakhal, Sawsen; Pascot, Daniel; Bytha, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to determine the factors that explain the acceptance of a webinar system (Elluminate) in a blended learning course by students. The effects of gender and age as moderating variables were also studied. Our hypotheses were based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of the technology model, which was proven to be…

  9. Effects of Autistic Traits on Social and School Adjustment in Children and Adolescents: The Moderating Roles of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…

  10. Gender Differences in Physical Health and Psychosocial Well Being among Four Age-Groups of Elderly People in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, Sara; Bernstein, Judith H.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the well-established gender differences in physical and psychosocial well being in adulthood persist throughout different age groups of elderly persons, in order to support one of two opposing hypotheses: the convergence and divergence hypotheses. Data were collected by structured…

  11. Effect of genetic strain and gender on age-related changes in body composition of the laboratory rat.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Body composition data for common laboratory strains of rat as a function of age.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Gordon , C., K. Jarema , A. Johnstone , and P. Phillips. Effect of Genetic Strain and Gender on Age-Related Changes in Body Composition of the Laboratory Rat. Physiology & Behavior. Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, NETHERLANDS, 153(1): 56-63, (2016).

  12. Randomised controlled trial of postnatal sodium supplementation on oxygen dependency and body weight in 25-30 week gestational age infants

    PubMed Central

    Hartnoll, G.; Betremieux, P.; Modi, N.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To compare the effects of early against delayed sodium supplementation on oxygen dependency and body weight, in preterm infants of 25-30 weeks of gestational age.
METHODS—Infants were stratified by gender and gestation and randomly assigned to receive a sodium intake of 4 mmol/kg/day starting on either the second day after birth or when weight loss of 6% of birthweight was achieved. Daily sodium intake, serum sodium concentration, total fluid intake, energy intake, clinical risk index for babies (CRIB) score and duration of ventilatory support and additional oxygen therapy were recorded. Infants were weighed daily. Weights at 36 weeks and six months of postmenstrual age were also recorded.
RESULTS—Twenty four infants received early, and 22 delayed, sodium supplementation. There were no significant differences in total fluid and energy intake between the two groups. There was a significant difference in oxygen requirement at the end of the first week, with 9% of the early group in air in contrast to 35% of the delayed group (difference 26%, 95% confidence interval 2, 50). At 28 days after birth the proportions were 18% of the early group and 40% of the delayed group (difference 22%, 95% CI −5, 49). Proportional hazards modelling showed early sodium supplementation and lower birthweight to be significantly associated with increased risk of continuing oxygen requirement. The delayed sodium group had a greater maximum weight loss (delayed 16.1%; early 11.4%, p=0.02), but there were no significant differences in time to maximum weight loss, time to regain birthweight, and weight at 36 weeks and 6months of postmenstrual age.
CONCLUSION—In infants below 30 weeks of gestation, delaying sodium supplementation until at least 6% of birthweight is lost has a beneficial effect on the risk of continuing oxygen requirement and does not compromise growth.

 PMID:10634836

  13. Association between arterial stiffness and left ventricular diastolic function in relation to gender and age

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Lim, Woo-Hyun; Seo, Jae-Bin; Chung, Woo-Young; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Myung-A.; Zo, Joo-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and subsequent overt heart failure are more prevalent in elderly women. Close interaction between arterial stiffness and LV morphology/function has been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an age- and gender-dependent relationship between arterial stiffness and LV diastolic function. A total of 819 subjects (58.6 ± 13.3 years, 50.2% men) without structural heart disease (LV ejection fraction ≥50%) were retrospectively analyzed. All participants underwent transthoracic echocardiography and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) measurement on the same day. The association of baPWV with septal e′ velocity and average E/e′ was assessed. In the total study subjects, baPWV was negatively correlated with septal e′ velocity (r = 0.383, P < 0.001), and positively correlated with E/e′ (r = −0.266, P < 0.001). These linear correlations remained significant even after stratificaion of the study subjects by age (<65 years vs ≥65 years) and genders (P < 0.05 for each). There were obvious differences in baPWV according to groups with normal LV diastolic function, intermediate profile and LV diastolic dysfunction in young (P = 0.010) and elderly (≥65 years) women (P < 0.001) and eldery men (P = 0.012) but not in elderly men (P = 0.270). There was a significant association of baPWV with septal e′ velocity (β = −0.258, P = 0.020) and E/e′ (β = 0.122, P = 0.030) in elderly women even after controlling for multiple clinical covariates. This independent association was not seen in younger women and men (P > 0.05 for each). In conclusion, baPWV was independently associated with septal e′ velocity and E/e′ in elderly women but not in younger women or men. The results of this study provide additional evidence that increased arterial stiffness plays an important role in the development of heart failure with

  14. [Perinatal outcomes in the extremes of reproductive age and factors associated with low weight at birth].

