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Sample records for age general health

  1. [Odor perception in relation to age, general health, nutritional status, and dental status].

    PubMed

    Griep, M I; Mets, T F; Vogelaere, P; Collys, K; Laska, M; Massart, D L

    1997-02-01

    Many studies have shown that odour perception declines with age. Considering the possible role of age-related phenomena such as general health, dental health and nutrition in such a decline, their joint effect on variability in odour perception was evaluated in the present study. 73 apparently healthy adults aged from 53 to 86 years (median age = 66), living in the community, took part in this study. The SENIEUR protocol was used to assess the general health status and anthropometric measures were obtained to assess the nutritional status. The sensory detection threshold for isoamylacetate (banana odour) was determined as the lowest detectable odour concentration. Dental status was assessed by a questionnaire on the presence of natural teeth and wearing of dentures. Those in poor general health had significantly higher mean odour thresholds (2.35, SD = 1.34), where threshold concentration was expressed as -log(mol/l), than those in good (3.47, SD = 1.46) or reasonably general health (3.75, SD = 1.02). Partial denture wearers had significantly higher odour thresholds (2.99, SD = 1.12) than those having only natural teeth (4.24, SD = 1.43). Significant correlations between age and anthropometrical values were found, indicating that with age, muscle mass particularly in women decreases (r = -0.50). Odour perception of women correlated significantly inversely with triceps skinfold thickness (r = -0.42), indicating that poor sense of small is associated with high body content of fat. Our results indicate that general health and dental state are important age-associated factors in odour perception. Since age does not show a significant independent effect, neither in an analysis of variance, nor in a multiple regression analysis, such factors tend to become more important than chronological age per se.

  2. Aging & Health.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    By 2050 an estimated 83.7 million Americans will be ages sixty-five and older, up from 40.3 million in 2010. The shock wave of aging Americans will have profound implications for older people, their families, health care providers, and the economy. Researchers, policy makers, health care leaders, and others are designing responses to the challenges these actuarial shifts will create. For example, delivering health care at home could help keep more older Americans out of costly emergency departments and nursing homes. But such steps require more health care providers, a broader distribution of providers than currently exists, and better use of the resources we have. PMID:27605632

  3. Aging, longevity and health.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Sander, Miriam; Wewer, Ulla M; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2011-10-01

    The IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health, held on 5-7 October 2010 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was hosted by Rector Ralf Hemmingsen, University of Copenhagen and Dean Ulla Wewer, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen and was organized by Center for Healthy Aging (CEHA) under the leadership of CEHA Managing Director Lene Juel Rasmussen and Prof. Vilhelm Bohr, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, USA (associated to CEHA). The Congress was attended by approximately 125 researchers interested in and/or conducting research on aging and aging-related topics. The opening Congress Session included speeches by Ralf Hemmingsen, Ulla Wewer, and Lene Juel Rasmussen and Keynote Addresses by four world renowned aging researchers: Povl Riis (The Age Forum), Bernard Jeune (University of Southern Denmark), George Martin (University of Washington, USA) and Jan Vijg (Albert Einstein School of Medicine, USA) as well as a lecture discussing the art-science interface by Thomas Söderqvist (Director, Medical Museion, University of Copenhagen). The topics of the first six Sessions of the Congress were: Neuroscience and DNA damage, Aging and Stress, Life Course, Environmental Factors and Neuroscience, Muscle and Life Span and Life Span and Mechanisms. Two additional Sessions highlighted ongoing research in the recently established Center for Healthy Aging at the University of Copenhagen. This report highlights outcomes of recent research on aging-related topics, as described at the IARU Congress on Aging, Longevity and Health.

  4. Health and aging.

    PubMed

    Dhar, H L

    1997-10-01

    Regular meditation is the key to health (mental, physical and social wellbeing). It elevates mind from gross level to finer aspect and makes the body and mind follow the law of nature achieving good health, preventing disease, improving performance and reducing aging process. Balanced diet (less sugar, less salt and less fat as age advances supplemented with vitamins and minerals) and mild to moderate exercise (walking etc.) are complimentary to the effects of meditation.

  5. Aging and Health Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kay H.

    2014-01-01

    A recent study comparing older adults’ health literacy skills with their satisfaction with health care providers’ communication efforts did not find a correlation between the two measures. However, the results were interesting, including the fact that almost 40 percent of participants experienced moderate to severe difficulties in understanding everyday health information as presented in a food label (Newest Vital Sign assessment). This has implications for senior patient engagement in health care, particularly at a time when so many health transactions such as scheduling and records requests, not to mention general health information, are moving to online only format. Librarians should be aware of the issues surrounding health literacy in older adults and work with providers to address those deficits in health care navigation in this population. PMID:24634614

  6. Time Trends in Prevalence of Chronic Diseases and Multimorbidity Not Only due to Aging: Data from General Practices and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    van Oostrom, Sandra H; Gijsen, Ronald; Stirbu, Irina; Korevaar, Joke C; Schellevis, Francois G; Picavet, H. Susan J; Hoeymans, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic diseases and multimorbidity are common and expected to rise over the coming years. The objective of this study is to examine the time trend in the prevalence of chronic diseases and multimorbidity over the period 2001 till 2011 in the Netherlands, and the extent to which this can be ascribed to the aging of the population. Methods Monitoring study, using two data sources: 1) medical records of patients listed in a nationally representative network of general practices over the period 2002–2011, and 2) national health interview surveys over the period 2001–2011. Regression models were used to study trends in the prevalence-rates over time, with and without standardization for age. Results An increase from 34.9% to 41.8% (p<0.01) in the prevalence of chronic diseases was observed in the general practice registration over the period 2004–2011 and from 41.0% to 46.6% (p<0.01) based on self-reported diseases over the period 2001–2011. Multimorbidity increased from 12.7% to 16.2% (p<0.01) and from 14.3% to 17.5% (p<0.01), respectively. Aging of the population explained part of these trends: about one-fifth based on general practice data, and one-third for chronic diseases and half of the trend for multimorbidity based on health surveys. Conclusions The prevalence of chronic diseases and multimorbidity increased over the period 2001–2011. Aging of the population only explained part of the increase, implying that other factors such as health care and society-related developments are responsible for a substantial part of this rise. PMID:27482903

  7. The PRO-AGE study: an international randomised controlled study of health risk appraisal for older persons based in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Stuck, Andreas E; Kharicha, Kalpa; Dapp, Ulrike; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Meier-Baumgartner, Hans Peter; Iliffe, Steve; Harari, Danielle; Bachmann, Martin D; Egger, Matthias; Gillmann, Gerhard; Beck, John C; Swift, Cameron G

    2007-01-01

    Background This paper describes the study protocol, the recruitment, and base-line data for evaluating the success of randomisation of the PRO-AGE (PRevention in Older people – Assessment in GEneralists' practices) project. Methods/Design A group of general practitioners (GPs) in London (U.K.), Hamburg (Germany) and Solothurn (Switzerland) were trained in risk identification, health promotion, and prevention in older people. Their non-disabled older patients were invited to participate in a randomised controlled study. Participants allocated to the intervention group were offered the Health Risk Appraisal for Older Persons (HRA-O) instrument with a site-specific method for reinforcement (London: physician reminders in electronic medical record; Hamburg: one group session or two preventive home visits; Solothurn: six-monthly preventive home visits over a two-year period). Participants allocated to the control group received usual care. At each site, an additional group of GPs did not receive the training, and their eligible patients were invited to participate in a concurrent comparison group. Primary outcomes are self-reported health behaviour and preventative care use at one-year follow-up. In Solothurn, an additional follow-up was conducted at two years. The number of older persons agreeing to participate (% of eligible persons) in the randomised controlled study was 2503 (66.0%) in London, 2580 (53.6%) in Hamburg, and 2284 (67.5%) in Solothurn. Base-line findings confirm that randomisation of participants was successful, with comparable characteristics between intervention and control groups. The number of persons (% of eligible) enrolled in the concurrent comparison group was 636 (48.8%) in London, 746 (35.7%) in Hamburg, and 1171 (63.0%) in Solothurn. Discussion PRO-AGE is the first large-scale randomised controlled trial of health risk appraisal for older people in Europe. Its results will inform about the effects of implementing HRA-O with different

  8. The reliability and validity of gait speed with different walking pace and distances against general health, physical function, and chronic disease in aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-jae; Park, Ilhyoek; Lee, Hyo joo; Lee, On

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Gait speed is an important objective values associated with several health-related outcomes including functional mobility in aging people. However, walking test methodologies and descriptions are not standardized considering specific aims of research. This study examine the reliability and validity of gait speed measured at various distances and paces in elderly Koreans. [Methods] Fifty-four female participants ≥70 years of age were recruited from a local retirement community. Gait speed was assessed at 4, 6 and 10 meters, and at usual- and fast-pace walking mode. The short physical performance battery (SPPB) that estimates senior fitness includes three tests of lower-body function. Data concerning for the chronic conditions and self-perceived health of the participants was collected using questionnaires. Concurrent validity of gait speed using the aforementioned test protocols was determined by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficients. [Results] Significant positive correlations were evident between skeletal muscle mass and maximal pace walking regardless of distance (r=.301~.308; p<.05), but not with body fat. All gait tests significantly positively correlated with self-rated health (normal pace r=.328~.346, p<.05; maximal pace r=.427~.472, p<.001) and depression (normal pace r=.279~.430, p<.05; maximal pace r=.413~.456, p<.001). [Conclusion] Walking test at the normal pace appears suitable for estimating physical function and deterioration due to chronic disease. Walking test at a maximum pace might be useful for estimating subjective general health and skeletal muscle mass. PMID:27757387

  9. Children: General Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Kids A Directory of Medical Tests Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Blood Culture Blood Test: Complete Blood Count ...

  10. Aging, food, culture and health.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L; Kouris-Blazos, A; Hsa-Hage, B H

    1997-01-01

    International comparison of food intake and health studies amongst the aged is providing new insight into the importance of food culture in social context for healthy aging. At same time the possible variance in eating behavior compatible with good health requires consideration. The IUNS (International Union of Nutritional Sciences) FHILL (Food Habits in Later Life) Project, comprises (1) a morbidity study on about 2,000 elderly in 13 communities (now available on CD Rom) and (2) a mortality follow-up study. In the morbidity study, a total health assessment score or Later Life Status Score (LLSS) has been considered in relation to non-nutritional and nutritional factors. The elderly Greek cohorts aged 70+ in Melbourne. Australia (M = 94, F = 95) and Spata, Greece (M = 51, F = 53) have been used as a model for multivariate analyses to determine separately the importance of non-nutritional (well-being, memory, general health, medication-use, activities of daily living, exercise, social activity and social networks scores) and nutritional variables (intake of food groups g/day, food group variety scores, nutrients) in accounting for LLSS. A mortality follow-up study on the elderly cohort in Spata, Greece has also been completed and published. The findings from these preliminary analyses on the Greek cohorts will be reviewed as an example of how food culture may be influencing both quality of life and survival in Greek elderly. The most important non-nutritional determinants of LLSS in Greeks included: mobility and independence (exercise and activities of daily living), well-being and memory (collectively explained 80% of the variation of LLSS). For nutritional variables, a high intake and variety of plant foods (in particular vegetables, legumes and fruit); a high intake and variety of seafood and a low intake of meat emerged with statistical and biological significance. Results from the mortality study also agree with findings from the morbidity study

  11. Aging, food, culture and health.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L; Kouris-Blazos, A; Hsa-Hage, B H

    1997-01-01

    International comparison of food intake and health studies amongst the aged is providing new insight into the importance of food culture in social context for healthy aging. At same time the possible variance in eating behavior compatible with good health requires consideration. The IUNS (International Union of Nutritional Sciences) FHILL (Food Habits in Later Life) Project, comprises (1) a morbidity study on about 2,000 elderly in 13 communities (now available on CD Rom) and (2) a mortality follow-up study. In the morbidity study, a total health assessment score or Later Life Status Score (LLSS) has been considered in relation to non-nutritional and nutritional factors. The elderly Greek cohorts aged 70+ in Melbourne. Australia (M = 94, F = 95) and Spata, Greece (M = 51, F = 53) have been used as a model for multivariate analyses to determine separately the importance of non-nutritional (well-being, memory, general health, medication-use, activities of daily living, exercise, social activity and social networks scores) and nutritional variables (intake of food groups g/day, food group variety scores, nutrients) in accounting for LLSS. A mortality follow-up study on the elderly cohort in Spata, Greece has also been completed and published. The findings from these preliminary analyses on the Greek cohorts will be reviewed as an example of how food culture may be influencing both quality of life and survival in Greek elderly. The most important non-nutritional determinants of LLSS in Greeks included: mobility and independence (exercise and activities of daily living), well-being and memory (collectively explained 80% of the variation of LLSS). For nutritional variables, a high intake and variety of plant foods (in particular vegetables, legumes and fruit); a high intake and variety of seafood and a low intake of meat emerged with statistical and biological significance. Results from the mortality study also agree with findings from the morbidity study

  12. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... than ever after menopause. But for other women, physical changes, illness, disabilities, and some medicines make sex painful, ... in Later Life - This brochure describes the normal physical changes in men and women that come with age. ...

  13. Differences by age groups in health care spending.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C R

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents differences by age in health care spending by type of expenditure and by source of funds through 1978. Use of health care services generally increases with age. The average health bill reached $2,026 for the aged in 1978, $764 for the intermediate age group, and $286 for the young. Biological, demographic, and policy factors determine each age group's share of health spending. Public funds financed over three-fifths of the health expenses of the aged, with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 58 percent. Most of the health expenses of the young age groups were paid by private sources. PMID:10309224

  14. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  15. Health screening - women - over age 65

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  16. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  17. Health screening - men - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - men - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - men - ages 40 to 64; Men's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - men - ages ...

  18. Health screening - men age 65 and older

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...

  19. Space age health care delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Space age health care delivery is being delivered to both NASA astronauts and employees with primary emphasis on preventive medicine. The program relies heavily on comprehensive health physical exams, health education, screening programs and physical fitness programs. Medical data from the program is stored in a computer bank so epidemiological significance can be established and better procedures can be obtained. Besides health care delivery to the NASA population, NASA is working with HEW on a telemedicine project STARPAHC, applying space technology to provide health care delivery to remotely located populations.

  20. Health screening - men - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - men - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - men - ages 18 to 39; Men's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care exam - men - ...

  1. Psychological wellbeing, health and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Psychological wellbeing and health are closely linked at older ages. Three aspects of psychological wellbeing can be distinguished: evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, etc), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in this field, and present new analyses concerning the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, an ongoing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relationship between evaluative wellbeing and age in rich, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing around ages 45-54. But this pattern is not universal: for example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe show a large progressive decline in wellbeing with age; Latin America also shows falling wellbeing with age, while wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relationship between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people suffering from illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis and chronic lung disease show both raised levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing may also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an illustrative analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we find that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with longer survival; 29.3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died over the average follow-up period of 8.5 years compared with 9.3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, gender, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of the elderly is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Current psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in pattern of wellbeing with age across

  2. [Internet resources on ageing and health].

    PubMed

    Estrada-Lorenzo, José-Manuel; Barderas-Manchado, Ana; Fuentelsaz-Gallego, Carmen; González-María, Esther; Moreno-Casbas, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The general ageing of the world population at the beginning of the XXI century is an established fact, and in the next few years it will be a topic for debate and of interest to the public and, in particular, among health professionals. The Internet, as an inexhaustible information source of a different kind, could be a useful resource for consulting and updating for these professionals. The main health sciences sources that are available on the Internet are presented and commented upon. These may be useful for those professionals who wish to identify the most relevant information on ageing.

  3. Ageing, musculoskeletal health and work

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith; Goodson, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Changing demographics mean that many patients with soft tissue rheumatism, osteoarthritis, inflammatory arthritis, large joint prostheses, and age-related co-morbidities are seeking to work beyond the traditional retirement age. In this chapter we review the evidence on musculoskeletal health and work at older ages. We conclude that musculoskeletal problems are common in older workers and have a substantial impact on their work capacity. Factors that influence their job retention are described, together with approaches that may extend working life. Many gaps in evidence were found, notably on the health risks and benefits of continued work in affected patients and on which interventions work best. The roles of physicians and managers are also considered. PMID:26612237

  4. A case–control study of self-reported health, quality-of-life and general functioning among recent immigrants and age- and sex-matched Swedish-born controls

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblad, Andreas; Wiklund, Tony; Bennström, Halina; Leppert, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To examine whether new immigrants had inferior quality-of-life, well-being and general functioning compared with Swedish age- and sex-matched controls. Methods: A prospective case–control study was designed including immigrants from non-European countries, 18–65 years of age, with recent Permanent Permits to Stay (PPS) in Sweden, and age- and sex-matched Swedish-born (SB) persons from the general population in Västmanland County, Sweden. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life (WHOQOL-BREF) Scale and the General Activity Functioning Assessment Scale (GAF) from DSM-IV were posted (SB), or applied in personal interviews (PPS) with interpreters. Differences between the PPS and SB groups were measured using McNemar’s test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test conducted separately for observations at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up. Results: There were 93 pairs (mean age 36 years). Persons from Somalia (67%) and Iraq (27%) dominated the PPS group. The differences between the groups were statistically significant for all time points for the Psychological health and Social relationship domains of WHOQOL-BREF, and for the baseline and 6-month follow-up time points of GHQ-12 where the PPS-group had a higher degree of well-being, health and quality-of-life than the SB. This tendency applied for both sexes in the immigrant group. Conclusions: These new immigrants did not have inferior physical or psychological health, quality-of-life, well-being or social functioning compared with their age- and sex-matched Swedish born pairs during a 1-year follow-up. Thus, there is reason to advocate immigrants’ fast integration into society. PMID:25249583

  5. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults. PMID:27417787

  6. Mental health problems of aging and the aged*

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Martin

    1959-01-01

    The rapid increase in admission rates to mental hospitals in many countries in recent decades threatens to create serious problems. These may be to some extent remediable in that social factors are important in deciding the chances of admission to hospital, as well as the frequency of suicide, which reaches a peak among the aged in most countries. All communities possess valuable assets in the form of existing links between the aged and their families which may be lost by indiscriminate community planning. Although some psychological decline is inevitable during senescence, it is becoming clear that much that once passed for the ineluctable effects of mental and physical aging is due to disease that may be ameliorated or cured. The relationship between mental and physical health is particularly close in old age, and the effective treatment of the aged person with a psychiatric disorder demands the full resources of general medicine as well as psychiatry. For successful rehabilitation a full community service for the aged and proper integration of the work of the family doctor with that of preventive and hospital services are essential. The possibilities of prevention can be enhanced by fostering physical well-being and healthy adjustment during earlier stages of life, as well as by ascertaining, and remedying as far as possible, the mental and physical disorders of the aged in the early stages of their development. There is great scope for biological, medical and sociological research to define reasons for the wide variations in mental and physical well-being in old age. PMID:14439413

  7. Sexual health and relationships after age 60.

    PubMed

    Minkin, Mary Jane

    2016-01-01

    A commonly used phrase describing aging is "60 is the new 40". Although in many aspects of life this may be correct, in discussing sexual health, challenges to maintaining excellent sexual health become more common around age 60. Biological aging challenges physical sexual activity and responsiveness. We commence by briefly surveying the extensive coverage of 'normal' physiological aging. We primarily focus on issues that arise in distinct disease and or pathophysiological states, including gynecological and breast cancer, as well as those associated with partners of men who are either prostate cancer survivors or who have taken therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED). Regrettably, there is a very modest literature on sexual health and associated possible interventions in older patients in these cohorts. We discuss a variety of interventions and approaches, including those that we have developed and applied in a clinic at our host university, which have generally produced successful outcomes. The extended focus to sexual relationship dynamics in partners of men with either prostate cancer or ED in particular is virtually unexplored, yet is especially timely given the large numbers of women who encounter this situation. Finally, we briefly discuss cross-cultural distinctions in older couples' expectations, which exhibit remarkable variation. PMID:26547237

  8. Age, gender and health among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, T R; Thanh, V T

    1997-01-01

    Public policy and epidemiological studies have not adequately addressed age and gender differences on important health dimensions among African Americans. The purpose of this study was to examine gender and health among five age groups of African Americans. A sample of 1,174 respondents age 24 to 85 was selected from the 1986 Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study. Regression analysis was performed using a hierarchical model to examine age and gender on five dimensions of health: functional health, chronic conditions, satisfaction with health, self-ratings of health, and activities of daily living (ADL) limitations controlling for age, education, income, and marital status among five age groups of African Americans. Results revealed that in the 24-39 age group, men had fewer chronic conditions and less ADL limitations, yet rated their health poorer than their female counterparts. In the 75 and over age group men had better functional health yet were less satisfied with their health than women. Control variables were significantly related to objective and subjective dimensions of health especially among the younger age groups. Overall, gender differences persist mainly among the youngest and oldest age groups despite variations in the above demographic variables. Implications for social work practice and future research are discussed.

  9. Age Related Changes in Preventive Health Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    Health behavior may be influenced by age, beliefs, and symptomatology. To examine age-related health beliefs and behaviors with respect to six diseases (the common cold, colon-rectal cancer, lung cancer, heart attack, high blood pressure, and senility), 396 adults (196 males, 200 females) divided into three age groups completed a questionnaire…

  10. Trends in the Health of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmore, Erdman B.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of data from the National Health Interview Survey shows consistent and substantial improvements in the relative health of the aged from 1961-81. Explanations for this trend include cohort effects, Medicare and Medicaid, and other programs for the aged. Increasing health service needs should be partially offset by this trend.…

  11. Age at First Birth, Health, and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirowsky, John

    2005-01-01

    The biodevelopmental view sees the readiness and soundness of the organism at the time of first birth as its prime link to health and survival years and decades later. It suggests an optimum age at first birth shortly after puberty. The biosocial view emphasizes social correlates and consequences of age at first birth that may influence health and…

  12. Chicano Aging and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Manuel, Ed.; Ruiz, Rene A., Ed.

    Focusing on the direction future research on the Chicano elderly should take, the 10 papers address theory development, methodological approach, social policy and problems, mental health service delivery, and issues of mental illness. The first seven papers discuss: the theoretical perspectives of research pertaining to mental health and the…

  13. Healthy ageing, but what is health?

    PubMed

    Rattan, Suresh I S

    2013-12-01

    Ageing occurs in spite of complex pathways of maintenance and repair. There is no "enemy within", which has the specific evolution-selected function to cause ageing and death. This understanding of ageing should transform our approach towards interventions from therapeutic "anti-ageing" to maintaining health. But what is health? Ideally, health is a state of complete physical and mental independence in activities of daily living. But in pragmatic terms, health is a state of adequate physical and mental independence in activities of daily living. In order to identify a set of measurable, evidence-based and demonstratable parameters of health, robustness and resilience at various levels, the concept of homeodynamic space can be a useful one. Age-related health problems for which there are no clear-cut causative agents, except the complex process of ageing, may be better tackled by focusing on health mechanisms and their maintenance, rather than disease management and treatment. Continuing the disease-oriented research approaches are economically, socially and psychologically unsustainable as compared with health-oriented and preventive strategies, such as hormesis. Supporting health-oriented research is the urgency of our time.

  14. Perceived Age Discrimination and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…

  15. General Health of Foreign-Origin Groups and Native Population

    PubMed Central

    Ardian, Nahid; Mahmoudabad, Seyed Saeid Mazloomy; Ardian, Mahdi; Karimi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since the mental health of marginal settlers (non-native population) may affect other citizens’ health, the present study attempts to investigate the mental health status of marginal settlers of Yazd. Materials and Methods: this study was a descriptive, cross-sectional research, in which 400 of non-native and native population have participated. To study mental health status of people, a questionnaire was used. The first section of this questionnaire was the 28-item questionnaire of GHQ and the second section dealt with demographic characteristics such as age, sex, employment status, household income, and educational level of the father of the family. The collected data was analyzed using statistical operations of Pearson correlation coefficient, T Student, univariate Anova, and non-parametric Chi Square. Results: The results revealed that the average scores of general health were 20.09±9.84 and 17.04±9.54 for native and non-native population, respectively. Among subscales of general health, the highest and lowest average scores belonged to social dysfunctions, which showed a dangerous mental health status, and depression, respectively. There was significant difference between average score of general health and educational level of the father of the family (p<.001). The temporary employment and leased household differs significantly from the average score of general health among native population. It was indicated that sex was one of the most powerful predictors of mental health and people had more mental health when they grew older. Anxiety was the strongest predictor of general health for both groups. Conclusion: It seems that background factors such as educational level and employment status effect general health of people more than living in marginal settlement. PMID:25168986

  16. Ageing, dementia and oral health.

    PubMed

    Foltyn, P

    2015-03-01

    Neurocognitive decline and delirium, frailty, incontinence, falls, hearing and vision impairment, medication compliance and pharmacokinetics, skin breakdown, impaired sleep and rest are regarded as geriatric giants by gerontologists, geriatricians and nursing home staff. As these are all interrelated in the elderly, failure to act on one can impact on the others. However, the implications of poor oral health have for too long been ignored and deserve equal status. Mouth pain can be devastating for the elderly, compound psychosocial problems, frustrate carers and nursing home staff and disrupt family dynamics. As appearance, function and comfort suffer, so may a person's self-esteem and confidence. The contributing factors for poor oral health such as rapid dental decay, acute and chronic periodontal infections and compromised systemic health on a background of a dry mouth, coupled with xerostomia-inducing medications, reduced fine motor function, declining cognition and motivation will not only lead to an increase in both morbidity and mortality but also impact on quality of life. PMID:25762045

  17. Men's Health Promotion by General Practitioners in a Workplace Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoun, Samar; Johnson, Lyn

    2002-01-01

    A project to promote rural men's health through diabetes education and screening in the workplace involved 446 men aged 40-65 in Western Australia. Of the 287 men identified at high risk of developing diabetes and referred to their general practitioner, 76 percent visited their physician. However, physician's advice on lifestyle changes was…

  18. The Factor Structure of the 60 Item General Health Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Clive; Rust, John

    1986-01-01

    Male school children (N=241), all aged 16 years, and 144 men facing redundancy completed the 60 item version of the General Health Qestionnaire. Data were analysed using unrotated first principal component analysis followed by oblique rotation. The unrotated first principal component accounted for much of the variance, particularly in the school…

  19. Minority group status and healthful aging: social structure still matters.

    PubMed

    Angel, Jacqueline L; Angel, Ronald J

    2006-07-01

    During the last 4 decades, a rapid increase has occurred in the number of survey-based and epidemiological studies of the health profiles of adults in general and of the causes of disparities between majority and minority Americans in particular. According to these studies, healthful aging consists of the absence of disease, or at least of the most serious preventable diseases and their consequences, and findings consistently reveal serious African American and Hispanic disadvantages in terms of healthful aging. We (1) briefly review conceptual and operational definitions of race and Hispanic ethnicity, (2) summarize how ethnicity-based differentials in health are related to social structures, and (3) emphasize the importance of attention to the economic, political, and institutional factors that perpetuate poverty and undermine healthful aging among certain groups.

  20. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving.

  1. Adolescent Health Implications of New Age Technology.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving. PMID:26613696

  2. [Active aging promotion and education for health].

    PubMed

    Aparicio Alonso, Concepción

    2004-01-01

    Some years ago, the phenomenon of demographic aging started an intense debate about its supposed negatives effects on the economic progress of a population. Health advances and improved living conditions have gradually increased the health level the elderly have, embellishing the initial perspectives; the elderly live more years but, moreover, they have a better quality of life. For the WHO, to favor an active aging process presents a challenge, avoiding incapacities and dependencies, the real causes of the increase in social-health costs. Following the guidelines established by the II World Assembly on Aging, last year our country passed the Action Plan for Elderly People 2003-2007; this plan contemplates as one of its objectives "Promote the autonomy and the full and active participation by the elderly people in the community" and points out that the strategy to achieve this objective consists in "pushing the measures which Promote Health".

  3. Oral health of children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, A C; O'Connell, S M; O'Mullane, E; Hoey, H M C V

    2010-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children. PMID:21186752

  4. Age-related preferences and age weighting health benefits.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the relevance of age in the paradigm of quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The first section outlines two rationales for incorporating age weights into QALYs. One of them is based on efficiency concerns; and the other on equity concerns. Both of these are theoretical constructs. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of published empirical support for such age weighting. The second section is a brief survey of nine empirical studies that elicited age-related preferences from the general public. Six of these quantified the strength of the preferences, and these are discussed in more detail in the third section. The analysis distinguishes three kinds of age-related preference: productivity ageism, utilitarian ageism and egalitarian ageism. The relationship between them and their relevance to the two different rationales for age weighting are then explored. It is concluded that, although there is strong prima facie evidence of public support for both types of age weighting, the empirical evidence to support any particular set of weights is at present weak. PMID:10048783

  5. What factors can be protective for both self-rated oral health and general health?

    PubMed

    Ekbäck, Gunnar; Persson, Carina; Lindén-Boström, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze if the same protective factors are significant for both self-rated health and oral health. It was hypothesized that these factors should be the same. The material is based on a population sample of 17 113 women and men aged 18-84 years in one county in central Sweden.The response rate was 61%. The data were collected through a postal questionnaire "Life and Health" in 2008. The questionnaire comprised of 149 questions and was divided into a number of areas, e.g. socioeconomic conditions, quality of life, social relations, lifestyle, and health. To analyze the strength of the protective factors whilst taking into account the relationships between the various independent variables, multivariate analyses were conducted using binary multiple logistic regression. The outcome measures with the strongest association to general health is belonging to the age group 18-34 years, positive faith in the future, good sleeping pattern and to be employed/self-employed/retired. The outcomes with the strongest association to oral health are good finances, belonging to the age group 18-34 years, to be born in Sweden and positive faith in the future. Conclusions. This study shows that, in general, the same protective factors are significant for both self-rated health and self-rated oral health, making it possible to use the same approach to strengthen both general health and oral health. One important outcome, not often considered, is having positive faith in the future. It is a task for the health care system to strengthen people's faith in the future, partly through a very high quality care when needed, but also through active health promotion that increases the chances of a healthy life, both from a public health perspective as from an oral health perspective. PMID:26529835

  6. Aging, health, and identity in Ecuador's indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Waters, William F; Gallegos, Carlos A

    2014-12-01

    Middle-income countries like Ecuador are in the process of demographic and epidemiological transitions, and their populations are aging. The challenges associated with providing services to growing numbers of citizens who experience the inevitable deterioration associated with aging are mirrored by the manner in which aging is perceived in a culturally heterogeneous society. This paper presents the results of qualitative research conducted among older men and women in indigenous communities in the Ecuadorian highlands in order to investigate the perceptions regarding the ability of family and community networks to provide adequate and appropriate support for older persons in the context of their perceptions of health, health care, and aging. The principal findings are that: (i) perceptions of aging are shaped by chronic illness, fatigue, deteriorating sensory capacities, and vulnerability to accidents; (ii) barriers to health care are exacerbated among aging members of indigenous communities, although in some cases they can be addressed through traditional alternatives; (iii) the sense of identity shifts as aging people are increasingly unable to work the land and participate in community activities; and (iv) family and community support networks for older adults are not as strong as is generally thought. These findings represent the context within which issues related aging in a culturally heterogeneous society can be best understood and addressed.

  7. Creatine supplementation and aging musculoskeletal health.

    PubMed

    Candow, Darren G; Chilibeck, Philip D; Forbes, Scott C

    2014-04-01

    Sarcopenia refers to the progressive loss of muscle mass and muscle function and is a contributing factor for cachexia, bone loss, and frailty. Resistance training produces several physiological adaptations which improve aging musculoskeletal health, such as increased muscle and bone mass and strength. The combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training may further lead to greater physiological benefits. We performed meta-analyses which indicate creatine supplementation combined with resistance training has a positive effect on aging muscle mass and upper body strength compared to resistance training alone. Creatine also shows promise for improving bone mineral density and indices of bone biology. The combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training could be an effective intervention to improve aging musculoskeletal health. PMID:24190049

  8. Intelligence in youth and health at age 50

    PubMed Central

    Wraw, Christina; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Der, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Background The link between intelligence in youth and all-cause mortality in later-life is well established. To better understand this relationship, the current study examines the links between pre-morbid intelligence and a number of specific health outcomes at age 50 using the NLSY-1979 cohort. Methods Participants were the 5793 participants in the NLSY-79 who responded to questions about health outcomes at age 50. Sixteen health outcomes were examined: two were summary measures (physical health and functional limitation), 9 were diagnosed illness conditions, 4 were self-reported conditions, and one was a measure of general health status. Linear and logistic regressions were used, as appropriate, to examine the relationship between intelligence in youth and the health outcomes. Age, sex and both childhood and adult SES, and its sub-components – income, education, & occupational prestige – are all adjusted for separately. Results & conclusion Higher pre-morbid intelligence is linked with better physical health at age 50, and a lower risk for a number of chronic health conditions. For example, a 1 SD higher score in IQ was significantly associated with increased odds of having good, very good, or excellent health, with an odds ratio of 1.70 (C.I. 1.55–1.86). Thirteen of the illness outcomes were significantly and negatively associated with IQ in youth; the odds ratios ranged from 0.85 for diabetes/high blood sugar to 0.65 for stroke, per one standard deviation higher score in IQ. Adjustment for childhood SES led to little attenuation but adult SES partially mediated the relationship for a number of conditions. Mediation by adult SES was not consistently explained by any one of its components—income, education, and occupation status. The current findings contribute to our understanding of lower intelligence as a risk factor for poor health and how this may contribute to health inequalities. PMID:26766880

  9. Paternal age and mental health of offspring

    PubMed Central

    Malaspina, Dolores; Gilman, Caitlin; Kranz, Thorsten Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The influence of paternal age on the risk for sporadic forms of Mendelian disorders is well known, but a burgeoning recent literature also demonstrates a paternal age effect for complex neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder and even for learning potential, expressed as intelligence. Mental illness is costly to the patients, the family and the public health system, accounting for the largest portion of disability costs in our economy. The delayed onset of neuropsychiatric conditions and lack of physical manifestations at birth are common frequencies in the population that have obscured the recognition that a portion of the risks for mental conditions is associated with paternal age. Identification of these risk pathways may be leveraged for knowledge about mental function and for future screening tests. However, only a small minority of at-risk offspring are likely to have such a psychiatric or learning disorder attributable to paternal age, including the children of older fathers. PMID:25956369

  10. Health of Aging Parents and Childless Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendig, Hal; Dykstra, Pearl A.; van Gaalen, Ruben I.; Melkas, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews and presents research findings on the relationships between parenthood and health over the life span. Existing research shows lacunae. The links between reproductive behavior and longevity generally focus on family size rather than contrasting parents and nonparents. Studies of marital status differentials in survival…

  11. Tuberculosis and aging: a global health problem.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, S

    2001-10-01

    Despite the World Health Organization's declaration that the spread of tuberculosis is a global emergency and despite the implementation of strong tuberculosis-control initiatives, this highly infectious disease continues to affect all vulnerable populations, including the elderly population (age > or =65 years). Tuberculosis in aging adults remains a clinical and epidemiological challenge. Atypical clinical manifestations of tuberculosis in older persons can result in delay in diagnosis and initiation of treatment; thus, unfortunately, higher rates of morbidity and mortality from this treatable infection can occur. Underlying illnesses, age-related diminution in immune function, the increased frequency of adverse drug reactions, and institutionalization can complicate the overall clinical approach to tuberculosis in elderly patients; maintenance of a high index of suspicion for tuberculosis in this vulnerable population is, thus, undoubtedly justifiable.

  12. Modeling the brain morphology distribution in the general aging population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizinga, W.; Poot, D. H. J.; Roshchupkin, G.; Bron, E. E.; Ikram, M. A.; Vernooij, M. W.; Rueckert, D.; Niessen, W. J.; Klein, S.

    2016-03-01

    Both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease cause morphological changes of the brain. To better distinguish between normal and abnormal cases, it is necessary to model changes in brain morphology owing to normal aging. To this end, we developed a method for analyzing and visualizing these changes for the entire brain morphology distribution in the general aging population. The method is applied to 1000 subjects from a large population imaging study in the elderly, from which 900 were used to train the model and 100 were used for testing. The results of the 100 test subjects show that the model generalizes to subjects outside the model population. Smooth percentile curves showing the brain morphology changes as a function of age and spatiotemporal atlases derived from the model population are publicly available via an interactive web application at agingbrain.bigr.nl.

  13. Rejuvenating health systems for aging communities.

    PubMed

    Paccaud, Fred

    2002-08-01

    Nowadays, about the half of Swiss women die after their 84th birthday. This unprecedented proportion of the population reaching an old age, or even a very old age (25% of women die after 89 years, and 5% after 95 years) is a novel aspect of human demographics, and represents the very last stage of the epidemiological transition, a term coined to describe the transformation of the prevailing health burden in the population, shifting from infectious and communicable pathologies to chronic and degenerative diseases. In developed countries, this epidemiological transition has been well documented during the last century; worldwide, a similar transition is taking place, with some countries still at mid or early stages of transition. A striking aspect of the current transition is its speed. In India, the mean duration of life since 1947 has increased from 32 to 62 years. As a result, India, like many other developing countries, is facing a double burden of disease, i.e., an upsurge of degenerative diseases while the burden from the old agenda (i.e., malaria, tuberculosis) still reaches devastating proportions in the population. This double burden is certainly a crucial problem in developing countries, and probably is the most important health challenge for the coming century. A similar accelerated pace of change is observed with the decline of mortality at old age. Worldwide, the current estimate of centenarians is 100000, i.e., ten time more centenarians than the number estimated in 1960. The downward trend in mortality, which is steeper with increasing age, is now the leading factor to Increase the life expectancy in developed countries. In the United Kingdom, life expectancy increased by 2.5 years between 1971 and 1991; this is equivalent to the increase observed between 1851 and 1961. This accelerated increase will influence public health in two different ways. The first will be the absolute increase in the number of older persons, with a corresponding increase in

  14. Australian General Practitioner Uptake of a Remunerated Medicare Health Assessment for People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koritsas, Stella; Iacono, Teresa; Davis, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the Australian Commonwealth Government announced the Medicare Health Assessment for People with an Intellectual Disability as part of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC) program (Department of Health and Ageing, 2008). The annual health assessment is a structured framework for general practitioners (GPs), which enables an annual comprehensive…

  15. General and oral health implications of cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Cho, C M; Hirsch, R; Johnstone, S

    2005-06-01

    Cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, is the most frequently used illicit drug in Australia. Therefore, oral health care providers are likely to encounter patients who are regular users. An upward trend in cannabis use is occurring in Australia, with 40 per cent of the population aged 14 and above having used the drug. There are three main forms of cannabis: marijuana, hash and hash oil, all of which contain the main psychoactive constituent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabis is most commonly smoked, however it can be added to foods. THC from cannabis enters the bloodstream and exerts its effects on the body via interaction with endogenous receptors. Cannabis affects almost every system of the body, particularly the cardiovascular, respiratory and immune systems. It also has acute and chronic effects on the mental health of some users. Therefore, chronic abuse is a concern because of its negative effects on general physical and mental health. Cannabis abusers generally have poorer oral health than non-users, with an increased risk of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Cannabis smoke acts as a carcinogen and is associated with dysplastic changes and pre-malignant lesions within the oral mucosa. Users are also prone to oral infections, possibly due to the immunosuppressive effects. Dental treatment on patients intoxicated on cannabis can result in the patient experiencing acute anxiety, dysphoria and psychotic-like paranoiac thoughts. The use of local anaesthetic containing epinephrine may seriously prolong tachycardia already induced by an acute dose of cannabis. Oral health care providers should be aware of the diverse adverse effects of cannabis on general and oral health and incorporate questions about patients' patterns of use in the medical history.

  16. The Health Experiences and Development of Teen-Age Mothered Babies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Jeannette Doris

    Conducted from an educational sociologist's point of view, this study explores the relationship of mother's age to the development of her child. A documentary frequency technique was used to investigate four general questions: (1) Do children of younger mothers, ages 16 years and under, have health problems different from the health problems of…

  17. Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.

    This first Report of the Surgeon General on Mental Health represents the initial step in advancing the notion that mental health is fundamental to general health. It states that a review of research on mental health revealed two findings. First, the efficacy of treatment is well documented, and second, a range of treatment exists for most mental…

  18. [Accessible health information: a question of age?].

    PubMed

    Loos, E F

    2012-04-01

    Aging and digitalisation are important trends which have their impact on information accessibility. Accessible information about products and services is of crucial importance to ensure that all citizens can participate fully as active members of society. Senior citizens who have difficulties using new media run the risk of exclusion in today's information society. Not all senior citizens, however, encounter problems with new media. Not by a long shot. There is much to be said for 'aged heterogeneity', the concept that individual differences increase as people age. In two explorative qualitative case studies related to accessible health information--an important issue for senior citizens--that were conducted in the Netherlands, variables such as gender, education level and frequency of internet use were therefore included in the research design. In this paper, the most important results of these case studies will be discussed. Attention will be also paid to complementary theories (socialisation, life stages) which could explain differences in information search behaviour when using old or new media. PMID:22642049

  19. Phytonutrients for bone health during ageing.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Sandra Maria; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Offord, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and bone quality that predispose an individual to an increased risk of fragility fractures. Evidence demonstrating a positive link between certain dietary patterns (e.g. Mediterranean diet or high consumption of fruits and vegetables) and bone health highlights an opportunity to investigate their potential to protect against the deterioration of bone tissue during ageing. While the list of these phytonutrients is extensive, this review summarizes evidence on some which are commonly consumed and have gained increasing attention over recent years, including lycopene and various polyphenols (e.g. polyphenols from tea, grape seed, citrus fruit, olive and dried plum). Evidence to define a clear link between these phytonutrients and bone health is currently insufficient to generate precise dietary recommendations, owing to mixed findings or a scarcity in clinical data. Moreover, their consumption typically occurs within the context of a diet consisting of a mix of phytonutrients and other nutrients rather than in isolation. Future clinical trials that can apply a robust set of outcome measurements, including the determinants of bone strength, such as bone quantity (i.e. bone mineral density) and bone quality (i.e. bone turnover and bone microarchitecture), will help to provide a more comprehensive outlook on how bone responds to these various phytonutrients. Moreover, future trials that combine these phytonutrients with established bone nutrients (i.e. calcium and vitamin D) are needed to determine whether combined strategies can produce more robust effects on skeletal health.

  20. Phytonutrients for bone health during ageing.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Sandra Maria; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Offord, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and bone quality that predispose an individual to an increased risk of fragility fractures. Evidence demonstrating a positive link between certain dietary patterns (e.g. Mediterranean diet or high consumption of fruits and vegetables) and bone health highlights an opportunity to investigate their potential to protect against the deterioration of bone tissue during ageing. While the list of these phytonutrients is extensive, this review summarizes evidence on some which are commonly consumed and have gained increasing attention over recent years, including lycopene and various polyphenols (e.g. polyphenols from tea, grape seed, citrus fruit, olive and dried plum). Evidence to define a clear link between these phytonutrients and bone health is currently insufficient to generate precise dietary recommendations, owing to mixed findings or a scarcity in clinical data. Moreover, their consumption typically occurs within the context of a diet consisting of a mix of phytonutrients and other nutrients rather than in isolation. Future clinical trials that can apply a robust set of outcome measurements, including the determinants of bone strength, such as bone quantity (i.e. bone mineral density) and bone quality (i.e. bone turnover and bone microarchitecture), will help to provide a more comprehensive outlook on how bone responds to these various phytonutrients. Moreover, future trials that combine these phytonutrients with established bone nutrients (i.e. calcium and vitamin D) are needed to determine whether combined strategies can produce more robust effects on skeletal health. PMID:23384080

  1. Structural health management for aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Roy; Haugse, Eric D.

    2001-06-01

    An effective structural health management (SHM) system can be a useful tool for making aircraft fleet management decisions ranging from individual aircraft maintenance scheduling and usage restrictions to fleet rotation strategies. This paper discusses the end-user requirements for the elements and architecture of an effective SHM system for application to both military and commercial aging aircraft fleets. The elements discussed include the sensor systems for monitoring and characterizing the health of the structure, data processing methods for interpreting sensor data and converting it into useable information, and automated methods for erroneous data detection, data archiving and information dissemination. Current and past SHM technology development/maturation efforts in these areas at the Boeing Company will be described. An evolutionary technology development strategy is developed in which the technologies needed will be matured, integrated into a vehicle health management system, and benefits established without requiring extensive changes to the end-user's existing operation and maintenance infrastructure. Issues regarding the end-user customer acceptance of SHM systems are discussed and summarized.

  2. Phytonutrients for bone health during ageing

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, Sandra Maria; Horcajada, Marie‐Noëlle; Offord, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and bone quality that predispose an individual to an increased risk of fragility fractures. Evidence demonstrating a positive link between certain dietary patterns (e.g. Mediterranean diet or high consumption of fruits and vegetables) and bone health highlights an opportunity to investigate their potential to protect against the deterioration of bone tissue during ageing. While the list of these phytonutrients is extensive, this review summarizes evidence on some which are commonly consumed and have gained increasing attention over recent years, including lycopene and various polyphenols (e.g. polyphenols from tea, grape seed, citrus fruit, olive and dried plum). Evidence to define a clear link between these phytonutrients and bone health is currently insufficient to generate precise dietary recommendations, owing to mixed findings or a scarcity in clinical data. Moreover, their consumption typically occurs within the context of a diet consisting of a mix of phytonutrients and other nutrients rather than in isolation. Future clinical trials that can apply a robust set of outcome measurements, including the determinants of bone strength, such as bone quantity (i.e. bone mineral density) and bone quality (i.e. bone turnover and bone microarchitecture), will help to provide a more comprehensive outlook on how bone responds to these various phytonutrients. Moreover, future trials that combine these phytonutrients with established bone nutrients (i.e. calcium and vitamin D) are needed to determine whether combined strategies can produce more robust effects on skeletal health. PMID:23384080

  3. General health screening as part of a periodontal examination.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Sarah L

    2010-12-21

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes are common systemic illnesses with reliable, predictive risk factors. CVD is the number one killer worldwide accounting for nearly 30% of deaths and type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in many western industrialized countries. Both of these illnesses can go undiagnosed in an alarming number of people for significant periods of time. The relationship between oral health and systemic health has become the focus of much discussion and research in recent times. It is now widely accepted that periodontal disease is associated with systemic illnesses such as CVD and type 2 diabetes. Cigarette smoking and obesity are major risk factors accounting for a large portion of the global disease burden. Many periodontal patients may be at risk of systemic conditions but be asymptomatic and undiagnosed. With an aging population who are mostly retaining their natural dentition, the need for periodontal management will continue to rise in the future. Dental professionals are well placed to perform general health screening for their patients. Therefore, risk assessment during the periodontal examination may facilitate the early identification of the large proportion of people who are unaware of their risk status. As identification and intervention of patients with increased risk factors is key to lowering the systemic disease burden, general health screening during periodontal examinations may present an important opportunity for many patients.