    PubMed

    Sass, Arethuza; Gravena, Angela Andréia França; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate perinatal outcomes in the extremes of reproductive age and verify the risk factors for low birth weight. This is a retrospective study of deliveries in the city of Sarandi, state of Paraná, Brazil in 2008, and it was performed by accessing data from the Information System on Live Births. The 331 expectant mothers were subdivided into two groups: adolescents (10-19 years of age) and late-age (35 years or older). Rates of cesarean deliveries were significantly higher (66.1%) in mothers 35 or older than in adolescents (26.8%). Regarding risk factors for low weight at birth, it was observed that this condition was strongly associated with prematurity and marital status. The perinatal outcomes of mothers 35 or older were not significantly different from the results of the adolescents, thus confirming the occurrence of adverse results in both extremes of reproductive age, with the exception of the incidence of cesarean delivery.

  15. Interactive effects of age and gender on EEG power and coherence during a short-term memory task in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Kober, Silvia Erika; Reichert, Johanna Louise; Neuper, Christa; Wood, Guilherme

    2016-04-01

    The effects of age and gender on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during a short-term memory task were assessed in a group of 40 healthy participants aged 22-63 years. Multi-channel EEG was recorded in 20 younger (mean = 24.65-year-old, 10 male) and 20 middle-aged participants (mean = 46.40-year-old, 10 male) during performance of a Sternberg task. EEG power and coherence measures were analyzed in different frequency bands. Significant interactions emerged between age and gender in memory performance and concomitant EEG parameters, suggesting that the aging process differentially influences men and women. Middle-aged women showed a lower short-term memory performance compared to young women, which was accompanied by decreasing delta and theta power and increasing brain connectivity with age in women. In contrast, men showed no age-related decline in short-term memory performance and no changes in EEG parameters. These results provide first evidence of age-related alterations in EEG activity underlying memory processes, which were already evident in the middle years of life in women but not in men.

  16. Cohort study of effect of being overweight and change in weight on risk of coronary heart disease in old age.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, T. B.; Launer, L. J.; Madans, J.; Feldman, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk of late life coronary heart disease associated with being overweight in late middle or old age and to assess whether weight change modifies this risk. DESIGN: Longitudinal study of subjects in the epidemiological follow up study of the national health and nutrition examination survey I. SETTING: United States. SUBJECTS: 621 men and 960 women free of coronary heart disease in 1982-84 (mean age 77 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incidence of coronary heart disease. RESULTS: Body mass index of 27 or more in late middle age was associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease in late life (relative risk = 1.7 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.1)) while body mass index of 27 or more in old age was not (1.1 (0.8 to 1.5)). This difference in risk was due largely to weight loss between middle and old age. Exclusion of those with weight loss of 10% or more increased risk associated with heavier weight in old age (1.4 (1.0 to 1.9)). Thinner older people who lost weight and heavier people who had gained weight showed increased risk of coronary heart disease compared with thinner people with stable weight. CONCLUSIONS: Heavier weight in late middle age was a risk factor for coronary heart disease in late life. Heavier weight in old age was associated with an increased risk once those with substantial weight loss were excluded. The contribution of weight to risk of coronary heart disease in older people may be underestimated if weight history is neglected. PMID:9224080

  17. Effect of radiation sterilization and aging on ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, R.J.; Grood, E.S.; Shastri, R.; Gosselin, C.A.; Noyes, F.R.