  4. Biological health or lived health: which predicts self-reported general health better?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lived health is a person’s level of functioning in his or her current environment and depends both on the person’s environment and biological health. Our study addresses the question whether biological health or lived health is more predictive of self-reported general health (SRGH). Methods This is a psychometric study using cross-sectional data from the Spanish Survey on Disability, Independence and Dependency Situation. Data was collected from 17,739 people in the community and 9,707 from an institutionalized population. The following analysis steps were performed: (1) a biological health and a lived health score were calculated for each person by constructing a biological health scale and a lived health scale using Samejima’s Graded Response Model; and (2) variable importance measures were calculated for each study population using Random Forest, with SRGH as the dependent variable and the biological health and the lived health scores as independent variables. Results The levels of biological health were higher for the community-dwelling population than for the institutionalized population. When technical assistance, personal assistance or both were received, the difference in lived health between the community-dwelling population and institutionalized population was smaller. According to Random Forest’s variable importance measures, for both study populations, lived health is a more important predictor of SRGH than biological health. Conclusions In general, people base their evaluation of their own health on their lived health experience rather than their experience of biological health. This study also sheds light on the challenges of assessing biological health and lived health at the general population level. PMID:24555764

  5. The relationship between health expenditures and the age structure of the population in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, J M

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse national health expenditures of OECD countries relative to their age structures. Using econometric techniques designed to analyse cross-sectional time series data, the ageing of the population was found to affect health spending in several countries while having no effect in others. In addition, the effect of income on health spending was lower than that generally reported in the literature. These findings suggest that unobserved country-specific factors play a major role in determining the amount of resources allocated to health services in a country. Such factors also determine if the ageing of the population with increased health spending.

  6. Age differences in health care spending, fiscal year 1977.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R M; Fisher, C R

    1979-01-01

    This report of health care spending in fiscal year 1977 reveals that of the $142.6 billion spent by the Nation for personal health care in fiscal year 1977, 29 percent was spent for those aged 65 or older, 59 percent for those aged 19-64, and 13 percent for those below age 19. The average health bill reached $1,745 for the aged, $661 for the intermediate age group, and $253 for the young. Public funds financed 67 percent of the health expenses of the aged, with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 61 percent. More than two-thirds of the health expenses of the young and 71 percent of the expenses of those aged 19-64 were paid by private sources. Third-party payments met 68 percent of the health expenditures of all those under age 65. PMID:107600

  7. Health habits in relation to aging.

    PubMed

    McGlone, F B; Kick, E

    1978-11-01

    A review of the literature and a study of 52 patients of the 80+ age group confirmed the premise that good health habits have a positive effect on the quantity and quality of life. Not all persons can live beyond 80, but those who do can lead a better life if they live properly. A profile of these 52 subjects aged 80 or older revealed that they were of average size or thin, and of a happy temperament; they ate well and regularly, slept adequately, avoided excessive amounts of alcohol, did not smoke, used drugs sparingly, and led an active life, physically and mentally. Also, it was apparent that the rugged elderly can withstand the impact of a major illness or a surgical operation with associated anesthesia. The following factors are important for longevity: 1) pick the right grandparents, 2) keep active physically and mentally, 3) eat properly, 4) stay thin, 5) drink alcohol moderately if at all, and 6) do not smoke. PMID:701699

  8. Heat waves, aging, and human cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Kenney, W Larry; Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2014-10-01

    This brief review is based on a President's Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2013. The purpose of this review was to assess the effects of climate change and consequent increases in environmental heat stress on the aging cardiovascular system. The earth's average global temperature is slowly but consistently increasing, and along with mean temperature changes come increases in heat wave frequency and severity. Extreme passive thermal stress resulting from prolonged elevations in ambient temperature and prolonged physical activity in hot environments creates a high demand on the left ventricle to pump blood to the skin to dissipate heat. Even healthy aging is accompanied by altered cardiovascular function, which limits the extent to which older individuals can maintain stroke volume, increase cardiac output, and increase skin blood flow when exposed to environmental extremes. In the elderly, the increased cardiovascular demand during heat waves is often fatal because of increased strain on an already compromised left ventricle. Not surprisingly, excess deaths during heat waves 1) occur predominantly in older individuals and 2) are overwhelmingly cardiovascular in origin. Increasing frequency and severity of heat waves coupled with a rapidly growing at-risk population dramatically increase the extent of future untoward health outcomes.

  9. HEAT WAVES, AGING, AND HUMAN CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, W. Larry; Craighead, Daniel H.; Alexander, Lacy M.

    2014-01-01

    This brief review is based on a President’s Lecture presented at the Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine in 2013. The purpose of this review is to assess the effects of climate change and consequent increases in environmental heat stress on the aging cardiovascular system. The earth’s average global temperature is slowly but consistently increasing, and along with mean temperature changes come increases in heat wave frequency and severity. Extreme passive thermal stress resulting from prolonged elevations in ambient temperature, as well as prolonged physical activity in hot environments, creates a high demand on the left ventricle to pump blood to the skin to dissipate heat. Even healthy aging is accompanied by altered cardiovascular function, which limits the extent to which older individuals can maintain stroke volume, increase cardiac output, and increase skin blood flow when exposed to environmental extremes. In the elderly, the increased cardiovascular demand during heat waves is often fatal due to increased strain on an already compromised left ventricle. Not surprisingly, excess deaths during heat waves 1) occur predominantly in older individuals and 2) are overwhelmingly cardiovascular in origin. Increasing frequency and severity of heat waves coupled with a rapidly growing at-risk population dramatically increases the extent of future untoward health outcomes. PMID:24598696

  10. Going for gold: the health promoting general practice.

    PubMed

    Watson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion has been influential in guiding the development of 'settings' based health promotion. Over the past decade, settings such as schools have flourished and there has been a considerable amount of academic literature produced, including theoretical papers, descriptive studies and evaluations. However, despite its central importance, the health-promoting general practice has received little attention. This paper discusses: the significance of this setting for health promotion; how a health promoting general practice can be created; effective health promotion approaches; the nursing contribution; and some challenges that need to be resolved. In order to become a health promoting general practice, the staff must undertake a commitment to fulfil the following conditions: create a healthy working environment; integrate health promotion into practice activities; and establish alliances with other relevant institutions and groups within the community. The health promoting general practice is the gold standard for health promotion. Settings that have developed have had the support of local, national and European networks. Similar assistance and advocacy will be needed in general practice. This paper recommends that a series of rigorously evaluated, high-quality pilot sites need to be established to identify and address potential difficulties, and to ensure that this innovative approach yields tangible health benefits for local communities. It also suggests that government support is critical to the future development of health promoting general practices. This will be needed both directly and in relation to the capacity and resourcing of public health in general.

  11. 21 CFR 101.14 - Health claims: general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health claims: general requirements. 101.14 Section 101.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.14 Health claims:...

  12. 21 CFR 101.14 - Health claims: general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: general requirements. 101.14 Section 101.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.14 Health claims:...

  13. 21 CFR 101.14 - Health claims: general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Health claims: general requirements. 101.14 Section 101.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.14 Health claims:...

  14. 21 CFR 101.14 - Health claims: general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health claims: general requirements. 101.14 Section 101.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.14 Health claims:...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.20 - General safety and health provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General safety and health provisions. 1926.20 Section 1926.20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION General Safety and...

  16. 21 CFR 101.14 - Health claims: general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Health claims: general requirements. 101.14 Section 101.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 101.14 Health claims:...

  17. HEALTH OF CHILDREN OF SCHOOL AGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LESSER, ARTHUR

    A HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE STUDY OF SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAMS, THIS REPORT PRESENTS STATISTICS ON (1) THE NATION'S CHILD POPULATION, (2) CHILDREN IN LOW-INCOME FAMILIES, (3) ILLNESSES OF CHILDHOOD, (4) SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES, AND (5) TRENDS IN THE PROVISION OF HEALTH CARE FOR CHILDREN. THE REPORT EMPHASIZES THE GAPS IN CHILD HEALTH SUPERVISION…

  18. Age differences in health care spending, fiscal year 1976.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R M; Mueller, M S; Fisher, C R

    1977-08-01

    Of the $120.4 billion spent by the Nation for personal health care in fiscal year 1976, 29% was spent for those aged 65 or older, 15% for those under age 19, and the remaining 56% for those aged 19-64. The average health bill reached $1,521 for the aged, $547 for the intermediate age group, and $249 for the young. Public funds financed 68% of the health expenses of the aged with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 59%. Private sources paid 74% of the health expenses of the young and 70% of the expenses of those aged 19-64. Third-party payments met 65% of the health expenditures of all those under age 65. PMID:408934

  19. The black aged: implications for mental health care.

    PubMed

    Carter, J H

    1982-01-01

    Some of the problems associated with providing quality mental health care for aged blacks are discussed. It is postulated that treatment should be used selectively, not in terms of simplistic formulas or part-truths about aged blacks, but on the bases of clinical indications in differential diagnosis. The essence of improved mental health for blacks, regardless of sex or age, entails an unrelenting struggle by mental health professionals toward the removal of all vestiges of racism.

  20. Gut Bifidobacteria Populations in Human Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Arboleya, Silvia; Watkins, Claire; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, and B. bifidum are generally dominant in infants, whereas B. catenulatum, B. adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more prevalent in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effects of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria have been associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria compositional changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence or absence in many disease states.

  1. Gut Bifidobacteria Populations in Human Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Arboleya, Silvia; Watkins, Claire; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, and B. bifidum are generally dominant in infants, whereas B. catenulatum, B. adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more prevalent in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effects of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria have been associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria compositional changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence or absence in many disease states. PMID:27594848

  2. Gut Bifidobacteria Populations in Human Health and Aging.

    PubMed

    Arboleya, Silvia; Watkins, Claire; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, and B. bifidum are generally dominant in infants, whereas B. catenulatum, B. adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more prevalent in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effects of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria have been associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria compositional changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence or absence in many disease states. PMID:27594848

  3. Green spaces and General Health: Roles of mental health status, social support, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Bartoll, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Martinez, David; Ambros, Albert; Cirach, Marta; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Gascon, Mireia; Borrell, Carme; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Green spaces are associated with improved health, but little is known about mechanisms underlying such association. We aimed to assess the association between greenness exposure and subjective general health (SGH) and to evaluate mental health status, social support, and physical activity as mediators of this association. This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based sample of 3461 adults residing in Barcelona, Spain (2011). We characterized outcome and mediators using the Health Survey of Barcelona. Objective and subjective residential proximity to green spaces and residential surrounding greenness were used to characterize greenness exposure. We followed Baron and Kenny's framework to establish the mediation roles and we further quantified the relative contribution of each mediator. Residential surrounding greenness and subjective residential proximity to green spaces were associated with better SGH. We found indications for mediation of these associations by mental health status, perceived social support, and to less extent, by physical activity. These mediators altogether could explain about half of the surrounding greenness association and one-third of the association for subjective proximity to green spaces. We observed indications that mental health and perceived social support might be more relevant for men and those younger than 65years. The results for objective residential proximity to green spaces were not conclusive. In conclusion, our observed association between SGH and greenness exposure was mediated, in part, by mental health status, enhanced social support, and physical activity. There might be age and sex variations in these mediation roles.

  4. Health and aging of urban American Indians.

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, B J

    1992-01-01

    Although half of the American Indian population resides off the reservation, mostly in the western states, research on the health of urban American Indians remains sparse. American Indians living in urban areas are not eligible for the federally mandated health care provided by the Indian Health Service and receive health care services in a variety of settings. This population is at high risk for many health problems, especially cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Social, cultural, and economic barriers that impede access to health care for this group, particularly for elders living in an urban setting, could be reduced if physicians improved their understanding of and communication with American Indian patients. PMID:1413770

  5. [The issue of feasibility of a general theory of aging I. Generalized Gompertz-Makeham Law].

    PubMed

    Golubev, A G

    2009-01-01

    Aging and longevity are interrelated so intimately that they should be treated with a unified theory. The longevity of every single cohort of living beings is determined by the rate of their dying-out. In most cases, mortality rates increase in accelerated fashions to reach values making the bulk of each finite cohort completely exhausted within a relatively narrow time interval shifted to the end of its resulting lifespan. Among simple functions with biologically interpretable parameters, the best fit to this pattern is demonstrated by the Gompertz-Makeham Law (GML): mu = C + lambda x e(gamma x t). A generalized form of GML mu = C(t) + lambda x e(-E(t)) is suggested and interpreted as a law of the dependency of mortality upon vitality rather than on age. It is reduced to the conventional GML when E depends linearly on t, that the age is an observable correlate of unobservable vitality. C(t) captures the inherently irresistible causes of death. The generalized GML can accommodate any mode of age-dependent functional decline, which should be placed into the exponent index to be translated into changes in mortality rate, and is compatible with any sort of cohort heterogeneity, which may be captured by substituting of GML parameters with relevant distributions or by combining of several generalized GML models. The generalized GML is suggested to result from the origin of life from the chemical world, which was associated with the transition of the role of the main variable in the Arrhenius equation k = A x exp[-Ea/(R x T)] for the dependency of chemical disintegration on temperature from T to Ea upon the transition from molecular to multimolecular prebiotic entities. Thus, the generalized GML is not a result of biological evolution but is a sort of chemical legacy of biology, which makes an important condition for life to evolve.

  6. The health work force, generalism, and the social contract.

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, G F

    1995-01-01

    Since 1990, society has been evolving through a period of significant transformation. In response to an increasingly information-rich and knowledge-based environment, the work force for most of society is becoming more specialized. Medicine is one of the few areas developing a work force which emphasizes generalism. For our current needs, the transitional work force has overproduced physicians. Because the overproduction has been uneven by specialty, it is deceptive to evaluate growth collectively rather than by individual subspecialty. Future shifts in age and types of illness combined with enhanced technology will transform the public's expectations of the American health care system. The type and number of physicians that will be needed in the future will be substantially different than in the past, so current patterns in physician education may not address the population's future demands. Images Figure 1. PMID:7677453

  7. Exploring the limitations of age-based models for health care planning.

    PubMed

    Mason, Thomas; Sutton, Matt; Whittaker, William; Birch, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    Health care decision makers are required to make planning decisions over a medium to long term planning horizon. Whilst population ageing is an important consideration for planners, age-stratified demographic models may produce misleading estimates of future resource requirements if the actual relationship between age and health is not fixed. We present a methodology which tests whether the assumption of a fixed age-health relationship is valid and estimate the magnitude of planning errors using a long time-series of measures of chronic health and service utilisation (N = 2419) taken from the Great British General Household Survey (1980-2008). We find that age-only models contain significant omitted variable bias, and that the relationship between age and health varies significantly across birth cohorts. Chronic sickness has fallen across birth cohorts born between 1890 and 2008, particularly before birth year 1930. Generational health improvements have mitigated the effects of population ageing, meaning that the population rate of sickness fell between 1980 and 2008. Planning based only on age leads to overestimation of the population level of health care need if successive cohorts are becoming healthier. Many alternative approaches exist which allow planners to relax the assumption of a fixed relationship between age and health. PMID:25780858

  8. State of Health and Quality of Life of Women at Advanced Age

    PubMed Central

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Humeniuk, Ewa; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Bejga, Przemysław; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and the relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at an advanced age (90 years of age and older) in Poland. Material/Methods The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 years and older. The research instruments were: the authors’ questionnaire and several standardized tests: Katz Index of Independence in Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF. The results of the study were statistically analyzed using significant t-test for mean and regression analysis. Results The majority of women at an advanced age suffered from chronic pain (76%) and major geriatric problems such as hypoacusis (81%), visual disturbances (69%) and urinary incontinence (60%); the minority of women at an advanced age suffered from falls and fainting (39%), stool incontinence (17%), severe functional impairment (24%), and cognitive impairment (10%). On a scale of 1 to 5, women at an advanced age assessed positively for overall quality of life (mean 3.3), social relationships (3.5), and environment (3.2), but negatively for general health, physical health, and psychological health (2.7, 2.7, and 2.8, respectively). The presence of chronic pain and geriatric problems, including urinary and stool incontinences, falls and faint ing, visual disturbances and hypoacusis, significantly decreased overall quality of life; general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment. Overall quality of life, general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment was correlated with functional and cognitive impairments. Conclusions Quality of life of women at an advanced age decreased if chronic pain, major geriatric problems, or functional or cognitive impairments occurred. PMID:27580565

  9. General Practitioners Educational Needs in Intellectual Disability Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, A.; Morrison, J.; Davis, R. W.

    2004-01-01

    The community general practitioner (GP) has a central role in the provision of primary health care to people with intellectual disability (ID) as an indirect result of deinstitutionalization in Australia. This population, however, continues to experience poor health care compared to the general population. The current paper describes results from…

  10. Neighborhood Age Structure and its Implications for Health

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Age structure at the neighborhood level is rarely considered in contextual studies of health. However, age structure can play a critical role in shaping community life, the availability of resources, and the opportunities for social engagement—all factors that, research suggests, have direct and indirect effects on health. Age structure can be theorized as a compositional effect and as a contextual effect. In addition, the dynamic nature of age structure and the utility of a life course perspective as applied to neighborhood effects research merits attention. Four Chicago neighborhoods are summarized to illustrate how age structure varies across small space, suggesting that neighborhood age structure should be considered a key structural covariate in contextual research on health. Considering age structure implies incorporating not only meaningful cut points for important age groups (e.g., proportion 65 years and over) but attention to the shape of the distribution as well. PMID:16865558

  11. Adulthood Predictors of Health Promoting Behavior in Later Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Carole K.; Suzuki, Rie

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated adulthood predictors of health-promoting behavior in later aging. The participants were 162 members of the Terman Study of the Gifted (Terman et al., 1925), who responded in 1999 at an average age of 86 to a mailout questionnaire which included questions concerning their positive health behavior. Adulthood variables were…

  12. The relationship between general health and lifestyle factors and oral health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, P; Busby, M; Chapple, L; Matthews, R; Chapple, I

    2016-07-22

    Aim The primary research question addressed in this paper was 'are lower than average oral health scores observed for those patients who report problems with general health and high-risk lifestyle factors?'Methods A population analysis was conducted on the first 37,330 patients, assessed by 493 dentists in the UK, to receive a Denplan PreViser Patient Assessment (DEPPA) at their dental practice. The Oral Health Score (OHS) was generated using a mixture of patient-reported factors and clinical findings and is an integrated component of DEPPA. Patients' self-reported risk factors included diabetes status, tobacco use and alcohol consumption. Patients' general health was measured by self-report, that is, a yes/no answer to the question 'have you experienced any major health problems in the last year for example a stroke, heart attack or cancer?' Multivariable linear regression analysis was employed to study the association between the OHS and general health and risk factors for patients in the DEPPA cohort.Results The mean age of participants was 54 years (range 17-101; S.D. 16 years) and the mean OHS for the group was 78.4 (range 0-100; S.D. 10). 1,255 (3%) of patients reported experiencing a major health problem in the previous year. In the fully adjusted model, diabetes, tobacco use, excessive alcohol consumption (three or more drinks per day), and poor overall health in the preceding year were all associated with a statistically significant drop in the mean OHS of patients. Having diabetes was associated with a 1.7 point (95% CI 1.3-2.1, P <0.001) drop in OHS, tobacco use was associated with a 2.7 point (95% CI 2.5-2.9, P <0.001) drop in OHS, and excessive alcohol consumption was associated with a 1.8 point (95% CI 1.3-2.4, P <0.001) drop in OHS. The mean OHS in patients who reported a major health problem in the preceding year was 0.7 points (95% CI 0.2-1.2, P = 0.006) lower than that of patients who did not report a major health problem in the preceding year

  13. Retaining the experts. Aging nurses in mental health.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2010-01-01

    The aging of the nursing workforce has contributed to the critical shortage of nurses. There is a consistent pattern of nurses leaving hospital settings as they age and leaving the workforce entirely after age 50. Few data are available on how this may affect quality of care in mental health services in the future. Research is needed to better understand the relationship between workplace variables and older workers' health, safety, and satisfaction, so that aging nurses in mental health may extend their working life and continue sharing their expertise that has been developed over many years. PMID:20102128

  14. [Planned dairy herd health. I: General philosophy].

    PubMed

    Lourens, D C; Coubrough, R I

    1985-09-01

    A dairy herd health programme may be defined as a planned and co-ordinated approach which aims at achieving and maintaining optimal herd health, production and reproduction, the implementation of which is governed by sound economic principles. The object of this article is to present and discuss some facets of the background philosophy of the concept of herd health, and look at some of the pitfalls and shortcomings of their application in practice. In terms of production levels achieved in other developed countries, South Africa lags behind. While factors such as climate, environment, feed quality, and basic livestock potential may play a role in this difference, the single most important factor is undoubtedly the managemental approach. Modern livestock production requires a shift in emphasis of veterinary involvement towards a herd approach which promotes increased cost-effective production. The veterinarian forms part of a production team which, apart from himself, includes the farmer, farm labour and the animal scientist. The veterinarian has a key role in this endeavour. Through his basic training he is well equipped to serve as a co-ordinator of the massive flow of information being generated. To do this effectively he must be able to work with, advise and communicate with people at various levels of management as well as with the labour force. While optimal co-operation of each team member is cardinal to the success of such a programme, no progress will be made unless the farmer is convinced of the viability of the undertaking, and indeed has the managerial skills to implement any directive or recommendation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4078844

  15. Ageing Jewish Holocaust survivors: anxieties in dealing with health professionals.

    PubMed

    Joffe, H I; Joffe, C F; Brodaty, H

    1996-11-01

    Jewish Holocaust survivors who emigrated to Australia after World War II are ageing and having more frequent contact with health services. Health professionals often lack the knowledge, training, skill or personal assurance to deal with the effects of massive trauma. Increased awareness of and sensitivity to older Holocaust survivors can lessen their anxieties and, potentially, improve treatment outcome. Such experience may form a useful lesson for health professionals in dealing with refugees from other atrocities as they age.

  16. General theory of paradigms in health.

    PubMed

    Mohs, E

    1991-01-01

    In Costa Rica, three sequential health paradigms have been identified over the last 50 years. The first began to develop during the 40's and has been called that of the deficiency diseases, since with a diachronic approach it placed excessive emphasis on malnutrition. The second began in 1970 and it is known as that of the infectious diseases, since through a holistic or synchronic approach, it underlined the importance of infections in high rates of morbidity and mortality. The third and last is the paradigm of the chronic diseases, it appeared in the 80's and is presently in process, doing battle with the chronic ailments, life styles, and environment, and it also utilizes a holistic approach. The recognition of these three paradigms has permitted Costa Rica a rapid advance in improving the health of its population, to the point that with a per capita outlay of $130 (US dollars), it has indices similar to those of the industrialized nations. This particular experience could be useful for other less-developed countries that are still applying the paradigm of the deficiency diseases. PMID:1805365

  17. General theory of paradigms in health.

    PubMed

    Mohs, E

    1991-01-01

    In Costa Rica, three sequential health paradigms have been identified over the last 50 years. The first began to develop during the 40's and has been called that of the deficiency diseases, since with a diachronic approach it placed excessive emphasis on malnutrition. The second began in 1970 and it is known as that of the infectious diseases, since through a holistic or synchronic approach, it underlined the importance of infections in high rates of morbidity and mortality. The third and last is the paradigm of the chronic diseases, it appeared in the 80's and is presently in process, doing battle with the chronic ailments, life styles, and environment, and it also utilizes a holistic approach. The recognition of these three paradigms has permitted Costa Rica a rapid advance in improving the health of its population, to the point that with a per capita outlay of $130 (US dollars), it has indices similar to those of the industrialized nations. This particular experience could be useful for other less-developed countries that are still applying the paradigm of the deficiency diseases.

  18. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  19. Gestational Age at Birth and ‘Body-Mind’ Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Kelleher, Cecily C.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate’s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000–2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children’s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent’s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32–36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%–6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2–2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  20. Learning Wellness: How Ageing Australians Experience Health Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Christine; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Given identified synergies between information use and health status greater understanding is needed about how people use information to learn about their health. This paper presents the findings of preliminary research into health information literacy. Analysis of data from semi-structured interviews revealed six different ways ageing Australians…

  1. Why General Mills mixes in health care.

    PubMed

    Blodgett, T B

    1989-01-01

    When it comes to social responsibility, most companies are content to write out checks--often in large numbers--and let it go at that. General Mills is one company that likes to establish operating ventures that involve corporate officers and champion a cause. Such a venture is Altcare, a nonprofit organization designed to find more effective and less expensive ways of caring for elderly people who are getting frail but do not require acute care. In 1983, when the company chose this area as its next project, it realized it needed help from an organization with vast experience in the geriatric field. So it enlisted a nearby organization, the Wilder Foundation, and went into partnership as Altcare. The partnership has launched a service network for victims of Alzheimer's disease, a program with three other institutions to meet the myriad needs of chronically impaired people, and an unusual residence for physically impaired people, among other ventures. Altcare looks for advances and ideas that can be replicated, and the partnership often lends money to entrepreneurs who want to launch pioneering efforts or replicate Altcare initiatives. The cost to General Mills: about $80,000 a year after taxes, plus its share of any losses in project investments incurred by Altcare. PMID:10313002

  2. Factors associated with mental health, general health, and school-based service use for child psychopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Zahner, G E; Daskalakis, C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to identify factors associated with service use for child psychopathology in three settings: mental health, general health, and school. METHODS: Subjects were 2519 children, 6 to 11 years of age, assessed in two cross-sectional Connecticut surveys in the late 1980s. Three groups of variables (sociodemographics, child's illness profile, and parental attitudes) were examined through multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Most sociodemographics showed moderate associations with all settings, although some previously reported effects (e.g. birth order, sibship size) were not observed. Of the illness profile measures, only Child Behavior Checklist total scores predicted use in the final model (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 2.3). Health problems were associated with increased use in all settings (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.3, 1.9), while academic problems were associated only with increased school service use (OR = 5.2, 95% CI = 3.9, 7.0). Parental belief that the child needed help was most strongly associated with service use (common OR for all settings = 5.3, 95% CI = 4.1, 6.8). CONCLUSIONS: Sociodemographics, parental attitudes, and children's illness profiles independently influence service use for psychopathology in school-aged children. PMID:9314794

  3. Aging and Health--Changing Life-Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Rosabel S.

    The number of people who are living past age 65 is increasing dramatically. Although few stereotypes or generalizations apply to this population, older citizens still suffer from a societal attitude of agism. Studies on aging have demonstrated that chronological age does not predict physical condition or behavior. In fact, the current generation…

  4. Generalized master equation via aging continuous-time random walks.

    PubMed

    Allegrini, Paolo; Aquino, Gerardo; Grigolini, Paolo; Palatella, Luigi; Rosa, Angelo

    2003-11-01

    We discuss the problem of the equivalence between continuous-time random walk (CTRW) and generalized master equation (GME). The walker, making instantaneous jumps from one site of the lattice to another, resides in each site for extended times. The sojourn times have a distribution density psi(t) that is assumed to be an inverse power law with the power index micro. We assume that the Onsager principle is fulfilled, and we use this assumption to establish a complete equivalence between GME and the Montroll-Weiss CTRW. We prove that this equivalence is confined to the case where psi(t) is an exponential. We argue that is so because the Montroll-Weiss CTRW, as recently proved by Barkai [E. Barkai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 104101 (2003)], is nonstationary, thereby implying aging, while the Onsager principle is valid only in the case of fully aged systems. The case of a Poisson distribution of sojourn times is the only one with no aging associated to it, and consequently with no need to establish special initial conditions to fulfill the Onsager principle. We consider the case of a dichotomous fluctuation, and we prove that the Onsager principle is fulfilled for any form of regression to equilibrium provided that the stationary condition holds true. We set the stationary condition on both the CTRW and the GME, thereby creating a condition of total equivalence, regardless of the nature of the waiting-time distribution. As a consequence of this procedure we create a GME that is a bona fide master equation, in spite of being non-Markov. We note that the memory kernel of the GME affords information on the interaction between system of interest and its bath. The Poisson case yields a bath with infinitely fast fluctuations. We argue that departing from the Poisson form has the effect of creating a condition of infinite memory and that these results might be useful to shed light on the problem of how to unravel non-Markov quantum master equations. PMID:14682862

  5. Generalized master equation via aging continuous-time random walks.

    PubMed

    Allegrini, Paolo; Aquino, Gerardo; Grigolini, Paolo; Palatella, Luigi; Rosa, Angelo

    2003-11-01

    We discuss the problem of the equivalence between continuous-time random walk (CTRW) and generalized master equation (GME). The walker, making instantaneous jumps from one site of the lattice to another, resides in each site for extended times. The sojourn times have a distribution density psi(t) that is assumed to be an inverse power law with the power index micro. We assume that the Onsager principle is fulfilled, and we use this assumption to establish a complete equivalence between GME and the Montroll-Weiss CTRW. We prove that this equivalence is confined to the case where psi(t) is an exponential. We argue that is so because the Montroll-Weiss CTRW, as recently proved by Barkai [E. Barkai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 104101 (2003)], is nonstationary, thereby implying aging, while the Onsager principle is valid only in the case of fully aged systems. The case of a Poisson distribution of sojourn times is the only one with no aging associated to it, and consequently with no need to establish special initial conditions to fulfill the Onsager principle. We consider the case of a dichotomous fluctuation, and we prove that the Onsager principle is fulfilled for any form of regression to equilibrium provided that the stationary condition holds true. We set the stationary condition on both the CTRW and the GME, thereby creating a condition of total equivalence, regardless of the nature of the waiting-time distribution. As a consequence of this procedure we create a GME that is a bona fide master equation, in spite of being non-Markov. We note that the memory kernel of the GME affords information on the interaction between system of interest and its bath. The Poisson case yields a bath with infinitely fast fluctuations. We argue that departing from the Poisson form has the effect of creating a condition of infinite memory and that these results might be useful to shed light on the problem of how to unravel non-Markov quantum master equations.

  6. Making Health Happen on Campus: A Review of a Required General Education Health Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig M.; Johnson, Hans; Vail-Smith, Karen; Maahs-Fladung, Cathy; Tavasso, Debra; Elmore, Barry; Blumell, Charla

    2008-01-01

    Revisions of general education curricula have been ongoing as universities strive to meet the general education goal of helping students succeed. The importance of health status with regard to the future health potential of college students and the impact the college years have on their health has been highlighted in the American College Health…

  7. The Healthy Ageing Model: health behaviour change for older adults.

    PubMed

    Potempa, Kathleen M; Butterworth, Susan W; Flaherty-Robb, Marna K; Gaynor, William L

    2010-01-01

    Proposed is a model of primary care for older adults with chronic health conditions that focuses on active engagement in health care. The Healthy Ageing Model is anchored in established theory on motivation and health behaviour change. The model draws on empirical and applied clinical underpinnings in such diverse areas as health promotion and education, treatment of addictions or obesity, management of chronic diseases, goal-setting, and coaching techniques. The conceptual foundation for the Healthy Ageing Model is described first, followed by a brief description of the key characteristics of the model. In conclusion, suggestions are offered for the clinical application and for further developing the model.

  8. [Gerodontology consultation in geriatric facilities: general health status (I)].

    PubMed

    Katsoulis, Joannis; Huber, Sandra; Mericske-Stern, Regina

    2009-01-01

    Dental undertreatment is often seen in the older population. This is particularly true for the elderly living in nursing homes and geriatric hospitals. The progression of chronic diseases results in loss of their independence. They rely on daily support and care due to physical or mental impairment. The visit of a dentist in private praxis becomes difficult or impossible and is a logistic problem. These elderly patients are often not aware of oral and dental problems or these are not addressed. The geriatric hospital Bern, Ziegler, has integrated dental care in the concept of physical rehabilitation of geriatric patients. A total of 139 patients received dental treatment in the years 2005/2006. Their mean age was 83 years, but the segment with > 85 years of age amounted to 46%. The general health examinations reveald multiple and complex disorders. The ASA classification (American Society of Anesthesiologists, Physical Status Classification System) was applied and resulted in 15% = P2 (mild systemic disease, no functional limitation), 47% = P3 (severe systemic disease, definite functional limitations) and 38% = P4 (severe systemic disease, constant threat to life). Eighty-seven of the patients exhibited 3 or more chronic diseases with a prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, musculoskelettal disorders and dementia. Overall the differences between men and women were small, but broncho-pulmonary dieseases were significantly more frequent in women, while men were more often diagnosed with dementia and depression. Verbal communication was limited or not possible with 60% of the patients due to cognitive impairment or aphasia after a stroke. Although the objective treatment need is high, providing dentistry for frail and geriatric patients is characterized by risks due to poor general health conditions, difficulties in communication, limitations in feasibility and lack of adequate aftercare. In order to prevent the problem of undertreatment, elderly independently living

  9. Old age, disability and care in public health.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Aging of the population profoundly changes the scope of action of public health, altering the profile of morbidity-mortality and increasing the demand for chronic care. In the aging population, disability serves as an indicator of health and a guideline for actions and policies. This enquiry, with a qualitative approach, based on interpretative anthropology and the emic perspective, aims to understand the way of thinking and acting of old people in the face of 'old age with disability' and their relationships with public health. Individual interviews were held at the subject's homes, using a semi-structured script, with 57 old people living in the city, including participants from the cohort of Bambuí. Collection and analysis of the data was oriented by the methodology of Signs, Meanings and Actions, making possible anthropological investigation of the representations and concrete behaviors associated with disability in old age in the local culture. Two categories relating to the relationships between old age, disability and public healthcare emerged from the analysis: (i) experience of care in old age with disability; and (ii) the fear of lack of care. The results reveal that public health needs to review its concepts about disability in old age and incorporate disability into the agenda of the functional dimension of health and care for old age. PMID:26691789

  10. Old age, disability and care in public health.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Aging of the population profoundly changes the scope of action of public health, altering the profile of morbidity-mortality and increasing the demand for chronic care. In the aging population, disability serves as an indicator of health and a guideline for actions and policies. This enquiry, with a qualitative approach, based on interpretative anthropology and the emic perspective, aims to understand the way of thinking and acting of old people in the face of 'old age with disability' and their relationships with public health. Individual interviews were held at the subject's homes, using a semi-structured script, with 57 old people living in the city, including participants from the cohort of Bambuí. Collection and analysis of the data was oriented by the methodology of Signs, Meanings and Actions, making possible anthropological investigation of the representations and concrete behaviors associated with disability in old age in the local culture. Two categories relating to the relationships between old age, disability and public healthcare emerged from the analysis: (i) experience of care in old age with disability; and (ii) the fear of lack of care. The results reveal that public health needs to review its concepts about disability in old age and incorporate disability into the agenda of the functional dimension of health and care for old age.

  11. Global health education in general preventive medicine residencies.

    PubMed

    Bussell, Scottie A; Kihlberg, Courtney J; Foderingham, Nia M; Dunlap, Julie A; Aliyu, Muktar H

    2015-05-01

    Opportunities for global health training during residency are steadily increasing. For example, surveys show that more than half of residency programs now offer international electives. Residency programs are increasingly recognizing that global health training improves communication skills, fosters awareness of health disparities, and inspires careers in primary care and public health. Although research has focused on global health education in other specialties, there is a paucity of research on global health training in public health and general preventive medicine (GPM). We sought to describe the extent of global health training across GPM residencies, capture the perspectives of program directors regarding competencies residents need for careers in global health, and identify program directors' perceived barriers to providing global health training. The survey was sent electronically to 42 U.S. GPM residency program directors from September to October 2013. Twenty-three completed surveys were returned. Information from residencies that did not complete the study survey was collected through a predefined search protocol. Data analysis was performed from February through July 2014. Among program directors completing the survey, the most common types of reported global health education were courses (n=17), followed by international rotations (n=10). Ten program directors indicated that resident(s) were involved in global health training, research, or service initiatives. Commonly perceived barriers included funding (87%), scheduling (56.5%), and partnership and sustainability (34.8%). Through global health coursework, research, and practicum rotations, GPM residents could acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes contributing to careers in global health. PMID:25891059

  12. Global health education in general preventive medicine residencies.

    PubMed

    Bussell, Scottie A; Kihlberg, Courtney J; Foderingham, Nia M; Dunlap, Julie A; Aliyu, Muktar H

    2015-05-01

    Opportunities for global health training during residency are steadily increasing. For example, surveys show that more than half of residency programs now offer international electives. Residency programs are increasingly recognizing that global health training improves communication skills, fosters awareness of health disparities, and inspires careers in primary care and public health. Although research has focused on global health education in other specialties, there is a paucity of research on global health training in public health and general preventive medicine (GPM). We sought to describe the extent of global health training across GPM residencies, capture the perspectives of program directors regarding competencies residents need for careers in global health, and identify program directors' perceived barriers to providing global health training. The survey was sent electronically to 42 U.S. GPM residency program directors from September to October 2013. Twenty-three completed surveys were returned. Information from residencies that did not complete the study survey was collected through a predefined search protocol. Data analysis was performed from February through July 2014. Among program directors completing the survey, the most common types of reported global health education were courses (n=17), followed by international rotations (n=10). Ten program directors indicated that resident(s) were involved in global health training, research, or service initiatives. Commonly perceived barriers included funding (87%), scheduling (56.5%), and partnership and sustainability (34.8%). Through global health coursework, research, and practicum rotations, GPM residents could acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes contributing to careers in global health.

  13. [The concept of health in the General Health Law (1986)].

    PubMed

    Peral, D

    1993-01-01

    The 1986 "Le General de Sanidad" (Sanitary General Regulations) has been studied using the method of the "Topología del Discurso" in order to elucidate what are the thoughts of the lawmakers. The law protects not only the population of catastrophes as it happened with the choleric epidemic of the XIX century, but considers a new concept a sanitary wealth should be provided to the individuals. Together with this new concept there are new ones such as equality and universalization of the sanitary assistence that would be keys of the aim of the lawmakers: to coordinate all the State resources in the reform of the spanish sanity. This includes the integration of the Universities. This can help in the understanding of the dificulties in the development and aplication of the Law present reality.

  14. General Health status of workers among different workplaces in Qom Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Koohpaei, Alireza; Khandan, Mohammad; Gaeeni, Mahdi; Momenyan, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In a healthy organization, psychological health and physical health are as important as production and productivity; and healthy workers have higher productivity. Regarding lack of information about workers’ general health profile in Qom Province, this study aimed to assess and compare the staffs’ general health and its components among different workplaces in 2014. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 2,276 employees working at 46 industries and organizations completed a standardized General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28) and a demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient by IBM SPSS version 20. Results The mean age of the participants was 32.22 (±7.55) years. Seventy-nine point four percent of participants were married and the rest were single. Highest and lowest scores belonged to social dysfunction and depression, respectively. Also, total score of staffs’ general health was 17.87 ± 10.93. The results showed that, in spite of the non-relationship between general health score difference among married and single personnel (p > 0.05), there was a significant difference between men and women and among organizations and industries with regards to general health score (p < 0.05), and drivers had the most difference with others. The relationship between workers’ ages and GH was significant (p < 0.05, Pearson’s bivariate correlation coefficient = −0.05). Conclusion The findings of this study collectively indicated that participants had an acceptable condition for mental factors, such as depression, but not in viewpoints of social dysfunction. In other words, staffs’ interfaces with circumstances and personal innovation/creativity in the workplaces are at risk. Altogether, the general health score in the studied population was suitable in its entirety. PMID:26813624

  15. Work, Health, and Family at Older Ages in Japan.

    PubMed

    Raymo, James M; Liang, Jersey; Kobayashi, Erika; Sugihara, Yoko; Fukaya, Taro

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate ways in which the relationship between health and labor force exit at older ages is moderated by family characteristics. Using two waves of data from a national sample of older Japanese men collected 1999 and 2002, we estimate logistic regression models for labor force exit beyond age 63 as a function of health change, family characteristics, and their interactions. We confirm that poor health is strongly associated with labor force exit and find evidence that moderating influences of family context depend upon the level of health. However, results are only partially consistent with hypotheses that the relationship between health and the likelihood of labor force exit should be stronger for (a) those with good health and family incentives to exit the labor force and (b) those with poor health and family incentives to remain in the labor force.

  16. Oral health, general health, and quality of life in older people.

    PubMed

    Kandelman, Daniel; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to review the interrelationship between poor oral health conditions of older people and general health. The impact of poor oral health on quality of life (QOL) is analyzed, and the implications for public health intervention and oral health care are discussed. Findings from the current research may lead to the following conclusions: The available scientific evidence is particularly strong for a direct relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease; the direct relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease is less convincing. General and associated oral health conditions have a direct influence on elder people's QOL and lifestyle. The growing number of elderly people challenges health authorities in most countries. The evidence on oral health-general health relationships is particularly important to WHO in its effort to strengthen integrated oral health promotion and disease prevention around the globe.

  17. Dry mouth: aging and oral health.

    PubMed

    Navazesh, Mahvash

    2002-10-01

    Dry mouth is a common complaint among older adults, and the aging process is erroneously considered by many to be the primary cause. The subjective complaint of dry mouth (xerostomia) is not always associated with objective evidence of a reduced saliva flow rate (salivary gland hypofunction). Moreover, there are patients who have reduced saliva flow rates and are asymptomatic. Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are associated with sundry oral and systemic complications and affect the quality of an individual's life. This article includes the common causes of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction and addresses the common complications of and routine therapeutic modalities available for these conditions in the elderly.

  18. Ethnic aged discrimination and disparities in health and social care: a question of social justice.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2008-09-01

    Older overseas-born Australians of diverse cultural and language backgrounds experience significant disparities in their health and social care needs and support systems. Despite being identified as a 'special needs' group, the ethnic aged in Australia are generally underserved by local health and social care services, experience unequal burdens of disease and encounter cultural and language barriers to accessing appropriate health and social care compared to the average Australian-born population. While a range of causes have been suggested to explain these disparities, rarely has the possibility of cultural racism been considered. In this article, it is suggested that cultural racism be named as a possible cause of ethnic aged disparities and disadvantage in health and social care. It is further suggested that unless cultural racism is named as a structural mechanism by which ethnic aged disparities in health and social care have been created and maintained, redressing them will remain difficult.

  19. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  20. Health care strategy for ensuring work ability in an aging Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungsun; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Soo Geun; Yoo, Cheol-In; Son, Junseok; Yim, Jun; Kim, Dae-Seong; Rhee, Kyung Young; Kim, Yangho

    2016-01-01

    The rapid aging trend in South Korea will cause a growing shortage of labor and decreasing quality of the labor force. The purpose of this commentary is to recommend a health care strategy to maintain and promote the work ability of employees in an aging Korea. Strategies to promote the work ability require the collaboration of governmental agencies at the central and local levels. First, the common goal should be the reinforcement of follow-up measure in general medical examinations and the promotion of healthy lifestyles for workers. Second, collaborating activities should be performed among the Worker's Health Center, the Health Promotion Center, and community health centers. In conclusion, health care strategies for ensuring the work ability in an aging Korea require the collaboration of governmental agencies at the central and local levels. PMID:27610236

  1. Population aging and its impacts: strategies of the health-care system in Taipei.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Hsien; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Peng, Li-Ning; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2010-11-01

    Taiwan is one of the fastest aging countries in the world. As such, the government has developed various strategies to promote an age-friendly health-care system. Health services are supported by National Health Insurance (NHI), which insures over 97% of citizens and over 99% of health-care institutes. The current health-care system has difficulties in caring for older patients with multiple comorbidities, complex care needs, functional impairments, and post-acute care needs. Taipei, an international metropolis with a well-preserved tradition of filial piety in Chinese societies, has developed various strategies to overcome the aforementioned barriers to an age-friendly health-care system. These include an emphasis on general medical care and a holistic approach in all specialties, development of a geriatrics specialty training program, development of post-acute services, and strengthening of linkages between health and social care services. Despite achievements thus far, challenges still include creating a more extensive integration between medical specialties, promotion of an interdisciplinary care model across specialties and health-care settings, and integration of health and social care services. The experiences of Taipei in developing an age-friendly health-care service system may be a culturally appropriate model for other Chinese and Asian communities.

  2. Social and Mental Health Needs of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolliver, Lennie-Marie

    1983-01-01

    The United States Commissioner on Aging describes challenges posed by the increasing size of the older adult population, outlines gaps in knowledge regarding aging and the elderly, and calls for greater collaboration between the elderly and existing mental health networks. (AOS)

  3. An Aging Game Simulation Activity for Allied Health Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Carolinda; Henry, Beverly W.; Kostiwa, Irene M.

    2008-01-01

    The Aging Game, a simulation activity, has been used successfully with medical students in the development of empathetic attitudes toward older adults. To date, the Aging Game has not been used extensively with allied health students. It has been viewed as too costly, time-consuming and labor-intensive. The purpose of this study was to examine the…

  4. Life Styling for the Promotion of Health While Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Gloria R.

    Classes on lifestyling for the promotion of health for the elderly were offered to a senior citizens' group in a community center setting. The objectives of the sessions were: (1) to teach the importance of health maintenance and primary prevention throughout the aging process; (2) to disseminate information relative to diet, exercise, and stress…

  5. Age and Self-Rated Health in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon

    2005-01-01

    I examine age variation in the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on self-rated health in Korea by including three alternative indicators of SES--liquid assets, home ownership, and real estate ownership--as well as two standard measures of education and household income. Furthermore, I consider the SES-health relationship and its variation by…

  6. Social Integration and Mental Health of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deimling, Gary T.; Harel Zev

    Social support has been found to be positively related to well being in elderly individuals. To examine the effects of social integration (social resources, social interaction, and perceived adequacy of resources), and health, age, marital status, and socioeconomic status (SES) on mental health among urban elderly individuals, 1,727 persons from…

  7. Healthy and Active Ageing: Social Capital in Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Davies, John Kenneth; Aranda, Kay; Zissi, Anastasia; Chatzikou, Maria; Cerniauskaite, Milda; Quintas, Rui; Raggi, Alberto; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines the context of health promotion actions that are focused on/contributing to strengthening social capital by increasing community participation, reciprocal trust and support as the means to achieve better health and more active ageing. Method: The methodology employed was a literature review/research synthesis, and a…

  8. Relationship between general health of older health service users and their self-esteem in Isfahan in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Molavi, Razieh; Alavi, Mousa; Keshvari, Mahrokh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-esteem is known to be one of the most important markers of successful aging. Older people's self-esteem is influenced by several factors that particularly may be health related. Therefore, this study aimed to explore some important general health-related predictors of the older people's self-esteem. Materials and Methods: In this study, 200 people, aged 65 years and older, who referred to health care centers were selected through stratified random sampling method. Data were collected by using Rosenberg's self-esteem scale and the 28-item Goldberg's general health questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Pearson's coefficient tests and multiple regression analysis. Results: Findings showed that the entered predictor variables accounted for 49% of the total variance (R2) of self-esteem in the model (P < 0.001, F4,195 = 46.717). Three out of the four predictor variables including somatic signs, anxiety/insomnia, and depression, significantly predicted the self-esteem. The results emphasized on the determinant role of both physical (somatic signs) and mental (anxiety/insomnia and depression) aspects of health in older patients’ self-esteem. Conclusions: The significant general health-related predictors found in the present study emphasize on some of the significant points that should be considered in planning for improving older patients’ self-esteem. PMID:26793259

  9. Consultations for women's health problems: factors influencing women's choice of sex of general practitioner.

    PubMed Central

    van den Brink-Muinen, A; de Bakker, D H; Bensing, J M

    1994-01-01

    AIM. This study set out to examine the degree to which women choose to visit a woman doctor for women's health problems and the determinants of this choice. The differences between women and men doctors with regard to treating women's health problems were also studied. METHOD. Data from the Dutch national survey of general practice were used. All group practices with both women and men general practitioners were selected. Analyses were restricted to consultations among women aged 15-65 years about menstruation, the menopause, vaginal discharge, breast examination and cervical smear tests. RESULts. Given the size of their female practice population, women doctors saw considerably more women with women's health problems than did their male colleagues. Women were more likely to consult a woman general practitioner if she was more available (that is, working longer hours), and younger women were more likely than older women to choose women general practitioners. Sex differences in the treatment of women's health problems were small and mainly related to the verbal part of the consultation: counselling and providing information. The doctors' availability and their certainty about the working diagnosis explained differences in the verbal aspects of consultations. Women general practitioners had longer consultations than their male colleagues mainly because more health problems were presented per consultation. CONCLUSION. In order to increase the possibility of patients choosing women general practitioners, policy should be directed towards the education of more women general practitioners and women general practitioners should be encouraged to work more days a week. PMID:8204333

  10. Formerly homeless, older women's experiences with health, housing, and aging.

    PubMed

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The perspectives of formerly homeless, older women are absent in the academic literature on aging and homelessness. In this study, a group of formerly homeless women, aged 45 years and older were surveyed (N = 15) and interviewed (n = 11) about their experiences with health, housing, and aging. The qualitative themes to be explored include the women's perceptions of their current health, coping with low incomes, dealing with addictions to alcohol and drugs, and the importance of supportive housing and other community services. The female participants' views on adapting to home, planning for their elderly years, and views on growing older are also explored.

  11. Perceived health in the Portuguese population aged ≥ 35

    PubMed Central

    de Figueiredo, João Paulo; Cardoso, Salvador Massano

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the exploratory relationship between determinants of health, life satisfaction, locus of control, attitudes and behaviors and health related quality of life in an adult population. METHODS Observational study (analytical and cross-sectional) with a quantitative methodological basis. The sample was composed oy 1,214 inhabitants aged ≥ 35 in 31 civil parishes in the County of Coimbra, Portugal, 2011-2012. An anonymous and voluntary health survey was conducted, which collected the following information: demographic, clinical record, health and lifestyle behaviors; health related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study, Short Form-36); health locus of control; survey of health attitudes and behavior, and quality of life index. Pearson’s Linear Correlation, t-Student, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney; One-way ANOVA; Brown-Forsythe’s F; Kruskal-Wallis; Multiple Comparisons: Tukey (HSD), Games-Howell and Conover were used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS Health related quality of life was shown to be lower in females, in older age groups, in obese/overweight individuals, widows, unassisted, those living alone, living in rural/suburban areas, those who did not work and with a medium-low socioeconomic level. Respondents with poor/very poor self-perceived health (p < 0.0001), with chronic disease (p < 0.0001), who consumed < 3 meals per day (p ≤ 0.01), who were sedentary, who slept ≤ 6 h/day and had smoked for several years revealed the worst health results. Health related quality of life was positively related with a bigger internal locus, with better health attitudes and behaviors (physical exercise, health and nutritional care, length of dependence) and with different areas of life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS Better health related quality of life was associated with certain social, psychological, family and health characteristics, a satisfactory lifestyle, better socioeconomic conditions and a good internal locus of control over health attitudes and

  12. Metacognition Beliefs and General Health in Predicting Alexithymia in Students

    PubMed Central

    Babaei, Samaneh; Varandi, Shahryar Ranjbar; Hatami, Zohre; Gharechahi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was conducted to investigate the role of metacognition beliefs and general health in alexithymia in Iranian students. Methods: This descriptive and correlational study included 200 participants of high schools students, selected randomly from students of two cities (Sari and Dargaz), Iran. Metacognitive Strategies Questionnaire (MCQ-30); the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and Farsi Version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) were used for gathering the data. Using the Pearson’s correlation method and regression, the data were analyzed. Results: The findings indicated significant positive relationships between alexithymia and all subscales of general health. The highest correlation was between alexithymia and anxiety subscale (r=0.36, P<0.01). Also, there was a significant negative relationship between alexithymia and some metacognitive strategies. The highest significant negative relationship was seen between alexithymia and the sub-scale of risk uncontrollability (r=-0.359, P < 0.01). Based on the results of multiple regressions, three predictors explained 21% of the variance (R2=0. 21, F=7.238, P<0.01). It was found that anxiety subscale of General Health significantly predicted 13% of the variance of alexithymia (β=0.36, P<0.01) and risk uncontrollability subscale of Metacognition beliefs predicted about 8% of the variance of alexithymia (β=-0.028, P<0.01). Conclusions: The findings demonstrated that metacognition beliefs and general health had important role in predicting of alexithymia in students. PMID:26383206

  13. Global aging: implications for women and women's health.

    PubMed

    Tabloski, Patricia A

    2004-01-01

    The world's older population has been growing for centuries; however, the pace of this growth is accelerating rapidly. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, by 2030, more than 60 countries will have 2 million or more older people. Population aging represents a "success story," with increasing numbers of people worldwide enjoying additional years of life. However, the sustained increase in numbers of older people (usually defined as persons over the age of 65) poses many challenges to policy makers and health care providers around the world. As the world population ages, we are just beginning to understand the social, economic, and political implications of the "age wave." The majority of older people are women, thus the implications of population changes for women and women's health are astounding. Nurses can take a national and world leadership role to adequately address the health care needs of increasing numbers of older women. PMID:15495709

  14. A sociological approach to ageing, technology and health.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Kelly; Loe, Meika

    2010-02-01

    Abstract This special monograph issue builds on sociology of health and illness scholarship and expands the analytical lens to examine how old people, healthcare professionals, and technology designers create, use, and modify science and technology to negotiate and define health and illness. Far from passive consumers, elders are technogenarians, creatively utilising and adapting technological artefacts such as walking aids and medications to fit their needs. This publication adds theoretical and empirical depth to our understanding of the multiple and overlapping socio-historical contexts surrounding ageing bodies and ageing enterprises, including the biomedicalisation of ageing that includes the rise of anti-ageing or longevity medicine; and the rise of gerontechnology industries and professions -- fields that largely accept the ageing body as a given. This collection sociologically investigates how and where these two trends overlap and diverge in relation to a global context of ageing and ageism, and calls for further scholarship in this area. Combining science and technology studies and sociology of health and illness frameworks together provides an empirical basis from which to analyse technogenarians in action, as well as the stakeholders and institutions involved in the ageing, health, and technology matrix.

  15. [Theories on aging and health: what do aging and old age mean and what constitutes a good life in old age?].

    PubMed

    Wurm, S; Wiest, M; Tesch-Römer, C

    2010-05-01

    The present paper starts by introducing different perspectives of the aging process and includes biological, psychological, and sociological theories in its scope. The article addresses the issue of when "old age" begins and why a distinction is made between the third and fourth age. With increasing age, it becomes more and more difficult to differentiate between health-related losses due to illnesses or to aging. However, this can be important with respect to health behavior and health care. Having the best possible health in old age is an important factor for a good life in old age. Over their whole lives, from childhood to old age, people can actively contribute to their health in old age. But health is not the sole criterion for a good life in old age. Having interests and aims are just as important as being integrated in a social network. In old age, people often differ greatly and this is why there is such variety in what people consider to constitute a good life for themselves in old age.

  16. Social implications and workforce issues in the oral health of an ageing population.

    PubMed

    Wright, Fac

    2015-03-01

    A functional and socially acceptable level of oral health is an integral part of healthy ageing! More teeth, more sophisticated dental technology and increasing co-morbidities of an ageing Australian society will have significant impacts on oral health professionals and their capacities to work within expanded teams of health, education and social organizations. Society is adapting its perspective on the social role of older citizens; replacing its perception of the elderly as an economic social burden, to one of senior citizens as being a respected and active source of social and economic benefit. Maintaining general and oral health for older Australians will bring into sharp focus the need for recognizing and managing not only the biological markers associated with ageing and frailty, but also the potential mediators on health outcomes associated with changing health and social behaviours. Increasing social capital of older Australians through national policy initiatives such as the Living Longer Living Better reforms, and greater involvement of allied health and carers' organizations in oral health education and health promotion will set a new scene for the roles of dental professionals. Issues of equity will drive the service delivery agenda, and a socio-cultural shift to 'consumer-directed' health outcomes will shape the range of services, quality of care and support required by an older Australian population. Formal education and training modules for aged care workers, allied health practitioners and geriatricians will develop. The challenge for the dental profession is the coordination and integration of these changes into new models of dental and general health care.

  17. Social implications and workforce issues in the oral health of an ageing population.

    PubMed

    Wright, Fac

    2015-03-01

    A functional and socially acceptable level of oral health is an integral part of healthy ageing! More teeth, more sophisticated dental technology and increasing co-morbidities of an ageing Australian society will have significant impacts on oral health professionals and their capacities to work within expanded teams of health, education and social organizations. Society is adapting its perspective on the social role of older citizens; replacing its perception of the elderly as an economic social burden, to one of senior citizens as being a respected and active source of social and economic benefit. Maintaining general and oral health for older Australians will bring into sharp focus the need for recognizing and managing not only the biological markers associated with ageing and frailty, but also the potential mediators on health outcomes associated with changing health and social behaviours. Increasing social capital of older Australians through national policy initiatives such as the Living Longer Living Better reforms, and greater involvement of allied health and carers' organizations in oral health education and health promotion will set a new scene for the roles of dental professionals. Issues of equity will drive the service delivery agenda, and a socio-cultural shift to 'consumer-directed' health outcomes will shape the range of services, quality of care and support required by an older Australian population. Formal education and training modules for aged care workers, allied health practitioners and geriatricians will develop. The challenge for the dental profession is the coordination and integration of these changes into new models of dental and general health care. PMID:25762048

  18. Advancing Public Health Obesity Policy Through State Attorneys General

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Kelly D.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in the United States exacts a heavy health and financial toll, requiring new approaches to address this public health crisis. State attorneys general have been underutilized in efforts to formulate and implement food and obesity policy solutions. Their authority lies at the intersection of law and public policy, creating unique opportunities unavailable to other officials and government entities. Attorneys general have a broad range of authority over matters specifically relevant to obesity and nutrition policy, including parens patriae (parent of the country) authority, protecting consumer interests, enacting and supporting rules and regulations, working together across states, engaging in consumer education, and drafting opinions and amicus briefs. Significant room exists for greater attorney general involvement in formulating and championing solutions to public health problems such as obesity. PMID:21233428

  19. mHealth For Aging China: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Guo, Yutao; Wang, Xiaoning; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The aging population with chronic and age-related diseases has become a global issue and exerted heavy burdens on the healthcare system and society. Neurological diseases are the leading chronic diseases in the geriatric population, and stroke is the leading cause of death in China. However, the uneven distribution of caregivers and critical healthcare workforce shortages are major obstacles to improving disease outcome. With the advancement of wearable health devices, cloud computing, mobile technologies and Internet of Things, mobile health (mHealth) is rapidly developing and shows a promising future in the management of chronic diseases. Its advantages include its ability to improve the quality of care, reduce the costs of care, and improve treatment outcomes by transferring in-hospital treatment to patient-centered medical treatment at home. mHealth could also enhance the international cooperation of medical providers in different time zones and the sharing of high-quality medical service resources between developed and developing countries. In this review, we focus on trends in mHealth and its clinical applications for the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially aging-related neurological diseases, and on the opportunities and challenges of mHealth in China. Operating models of mHealth in disease management are proposed; these models may benefit those who work within the mHealth system in developing countries and developed countries. PMID:26816664

  20. mHealth For Aging China: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Guo, Yutao; Wang, Xiaoning; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The aging population with chronic and age-related diseases has become a global issue and exerted heavy burdens on the healthcare system and society. Neurological diseases are the leading chronic diseases in the geriatric population, and stroke is the leading cause of death in China. However, the uneven distribution of caregivers and critical healthcare workforce shortages are major obstacles to improving disease outcome. With the advancement of wearable health devices, cloud computing, mobile technologies and Internet of Things, mobile health (mHealth) is rapidly developing and shows a promising future in the management of chronic diseases. Its advantages include its ability to improve the quality of care, reduce the costs of care, and improve treatment outcomes by transferring in-hospital treatment to patient-centered medical treatment at home. mHealth could also enhance the international cooperation of medical providers in different time zones and the sharing of high-quality medical service resources between developed and developing countries. In this review, we focus on trends in mHealth and its clinical applications for the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially aging-related neurological diseases, and on the opportunities and challenges of mHealth in China. Operating models of mHealth in disease management are proposed; these models may benefit those who work within the mHealth system in developing countries and developed countries.

  1. mHealth For Aging China: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Guo, Yutao; Wang, Xiaoning; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The aging population with chronic and age-related diseases has become a global issue and exerted heavy burdens on the healthcare system and society. Neurological diseases are the leading chronic diseases in the geriatric population, and stroke is the leading cause of death in China. However, the uneven distribution of caregivers and critical healthcare workforce shortages are major obstacles to improving disease outcome. With the advancement of wearable health devices, cloud computing, mobile technologies and Internet of Things, mobile health (mHealth) is rapidly developing and shows a promising future in the management of chronic diseases. Its advantages include its ability to improve the quality of care, reduce the costs of care, and improve treatment outcomes by transferring in-hospital treatment to patient-centered medical treatment at home. mHealth could also enhance the international cooperation of medical providers in different time zones and the sharing of high-quality medical service resources between developed and developing countries. In this review, we focus on trends in mHealth and its clinical applications for the prevention and treatment of diseases, especially aging-related neurological diseases, and on the opportunities and challenges of mHealth in China. Operating models of mHealth in disease management are proposed; these models may benefit those who work within the mHealth system in developing countries and developed countries. PMID:26816664

  2. State of Health and Quality of Life of Women at Advanced Age.

    PubMed

    Pinkas, Jarosław; Gujski, Mariusz; Humeniuk, Ewa; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Bejga, Przemysław; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evaluation of the state of health, quality of life, and relationship between the level of the quality of life and health status in a group of women at advanced age (90 and more years) in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was conducted in 2014 in an all-Polish sample of 870 women aged 90 and over. The research instruments were: the author's questionnaire, and standardized tests: Katz index of independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) - BREF. The results of the study were statistically analyzed using significant t test for mean and regression analysis. RESULTS The majority of women at advanced age suffered from chronic pain (76%) and such major geriatric problems as hypoacusis (81%), visual disturbances (69%) and urinary incontinence (60%), the minority - fall and fainting (39%) as well as stool incontinence (17%), severe functional and cognitive impairment (24% and 10% respectively). Women at advanced age assessed positively for overall quality of life (mean 3.3 on 1-5 scale), social relationships (3.5) and environment (3.2), but negatively - general, physical and psychological health (2.7, 2.7 and 2.8 respectively). The presence of chronic pain and major geriatric problems: urinary and stool incontinences, falls and fainting, visual disturbances and hypoacusis significantly decreases overall quality of life, general, physical and psychological health, social relationships and environment of women at advanced age. Overall quality of life, general, physical and psychological health, social relationships and environment correlate to functional and cognitive impairments of women at advanced age. CONCLUSIONS Quality of life of women at advanced age decreased if chronic pain, major geriatric problems as well as functional and cognitive impairments occur. PMID:27580565

  3. Towards age-friendly hospitals and health services.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we reviewed rationale for an age-friendly hospital (or health service) and propose our framework in detail. In a rapidly aging society, development of policies and programs to optimize people's wellbeing and function as they age is an urgent issue. Most older persons extensively use health care. Unfortunately, current practices are unfriendly and may even add risks to the older person. Health-promotion interventions delivered in clinical settings and management of admissions have been shown to be associated with better outcomes. We developed Taiwan's Framework of Age-Friendly Hospitals to address the responsibility of health-care organizations and provide systematic guidance on hospital management policy, communication and services, physical environments, and care processes. This framework takes a life-course perspective and population approach and includes evaluation and quality improvement as an integral part of an age-friendly initiative. The diffusion and adaptation of age-friendly practices in hospitals can be monitored and its impact evaluated in the future.

  4. Telemental Health Technology in Deaf and General Mental-Health Services: Access and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austen, Sally; McGrath, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Long-distance travel to provide mental health services for deaf people has implications for efficiency, safety, and equality of service. However, uptake of Telemental Health (TMH) has been slow in both deaf and general mental health services. A quantitative study was used to investigate access to TMH and whether staff confidence, experience, or…

  5. Progression of aging in Mexico: the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) 2012

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rebeca; Michaels-Obregón, Alejandra; Palloni, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; González-González, César; López-Ortega, Mariana; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Mendoza-Alvarado, Laura Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the third wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), completed in 2012, and present preliminary results. Materials and methods Descriptive analyses by gender and age group of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health conditions and health behaviors, as well as social support and life satisfaction measures are presented. In addition, external validations are presented by comparing MHAS 2012 indicators with other national data sources. Results For the panel of older adults in the sample, the rate of health care insurance coverage increased greatly between 2001 and 2012, a significantly higher change in rural compared to urban areas. The results for 2012 are consistent with the previous two waves for the main indicators of health and physical disability prevalence, risk factors, and behaviors. Conclusions The MHAS offers a unique opportunity to study aging in Mexico, as well as to complete cross-national comparisons. The cumulative number of deaths in the cohort should support the study of mortality and its association with health outcomes and behaviors over the life cycle. In addition, the sub-samples of objective markers will enable methodological research on self-reports and associations of biomarkers in old age with similar health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:26172238

  6. Age-Related Declines in General Cognitive Abilities of Balb/C Mice and General Activity Are Associated with Disparities in Working Memory, Body Weight, and General Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matzel, Louis D.; Grossman, Henya; Light, Kenneth; Townsend, David; Kolata, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    A defining characteristic of age-related cognitive decline is a deficit in general cognitive performance. Here we use a testing and analysis regimen that allows us to characterize the general learning abilities of young (3-5 mo old) and aged (19-21 mo old) male and female Balb/C mice. Animals' performance was assessed on a battery of seven diverse…

  7. Oral Sexual Experience among Young Adolescents Receiving General Health Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekeloo, Bradley O.; Howard, Donna E.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed young adolescents receiving general health examinations regarding oral sex occurrence. Overall, 18 percent reported having oral sex, and of that 18 percent, 25 percent reported no vaginal sex. Few adolescents used barrier protection during oral sex. Most adolescents thought that penile-anal sex could transmit HIV, but only 68 percent…

  8. Countries: General, Electricity, Geography, Health, Literature: Children's, Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of Web site educational resources kindergarten through eighth grade. The Web sites this month cover the following subjects: countries (general); electricity; geography; health; children's literature; and plants. Includes a list of "Calendar Connections" to Web site sources of information on Earth Day in April and other…

  9. Evaluation of the general health of the infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Baghiani Moghadam, Mohammad Hossein; Aminian, Amir Hosein; Abdoli, Ali Mohammad; Seighal, Najmeh; Falahzadeh, Hosein; Ghasemi, Nasrin

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of infertility is variable between 5-30% around the world. In Iran, more than 2 million couples suffer from infertility. Infertility causes depression, anxiety, social isolation and sexual dysfunction. Objective: This descriptive study was undertaken to determine general health in infertile couples. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty infertile couples attending Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility were randomly selected during March till September 2009. The GHQ-28 questionnaires were completed by researchers, based on face to face interview. It contains 28 items, which have been divided to four sub- items. The results come out by scoring the patients answer from 0 to 84. All data were analyzed by Chi-square and t-test in SPSS software. Results: GHQ scores of all sub-scales and total in women were more than men, which shows general health condition in women is worse than men. There was no relation between the duration of infertility and general health scores. Conclusion: This study suggests that the infertility has significant effect (p=0.001) on health situation of infertile couples, especially infertile women. They are at risk of somatic symptoms (p=0.0001), social dysfunction (p=0.0001) and severe depression (p=0.0001). GHQ could provided help and support in order to improve the health situation of infertile couples. PMID:26396581

  10. Probabilistic Generalization of Penna Ageing Model and the Oldest Old

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, D.

    Using a 1995 method of Thoms et al., the traditional Penna model of biological ageing is modified such that there is no more absolute maximum life span; instead, our Monte Carlo data are similar to real demographic data collected by Thatcher et al., for rich countries.

  11. Exercise and health: participation and promotion by general practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, J. S.; Bowen, F. E.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of 2599 general practitioners was undertaken to assess personal participation, attitudes and facilities for the promotion of exercise and health. The majority of the 1049 respondents took part in two or more vigorous physical activities during an average week and believed in the importance of exercise for health and wellbeing. Most respondents accepted the importance of fitness assessments in the management of certain diseases but were unable to undertake tests, other than taking a simple history, through lack of time, equipment, staff and space. It is suggested that health authorities might do more to support the growing interest and enthusiasm for exercise promotion among general practitioners by sponsoring more postgraduate training in the physiology of exercise and practical methods of fitness testing. The provision of additional staff, equipment and facilities to support these promotion initiatives should also be encouraged. PMID:3989784

  12. The impact of changes in county public health expenditures on general health in the population.

    PubMed

    Brown, Timothy T; Martinez-Gutierrez, Maria S; Navab, Bahar

    2014-07-01

    We estimate the effect of changes in the per capita expenditures of county departments of public health on county-level general health status. Using panel data on 40 counties in California (2001-2009), dynamic panel estimation techniques are combined with the Lewbel instrumental variable technique to estimate an aggregate demand for health function that measures the causal cumulative impact that per capita public health expenditures have on county-level general health status. We find that a $10 long-term increase in per capita public health expenditures would increase the percentage of the population reporting good, very good or excellent health by 0.065 percentage points. Each year expenditures were increased would result in ∼24,000 individuals moving from the 'poor or fair health' category to the 'good, very good or excellent health' category across these 40 counties. In terms of the overall impact of county public health departments on general health status, at current funding levels, each annual expenditure cycle results in over 207,000 individuals being in the 'good, very good or excellent' categories of health status rather than the 'poor or fair' categories.

  13. White matter hyperintensities and imaging patterns of brain ageing in the general population.

    PubMed

    Habes, Mohamad; Erus, Guray; Toledo, Jon B; Zhang, Tianhao; Bryan, Nick; Launer, Lenore J; Rosseel, Yves; Janowitz, Deborah; Doshi, Jimit; Van der Auwera, Sandra; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Hosten, Norbert; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Schminke, Ulf; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Grabe, Hans J; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    White matter hyperintensities are associated with increased risk of dementia and cognitive decline. The current study investigates the relationship between white matter hyperintensities burden and patterns of brain atrophy associated with brain ageing and Alzheimer's disease in a large populatison-based sample (n = 2367) encompassing a wide age range (20-90 years), from the Study of Health in Pomerania. We quantified white matter hyperintensities using automated segmentation and summarized atrophy patterns using machine learning methods resulting in two indices: the SPARE-BA index (capturing age-related brain atrophy), and the SPARE-AD index (previously developed to capture patterns of atrophy found in patients with Alzheimer's disease). A characteristic pattern of age-related accumulation of white matter hyperintensities in both periventricular and deep white matter areas was found. Individuals with high white matter hyperintensities burden showed significantly (P < 0.0001) lower SPARE-BA and higher SPARE-AD values compared to those with low white matter hyperintensities burden, indicating that the former had more patterns of atrophy in brain regions typically affected by ageing and Alzheimer's disease dementia. To investigate a possibly causal role of white matter hyperintensities, structural equation modelling was used to quantify the effect of Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score and white matter hyperintensities burden on SPARE-BA, revealing a statistically significant (P < 0.0001) causal relationship between them. Structural equation modelling showed that the age effect on SPARE-BA was mediated by white matter hyperintensities and cardiovascular risk score each explaining 10.4% and 21.6% of the variance, respectively. The direct age effect explained 70.2% of the SPARE-BA variance. Only white matter hyperintensities significantly mediated the age effect on SPARE-AD explaining 32.8% of the variance. The direct age effect explained 66.0% of the SPARE

  14. The arts, health, and aging in america: 2005-2015.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Gay Powell; Noelker, Linda S; Bienvenu, Beth

    2015-04-01

    In advance of the White House Conference on Aging (WHCoA) in 1981, 1995, and 2005, the arts and aging communities held mini-conferences to ensure that arts, culture, and livability were part of larger public policy discussions. This article takes a historical look at recommendations from the 2005 WHCoA Mini-Conference on Creativity and Aging in America, including arts in health care, lifelong learning, and livability through universal design. Overarching recommendations in 2005 requested investments in research, including cost-benefit analyses; identification of best practices and model programs; program dissemination to broaden the availability of arts programs. The "Arts" is a broad term encompassing all forms of arts including music, theater, dance, visual arts, literature, multimedia and design, folk, and traditional arts to engage the participation of all older Americans; promotion of innovative public and private partnerships to support arts program development, including workforce development (e.g., artists, social workers, and health care providers); and public awareness of the importance of arts participation to healthy aging. Through the leadership of the National Endowment for the Arts and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, thinking about the arts and aging has broadened to include greater emphasis on a whole-person approach to the health and well-being of older adults. This approach engages older adults in arts participation not only as audience members, but as vital members of their community through creative expression focusing on life stories for intergenerational as well as interprofessional collaboration. This article reviews progress made to date and identifies critical gaps in services for future consideration at a 2015 Mini-Conference on Creativity and Aging related to the WCHoA area of emphasis on healthy aging. PMID:26035603

  15. [General integral medicine: the strategic direction for complex health interventions].

    PubMed

    Hou, Zheng-kun; Liu, Feng-bin; Yang, Yun-ying; Chen, Xin-lin; Li, Li-juan; Li, Pei-wu; Liu, Yuan-peng

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, the simple combination of Western medicine (WM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) cannot resolve all the health problems and various requirements. This article proposed the general integral medicine (GIM) theoretical model, which declares the disease causes analysis, clinical intervention and outcomes assessment should be recognized, managed and evaluated both from physiological, psychological, and spiritual status, and all the four dimensions: orthodox medicine (WM, Chinese medicine, etc.), individual inherent characteristics (emotion, attitude, psychology, etc.), cultural influences (doctors, caregivers, groups care, etc.), and natural environment and social systems (economic status, social security system, environmental pollution, etc). As for health outcomes assessment, a more comprehensive system including biological, doctors, patients, health intimate, social and environmental evaluations were required. The GIM model has individualized, dynamic, standardized, objective, systematic inherent characteristics, and opening and compatible external characteristics. It aims to provide the new theoretical guidance and strategic development direction for complex health interventions, and solve various medical related psychological and social problems.

  16. General public health considerations for responding to animal hoarding cases.

    PubMed

    Castrodale, Louisa; Bellay, Yvonne M; Brown, Catherine M; Cantor, Fredric L; Gibbins, John D; Headrick, Marcia L; Leslie, Mira J; MacMahon, Kathleen; O'Quin, Jeanette M; Patronek, Gary J; Silva, Rodrigo A; Wright, James C; Yu, Diana T

    2010-03-01

    Animal hoarding is an under-recognized problem that exists in most communities and adversely impacts the health, welfare, and safety of humans, animals, and the environment. These guidelines address public health and worker safety concerns in handling situations where animal hoarding or other dense concentrations of animals have caused unhealthy and unsafe conditions. Because animal hoarding situations are often complex, a full response is likely to be prolonged and require a cross-jurisdictional multiagency effort. Each animal hoarding case has unique circumstances related to the types and numbers of animals involved, the physical structure(s) where they are being kept, and the health status of the animals, among other factors that must be taken into account in planning a response. Some general public health considerations and associated recommendations for personal protective equipment use are presented that apply to all cases, however.

  17. General Satisfaction Among Healthcare Workers: Differences Between Employees in Medical and Mental Health Sector

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.; Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Tsaras, Konstantinos; Fradelos, Evangelos C.; Kourkouta, Lambrini

    2015-01-01

    Background: General satisfaction is a personal experience and sources of satisfaction or dissatisfaction vary between professional groups. General satisfaction is usually related with work settings, work performance and mental health status. Aim: The purpose of this research study was to investigate the level of general satisfaction of health care workers and to examine whether there were any differences among employees of medical and mental health sector. Methods: The sample consisted of employees from the medical and mental health sector, who were all randomly selected. A two-part questionnaire was used to collect data. The first section involved demographic information and the second part was a General Satisfaction Questionnaire (GSQ). The statistical analysis of data was performed using the software package 19.0 for Windows. Descriptive statistics were initially generated for sample characteristics. All data exhibited normal distributions and thus the parametric t-test was used to compare mean scores between the two health sectors. P values < 0.05 were defined as reflecting the acceptable level of statistical significance. Results: 457 healthcare workers completed the questionnaire. The mean age of the sample was 41.8 ± 7.9 years. The Cronbach alpha coefficient for GSQ was 0.79. The total mean score of general satisfaction for the employees in medical sector was 4.5 (5=very satisfied) and for the employees in mental health sector is 4.8. T-test showed that these results are statistical different (t=4.55, p<0.01) and therefore the two groups of healthcare workers feel different general satisfaction. Conclusions: Mental health employees appear to experience higher levels of general satisfaction and mainly they experience higher satisfaction from family roles, life and sexual life, emotional state and relations with patients. PMID:26543410

  18. Age-Related Health Stereotypes and Illusory Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madey, Scott F.; Chasteen, Alison L.

    2004-01-01

    This experiment investigated how age-related health stereotypes affect people's judgments of younger and older patients' medical compliance. Previous research has shown that stereotypes of young adults include healthy components, but stereotypes of older adults include both healthy and unhealthy components (Hummert, 1990). We predicted that…

  19. Algorithm linking patients and general practices in Denmark using the Danish National Health Service Register

    PubMed Central

    Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Vedsted, Peter; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vestergaard, Mogens; Flarup, Kaare Rud; Fenger-Grøn, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Background The patient list system in Denmark assigns virtually all residents to a general practice. Nevertheless, historical information on this link between patient and general practice is not readily available for research purposes. Objectives To develop, implement, and evaluate the performance of an algorithm linking individual patients to their general practice by using information from the Danish National Health Service Register and the Danish Civil Registration System. Materials and methods The National Health Service Register contains information on all services provided by general practitioners from 1990 and onward. On the basis of these data and information on migration history and death obtained from the Civil Registration System, we developed an algorithm that allocated patients to a general practice on a monthly basis. We evaluated the performance of the algorithm between 2002 and 2007. During this time period, we had access to information on the link between patients and general practices. Agreement was assessed by the proportion of months for which the algorithm allocated patients to the correct general practice. We also assessed the proportion of all patients in the patient list system for which the algorithm was able to suggest an allocation. Results The overall agreement between algorithm and patient lists was 98.6%. We found slightly higher agreement for women (98.8%) than for men (98.4%) and lower agreement in the age group 18–34 years (97.1%) compared to all other age groups (≥98.6%). The algorithm had assigned 83% of all patients in the patient list system after 1 year of follow-up, 91% after 2 years of follow-up, and peaked at 94% during the fourth year. Conclusion We developed an algorithm that enables valid and nearly complete linkage between patients and general practices. The algorithm performs better in subgroups of patients with high health care needs. The algorithm constitutes a valuable tool for primary health care research. PMID

  20. Untreated hypertension in the UK household population - Who are missed by the general health checks?

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jakob; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-12-01

    Hypertension is an age-related, long-term condition and a leading risk factor for premature death and disability worldwide. Due to its asymptomatic nature it can often be left undiagnosed. Long-term treatment is available, but blood pressure can also be reduced through health behaviour changes in weight control, smoking cessation, higher physical activity levels, reduced salt and alcohol intake, and healthful diets if discovered early. This paper investigates the prevalence and characteristics of those with untreated (compared to treated) hypertension who did not have a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD); a group who is in effect missed by general health checks. Untreated hypertension was studied in 8933 individuals aged 40-74 years representative of the UK household population, who were interviewed and underwent a physical health examination in their home, 2010-2012. The prevalence of untreated hypertension without a history of CVD was 7% for men, 2% for women, and 5% overall. Untreated hypertension was particularly high among the 55-64 year age group. Age and sex-adjusted analyses found strong positive associations with male gender, smoking, self-reported good-excellent health, full fat dairy preference, white bread preference, higher alcohol consumption, and living alone. Strong negative associations were found for possessing 5 + prescription drugs, statins or antiplatelets, being diagnosed with diabetes or possessing antidiabetics, and long-term limiting illness status. Notably, many reported their health as good to excellent. A fact which emphasises the importance of motivating individuals to take part in the general health checks for an asymptomatic condition such as hypertension. PMID:27413665

  1. Data Resource Profile: The World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties; Yawson, A.; Mensah, G.; Yong, J.; Guo, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Parasuraman, P.; Lhungdim, H.; Sekher, TV.; Rosa, R.; Belov, VB.; Lushkina, NP; Peltzer, K.; Makiwane, M.; Zuma, K.; Ramlagan, S.; Davids, A.; Mbelle, N.; Matseke, G.; Schneider, M.; Tabane, C.; Tollman, S.; Kahn, K.; Ng, N.; Juvekar, S.; Sankoh, O.; Debpuur, CY.; Nguyen, TK Chuc; Gomez-Olive, FX.; Hakimi, M.; Hirve, S.; Abdullah, S.; Hodgson, A.; Kyobutungi, C.; Egondi, T.; Mayombana, C.; Minh, HV.; Mwanyangala, MA.; Razzaque, A.; Wilopo, S.; Streatfield, PK.; Byass, P.; Wall, S.; Scholten, F.; Mugisha, J.; Seeley, J.; Kinyanda, E.; Nyirenda, M.; Mutevedzi, P.; Newell, M-L.

    2012-01-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization’s Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18–49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007–2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18–49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO’s SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO’s archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata). PMID:23283715

  2. Data resource profile: the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties

    2012-12-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18-49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007-2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18-49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO's SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO's archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata).

  3. [COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH IN BABIES OF EARLY PRESCHOOL AGE].

    PubMed

    Denisov, A P; Semenova, N V; Kun, O A; Denisova, O A

    2015-01-01

    Health of the children's population is one of the most important components of safety of the country. The incidence level in children of early age reflects an interaction of economic, ecological, social and hygienic and medico-organizational factors in society. The issue of the paper is the comprehensive assessment of health of children of the first three years of life upon indices of the morbidity rate, physical development, interrelation of given indices with the structure of the family and their social status. Indices of the physical development of boys in the all age groups exceeded the corresponding indices in girls (p < 0.05). There was also statistically significant and augmentation of indices of body weights of children along with the age (p < 0.05). The highest morbidity rate in children was established in the first year of life, the minimal one--in the third year. In the all age groups diseases of respiratory organs prevailed, at this their proportion in the total amount of diseases in the third year of life considerably exceeded the same in first and second years of life. The highest incidences of children took place in the families formed by juvenile and lonely women. Diseases of digestive organs in the second and third years of life in children from juvenile and lonely mothers were considerably enlarged on frequency (by 1,4-1,7 times), infectious and parasitic diseases (by 1,1-1,7 times) in comparison with children from full families. In the all studied types offamilies and age groups the state of health of children was worse, than in full families. There was substantiated the development of the multilevel system for the prophylaxis of losses of health in children at early preschool age. PMID:26856178

  4. Income gradients in oral health according to child age.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Sabbah, Wael; Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Murasko, Jason E; Gansky, Stuart A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to confirm whether the well-known income disparities in oral health seen over the life course are indeed absent in 9- to 11-yr-old children, and to explore the role of access to dental care in explaining the age-profile of the income gradient in child oral health. We used data from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health. Income gradients in parental reports of children's decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, broken teeth, bleeding gums, and fair/poor condition of teeth were assessed in stratified analyses according to age of child (1-5, 6-8, 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17 yr), using survey logistic regression to control for family-, parental-, and child-level covariates. Health insurance status and use of preventive dental care were the indicators for children's access to dental care. The adjusted ORs for the effect of family income on having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth were not significant in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Different age-patterns were found for broken teeth and bleeding gums. The attenuation of the income gradients in having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth, previously seen in 9- to 11-yr-old children, was also seen in 15- to 17-, 12- to 14-, and 6- to 8-yr-old children, respectively, after controlling for children's access to dental care. This study supports the attenuation of income inequalities in oral health in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Access to dental care could attenuate income gradients in oral health in other age groups. PMID:26031837

  5. The Ageing Brain: Age-dependent changes in the electroencephalogram during propofol and sevoflurane general anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Purdon, P. L.; Pavone, K. J.; Akeju, O.; Smith, A. C.; Sampson, A. L.; Lee, J.; Zhou, D. W.; Solt, K.; Brown, E. N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Anaesthetic drugs act at sites within the brain that undergo profound changes during typical ageing. We postulated that anaesthesia-induced brain dynamics observed in the EEG change with age. Methods We analysed the EEG in 155 patients aged 18–90 yr who received propofol (n=60) or sevoflurane (n=95) as the primary anaesthetic. The EEG spectrum and coherence were estimated throughout a 2 min period of stable anaesthetic maintenance. Age-related effects were characterized by analysing power and coherence as a function of age using linear regression and by comparing the power spectrum and coherence in young (18- to 38-yr-old) and elderly (70- to 90-yr-old) patients. Results Power across all frequency bands decreased significantly with age for both propofol and sevoflurane; elderly patients showed EEG oscillations ∼2- to 3-fold smaller in amplitude than younger adults. The qualitative form of the EEG appeared similar regardless of age, showing prominent alpha (8–12 Hz) and slow (0.1–1 Hz) oscillations. However, alpha band dynamics showed specific age-related changes. In elderly compared with young patients, alpha power decreased more than slow power, and alpha coherence and peak frequency were significantly lower. Older patients were more likely to experience burst suppression. Conclusions These profound age-related changes in the EEG are consistent with known neurobiological and neuroanatomical changes that occur during typical ageing. Commercial EEG-based depth-of-anaesthesia indices do not account for age and are therefore likely to be inaccurate in elderly patients. In contrast, monitoring the unprocessed EEG and its spectrogram can account for age and individual patient characteristics. PMID:26174300

  6. Effects of Prenatal Care on Child Health at Age 5

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Kelly; Corman, Hope; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The broad goal of contemporary prenatal care is to promote the health of the mother, child, and family through the pregnancy, delivery, and the child’s development. Although the vast majority of mothers giving birth in developed countries receive prenatal care, past research has not found compelling evidence that early or adequate prenatal care has favorable effects on birth outcomes. It is possible that prenatal care confers health benefits to the child that do not become apparent until after the perinatal period. Methods Using data from a national urban birth cohort study in the U.S., we estimate the effects of prenatal care on four markers of child health at age 5—maternal-reported health status, asthma diagnosis, overweight, and height. We implement a number of different strategies to address the issue of potential omitted variables bias as well as a large number of specification checks to validate the findings. Results and Conclusions Prenatal care, defined a number of different ways, does not appear to have any effect on the outcomes examined. The findings are robust and suggest that routine health care encounters during the prenatal period could potentially be used more effectively to enhance children’s health trajectories. However, future research is needed to explore the effects of prenatal care on additional child health and developmental outcomes as well as the effects of preconceptional and maternal lifetime helathcare on child health. PMID:22374319

  7. General practitioner training needs for child health surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Goodhart, L C

    1991-01-01

    A postal questionnaire was sent to 136 Hackney general practitioners inquiring about their plans for child health surveillance. A total of 112 responded and detailed their training needs, both practical and theoretical. Ninety one responders were providing or planning to provide surveillance. Responders were eager for further training particularly in premature baby follow up, mental handicap, speech and hearing assessment, and social and behavioural problems. PMID:2053799

  8. Health, Lifestyle, and Gender Influences on Aging Well: An Australian Longitudinal Analysis to Guide Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Kendig, Hal; Browning, Colette J.; Thomas, Shane A.; Wells, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    A primary societal goal for aging is enabling older people to continue to live well as long as possible. The evidence base around aging well (“healthy,” “active,” and “successful” aging) has been constructed mainly from academic and professional conceptualizations of mortality, morbidity, functioning, and psychological well-being with some attention to lay views. Our study aims to inform action on health promotion to achieve aging well as conceptualized by qualitative research identifying what older Australians themselves value most: continuing to live as long as possible in the community with independence in daily living, and good self-rated health and psychological well-being. Multivariate survival analyses from the Melbourne longitudinal studies on healthy aging program found that important threats to aging well for the total sample over a 12-year period were chronological age, multi-morbidity, low perceived social support, low nutritional score, and being under-weight. For men, threats to aging well were low strain, perceived inadequacy of social activity, and being a current smoker. For women, urinary incontinence, low physical activity and being under-weight were threats to aging well. The findings indicate that healthy lifestyles can assist aging well, and suggest the value of taking gender into account in health promotion strategies. PMID:25072042

  9. Social class in childhood and general health in adulthood: questionnaire study of contribution of psychological attributes

    PubMed Central

    Bosma, Hans; van de Mheen, H Dike; Mackenbach, Johan P

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine the contribution of psychological attributes (personality characteristics and coping styles) to the association between social class in childhood and adult health among men and women. Design Partly retrospective, partly cross sectional study conducted in the framework of the Dutch GLOBE study. Subjects Sample of general population from south east Netherlands consisting of 2174 men and women aged 25-74 years. Baseline self reported data from 1991 provided information on childhood and adult social class, psychological attributes, and general health. Main outcome measure Self rated poor health. Results Independent of adult social class, low childhood social class was related to self rated poor health (odds ratio 1.67 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 2.75) for subjects whose fathers were unskilled manual workers versus subjects whose fathers were higher grade professionals). Subjects whose fathers were manual workers generally had more unfavourable personality profiles and more negative coping styles. External locus of control, neuroticism, and the absence of active problem focused coping explained about half of the association between childhood social class and self rated poor health. The findings were independent of adult social class and height. Conclusions A higher prevalence of negative personality profiles and adverse coping styles in subjects who grew up in lower social classes explains part of the association between social class in childhood and adult health. This finding underlines the importance of psychological mechanisms in the examination of the negative effects of adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood. Key messagesRegardless of adult social class, low social class in childhood is related to poor general health in adulthoodAdverse personality profiles and negative coping styles are more common in people who grew up in lower social classesPsychological attributes, such as low perceived control, explain a substantial part of

  10. More missing teeth are associated with poorer general health in the rural Korean elderly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Kyung; Lee, Kyung-Dong; Merchant, Anwar T; Lee, Sung-Kook; Song, Keun-Bae; Lee, Sang Gyu; Choi, Youn-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the association between missing teeth and general health conditions in elderly Korean people. This cross-sectional study was conducted as a part of a health-screening program supported by the National Health Insurance Corporation of Korea in a local region of Sungju-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do from 2000 to 2006. The participants were 3611 in number (1494 males and 2117 females) aged 60 years and over. The outcome variable was the number of missing teeth in the mouth determined by dental examination; general medical examination included blood pressure, body height and weight to compute body mass index (BMI). Laboratory investigations included aspartate transaminase (AST), hemoglobin (HB), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and total cholesterol (CHOL). Demographic factors and smoking status were obtained from questionnaires by an interviewer. Multiple regression models were used as a statistical analysis. The subjects were classified into three groups according to the number of missing teeth (<8, 8-18, and >18). In unadjusted analyses individuals with more missing teeth, had poorer general health status (higher blood pressure, higher levels of AST, FPG, and CHOL, and higher BMI in females). In multiple regression models with the number of missing teeth as an outcome, systolic blood pressure, CHOL, FPG, and HB in males were statistically significant after adjusting for age and smoking. In females, systolic blood pressure, CHOL, FPG, and BMI were positively associated with the number of missing teeth. The number of missing teeth was positively related to poorer general health status such as blood pressure, FPG, CHOL, after adjusting for age and smoking in the rural elderly in Korea.