    1981-03-01

    The mechanical properties of polyethylene components used in prosthesis are altered after fabrication by the sterilization procedure and by the environmental and mechanical aging which occurs after implantation. To assess the importance and extent of these alterations, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylenes from two sources, Hercules 1900 and RCH 1000C, were subjected to gamma-ray irradiation and aging in serum and argon environments. Changes induced by these treatments in the structural and mechanical parameters have been determined by a variety of experimental techniques. The effect of irradiation is to introduce crosslinks and to increase the degree of crystallinity resulting in changes in the tensile properties in the direction of higher stiffness and reduced ductility. Aging for six months produced similar changes with subtle differences. The results suggest that the initially low degree of crystallinity which results from the sluggish mobility of the very long chain molecules offers the opportunity for significant changes in the properties during use in the long run.

  18. Correlation between Age, Gender, Waist-Hip Ratio and Intra Ocular Pressure in Adult North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surjit; Manjhi, Prafulla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intraocular pressure (IOP) is affected by various systemic and local factors. The significance of studying the factors affecting IOP is because of its association with potentially blinding condition known as glaucoma. Aim Present study was conducted with the aim to find out the correlation between gender, age, Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR) and IOP. Materials and Methods The study included 300 healthy individuals between 40-79years of age. The subjects were divided into 2 categories according to gender i.e., male and female. The subjects were divided into 4 categories according to age i.e., 40-49years, 50-59years, 60-69years and 70-79years. The subjects were divided into two groups according to Waist-hip ratio (WHR) as per WHO guidelines: WHR <0.9 and WHR >0.9 in males and WHR <0.85 and WHR >0.85 in females. IOP was recorded in each group using Goldmann Applanation tonometer and statistical comparisons were made to find correlation between gender, age, Waist-hip ratio and IOP. Results There was no statistically significant difference between IOP of males and females (p=0.235). The age and IOP were positively correlated with each other i.e., IOP increases with increasing age (r=0.511, p<0.001). Higher WHR is associated with significantly higher IOP in both the genders (males r =0.644, p<0.001; females r=0.794, p<0.001). Conclusion There is no significant difference in IOP amongst males and females. Increasing age and higher WHR are risk factors for raised IOP. PMID:28208848

  19. Hwa-Byung among middle-aged Korean women: family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Ji, Peter; Shim, Young R; Lothspeich, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    We surveyed 395 Korean middle-aged women and examined how their perceptions of family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem were associated with Hwa-Byung (HB; Korean anger syndrome). Our regression analyses revealed that participants who reported worse family relationship problems experienced more HB symptoms. Having profeminist, egalitarian attitudes toward women's gender roles was also associated with more HB symptoms. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with HB. Based on the results, we suggest that what is crucial to understanding HB is not how women evaluate themselves, but rather the level of stress caused by family relationship problems and their perception of women's roles.

  20. Satiety responsiveness in toddlerhood predicts energy intake and weight status at four years of age.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Nambiar, Smita; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal-report of child eating behaviour at two years predicted self-regulation of energy intake and weight status at four years. Using an 'eating in the absence of hunger' paradigm, children's energy intake (kJ) from a semi-standardized lunch meal and a standardized selection of snacks were measured. Participants were 37 mother-child dyads (16 boys, Median child age=4.4years, Inter-quartile range=3.7-4.5years) recruited from an existing longitudinal study (NOURISH randomised controlled trial). All participants were tested in their own home. Details of maternal characteristics, child eating behaviours (at age two years) reported by mothers on a validated questionnaire, and measured child height and weight (at age 3.5-4years) were sourced from existing NOURISH trial data. Correlation and partial correlation analyses were used to examine longitudinal relationships. Satiety responsiveness and Slowness in eating were inversely associated with energy intake of the lunch meal (partial r=-.40, p=.023, and partial r=-.40, p=.023) and the former was also negatively associated with BMI-for-age Z score (partial r=-.42, p=.015). Food responsiveness and Enjoyment of food were not related to energy intake or BMI Z score. None of the eating behaviours were significantly associated with energy intake of the snacks (i.e., eating in the absence of hunger). The small and predominantly 'healthy weight' sample of children may have limited the ability to detect some hypothesized effects. Nevertheless, the study provides evidence for the predictive validity of two eating behaviours and future research with a larger and more diverse sample should be able to better evaluate the predictive validity of other children's early eating behaviour styles.