  11. Valuable human capital: the aging health care worker.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    With the workforce growing older and the supply of younger workers diminishing, it is critical for health care managers to understand the factors necessary to capitalize on their vintage employees. Retaining this segment of the workforce has a multitude of benefits including the preservation of valuable intellectual capital, which is necessary to ensure that health care organizations maintain their competitive advantage in the consumer-driven market. Retaining the aging employee is possible if health care managers learn the motivators and training differences associated with this category of the workforce. These employees should be considered a valuable resource of human capital because without their extensive expertise, intense loyalty and work ethic, and superior customer service skills, health care organizations could suffer severe economic repercussions in the near future. PMID:16905991

  12. Tick-borne encephalitis in the age of general mobility.

    PubMed

    Süss, Jochen; Kahl, Olaf; Aspöck, Horst; Hartelt, Kathrin; Vaheri, Antii; Oehme, Rainer; Hasle, Gunnar; Dautel, Hans; Kunz, Christian; Kupreviciene, Nerija; Randolph, Sarah; Zimmermann, Hans-Peter; Atkinson, Barry; Dobler, Gerhard; Kutsar, Kuulo; Heinz, Franz X; Steffen, Robert

    2010-02-01

    The 11th meeting of the International Scientific Working Group on Tick-borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE) was conducted under the title of, "From childhood to golden age: increased mobility - increased risk of contracting TBE?" Participants from 26 countries, including the United States of America and China, presented reports on the latest developments and trends in local TBE cases, vaccination coverage and risk factors. In particular, the situation of children and the elderly (the "golden agers") was discussed. As the current evidence suggests, the location and extension of endemic areas for TBE have changed over the last few years, along with global warming and the shift of infected ticks to higher altitudes. The increased mobility of the human population adds to the heightened exposure; outdoor activities and international travel are on the rise also, and especially, amongst the 50+ generation, who are already per se at higher risk of disease manifestation, complications and case fatality. Most Europeans travel within Europe, often without sufficient awareness of endemic areas. Only high immunization rates can ensure low disease rates in the long run. To achieve this goal, public education is the sole effective approach for raising the level of awareness. Overall, the risk of any given person to contract TBE should not be regarded as a fixed entity, but rather it must be estimated individually, on the basis of knowledge of the TBE virus endemic areas and risk factors.

  13. [Investigating work, age, health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ebener, M; Hasselhorn, H M

    2015-04-01

    Working life in Germany is changing. The work force is ageing and the number of people available to the labour market will - from now on - shrink considerably. Prospectively, people will have to work longer; but still today, most people leave employment long before reaching official retirement age. What are the reasons for this? In this report, a conceptual framework and the German lidA Cohort Study are presented. The "lidA conceptual framework on work, age, health and work participation" visualises determinants of employment (11 "domains") in higher working age, e. g., "work", "health", "social status" and "life style". The framework reveals 4 key characteristics of withdrawal from work: leaving working life is the result of an interplay of different domains (complexity); (early) retirement is a process with in part early determinants in the life course (processual character); retirement has a strong individual component (individuality); retirement is embedded in a strong structural frame (structure). On the basis of this framework, the "lidA Cohort Study on work, age, health and work participation" (www.lida-studie.de) investigates long-term effects of work on health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany. It is the only large study in Germany operationalising the concept of employability in a broad interdisciplinary approach. Employees subject to social security and born in 1959 or in 1965 will be interviewed (CAPI) every 3 years (N[wave 1]=6 585, N[wave 2]=4 244) and their data will be linked (where consented) with social security data covering employment history and with health insurance data. The study design ("Schaie's most efficient design") allows for a tri-factor model that isolates the impact of age, cohort and time. In 2014, the second wave was completed. In the coming years lidA will analyse the association of work, health and work participation, and identify age as well as generation differences. lidA will investigate the

  14. [Investigating work, age, health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ebener, M; Hasselhorn, H M

    2015-04-01

    Working life in Germany is changing. The work force is ageing and the number of people available to the labour market will - from now on - shrink considerably. Prospectively, people will have to work longer; but still today, most people leave employment long before reaching official retirement age. What are the reasons for this? In this report, a conceptual framework and the German lidA Cohort Study are presented. The "lidA conceptual framework on work, age, health and work participation" visualises determinants of employment (11 "domains") in higher working age, e. g., "work", "health", "social status" and "life style". The framework reveals 4 key characteristics of withdrawal from work: leaving working life is the result of an interplay of different domains (complexity); (early) retirement is a process with in part early determinants in the life course (processual character); retirement has a strong individual component (individuality); retirement is embedded in a strong structural frame (structure). On the basis of this framework, the "lidA Cohort Study on work, age, health and work participation" (www.lida-studie.de) investigates long-term effects of work on health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany. It is the only large study in Germany operationalising the concept of employability in a broad interdisciplinary approach. Employees subject to social security and born in 1959 or in 1965 will be interviewed (CAPI) every 3 years (N[wave 1]=6 585, N[wave 2]=4 244) and their data will be linked (where consented) with social security data covering employment history and with health insurance data. The study design ("Schaie's most efficient design") allows for a tri-factor model that isolates the impact of age, cohort and time. In 2014, the second wave was completed. In the coming years lidA will analyse the association of work, health and work participation, and identify age as well as generation differences. lidA will investigate the

  15. Toward an alternative representation for disentangling age-associated differences in general and specific cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Schmiedek, Florian; Li, Shu-Chen

    2004-03-01

    Much of cognitive aging research concerns whether age-associated differences in various cognitive performances can be accounted for by general explanatory constructs or whether several specific processes are involved. Structural equation models have been proposed to disentangle general and specific age-associated differences in cognitive performance. This article demonstrates that existing methods that employ stepwise procedures run the risk of biasing results toward general resource accounts. An alternative model representation (i.e., the nested factor model) is proposed that affords simultaneous estimation of general and specific effects and is applied to data from the Berlin Aging Study. Using the nested factor model allowed the authors to detect that specific group factors explained 25% of the age-associated variance in addition to the general factor.

  16. Health Issues in Aging. The Health Education Monograph Series, Volume 18, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Roberta, Ed.; Doyle, Kathy, Ed.

    This monograph presents a collection of papers related to health issues and aging: "Introduction" (Paul Simon); "Memory, Aging, and Cognition" (Rita E. Arras); "Internet Resources for the Elderly and Their Caregivers" (Kathleen Doyle); "Unintentional Injuries in the Homes of the Elderly: A Look at Current Research and a Case Study of Home Care…

  17. Legislating fear and the public health in gilded age Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Teigen, Philip M

    2007-04-01

    Between 1876 and 1881 Massachusetts experienced an outbreak of human rabies (hydrophobia). The entire state--the Governor, the legislature, the State Board of Health, newspapers, and the citizenry and elected officials of every town and city--reacted to the disease. Central to the response was the Commonwealth's legislature--called the General Court. Through public hearings, their own debates, and the passage of legislation, it resolved widespread fear and anger, mediated conflicting concepts of disease, and promoted social solidarity in the face of an epidemic. This article first narrates the General Court's legislative actions; it then examines the conflicting understandings of disease causality; finally, it explores the social and political rituals the legislature drew upon to deal with this public health crisis. Arguing that public health legislation is simultaneously instrumental and symbolic, this article demonstrates that attention to both enriches the study of epidemics, historical and yet to come. PMID:16980330

  18. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

    1994-01-01

    Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

  19. The predictive value of self assessed general, physical, and mental health on functional decline and mortality in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the extent to which older people's self assessments of general health, physical health, and mental health predict functional decline and mortality.
DESIGN—The study uses population-based secondary data from the US Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA).
PARTICIPANTS—A total of 7527 persons aged 70 years or above living in the community.
METHODS—Eight different measures on self reported general, physical, and mental health were used. Change in functional status was measured using a composite index of ADLs and IADLs over a period of six years. Duration of survival was calculated over a period of seven years. Adjusting for age and gender, multiple logistic regression was used in analysing functional decline, and Cox proportional hazard model, for mortality. Then all of the self assessed health measures were incorporated into the final model—controlling for baseline sociodemographic characteristics, functional status, disease/conditions, and use of health and social services—to assess the independent contribution of each measure in predicting future health outcomes.
MAIN RESULTS—Overall, older people's self assessed general, physical, and mental health were predictive of functional decline and mortality. In multivariate analyses, older people who assessed their global health, self care ability, and physical activity less favourably were more likely to experience poor health outcomes. Gender disparity, however, was observed with poor global health affecting functional decline in men only. Self care ability was predictive of functioning in women only, whereas it was predictive of mortality in men only.
CONCLUSIONS—Self assessed global health, as well as, specific dimensions of health act as significant, independent predictors of functioning and mortality in a community dwelling older people.


Keywords: age; self assessed health; functional status; mortality PMID:10715745

  20. Measuring general animal health status: Development of an animal health barometer.

    PubMed

    Depoorter, Pieter; Van Huffel, Xavier; Diricks, Herman; Imberechts, Hein; Dewulf, Jeroen; Berkvens, Dirk; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-03-01

    The development of an animal health barometer, an instrument to measure the general health of the Belgian livestock population on a yearly basis and to monitor its evolution over time, is described. The elaboration of a set of 13 animal health indicators (AHIs) as the basis for the animal health barometer is discussed. These indicators were weighted by experts - including scientists, policy makers and agro-industrial representatives - to determine their relative weight in the barometer. The result of the barometer is expressed as a comparison with a previous year. Based on the results of the 13 AHIs, it is concluded that general animal health in Belgium shows a positive evolution since 2008. The animal health barometer provides a composite view of the status of livestock health in Belgium and is a tool to communicate in an intelligible, comprehensible manner on aspects of animal health to consumers and professional stakeholders in the animal production and food chain. Together with the food safety barometer (Baert et al., 2011. Food Res. Int. 44, 940) and the plant health barometer (Wilmart et al., 2014. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. doi: 10.1007/s10658-014-0547-x), the animal health barometer is one of the three instruments to provide a holistic view on the overall status of the safety of the food chain in Belgium.

  1. Uptake of Medicare chronic disease items in Australia by general practice nurses and Aboriginal health workers.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth J; Davidson, Patricia M; Brown, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    The Australian health care system is currently in a state of reform and there is increasing pressure to provide care in community settings. Rising costs, demands and population ageing underscore the importance of adopting models of health care delivery to address changing epidemiological patterns. Population ageing and the increase of chronic conditions challenge models based on acute care. Changes to the Medicare benefits schedule have facilitated the development of a range of expanded nursing services in the general practice setting. In particular, item number 10997 was introduced to reimburse practice nurses and Aboriginal health workers (AHWs) for providing monitoring and support to people with a chronic disease for and on behalf of a general practitioner (GP). The uptake of Medicare Item 100997 from 2007 to 2009, to monitor chronic disease interventions provided by general practice nurses has increased dramatically. The rate of uptake of Item 100997 has not been consistent across States and Territories, even allowing for population distributions. Exploring reasons for these regional variations and linking uptake of Medicare Item numbers to patient outcomes is important in developing the nursing role in Australian general practice.

  2. Telemental health technology in deaf and general mental-health services: access and use.

    PubMed

    Austen, Sally; McGrath, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    Long-distance travel to provide mental health services for deaf people has implications for efficiency, safety, and equality of service. However, uptake of Telemental Health (TMH) has been slow in both deaf and general mental health services. A quantitative study was used to investigate access to TMH and whether staff confidence, experience, or demographics affect TMH use. It was concluded that staff in neither deaf mental health services nor general mental health services had adequate knowledge of or access to TMH. Staff expressed concerns over TMH's appropriateness in their work. Previous use of videoconferencing was assosciated significantly with confidence, but previous use of videophones was not. Neither staff in deaf services nor deaf staff were more experienced with or more confident about videoconferencing, whereas, within deaf services, deaf staff were significantly more confident about videophone use. Training implications are discussed.

  3. The effects of age, gender, and crash types on drivers' injury-related health care costs.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M

    2015-04-01

    There are many studies that evaluate the effects of age, gender, and crash types on crash related injury severity. However, few studies investigate the effects of those crash factors on the crash related health care costs for drivers that are transported to hospital. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between drivers' age, gender, and the crash types, as well as other crash characteristics (e.g., not wearing a seatbelt, weather condition, and fatigued driving), on the crash related health care costs. The South Carolina Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (SC CODES) from 2005 to 2007 was used to construct six separate hierarchical linear regression models based on drivers' age and gender. The results suggest that older drivers have higher health care costs than younger drivers and male drivers tend to have higher health care costs than female drivers in the same age group. Overall, single vehicle crashes had the highest health care costs for all drivers. For males older than 64-years old sideswipe crashes are as costly as single vehicle crashes. In general, not wearing a seatbelt, airbag deployment, and speeding were found to be associated with higher health care costs. Distraction-related crashes are more likely to be associated with lower health care costs in most cases. Furthermore this study highlights the value of considering drivers in subgroups, as some factors have different effects on health care costs in different driver groups. Developing an understanding of longer term outcomes of crashes and their characteristics can lead to improvements in vehicle technology, educational materials, and interventions to reduce crash-related health care costs.

  4. Sclera color changes with age and is a cue for perceiving age, health, and beauty.

    PubMed

    Russell, Richard; Sweda, Jennifer R; Porcheron, Aurélie; Mauger, Emmanuelle

    2014-09-01

    Redness or yellowness of the sclera (the light part of the eye) are known signs of illness, as is looking older than one's actual age. Here we report that the color of the sclera is related to age in a large sample of adult Caucasian females. Specifically, older faces have sclera that are more dark, red, and yellow than younger faces. A subset of these faces were manipulated to increase or decrease the darkness, redness, or yellowness of the sclera. Faces with decreased sclera darkness, redness, or yellowness were perceived to be younger than faces with increased sclera darkness, redness, or yellowness. Further, these manipulations also caused the faces to be perceived as more or less healthy, and more or less attractive. These findings show that sclera coloration is a cue for the perception of age, health, and attractiveness that is rooted in the physical changes that occur with age. PMID:25244481

  5. Do fertility control policies affect health in old age? Evidence from China's one-child experiment.

    PubMed

    Islam, Asadul; Smyth, Russell

    2015-05-01

    How do fertility control policies contribute to the welfare of women, and their husbands, particularly as they get older? We consider whether the reduction in fertility resulting from population control policies has had any effect on the health of elderly parents in China. In particular, we examine the influence of this fertility decline, experienced due to China's one-child policy, on several measures of the health of parents in middle and old age. Overall, our results suggest that having fewer children has a positive effect on self-reported parental health but generally no effect on other measures of health. The results also suggest that upstream financial transfers have a positive effect on several measures of parental health. PMID:24692342

  6. Oral health care in residential aged care services: barriers to engaging health-care providers.

    PubMed

    Hearn, Lydia; Slack-Smith, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The oral health of older people living in residential aged care facilities has been widely recognised as inadequate. The aim of this paper is to identify barriers to effective engagement of health-care providers in oral care in residential aged care facilities. A literature review was conducted using MEDline, CINAHL, Web of Science, Academic Search Complete and PsychInfo between 2000 and 2013, with a grey literature search of government and non-government organisation policy papers, conference proceedings and theses. Keywords included: dental/oral care, residential aged care, health-care providers, barriers, constraints, and limitations. A thematic framework was used to synthesise the literature according to a series of oral health-care provision barriers, health-care provider barriers, and cross-sector collaborative barriers. A range of system, service and practitioner level barriers were identified that could impede effective communication/collaboration between different health-care providers, residents and carers regarding oral care, and these were further impeded by internal barriers at each level. Findings indicated several areas for investigation and consideration regarding policy and practice improvements. While further research is required, some key areas should be addressed if oral health care in residential aged care services is to be improved. PMID:25155109

  7. Sensory Function: Insights From Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Kern, David W.; Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Chen, Rachel C.; Schumm, L. Philip; McClintock, Martha K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Sensory function, a critical component of quality of life, generally declines with age and influences health, physical activity, and social function. Sensory measures collected in Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) survey focused on the personal impact of sensory function in the home environment and included: subjective assessment of vision, hearing, and touch, information on relevant home conditions and social sequelae as well as an improved objective assessment of odor detection. Method. Summary data were generated for each sensory category, stratified by age (62–90 years of age) and gender, with a focus on function in the home setting and the social consequences of sensory decrements in each modality. Results. Among both men and women, older age was associated with self-reported impairment of vision, hearing, and pleasantness of light touch. Compared with women, men reported significantly worse hearing and found light touch less appealing. There were no gender differences for vision. Overall, hearing loss seemed to have a greater impact on social function than did visual impairment. Discussion. Sensory function declines across age groups, with notable gender differences for hearing and light touch. Further analysis of sensory measures from NSHAP Wave 2 may provide important information on how sensory declines are related to health, social function, quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in this nationally representative sample of older adults. PMID:25360015

  8. [Mental health, vulnerability and general practice: a study of non-profit health centers in Grenoble].

    PubMed

    Dubois-Fabing, Delphine; Pichon, Philippe; Arnevielhe, Alizée; Suscillon, Marie-Paule; Caron, Bruno; Saillard, Fabienne; François, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Very little research has been conducted on the role of general practitioners (GPs) in mental health care among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations in France. The non-profit community health care centers in Grenoble provide populations living in sensitive urban zones with high quality primary health care that includes a medico-social and prevention dimension. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of mental health issues diagnosed by GPs in health care centers, to identify the factors associated with these issues and to describe treatment characteristics. This cross-sectional study focused on general practice consultations in the AGECSA Grenoble health care centers over the course of one week. At the end of each consultation, the GP collected information about the patient, including personal data, psychological disorders, vulnerability, and patient health management. Among the 451 patients included in the study, GPs found that 45.2% of patients were in vulnerable situations and 43% of patients suffered from a mental disorder, including 29% of cases of anxiety and 20% of cases of depression. 44% of patients suffered from a psychological disorder (mental disorder and/or psychological suffering). For these patients, 52.8% of the consultations lasted more than 20 minutes. Their treatment generally included a mental health care follow-up (in 76% of cases), including psychological support (59%) and treatment of functional somatic disorders (46%). The study shows the high prevalence of psychological disorders diagnosed in the patients treated by GPs working in health care centers in disadvantaged urban areas. Research shows that GPs play an important and specific role in mental health care and prevention. An analysis of the organizational methods used in health care centers is highly relevant.

  9. Bone health as a primary target in the pediatric age.

    PubMed

    Caradonna, P; Rigante, D

    2009-01-01

    Bone tissue is constantly renewed during childhood and adolescence to assure skeleton growth both in size and mineral density: up to 90 percent of peak bone mass is acquired by age 18 in girls and age 20 in boys, which makes youth the best time to "invest" in bone health. The reduction in bone mineral density leading to compromised strength and microarchitecture of bone tissue can favour the occurrence of fragility fractures in the pediatric age. Assessing the normality of bone density measurements in childhood by current methods is hampered by the lack of normative control data. The understanding of factors useful for maximizing peak bone mass, as well as the knowledge of diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies for managing a state of reduced bone mineral density are crucial to prevent fractures throughout lifetime. PMID:19499847

  10. Inequities in health care utilization by people aged 50+: evidence from 12 European countries.

    PubMed

    Terraneo, Marco

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the magnitude of educational inequities in the use of health care services, by people aged 50+, in 12 European countries, controlling for country-level heterogeneity. We consider four services: having seen or talked to 1) a general practitioner (GP) or 2) specialist, 3) having been hospitalized, and 4) having visited a dentist (only for prevention). Data derived from the SHARE (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe) project, a cross-national panel that collects information from individuals aged 50 and over. A Fixed Effects approach is applied, which is a valuable alternative to the application of conventional multilevel models in country-comparative analysis. The main findings of this study confirm that there is substantial educational inequity in the use of health care, although relevant differences arise between services. A clear pro-educated gradient is found for specialists and dentist visits, whereas no evidence of educational disparities was found for GP use. On the other hand, less clear results emerge regarding hospitalizations. However, the analysis shows that micro-level dimensions, i.e. individual needs and predisposing and enabling population characteristics, and macro level factors, i.e. health care system and welfare regime, interact to determine people's use of health services. It can be concluded that people with more education level have more resources (cognitive, communicative, relational) that allow them to make more informed choices and take more effective actions for their health goals, however, the institutional context may modify this relationship.

  11. Stabilisation of health as the centre point of a health psychology of ageing.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Urte; König, Claudia; Eicher, Stefanie; Martin, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Current health psychological theories and research mainly cover improvement of health, recovery from illness or maintenance of health. With this theoretical manuscript, we argue that in ageing societies in which chronic illness and multimorbidity become the norm rather than the exception, this focus of health psychology is no longer sufficient. Instead, in line with a recent conceptualisation of health as "the ability to adapt and to self-manage", we suggest that the centre point of a health psychology of ageing needs to be the stabilisation of health. Current theories of lifespan development, such as the model of selection, optimisation and compensation, the motivational theory of life span development, the two-process model of assimilative and accommodative coping and the recently introduced functional quality of life model are described with regard to their assumptions and related research focussing on stabilisation. All of these models explicitly comprise stabilisation as an important process of successful, healthy ageing. So far, however, the empirical research examining these models does not take stabilisation into account. Implications for research methods and practise of health stabilisation are discussed.

  12. Health services under the General Agreement on Trade in Services.

    PubMed Central

    Adlung, R.; Carzaniga, A.

    2001-01-01

    The potential for trade in health services has expanded rapidly in recent decades. More efficient communication systems have helped to reduce distance-related barriers to trade; rising incomes and enhanced information have increased the mobility of patients; and internal cost pressures have led various governments to consider possibilities for increased private participation. As yet, however, health services have played only a modest role in the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). It is possible that Members of the World Trade Organization have been discouraged from undertaking access commitments by the novelty of the Agreement, coordination problems between relevant agencies, widespread inexperience in concepts of services trade, a traditionally strong degree of government involvement in the health sector, and concerns about basic quality and social objectives. However, more than five years have passed since GATS entered into force, allowing hesitant administrations to familiarize themselves with its main elements and its operation in practice. The present paper is intended to contribute to this process. It provides an overview of the basic structure of GATS and of the patterns of current commitments in health services and of limitations frequently used in this context. The concluding section discusses possibilities of pursuing basic policy objectives in a more open environment and indicates issues that may have to be dealt with in current negotiations on services. PMID:11357215

  13. The role of medical generalism in the New Zealand health system into the future.

    PubMed

    Atmore, Carol

    2015-08-01

    New Zealand hospitals are facing medical workforce shortages and an ageing population with increasing multimorbidity. To be sustainable in the future, the future medical workforce will need expertise in dealing with the complexity of people living with multiple physical and mental health issues. This will require a greater focus on generalism within the speciality colleges, and generalist doctors within the hospital settings, as well as their traditional home of community settings. Doctors' career choices will need to be matched to changing community need. The Transalpine Health Services generalist, specialist and sub-specialist workforce model developed by the West Coast and Canterbury health systems points the way to future sustainable provision of a quality patient hospital experience as close to home as possible, for people who live in provincial New Zealand, through a regional network approach. System-wide changes are suggested to support a more balanced future medical workforce. These include greater valuing of careers in generalism, aligning of incentives to promote medical careers based in generalism, developing regional networks that cross existing District Health Board boundaries to provide patient care, and application of system outcome metrics that measure quality of care and patient outcomes in an integrated health system. PMID:26365846

  14. Sex Differences in Biological Markers of Health in the Study of Stress, Aging and Health in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Shkolnikova, Maria; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The apparent contradiction that women live longer but have worse health than men, the so called male-female health-survival paradox, is very pronounced in Russia. The present study investigates whether men in Moscow are healthier than women at the level of biomarkers, and whether the associations between biomarkers and subjective health have sex-specific patterns. Materials Previously collected data in the study of Stress, Aging, and Health in Russia (SAHR, n = 1800) were used to examine sex differences in biomarkers and their associations with physical functioning and self-rated health. Results The present study found mixed directions and magnitudes for sex differences in biomarkers. Women were significantly disadvantaged with regard to obesity and waist circumference, whereas men had a tendency toward higher prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities. No sex differences were indicated in the prevalence of immunological biomarkers, and mixed patterns were found for lipid profiles. Many biomarkers were associated with physical functioning and general health. Obesity and waist circumference were related to lower physical functioning among females only, while major Q-wave abnormalities with high probabilities of myocardial infarction and atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter were associated with physical functioning and self-rated health among males only. Conclusion No clear patterns of sex differences in prevalence of high-risk levels of biomarkers suggest that the male-female health-survival paradox is weaker at the level of health biomarkers. We found some evidence that certain biomarkers reflecting pathophysiological changes in the organism that do not possess acute health risks, but over many years may lead to physical disability, are associated with physical functioning and self-rated health in women, whereas others reflecting more serious life-threatening pathophysiological changes are associated with physical functioning and self-rated health

  15. [Gynecological ultrasound examination at the general health care emergency department].

    PubMed

    Forsbom, Otto; Väyrynen, Tapio; Hurskainen, Ritva

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal ultrasound examination is a possible addition for the general health care emergency department. It gives additional information of gynecological illnesses and pregnancy. Ultrasound can guide treatment and make consulting the right specialty easier when treating women with acute abdominal pain. Correctly used ultrasound can also reduce the need for consultation and speed up treatment, especially in early pregnancy. The physician performing the ultrasound should know the diagnostic capabilities of ultrasound and compare findings to the clinical status and history. Ultrasound can't replace clinical history and status in any situation. A pregnancy test, hemoglobin or CRP are often required to achieve diagnosis.

  16. Gerontological Knowledge and Elderly Health Care Services in Alaska: Aging in the Last Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosich, Rosellen M.; Thompson, S. Rae

    1997-01-01

    Responses from 159 of 837 health and mental health professionals in Alaska showed the following: (1) 54% said community services for the aging were inadequate; (2) 55% felt health professionals' knowledge of aging was insufficient; and (3) 91.8% needed further training in aging and geriatrics, especially regarding mental health and Alzheimer's…

  17. Socioeconomic inequalities in health after age 50: Are health risk behaviors to blame?

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Benjamin A.; McGeever, Kelly; Grubert, Elizabeth; Agahi, Neda; Fors, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that socioeconomic inequalities in health extend into the elderly population, even within the most highly developed welfare states. One potential explanation for socioeconomic inequalities in health focuses on the role of health behaviors, but little is known about the degree to which health behaviors account for health inequalities among older adults, in particular. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (N=19,245), this study examined the degree to which four behavioral risk factors – smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, and heavy drinking – are associated with socioeconomic position among adults aged 51 and older, and whether these behaviors mediate socioeconomic differences in mortality, and the onset of disability among those who were disability-free at baseline, over a 10-year period from 1998–2008. Results indicate that the odds of both smoking and physical inactivity are higher among persons with lower wealth, with similar stratification in obesity, but primarily among women. The odds of heavy drinking decrease at lower levels of wealth. Significant socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and disability onset are apparent among older men and women; however, the role that health behaviors play in accounting for these inequalities differs by age and gender. For example, these health behaviors account for between 23–45% of the mortality disparities among men and middle aged women, but only about 5% of the disparities found among women over 65 years. Meanwhile, these health behaviors appear to account for about 33% of the disparities in disability onset found among women survivors, and about 9–14% among men survivors. These findings suggest that within the U.S. elderly population, behavioral risks such as smoking and physical inactivity contribute moderately to maintaining socioeconomic inequalities in health. As such, promoting healthier lifestyles among the socioeconomically disadvantaged older adults should help

  18. Case against targeting long term non-attenders in general practice for a health check.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K J; Nicholl, J P; Fall, M; Lowy, A; Williams, B T

    1993-07-01

    A study was undertaken to describe the consequences of implementing that part of the 1990 contract for general practitioners which requires them to offer health checks to all patients aged 16-74 years not seen within the previous three years. A random sample of 679 patients who had not attended for three years and 379 patients who had attended in this period were identified from 30 practice lists (including eight inner city practices) in five family health services authority areas. All patients were sent an invitation to a health check by their own practice and an attempt was made by the research team to conduct a home interview. The results showed that a considerable proportion of non-attenders were not in a position to take advantage of such an invitation; 17% of those at inner city practices were known to have received the invitation, 68% in practices elsewhere. Interviewed non-attenders (76% of those known to have received their invitation) had sociodemographic characteristics similar to the comparison group of interviewed attenders, although women aged 55-74 years were over-represented. At interview, non-attenders reported relatively less use of accident and emergency services and preventive health care and scored significantly better on all six dimensions of the perceived health status measure. Overall, 3% of all identified non-attenders in the inner city practices and 13% elsewhere accepted the invitation to a health check. Low levels of morbidity were found at health checks for those who had and who had not attended their general practitioners in the previous three years.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8398245

  19. Social Determinants, Race, and Brain Health Outcomes: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neelum T; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Evans, Denis A

    2015-01-01

    The broad spectrum of economic and cultural diversity in the U.S. population correlates with and affects the study of behavioral aspects of health. The purpose of this article is to provide a selective overview of research findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), which covers a socio-demographically diverse population in Chicago, with a focus on role-related psychosocial factors and observed racial/ethnic differences in aging outcomes. CHAP is a longitudinal, epidemiological study of common chronic conditions of aging with an emphasis on medical, psychosocial, and environmental risk factors for the decline in cognitive function across the older adult lifespan. We briefly summarize the study design and methods used in the CHAP study and characterize the study population and describe the psychosocial data, noting black-white associations as they relate to three common brain health outcomes: cognitive function and Alzheimer's Disease, stroke, and subclinical vascular disease as noted on neuroimaging. PMID:26239039

  20. Social Determinants, Race, and Brain Health Outcomes: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neelum T; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Evans, Denis A

    2015-01-01

    The broad spectrum of economic and cultural diversity in the U.S. population correlates with and affects the study of behavioral aspects of health. The purpose of this article is to provide a selective overview of research findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), which covers a socio-demographically diverse population in Chicago, with a focus on role-related psychosocial factors and observed racial/ethnic differences in aging outcomes. CHAP is a longitudinal, epidemiological study of common chronic conditions of aging with an emphasis on medical, psychosocial, and environmental risk factors for the decline in cognitive function across the older adult lifespan. We briefly summarize the study design and methods used in the CHAP study and characterize the study population and describe the psychosocial data, noting black-white associations as they relate to three common brain health outcomes: cognitive function and Alzheimer's Disease, stroke, and subclinical vascular disease as noted on neuroimaging.

  1. The influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs.

    PubMed

    Pati, Susmita; Siewert, Elizabeth; Wong, Angie T; Bhatt, Suraj K; Calixte, Rose E; Cnaan, Avital

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs benefiting children. In a longitudinal prospective cohort study of 560 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads recruited in Philadelphia, maternal health literacy was assessed using the test of functional health literacy in adults (short version). Participation in social welfare programs [Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), child care subsidy, and public housing] was self-reported at child's birth, and at the 6, 12, 18, 24 month follow-up interviews. Generalized estimating equations quantified the strength of maternal health literacy as an estimator of program participation. The mothers were primarily African-Americans (83%), single (87%), with multiple children (62%). Nearly 24% of the mothers had inadequate or marginal health literacy. Children whose mothers had inadequate health literacy were less likely to receive child care subsidy (adjusted OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.85) than children whose mothers had adequate health literacy. Health literacy was not a significant predictor for TANF, SNAP, WIC or housing assistance. The predicted probability for participation in all programs decreased from birth to 24 months. Most notably, predicted WIC participation declined rapidly after age one. During the first 24 months, mothers with inadequate health literacy could benefit from simplified or facilitated child care subsidy application processes. Targeted outreach and enrollment efforts conducted by social welfare programs need to take into account the changing needs of families as children age.

  2. The influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs.

    PubMed

    Pati, Susmita; Siewert, Elizabeth; Wong, Angie T; Bhatt, Suraj K; Calixte, Rose E; Cnaan, Avital

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs benefiting children. In a longitudinal prospective cohort study of 560 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads recruited in Philadelphia, maternal health literacy was assessed using the test of functional health literacy in adults (short version). Participation in social welfare programs [Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), child care subsidy, and public housing] was self-reported at child's birth, and at the 6, 12, 18, 24 month follow-up interviews. Generalized estimating equations quantified the strength of maternal health literacy as an estimator of program participation. The mothers were primarily African-Americans (83%), single (87%), with multiple children (62%). Nearly 24% of the mothers had inadequate or marginal health literacy. Children whose mothers had inadequate health literacy were less likely to receive child care subsidy (adjusted OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.85) than children whose mothers had adequate health literacy. Health literacy was not a significant predictor for TANF, SNAP, WIC or housing assistance. The predicted probability for participation in all programs decreased from birth to 24 months. Most notably, predicted WIC participation declined rapidly after age one. During the first 24 months, mothers with inadequate health literacy could benefit from simplified or facilitated child care subsidy application processes. Targeted outreach and enrollment efforts conducted by social welfare programs need to take into account the changing needs of families as children age. PMID:23990157

  3. White matter hyperintensities and imaging patterns of brain ageing in the general population.

    PubMed

    Habes, Mohamad; Erus, Guray; Toledo, Jon B; Zhang, Tianhao; Bryan, Nick; Launer, Lenore J; Rosseel, Yves; Janowitz, Deborah; Doshi, Jimit; Van der Auwera, Sandra; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Hosten, Norbert; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Schminke, Ulf; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Grabe, Hans J; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    White matter hyperintensities are associated with increased risk of dementia and cognitive decline. The current study investigates the relationship between white matter hyperintensities burden and patterns of brain atrophy associated with brain ageing and Alzheimer's disease in a large populatison-based sample (n = 2367) encompassing a wide age range (20-90 years), from the Study of Health in Pomerania. We quantified white matter hyperintensities using automated segmentation and summarized atrophy patterns using machine learning methods resulting in two indices: the SPARE-BA index (capturing age-related brain atrophy), and the SPARE-AD index (previously developed to capture patterns of atrophy found in patients with Alzheimer's disease). A characteristic pattern of age-related accumulation of white matter hyperintensities in both periventricular and deep white matter areas was found. Individuals with high white matter hyperintensities burden showed significantly (P < 0.0001) lower SPARE-BA and higher SPARE-AD values compared to those with low white matter hyperintensities burden, indicating that the former had more patterns of atrophy in brain regions typically affected by ageing and Alzheimer's disease dementia. To investigate a possibly causal role of white matter hyperintensities, structural equation modelling was used to quantify the effect of Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score and white matter hyperintensities burden on SPARE-BA, revealing a statistically significant (P < 0.0001) causal relationship between them. Structural equation modelling showed that the age effect on SPARE-BA was mediated by white matter hyperintensities and cardiovascular risk score each explaining 10.4% and 21.6% of the variance, respectively. The direct age effect explained 70.2% of the SPARE-BA variance. Only white matter hyperintensities significantly mediated the age effect on SPARE-AD explaining 32.8% of the variance. The direct age effect explained 66.0% of the SPARE

  4. Is involvement in school bullying associated with general health and psychosocial adjustment outcomes in adulthood?

    PubMed

    Sigurdson, J F; Wallander, J; Sund, A M

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to examine prospectively associations between bullying involvement at 14-15 years of age and self-reported general health and psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood, at 26-27 years of age. A large representative sample (N=2,464) was recruited and assessed in two counties in Mid-Norway in 1998 (T1) and 1999/2000 (T2) when the respondents had a mean age of 13.7 and 14.9, respectively, leading to classification as being bullied, bully-victim, being aggressive toward others or non-involved. Information about general health and psychosocial adjustment was gathered at a follow-up in 2012 (T4) (N=1,266) with a respondent mean age of 27.2. Logistic regression and ANOVA analyses showed that groups involved in bullying of any type in adolescence had increased risk for lower education as young adults compared to those non-involved. The group aggressive toward others also had a higher risk of being unemployed and receiving any kind of social help. Compared with the non-involved, those being bullied and bully-victims had increased risk of poor general health and high levels of pain. Bully-victims and those aggressive toward others during adolescence subsequently had increased risk of tobacco use and lower job functioning than non-involved. Further, those being bullied and aggressive toward others had increased risk of illegal drug use. Relations to live-in spouse/partner were poorer among those being bullied. Involvement in bullying, either as victim or perpetrator, has significant social costs even 12 years after the bullying experience. Accordingly, it will be important to provide early intervention for those involved in bullying in adolescence.

  5. Is involvement in school bullying associated with general health and psychosocial adjustment outcomes in adulthood?

    PubMed

    Sigurdson, J F; Wallander, J; Sund, A M

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to examine prospectively associations between bullying involvement at 14-15 years of age and self-reported general health and psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood, at 26-27 years of age. A large representative sample (N=2,464) was recruited and assessed in two counties in Mid-Norway in 1998 (T1) and 1999/2000 (T2) when the respondents had a mean age of 13.7 and 14.9, respectively, leading to classification as being bullied, bully-victim, being aggressive toward others or non-involved. Information about general health and psychosocial adjustment was gathered at a follow-up in 2012 (T4) (N=1,266) with a respondent mean age of 27.2. Logistic regression and ANOVA analyses showed that groups involved in bullying of any type in adolescence had increased risk for lower education as young adults compared to those non-involved. The group aggressive toward others also had a higher risk of being unemployed and receiving any kind of social help. Compared with the non-involved, those being bullied and bully-victims had increased risk of poor general health and high levels of pain. Bully-victims and those aggressive toward others during adolescence subsequently had increased risk of tobacco use and lower job functioning than non-involved. Further, those being bullied and aggressive toward others had increased risk of illegal drug use. Relations to live-in spouse/partner were poorer among those being bullied. Involvement in bullying, either as victim or perpetrator, has significant social costs even 12 years after the bullying experience. Accordingly, it will be important to provide early intervention for those involved in bullying in adolescence. PMID:24972719

  6. A critique of using age to ration health care.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, R W

    1993-01-01

    Daniel Callahan has argued that economic and social benefits would result from a policy of withholding medical treatments which prolong life in persons over a certain age. He claims 'the real goal of medicine' is to conquer death and prolong life with the use of technology, regardless of the age and quality of life of the patient, and this has been responsible for the escalation of health care expenditure. Callahan's proposal is based on economic rationalism but there is little evidence to suggest that substantial economic savings could be achieved. Moreover, his argument raises serious moral objections. A policy of withholding treatments from members of a social group involves elements of compulsion and discrimination, both of which would intrude on the doctor-patient relationship, undermine the autonomy of elderly patients, and invoke the slippery slope towards involuntary forms of euthanasia. Life-death decisions should be based on more than the one criterion of age, and take account of more relevant factors such as the patient's usual state of well-being, her/his expressed wishes, informed consent and the type of illness. Any move to the implementation and enforcement of the policy Callahan recommends would be rejected by health professionals and the public. PMID:8459434

  7. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose Ramon; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions. Electrolytic capacitors have higher failure rates than other components in electronic systems like power drives, power converters etc. Our current work focuses on developing first-principles-based degradation models for electrolytic capacitors under varying electrical and thermal stress conditions. Prognostics and health management for electronic systems aims to predict the onset of faults, study causes for system degradation, and accurately compute remaining useful life. Accelerated life test methods are often used in prognostics research as a way to model multiple causes and assess the effects of the degradation process through time. It also allows for the identification and study of different failure mechanisms and their relationships under different operating conditions. Experiments are designed for aging of the capacitors such that the degradation pattern induced by the aging can be monitored and analyzed. Experimental setups and data collection methods are presented to demonstrate this approach.

  8. Aging and Hearing Health: The Life-course Approach.

    PubMed

    Davis, Adrian; McMahon, Catherine M; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen M; Russ, Shirley; Lin, Frank; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Chadha, Shelly; Tremblay, Kelly L

    2016-04-01

    Sensory abilities decline with age. More than 5% of the world's population, approximately 360 million people, have disabling hearing loss. In adults, disabling hearing loss is defined by thresholds greater than 40 dBHL in the better hearing ear.Hearing disability is an important issue in geriatric medicine because it is associated with numerous health issues, including accelerated cognitive decline, depression, increased risk of dementia, poorer balance, falls, hospitalizations, and early mortality. There are also social implications, such as reduced communication function, social isolation, loss of autonomy, impaired driving ability, and financial decline. Furthermore, the onset of hearing loss is gradual and subtle, first affecting the detection of high-pitched sounds and with difficulty understanding speech in noisy but not in quiet environments. Consequently, delays in recognizing and seeking help for hearing difficulties are common. Age-related hearing loss has no known cure, and technologies (hearing aids, cochlear implants, and assistive devices) improve thresholds but do not restore hearing to normal. Therefore, health care for persons with hearing loss and people within their communication circles requires education and counseling (e.g., increasing knowledge, changing attitudes, and reducing stigma), behavior change (e.g., adapting communication strategies), and environmental modifications (e.g., reducing noise). In this article, we consider the causes, consequences, and magnitude of hearing loss from a life-course perspective. We examine the concept of "hearing health," how to achieve it, and implications for policy and practice. PMID:26994265

  9. Overcoming Historical Separation between Oral and General Health Care: Interprofessional Collaboration for Promoting Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Simon, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Since the founding of dental schools as institutions distinct from medical schools, dentistry-its practice, service delivery, and insurance coverage, for example-and dental care have been kept separate from medical care in the United States. This separation is most detrimental to undeserved groups at highest risk for poor oral health. As awareness grows of the important links between oral and general health, physicians and dentists are collaborating to develop innovative service delivery and payment models that can reintegrate oral health care into medical care. Interprofessional education of medical and dental students can help produce clinicians who work together to the benefit of their patients. PMID:27669140

  10. How do medical students value health on the EQ-5D? Evaluation of hypothetical health states compared to the general population

    PubMed Central

    Barbist, Maria-Theresa; Renn, Daniela; Noisternig, Bianca; Rumpold, Gerhard; Höfer, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Background Medical students gain a particular perspective on health problems during their medical education. This article describes how medical students value 10 hypothetical health states using the EQ-5D compared to the general population. Methods Based on a sample of 161 medical students (male: 41%) we compared valuations of 10 hypothetical EQ-5D health states collected in face to face interviews with the valuations of the general population. Self-reported health on the EQ-5D was also collected. Results Every third health state was valuated higher by the medical students compared to data of the general population. The differences were independent of the severity of the hypothetical health state. Concerning the self-reported health, the majority of the students (66%) reported no problems in the five EQ-5D domains (EQ-5D VAS M = 87.3 ± 9.6 SD). However, when compared to an age-matched sample the medical students show significantly more problems in the area of pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. Conclusion Medical students have a tendency to value health states higher than the general public. Medical professionals should be continuously aware that their assessment of the patients health state can differ from the valuations of the general population. PMID:19077240

  11. An investigation into the impact of question change on estimates of general health status and healthy life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael; White, Chris

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the likely effects of incorporating the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) general health question upon Office for National Statistics (ONS) estimates of general health and healthy life expectancy (HLE). The analysis indicates that while these estimates will undergo revision following the integration of the EU-SILC general health question, for the most part the underlying trend remains unaffected. Incorporation of the EU-SILC question in the reporting of UK health statistics will improve comparability with other EU member states, and provide a stronger indicator of functional health status. ONS will adopt the EU-SILC general health question exclusively from the reporting period 2006-08. However, to further clarify the implications of this transition, ONS will present two estimates of HLE based on the original and EU-SILC general health questions for the period 2005-07. This article has important implications for setting targets and monitoring progress in Public Sector Agreement Indicators for fitness for work beyond the state pension age and healthy ageing.

  12. The self-reported health of U.S. flight attendants compared to the general population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the broad health effects of occupational exposures in flight attendants apart from disease-specific morbidity and mortality studies. We describe the health status of flight attendants and compare it to the U.S. population. In addition, we explore whether the prevalence of major health conditions in flight attendants is associated with length of exposure to the aircraft environment using job tenure as a proxy. Methods We surveyed flight attendants from two domestic U.S. airlines in 2007 and compared the prevalence of their health conditions to contemporaneous cohorts in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES), 2005-2006 and 2007-2008. We weighted the prevalence of flight attendant conditions to match the age distribution in the NHANES and compared the two populations stratified by gender using the Standardized Prevalence Ratio (SPR). For leading health conditions in flight attendants, we analyzed the association between job tenure and health outcomes in logistic regression models. Results Compared to the NHANES population (n =5,713), flight attendants (n = 4,011) had about a 3-fold increase in the age-adjusted prevalence of chronic bronchitis despite considerably lower levels of smoking. In addition, the prevalence of cardiac disease in female flight attendants was 3.5 times greater than the general population while their prevalence of hypertension and being overweight was significantly lower. Flight attendants reported 2 to 5.7 times more sleep disorders, depression, and fatigue, than the general population. Female flight attendants reported 34% more reproductive cancers. Health conditions that increased with longer job tenure as a flight attendant were chronic bronchitis, heart disease in females, skin cancer, hearing loss, depression and anxiety, even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), education, and smoking. Conclusions This study found higher rates of specific diseases in flight attendants

  13. Income Inequities in Health Care Utilization among Adults Aged 50 and Older.

    PubMed

    Penning, Margaret J; Zheng, Chi

    2016-03-01

    Equitable access to and utilization of health services is a primary goal for many health care systems, particularly in countries with universal publicly funded systems. Despite concerns regarding potentially adverse implications of the 1990s' health care policy and other reforms, whether and how income inequalities in service utilization changed remains unclear. This study addressed the impact of income on physician and hospital utilization from 1992-2002 among adults aged 50 and older in British Columbia. Those with lower incomes were found less likely to access general practitioner and specialist services but more likely to access hospital services. Income-related disparities in physician care increased over time; hospital care declined. Volume of GP and hospital care was inversely associated with income; these differences increased regarding GP services only. Findings of declines in hospital-care access, accompanied by increasing income-related disparities in physician-services access, show that inequities are increasing within Canada's health care system.

  14. Income Inequities in Health Care Utilization among Adults Aged 50 and Older.

    PubMed

    Penning, Margaret J; Zheng, Chi

    2016-03-01

    Equitable access to and utilization of health services is a primary goal for many health care systems, particularly in countries with universal publicly funded systems. Despite concerns regarding potentially adverse implications of the 1990s' health care policy and other reforms, whether and how income inequalities in service utilization changed remains unclear. This study addressed the impact of income on physician and hospital utilization from 1992-2002 among adults aged 50 and older in British Columbia. Those with lower incomes were found less likely to access general practitioner and specialist services but more likely to access hospital services. Income-related disparities in physician care increased over time; hospital care declined. Volume of GP and hospital care was inversely associated with income; these differences increased regarding GP services only. Findings of declines in hospital-care access, accompanied by increasing income-related disparities in physician-services access, show that inequities are increasing within Canada's health care system. PMID:26757886

  15. [Estimating the age of start of drug abuse in cross-sectional surveys exemplified by the Swiss Health Survey].

    PubMed

    Gmel, G; Rehm, J

    1996-01-01

    This paper is based on data from the first Swiss Health Survey, but deals with a more general problem; the estimation of age of onset in illegal substance consumption. First, it is shown that taking the arithmetic mean for different age-groups as estimator leads to an underestimation of age of onset in the younger groups. Consequently, an alternative method is proposed based on survival models with right censoring. The prediction of age of onset is modeled with nonlinear functions. Results show for cannabis consumption in Switzerland that age of onset did not decrease notably during the past decade.