  1. References of birth weights for gestational age and sex from a large cohort of singleton births in cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kemfang Ngowa, Jean Dupont; Domkam, Irénée; Ngassam, Anny; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Dobgima Pisoh, Walter; Noa, Cyrille; Kasia, Jean Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  2. Trends in gestational age and birth weight in Chile, 1991–2008. A descriptive epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gestational age and birth weight are the principal determinants of newborn’s health status. Chile, a middle income country traditionally has public policies that promote maternal and child health. The availability of an exhaustive database of live births has allows us to monitor over time indicators of newborns health. Methods This descriptive epidemiological study included all live births in Chile, both singleton and multiple, from 1991 through 2008. Trends in gestational age affected the rate of prevalence (%) of preterm births (<37 weeks, including the categories < 32 and 32–36 weeks), term births (37–41) and postterm births (42 weeks or more). Trends in birth weight affected the prevalence of births < 1500 g, 1500–2499 g, 2500–3999 g, and 4000 g or more. Results Data from an exhaustive register of live births showed that the number of term and postterm births decreased and the number of multiple births increased significantly. Birth weights exceeding 4000 g did not vary. Total preterm births rose from 5.0% to 6.6%, with increases of 28% for the singletons and 31% for multiple births (p for trend < 0.0001). Some categories increased even more: specifically preterm birth < 32 weeks increased 32.3% for singletons and 50.6% for multiple births (p for trend 0.0001). The overall rate of low birth weight infants (<2500 g) increased from 4.6% to 5.3%. This variation was not statistically significant for singletons (p for trend = 0.06), but specific analyses exhibited an important increase in the category weighing <1500 g (42%) similar to that observed in multiple births (43%). Conclusions The gestational age and birth weight of live born child have significantly changed over the past two decades in Chile. Monitoring only overall rates of preterm births and low-birth-weight could provide restricted information of this important problem to public health. Monitoring them by specific categories provides a solid

  3. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  4. Personality, Gender, and Age in the Language of Social Media: The Open-Vocabulary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, H. Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Kern, Margaret L.; Dziurzynski, Lukasz; Ramones, Stephanie M.; Agrawal, Megha; Shah, Achal; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Seligman, Martin E. P.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 700 million words, phrases, and topic instances collected from the Facebook messages of 75,000 volunteers, who also took standard personality tests, and found striking variations in language with personality, gender, and age. In our open-vocabulary technique, the data itself drives a comprehensive exploration of language that distinguishes people, finding connections that are not captured with traditional closed-vocabulary word-category analyses. Our analyses shed new light on psychosocial processes yielding results that are face valid (e.g., subjects living in high elevations talk about the mountains), tie in with other research (e.g., neurotic people disproportionately use the phrase ‘sick of’ and the word ‘depressed’), suggest new hypotheses (e.g., an active life implies emotional stability), and give detailed insights (males use the possessive ‘my’ when mentioning their ‘wife’ or ‘girlfriend’ more often than females use ‘my’ with ‘husband’ or 'boyfriend’). To date, this represents the largest study, by an order of magnitude, of language and personality. PMID:24086296

  5. Gender and Age Analyses of NIRS/STAI Pearson Correlation Coefficients at Resting State.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, T; Fuchita, Y; Ichikawa, K; Fukuda, Y; Takemura, N; Sakatani, K

    2016-01-01

    According to the valence asymmetry hypothesis, the left/right asymmetry of PFC activity is correlated with specific emotional responses to mental stress and personality traits. In a previous study we measured spontaneous oscillation of oxy-Hb concentrations in the bilateral PFC at rest in normal adults employing two-channel portable NIRS and computed the laterality index at rest (LIR). We investigated the Pearson correlation coefficient between the LIR and anxiety levels evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) test. We found that subjects with right-dominant activity at rest showed higher STAI scores, while those with left dominant oxy-Hb changes at rest showed lower STAI scores such that the Pearson correlation coefficient between LIR and STAI was positive. This study performed Bootstrap analysis on the data and showed the following statistics of the target correlation coefficient: mean=0.4925 and lower confidence limit=0.177 with confidence level 0.05. Using the KS-test, we demonstrated that the correlation did not depend on age, whereas it did depend on gender.

  6. Personality, gender, and age in the language of social media: the open-vocabulary approach.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, H Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kern, Margaret L; Dziurzynski, Lukasz; Ramones, Stephanie M; Agrawal, Megha; Shah, Achal; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Seligman, Martin E P; Ungar, Lyle H

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 700 million words, phrases, and topic instances collected from the Facebook messages of 75,000 volunteers, who also took standard personality tests, and found striking variations in language with personality, gender, and age. In our open-vocabulary technique, the data itself drives a comprehensive exploration of language that distinguishes people, finding connections that are not captured with traditional closed-vocabulary word-category analyses. Our analyses shed new light on psychosocial processes yielding results that are face valid (e.g., subjects living in high elevations talk about the mountains), tie in with other research (e.g., neurotic people disproportionately use the phrase 'sick of' and the word 'depressed'), suggest new hypotheses (e.g., an active life implies emotional stability), and give detailed insights (males use the possessive 'my' when mentioning their 'wife' or 'girlfriend' more often than females use 'my' with 'husband' or 'boyfriend'). To date, this represents the largest study, by an order of magnitude, of language and personality.

  7. The influence of age, gender and other information technology use on young people's computer use at school and home.

    PubMed

    Harris, C; Straker, L; Pollock, C

    2013-01-01

    Young people are exposed to a range of information technologies (IT) in different environments, including home and school, however the factors influencing IT use at home and school are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate young people's computer exposure patterns at home and school, and related factors such as age, gender and the types of IT used. 1351 children in Years 1, 6, 9 and 11 from 10 schools in metropolitan Western Australia were surveyed. Most children had access to computers at home and school, with computer exposures comparable to TV, reading and writing. Total computer exposure was greater at home than school, and increased with age. Computer activities varied with age and gender and became more social with increased age, at the same time parental involvement reduced. Bedroom computer use was found to result in higher exposure patterns. High use of home and school computers were associated with each other. Associations varied depending on the type of IT exposure measure (frequency, mean weekly hours, usual and longest duration). The frequency and duration of children's computer exposure were associated with a complex interplay of the environment of use, the participant's age and gender and other IT activities.

  8. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans With and Without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or ethnicity, and Education

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51 and older from the 1998 to 2006 Health and Retirement Study. Multilevel models and a cohort-sequential design were applied to quantitatively depict the age norm of physical disability after age 50. Results: Adults with diabetes not only experience greater levels of physical disability but also faster rates of deterioration over time. This pattern is net of attrition, time-invariant sociodemographic factors, and time-varying chronic disease conditions. Differences in physical disability between adults with and without diabetes were more pronounced in women, non-White, and those of lower education. The moderating effects of gender and education remained robust even after controlling for selected covariates in the model. Implications: This study highlighted the consistently greater development of disability over time in adults with diabetes and particularly in those who are women, non-White, or adults of lower education. Future studies are recommended to examine the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of diabetes on physical disability by gender and education. PMID:20713455

  9. Factors associated with age at slaughter and carcass weight, price, and value of dairy cull cows.

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, I; De Marchi, M; Cecchinato, A; Berry, D P; Bittante, G

    2014-02-01

    The sale of cull cows contributes to the overall profit of dairy herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with slaughter age (mo), cow carcass weight (kg), price (€/kg of carcass weight), and value (€/head) of dairy cull cows. Data included 20,995 slaughter records in the period from 2003 to 2011 of 5 different breeds: 2 dairy [Holstein Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS)] and 3 dual-purpose [Simmental (Si), Alpine Grey (AG), and Rendena (Re)]. Associations of breed, age of cow (except when the dependent variable was slaughter age), and year and month of slaughter with slaughter age, carcass weight, price, and value were quantified using a mixed linear model; herd was included as a random effect. The seasonal trends in cow price and value traits were inversely related to the number of cows slaughtered, whereas annual variation in external factors affected market conditions. Relative to BS cows, HF cows were younger at slaughter (73.1 vs. 80.7 mo), yielded slightly lighter carcasses (242 vs. 246 kg), and received a slightly lower price (1.69 vs. 1.73 €/kg) and total value (394 vs. 417 €/head). Dual-purpose breeds were older and heavier and received a much greater price and total value at slaughter (521, 516, and 549 €/head, respectively for Si, Re, and AG) than either dairy breed. Of the dual-purpose cows, Si carcasses were heavier (271 kg), whereas the carcasses of local breeds received a higher price (2.05 and 2.18 €/kg for Re and AG, respectively) and Alpine Grey cows were the oldest at slaughter (93.3 mo). The price per kilogram of cull cow carcasses was greatest for very young cows (i.e., <3 yr of age) and the differential in price and value between younger and older cows was greater in dual-purpose than in dairy breeds. Large differences in cull cow whole carcass value (carcass weight × unit price) among dairy breeds suggest that such a trait could be considered in the breeding objectives of the breeds.