  16. 75 FR 59723 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Testing Successful Health Communications Surrounding Aging...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... research on aging to the scientific community, health care providers, and the public.'' The primary... audiences--older people, caregivers, and health professionals. Methods will include focus groups,...

  17. Selection of General Growth Outcomes for Children between Birth and Age Eight. Technical Report #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Scott; McEvoy, Mary; Carta, Judith J.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Kaminski, Ruth; Good, Roland H., III; Shinn, Mark; Ysseldyke, James; Goldberg, Paula

    This document reports on development of a comprehensive system for measuring the ongoing development of children with disabilities from birth to age 8. A multi-step process was used to identify a set of general growth outcomes for children in this age range and to begin formulating individualized indicators of growth and development, as well as…

  18. The black aged: a strategy for future mental health services.

    PubMed

    Carter, J H

    1978-12-01

    The younger generation of today will become the elderly of tomorrow. The qualitative differences in life experiences of blacks versus whites lead to differences in the manifestations of emotional problems. Thus the need for a special psychiatric strategy for aged blacks in the future. The problems of blacks, regardless of age, are inextricably linked with beliefs regarding illness, health and institutionalized racism. The many psychiatric ghettoes stemming from the depopulation of mental hospitals reflect poor planning and an obvious disregard for the realities of the whole life situations of elderly blacks. There should be an end to living in squalor and being the victims of muggings, rape and all forms of exploitation. Psychiatry should step forward with some careful and significant plans.

  19. Non-consulters and high consulters in general practice: cardio-respiratory health and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Morris, J K; Cook, D G; Walker, M; Shaper, A G

    1992-06-01

    The 1990 General Practitioner contract requires that health promotion and illness prevention services should be provided to all patients aged 16-74 years. Consultation rates over a period of three years were examined in 7010 middle-aged men in Great Britain to compare the cardio-respiratory health and risk factor status of non-consulters (men who did not consult in three years) with those of average consulters (men who consulted 3-5 times in three years) and high consulters (men who consulted 24 or more times in three years) to assess their relative need for health promotion and illness prevention services. The non-consulters (n = 1025) were remarkably similar to the average consulters (n = 1585) in health and lifestyle characteristics. The high consulters (n = 306) had a greater burden of ill-health and a less healthy lifestyle. Chest pain on exertion, chronic bronchitis, breathlessness or wheeze were present in 23 per cent of non-consulters, 27 per cent of average consulters and over 50 per cent of high consulters. Similarly, 48 per cent of the non-consulters smoked, drank heavily or were obese compared with 47 per cent of the average consulters and 61 per cent of the high consulters. The prevalence of recall of high blood pressure which had been diagnosed by a doctor rose from 6 per cent in non-consulters and 10 per cent in average consulters to 29 per cent in high consulters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1515196

  20. Complementary health care services: a survey of general practitioners' views.

    PubMed Central

    Goldszmidt, M; Levitt, C; Duarte-Franco, E; Kaczorowski, J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the referral practices, perceived usefulness, knowledge, prior training and desire for training of general practitioners (GPs) in Quebec with regard to complementary health care services such as acupuncture, chiropractic and hypnosis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional mail survey. SETTING: Province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 200 GPs. Of the 146 who responded, 25 were excluded because they were no longer in practice; this left 121 (83%). OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported referral practices for complementary health care services, perceived usefulness and self-assessed knowledge of such services, and prior training and desire for training in these services. RESULTS: Sixty percent (72/121) of the GPs knew at least one practitioner of a complementary health care service for referral; 59% (70/119) reported referring patients to physicians who practise such services and 68% (80/118) to nonmedical practitioners. At least one of the three services studied were regarded as having some use by 83% (101/121). Overall, self-reported knowledge was poor: the proportions of GPs who reported knowing a lot about acupuncture, chiropractic and hypnosis were 11% (13/121), 10% (12/121) and 8% (10/121) respectively. Prior training was also lacking: only 8% (9/118) of the GPs had received previous training in acupuncture, 2% (2/111) in chiropractic and 3% (3/103) in hypnosis. In all, 48% (57/118) indicated that they would like further training in at least one of the services studied, and 13% (16/121) indicated that they currently provided one service. CONCLUSIONS: Referral of patients by GPs to practitioners of complementary health care services is common in Quebec. Although self-assessed knowledge about such services is relatively poor, interest in learning more about them is high. These findings identify a demand for future educational initiatives. PMID:7796373

  1. Mental health in young adults and adolescents - supporting general physicians to provide holistic care.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    In the era of an ageing population, young adults on medical wards are quite rare, as only 12% of young adults report a long-term illness or disability. However, mental health problems remain prevalent in the younger population. In a recent report, mental health and obesity were listed as the most common problems in young adults. Teams set up specifically for the needs of younger adults, such as early intervention in psychosis services are shown to work better than traditional care and have also proven to be cost effective. On the medical wards, younger patients may elicit strong emotions in staff, who often feel protective and may identify strongly with the young patient's suffering. In order to provide holistic care for young adults, general physicians need to recognise common presentations of mental illness in young adults such as depression, deliberate self-harm, eating disorders and substance misuse. Apart from treating illness, health promotion is particularly important for young adults.

  2. Internet and Social Media For Health-Related Information and Communication in Health Care: Preferences of the Dutch General Population

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Berben, Sivera AA; Teerenstra, Steven; Samsom, Melvin; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care is increasingly featured by the use of Web 2.0 communication and collaborative technologies that are reshaping the way patients and professionals interact. These technologies or tools can be used for a variety of purposes: to instantly debate issues, discover news, analyze research, network with peers, crowd-source information, seek support, and provide advice. Not all tools are implemented successfully; in many cases, the nonusage attrition rates are high. Little is known about the preferences of the Dutch general population regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Objective To determine the preferences of the general population in the Netherlands regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Methods A cross-sectional survey was disseminated via a popular Dutch online social network. Respondents were asked where they searched for health-related information, how they qualified the value of different sources, and their preferences regarding online communication with health care providers. Results were weighed for the Dutch population based on gender, age, and level of education using official statistics. Numbers and percentages or means and standard deviations were presented for different subgroups. One-way ANOVA was used to test for statistical differences. Results The survey was completed by 635 respondents. The Internet was found to be the number one source for health-related information (82.7%), closely followed by information provided by health care professionals (71.1%). Approximately one-third (32.3%) of the Dutch population search for ratings of health care providers. The most popular information topics were side effects of medication (62.5%) and symptoms (59.7%). Approximately one-quarter of the Dutch population prefer to communicate with a health care provider via social media (25.4%), and 21.2% would like to communicate via a webcam. Conclusions The Internet is the main source of health

  3. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum. PMID:26895999

  4. Age and Socioeconomic Gradients of Health of Indian Adults: An Assessment of Self-Reported and Biological Measures of Health.

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes overall socioeconomic gradients and the age patterns of socioeconomic gradients of health of Indian adults for multiple health indicators encompassing the multiple aspects of health. Cross-sectional data on 11,230 Indians aged 18 years and older from the WHO-SAGE India Wave 1, 2007 were analyzed. Multivariate logit models were estimated to examine effects of socioeconomic status (education and household wealth) and age on four health domains: self-rated health, self-reported functioning, chronic diseases, and biological health measures. Results show that socioeconomic status (SES) was negatively associated with prevalence of each health measure but with considerable heterogeneity across age groups. Results for hypertension and COPD were inconclusive. SES effects are significant while adjusting for background characteristics and health risk factors. The age patterns of SES gradient of health depict divergence with age, however, no conclusive age pattern emerged for biological markers. Overall, results in this paper dispelled the conclusion of negative SES-health association found in some previous Indian studies and reinforced the hypothesis of positive association of SES with health for Indian adults. Higher prevalence of negative health outcomes and SES disparities of health outcomes among older age-groups highlight need for inclusive and focused health care interventions for older adults across socioeconomic spectrum.

  5. Clinical audit of health promotion of vitamin D in one general practice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The clinical audit of vitamin D health promotion in one Australian general practice was undertaken by measuring health service use and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 995 patients aged 45 to 49 years. Findings Over 3 years, 486 (51%) patients had a Medicare funded Health Assessment. More women (54%) were assessed than men (46%) p = 0.010. Mean 25-OHD was higher for men (70.0 nmol/l) than women (60.3 nmol/l) p < 0.001. More patients had their weight measured (50%) than 25-OHD tested (28%). Among 266 patients who had a 25-OHD test, 68 (26%) had normal levels 80+ nmol/l, 109 (41%) were borderline 51-79 nmol/l, and 89 (33%) were low < 51 nmol/l. Mean 25-OHD was higher in summer (73.7 nmol/l) than winter (54.7 nmol/l) p < 0.001. Sending uninvited written information about 25-OHD had no effect on patients' subsequent attendance. Conclusions Health promotion information about vitamin D was provided to 50% of a targeted group of patients over a one-year period. Provision of this information had no effect on the uptake rates of an invitation to attend for a general health assessment. PMID:22462590

  6. Confidentiality for adolescents seeking reproductive health care in Lithuania: the perceptions of general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Levasseur, Gwenola; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2006-05-01

    Confidentiality is a major determinant of the accessibility and acceptability of sexual and reproductive health care for adolescents. Previous research has revealed that Lithuanian adolescents lack confidence in guarantees of confidentiality in primary health care settings. This study aimed to assess the factors that affect general practitioners' decisions whether to respect confidentiality for Lithuanian adolescents under the age of 18. Twenty in-depth interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of general practitioners. The decision whether to respect confidentiality was found to be influenced by external forces, including the legislative framework and societal attitudes towards adolescent sexuality; institutional features in clinical facilities, such as the presence of a nurse during consultations and the openness of the medical record filing system; and individual factors, including GPs' relationships with adolescents' families and their personal attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health issues. The findings reflect the urgent need for a comprehensive policy to ensure adolescents' right to confidentiality in Lithuanian primary care settings, including legislative reforms, institutional changes in health care settings, professional guidelines and (self-)regulation, and changes in medical training and continuing medical education. Other ways to safeguard confidentiality in adolescent health services, such as establishing youth clinics, should also be explored. PMID:16713887

  7. Little Relation of Adult Age with Cognition after Controlling General Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Both general (i.e., shared across different cognitive measures) and specific (i.e., unique to particular cognitive measures) influences can be postulated to contribute to the relations between adult age and measures of cognitive functioning. Estimates of general and specific influences on measures of memory, speed, reasoning, and spatial…

  8. Age and subcultural differences on personal and general beliefs about memory.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Elena; Bottiroli, Sara; Fastame, Maria Chiara; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study examined age and cultural differences on both personal and general beliefs about memory by comparing three age groups within two subcultures belonging to the same country: Milanese and Sardinian. Two innovative instruments on general and personal beliefs with graphic-rating-scale format (General Beliefs about Memory Instrument and Personal Beliefs about Memory Instrument) and a memory task (recall of 40 words) were administrated to participants. Sardinians held more positive attitudes about the effects of aging on memory reporting a later onset of declining memory ability and control over memory across the life span. They were also more optimistic in rating their global memory efficacy, control, and retrospective change. The two subcultural groups differed in terms of memory performance, with Sardinian individuals outperforming the Milanese. Findings are discussed in relation to the view of aging in different subcultural contexts.

  9. General paediatric surgery for patients aged under 5 years: a 5-year experience at a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C-S; Gordon, A C

    2016-09-01

    Introduction The gradual shift of general paediatric surgery (GPS) provision from district general hospitals (DGH) to specialised units is well recognised in the UK. The consequences of centralisation include a reduction in exposure to GPS for current surgical trainees. The GPS practice of a DGH is examined here. Methods All operations performed on children aged under 5 years over a 5-year period were identified using the local electronic operation database. Electronic hospital records and clinic letters were accessed to collect data on demographics, operations performed and outcome measures. Results 472 GPS operations were performed on children between the age of 22 days and 5 years between 2009 and 2014, of which 43 were on an emergency basis and 105 were performed on patients aged less than 1 year. Three patients were admitted following day case surgery. Six patients were readmitted within 30 days. Complication rates for all procedures and the four most common procedures were similar to those found in published literature. Conclusions GPS for patients aged less than 5 years is comparatively safe in the DGH setting. The training opportunities available at DGHs are invaluable to surgical trainees and vital for sustaining the future provision of GPS by such hospitals. PMID:27269243

  10. Probiotics and prebiotics and health in ageing populations.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Sylvia H; Flint, Harry J

    2013-05-01

    In healthy adults microbial communities that colonise different regions of the human colon contribute nutrients and energy to the host via the fermentation of non-digestible dietary components in the large intestine. A delicate balance of microbial species is required to maintain healthy metabolism and immune function. Disturbance in this microbial balance can have negative consequences for health resulting in elevated inflammation and infection, that are contributory factors in diabetes and cancer. There is a growing awareness that the microbial balance in the colon may become increasingly perturbed with aging and therefore hasten the onset of certain diseases. Societal and dietary factors influence microbial community composition both in the short and long term in the elderly (>65 years old) whilst immunosenescence may also be linked to a perturbed distal gut microbiota and frailty in the elderly. Significant progress has been made in defining some of the dominant members of the microbial community in the healthy large intestine and in identifying their roles in metabolism. There is therefore an urgent need for better awareness of the impact of diet, prebiotic and probiotic strategies in driving human colonic microbial composition in order to understand the possibilities for maintaining healthy gut function and well-being in an increasingly elderly population. Here we review gut microbial changes associated with aging and how diet, prebiotics and probiotics may modulate the gut microbiota to maintain health in the elderly. PMID:23489554

  11. A Primrose Path? Moderating Effects of Age and Gender in the Association between Green Space and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Elisabeth H.; van der Meulen, Leon; Wichers, Marieke; Jeronimus, Bertus F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored whether the association between green space and mental health is moderated by age and gender. Questionnaires on psychopathology and quality of life were filled out by 4924 individuals from the general Dutch population and regressed on greenness levels. Green space was associated with better mental health, but only in specific age and gender groups, and only in a 3 km, not a 1 km buffer. The moderating effects of age and gender may be explained by whether or not people have the opportunity to make use of their green living environment. PMID:27187428

  12. A Primrose Path? Moderating Effects of Age and Gender in the Association between Green Space and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Bos, Elisabeth H; van der Meulen, Leon; Wichers, Marieke; Jeronimus, Bertus F

    2016-05-11

    This paper explored whether the association between green space and mental health is moderated by age and gender. Questionnaires on psychopathology and quality of life were filled out by 4924 individuals from the general Dutch population and regressed on greenness levels. Green space was associated with better mental health, but only in specific age and gender groups, and only in a 3 km, not a 1 km buffer. The moderating effects of age and gender may be explained by whether or not people have the opportunity to make use of their green living environment.

  13. A Primrose Path? Moderating Effects of Age and Gender in the Association between Green Space and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Bos, Elisabeth H; van der Meulen, Leon; Wichers, Marieke; Jeronimus, Bertus F

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored whether the association between green space and mental health is moderated by age and gender. Questionnaires on psychopathology and quality of life were filled out by 4924 individuals from the general Dutch population and regressed on greenness levels. Green space was associated with better mental health, but only in specific age and gender groups, and only in a 3 km, not a 1 km buffer. The moderating effects of age and gender may be explained by whether or not people have the opportunity to make use of their green living environment. PMID:27187428

  14. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Venkataraam; Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Managoli, Noopur A; Gugawad, Sachin C; Hitesh, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was planned to assess the dental caries status among disabled children as dental health is an integral part of general body health and this group is deprived of health care needs. Materials & Methods: A sample of 310 disabled children was gathered including 195- Hearing impaired, 115 – blind. Of which 226 were males and 84 were females. A study questionnaire was prepared to include demographic information and WHO oral health assessment form (1997) to record dental caries status.Data was analysed using student’s test and ANOVA test was used at p≤0.05. Results: The overall mean for DMFT scores for males and females was 2.11 (1.753) and 1.75 (1.275) respectively. Similarly overall mean for dft was 0.31 (0.254) for males and 0.27 (0.143) for females. Mean DMFT of blind students was more as compared to hearing impaired ones as 2.16 (2.005) and 1.80 (1.264) respectively. Age factor showed a significant increase in the mean DMFT scores with advancing age at p ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: Overall mean scores of caries was very high and it increased with increasing age. Blind children experienced more caries then hearing impaired children in permanent, whereas it was opposite in primary dentition. So there is urgent need of both comprehensive and incremental dental care for this subgroup of population. How to cite the article: Sanjay V, Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Managoli NA, Gugawad SC, Hitesh D. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):55-8. PMID:24653604

  15. Do Out-of-Pocket Health Expenditures Rise with Age Among Older Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Relationships are examined between age and out-of-pocket costs for different health goods and services among the older population. Design and Methods: Age patterns in health service use and out-of-pocket costs are examined by use of the 1990 Elderly Health Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,031, age 66+). Multivariate…

  16. Norovirus epidemiology in community and health care settings and association with patient age, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Franck, Kristina T; Fonager, Jannik; Ersbøll, Annette K; Böttiger, Blenda

    2014-07-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of gastroenteritis. NoV genotype II.4 (GII.4) is the predominant genotype in health care settings but the reason for this finding is unknown. Stool samples containing isolates with a known NoV genotype from 2,109 patients in Denmark (patients consulting a general practitioner or outpatient clinic, inpatients, and patients from foodborne outbreaks) were used to determine genotype distribution in relation to age and setting. NoV GII.4 was more prevalent among inpatients than among patients in community settings or those who became infected during foodborne outbreaks. In community and health care settings, we found an association between infection with GII.4 and increasing age. Norovirus GII.4 predominated in patients ≥ 60 years of age and in health care settings. A larger proportion of children than adults were infected with NoV GII.3 or GII.P21. Susceptibility to NoV infection might depend on patient age and infecting NoV genotype. Cohort studies are warranted to test this hypothesis.

  17. Norovirus Epidemiology in Community and Health Care Settings and Association with Patient Age, Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Fonager, Jannik; Ersbøll, Annette K.; Böttiger, Blenda

    2014-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of gastroenteritis. NoV genotype II.4 (GII.4) is the predominant genotype in health care settings but the reason for this finding is unknown. Stool samples containing isolates with a known NoV genotype from 2,109 patients in Denmark (patients consulting a general practitioner or outpatient clinic, inpatients, and patients from foodborne outbreaks) were used to determine genotype distribution in relation to age and setting. NoV GII.4 was more prevalent among inpatients than among patients in community settings or those who became infected during foodborne outbreaks. In community and health care settings, we found an association between infection with GII.4 and increasing age. Norovirus GII.4 predominated in patients ≥60 years of age and in health care settings. A larger proportion of children than adults were infected with NoV GII.3 or GII.P21. Susceptibility to NoV infection might depend on patient age and infecting NoV genotype. Cohort studies are warranted to test this hypothesis. PMID:24960024

  18. Stability of Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Factors and Their Relation to General Mental Health Problems in Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygaard, Egil; Jensen, Tine K.; Dyb, Grete

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the structure of posttraumatic stress reaction factors and their relation to general mental health problems in Norwegian children exposed to the tsunami on December 26, 2004. A total of 133 children and adolescents (ages 6-17) were interviewed 10 months posttsunami using the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index, and 104…

  19. Ageing, Health and Life Satisfaction of the Oldest Old: An Analysis for Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    This analysis uses data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and the Survey on Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe to assess the effect of ageing and health on the life satisfaction of the oldest old (defined as 75 and older). We observe a U-shaped relationship between age and levels of life satisfaction for individuals aged between 16 and 65.…

  20. Health promotion for educators: impact on health behaviors, satisfaction, and general well-being.

    PubMed Central

    Blair, S N; Collingwood, T R; Reynolds, R; Smith, M; Hagan, R D; Sterling, C L

    1984-01-01

    A random sample of 117 teachers in three treatment schools and one control school participated in a health survey at the beginning and end of the spring semester. Teachers in the treatment schools participated in a 10-week health promotion program which emphasized exercise, stress management, and nutrition. Comparison of pre- and post-survey data indicated that teachers in the treatment schools increased their participation in vigorous exercise, improved their physical fitness, lost weight, lowered their blood pressure, reported a higher level of general well-being, and were better able to handle job stress. PMID:6691526

  1. Missing Oral Health-Related Data in the interRAI-HC - Associations with Selected Variables of General Health and the Effect of Multiple Imputation on the Relationship between Oral and General Health

    PubMed Central

    Lesaffre, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Missing data within the comprehensive geriatric assessment of the interRAI suite of assessment instruments potentially imply the under-detection of conditions that require care as well as the risk of biased statistical results. Impaired oral health in older individuals has to be registered accurately as it causes pain and discomfort and is related to the general health status. Objective This study was based on interRAI-Home Care (HC) baseline data from 7590 subjects (mean age 81.2 years, SD 6.9) in Belgium. It was investigated if missingness of the oral health-related items was associated with selected variables of general health. It was also determined if multiple imputation of missing data affected the associations between oral and general health. Materials and Methods Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine if the prevalence of missingness in the oral health-related variables was associated with activities of daily life (ADLH), cognitive performance (CPS2) and depression (DRS). Associations between oral health and ADLH, CPS2 and DRS were determined, with missing data treated by 1. the complete-case technique and 2. by multiple imputation, and results were compared. Results The individual oral health-related variables had a similar proportion of missing values, ranging from 16.3% to 17.2%. The prevalence of missing data in all oral health-related variables was significantly associated with symptoms of depression (dental prosthesis use OR 1.66, CI 1.41–1.95; damaged teeth OR 1.74, CI 1.48–2.04; chewing problems OR 1.74, CI 1.47–2.05; dry mouth OR 1.65, CI 1.40–1.94). Missingness in damaged teeth (OR 1.27, CI 1.08–1.48), chewing problems (OR 1.22, CI 1.04–1.44) and dry mouth (OR 1.23, CI 1.05–1.44) occurred more frequently in cognitively impaired subjects. ADLH was not associated with the prevalence of missing data. When comparing the complete-case technique with the multiple imputation approach, nearly identical odds ratios

  2. 45 CFR 164.502 - Uses and disclosures of protected health information: general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Uses and disclosures of protected health information: general rules. 164.502 Section 164.502 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Health Information § 164.502 Uses and disclosures of protected health information: general rules....

  3. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  4. Health in middle-aged and elderly women: A conceptual framework for healthy menopause.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke-Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M Carola; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the concept of healthy menopause exists, despite its recognized importance. Therefore, we aimed to: (i) characterize healthy menopause; (ii) identify aspects that contribute to it; and (iii) explore potential approaches to measure it. We propose healthy menopause as a dynamic state, following the permanent loss of ovarian function, which is characterized by self-perceived satisfactory physical, psychological and social functioning, incorporating disease and disability, allowing the attainment of a woman's desired ability to adapt and capacity to self-manage. The concept of healthy menopause applies to all women from the moment they enter the menopausal transition, up until they reach early and late postmenopause and includes women with spontaneous, iatrogenic, and premature menopause. This conceptualization can be considered as a further step in the maintenance and improvement of health in menopausal women from different perspectives, foremost the woman's own perspective, followed by the clinical, public health, and societal perspectives, and can be seen as a further step in delineating lines for future research. Furthermore, it could facilitate the improvement of adequate preventive and treatment strategies, guide scientific efforts, and aid education and communication to health care practitioners and the general public, allowing women the achievement of their potential and the fulfillment of their fundamental role in society.

  5. Health consequences of using smokeless tobacco: summary of the Advisory Committee's report to the Surgeon General.

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, J W; Blot, W; Henningfield, J; Boyd, G; Mecklenburg, R; Massey, M M

    1986-01-01

    On March 25, 1986, the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service released a report that detailed the results of the first comprehensive, indepth review of the relationship between smokeless tobacco use and health. This review, prepared under the auspices of the Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on the Health Consequences of Using Smokeless Tobacco, is summarized in this article. In the United States, smokeless tobacco is used predominantly in the forms of chewing tobacco and snuff. During the past 20 years, the production and consumption of these products have risen significantly in marked contrast to the decline in smokeless tobacco use during the first half of the century. National estimates indicate that more than 12 million persons age 12 and older in the United States used some form of smokeless tobacco in 1985, and half of these were regular users. The highest rates of smokeless tobacco use occurred among adolescent and young adult males. Examination of the relevant epidemiologic, experimental, and clinical data revealed that oral use of smokeless tobacco is a significant health risk. This behavior can cause cancer in humans, and the evidence is strongest for cancer of the oral cavity, particularly at the site of tobacco placement. Smokeless tobacco use can also lead to the development of noncancerous oral conditions, particularly, oral leukoplakias and gingival recession. Further, the levels of nicotine in the body resulting from smokeless tobacco can lead to nicotine addiction and dependence. PMID:3090602

  6. Mechanisms of yogic practices in health, aging, and disease.

    PubMed

    Kuntsevich, Viktoriya; Bushell, William C; Theise, Neil D

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying the modulating effects of yogic cognitive-behavioral practices (eg, meditation, yoga asanas, pranayama breathing, caloric restriction) on human physiology can be classified into 4 transduction pathways: humoral factors, nervous system activity, cell trafficking, and bioelectromagnetism. Here we give examples of these transduction pathways and how, through them, yogic practices might optimize health, delay aging, and ameliorate chronic illness and stress from disability. We also recognize that most studies of these mechanisms remain embedded in a reductionist paradigm, investigating small numbers of elements of only 1 or 2 pathways. Moreover, often, subjects are not long-term practitioners, but recently trained. The models generated from such data are, in turn, often limited, top-down, without the explanatory power to describe beneficial effects of long-term practice or to provide foundations for comparing one practice to another. More flexible and useful models require a systems-biology approach to gathering and analysis of data. Such a paradigm is needed to fully appreciate the deeper mechanisms underlying the ability of yogic practice to optimize health, delay aging, and speed efficient recovery from injury or disease. In this regard, 3 different, not necessarily competing, hypotheses are presented to guide design of future investigations, namely, that yogic practices may: (1) promote restoration of physiologic setpoints to normal after derangements secondary to disease or injury, (2) promote homeostatic negative feedback loops over nonhomeostatic positive feedback loops in molecular and cellular interactions, and (3) quench abnormal "noise" in cellular and molecular signaling networks arising from environmental or internal stresses.

  7. Infusing Oral Health Care into Nursing Curriculum: Addressing Preventive Health in Aging and Disability

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Joan Earle; FitzGerald, Leah; Markham, Young Kee; Glassman, Paul; Guenther, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Access to oral health care is essential for promoting and maintaining overall health and well-being, yet oral health disparities exist among vulnerable and underserved populations. While nurses make up the largest portion of the health care work force, educational preparation to address oral health needs of elders and persons with disabilities is limited across nursing curricula. This descriptive study reports on the interdisciplinary development, implementation, and testing of an oral health module that was included and infused into a graduate nursing curriculum in a three-phase plan. Phase 1 includes evaluation of a lecture presented to eight gerontological nurse practitioner (GNP) students. Phase 2 includes evaluation of GNP students' perceptions of learning, skills, and confidence following a one-time 8-hour practicum infused into 80 required practicum hours. The evaluation data show promise in preparing nurse practitioner students to assess and address preventive oral health needs of persons aging with disabilities such that further infusion and inclusion in a course for nurse practitioners across five specialties will implemented and tested in Phase 3. PMID:22619708

  8. Violence Affects Physical and Mental Health Differently: The General Population Based Tromsø Study

    PubMed Central

    Friborg, Oddgeir; Emaus, Nina; Rosenvinge, Jan H.; Bilden, Unni; Olsen, Jan Abel; Pettersen, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    This general population-based study examined associations between violence and mental health, musculoskeletal pain, and early disability pension. The prevalence and consequences of good vs. poor adjustment (resilience vs. vulnerability) following encounters with violence were also examined. Data were based on the sixth wave of the “Tromsø Study” (N = 12,981; 65.7% response rate, 53.4% women, M-age = 57.5 years, SD-age = 12.7 years). Self-reported data on psychological (threats) and physical violence (beaten/kicked), mental health (anxiety/depression), musculoskeletal pain (MSP), and granting of disability pension (DP) were collected. Men suffered more violent events during childhood than women did, and vice versa during adulthood. Psychological violence implied poorer mental health and slightly more MSP than physical violence. The risk of MSP was highest for violence occurring during childhood in women and during the last year for men. A dose-response relationship between an increasing number of violent encounters and poorer health was observed. About 58% of individuals reported no negative impact of violence (hence, resilience group), whereas 42% considered themselves as more vulnerable following encounters with violence. Regression analyses indicated comparable mental health but slightly more MSP in the resilience group compared to the unexposed group, whereas the vulnerable group had significantly worse health overall and a higher risk of early granting of DP. Resilience is not an all-or-nothing matter, as physical ailments may characterize individuals adapting well following encounters with violence. PMID:26317970

  9. The Effect of Intimate Partner Violence on Mental Health Status among Women of Reproductive Ages: A Population-Based Study in a Middle Anatolian City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nur, Naim

    2012-01-01

    Violence against women has been recognized as both a major public health problem and a human rights violation worldwide. Research has documented the association between physical/sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health, measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among women in reproductive age. This study…

  10. Justice System Involvement Into Young Adulthood: Comparison of Adolescent Girls in the Public Mental Health System and in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, William H.; Gershenson, Bernice; Grudzinskas, Albert J.; Banks, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    We compared arrest onset and frequency and types of charges between a statewide cohort of adolescent girls in the public mental health system and girls of the same age in the general population to investigate important differences that could have policy or intervention implications. Girls in the public mental health system were arrested at earlier ages more frequently and were charged with more serious offenses than were girls in the general population. Our results strongly argue for cooperation between the public mental health and justice systems to provide mental health and offender rehabilitation in their shared population. PMID:19059845

  11. Role of walnuts in maintaining brain health with age.

    PubMed

    Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    Because of the combination of population growth and population aging, increases in the incidence of chronic neurodegenerative disorders have become a societal concern, both in terms of decreased quality of life and increased financial burden. Clinical manifestation of many of these disorders takes years, with the initiation of mild cognitive symptoms leading to behavioral problems, dementia and loss of motor functions, the need for assisted living, and eventual death. Lifestyle factors greatly affect the progression of cognitive decline, with high-risk behaviors including unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, smoking, and exposure to environmental toxins leading to enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. Although there exists an urgent need to develop effective treatments for age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disease, prevention strategies have been underdeveloped. Primary prevention in many of these neurodegenerative diseases could be achieved earlier in life by consuming a healthy diet, rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals, which offers one of the most effective and least expensive ways to address the crisis. English walnuts (Juglans regia L.) are rich in numerous phytochemicals, including high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and offer potential benefits to brain health. Polyphenolic compounds found in walnuts not only reduce the oxidant and inflammatory load on brain cells but also improve interneuronal signaling, increase neurogenesis, and enhance sequestration of insoluble toxic protein aggregates. Evidence for the beneficial effects of consuming a walnut-rich diet is reviewed in this article. PMID:24500933

  12. [Is it possible to reduce health inequalities in old age?].

    PubMed

    Michel, Jean-Pierre; Herrmann, François; Zekry, Dina

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of prospective data collected between 1984 and 2008 by the CERN medical team (European Centre of Nuclear Research, Geneva) concerning 2040 former employees who were retired or had died stimulated our interest on the impact of inequalities in socioeconomic conditions, employment, lifestyle and classical risk factors on health and life expectancy. Such inequalities explain differences in life expectancy, potentially reaching several decades, between rich and poor countries (France vs Swaziland), but also within a given country (USA), a given city (Glasgow) or even a given enterprise (CERN) where all employees have the same level of healthcare insurance and access to treatment. Classical cardiovascular and neurovascular risk factors (smoking, arterial hypertension and lipid disorders) interact with socioeconomic status, intelligence, education, emotions and job responsibility/complexity, precipitating or preventing cardiovascular events. The same is true of dementia, for which midlife risk factors (obesity, arterial hypertension and hypercholesterolemia) should be considered in the psychosocioeconomic context, which influences cognitive reserves and thus affects the risk and severity of dementia in old age. Thus, in addition to lifestyle and classical risk factors, socioeconomic status appears as a major health determinant, by imposing behaviors and habits and by determining access to healthcare. PMID:23259343

  13. Health status of cloned cattle at different ages.

    PubMed

    Chavatte-Palmer, P; Remy, D; Cordonnier, N; Richard, C; Issenman, H; Laigre, P; Heyman, Y; Mialot, J-P

    2004-01-01

    The procedure of somatic cloning is associated with important losses during pregnancy and in the perinatal period, reducing the overall efficacy to less than 5% in most cases. A mean of 30% of the cloned calves die before reaching 6 months of age with a wide range of pathologies, including, for the most common, respiratory failure, abnormal kidney development, liver steatosis. Heart and liver weight in relation to body weight are also increased. Surviving animals, although mostly clinically normal, differ from controls obtained by artificial insemination (AI) within the first 1-2 months, to become undistinguishable from them thereafter. Hemoglobin concentrations, for instance, are lower, and leptin concentrations are elevated. In response to the lack of prospective studies addressing the health of adult clones, a long-term, 3-4-year study is currently being conducted to assess the health of mature bovine clones at INRA. Preliminary results over 1 year of study do not show any statistical difference between groups for hematological parameters. PMID:15268782

  14. Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship With General Health Among the Students of University of Guilan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farrahi, Hassan; Kafi, Seyed Mousa; Karimi, Tamjid; Delazar, Robabeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Particularly, this concept has used for examination of its empact on health of various people groups. Given the importance of students' health, this study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and general health. Objectives: The concept of emotional intelligence has attracted growing interest from researchers working in various fields. This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and general health. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 136 students were selected from the University of Guilan, north of Iran, using simple random sampling. The subjects completed the Schutte self-report emotional intelligence test and general health questionnaire. Results: The results showed a significant correlation between emotional intelligence and general health. Also, results indicated that emotional perception and emotional utilization are predictors of general health. Conclusions: The findings reflect that emotional intelligence can play an important role in general health. PMID:26576167

  15. Young People's Perceptions of Mental and Physical Health in the Context of General Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singletary, Joanne H.; Bartle, Craig L.; Svirydzenka, Nadzeya; Suter-Giorgini, Nicola M.; Cashmore, Annette M.; Dogra, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Increased recognition of the need for health education in schools has seen advances in health literacy in recent years. Most of these have focussed on physical health, whereas education about mental health is generally lacking and focussed on tackling stigma rather than promoting good mental health. This study evaluated a pilot…

  16. Medicare: Comparison of Catastrophic Health Insurance Proposals. Briefing Report to the Chairman, Select Committee on Aging, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    In response to a request from the chairman of the Congressional Select Committee on Aging, the General Accounting Office (GAO) investigated the potential effects of legislative proposals to provide catastrophic coverage to Medicare beneficiaries on beneficiaries' out-of-pocket health care expenses. The GAO reviewed GAO and other reports to…

  17. BMI-specific waist circumference is better than skinfolds for health-risk determination in the general population.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Clarke, Janine; Roy, Joel; Fowles, Jonathon

    2015-02-01

    Distribution of fat is important when considering health risk; however, the value added from skinfold measurements (SKF) when using body mass index (BMI) refined by waist circumference (WC) is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of SKF compared with WC in determination of health risk in the general population. Data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (cycles 1 and 2; N = 5217) were used. Health outcomes included directly measured blood pressure, cholesterol, glycated haemoglobin, lung function, self-reported health, and chronic conditions. Technical errors of measurements (TEM), sensitivity, and specificity analysis and linear regressions were conducted. Data indicated that TEM for SKF was above the acceptable 5% in most age and sex categories. Sensitivity and specificity of chronic conditions was not improved with the inclusion of SKF in models containing WC (in those aged 45-69 years) and SKF did not explain any additional variance in regression models containing WC. Health outcomes for those in the normal weight and overweight BMI category were significantly worse in those classified as high risk based on WC, whereas SKF did not consistently discriminate risk. In conclusion, evidence-based WC cut-points were shown to identify health risk, particularly in normal weight and overweight individuals. Thus, BMI refined by WC appears to be more appropriate than SKF for assessment of body composition when determining health risk in the general population. PMID:25591950

  18. Experiences of drug use and ageing: health, quality of life, relationship and service implications

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Brenda; Beynon, Caryl; Pickering, Lucy; Duffy, Paul

    2010-01-01

    roe b., beynon c., pickering l. & duffy p. (2010)Experiences of drug use and ageing: health, quality of life, relationship and service implications. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(9), 1968–1979. Aim This paper is a report of an exploration of older people’s experiences of substance use in the context of ageing, and its impact on health, quality of life, relationships and service use. Background Use of illicit drugs by older people is a neglected policy, research and service provision and is generally perceived as a lifestyle of younger populations. Method A convenience sample of 11 people aged 49–61 years (mean 57 years) in contact with voluntary sector drug treatment services participated in qualitative semi-structured tape-recorded interviews and thematic content analysis was performed. The data were collected in 2008. Findings Drug use can have negative impacts on health status, quality of life, family relationships and social networks that accrue with age. Participants were identified as early or later onset users of drugs due to the impact of life events and relationships. A range of substances had been used currently and throughout their lives, with no single gateway drug identified as a prelude to personal drug careers. Life review and reflection were common, in keeping with ageing populations, along with regret of ever having started to use drugs. Living alone and their accommodation made them more susceptible to social isolation, and they reported experiences of death and dying of their contemporaries and family members earlier than usual in the life course. Conclusion Older people who continue to use drugs and require the support of services for treatment and care are an important emerging population and their specific needs should recognized. PMID:20626477

  19. Health-related quality of life in old age: preliminary report on the male perspective.

    PubMed

    Deck, R; Kohlmann, T; Jordan, M

    2002-06-01

    Health-related quality of life is a key element of successful aging. With life expectancy increasing, postmenopausal estrogen/gestagen replacement therapy has been under discussion for some time with the aim of achieving a higher quality of life in old age. For a long time, the relevance of hormonal aging was only discussed with reference to women; however, more recent work deals with concepts that affect both sexes. According to recent studies, numerous symptoms and complaints which may impair quality of life, can be attributed to hormonal changes in old age in both women and men. The majority of age-related complaints, such as a decline in physical performance, decreased sexual activity and a deterioration of general well-being, are strongly reminiscent of the symptoms of classical pituitary disorders in adulthood. Since the early 1990s, scientific studies have also been investigating the influence of hormone 'replacement' in elderly men, using, for example, growth hormones. However, until now there has been no suitable measure for assessing the quality of life specifically in elderly men. In a research project aimed at developing a questionnaire (the VITA questionnaire), roughly equal numbers of elderly men and women were asked about their subjective health and quality of life. It was found that men assessed their health-related quality of life very positively in a number of different dimensions of the questionnaire. In the present article the individual aspects of the quality of life of men are described and examples of gender-related differences are presented and discussed. PMID:12198739

  20. Trajectories of gambling problems from mid-adolescence to age 30 in a general population cohort.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, René; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    Studies of gambling starting before adulthood in the general population are either cross-sectional, based on the stability of these behaviors between 2 time points, or cover a short developmental period. The present study aimed at investigating the developmental trajectories of gambling problems across 3 key periods of development, mid-adolescence, early adulthood, and age 30, in a mixed-gender cohort from the general population. Using a semiparametric mixture model, trajectories were computed based on self-reports collected at ages 15 (N = 1,882), 22 (N = 1,785), and 30 (N = 1,358). Two distinct trajectories were identified: 1 trajectory including males and females who were unlikely to have experienced gambling problems across the 15-year period, and 1 trajectory including participants likely to have experienced at least 1 problem over the last 12 months at each time of assessment. Participants following a high trajectory were predominantly male, participated frequently in 3 to 4 different gambling activities, and were more likely to report substance use and problems related to their alcohol and drug consumption at age 30. Thus, gambling problems in the general population are already observable at age 15 in a small group of individuals, who maintain some level of these problems through early adulthood, before moderately but significantly desisting by age 30, while also experiencing other addictive behaviors and related problems. PMID:26168229

  1. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  2. Innovations in Student-Centered Interdisciplinary Teaching for General Education in Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Effros, Rita

    2008-01-01

    The University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) General Education "Clusters" are innovations in student-centered undergraduate education focused on complex phenomena that require an interdisciplinary perspective. UCLA gerontology and geriatric faculty recognized the opportunity to introduce freshmen to the field of aging through this new…

  3. Effects of Social Capital on General Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Ayano

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of social capital as a potential factor in understanding the controversial relationship between income inequality and individual health status, arguing a positive, important role for social capital. Most of the health research literature focuses on individual health status and reveals that social capital increases individual health. However, the difficulty in measuring social capital, together with what may be the nearly impossible task of attributing causality, should relegate the concept to a more theoretical role in health research. Nonetheless, social capital receives academic attention as a potentially important factor in health research. This paper finds that the mixed results of empirical research on income inequality and health status remain a problem in the context of defining a stable relationship between socioeconomic status and health status. Clearly, further research is needed to elaborate on the income inequality and health relationship. In addition, focused, rigorous examination of social capital in a health context is needed before health researchers can comfortably introduce it as a concept of influence or significance. PMID:24762345

  4. Motivational effect of cholesterol measurement in general practice health checks.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, I; Phillips, A; Mant, D; Thorogood, M; Fowler, G; Fuller, A; Yudkin, P; Woods, M

    1992-01-01

    A randomized trial was conducted in five general practices in and around Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire to assess the motivational effect of cholesterol measurement on compliance with advice to reduce dietary fat intake and to stop smoking. The advice was given by practice nurses during health checks for cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 578 patients were recruited to the study and randomized into two groups. Both groups were given the same advice and were followed up after a median of three months, but the intervention group was also given immediate feedback on their cholesterol concentration. Follow up was completed for 88.2% of subjects, and those who were not followed up were assumed not to have changed their behaviour. The mean fall in total cholesterol at follow up was 0.11 mmol l-1 (95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.18) in the intervention group who were told their cholesterol result and 0.02 mmol l-1 (95% CI -0.06 to 0.10) in the control group who were not. The proportion of smokers who were not smoking at follow up was 10.7% and 10.1% in the two groups, respectively. Patients in the intervention group with an initial total cholesterol level of 6.50 mmol l-1 or greater showed a mean fall of 6.2% in cholesterol level whereas those with an initial cholesterol level of less than 5.20 mmol l-1 experienced a mean increase of 3.6%, but as differences of this magnitude were also seen in the control group they probably reflect regression to the mean rather than an effect of knowledge of cholesterol level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1472394

  5. Comparison of Health Locus of Control between Physicians and the General Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokuda, Y.; Okubo, T.; Yanai, H.; Jacobs, J.; Ohde, S.; Takahashi, O.; Omata, F.; Hinohara, S.; Fukui, T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Health locus of control (HLC) is associated with health behaviours. We aimed to investigate the difference of HLC to understand the potential gap in health beliefs between physicians and the general public. Design and setting: Physicians and the general public were surveyed in Japan using a cross-sectional survey. Data on the Japanese…

  6. Active sensors for health monitoring of aging aerospace structures

    SciTech Connect

    GIURGIUTIU,VICTOR; REDMOND,JAMES M.; ROACH,DENNIS P.; RACKOW,KIRK A.

    2000-03-08

    A project to develop non-intrusive active sensors that can be applied on existing aging aerospace structures for monitoring the onset and progress of structural damage (fatigue cracks and corrosion) is presented. The state of the art in active sensors structural health monitoring and damage detection is reviewed. Methods based on (a) elastic wave propagation and (b) electro-mechanical (NM) impedance technique are sighted and briefly discussed. The instrumentation of these specimens with piezoelectric active sensors is illustrated. The main detection strategies (E/M impedance for local area detection and wave propagation for wide area interrogation) are discussed. The signal processing and damage interpretation algorithms are tuned to the specific structural interrogation method used. In the high-frequency EIM impedance approach, pattern recognition methods are used to compare impedance signatures taken at various time intervals and to identify damage presence and progression from the change in these signatures. In the wave propagation approach, the acoustic-ultrasonic methods identifying additional reflection generated from the damage site and changes in transmission velocity and phase are used. Both approaches benefit from the use of artificial intelligence neural networks algorithms that can extract damage features based on a learning process. Design and fabrication of a set of structural specimens representative of aging aerospace structures is presented. Three built-up specimens, (pristine, with cracks, and with corrosion damage) are used. The specimen instrumentation with active sensors fabricated at the University of South Carolina is illustrated. Preliminary results obtained with the E/M impedance method on pristine and cracked specimens are presented.

  7. Active sensors for health monitoring of aging aerospace structures

    SciTech Connect

    GIURGIUTIU,VICTOR; REDMOND,JAMES M.; ROACH,DENNIS P.; RACKOW,KIRK A.

    2000-02-29

    A project to develop non-intrusive active sensors that can be applied on existing aging aerospace structures for monitoring the onset and progress of structural damage (fatigue cracks and corrosion) is presented. The state of the art in active sensors structural health monitoring and damage detection is reviewed. Methods based on (a) elastic wave propagation and (b) electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance technique are cited and briefly discussed. The instrumentation of these specimens with piezoelectric active sensors is illustrated. The main detection strategies (E/M impedance for local area detection and wave propagation for wide area interrogation) are discussed. The signal processing and damage interpretation algorithms are tuned to the specific structural interrogation method used. In the high-frequency E/M impedance approach, pattern recognition methods are used to compare impedance signatures taken at various time intervals and to identify damage presence and progression from the change in these signatures. In the wave propagation approach, the acousto-ultrasonic methods identifying additional reflection generated from the damage site and changes in transmission velocity and phase are used. Both approaches benefit from the use of artificial intelligence neural networks algorithms that can extract damage features based on a learning process. Design and fabrication of a set of structural specimens representative of aging aerospace structures is presented. Three built-up specimens (pristine, with cracks, and with corrosion damage) are used. The specimen instrumentation with active sensors fabricated at the University of South Carolina is illustrated. Preliminary results obtained with the E/M impedance method on pristine and cracked specimens are presented.

  8. Relationships among Age, Exercise, Health, and Cognitive Function in a British Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Charles F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates the association of age, self-rated health, and walking activity with 4 measures of cognitive functioning in 6,979 randomly selected people ranging in age from 18 to 94. Assessments included a face-to-face interview regarding health and health beliefs as well as cognitive testing. Analyses indicated that faster reaction time speed was…

  9. Differences in Affective and Behavioral Health-Related Variables Associated with Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausell, R. Barker; Soeken, Karen L.