  10. Gender Differences in Sleep Disturbance among Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is an important component in our lives as it is necessary throughout one’s entire life span. This study was conducted to elucidate whether there are gender differences in sleep quality and what factors can affect sleep quality in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. A total of 382 subjects (175 males and 207 females) were recruited among elderly aged 45 or over who participated in the 2010 Hallym Aging Study (HAS). They were invited to a general hospital and were evaluated for socioeconomic status, smoking history, and various clinical measures. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A higher score indicates poorer subjective sleep quality, (PSQI global score > 5 suggests sleep disturbance). After adjusting for potential covariates, our results show that alcohol increases the odds for poor sleep (odds ratio [OR] = 3.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11–10.10) in males. In females, lack of exercise was the major risk factor of poor sleep as they are 4.46 times more likely to suffer from low sleep quality than those who exercise regularly (95% CI=1.56–13.75). Stress was also a risk factor for poor sleep. It was 5.60 times higher in the “always have stress” group than the “do not have stress” group (95% CI = 1.54–20.34). Thus, alcohol consumption is associated with men’s sleep quality, while exercise and stress level affect women’s. PMID:27709844

  11. Lunch eating behavior of preschool children. Effects of age, gender, and type of beverage served.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J F

    To examine the eating behavior of preschool children offered chocolate-flavored or plain milk at lunch, food consumption by 135 children, aged 18-66 months, was measured. Four different menus were served six times during a 12-week period, each menu being presented twice with each of three test beverages, plain milk (18.1 kcal/oz), sucrose-sweetened chocolate milk (29.4 kcal/oz), or aspartame-sweetened chocolate milk (18.6 kcal/oz). The type of milk beverage served had no significant effect on the consumption of other food items offered at that meal. Subjects did drink significantly more chocolate milk than plain milk during all meals and consequently consumed significantly more energy during those meals in which sucrose-sweetened chocolate milk was served. A macronutrient analysis of lunch-time food intake for each menu revealed significant differences in protein, fat, and carbohydrate content among the four menus. Older children consumed significantly more milk and more energy per lunch-time meal than did younger preschoolers, but no other consistent age-related differences were observed. No significant gender differences were detected in any of the statistical analyses conducted. These findings suggest that young children do not reduce the intake of other food items at a meal to compensate for the increased energy intake that results from excessive sucrose-sweetened milk consumption. Aspartame-sweetened milk increases milk intake in small children without providing them with the additional calories of sucrose-sweetened milk.

  12. Age and gender difference in non-drafting ultra-endurance cycling performance - the ‘Swiss Cycling Marathon’

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, there was an increased interest in investigating the gender difference in performance and the age of peak performance in ultra-endurance performances such as ultra-triathlon, ultra-running, and ultra-swimming, but not in ultra-cycling. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gender difference in ultra-cycling performance and the age of peak ultra-cycling performance in the 720-km ‘Swiss Cycling Marathon’, the largest European qualifier for the ‘Race Across America’. Methods Changes in the cycling speed and age of 985 finishers including 38 women and 947 men competing in the Swiss Cycling Marathon from 2001 to 2012 covering a distance of 720 km with a change of altitude of 4,993 m were analyzed using linear regression. Results The gender difference in performance was 13.6% for the fastest cyclists ever, 13.9% ± 0.5% for the three fastest cyclists ever and 19.1% ± 3.7% for the ten fastest cyclists ever. The gender difference in performance for the annual top three women and men decreased from 35.0% ± 9.5% in 2001 to 20.4% ± 7.7% in 2012 (r2 = 0.72, p = 0.01). The annual top three women improved cycling speed from 20.3 ± 3.1 km h−1 in 2003 to 24.8 ± 2.4 km h−1 in 2012 (r2 = 0.79, p < 0.01). The cycling speed of the annual top three men remained unchanged at 30.2 ± 0.6 km h−1 (p > 0.05). The age of peak performance for the ten fastest finishers ever was 35.9 ± 9.6 years for men and 38.7 ± 7.8 years for women, respectively (p = 0.47). Conclusions The gender difference in ultra-cycling performance decreased over the 2001 to 2012 period in the 720-km Swiss Cycling Marathon for the annual top three cyclists and reached approximately 14%. Both women and men achieved peak performance at the age of approximately 36 to 39 years. Women might close the gender gap in ultra-endurance cycling in longer cycling distances. Future studies need to investigate the gender difference in performance in the Race Across America, the