    Although considerable data exist linking individual lifestyle variables to health outcomes, little is known about how the elderly differ from younger adults with respect to both their health seeking behavior and their beliefs about health. A national survey contrasted 155 persons aged 65 years of age or older with 1100 younger adults in order to…

  10. The relation between overweight and subjective health according to age, social class, slimming behavior and smoking habits in Dutch adults.

    PubMed Central

    Seidell, J C; Bakx, K C; Deurenberg, P; Burema, J; Hautvast, J G; Huygen, F J

    1986-01-01

    Subjective health status was assessed in relation to overweight by administering a list of 51 health complaints to adult men and women who were either chronically overweight as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) or not overweight, in a continuous morbidity registration in four general practices during the period 1967-83. Responses were received from 455 men (182 overweight) and 790 women (386 overweight), ages 26-66 years. Response rate (71 per cent) and age distribution (mean age 48) were similar in overweight and non-overweight groups of both sexes. BMI was correlated with the total number of complaints in women (r = 0.15) but not in men (r = 0.07). Multiple regression analysis revealed, however, that age was an effect modifier in this relation, there being a negative association between BMI and subjective health in younger men and a positive association in older men, whereas in women the association between BMI and subjective health was much more pronounced at younger ages than at older ages. In addition, current smoking habits and social class (in men and women) and reported slimming behavior (in women) had an independent relation to the total number of health complaints. BMI was also related to specific complaints and groups of complaints, particularly in women. PMID:3777287

  11. Mapping interventions that promote mental health in the general population: A scoping review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Enns, Jennifer; Holmqvist, Maxine; Wener, Pamela; Halas, Gayle; Rothney, Janet; Schultz, Annette; Goertzen, Leah; Katz, Alan

    2016-06-01

    Health policies and programs promoting mental health or preventing mental illness in the general public are under-recognized facets of primary prevention. Increasing awareness and adoption of such strategies could reduce the burden of mental illness in individuals, families, communities, and society as whole. We conducted a scoping review of reviews of interventions to promote mental health or prevent mental illness. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL and ERIC from 2004 to 2014. Reviews were included if the authors indicated a systematic approach in their literature searches, and if they comprised interventions in Westernized countries targeting the general population. We identified 39 reviews that met the inclusion criteria. Mental health intervention approaches and outcomes varied across age groups and settings, and included functional, social, and cognitive measures. Most interventions aimed to prevent a specific mental illness or symptoms (depression, anxiety, burnout, or stress). Cognitive-behavioral therapy and educational components were common. School-based programs focused on outcomes involving social and academic development. Interventions for families, especially for young or disadvantaged parents, taught parenting skills to help improve the well-being of children and their care-givers. In the workplace, the focus was on managing stress, while programs for the elderly emphasized quality of life determinants. This review summarizes a wide variety of interventions to promote mental health or prevent mental illness, but the literature is primarily focused on the individual or family unit. More information is required about interventions at the community and societal levels. PMID:26896634

  12. Investigation of the self-reported health and health-related behaviours of Victorian mothers of school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; Lalor, Aislinn; Farnworth, Louise; Pallant, Julie F; Knightbridge, Elizabeth; McLelland, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle may influence many health-related issues currently facing Australian women. The extent to which women with school-aged children attend to their own health is unknown and the associations between health behaviours and health status requires investigation. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of health behaviours (alcohol consumption, health-promoting activities) and their impact on self-reported health (weight, sleep quality, mental health) among mothers of school-aged children in Victoria. Mail-out survey design (n=263) including the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) and Health Promoting Activities Scale was used to explore issues. The results indicated that substantial numbers of mothers reported moderate to extreme DASS scores: depression (n=45, 17%); anxiety (n=41, 15.6%); stress (n=57, 21.7%). The majority participated in physical activity less often than daily. High rates of daily alcohol use (20%) and poor sleep quality were reported. Nearly one-half (n=114, 46%) of the sample were overweight or obese and also reported poorer mental health than other women in the sample (P<0.001). Significant associations were detected between maternal weight, mental health and participation in health-promoting activities. The findings indicate that there is a need for increased health education and services for women with school-aged children. Direct services and population-based health promotion strategies may be required to address healthy lifestyle issues and educate mothers about the possible health legacy of poor health behaviours. PMID:24134959

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE WITH RELIGIOUS COPING AND GENERAL HEALTH OF STUDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Nesami, Masoumeh Bagheri; Goudarzian, Amir Hossein; Zarei, Houman; Esameili, Pedram; Pour, Milad Dehghan; Mirani, Hesam

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This research organized to determine the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) with Religious Coping and Mental Health of students at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Method: This descriptive and analytical study was conducted in 2014 on 335 students at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Students were selected by stratified random sampling method. The instruments to gather data were Bradberry and Greaves Standard Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, and the Pargament’s Religious Coping. Data was analyzed by SPSS 21 via descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson and Spearman’s correlation). Results: Among 335 students under investigation, 144 students were male (43%) and 191 ones were female (57%). Their ages were ranging from 17 to 34 years old (21.02±2.014). Average EI scores, positive religious coping, negative religious coping, and mental health were 91.27, 14.91, 4.86, 5.34, respectively. Moreover, there was a direct and significant relationship between EI and positive religious coping (r=0.282, P<0.001). Conclusions: According to the results of this study, there is a direct correlation between positive religious coping and emotional intelligence. So Strengthening religious coping can promote emotional intelligence that is one component of mental health. PMID:26889101

  14. The relationship between lifestyle, occupational health, and work-related factors with presenteeism amongst general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Pit, Sabrina Winona; Hansen, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that general practitioners (GPs) are more likely to exhibit sickness presenteeism than other health professional groups or other high-income earners and less likely to take sick leave. This study aims to examine the relationship between lifestyle, occupational health, and work-related factors with presenteeism amongst GPs. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst GPs in 2011. Logistic regression was used to determine crude and adjusted odds ratios between lifestyle, occupational health, and work-related factors with presenteeism. Whilst adjusting for age and gender, exercising 1 to 3 times a week (odds ratio [OR] = 4.88), not having a good work-life balance (OR = 4.2), work-related sleep problems (OR = 2.55), moderate psychological distress (OR = 3.94), and poor or fair health (OR = 6.22) were associated with presenteeism. Increased burnout and reduced job satisfaction and workability due to the physical demands of the job were also associated with presenteeism. In conclusion, presenteeism amongst GPs can be addressed by implementing interventions in relation to physical activity, stress reduction, and sleep hygiene and improving work-life balance and the physical demands of the job. PMID:25692305

  15. The relationship between lifestyle, occupational health, and work-related factors with presenteeism amongst general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Pit, Sabrina Winona; Hansen, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that general practitioners (GPs) are more likely to exhibit sickness presenteeism than other health professional groups or other high-income earners and less likely to take sick leave. This study aims to examine the relationship between lifestyle, occupational health, and work-related factors with presenteeism amongst GPs. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst GPs in 2011. Logistic regression was used to determine crude and adjusted odds ratios between lifestyle, occupational health, and work-related factors with presenteeism. Whilst adjusting for age and gender, exercising 1 to 3 times a week (odds ratio [OR] = 4.88), not having a good work-life balance (OR = 4.2), work-related sleep problems (OR = 2.55), moderate psychological distress (OR = 3.94), and poor or fair health (OR = 6.22) were associated with presenteeism. Increased burnout and reduced job satisfaction and workability due to the physical demands of the job were also associated with presenteeism. In conclusion, presenteeism amongst GPs can be addressed by implementing interventions in relation to physical activity, stress reduction, and sleep hygiene and improving work-life balance and the physical demands of the job.

  16. Dental and general health in a population of wild ring-tailed lemurs: a life history approach.

    PubMed

    Sauther, Michelle L; Sussman, R W; Cuozzo, F

    2002-02-01

    Data are presented on dental and general health for seven groups of wild ring-tailed lemurs, Lemur catta, from the Beza Mahafaly Reserve, in southern Madagascar. As part of a study of population demography, adults were captured, collared, and tagged, and biometric measurements, dental casts, and analyses of dental and general health were made. Results indicate that patterns of dental health vary by individual, age, sex, and habitat. Prime adults show more dental attrition than young adults. Prime males living in more marginal habitats show greater mean attrition than those living in richer habitats. Dental damage, specifically to the toothcomb, indicates that mechanical stresses to this region may include the initial harvesting of foods, in addition to grooming. Males exhibit more evidence of past trauma, including scars and chipped teeth. These results indicate that environmental as well as social factors, such as female dominance, may lead to sex differences in health patterns among lemurs. PMID:11815947

  17. Linguistic Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of Tamil Version of General Oral Health Assessment Index-Tml

    PubMed Central

    Appukuttan, DP; Vinayagavel, M; Balasundaram, A; Damodaran, LK; Shivaraman, P; Gunasshegaran, K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral health has an impact on quality of life hence for research purpose validation of a Tamil version of General Oral Health Assessment Index would enable it to be used as a valuable tool among Tamil speaking population. Aim: In this study, we aimed to assess the psychometric properties of translated Tamil version of General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-Tml). Subjects and Methods: Linguistic adaptation involved forward and backward blind translation process. Reliability was analyzed using test-retest, Cronbach alpha, and split half reliability. Inter-item and item-total correlation were evaluated using Spearman rank correlation. Convenience sampling was done, and 265 consecutive patients aged 20–70 years attending the outpatient department were recruited. Subjects were requested to fill a self-reporting questionnaire along with Tamil GOHAI version. Clinical examination was done on the same visit. Concurrent validity was measured by assessing the relationship between GOHAI scores and self-perceived oral health and general health status, satisfaction with oral health, need for dental treatment and esthetic satisfaction. Discriminant validity was evaluated by comparing the GOHAI scores with the objectively assessed clinical parameters. Exploratory factor analysis was done to examine the factor structure. Results: Mean GOHAI-Tml was 52.7 (6.8, range 22–60, median 54). The mean number of negative impacts was 2 (2.4, range 0–11, median 1). The Spearman rank correlation for test-retest ranged from 0.8 to 0.9 (P < 0.001) for all the 12 items between visits. The Cronbach alpha for 265 samples was 0.8 suggesting good internal consistency and homogeneity between items. Item scale correlation ranged from 0.4 to 0.8 (P < 0.001). Concurrent and discriminant validity was established. Principal component analysis resulted in extraction of four factors which together accounted for 66.4% (7.9/12) variance. Conclusion: GOHAI-Tml has shown acceptable

  18. Aging and health: Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Albertina L; Silva, José T; Lima, Margarida P

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate the Escala de Autoeficácia para a Autodireção na Saúde (EAAS – Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale). METHODS Non-experimental quantitative study of EAAS validation, by confirmatory factorial analyses, evaluating a sample of 508 older adults from the north and the center of Portugal with mean age of 71.67 (from 51 to 96 years), to whom the Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale were applied. The EAAS was developed from the theoretical constructs of self-efficacy and from self-directed learning within the PALADIN European project framework, aiming to develop an instrument able to assess the extent to which older adults take good care of their health. RESULTS The internal consistency was 0.87 (Cronbach’s alpha) and confirmatory factorial analyses enabled to find a model near the one theoretically proposed, indicating a structure consisting of four dimensions: physical exercise, healthy diet, engaging in health-related learning, and visits to health professionals. From the psychometric point of view, the model in four factors showed quite satisfactory fit indicators. CONCLUSIONS The Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale, with 16 items, is adequate to evaluate to what extent older adults have confidence in their ability to take care of their own health, with high degree of autonomy. PMID:27384970

  19. [A general review on women's health education of modern China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaoyang

    2015-07-01

    In the modern social background of strengthening the nation and its people, woman's health got the attention of Chinese and became one important part in the modernization progress of state and nation, they started the work of women's health education, publicized women's health knowledge and nursery methods through many ways and carried out midwifery education.In the name of "health", woman's body gradually be socialized and internationalized. Meanwhile, Chinese women also gradually got rid of their own discipline of the state and society, began to seek their own liberation, became one important part of China's modernization. PMID:26815023

  20. Health status among young people in Slovakia: comparisons on the basis of age, gender and education.

    PubMed

    Sleskova, Maria; Salonna, Ferdinand; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; van Dijk, Jitse P; Groothoff, Johan W

    2005-12-01

    This study examines the health status of young people in Slovakia. Six subjective health indicators (self-rated health, long-standing illness, vitality, mental health, long-term well-being over the last year and occurrence of health complaints during the previous month) were used to assess the health status of three age groups: first grade secondary school students (mean age 15.9 years), third grade students (mean age 17.8 years) and secondary school leavers (mean age 19.6 years). Females rated their health worse than males on all six indicators (most of these differences were statistically significant). For males, younger age was associated with better self-rated health, less long-standing illness and higher levels of long-term well-being during the previous year. For females, the age differences were more complicated: third grade females reported significantly worse health status in terms of vitality, long-standing illness and number of health complaints than the other two age groups. An analysis of health status by educational level (attendance at or completion of grammar, technical or apprentice school), revealed that grammar school third grade females reported worse health than all other respondents on all six indicators. The third grade of grammar school in Slovakia puts particular stresses on students and, since it has been suggested that females may react more negatively than males to stressful events, this may contribute to their more negative self reports.

  1. 48 CFR 873.109 - General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... acquisition of health-care resources. 873.109 Section 873.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... HEALTH-CARE RESOURCES 873.109 General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources. (a) Source... market research, including the determination that the acquisition involves health-care resources; (3)...

  2. 48 CFR 873.109 - General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acquisition of health-care resources. 873.109 Section 873.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... HEALTH-CARE RESOURCES 873.109 General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources. (a) Source... market research, including the determination that the acquisition involves health-care resources; (3)...

  3. 48 CFR 873.109 - General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... acquisition of health-care resources. 873.109 Section 873.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... HEALTH-CARE RESOURCES 873.109 General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources. (a) Source... market research, including the determination that the acquisition involves health-care resources; (3)...

  4. 48 CFR 873.109 - General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... acquisition of health-care resources. 873.109 Section 873.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... HEALTH-CARE RESOURCES 873.109 General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources. (a) Source... market research, including the determination that the acquisition involves health-care resources; (3)...

  5. 48 CFR 873.109 - General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... acquisition of health-care resources. 873.109 Section 873.109 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... HEALTH-CARE RESOURCES 873.109 General requirements for acquisition of health-care resources. (a) Source... market research, including the determination that the acquisition involves health-care resources; (3)...

  6. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be...

  7. Generalism and the need for health professional educational reform.

    PubMed

    Bulger, R J

    1995-01-01

    Powerful forces are intensifying change in health care delivery: population-based thinking about health care, especially emphasis on prevention; the reemergence of the biopsychosocial mode of thinking in health care; the need to increase capacity for health services research; and the knowledge that reductions may be needed in the use of high-priced physicians, the number of acute-care hospital beds, and the duplication of expensive equipment. Academic health centers are being forced to adjust their educational offerings to these realities of the service sector. Yet, institutional obstacles stand in the way of needed education reform: fragmentation of the sense of community in health professions schools, turf-related forces that separate various health professions, inflexible institutional structures that prevent adequate responses to a changing environment, an increasingly acute shortage of money to support education, and the devalued status of teaching within our institutions. Universities must develop centers to determine regional and local workforce needs and subsequently establish regionally based educational networks of academic and community health centers. Further, academic centers must demonstrate a real commitment to multiprofessional, interdisciplinary team approaches to a patient-centered system. In parallel, the institution must create a student-centered value system. PMID:7826454

  8. Poorer general health status in children is associated with being overweight or obese in Hawai'i: findings from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Teranishi, Kristen; Hayes, Donald K; Iwaishi, Louise K; Fuddy, Loretta J

    2011-07-01

    Obesity is a widespread national issue that affects the health and well-being of millions of people; particular attention has been focused on the burden among children. The National Survey of Children's Health data from 2007 was used to examine the relationship of child health status and unhealthy weight (overweight/obese defined as body mass index in ≥ 85 th percentile) among 874 children aged 10 to 17 years of age in Hawai'i. In particular, the parentally reported child's general health status was assessed comparing those with a poorer health status (defined as "good/fair/poor") to those with a better one (defined as "excellent/very good"). Descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis examined risk for overweight/obese with child's general health status, accounting for gender, race, and socioeconomic factors. More children with a poorer health status (46.5%; 95%CI=33.2-60.2) were overweight/obese compared to those of better health status (25.8%; 95%CI=21.9-30.2). Estimates of overweight/obese were high in Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (38.6%; 95%CI: 28.9-49.4), multiracial (30.9%; 95%CI=24.2-38.6) children, and children whose parents had less than 12 years education (56.8%; 95%CI=32.8-78.0). Multivariate logistic regression modeling showed a 2.92 (95%CI=1.52-5.61) greater odds for overweight/obese status in children with a poorer health status compared to those of better health status after accounting for age, race, gender, and parental education. Gender, race, and parental education were also significant factors associated with overweight/obese in the final adjusted model. It is important that children that are overweight or obese receive appropriate health screenings including assessments of general health status. Children in high risk socioeconomic groups should be a particular focus of prevention efforts to promote health equity and provide opportunities for children to reach their potential.

  9. Effect of proper oral rehabilitation on general health of mandibulectomy patients

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Ammar A; Raad, Kais; Mustafa, Nazih S

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Here, we aimed to assess whether postoperative oral rehabilitation for mandibulectomy patients is necessary to improve patients’ general health in terms of health-related quality of life. PMID:26576270

  10. Age, mode of conception, health service use and pregnancy health: a prospective cohort study of Australian women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence about the ways in which maternal age and mode of conception interact with psychological, sociodemographic, health and health service factors in governing pregnancy health. The aim of this study was to establish in what ways maternal age and mode of conception are associated with, health behaviours, health service use and self-rated physical and mental health during pregnancy. Method A prospective cohort study was conducted in a collaboration between universities, infertility treatment services and public and private obstetric hospitals in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia,. Consecutive cohorts of nulliparous English-literate women at least 28 weeks pregnant who had conceived through ART (ARTC) or spontaneously (SC) in three age-groups: 20–30; 31–36 and at least 37 years were recruited. Data were obtained via structured individual telephone interviews and self-report postal questionnaires at recruitment and four months postpartum. Study-specific questions assessed: sociodemographic characteristics; reproductive health; health behaviours and health service use. Standardized instruments assessed physical health: SF 12 Physical Component Score (PCS) and mental health: SF12 Mental Component Score (MCS); State Trait Anxiety Inventory and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The main outcome measures were the SF 12 PCS, SF12 MCS scores and pregnancy-related hospital admissions. Results Of 1179 eligible women 791 (67%) participated, 27 had fertility treatment without oocyte retrieval and were excluded and 592/764 (78%) completed all pregnancy assessments. When other factors were controlled speaking a language other than English, having private health insurance and multiple gestation were associated with worse physical health and having private health insurance and better physical health were associated with better mental health. Pregnancy-related hospital admissions were associated with worse physical health and multiple gestation

  11. General Health-Related Quality of Life in Preschool Children with Strabismus or Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ge; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Varma, Rohit; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Cotter, Susan A.; Borchert, Mark; Azen, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations of general health-related quality of life (GHRQOL) with strabismus or amblyopia in preschool children. Design Population-based study. Participants Sample of children aged 25 to 72 months in the Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study (MEPEDS). Methods The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), a measure of GHRQOL, was administered to the parents of the children. Main Outcome Measures The PedsQL consists of 4 sub-scales (physical, emotional, social, and school functioning) and 3 composite scores (physical summary, psychosocial summary, and total). Regression models were used to evaluate the associations of GHRQOL with strabismus (in children 25 to 72 months) or amblyopia (in children 30 to 72 months), respectively. Results Of the 4,218 children aged ≧ 25 months, 121 (2.9%) were diagnosed with strabismus. Significant differences were found in all 3 composite scores between children with and without strabismus, before and after controlling for gender, age, race, family income, systemic health conditions, and prior knowledge of strabismus diagnosis (p<0.05). These differences were present in both esotropes and exotropes, and in both children with intermittent and constant strabismus. 3,318 children were ≧ 30 months and 71 (2.1%) had amblyopia. There were no significant differences in any PedsQL scores between children with and without amblyopia, even after adjusting for gender, age, race, and family income (p>0.05). Conclusions Strabismus was associated with significantly worse GHRQOL in preschool children. While we did not find any detectable association between amblyopia and GHRQOL, further study using vision-specific instruments is required to explore the impact of both strabismus and amblyopia on pediatric quality of life. PMID:20884059

  12. Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity. A Supplement to "Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.

    This supplement to "Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" (1999) documents the existence of striking disparities for minorities in mental health services and the underlying knowledge base. Racial and ethnic minorities have less access to mental health services than whites, and they are less likely to receive needed care. When they…

  13. Polyphenols: benefits to the cardiovascular system in health and in aging.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Sandhya; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Hollingsworth, Amanda; Piche, Matthew; Tai, T C

    2013-09-26

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of naturally occurring dietary polyphenols in promoting cardiovascular health and emphasized the significant role these compounds play in limiting the effects of cellular aging. Polyphenols such as resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and curcumin have been acknowledged for having beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, while some have also been shown to be protective in aging. This review highlights the literature surrounding this topic on the prominently studied and documented polyphenols as pertaining to cardiovascular health and aging.

  14. Occupational health for an ageing workforce: do we need a geriatric perspective?

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat; Koh, David

    2006-01-01

    Extending retirement ages and anti-age discrimination policies will increase the numbers of older workers in the future. Occupational health physicians may have to draw upon the principles and experience of geriatric medicine to manage these older workers. Examples of common geriatric syndromes that will have an impact on occupational health are mild cognitive impairment and falls at the workplace. Shifts in paradigms and further research into the occupational health problems of an ageing workforce will be needed. PMID:16722617

  15. The department of internal medicine: hub of the academic health center response to the aging imperative.

    PubMed

    Hazzard, W R

    2000-08-15

    In the 21st century, geriatrics will increasingly dominate U.S. health care as the median age of the population progressively increases. Academic departments of geriatrics have been created in nations that have already experienced this shift. As an alternative strategy that builds on traditional strengths of academic medicine in the United States, departments of internal medicine should lead a multidepartmental, pan-institutional response to the aging imperative. Recognition of gerontology and geriatric medicine as central to the missions of internal medicine in clinical care, education, and research must be increased. In the process, academic departments of internal medicine will develop a high level of geriatric expertise and will launch many programs that address this challenge. Successful development of geriatric programs will serve as a catalyst to strengthen the integration among and between generalists and subspecialists. This will entail developing optimal sites and systems of geriatric care--at different levels of care and over time--that can enhance the geriatric education of medical students, residents, fellows, and practicing physicians. The study of aging and geriatric health care will also become an integral part of departmental research, in its subspecialty divisions as well as its divisions of general internal medicine and geriatrics. This strategy is urgently recommended as both a challenge and an opportunity for all departments of internal medicine. PMID:10929171

  16. Characteristics and Use of Home Health Care by Men and Women Aged 65 and Over

    MedlinePlus

    ... April 18, 2012 Characteristics and Use of Home Health Care by Men and Women Aged 65 and Over ... and Roberto Valverde, M.P.H., Division of Health Care Statistics Abstract Objective —This report presents national estimates ...

  17. Relationships Between Health Behaviors, Self-Efficacy, and Health Locus of Control of Students at the Universities of the Third Age.

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Więczkowska, Halina

    2016-02-16

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to determine the relationship of health behaviors with the health locus of control and the sense of self-efficacy against the background of socio-economic factors and self-rated health among students of the Universities of the Third Age (U3As). MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 320 U3A students, with mean age of 67.5 years. The following research tools were used: Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC), Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), and an original survey of the author's own design. RESULTS Mean total HBI and GSES scores were 90.63 and 30.12, respectively. These results are satisfactory. A slight predominance of internal health locus of control was documented. A number of significant correlations were found between the HBI, GSES, and MHLC scores, except for the MHLC subscale expressing the influence of chance. Educational attainment was shown to have a significant impact on the scores for the positive attitude and proper dietary habits subscales of HBI, as well as on the GSES scores. Economic status of the participants influenced the levels of positive attitude, internal health locus of control, and self-efficacy. Furthermore, internal health locus of control was found to be modulated by subjective health of the respondents. The scores for external health locus of control and the influence of chance increased significantly with age. CONCLUSIONS The currently noticeable emphasis placed on lifelong education should serve as a good prognostic factor for health behaviors and personal health resources for years to come.

  18. Relationships Between Health Behaviors, Self-Efficacy, and Health Locus of Control of Students at the Universities of the Third Age

    PubMed Central

    Zielińska-Więczkowska, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the relationship of health behaviors with the health locus of control and the sense of self-efficacy against the background of socio-economic factors and self-rated health among students of the Universities of the Third Age (U3As). Material/Methods The study included 320 U3A students, with mean age of 67.5 years. The following research tools were used: Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC), Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), and an original survey of the author’s own design. Results Mean total HBI and GSES scores were 90.63 and 30.12, respectively. These results are satisfactory. A slight predominance of internal health locus of control was documented. A number of significant correlations were found between the HBI, GSES, and MHLC scores, except for the MHLC subscale expressing the influence of chance. Educational attainment was shown to have a significant impact on the scores for the positive attitude and proper dietary habits subscales of HBI, as well as on the GSES scores. Economic status of the participants influenced the levels of positive attitude, internal health locus of control, and self-efficacy. Furthermore, internal health locus of control was found to be modulated by subjective health of the respondents. The scores for external health locus of control and the influence of chance increased significantly with age. Conclusions The currently noticeable emphasis placed on lifelong education should serve as a good prognostic factor for health behaviors and personal health resources for years to come. PMID:26879981

  19. Relationships Between Health Behaviors, Self-Efficacy, and Health Locus of Control of Students at the Universities of the Third Age.

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Więczkowska, Halina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to determine the relationship of health behaviors with the health locus of control and the sense of self-efficacy against the background of socio-economic factors and self-rated health among students of the Universities of the Third Age (U3As). MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 320 U3A students, with mean age of 67.5 years. The following research tools were used: Health Behavior Inventory (HBI), Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC), Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), and an original survey of the author's own design. RESULTS Mean total HBI and GSES scores were 90.63 and 30.12, respectively. These results are satisfactory. A slight predominance of internal health locus of control was documented. A number of significant correlations were found between the HBI, GSES, and MHLC scores, except for the MHLC subscale expressing the influence of chance. Educational attainment was shown to have a significant impact on the scores for the positive attitude and proper dietary habits subscales of HBI, as well as on the GSES scores. Economic status of the participants influenced the levels of positive attitude, internal health locus of control, and self-efficacy. Furthermore, internal health locus of control was found to be modulated by subjective health of the respondents. The scores for external health locus of control and the influence of chance increased significantly with age. CONCLUSIONS The currently noticeable emphasis placed on lifelong education should serve as a good prognostic factor for health behaviors and personal health resources for years to come. PMID:26879981

  20. Respiratory and general health complaints in subjects exposed to sandstorm at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub Meo, Sultan; Fahad A Al-Kheraiji, Mohammad; Fahad AlFaraj, Ziyad; abdulaziz Alwehaibi, Nasser; Adnan Aldereihim, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Sandstorms are metrological events and frequently occur in many regions throughout the world. Sandstorms are a main source of long-distance transport of dust, air pollution and cause various health problems. This study aimed to investigate the acute respiratory and general health complaints in subjects exposed to sandstorm at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: The present descriptive study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period March 2011- June 2012. We selected 517 (308 males, 59.58%) and (209 females, 40.42%), apparently healthy volunteers with mean age 28.6± 3.14 years, who had single outside exposure to sandstorm for the period of 24±2.68 minutes. The acute respiratory and general health complaints were recorded through a comprehensive questionnaire. Results: A large proportion of the subjects who were exposed to sandstorm had complaints of cough 247 (47.77%), runny nose 264(51.06%), wheeze 173(33.46%), acute asthmatic attack 108 (20.88%), eye irritation / redness 252(48.74%), headache 179 (34.62%), body ache 199 (38.5%), sleep disturbance 157(30.36%) and psychological disturbances 194 (37.52%). Conclusion: Exposure to sandstorm causes cough, runny nose, wheeze, acute asthmatic attack, eye irritation / redness, headache, body ache, sleep and psychological disturbances. These results indicate that sandstorm is a prolific source of respiratory and general ailments. It is therefore, suggested that an unnecessary exposure to sandstorm must be avoided. PMID:24353595

  1. Remaining teeth, oral dryness and dental health habits in middle-aged Norwegian rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Arneberg, P; Bjertness, E; Storhaug, K; Glennås, A; Bjerkhoel, F

    1992-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) upon dental health. A questionnaire was mailed to all seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients aged 44-56 yr in the files of the two main departments of rheumatology in South Eastern Norway. Data were obtained from 125 patients, constituting 91% of the target group. The number of remaining teeth in these patients was not related to disease duration or physical dysfunction, whereas a relationship to prolonged use of medication for pain relief was indicated. Factors known to affect tooth loss in the general population, such as smoking habits, dental attendance, interdental cleaning habits, previous dental disease, and place of residence were found to be important in RA patients as well. The RA patients from Oslo had a mean number of 25 remaining teeth, which is the same as reported for the general Oslo population at this age. Oral dryness was reported by more than 50% of the RA patients, but was not related to the number of teeth. The conclusion is that serious and long lasting rheumatoid arthritis had little influence on the number of remaining teeth in this middle-aged group of Norwegians. PMID:1424551

  2. Green tea: A boon for periodontal and general health

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Saluja, Mini; Agarwal, Gunjan; Alam, Mahtab

    2012-01-01

    Green tea is particularly rich in health-promoting flavonoids (which account for 30% of the dry weight of a leaf), including catechins and their derivatives. The most abundant catechin in green tea is epigallocatechin-3-gallate, which is thought to play a pivotal role in the green tea's anticancer and antioxidant effects. Catechins should be considered right alongside of the better-known antioxidants like vitamins E and C as potent free radical scavengers and health-supportive for this reason. It has been suggested that green tea also promotes periodontal health by reducing inflammation, preventing bone resorption and limiting the growth of certain bacteria associated with periodontal diseases. PMID:23055579

  3. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans Versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig M.; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  4. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  5. [The Health, Well-Being, and Aging ("SABE") survey: methodology applied and profile of the study population].

    PubMed

    Albala, Cecilia; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; León Díaz, Esther María; Ham-Chande, Roberto; Hennis, Anselm J; Palloni, Alberto; Peláez, Martha; Pratts, Omar

    2005-01-01

    This document outlines the methodology of the Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (Health, Well-Being, and Aging) survey (known as the "SABE survey"), and it also summarizes the challenges that the rapid aging of the population in Latin America and the Caribbean imposes on society in general and especially on health services. The populations of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean are aging at a rate that has not been seen in the developed world. The evaluation of health problems and disability among older adults in those countries indicates that those persons are aging with more functional limitations and worse health than is true for their counterparts in developed nations. In addition, family networks in Latin America and the Caribbean are changing rapidly and have less capacity to make up for the lack of protections provided by social institutions. The multicenter SABE study was developed with the objective of evaluating the state of health of older adults in seven cities of Latin America and the Caribbean: Bridgetown, Barbados; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Havana, Cuba; Mexico City, Mexico; Montevideo, Uruguay; Santiago, Chile; and São Paulo, Brazil. The SABE survey has established the starting point for systematic research on aging in urban areas of Latin America and the Caribbean. Comparative studies of these characteristics and with this comparative nature should be extended to other countries, areas, and regions of the world in order to expand the knowledge available on older adults. PMID:16053641

  6. Association between overuse of mobile phones on quality of sleep and general health among occupational health and safety students.

    PubMed

    Eyvazlou, Meysam; Zarei, Esmaeil; Rahimi, Azin; Abazari, Malek

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about health problems due to the increasing use of mobile phones are growing. Excessive use of mobile phones can affect the quality of sleep as one of the important issues in the health literature and general health of people. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the excessive use of mobile phones and general health and quality of sleep on 450 Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) students in five universities of medical sciences in the North East of Iran in 2014. To achieve this objective, special questionnaires that included Cell Phone Overuse Scale, Pittsburgh's Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) were used, respectively. In addition to descriptive statistical methods, independent t-test, Pearson correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression tests were performed. The results revealed that half of the students had a poor level of sleep quality and most of them were considered unhealthy. The Pearson correlation co-efficient indicated a significant association between the excessive use of mobile phones and the total score of general health and the quality of sleep. In addition, the results of the multiple regression showed that the excessive use of mobile phones has a significant relationship between each of the four subscales of general health and the quality of sleep. Furthermore, the results of the multivariate regression indicated that the quality of sleep has a simultaneous effect on each of the four scales of the general health. Overall, a simultaneous study of the effects of the mobile phones on the quality of sleep and the general health could be considered as a trigger to employ some intervention programs to improve their general health status, quality of sleep and consequently educational performance.

  7. Association between overuse of mobile phones on quality of sleep and general health among occupational health and safety students.

    PubMed

    Eyvazlou, Meysam; Zarei, Esmaeil; Rahimi, Azin; Abazari, Malek

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about health problems due to the increasing use of mobile phones are growing. Excessive use of mobile phones can affect the quality of sleep as one of the important issues in the health literature and general health of people. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the excessive use of mobile phones and general health and quality of sleep on 450 Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) students in five universities of medical sciences in the North East of Iran in 2014. To achieve this objective, special questionnaires that included Cell Phone Overuse Scale, Pittsburgh's Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) were used, respectively. In addition to descriptive statistical methods, independent t-test, Pearson correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression tests were performed. The results revealed that half of the students had a poor level of sleep quality and most of them were considered unhealthy. The Pearson correlation co-efficient indicated a significant association between the excessive use of mobile phones and the total score of general health and the quality of sleep. In addition, the results of the multiple regression showed that the excessive use of mobile phones has a significant relationship between each of the four subscales of general health and the quality of sleep. Furthermore, the results of the multivariate regression indicated that the quality of sleep has a simultaneous effect on each of the four scales of the general health. Overall, a simultaneous study of the effects of the mobile phones on the quality of sleep and the general health could be considered as a trigger to employ some intervention programs to improve their general health status, quality of sleep and consequently educational performance. PMID:26942630

  8. Aging, social capital, and health care utilization in Canada.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Audrey; Nauenberg, Eric; Shen, Leilei

    2008-10-01

    This paper examines relationships between aging, social capital, and healthcare utilization. Cross-sectional data from the 2001 Canadian Community Health Survey and the Canadian Census are used to estimate a two-part model for both GP physicians (visits) and hospitalization (annual nights) focusing on the impact of community- (CSC) and individual-level social capital (ISC). Quantile regressions were also performed for GP visits. CSC is measured using the Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI) based on employment levels in religious and community-based organizations [NAICS 813XX] and ISC is based on self-reported connectedness to community. A higher CSC/lower ISC is associated with a lower propensity for GP visits/higher propensity for hospital utilization among seniors. The part-two (intensity model) results indicated that a one standard deviation increase (0.13%) in the PSCI index leads to an overall 5% decrease in GP visits and an annual offset in Canada of approximately $225 M. The ISC impact was smaller; however, neither measure was significant in the hospital intensity models. ISC mainly impacted the lower quantiles in which there was a positive association with GP utilization, while the impact of CSC was strongest in the middle quantiles. Each form of social capital likely operates through a different mechanism: ISC perhaps serves an enabling role by improving access (e.g. transportation services), while CSC serves to obviate some physician visits that may involve counseling/caring services most important to seniors. Policy implications of these results are discussed herein.

  9. General Medical and Pharmacy Claims Expenditures in Users of Behavioral Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Kathol, Roger G; McAlpine, Donna; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Spies, Robert; Meller, William; Bernhardt, Terence; Eisenberg, Steven; Folkert, Keith; Gold, William

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To quantify the magnitude of general medical and/or pharmacy claims expenditures for individuals who use behavioral health services and to assess future claims when behavioral service use persists. DESIGN Retrospective cost trends and 24-month cohort analyses. SETTING A Midwest health plan. PARTICIPANTS Over 250,000 health plan enrollees during 2000 and 2001. MEASUREMENTS Claims expenditures for behavioral health services, general medical services, and prescription medications. MAIN RESULTS Just over one tenth of enrollees (10.7%) in 2001 had at least 1 behavioral health claim and accounted for 21.4% of total general medical, behavioral health, and pharmacy claims expenditures. Costs for enrollees who used behavioral health services were double that for enrollees who did not use such services. Almost 80% of health care costs were for general medical services and medications, two thirds of which were not psychotropics. Total claims expenditures in enrollees with claims for both substance use and mental disorders in 2000 were 4 times that of those with general medical and/or pharmacy claims only. These expenditures returned to within 15% of nonbehavioral health service user levels in 2001 when clinical need for behavioral health services was no longer required but increased by another 37% between 2000 and 2001 when both chemical dependence and mental health service needs persisted. CONCLUSIONS The majority of total claims expenditures in patients who utilize behavioral health services are for medical, not behavioral, health benefits. Continued service use is associated with persistently elevated total general medical and pharmacy care costs. These findings call for studies that better delineate: 1) the interaction of general medical, pharmacy, and behavioral health service use and 2) clinical and/or administrative approaches that reverse the high use of general medical resources in behavioral health patients. PMID:15836550

  10. What do we know about who does and does not attend general health checks? Findings from a narrative scoping review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background General and preventive health checks are a key feature of contemporary policies of anticipatory care. Ensuring high and equitable uptake of such general health checks is essential to ensuring health gain and preventing health inequalities. This literature review explores the socio-demographic, clinical and social cognitive characteristics of those who do and do not engage with general health checks or preventive health checks for cardiovascular disease. Methods An exploratory scoping study approach was employed. Databases searched included the British Nursing Index and Archive, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Titles and abstracts of 17463 papers were screened; 1171 papers were then independently assessed by two researchers. A review of full text was carried out by two of the authors resulting in 39 being included in the final review. Results Those least likely to attend health checks were men on low incomes, low socio-economic status, unemployed or less well educated. In general, attenders were older than non-attenders. An individual’s marital status was found to affect attendance rates with non-attenders more likely to be single. In general, white individuals were more likely to engage with services than individuals from other ethnic backgrounds. Non-attenders had a greater proportion of cardiovascular risk factors than attenders, and smokers were less likely to attend than non-smokers. The relationship between health beliefs and health behaviours appeared complex. Non-attenders were shown to value health less strongly, have low self-efficacy, feel less in control of their health and be less likely to believe in the efficacy of health checks. Conclusion Routine health check-ups appear to be taken up inequitably, with gender, age, socio

  11. Management of childhood obesity through a school-based programme of general health and nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Angelico, F; Del Ben, M; Fabiani, L; Lentini, P; Pannozzo, F; Urbinati, G C; Ricci, G

    1991-09-01

    A school-based nutrition education programme aimed at the control of coronary risk factor rise during childhood was started in 1983 for 150 boys and girls aged 6-7 years. The study was performed in a rural area of central Italy, where adult obesity represents a major health problem. Preventive treatment was based on general health education in schools towards healthy lifestyles. Nutritional intervention was mainly focused on the adoption of the 'prudent diet'. School-teachers received specific training on how to teach 'good nutrition'. The nutrition curriculum was taught by teachers throughout the school year. Several meetings were organised to actively involve the children's parents. Practical recommendations for changes in food selection and preparation were also given. After a five-year follow up, a strong 'tracking phenomenon' for body mass index was observed, suggesting a great stability over time of lifestyles and dietary habits leading to the development of obesity during childhood. We conclude that a school-delivered programme of general nutrition education for the control of risk factors does not appear to be able to control child obesity.

  12. Effect of General Health Status on Chronicity of Low Back Pain in Industrial Workers.

    PubMed

    Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Dehghan, Faezeh; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Khansari, Bahareh; Heidari, Bijan; Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Norouzi Javidan, Abbas; Emami Razavi, Seyed Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Recognizing patients at a higher risk of developing chronic low back pain (LBP) is important in industrial medicine. This study aimed to assess the power and quality of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) for prediction of the odds of chronicity of acute LBP. This study was conducted on industrial workers. All subjects with acute LBP who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Demographic characteristics, occupational, physical, and mental parameters and the general health status of subjects were evaluated;  they were followed up for developing chronic LBP for one year. Cigarette smoking, high body mass index, job stress, physical load and high GHQ scores were found to be the risk factors for the progression of acute LBP to chronic LBP (P<0.05). Standing position while working, age, work experience, exercise, level of education, weekly work hours and shift work were not the risk factors for chronic LBP (P>0.05). High GHQ score can be a risk factor for progression of acute LBP to chronic LBP. The GHQ in combination with the Job Content Questionnaire can be used as a quick and simple screening tool for detection of subjects at high risk of chronic LBP when evaluating acute LBP in an occupational setting. PMID:27107527

  13. [General practitioners as gatekeepers: Better health care than in countries with self-referral to specialists?].

    PubMed

    Groenewegen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands and a number of other European countries general practitioners are the gatekeepers for specialist and hospital care. European health care systems with gatekeeping general practitioners, i.e. those with comprehensive, strong primary care, perform better on a number of health indicators and on equity. However, it is less clear if gatekeeping health care systems have lower health expenditure. There is ongoing debate on whether gatekeeping plays a role in diagnostic delay of cancers. At health care system level research is being hampered by small numbers and should be combined with in-depth research into health care mechanisms.

  14. Comparison of Musculoskeletal Disorder Health Claims Between Construction Floor Layers and a General Working Population

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Ann Marie; Ryan, Daniel; Welch, Laura; Olsen, Margaret A.; Buchholz, Bryan; Evanoff, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Compare rates of medical insurance claims for musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) between workers in a construction trade and a general worker population to determine if higher physical exposures in construction lead to higher rates of claims on personal medical insurance. Methods Health insurance claims between 2006 and 2010 from floor layers were frequency matched by age, gender, eligibility time, and geographic location to claims from insured workers in general industry obtained from MarketScan. We extracted MSD claims and dates of service from six regions of the body: neck, low back, knee, lower extremity, shoulder, and distal arm, and evaluated differences in claim rates. Results Fifty-one percent of floor layers (n=1,475) experienced musculoskeletal claims compared to 39% of MarketScan members (p<0.001). Claim rates were higher for floor layers across all body regions with nearly double the rate ratios for the knee and neck regions (RR: 2.10 and 2.07). The excess risk was greatest for the neck and low back regions; younger workers had disproportionately higher rates in the knee, neck, low back, and distal arm. A larger proportion of floor layers (22%) filed MSD claims in more than one body region compared to general workers (10%; p<0.001). Conclusions Floor layers have markedly higher rates of MSD claims compared to a general worker population, suggesting shifting of medical costs for work-related MSD to personal health insurance. The occurrence of disorders in multiple body regions and among the youngest workers highlights the need for improved work methods and tools for construction workers. PMID:25224720

  15. Rapamycin extends life- and health span because it slows aging

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2013-01-01

    Making headlines, a thought-provocative paper by Neff, Ehninger and coworkers claims that rapamycin extends life span but has limited effects on aging. How is that possibly possible? And what is aging if not an increase of the probability of death with age. I discuss that the JCI paper actually shows that rapamycin slows aging and also extends lifespan regardless of its direct anti-cancer activities. Aging is, in part, MTOR-driven: a purposeless continuation of developmental growth. Rapamycin affects the same processes in young and old animals: young animals' traits and phenotypes, which continuations become hyperfunctional, harmful and lethal later in life. PMID:23934728

  16. Rapamycin extends life- and health span because it slows aging.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-08-01

    Making headlines, a thought-provocative paper by Neff, Ehninger and coworkers claims that rapamycin extends life span but has limited effects on aging. How is that possibly possible? And what is aging if not an increase of the probability of death with age. I discuss that the JCI paper actually shows that rapamycin slows aging and also extends lifespan regardless of its direct anti-cancer activities. Aging is, in part, MTOR-driven: a purposeless continuation of developmental growth. Rapamycin affects the same processes in young and old animals: young animals' traits and phenotypes, which continuations become hyperfunctional, harmful and lethal later in life.

  17. Coping with stress: a physician's guide to mental health in aging.

    PubMed

    Solomon, R

    1996-07-01

    The mental and emotional health of people of all ages is related to how well they cope with or adapt to the stresses and changes in their lives. Although risks to health do increase with advancing age, stress is not an inevitable consequence of old age. However, two transitional stressors that are more common with increased age are the onset of illness and/or physical impairment and the death of loved ones. As recently as 1987, less than 1.5% of community-based mental health care went to persons over age 65. The elderly consistently report that when they do seek help with emotional problems, they first consult with their primary care physicians. Therefore, these physicians need to be knowledgeable about mental health in aging and familiar with mental health services their patients could use. PMID:8675047

  18. Statistical issues encountered in the comparison of health-related quality of life in diseased patients to published general population norms: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Rose, M S; Koshman, M L; Spreng, S; Sheldon, R

    1999-05-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to illustrate the statistical problems encountered when comparing health-related quality of life (HRQL) measured by the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) in a diseased group to general population norms, and (2) to define age- and gender-standardized dichotomous indicator variables for each health concept and show that these indicator variables facilitate comparisons between the diseased sample and the general population. Our "diseased" group consisted of 136 sequentially consenting patients referred to the syncope clinic for assessment and treatment. Participants completed the SF-36 questionnaire before undergoing diagnostic testing. General population norms for the SF-36 are available from the responses of 2474 participants in the National Survey of Functional Health Status, conducted in 1990 in the United States. Comparison of the SF-36 in a diseased sample with general population norms is difficult, owing to skewed and unusual distributions in both groups. In addition, making comparisons within age and gender strata is difficult if the within strata sample size is small. We propose a dichotomous indicator variable for each health concept that classifies an individual as having impaired health if he or she scored lower than the 25th percentile for the appropriate age and gender general population strata. By definition, the prevalence of impaired health in the general population is 25% for all eight health concepts. Comparison between the eight health-concept variables is easy because the population norm is the same for each of them. These indicator variables are age and gender adjusted, so that even if the sample did not have the age and gender distribution as the general population, comparisons can still be made with the value of 25.