  13. Burden of multimorbidity in relation to age, gender and immigrant status: a cross-sectional study based on administrative data

    PubMed Central

    Avaldi, Vera Maria; Pieri, Giulia; Fantini, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Many studies have investigated multimorbidity, whose prevalence varies according to settings and data sources. However, few studies on this topic have been conducted in Italy, a country with universal healthcare and one of the most aged populations in the world. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of multimorbidity in a Northern Italian region, to investigate its distribution by age, gender and citizenship and to analyse the correlations of diseases. Design Cross-sectional study based on administrative data. Setting Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region with ∼4.4 million inhabitants, of which almost one-fourth are aged ≥65 years. Participants All adults residing in Emilia-Romagna on 31 December 2012. Hospitalisations, drug prescriptions and contacts with community mental health services from 2003 to 2012 were traced to identify the presence of 17 physical and 9 mental health disorders. Primary and secondary outcome measures Descriptive analysis of differences in the prevalence of multimorbidity in relation to age, gender and citizenship. The correlations of diseases were analysed using exploratory factor analysis. Results The study population included 622 026 men and 751 011women, with a mean age of 66.4 years. Patients with multimorbidity were 33.5% in 75 years and >60% among patients aged ≥90 years; among patients aged ≥65 years, the proportion of multimorbidity was 39.9%. After standardisation by age and gender, multimorbidity was significantly more frequent among Italian citizens than among immigrants. Factor analysis identified 5 multimorbidity patterns: (1) psychiatric disorders, (2) cardiovascular, renal, pulmonary and cerebrovascular diseases, (3) neurological diseases, (4) liver diseases, AIDS/HIV and substance abuse and (5) tumours. Conclusions Multimorbidity was highly prevalent in Emilia-Romagna and strongly associated with age. This finding highlights the need for healthcare providers to adopt

  14. Impact of Air Pollution on Age and Gender Related Increase in Cough Reflex Sensitivity of Healthy Children in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Demoulin-Alexikova, Silvia; Plevkova, Jana; Mazurova, Lenka; Zatko, Tomas; Alexik, Mikulas; Hanacek, Jan; Tatar, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies show higher cough reflex sensitivity (CRS) and cough outcomes in children compared to adults and in females compared to males. Despite close link that exists between cough and environment the potential influence of environmental air pollution on age- and gender -related differences in cough has not been studied yet. Purpose: The purpose of our study was to analyse whether the effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from parental smoking and PM10 from living in urban area are implied in age- and gender-related differences in cough outcomes of healthy, non-asthmatic children. Assessment of CRS using capsaicin and incidence of dry and wet cough was performed in 290 children (mean age 13.3 ± 2.6 years (138 females/152 males). Results: CRS was significantly higher in girls exposed to ETS [22.3 μmol/l (9.8–50.2 μmol/l)] compared to not exposed girls [79.9 μmol/l (56.4–112.2 μmol/l), p = 0.02] as well as compared to exposed boys [121.4 μmol/l (58.2–253.1 μmol/l), p = 0.01]. Incidence of dry cough lasting more than 3 weeks was significantly higher in exposed compared to not exposed girls. CRS was significantly higher in school-aged girls living in urban area [22.0 μmol/l (10.6–45.6 μmol/l)] compared to school-aged girls living in rural area [215.9 μmol/l (87.3–533.4 μmol/l); p = 0.003], as well as compared to teenage girls living in urban area [108.8 μmol/l (68.7–172.9 μmol/l); p = 0.007]. No CRS differences were found between urban and rural boys when controlled for age group. No CRS differences were found between school-aged and teenage boys when controlled for living area. Conclusions: Our results have shown that the effect of ETS on CRS was gender specific, linked to female gender and the effect of PM10 on CRS was both gender and age specific, related to female gender and school-age. We suggest that age and gender related differences in incidence of cough and CRS might be, at least partially

  15. Validating the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale: testing factor structure and measurement invariance across child gender and age in a Dutch sample.

    PubMed

    Koomen, Helma M Y; Verschueren, Karine; van Schooten, Erik; Jak, Suzanne; Pianta, Robert C

    2012-04-01

    The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) is widely used to examine teachers' relationships with young students in terms of closeness, conflict, and dependency. This study aimed to verify the dimensional structure of the STRS with confirmatory factor analysis, test its measurement invariance across child gender and age, improve its measurement of the dependency construct, and extend its age range. Teachers completed a slightly adapted STRS for a Dutch sample of 2335 children aged 3 to 12. Overall, the 3-factor model showed an acceptable fit. Results indicated metric invariance across gender and age up to 8years. Scalar invariance generally did not hold. Lack of metric invariance at ages 8 to 12 primarily involved Conflict items, whereas scale differences across gender and age primarily involved Closeness items. The adapted Dependency scale showed strong invariance and higher internal consistencies than the original scale for this Dutch sample. Importantly, the revealed non-invariance for gender and age did not influence mean group comparisons.

  16. The Influence of Age and Type of Job on Gender Differences in Pay Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Michael B.; Oliver, Jennifer A.; Tan, Rowena N.

    1998-01-01

    Elementary school, secondary school, and college students rated 12 jobs divided between primarily female, primarily male, and gender-neutral occupations according to how much they should make if they were in the occupation. A significant interaction was found between type of job and gender for pay expectations. Suggestions for use in applied…

  17. Gender-Inclusive Housing Preferences: A Survey of College-Aged Transgender Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krum, Tiana E.; Davis, Kyle S.; Galupo, M. Paz

    2013-01-01

    Traditional on-campus housing assignments at colleges and universities are made on the basis of legal sex, where students are housed only with other students of the same legal sex. This method is problematic for transgender and gender-nonconforming students, who may not identify with the gender assigned to them at birth. Recently, some…

  18. Age of Acquisition and Sensitivity to Gender in Spanish Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Speakers of gender-agreement languages use gender-marked elements of the noun phrase in spoken-word recognition: A congruent marking on a determiner or adjective facilitates the recognition of a subsequent noun, while an incongruent marking inhibits its recognition. However, while monolinguals and early language learners evidence this…

  19. Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School Age Children: Are There Gender Differences in Chronometric Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, P.; Schmelter, A.; Quaiser-Pohl, C.; Neuburger, S.; Heil, M.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the well documented male advantage in psychometric mental rotation tests, gender differences in chronometric experimental designs are still under dispute. Therefore, a systematic investigation of gender differences in mental rotation performance in primary-school children is presented in this paper. A chronometric mental rotation…

  20. Gestational Weight Gain and Overweight in Children Aged 3–6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lianhong; Liu, Jufen; Ye, Rongwei; Liu, Jianmeng; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether gestational weight gain (GWG) was associated with increased odds of childhood overweight after accounting for pre-pregnancy BMI. Methods In a prospective cohort study based on a premarital and perinatal health care system in China, data of 100 612 mother-child pairs were obtained. The main exposure was GWG as both a continuous and categorical variable. The outcome measure was overweight, defined by age- and sex-specific cutoff values for body mass index (BMI) in children aged 3–6 years. Results A 1-kg increase in maternal GWG was associated with an increase of 0.009 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.007–0.010, P < 0.001) in children’s mean BMI; in the subgroup of pre-pregnancy overweight/obese mothers, the increase in children’s BMI was 0.028 (95% CI, 0.017–0.039, P < 0.001). Excessive GWG played an important role in childhood overweight when adequate GWG was used as the reference, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12–1.29). The risk was highest (OR 2.22; 95% CI, 1.79–2.76) in the children of mothers who were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. Conclusions Greater maternal GWG was associated with greater offspring BMI, and the risk of overweight was doubled in children whose mothers were overweight/obese before pregnancy and gained excessive weight during pregnancy. As a result, maintenance of appropriate weight gain during pregnancy and prophylaxis of maternal overweight/obesity before pregnancy should be a strategy for preventing childhood overweight/obesity. PMID:26119288