  19. Lancaster General College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Describes this school building, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects and construction team, a general building description, and a case study of construction costs and specifications. Also includes the floor plan and photographs. (EV)

  20. Musculoskeletal Health Conditions Represent a Global Threat to Healthy Aging: A Report for the 2015 World Health Organization World Report on Ageing and Health.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Andrew M; Cross, Marita J; Hoy, Damian G; Sànchez-Riera, Lídia; Blyth, Fiona M; Woolf, Anthony D; March, Lyn

    2016-04-01

    Persistent pain, impaired mobility and function, and reduced quality of life and mental well-being are the most common experiences associated with musculoskeletal conditions, of which there are more than 150 types. The prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal conditions increase with aging. A profound burden of musculoskeletal disease exists in developed and developing nations. Notably, this burden far exceeds service capacity. Population growth, aging, and sedentary lifestyles, particularly in developing countries, will create a crisis for population health that requires a multisystem response with musculoskeletal health services as a critical component. Globally, there is an emphasis on maintaining an active lifestyle to reduce the impacts of obesity, cardiovascular conditions, cancer, osteoporosis, and diabetes in older people. Painful musculoskeletal conditions, however, profoundly limit the ability of people to make these lifestyle changes. A strong relationship exists between painful musculoskeletal conditions and a reduced capacity to engage in physical activity resulting in functional decline, frailty, reduced well-being, and loss of independence. Multilevel strategies and approaches to care that adopt a whole person approach are needed to address the impact of impaired musculoskeletal health and its sequelae. Effective strategies are available to address the impact of musculoskeletal conditions; some are of low cost (e.g., primary care-based interventions) but others are expensive and, as such, are usually only feasible for developed nations. In developing nations, it is crucial that any reform or development initiatives, including research, must adhere to the principles of development effectiveness to avoid doing harm to the health systems in these settings.

  1. Musculoskeletal Health Conditions Represent a Global Threat to Healthy Aging: A Report for the 2015 World Health Organization World Report on Ageing and Health.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Andrew M; Cross, Marita J; Hoy, Damian G; Sànchez-Riera, Lídia; Blyth, Fiona M; Woolf, Anthony D; March, Lyn

    2016-04-01

    Persistent pain, impaired mobility and function, and reduced quality of life and mental well-being are the most common experiences associated with musculoskeletal conditions, of which there are more than 150 types. The prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal conditions increase with aging. A profound burden of musculoskeletal disease exists in developed and developing nations. Notably, this burden far exceeds service capacity. Population growth, aging, and sedentary lifestyles, particularly in developing countries, will create a crisis for population health that requires a multisystem response with musculoskeletal health services as a critical component. Globally, there is an emphasis on maintaining an active lifestyle to reduce the impacts of obesity, cardiovascular conditions, cancer, osteoporosis, and diabetes in older people. Painful musculoskeletal conditions, however, profoundly limit the ability of people to make these lifestyle changes. A strong relationship exists between painful musculoskeletal conditions and a reduced capacity to engage in physical activity resulting in functional decline, frailty, reduced well-being, and loss of independence. Multilevel strategies and approaches to care that adopt a whole person approach are needed to address the impact of impaired musculoskeletal health and its sequelae. Effective strategies are available to address the impact of musculoskeletal conditions; some are of low cost (e.g., primary care-based interventions) but others are expensive and, as such, are usually only feasible for developed nations. In developing nations, it is crucial that any reform or development initiatives, including research, must adhere to the principles of development effectiveness to avoid doing harm to the health systems in these settings. PMID:26994264

  2. The age profile of the location decision of Australian general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Mu, Chunzhou

    2015-10-01

    The unbalanced distribution of general practitioners (GPs) across geographic areas has been acknowledged as a problem in many countries around the world. Quantitative information regarding GPs' location decision over their lifecycle is essential in developing effective initiatives to address the unbalanced distribution and retention of GPs. This paper describes the age profile of GPs' location decision and relates it to individual characteristics. I use the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) survey of doctors (2008-2012) with a sample size of 5810 male and 5797 female GPs. I employ a mixed logit model to estimate GPs' location decision. The results suggest that younger GPs are more prepared to go to rural and remote areas but they tend to migrate back to urban areas as they age. Coming from a rural background increases the likelihood of choosing rural areas, but with heterogeneity: While male GPs from a rural background tend to stay in rural and remote areas regardless of age, female GPs from a rural background are willing to migrate to urban areas as they age. GPs who obtain basic medical degrees overseas are likely to move back to urban areas in the later stage of their careers. Completing a basic medical degree at an older age increases the likelihood of working outside major cities. I also examine factors influencing GPs' location transition patterns and the results further confirm the association of individual characteristics and GPs' location-age profile. The findings can help target GPs who are most likely to practise and remain in rural and remote areas, and tailor policy initiatives to address the undesirable distribution and movement of GPs according to the identified heterogeneous age profile of their location decisions. PMID:26310594

  3. Smoking and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This book is divided into three sections. In the first section the health consequences of smoking are delineated. Part two contains discussions of the behavioral and biological aspects of smoking. The final section is devoted to educational opportunities for preventing addiction to tobacco. (JD)

  4. Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services Among American Indians by Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Roh, Soonhee; Brown-Rice, Kathleen A; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Yee-Melichar, Darlene; Talbot, Elizabeth P

    2015-11-01

    This study examined determinants of attitudes toward mental health services with a sample of American Indian younger-old-adults (aged 50-64, n = 158) and American Indian older-old adults (aged 65 and older, n = 69). Adapting Andersen's behavioral model of healthcare utilization, predisposing factors, mental health needs, and enabling factors were considered as potential predictors. Female and those with higher levels of social support tend to report more positive attitudes toward mental health services. Culture-influenced personal belief was associated with negative attitudes toward mental health services among American Indian younger-old -adults. Age and higher chronic medical conditions were significantly related to negative attitudes toward mental health services. Health insurance was positively associated with positive attitudes toward mental health services in the American Indian older-old adults. Findings indicate that practitioners should engage how culture, social support, and chronic conditions influence the response to mental health needs when working with older American Indians. PMID:25862435

  5. Inhibition of the mirror generalization process in reading in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Ahr, Emmanuel; Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2016-05-01

    A striking error in reading is the early and sometimes persistent confusion of mirror letters such as b and d. These mirror errors are likely a result of the mirror generalization process that allows one to identify a visual stimulus regardless of its presentation side. A previous study demonstrated that preventing mirror errors in reading requires the inhibition of the mirror generalization process in expert adult readers (Borst et al., 2015). Using the same experimental paradigm, the current study aimed at replicating this result in school-aged children. Three age groups-1st, 3rd, and 5th graders-performed a negative priming study in which they were asked to determine on the primes whether two letters were identical and on the probes whether two animals facing opposite directions were identical. All three groups of children required more time to discriminate two letters that were lateral mirror images of one another (e.g., b/d) than two letters that were not (e.g., f/t). Crucially, children required more time to determine that two animals facing opposite directions were identical when preceded by two letters that were lateral mirror images of one another (b/d) than when preceded by letters that were not mirror images of one another (f/t). Importantly, the amplitude of the negative priming effect did not vary with age. Our results suggest that overcoming mirror errors in reading, regardless of the reading proficiency of school-aged children, is rooted in the ability to inhibit the mirror generalization process.

  6. Health Benefits for Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers: Comparison of Access Rates with Workers in the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Strauser, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Access to health insurance is one of the critical aspects of securing employment for people with disabilities. This study investigated whether vocational rehabilitation consumers secured employment with an employer who offered health insurance at similar rates to workers in the general population. In general, the results show that vocational…

  7. Health Profile of Aging Family Caregivers Supporting Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaki, Kiyoshi; Hsieh, Kelly; Heller, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    The health status of 206 female caregivers supporting adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities at home was investigated using objective (i.e., presence of chronic health conditions and activity limitations) and subjective (i.e., self-perceived health status) health measures compared with those of women in the general population in 2…

  8. Data Protection Compliance in the Age of Digital Health.

    PubMed

    Hordern, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    Advances in technology are transforming the way that health data is collected and used. This includes improvements in existing technology as well as innovations in mobile technology such as smartphone apps and wearables. Health data is strictly regulated under the EU Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC. Under current data protection rules, health data is broadly interpreted and will, in most circumstances not connected to the provision of healthcare, require organisations to obtain explicit consent from individuals for its collection and use. Further data protection compliance issues arise such as identifying who is a controller, ensuring transparency, using health data for research purposes and keeping health data secure. As the EU data protection landscape is due to change in the next few years and will affect the collection and use of health data, the forthcoming Data Protection Regulation also deserves attention.

  9. Data Protection Compliance in the Age of Digital Health.

    PubMed

    Hordern, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    Advances in technology are transforming the way that health data is collected and used. This includes improvements in existing technology as well as innovations in mobile technology such as smartphone apps and wearables. Health data is strictly regulated under the EU Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC. Under current data protection rules, health data is broadly interpreted and will, in most circumstances not connected to the provision of healthcare, require organisations to obtain explicit consent from individuals for its collection and use. Further data protection compliance issues arise such as identifying who is a controller, ensuring transparency, using health data for research purposes and keeping health data secure. As the EU data protection landscape is due to change in the next few years and will affect the collection and use of health data, the forthcoming Data Protection Regulation also deserves attention. PMID:27491248

  10. Effect of Service Barriers on Health Status of Aging South Asian Immigrants in Calgary, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.; Surood, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between service barriers and health status of aging South Asian immigrants. Data were obtained through a structured telephone survey with a random sample of 220 South Asians 55 years of age and older. The effect of the different types of service barriers on the physical and mental health of participants was…

  11. Social, Health, and Age Differences Associated with Depressive Disorders in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plach, Sandra K.; Napholz, Linda; Kelber, Sheryl T.

    2005-01-01

    Depression in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be related to social role experiences, physical health, and age. The purpose of this study was to examine the social and health factors contributing to depression in two age groups of women with RA. One-hundred and thirty-eight midlife and late-life women with a diagnosis of RA participated in…

  12. Predictors of general medical and psychological treatment use among a national sample of peacekeeping veterans with health problems.

    PubMed

    Elhai, Jon D; Don Richardson, J; Pedlar, David J

    2007-01-01

    We investigated general medical and psychological treatment use predictors among peacekeeping veterans with health problems, aiming to find those characteristics most associated with treatment use intensity (i.e., visit counts). One thousand one hundred and thirty-two male Canadian Forces peacekeeping veterans registered with Veterans Affairs for health problems were randomly recruited for a prospective national survey. Regression analyses for treatment use intensity controlled for age, total time deployed and health problems (covariates), and examined the incremental contribution of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity on health service use intensity. Results revealed that after controlling for covariates, the depression and PTSD model was associated with increased medical and psychological treatment use intensity. Medical use intensity was significantly predicted by married status, greater depression and health problems; psychological treatment use intensity was predicted by younger age, greater PTSD severity and health problems. This study highlights the importance of an integrated primary care-mental health service delivery model for veterans. PMID:16965892

  13. Dental enamel hypoplasias and health changes in the Middle Bronze Age - Early Iron Age transition at Pella in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Griffin, R C; Donlon, D

    2007-01-01

    Dental enamel hypoplasias are increasingly being used in epidemiological studies as indicators of health within both modern and prehistoric populations. This symptom of growth disruption is used here to examine possible changes in health occurring at the transition between the Bronze Age and Iron Age in Jordan, through examination of enamel hypoplasias in skeletal remains from two tombs at the archaeological site of Pella. A small but not statistically significant difference in the prevalence and frequency of hypoplastic defects was found between the two time periods. These results suggest that the political and economic changes occurring at this time were not sufficiently stressful to cause a dramatic deterioration in health at the onset of the Early Iron Age. PMID:17582411

  14. Age, Health and Life Satisfaction among Older Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelini, Viola; Cavapozzi, Danilo; Corazzini, Luca; Paccagnella, Omar

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how age affects the self-reported level of life satisfaction among the elderly in Europe. By using a vignette approach, we find evidence that age influences life satisfaction through two counterbalancing channels. On the one hand, controlling for the effects of all other variables, the own perceived level of life…

  15. [Japanese adults' general beliefs about changes in the ability to remember from childhood to old age as measured by the General Beliefs about Memory Instrument (GBMI)].

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Hikari; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2012-12-01

    This study examined and compared beliefs about the ability to remember of three groups of adults: 99 young, 97 middle-aged, and 104 older adults. The beliefs were assessed by asking participants to indicate the expected trajectory over the lifespan on a graphic rating scale, the General Beliefs about Memory Instrument (GBMI) (Lineweaver & Hertzog, 1998). The results showed the following. Although all age groups expect a decline in the ability to remember with age with the peak around 20-30 years old, older adults perceive an age-related sharp decline later in life than the other age groups do. All age groups perceive that remembering names is more affected by age than any other memory abilities. The trajectory of age decline in remembering in general coincides with that in remembering trivia. All age groups believe that the ability to remember at the age of 10 is as good as at the age of 40. All age groups responded to the scales based mainly on the abilities based on their experiences.

  16. Excess body weight increases the burden of age-associated chronic diseases and their associated health care expenditures

    PubMed Central

    Atella, Vincenzo; Kopinska, Joanna; Medea, Gerardo; Belotti, Federico; Tosti, Valeria; Mortari, Andrea Piano; Cricelli, Claudio; Fontana, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Aging and excessive adiposity are both associated with an increased risk of developing multiple chronic diseases, which drive ever increasing health costs. The main aim of this study was to determine the net (non‐estimated) health costs of excessive adiposity and associated age‐related chronic diseases. We used a prevalence‐based approach that combines accurate data from the Health Search CSD‐LPD, an observational dataset with patient records collected by Italian general practitioners and up‐to‐date health care expenditures data from the SiSSI Project. In this very large study, 557,145 men and women older than 18 years were observed at different points in time between 2004 and 2010. The proportion of younger and older adults reporting no chronic disease decreased with increasing BMI. After adjustment for age, sex, geographic residence, and GPs heterogeneity, a strong J‐shaped association was found between BMI and total health care costs, more pronounced in middle‐aged and older adults. Relative to normal weight, in the 45‐64 age group, the per‐capita total cost was 10% higher in overweight individuals, and 27 to 68% greater in patients with obesity and very severe obesity, respectively. The association between BMI and diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease largely explained these elevated costs. PMID:26540605

  17. Overview and Implications of the Surgeon General's Report on Mental Health. Topical Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz-Leavy, Judy; Bornemann, Thomas; Burns, Barbara J.; Friedman, Robert; Jenson, Peter; Osher, Trina

    This brief paper on a topical discussion session held at a conference on children's mental health about implications of the 1999 report, "Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General," for children. The discussion focuses primarily on the chapter in the report specifically about children and mental health with comments by four individuals who…

  18. Fluorine Compounds and Dental Health: Applications of General Chemistry Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    An example about the use of everyday phenomena in teaching general chemistry is given. Students have a greater appreciation of the principles of chemistry if they can see the relevance to their lives. Fluorine compounds in dental applications (as topical or as systemic use) provide an excellent context in which to review core content of general…

  19. Ethical issues in electronic health records: A general overview

    PubMed Central

    Ozair, Fouzia F.; Jamshed, Nayer; Sharma, Amit; Aggarwal, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) is increasingly being implemented in many developing countries. It is the need of the hour because it improves the quality of health care and is also cost-effective. Technologies can introduce some hazards hence safety of information in the system is a real challenge. Recent news of security breaches has put a question mark on this system. Despite its increased usefulness, and increasing enthusiasm in its adoption, not much attention is being paid to the ethical issues that might arise. Securing EHR with an encrypted password is a probable option. The purpose of this article is to discuss the various ethical issues arising in the use of the EHRs and their possible solutions. PMID:25878950

  20. Aging Beijing: challenges and strategies of health care for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; Yu, Jia; Song, Yuetao; Chui, Dehua

    2010-11-01

    Following the global trend of population aging, China became an aging society at the end of the 20th century. The ever-growing medical demands of the elderly, the lag in medical insurance policy, and the late development of geriatric services make the present situation of public health in China worrying. To meet these challenges, the Beijing municipal government has actively adjusted its development strategies and has been building up a medical service and healthcare system suitable for the elderly. The core of the system is a three-level management of geriatric diseases: prevention and treatment for chronic diseases, functional rehabilitation, long-term care, and family attendance at rural and urban community health service centers (stations); post-acute rehabilitation, long-term care, and palliative treatment in the specialized geriatric hospitals of every district (county); and rescue and treatment for acute and serious geriatric diseases in the geriatric sections of all general hospitals and Beijing Geriatric Hospital. By raising awareness and gaining support from all of society, the implementation of this system will benefit millions of elderly people and promote the sustainable financial development and social harmony of Beijing. PMID:20667512

  1. Comparing Mental Health of School-Age Children with and without Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    SHAMSAEI, Farshid; CHERAGHI, Fatemeh; ZAMANI, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mental health problems frequently occur in children with epilepsy but the diagnosis is frequently missed and therapeutic opportunities are often lost. The aim of this study was to compare mental health statues between school-aged children with epilepsy and the healthy group. Materials & Methods In this case, control study, 120 children aged 6 to 12 years with idiopathic epilepsy and 240 healthy control groups were followed up. Children with epilepsy were enrolled from Iranian Epilepsy Association in 2014. The parent version of Child Symptom Inventory-4 questionnaire was used. Mean comparisons were performed using Student’s t test while effect sizes were estimated by Cohen’s d coefficient. The Chi-Square test was used to assess the difference between frequency distribution of demographic variables in both groups. The significance level was considered less than 0.05. Results There were statistically significant differences between children with epilepsy and control group as for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, major depression, separation anxiety, social phobia, motor and vocal tics and oppositional defiant disorder. Conclusion The carefully evaluating and prospectively following the psychopathology symptom of children with epilepsy are critical for early identification, prevention and treatment. PMID:27375754

  2. Diet-microbiota-health interactions in older subjects: implications for healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Lynch, D B; Jeffery, I B; Cusack, S; O'Connor, E M; O'Toole, P W

    2015-01-01

    With modern medicine and an awareness of healthy lifestyle practices, people are living longer and generally healthier lives than their ancestors. These successes of modern medicine have resulted in an increasing proportion of elderly in society. Research groups around the world have investigated the contribution of gut microbial communities to human health and well-being. It was established that the microbiota composition of the human gut is modulated by lifestyle factors, especially diet. The microbiota composition and function, acting in concert with direct and indirect effects of habitual diet, is of great importance in remaining healthy and active. This is not a new concept, but until now the scale of the potential microbiota contribution was not appreciated. There are an estimated ten times more bacteria in an individual than human cells. The bacterial population is relatively stable in adults, but the age-related changes that occur later in life can have a negative impact on host health. This loss of the adult-associated microbiota correlates with measures of markers of inflammation, frailty, co-morbidity and nutritional status. This effect may be greater than that of diet or in some cases genetics alone. Collectively, the recent studies show the importance of the microbiota and associated metabolites in healthy aging and the importance of diet in its modulation.

  3. Time preference and its relationship with age, health, and survival probability

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Li-Wei; Szrek, Helena; Pereira, Nuno Sousa; Pauly, Mark V.

    2009-01-01

    Although theories from economics and evolutionary biology predict that one's age, health, and survival probability should be associated with one's subjective discount rate (SDR), few studies have empirically tested for these links. Our study analyzes in detail how the SDR is related to age, health, and survival probability, by surveying a sample of individuals in townships around Durban, South Africa. In contrast to previous studies, we find that age is not significantly related to the SDR, but both physical health and survival expectations have a U-shaped relationship with the SDR. Individuals in very poor health have high discount rates, and those in very good health also have high discount rates. Similarly, those with expected survival probability on the extremes have high discount rates. Therefore, health and survival probability, and not age, seem to be predictors of one's SDR in an area of the world with high morbidity and mortality. PMID:20376300

  4. Rural Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors: Age, Gender, and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.

    A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…

  5. Conscientiousness, Health, and Aging: The Life Course of Personality Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Michael J.; Hill, Patrick L.; Roberts, Brent W.; Eccles, Jacquelynne; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The Conscientiousness (C) of the self and significant others influences health by way of mediational chains involving socioeconomic attainment, the avoidance and neutralization of stressors, the promotion of health behaviors and the minimization of risk behaviors, and the management of symptoms and diseases. Yet, meta-analyses reveal that these…

  6. The association between job satisfaction and general health among employees of Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khiavi, Farzad Faraji; Dashti, Rezvan; Zergani, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Job satisfaction is one of the most challenging organizational concepts, and it is the basis of management policies to increase productivity and efficiency of the organization. The general health rate may affect job satisfaction in several ways. This study aimed to determine the association between job satisfaction and general health among employees of Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods The study population of this cross-sectional research included 100 employees of Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran. The data collection instruments were the General Health Questionnaire (28-GHQ) and the Job Descriptive Index (JDI) questionnaire. The data were analyzed using Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient, independent samples t-test, and ANOVA statistical tests in SPSS software. Results The mean general health was calculated as 26.19 ± 11.04, which indicated a positive psychiatric condition. Job satisfaction with a mean score of 89.67 ± 23.3 was deemed to be relatively dissatisfied. A medium negative and significant association was observed between job satisfaction and general health and its subscales (physical health, anxiety, social, and depression). Conclusions General health subscales and job satisfaction are associated. Some actions must be planned to cope with the negative factors in general health in order to increase employees’ satisfaction in university educational hospitals. PMID:27280002

  7. Gratitude and longing: Meanings of health in aging for Puerto Rican adults in the mainland.

    PubMed

    Todorova, Irina L G; Guzzardo, Mariana T; Adams, Wallis E; Falcón, Luis M

    2015-12-01

    Puerto Rican adults in the United States mainland live with socioeconomic and health disparities. To understand their contextual experience of aging, we interviewed participants in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. Through a Thematic Analysis we identify themes and tensions: normalization and acceptance of aging; gratitude; the importance of aging within social networks; longing to return to Puerto Rico at older age. We address the tensions between 'acceptance' and fatalismo as a cultural belief, and a function of structural barriers. The experience of aging is discussed in the context of Puerto Rico's history and continued dependence on the United States.

  8. Medical innovation and age-specific trends in health care utilization: findings and implications.

    PubMed

    Wong, Albert; Wouterse, Bram; Slobbe, Laurentius C J; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Polder, Johan J

    2012-01-01

    Health care utilization is expected to rise in the coming decades. Not only will the aggregate need for health care grow by changing demographics, so too will per capita utilization. It has been suggested that trends in health care utilization may be age-specific. In this paper, age-specific trends in health care utilization are presented for different health care sectors in the Netherlands, for the period 1981-2009. For the hospital sector we also explore the link between these trends and the state of medical technology. Using aggregated data from a Dutch health survey and a nationwide hospital register, regression analysis was used to examine age-specific trends in the probability of utilizing health care. To determine the influence of medical technology, the growth in age-specific probabilities of hospital care was regressed on the number of medical patents while adjusting for confounders related to demographics, health status, supply and institutional factors. The findings suggest that for most health care sectors, the trend in the probability of health care utilization is highest for ages 65 and up. Larger advances in medical technology are found to be significantly associated with a higher growth of hospitalization probability, particularly for the higher ages. Age-specific trends will raise questions on the sustainability of intergenerational solidarity in health care, as solidarity will not only be strained by the ageing population, but also might find itself under additional pressure as the gap in health care utilization between elderly and non-elderly grows over time. For hospital care utilization, this process might well be accelerated by advances in medical technology.

  9. The Accuracy of Older and Younger Australians' Understanding of Mental Health and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    1993-01-01

    Administered quiz about positive and negative aspects of mental health in old age to 250 Australian adults (ages 17-81). Retirees scored lowest, with no significant differences among younger students versus nonstudents. Age was more important mediator of retirees' low scores than was gender, living with older person, or self-definition as retired.…

  10. Measurement of outcomes of general practice: comparison of three health status measures.

    PubMed

    Hall, J; Hall, N; Fisher, E; Killer, D

    1987-06-01

    The broad range of medical problems seen in general practice means that the assessment of health outcomes shares much with the assessment of health status in the general community. The last two decades have seen considerable progress in health status measurement for this purpose. This paper reports the use of three such measures in a general practice setting. The 'Rand health insurance study battery', the 'sickness impact profile' and the 'general health questionnaire' were tested in two general practices in Sydney, Australia, to determine patient compliance, to assess the range of scores and discriminative ability of the instruments, and to compare the different instruments. There was a high degree of acceptance of the questionnaires, showing that patients visiting their general practitioners are prepared to complete such questionnaires. The range of scores obtained was less skewed for the Rand measures than for the sickness impact profile or the general health questionnaire, suggesting that the Rand measures should be the preferred general health status measure. PMID:3609549

  11. The influence of subjective aging on health and longevity: a meta-analysis of longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Westerhof, Gerben J; Miche, Martina; Brothers, Allyson F; Barrett, Anne E; Diehl, Manfred; Montepare, Joann M; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Wurm, Susanne

    2014-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating on the effects of subjective aging-that is, how individuals perceive their own aging process-on health and survival in later life. The goal of this article is to synthesize findings of existing longitudinal studies through a meta-analysis. A systematic search in PsycInfo, Web of Science, Scopus, and Pubmed resulted in 19 longitudinal studies reporting effects of subjective aging on health, health behaviors, and longevity. The authors combine the outcomes reported in these studies using a random effects meta-analysis, assuming that there would be differences in effect sizes across studies. The meta-analysis resulted in an overall significant effect of subjective aging (likelihood ratio = 1.429; 95% confidence interval = 1.273-1.604; p < .001). The analyses revealed heterogeneity, with stronger effects for studies with a shorter period of follow-up, for studies of health versus survival, for studies with younger participants (average age of the studies varies between 57 and 85 years with a median of 63 years), and for studies in welfare systems where state provisions of welfare are minimal. However, effects did not vary either across different operationalizations of subjective aging or by study quality. Subjective aging has a small significant effect on health, health behaviors, and survival. Further theoretical conceptualizations and empirical studies are needed to determine how subjective aging contributes to health and survival.

  12. [Dutch Preventive Youth Health Care Service guideline on children born too early and/or too small for gestational age].

    PubMed

    van der Pal, Sylvia M; Heerdink, Nen; Kamphuis, Mascha; Pols, Margreet A

    2014-01-01

    In children who are born prematurely or whose birth weight is too low for gestational age (small for gestational age (SGA)) intensive care and follow up are desirable.However, obstacles include the shared care of children born very preterm (< 32 weeks of gestation) by paediatricians, general practitioners, youth health care service (and other professionals) and the identification of possible late onset health problems in children born late preterm (32-37 weeks of gestation). This guideline is multidisciplinary and evidence based and is relevant to all professionals involved in the care of this group of children. The main recommendations are: (a) timely and complete transfer of information after discharge from hospital; (b) structured exchange of information in aftercare; (c) assigning a case manager to each child; (d) monitoring growth and development by adjusting age for preterm birth, and (e) using special growth charts for children born preterm to evaluate growth and development.

  13. Fundamental frequency perturbation indicates perceived health and age in male and female speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, David R.

    2001-05-01

    There is strong support for the idea that healthy vocal chords are able to produce fundamental frequencies (F0) with minimal perturbation. Measures of F0 perturbation have been shown to discriminate pathological versus healthy populations. In addition to measuring vocal chord health, F0 perturbation is a correlate of real and perceived age. Here, the role of jitter (periodic variation in F0) and shimmer (periodic variation in amplitude of F0) in perceived health and age in a young adult (males aged 18-33, females aged 18-26), nondysphonic population was investigated. Voices were assessed for health and age by peer aged, opposite-sex raters. Jitter and shimmer were measured with Praat software (www.praat.org) using various algorithms (jitter: DDP, local, local absolute, PPQ5, and RAP; shimmer: DDA, local, local absolute, APQ3, APQ5, APQ11) to reduce measurement error, and to ascertain the robustness of the findings. Male and female voices were analyzed separately. In both sexes, ratings of health and age were significantly correlated. Measures of jitter and shimmer correlated negatively with perceived health, and positively with perceived age. Further analysis revealed that these effects were independent in male voices. Implications of this finding are that attributions of vocal health and age may reflect actual underlying condition.

  14. [Rethinking how health is promoted in the Colombian general health-related social security system (Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud)].

    PubMed

    Eslava-Castañeda, Juan C

    2006-12-01

    This article takes stock of how promoting health (PH) (promoción de la salud - PS) has been understood within an international setting and gives three meanings for promotion: as general policy orientation, as a set of actions and as a special dimension of sanitary work. Interest expressed in giving it a specific basis distinguishing it from prevention, transcending educational work, has emerged from the subtle differences established from such different ways of coming to terms with PH. After recognising the challenge posed by PH in the field of health, the text succinctly describes how discourse regarding PH has been introduced in Colombia and discusses how an attempt has been made to be more precise regarding its place in the general health-related social security system. Efforts currently being made in Colombia regarding making PH become a reality within the Colombian health system are then mentioned. PMID:17361582

  15. [Rethinking how health is promoted in the Colombian general health-related social security system (Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud)].

    PubMed

    Eslava-Castañeda, Juan C

    2006-12-01

    This article takes stock of how promoting health (PH) (promoción de la salud - PS) has been understood within an international setting and gives three meanings for promotion: as general policy orientation, as a set of actions and as a special dimension of sanitary work. Interest expressed in giving it a specific basis distinguishing it from prevention, transcending educational work, has emerged from the subtle differences established from such different ways of coming to terms with PH. After recognising the challenge posed by PH in the field of health, the text succinctly describes how discourse regarding PH has been introduced in Colombia and discusses how an attempt has been made to be more precise regarding its place in the general health-related social security system. Efforts currently being made in Colombia regarding making PH become a reality within the Colombian health system are then mentioned.

  16. Impact of gender, age and experience of pilots on general aviation accidents.

    PubMed

    Bazargan, Massoud; Guzhva, Vitaly S

    2011-05-01

    General aviation (GA) accounts for more than 82% of all air transport-related accidents and air transport-related fatalities in the U.S. In this study, we conduct a series of statistical analyses to investigate the significance of a pilot's gender, age and experience in influencing the risk for pilot errors and fatalities in GA accidents. There is no evidence from the Chi-square tests and logistic regression models that support the likelihood of an accident caused by pilot error to be related to pilot gender. However, evidence is found that male pilots, those older than 60 years of age, and with more experience, are more likely to be involved in a fatal accident.

  17. Nutrition and depression: implications for improving mental health among childbearing-aged women.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Lisa M; Wisner, Katherine L

    2005-11-01

    Adequate nutrition is needed for countless aspects of brain functioning. Poor diet quality, ubiquitous in the United States, may be a modifiable risk factor for depression. The objective was to review and synthesize the current knowledge of the role of nutrition in depression, and address implications for childbearing-aged women. Poor omega-3 fatty acid status increases the risk of depression. Fish oil and folic acid supplements each have been used to treat depression successfully. Folate deficiency reduces the response to antidepressants. Deficiencies of folate, vitamin B12, iron, zinc, and selenium tend to be more common among depressed than nondepressed persons. Dietary antioxidants have not been studied rigorously in relation to depression. Childbearing-aged women are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of poor nutrition on mood because pregnancy and lactation are major nutritional stressors to the body. The depletion of nutrient reserves throughout pregnancy and a lack of recovery postpartum may increase a woman's risk of depression. Prospective research studies are needed to clarify the role of nutrition in the pathophysiology of depression among childbearing-aged women. Greater attention to nutritional factors in mental health is warranted given that nutrition interventions can be inexpensive, safe, easy to administer, and generally acceptable to patients. PMID:16040007

  18. The development of universal health insurance coverage in Thailand: Challenges of population aging and informal economy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Minchung; Huang, Xianguo; Yupho, Somrasri

    2015-11-01

    This paper quantitatively investigates the sustainability of the universal health insurance coverage (UHI) system in Thailand while taking into account the country's rapidly aging population and large informal labor sector. We examine the effects of population aging and informal employment across three tax options for financing the UHI. A modern dynamic general equilibrium framework is utilized to conduct policy experiments and welfare analysis. In the case of labor income tax being used to finance the cost of UHI, an additional 11-15% of labor tax will be required with the 2050 population age structure, compared with the 2005 benchmark economy. We also find that an expansion of income tax base to the informal sector can substantially alleviate the tax burden. Based on welfare comparisons across the alternative tax options, the labor income tax is the most preferred because the inequality between formal/informal sectors is large. If the informal sector cannot avoid labor income tax, capital tax will be preferred over labor and consumption taxes.

  19. The development of universal health insurance coverage in Thailand: Challenges of population aging and informal economy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Minchung; Huang, Xianguo; Yupho, Somrasri

    2015-11-01

    This paper quantitatively investigates the sustainability of the universal health insurance coverage (UHI) system in Thailand while taking into account the country's rapidly aging population and large informal labor sector. We examine the effects of population aging and informal employment across three tax options for financing the UHI. A modern dynamic general equilibrium framework is utilized to conduct policy experiments and welfare analysis. In the case of labor income tax being used to finance the cost of UHI, an additional 11-15% of labor tax will be required with the 2050 population age structure, compared with the 2005 benchmark economy. We also find that an expansion of income tax base to the informal sector can substantially alleviate the tax burden. Based on welfare comparisons across the alternative tax options, the labor income tax is the most preferred because the inequality between formal/informal sectors is large. If the informal sector cannot avoid labor income tax, capital tax will be preferred over labor and consumption taxes. PMID:26452699

  20. Long-term health investment when people underestimate their adaptation to old age-related health problems.

    PubMed

    Jokung, Octave; Macé, Serge

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores in a two-period model the economic implications of people's tendency to underestimate their ability to adapt to age-related health problems. We model this misperception by assuming that the individual underestimates his future subjective health. Under standard assumptions, we show that, when people allocate their resources during their youth between present consumption, savings, and health investment, they invest more in health as long as the magnitude of the cross-marginal utility of health and consumption is not too negative.

  1. The Relationship between Age, Gender, Historical Change, and Adults' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currin, James B.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Temple, Jeff R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of age, historical change, and gender on perceptions of mental health and mental health services. Using multidimensional measures to assess such perceptions among older adults (1977, 1991, 2000), and younger adults (1991, 2000), we expected that older adults would have less positive mental health…

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life among Artisanal Fisherwomen/Shellfish Gatherers: Lower than the General Population.

    PubMed

    Müller, Juliana Dos Santos; Falcão, Ila Rocha; Couto, Maria Carolina Barreto Moreira; Viana, Wendel da Silva; Alves, Ivone Batista; Viola, Denise Nunes; Woods, Courtney Georgette; Rêgo, Rita Franco

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life is an indicator of how well one perceives that he/she is functioning physically and mentally. The aim of this paper is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers from the Saubara municipality in Bahia, Brazil in comparison to the general population. A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 209 artisanal fisherwomen selected at random. The HRQOL questionnaire, known as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 1 (SF-36v01), was also used, having been translated and verified cross-culturally for the Brazilian population. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and comorbidity information was also collected. Chronic diseases and indicators of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were self-reported. The study population consisted primarily of individuals between 30 and 45 years of age (78%), of self-classified races black or brown (96.2%), with no more than an elementary school education (77%) and married (64.6%). In all the SF-36v01 dimensions, the values in the sample were lower than in the general population of Brazil, which was used as the reference population. In the "Physical Health" domain (Physical Functioning; Physical Role Limitations; Bodily Pain; General Health Perception) a tendency toward a lower health-related quality of life was observed among those who were older, had a lower education level, and had a prevalence of MSDs, hypertension or arthritis. The interference of health conditions linked to the fisherwomen's work activities may contribute to lower HRQOL in all analyzed aspects, in comparison to the general population. In light of these findings, public health policies must consider these informal workers who contribute greatly to Brazil's economy and food system. PMID:27164118

  3. Generalized Joint Laxity and Ligament Injuries in High School–Aged Female Volleyball Players in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sueyoshi, Ted; Emoto, Gen; Yuasa, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Generalized joint laxity has been linked to ligamentous injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament tear and ankle sprain. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to investigate generalized joint laxity and incidence of ligament injuries in high school–aged female volleyball players. It was hypothesized that volleyball players with a past history of sprains would have increased generalized joint laxity compared with those without any history and that athletes with multiple sprains would demonstrate with a higher generalized joint laxity score than those who had only 1 sprain. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Forty-seven subjects were tested for generalized joint laxity using the Beighton and Horan Joint Mobility Index (BHJMI). They were categorized into 2 groups based on the presence of past ligament injury: injury group (IG) and noninjury group (NG). The IG group was further divided into 2 groups based on whether they had a single ligamentous injury (IGS) or multiple injuries (IGM) in the past to study whether there was any difference in scores between the subgroups. The collected data were analyzed statistically with 1-way analysis of variance. Results: Subjects in the IG group scored significantly higher on the BHJMI than those in the NG group. The mean score for the IG group was 2.40 ± 1.42, as opposed to 1.24 ± 1.09 for the NG group (P = .006). Eleven subjects in the IG group had suffered multiple injuries or recurrent injuries (IGM) and scored significantly higher than the remaining 19 individuals in the IG group, who had only sustained a single injury (IGS). The mean BHJMI scores were 3.18 ± 1.47 and 1.95 ± 1.22 for IGM and IGS, respectively (P = .02). Conclusion: Female athletes with a high generalized joint laxity score may be more prone to ligament injury and potentially to recurrent ligament injuries. PMID:27761474

  4. Tension-type headache in Parma's adult general population: a focus on age of onset.

    PubMed

    Taga, Arens; Russo, Marco; Manzoni, Gian C; Torelli, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we focus on the age of onset for tension-type headache in a population-based sample in the Parma, distinguishing its different subtypes and considering definite and probable diagnoses. Age of headache onset is a useful clinical feature for differential diagnosis between primary headaches and between primary and secondary headache forms. A total of 904 subjects representative of the Parma's adult general population were interviewed face to face by a physician from the Parma Headache Centre, using a validated questionnaire specially designed for the diagnosis of primary headaches according to the ICHD-II criteria. In the majority of subjects diagnosed with definite tension-type headache, age of onset was 39 years or less, while mean age of onset was 29.7 years (SD 16.3 years, range 5-79 years), the median being 25 years. Both infrequent and frequent episodic definite tension-type headache first occurred in the majority of cases in the second, third and fourth decades. Subjects with chronic definite tension-type headache reported a later onset in life (i.e. fourth, fifth and sixth decades). In our study, mean age of onset for probable tension-type headache was 23.7 years (SD 9.2 years, range 10-40 years) and the median was 22 years. In no case did we find significant gender differences. Our study results are similar to most of those reported in the literature. Further research needs to be done in the Italian epidemiological context, given the lack of literature reports on this topic.

  5. Health of Indonesian women city-dwellers of perimenopausal age.

    PubMed

    Samil, R S; Wishnuwardhani, S D

    1994-10-01

    In the last few years more women of climacteric age, living in urban areas, have been seeking medical care. In 1989, on the invitation of 6 women's organizations in Jakarta and other cities, the Indonesian Menopause Society gave talks and held discussions in cooperation with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine of the University of Indonesia/Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. These occasions were used to accumulate data from women participants of 40 years of age and older. The age of the respondents ranged between 40-59 years. Most were 42 years old (13.9%). Ninety-four percent were still married. Twenty-five percent had three living children. Sixty-three percent of the respondents were high school graduates who worked full time (33%), part time, or were unemployed. The average menarche age was 13 and menopausal age 50-51. Menopausal complaints were rare, hence medical consultations were rare. Tranquilizers were prescribed for those who did seek medical help. This data constitutes the basis of the formulation of a strategy to solve menopause related problems in Indonesia, where female life expectancy, and the contribution of women to society, is on the increase.

  6. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction.

  7. The experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health. PMID:22846587

  8. Annual night visiting rates in 129 general practices in one family health services authority: association with patient and general practice characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, F A; Cook, D G; Hilton, S; Poloniecki, J; Hagen, A

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Rates of night visiting by general practitioners have increased steadily over the last 30 years and vary widely between general practices. AIM. An ecological study was carried out to examine night visiting rates by general practices in one family health services authority, and to determine the extent to which differences in night visiting rates between practices could be explained by patient and practice characteristics. METHOD. The study examined the variation in annual night visiting rates, based on night visit fees claimed between April 1993 and March 1994, among 129 general practices in Merton, Sutton and Wandsworth Family Health Services Authority, London. RESULTS. Practices' annual night visiting rates varied from three per 1000 to 75 per 1000 patients. The percentages of the practice population aged under five years and aged five to 14 years were both positively correlated with night visiting rates (r = 0.38 and r = 0.35, respectively), as were variables associated with social deprivation such as the estimated percentage of the practice population living in one-parent households (r = 0.24) and in households where the head of household was classified as unskilled (r = 0.20). The percentage of the practice population reporting chronic illness was also positively associated with night visiting rates (r = 0.26). The percentages of the practice population aged 35 to 44 years and 45 to 54 years were both negatively associated with night visiting rates (r = -0.34 and r = -0.31, respectively) as was the estimated list inflation for a practice (r = -0.31). There was no significant correlation between night visiting rates and the distance of the main practice surgery from the nearest hospital accident and emergency department. There was also no association between night visiting rates and permission to use a deputizing service. In a stepwise multiple regression model, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.56 with four factors (percentage of the

  9. The associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Zoer, I; Ruitenburg, M M; Botje, D; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups. A questionnaire was sent to 2021 employees of a Dutch railway company. Six aspects of psychosocial workload (work pressure, mental workload, emotional workload, autonomy, social support from colleagues and social support from supervisors) and three mental health outcomes (work-related fatigue, stress and burnout) were assessed. Associations between the aspects of psychosocial workload (distributed into tertiles) and health complaints were analysed by logistic regression analysis in four age groups (22-35, 36-45, 46-55 and 56-66 years old). In all age groups, worse work pressure was a significant risk factor for having mental health complaints. Worse emotional load in the younger employees and lack of social support in older employees were associated with a higher risk of having mental health complaints. Age-specific preventive measures should be implemented on both individual and group levels. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: With an ageing workforce, understanding relationships between age and work-related health ailments is increasingly important. This study found that emotional workload in younger and lack of social support in older employees were associated with a higher risk of mental health complaints. Work pressure was a risk factor in all age groups.

  10. The McMaster Optimal Aging Portal: Usability Evaluation of a Unique Evidence-Based Health Information Website

    PubMed Central

    Dobbins, Maureen; Haynes, R. Brian; Iorio, Alfonso; Lavis, John N; Raina, Parminder

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasingly, older adults and their informal caregivers are using the Internet to search for health-related information. There is a proliferation of health information online, but the quality of this information varies, often based on exaggerated or dramatic findings, and not easily comprehended by consumers. The McMaster Optimal Aging Portal (Portal) was developed to provide Internet users with high-quality evidence about aging and address some of these current limitations of health information posted online. The Portal includes content for health professionals coming from three best-in-class resources (MacPLUS, Health Evidence, and Health Systems Evidence) and four types of content specifically prepared for the general public (Evidence Summaries, Web Resource Ratings, Blog Posts, and Twitter messages). Objective Our objectives were to share the findings of the usability evaluation of the Portal with particular focus on the content features for the general public and to inform designers of health information websites and online resources for older adults about key usability themes. Methods Data analysis included task performance during usability testing and qualitative content analyses of both the usability sessions and interviews to identify core themes. Results A total of 37 participants took part in 33 usability testing sessions and 21 focused interviews. Qualitative analysis revealed common themes regarding the Portal’s strengths and challenges to usability. The strengths of the website were related to credibility, applicability, browsing function, design, and accessibility. The usability challenges included reluctance to register, process of registering, searching, terminology, and technical features. Conclusions The study reinforced the importance of including end users during the development of this unique, dynamic, evidence-based health information website. The feedback was applied to iteratively improve website usability. Our findings can be

  11. The effect of progressive muscle relaxation on pregnant women's general health

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Azam; Sirati-Nir, Masoud; Ebadi, Abbas; Aliasgari, Matin; Hajiamini, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy may be accompanied by serious physiological and psychological changes as it is a stressful period in a woman's life. So, this study was conducted to determine the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on pregnant women's general health. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 60 primigravida women admitted to the prenatal clinic of selected hospitals in Iran constituted the study population. Using purposive sampling method, the level of general health of the women was measured with General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). Then, the samples were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. Three 1.5–2 h relaxation training sessions were held for the experimental group. After 8 weeks, the level of general health of both groups was measured again. Finally, the collected data were analyzed using Chi-square and paired t-test (P < 0.05). Results: Total mean score of general health of the experimental group and the control group before the intervention was 35.83 (6.92) and 29.46 (8.3), respectively, and after the intervention, the respective scores were 20.2 (5.61) and 27.85 (8.24). Although after the intervention both groups showed an increased level of general health, the difference in general health between before and after intervention was significant in the experimental group (P < 0.001). Furthermore, comparison of variations in mean scores of general health level before and after intervention in the two groups showed a significant difference (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Given that the results showed the effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation on pregnant women's general health, the prenatal clinics can include a training program for progressive muscle relaxation in the routine training programs for pregnant women. PMID:26793248

  12. Association between Self-Reported General and Mental Health and Adverse Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study of 19 625 Scottish Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ul-Haq, Zia; Mackay, Daniel F.; Pell, Jill P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Self-reported general health and mental health are independent predictors of all-cause mortality. This study examines whether they are also independent predictors of incident cancer, coronary heart disease and psychiatric hospitalisation. Methods We conducted a retrospective, population cohort study by linking the 19 625 Scottish adults who participated in the Scottish Health Surveys 1995–2003, to hospital admissions, cancer registration and death certificate records. We conducted Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, socioeconomic status, alcohol, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes. Results Poor general health was reported by 1215 (6.2%) participants and was associated with cancer registrations (adjusted Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.30, 95% CI 1.10, 1.55), coronary heart disease events (adjusted HR 2.30, 95% CI 1.86, 2.84) and psychiatric hospitalisations (adjusted HR 2.42, 95% CI 1.65, 3.56). There was evidence of dose relationships and the associations remained significant after adjustment for mental health. 3172 (16%) participants had poor mental health (GHQ ≥4). After adjustment for general health, the associations between poor mental health and coronary heart disease events (adjusted HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.13, 1.63) and all-cause death (adjusted HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.23, 1.55) became non-significant, but mental health remained associated with psychiatric hospitalisations (fully adjusted HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.48, 2.75). Conclusion Self-reported general health is a significant predictor of a range of clinical outcomes independent of mental health. The association between mental health and non-psychiatric outcomes is mediated by general health but it is an independent predictor of psychiatric outcome. Individuals with poor general health or mental health warrant close attention. PMID:24705574

  13. Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Mona S; Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-07-01

    This review explores the potential adverse impact of the increasing phosphorus content in the American diet on renal, cardiovascular, and bone health of the general population. Increasingly, studies show that phosphorus intakes in excess of the nutrient needs of a healthy population may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, which contributes to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, impaired kidney function, and bone loss. Moreover, large epidemiologic studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphate within the normal range are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy populations without evidence of kidney disease. However, few studies linked high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphate because of the nature of the study design and inaccuracies in the nutrient composition databases. Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient, in excess it could be linked to tissue damage by a variety of mechanisms involved in the endocrine regulation of extracellular phosphate, specifically the secretion and action of fibroblast growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone. Disordered regulation of these hormones by high dietary phosphorus may be key factors contributing to renal failure, CVD, and osteoporosis. Although systematically underestimated in national surveys, phosphorus intake seemingly continues to increase as a result of the growing consumption of highly processed foods, especially restaurant meals, fast foods, and convenience foods. The increased cumulative use of ingredients containing phosphorus in food processing merits further study given what is now being shown about the potential toxicity of phosphorus intake when it exceeds nutrient needs.

  14. Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Mona S; Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-07-01

    This review explores the potential adverse impact of the increasing phosphorus content in the American diet on renal, cardiovascular, and bone health of the general population. Increasingly, studies show that phosphorus intakes in excess of the nutrient needs of a healthy population may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, which contributes to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, impaired kidney function, and bone loss. Moreover, large epidemiologic studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphate within the normal range are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy populations without evidence of kidney disease. However, few studies linked high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphate because of the nature of the study design and inaccuracies in the nutrient composition databases. Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient, in excess it could be linked to tissue damage by a variety of mechanisms involved in the endocrine regulation of extracellular phosphate, specifically the secretion and action of fibroblast growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone. Disordered regulation of these hormones by high dietary phosphorus may be key factors contributing to renal failure, CVD, and osteoporosis. Although systematically underestimated in national surveys, phosphorus intake seemingly continues to increase as a result of the growing consumption of highly processed foods, especially restaurant meals, fast foods, and convenience foods. The increased cumulative use of ingredients containing phosphorus in food processing merits further study given what is now being shown about the potential toxicity of phosphorus intake when it exceeds nutrient needs. PMID:23719553

  15. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  16. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  17. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population.

  18. Sleep and Mental Health in Undergraduate Students with Generally Healthy Sleep Habits.

    PubMed

    Milojevich, Helen M; Lukowski, Angela F

    2016-01-01

    Whereas previous research has indicated that sleep problems tend to co-occur with increased mental health issues in university students, relatively little is known about relations between sleep quality and mental health in university students with generally healthy sleep habits. Understanding relations between sleep and mental health in individuals with generally healthy sleep habits is important because (a) student sleep habits tend to worsen over time and (b) even time-limited experience of sleep problems may have significant implications for the onset of mental health problems. In the present research, 69 university students with generally healthy sleep habits completed questionnaires about sleep quality and mental health. Although participants did not report clinically concerning mental health issues as a group, global sleep quality was associated with mental health. Regression analyses revealed that nighttime sleep duration and the frequency of nighttime sleep disruptions were differentially related to total problems and clinically-relevant symptoms of psychological distress. These results indicate that understanding relations between sleep and mental health in university students with generally healthy sleep habits is important not only due to the large number of undergraduates who experience sleep problems and mental health issues over time but also due to the potential to intervene and improve mental health outcomes before they become clinically concerning.

  19. Sleep and Mental Health in Undergraduate Students with Generally Healthy Sleep Habits

    PubMed Central

    Milojevich, Helen M.; Lukowski, Angela F.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas previous research has indicated that sleep problems tend to co-occur with increased mental health issues in university students, relatively little is known about relations between sleep quality and mental health in university students with generally healthy sleep habits. Understanding relations between sleep and mental health in individuals with generally healthy sleep habits is important because (a) student sleep habits tend to worsen over time and (b) even time-limited experience of sleep problems may have significant implications for the onset of mental health problems. In the present research, 69 university students with generally healthy sleep habits completed questionnaires about sleep quality and mental health. Although participants did not report clinically concerning mental health issues as a group, global sleep quality was associated with mental health. Regression analyses revealed that nighttime sleep duration and the frequency of nighttime sleep disruptions were differentially related to total problems and clinically-relevant symptoms of psychological distress. These results indicate that understanding relations between sleep and mental health in university students with generally healthy sleep habits is important not only due to the large number of undergraduates who experience sleep problems and mental health issues over time but also due to the potential to intervene and improve mental health outcomes before they become clinically concerning. PMID:27280714

  20. Mental Health and General Wellness in the Aftermath of Hurricane Ike

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Joshi, Spruha; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Galea, Sandro; Cerdá, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to natural disasters has been linked to a range of adverse outcomes, including mental health problems (e.g., posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS], depression), declines in role functioning (e.g., occupational difficulties), and physical health problems (e.g., somatic complaints). However, prior research and theory suggest that the modal postdisaster response in each of these domains is resilience, defined as low levels of symptoms or problems in a given outcome over time, with minimal elevations that are limited to the time period during the disaster and its immediate aftermath. However, the extent to which disaster survivors exhibit mental health wellness (resilience across multiple mental health conditions) or general wellness (resilience across mental health, physical health, and role functioning domains) remains unexplored. The purpose of this study was to quantify mental health and general wellness, and to examine predictors of each form of wellness, in a three-wave population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors (N = 658). Latent class growth analysis was used to determine the frequency of resilience on four outcomes (PTSS: 74.9%; depression: 57.9%; functional impairment: 45.1%; days of poor health: 52.6%), and cross-tabulations were used to determine the frequency of mental health wellness (51.2%) and general wellness (26.1%). Significant predictors of both mental health and general wellness included lower perievent emotional reactions and higher community-level collective efficacy; loss of sentimental possessions or pets and disaster-related financial loss were negative predictors of mental health wellness, and loss of personal property was a negative predictor of general wellness. The results suggest that studies focusing on a single postdisaster outcome may have overestimated the prevalence of mental health and general wellness, and that peri-event responses, personal property loss and collective efficacy have a cross-cutting influence across

  1. Mental health and general wellness in the aftermath of Hurricane Ike.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Joshi, Spruha; Pietrzak, Robert H; Galea, Sandro; Cerdá, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to natural disasters has been linked to a range of adverse outcomes, including mental health problems (e.g., posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS], depression), declines in role functioning (e.g., occupational difficulties), and physical health problems (e.g., somatic complaints). However, prior research and theory suggest that the modal postdisaster response in each of these domains is resilience, defined as low levels of symptoms or problems in a given outcome over time, with minimal elevations that are limited to the time period during the disaster and its immediate aftermath. However, the extent to which disaster survivors exhibit mental health wellness (resilience across multiple mental health conditions) or general wellness (resilience across mental health, physical health, and role functioning domains) remains unexplored. The purpose of this study was to quantify mental health and general wellness, and to examine predictors of each form of wellness, in a three-wave population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors (N = 658). Latent class growth analysis was used to determine the frequency of resilience on four outcomes (PTSS: 74.9%; depression: 57.9%; functional impairment: 45.1%; days of poor health: 52.6%), and cross-tabulations were used to determine the frequency of mental health wellness (51.2%) and general wellness (26.1%). Significant predictors of both mental health and general wellness included lower peri-event emotional reactions and higher community-level collective efficacy; loss of sentimental possessions or pets and disaster-related financial loss were negative predictors of mental health wellness, and loss of personal property was a negative predictor of general wellness. The results suggest that studies focusing on a single postdisaster outcome may have overestimated the prevalence of mental health and general wellness, and that peri-event responses, personal property loss and collective efficacy have a cross-cutting influence across

  2. Mental health and general wellness in the aftermath of Hurricane Ike.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Joshi, Spruha; Pietrzak, Robert H; Galea, Sandro; Cerdá, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to natural disasters has been linked to a range of adverse outcomes, including mental health problems (e.g., posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS], depression), declines in role functioning (e.g., occupational difficulties), and physical health problems (e.g., somatic complaints). However, prior research and theory suggest that the modal postdisaster response in each of these domains is resilience, defined as low levels of symptoms or problems in a given outcome over time, with minimal elevations that are limited to the time period during the disaster and its immediate aftermath. However, the extent to which disaster survivors exhibit mental health wellness (resilience across multiple mental health conditions) or general wellness (resilience across mental health, physical health, and role functioning domains) remains unexplored. The purpose of this study was to quantify mental health and general wellness, and to examine predictors of each form of wellness, in a three-wave population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors (N = 658). Latent class growth analysis was used to determine the frequency of resilience on four outcomes (PTSS: 74.9%; depression: 57.9%; functional impairment: 45.1%; days of poor health: 52.6%), and cross-tabulations were used to determine the frequency of mental health wellness (51.2%) and general wellness (26.1%). Significant predictors of both mental health and general wellness included lower peri-event emotional reactions and higher community-level collective efficacy; loss of sentimental possessions or pets and disaster-related financial loss were negative predictors of mental health wellness, and loss of personal property was a negative predictor of general wellness. The results suggest that studies focusing on a single postdisaster outcome may have overestimated the prevalence of mental health and general wellness, and that peri-event responses, personal property loss and collective efficacy have a cross-cutting influence across

  3. Epigenetics: general characteristics and implications for oral health

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji-Yun; Park, Yoon-Jung; Yi, Young-Ah; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, In-Bog; Son, Ho-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Genetic information such as DNA sequences has been limited to fully explain mechanisms of gene regulation and disease process. Epigenetic mechanisms, which include DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNAs, can regulate gene expression and affect progression of disease. Although studies focused on epigenetics are being actively investigated in the field of medicine and biology, epigenetics in dental research is at the early stages. However, studies on epigenetics in dentistry deserve attention because epigenetic mechanisms play important roles in gene expression during tooth development and may affect oral diseases. In addition, understanding of epigenetic alteration is important for developing new therapeutic methods. This review article aims to outline the general features of epigenetic mechanisms and describe its future implications in the field of dentistry. PMID:25671208

  4. Age-dependent electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns during sevoflurane general anesthesia in infants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) approaches may provide important information about developmental changes in brain-state dynamics during general anesthesia. We used multi-electrode EEG, analyzed with multitaper spectral methods and video recording of body movement to characterize the spatio-temporal dynamics of brain activity in 36 infants 0–6 months old when awake, and during maintenance of and emergence from sevoflurane general anesthesia. During maintenance: (1) slow-delta oscillations were present in all ages; (2) theta and alpha oscillations emerged around 4 months; (3) unlike adults, all infants lacked frontal alpha predominance and coherence. Alpha power was greatest during maintenance, compared to awake and emergence in infants at 4–6 months. During emergence, theta and alpha power decreased with decreasing sevoflurane concentration in infants at 4–6 months. These EEG dynamic differences are likely due to developmental factors including regional differences in synaptogenesis, glucose metabolism, and myelination across the cortex. We demonstrate the need to apply age-adjusted analytic approaches to develop neurophysiologic-based strategies for pediatric anesthetic state monitoring. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06513.001 PMID:26102526

  5. The effects of age on associative and rule-based causal learning and generalization.

    PubMed

    Mutter, Sharon A; Plumlee, Leslie F

    2014-06-01

    We assessed how age influences associative and rule-based processes in causal learning using the Shanks and Darby (1998) concurrent patterning discrimination task. In Experiment 1, participants were divided into groups based on their learning performance after 6 blocks of training trials. High discrimination mastery young adults learned the patterning discrimination more rapidly and accurately than moderate mastery young adults. They were also more likely to induce the patterning rule and use this rule to generate predictions for novel cues, whereas moderate mastery young adults were more likely to use cue similarity as the basis for their predictions. Like moderate mastery young adults, older adults used similarity-based generalization for novel cues, but they did not achieve the same level of patterning discrimination. In Experiment 2, young and older adults were trained to the same learning criterion. Older adults again showed deficits in patterning discrimination and, in contrast to young adults, even when they reported awareness of the patterning rule, they used only similarity-based generalization in their predictions for novel cues. These findings suggest that it is important to consider how the ability to code or use cue representations interacts with the requirements of the causal learning task. In particular, age differences in causal learning seem to be greatest for tasks that require rapid coding of configural representations to control associative interference between similar cues. Configural coding may also be related to the success of rule-based processes in these types of learning tasks.

  6. Consumer-directed health care for persons under 65 years of age with private health insurance: United States, 2007.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Robin A; Martinez, Michael E

    2009-03-01

    Data from the National Health Interview Survey. In 2007, 17.3% of persons under 65 years of age with private health insurance were enrolled in a high deductible health plan (HDHP), 4.5% were enrolled in a consumer-directed health plan (CDHP), and 14.8% were in a family with a flexible spending account for medical expenses (FSA); Persons with directly purchased private health insurance were more likely to be enrolled in a high deductible plan than those who obtained their private health insurance through an employer or union; Higher incomes and higher educational attainment were associated with greater uptake and enrollment in HDHPs, CDHPs, and FSAs. National attention to consumer-directed health care has increased following the enactment of the Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-173), which established tax-advantaged health savings accounts (1). Consumer-directed health care enables individuals to have more control over when and how they access care, what types of care they use, and how much they spend on health care services. This report includes estimates of three measures of consumer-directed private health care. Estimates for 2007 are provided for enrollment in high deductible health plans (HDHPs), plans with high deductibles coupled with health savings accounts also known as consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs), and the percentage of individuals with private coverage whose family has a flexible spending account (FSA) for medical expenses, by selected sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:19389327

  7. The New Mexico aging process study (1979-2003). A longitudinal study of nutrition, health and aging.

    PubMed

    Garry, P J; Wayne, S J; Vellas, B

    2007-01-01

    In 1979, Dr. James S. Goodwin, M.D., assisted by Philip J. Garry, Ph.D., submitted a grant proposal to the United States Public Health Service/ National Institute on Aging (NIA) entitled, "A prospective study of nutrition in the elderly". This study was approved and funded by the NIA beginning in 1979. Initially, approximately 300 men and women over 65 years of age with no known medical illnesses and no prescription medications were selected for this study. The primary purpose of this multi disciplinary study, known in the literature as the New Mexico Aging Process Study (NMAPS), was to examine the role of nutrition and resultant changes in body composition and organ function in relation to the aging process and health status of the elderly. This was accomplished by following prospectively healthy elderly volunteers, obtaining in-depth information about dietary habits, lifestyle, body composition, organ function, cognitive status, vitamin metabolism, genetic markers, and biochemical measures of nutritional status and then examining these data in relationship to age and health status and changes in health status. Some of the specific aims of the study were modified over the course of this longitudinal study because of availability of University of New Mexico School of Medicine faculty with expertise in different areas of aging research. In 1988, Dr. Bruno Vellas from the University Hospital in Toulouse, France became an on-going visiting professor at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. From 1988, until the study was terminated in 2003, Dr. Vellas has collaborated with the faculty involved in the NMAPS on a number of research projects. In this article, we provide information about the studies overall design and briefly describe some of the major finding of the NMAPS.

  8. Health-promoting residential aged care: a pilot project in Austria.

    PubMed

    Krajic, Karl; Cichocki, Martin; Quehenberger, Viktoria

    2015-09-01

    Long-term care for the aged is an area that has not been in the focus of health promotion so far. The paper describes context, concept and project plan of a 2-year pilot project of comprehensive health-promoting setting development in residential aged care in Austria, and provides an overview over main experiences and results. Austria's most relevant health promotion agencies, a specialized scientific institute and Austria's largest provider of aged care acted as partners. The project aimed at developing elements of a comprehensive approach, but also providing evidence for the effectiveness of health promotion. Therefore, the project combined an organizational development approach with a scientific, randomized controlled study on mobility enhancement for residents. A comprehensive settings approach turned out acceptable for the main stakeholders of aged care (owners and management, staff, residents and residents' relatives). Strategy development, based on a systematic needs assessment, found staff health to be of special interest for the organization (ergonomics, workability over life course), and residents' relatives, got more attention. The mobility study was able to achieve positive results on occupational performance, concerning quality-of-life indicators and reached also formerly inactive groups. After the end of the project, health promotion is still on the agenda of the organization; further developments will be monitored. Good support from the policy level and well-established networking between the aged care provider, health promotion agencies and a network for health promotion in health care seems to have been an important resource for success.

  9. Educational expansion and the education gradient in health: A hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Delaruelle, Katrijn; Buffel, Veerle; Bracke, Piet

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have recently been investigating the temporal variation in the educational gradient in health. While there is abundant literature concerning age trajectories, theoretical knowledge about cohort differences is relatively limited. Therefore, in analogy with the life course perspective, we introduce two contrasting cohort-specific hypotheses. The diminishing health returns hypothesis predicts a decrease in educational disparities in health across cohorts. By contrast, the cohort accretion hypothesis suggests that the education-health gap will be more pronounced among younger cohorts. To shed light on this, we perform a hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis (HAPC), using data from a subsample of individuals between 25 and 85 years of age (N = 232,573) from 32 countries in the European Social Survey (six waves: 2002-2012). The analysis leads to three important conclusions. First, we observe a widening health gap between different educational levels over the life course. Second, we find that these educational differences in the age trajectories of health seem to strengthen with each successive birth cohort. However, the two age-related effects disappear when we control for employment status, household income, and family characteristics. Last, when adjusting for these mediators, we reveal evidence to support the diminishing health returns hypothesis, implying that it is primarily the direct association between education and health that decreases across cohorts. This finding raises concerns about potential barriers to education being a vehicle for empowerment and the promotion of health. PMID:26458119

  10. Educational expansion and the education gradient in health: A hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Delaruelle, Katrijn; Buffel, Veerle; Bracke, Piet

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have recently been investigating the temporal variation in the educational gradient in health. While there is abundant literature concerning age trajectories, theoretical knowledge about cohort differences is relatively limited. Therefore, in analogy with the life course perspective, we introduce two contrasting cohort-specific hypotheses. The diminishing health returns hypothesis predicts a decrease in educational disparities in health across cohorts. By contrast, the cohort accretion hypothesis suggests that the education-health gap will be more pronounced among younger cohorts. To shed light on this, we perform a hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis (HAPC), using data from a subsample of individuals between 25 and 85 years of age (N = 232,573) from 32 countries in the European Social Survey (six waves: 2002-2012). The analysis leads to three important conclusions. First, we observe a widening health gap between different educational levels over the life course. Second, we find that these educational differences in the age trajectories of health seem to strengthen with each successive birth cohort. However, the two age-related effects disappear when we control for employment status, household income, and family characteristics. Last, when adjusting for these mediators, we reveal evidence to support the diminishing health returns hypothesis, implying that it is primarily the direct association between education and health that decreases across cohorts. This finding raises concerns about potential barriers to education being a vehicle for empowerment and the promotion of health.

  11. Using an eHealth Intervention to Stimulate Health Behavior for the Prevention of Cognitive Decline in Dutch Adults: A Study Protocol for the Brain Aging Monitor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Internet-delivered intervention programs are an effective way of changing health behavior in an aging population. The same population has an increasing number of people with cognitive decline or cognitive impairments. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as physical activity, nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep, and stress all influence the probability of developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Objective This study aims to answer two questions: (1) Is the use of a self-motivated, complex eHealth intervention effective in changing multiple health behaviors related to cognitive aging in Dutch adults in the work force, especially those aged 40 and over? and (2) Does this health behavior change result in healthier cognitive aging patterns and contribute to preventing or delaying future onset of neurodegenerative syndromes? Methods The Brain Aging Monitor study uses a quasi-experimental 2-year pre-posttest design. The Brain Aging Monitor is an online, self-motivated lifestyle intervention program. Recruitment is done both in medium to large organizations and in the Dutch general population over the age of 40. The main outcome measure is the relationship between lifestyle change and cognitive aging. The program uses different strategies and modalities such as Web content, email, online newsletters, and online games to aid its users in behavior change. To build self-regulatory skills, the Brain Aging Monitor offers its users goal-setting activities, skill-building activities, and self-monitoring. Results Study results are expected to be published in early 2016. Conclusions This study will add to the body of evidence on the effectiveness of eHealth intervention programs with the combined use of state-of-the-art applied games and established behavior change techniques. This will lead to new insights on how to use behavior change techniques and theory in multidimensional lifestyle eHealth research, and how these techniques

  12. Socioeconomic inequalities in health trajectories in Switzerland: are trajectories diverging as people age?

    PubMed

    Cullati, Stéphane

    2015-06-01

    Do socioeconomic differences in health status increase as people age, reflecting cumulative advantage or disadvantage in health trajectories? Life course research hypothesises that cumulative advantage/disadvantage (CAD) is an important underlying social process that shape inequalities as people age. The objective of this study is to examine whether health trajectories are diverging as people age across socioeconomic positions (education, employment status and income). In a random sample of 3,665 respondents living in Switzerland (Swiss Household Panel 2004-2011), trajectories of self-rated health, body mass index, depression and medicated functioning were examined with multilevel regression models. The results showed that employment status and income were associated with diverging health trajectories among men; however, only a few associations supported the CAD hypothesis. Education was rarely associated with diverging health trajectories. In conclusion, little evidence was found to support the CAD model.

  13. A health promotion practicum targeting the college-age population.

    PubMed

    Diebold, C M; Chappell, H W; Robinson, M K

    2000-01-01

    Senior and sophomore baccalaureate nursing students at the University of Kentucky developed a health promotion exposition that targeted college students. This experience gave senior students the opportunity to practice leadership and management skills, such as planning, organizing, collaborating, delegating, evaluating, and time management and conflict resolution. Sophomore students developed teaching abilities, practiced assessment and communication techniques, and increased their knowledge of health-promoting behaviors. Both groups experienced team building and demonstrated accountability. Students reported a positive learning experience that met various course objectives in an innovative way. PMID:11141902

  14. Health impact: longitudinal analysis of employment at middle and old age in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    GONZÁLEZ-GONZÁLEZ, César; WONG, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    We use longitudinal data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study to analyze the relationship between health and labor force participation of population aged 50 years and older in Mexico. The results confirm that health, measured through chronic diseases and difficulty to perform activities of daily living, has a powerful influence on labor force participation. We also find important differences by gender; hypertension and diabetes have effects in both, men and women; heart disease and stroke only in men. We provide concrete evidence on economic participation and highlight the importance of public policies to create adequate jobs for the population at middle and old age. PMID:25722646

  15. Polyphenols: Benefits to the Cardiovascular System in Health and in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Sandhya; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Hollingsworth, Amanda; Piche, Matthew; Tai, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of naturally occurring dietary polyphenols in promoting cardiovascular health and emphasized the significant role these compounds play in limiting the effects of cellular aging. Polyphenols such as resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and curcumin have been acknowledged for having beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, while some have also been shown to be protective in aging. This review highlights the literature surrounding this topic on the prominently studied and documented polyphenols as pertaining to cardiovascular health and aging. PMID:24077237

  16. Proteostasis and the Aging Proteome in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of the proteome is essential to preserve cell functionality and the ability to respond and adapt to the changing environment. This is regulated by the proteostasis network, a dedicated set of molecular components comprised of molecular chaperones and protein clearance mechanisms, regulated by cell stress signaling pathways, that prevents the toxicity associated with protein misfolding and accumulation of toxic aggregates in different subcellular compartments and tissues. The efficiency of the proteostasis network declines with age and this failure in protein homeostasis has been proposed to underlie the basis of common age-related human disorders. The current advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of proteostasis and of the different types of digressions in this process in aging have turned the attention toward the therapeutic opportunities offered by the restoration of proteostasis in age-associated degenerative diseases. Here, we discuss some of the unresolved questions on proteostasis that need to be addressed to enhance healthspan and to diminish the pathology associated with persistent protein damage. PMID:24833584

  17. Role of walnuts in maintaining brain health with age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the combination of population growth and population aging, increases in the incidence of chronic neurodegenerative disorders have become a societal concern, both in terms of decreased quality of life and increased financial burden. Clinical manifestation of many of these disorders takes years...

  18. Age-targeted HIV treatment and primary prevention as a ‘ring fence’ to efficiently interrupt the age patterns of transmission in generalized epidemic settings in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bershteyn, Anna; Klein, Daniel J.; Eckhoff, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Generalized HIV epidemics propagate to future generations according to the age patterns of transmission. We hypothesized that future generations could be protected from infection using age-targeted prevention, analogous to the ring-fencing strategies used to control the spread of smallpox. Methods We modeled age-targeted or cohort-targeted outreach with HIV treatment and/or prevention using EMOD-HIV v0·8, an individual-based network model of HIV transmission in South Africa. Results Targeting ages 20 to 30 with intensified outreach, linkage, and eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART) averted 45% as many infections as universal outreach for approximately one-fifth the cost beyond existing HIV services. Though cost-effective, targeting failed to eliminate all infections to those under 20 due to vertical and inter-generational transmission. Cost-effectiveness of optimal prevention strategies included US$6238 per infection averted targeting ages 10–30, US$5031 targeting 20–30, US$4279 targeting 22–27, and US$3967 targeting 25–27, compared to US$10 812 for full-population test-and-treat. Minimizing burden (disability-adjusted life years [DALYs]) rather than infections resulted in older target age ranges because older adults were more likely to receive a direct health benefit from treatment. Conclusions Age-targeted treatment for HIV prevention is unlikely to eliminate HIV epidemics, but is an efficient strategy for reducing new infections in generalized epidemics settings. PMID:27008897

  19. Evaluation of Mental Health Programs for the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert L.; Zarit, Steven H.

    This paper highlights what the authors believe are the important issues and directions of change in the evaluation of mental health programs. The rationale for such evaluation is twofold. First, it provides a scientifically rigorous method of determining the therapeutic efficacy of the treatment or program, and secondly, these results can exercise…

  20. Protecting public health in the age of emerging infections.

    PubMed

    Lev, Ori; Rager-Zisman, Bracha

    2014-11-01

    Emerging and re-emerging infections cause huge concern among public health workers and international and national bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH). Indeed, scientists around the world express the view that despite the danger, research on these emerging virulent pathogens is crucial and must continue. While most of the studies underway are targeted at improving and protecting public health, some studies bear potentiallyserious risks resulting from misuse. These studies are defined as dual-use research of concern (DURC), where it is not evident that the benefits outweigh the risks. The H5N1 controversy has pushed various governments to institute new policies to govern such research. We describe the regulations that govern this emerging field of research in the United States and Israel, two countries that have taken leading stands on these issues. We suggest that the existing policies are able to mitigate many of the risks that this research encapsulates, yet more work is required--especially on the global level. PMID:25558694

  1. Impact of traditional Chinese medicine on age trajectories of health: evidence from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Ching; Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A; Beverly, Elizabeth A; Tseng, Shuo-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is widely used, its effect on health outcomes is not well understood. This study employed a cohort sequential design to investigate levels and rates of change in health from midlife to older adulthood in TCM users and nonusers. A sample of 1,302 community-dwelling adults aged 53 to 80 was selected from individuals interviewed in the 1999 Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (TLSA) and reinterviewed in 2003 and 2007. TCM users were identified as participants who reported visiting a Chinese medicine clinic in the year before each of the three interviews. Health outcomes included physical function, self-rated health, cognitive function, and depressive symptoms. Approximately one in five adults reported that they used TCM in at least one wave of the 3 interview years, but less than one in twenty across all waves. Controlling for time-varying sociodemographic and health conditions, levels and rates of change in physical and cognitive function did not differ according to TCM use. Although adults who reported using TCM had higher depressive symptoms (βTCM = 0.979, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.200-1.758) and poorer self-rated health (βTCM = -0.267, 95% CI = -0.267 to -0.081) at baseline, their rates of change in these outcomes did not differ from those who did not use TCM. Subgroup analyses revealed that TCM use benefited adults with higher depressive symptoms by attenuating worsening depressive symptoms (βTCM ×Age = -0.221, 95% CI = -0.434 to -0.007). Further research aimed at understanding the specific mechanisms by which TCM affects health outcomes is warranted.

  2. The seduction of general practice and illegitimate birth of an expanded role in population health care.

    PubMed

    Buetow, Stephen; Docherty, Barbara

    2005-08-01

    To reduce health inequalities and improve quality in health care, health policy initiatives in countries including New Zealand and the United Kingdom are expecting general practice to share responsibilities for a population approach to health care. This is giving increased emphasis to preventative care, including health promotion. Reasoned debate on this policy is overdue, not least in New Zealand, where clinicians within general practice appear to have been seduced by the lack of clarity in health policy into accepting this policy without question. They appear to disregard implications of the policy for redefining the nature and scope of their discipline (and of public health), including their own role as providers of personal care. This paper suggests that a population health approach is inappropriate in general practice when this approach weakens personal care and involves health promotion activity of unknown safety and effectiveness. The example of intentional weight loss to reduce overweight is used to illustrate these issues. We argue for a restricted range of general practice services.

  3. [Factors affecting health behavior of the people aged forties--a test of the health belief model].

    PubMed

    Tohnai, S; Hata, E

    1994-04-01

    The health behavior of 1120 persons, aged in their forties, living in a city, a mountain village and a fishing village were analyzed according to the Health Belief Model. Women practiced more health behaviors than men. People living in the city and mountain village practiced more than people in fishing village. Company employees, farmers and housewives practiced more than self-employeds and fishermen. Education level had no significant influence in the practice of health behavior. As predicted, people who believed in the effectiveness of health behavior practiced more health behaviors. On the other hand, people who perceived barriers to health behavior practiced less. Paradoxically, people who perceived vulnerability to hypertension, cerebrovascular disease or cancer, and the seriousness of these diseases, practiced less health behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that health beliefs, social supports and information from mass media could account for 33.0% of the Health Behavior Score variation. Perceived barriers to health behavior was the strongest determinant for practice of health behavior. Perceived barriers may account for gender and occupational differences in health behavior.

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life among Artisanal Fisherwomen/Shellfish Gatherers: Lower than the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Juliana dos Santos; Falcão, Ila Rocha; Couto, Maria Carolina Barreto Moreira; Viana, Wendel da Silva; Alves, Ivone Batista; Viola, Denise Nunes; Woods, Courtney Georgette; Rêgo, Rita Franco

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life is an indicator of how well one perceives that he/she is functioning physically and mentally. The aim of this paper is to determine the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of artisanal fisherwomen/shellfish gatherers from the Saubara municipality in Bahia, Brazil in comparison to the general population. A structured questionnaire was administered to a sample of 209 artisanal fisherwomen selected at random. The HRQOL questionnaire, known as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey version 1 (SF-36v01), was also used, having been translated and verified cross-culturally for the Brazilian population. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and comorbidity information was also collected. Chronic diseases and indicators of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were self-reported. The study population consisted primarily of individuals between 30 and 45 years of age (78%), of self-classified races black or brown (96.2%), with no more than an elementary school education (77%) and married (64.6%). In all the SF-36v01 dimensions, the values in the sample were lower than in the general population of Brazil, which was used as the reference population. In the “Physical Health” domain (Physical Functioning; Physical Role Limitations; Bodily Pain; General Health Perception) a tendency toward a lower health-related quality of life was observed among those who were older, had a lower education level, and had a prevalence of MSDs, hypertension or arthritis. The interference of health conditions linked to the fisherwomen’s work activities may contribute to lower HRQOL in all analyzed aspects, in comparison to the general population. In light of these findings, public health policies must consider these informal workers who contribute greatly to Brazil’s economy and food system. PMID:27164118

  5. My Family Health Portrait, A tool from the Surgeon General | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. My Family Health Portrait, A tool from the Surgeon General ... use Why is it important to know my family medical history? Your family medical history is a ...

  6. Exercise and nutritional interventions for improving aging muscle health.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Scott C; Little, Jonathan P; Candow, Darren G

    2012-08-01

    Skeletal muscle mass declines with age (i.e., sarcopenia) resulting in muscle weakness and functional limitations. Sarcopenia has been associated with physiological changes in muscle morphology, protein and hormonal kinetics, insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidative stress. The purpose of this review is to highlight how exercise and nutritional intervention strategies may benefit aging muscle. It is well known that resistance exercise training increases muscle strength and size and evidence also suggests that resistance training can increase mitochondrial content and decrease oxidative stress in older adults. Recent findings suggest that fast-velocity resistance exercise may be an effective intervention for older adults to enhance muscle power and functional capacity. Aerobic exercise training may also benefit aging skeletal muscle by enhancing mitochondrial bioenergetics, improving insulin sensitivity, and/or decreasing oxidative stress. In addition to exercise, creatine monohydrate, milk-based proteins, and essential fatty acids all have biological effects which could enhance some of the physiological adaptations from exercise training in older adults. Additional research is needed to determine whether skeletal muscle adaptations to increased activity in older adults are further enhanced with effective nutritional interventions and whether this is due to enhanced muscle protein synthesis, improved mitochondrial function, and/or a reduced inflammatory response. PMID:22527891

  7. Age, physical inactivity, obesity, health conditions, and health-related quality of life among patients receiving conservative management for musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    McPhail, Steven M; Schippers, Mandy; Marshall, Alison L

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal conditions and insufficient physical activity have substantial personal and economic costs among contemporary aging societies. This study examined the age distribution, comorbid health conditions, body mass index (BMI), self-reported physical activity levels, and health-related quality of life of patients accessing ambulatory hospital clinics for musculoskeletal disorders. The study also investigated whether comorbidity, BMI, and self-reported physical activity were associated with patients’ health-related quality of life after adjusting for age as a potential confounder. Methods A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in three ambulatory hospital clinics for musculoskeletal disorders. Participants (n=224) reported their reason for referral, age, comorbid health conditions, BMI, physical activity levels (Active Australia Survey), and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D). Descriptive statistics and linear modeling were used to examine the associations between age, comorbidity, BMI, intensity and duration of physical activity, and health-related quality of life. Results The majority of patients (n=115, 51.3%) reported two or more comorbidities. In addition to other musculoskeletal conditions, common comorbidities included depression (n=41, 18.3%), hypertension (n=40, 17.9%), and diabetes (n=39, 17.4%). Approximately one-half of participants (n=110, 49.1%) self-reported insufficient physical activity to meet minimum recommended guidelines and 150 (67.0%) were overweight (n=56, 23.2%), obese (n=64, 28.6%), severely obese (n=16, 7.1%), or very severely obese (n=14, 6.3%), with a higher proportion of older patients affected. A generalized linear model indicated that, after adjusting for age, self-reported physical activity was positively associated (z=4.22, P<0.001), and comorbidities were negatively associated (z=−2.67, P<0.01) with patients’ health-related quality of life. Conclusion Older patients were more frequently affected by

  8. Primary care satellite clinics and improved access to general and mental health services.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenheck, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between the implementation of community-based primary care clinics and improved access to general health care and/or mental health care, in both the general population and among people with disabling mental illness. STUDY SETTING: The 69 new community-based primary care clinics in underserved areas, established by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) between the last quarter of FY 1995 and the second quarter of FY 1998, including the 21 new clinics with a specialty mental health care component. DATA SOURCES: VA inpatient and outpatient workload files, 1990 U.S. Census data, and VA Compensation and Pension files were used to determine the proportion of all veterans, and the proportion of disabled veterans, living in each U.S. county who used VA general health care services and VA mental health services before and after these clinics began operation. DESIGN: Analysis of covariance was used to compare changes, from late FY 1995 through early FY 1998, in access to VA services in counties in which new primary care clinics were located, in counties in which clinics that included specialized mental health components were located, and for comparison, in other U.S. counties, adjusting for potentially confounding factors. KEY FINDINGS: Counties in which new clinics were located showed a significant increase from the FY 1995-FY 1998 study dates in the proportion of veterans who used general VA health care services. This increase was almost twice as large as that observed in comparison counties (4.2% vs. 2.5%: F = 12.6, df = 1,3118, p = .0004). However, the introduction of these clinics was not associated with a greater use of specialty VA mental health services in the general veteran population, or of either general health care services or mental health services among veterans who received VA compensation for psychiatric disorders. In contrast, in counties with new clinics that included a mental health component the proportion of

  9. Does income-related health inequality change as the population ages? Evidence from Swedish panel data.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Kamrul; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Clarke, Philip; Burström, Kristina

    2010-03-01

    This paper explains and empirically assesses the channels through which population aging may impact on income-related health inequality. Long panel data of Swedish individuals is used to estimate the observed trend in income-related health inequality, measured by the concentration index (CI). A decomposition procedure based on a fixed effects model is used to clarify the channels by which population aging affects health inequality. Based on current income rankings, we find that conventional unstandardized and age-gender-standardized CIs increase over time. This trend in CIs is, however, found to remain stable when people are instead ranked according to lifetime (mean) income. Decomposition analyses show that two channels are responsible for the upward trend in unstandardized CIs - retired people dropped in relative income ranking and the coefficient of variation of health increases as the population ages.

  10. Attributing heart attack and stroke to "Old Age": Implications for subsequent health outcomes among older adults.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Tara L; Chipperfield, Judith G; Perry, Raymond P; Hamm, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which older adults attribute a recent heart attack/stroke to "old age," and examined consequences for subsequent lifestyle behavior and health-care service utilization. Community-dwelling adults (N = 57, ages 73-98 years) were interviewed about their heart attack/stroke, and an objective health registry provided data on health-care utilization over a 3-year period. Endorsement of "old age" as a cause of heart attack/stroke negatively predicted lifestyle behavior change, and positively predicted frequency of physician visits and likelihood of hospitalization over the subsequent 3 years. Findings suggest the importance of considering "old age" attributions in the context of cardiovascular health events.

  11. Determinants related to gender differences in general practice utilization: Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Andersen, John Sahl; Tjønneland, Anne; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to describe the determinants related to gender differences in the GP utilization in Danish population aged 50–65 years. Design Cohort-based cross-sectional study. Setting Danish general practice. Subjects Totally, 54,849 participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort (50–65 years). Main outcome measures The sum of cohort members’ face-to-face consultations with general practitioner (GP) at the cohort baseline year (1993–1997). We obtained data on GP visits from the Danish National Health Service Register at the cohort baseline (1993–1997), when information on lifestyle (smoking, body mass index (BMI), alcohol use, physical activity), medical conditions (somatic and mental), employment, education, gravidity, and hormone therapy (HT) use was collected by questionnaire. Results Women had on average 4.1 and men 2.8 consultations per year. In a crude model, women had 47% higher rate of GP visits than men (incidence rate ratio: 1.47; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.45–1.50), which remained unchanged after adjustment for lifestyle, socio-demographic and medical factors, but attenuated to 18% (1.18; 1.13–1.24) after adjustment for female factors (gravidity and post-menopausal HT. In a fully adjusted model, subjects with hypertension (1.63; 1.59–1.67), mental illness (1.63; 1.61–1.66), diabetes (1.56; 1.47–1.65), angina pectoris (1.28; 1.21–1.34), and unemployed persons (1.19; 1.18–1.21) had highest rates of GP visits. Conclusions Gravidity and HT use explain a large proportion, but not all of the gender difference in GP utilization. Medical conditions (somatic and mental) and unemployment are the main determinants of GP utilization in men and women, while lifestyle has minor effect. Key Points Female gender remained a dominant determinant of GP utilization, after adjustment for lifestyle, socio-demography, medical and gender specific factors, with females consulting their GP 18% more often than males

  12. The microbiota and microbiome in aging: potential implications in health and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Heidi J; Quagliarello, Vincent J

    2015-04-01

    Advances in bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing allow for characterization of the human commensal bacterial community (microbiota) and its corresponding genome (microbiome). Surveys of healthy adults reveal that a signature composite of bacteria characterizes each unique body habitat (e.g., gut, skin, oral cavity, vagina). A myriad of clinical changes, including a basal proinflammatory state (inflamm-aging), that directly interface with the microbiota of older adults and enhance susceptibility to disease accompany aging. Studies in older adults demonstrate that the gut microbiota correlates with diet, location of residence (e.g., community dwelling, long-term care settings), and basal level of inflammation. Links exist between the microbiota and a variety of clinical problems plaguing older adults, including physical frailty, Clostridium difficile colitis, vulvovaginal atrophy, colorectal carcinoma, and atherosclerotic disease. Manipulation of the microbiota and microbiome of older adults holds promise as an innovative strategy to influence the development of comorbidities associated with aging.

  13. Health Information Brokers in the General Population: An Analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey 2013-2014

    PubMed Central

    Mazor, Kathleen M; Agunwamba, Amenah A; Valluri, Sruthi; Wilson, Patrick M; Sadasivam, Rajani S; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2016-01-01

    Background Health information exchanged between friends or family members can influence decision making, both for routine health questions and for serious health issues. A health information broker is a person to whom friends and family turn for advice or information on health-related topics. Characteristics and online behaviors of health information brokers have not previously been studied in a national population. Objective The objective of this study was to examine sociodemographic characteristics, health information seeking behaviors, and other online behaviors among health information brokers. Methods Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (2013-2014; n=3142) were used to compare brokers with nonbrokers. Modified Poisson regression was used to examine the relationship between broker status and sociodemographics and online information seeking. Results Over half (54.8%) of the respondents were consulted by family or friends for advice or information on health topics (ie, they acted as health information brokers). Brokers represented 54.1% of respondents earning <$20,000 yearly and 56.5% of respondents born outside the United States. Women were more likely to be brokers (PR 1.34, 95% CI 1.23-1.47) as were those with education past high school (PR 1.42, CI 1.22-1.65). People aged ≥75 were less likely to be brokers as compared to respondents aged 35-49 (PR 0.81, CI 0.67-0.99). Brokers used the Internet more frequently for a variety of online behaviors such as seeking health information, creating and sharing online content, and downloading health information onto a mobile device; and also reported greater confidence in obtaining health information online. Conclusions More than 50% of adults who responded to this national survey, including those with low income and those born abroad, were providing health information or advice to friends and family. These individuals may prove to be effective targets for initiatives supporting patient engagement

  14. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General requirements for adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards §...

  15. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General requirements for adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards §...

  16. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General requirements for adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards §...

  17. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General requirements for adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards §...

  18. 45 CFR 164.502 - Uses and disclosures of protected health information: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... information: General rules. 164.502 Section 164.502 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... uses and disclosures. (i) Use and disclosure of genetic information for underwriting purposes... health information that is genetic information for underwriting purposes. For purposes of paragraph...

  19. 45 CFR 164.502 - Uses and disclosures of protected health information: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information: General rules. 164.502 Section 164.502 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services... uses and disclosures. (i) Use and disclosure of genetic information for underwriting purposes... health information that is genetic information for underwriting purposes. For purposes of paragraph...

  20. [Efficacy of general magnetotherapy in conservative therapy of uterine myoma in women of reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Kulishova, T V; Tabashnikova, N A; Akker, L V

    2005-01-01

    Sixty women of the reproductive age with uterine myoma were divided into two groups. Thirty patients of the study group received combined therapy plus general magnetotherapy (GMT). Patients of the control group received only combined treatment. Ultrasound investigation registered a reduction in the size of myoma nodes by 16.7% in the study group, while in the controls myoma size did not change (p < 0.05). 1-year follow-up data for the study group demonstrated no cases of the myoma growth while 16.6% of the controls showed growth of myoma nodes, in 6.6% of them supravaginal myoma amputation was made for rapidly growing myoma. PMID:15759473

  1. Chronological and subjective age differences in flourishing mental health and major depressive episode.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Corey L M; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2012-01-01

    Mental health is more than the absence of psychopathology, but few studies use positive mental health along with a measure of past year major depressive episode (MDE). This study addresses this gap by investigating the association of MDE and flourishing mental health (FMH) with chronological age and subjective (felt and ideal) age. Data are from the Midlife in the United States random digit dialing sample of adults ages 25 to 74, collected in 1995 (n = 3032). Rates of MDE were lowest, and FMH highest, among the three oldest age cohorts (45-54, 55-64, 65-74 years). Subjective age was linked with chronological age; with age, adults tend to feel younger, and want to be an age that is younger, than their actual age. As predicted by the model of subjective age as an adaptive strategy, feeling younger was related to a lower risk of MDE and a higher risk of FMH. However, wanting to be younger was related to a lower risk of FMH and unrelated to MDE. PMID:21780972

  2. Population ageing and its implications on aggregate health care demand: empirical evidence from 22 OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Palangkaraya, Alfons; Yong, Jongsay

    2009-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the relationship between age and health care expenditure is not as straightforward as it appears. In fact, micro-level studies find that time to death, rather than ageing, is possibly the main driver of the escalating health care costs in developed countries. Unfortunately, the evidence at the macro level is less clear and often depends on the specification of the empirical model used. We use an aggregate demand framework to assess whether health expenditure is more likely to be driven by ageing per se or proximity to death. Using panel data from 22 OECD countries from the first half of the 1990s, we find population ageing to be negatively correlated with health expenditure once proximity to death is accounted for. This suggests that the effects of ageing on health expenditure growth might be overstated while the effects of the high costs of medical care at the end of life are potentially underestimated. With respect to the latter, our finding highlights the importance of long-term and hospice care management. An expanded long-term care program may not only improve patient welfare, but also reduce costs of care by reducing the duration of hospital care for terminally ill patients. If expensive medical treatment for patients near the end of life can be controlled for, health expenditure growth resulting from population ageing is unlikely to present a most serious problem.

  3. Reasons, assessments and actions taken: sex and age differences in uses of Internet health information.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele; Suman, Michael

    2008-06-01

    The Internet is transforming the way in which consumers approach their health care needs. Sex and age are influential aspects of one's health as well as disease risk and are thus integral components of the emerging picture of health information seekers. Using data from Surveying the Digital Future, Year 4, a nationally representative, longitudinal telephone survey of Americans 12 years of age and older (n = 2010), we examine the reasons for, assessments of and actions taken as a result of health information found online among men and women and older and younger people. Although we tend to think of the Internet as a young person's technology, the percent of adults 60 years of age and older is similar to that of adolescents using the Internet as a health care information resource, thus suggesting an untapped opportunity with online interventions for older adults. Nonetheless, as age increases so too does the report of frustration with the experience. Men are more likely to report a positive seeking experience than women. Differences in Internet use fail to explain these observed sex and age differences in the seeking experience. Across the spectrum of age, sex and Internet skill, Internet health information seeking appears to enhance the patient-provider relationship.

  4. Taste bud homeostasis in health, disease, and aging.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50-100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8-12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging.

  5. Taste bud homeostasis in health, disease, and aging.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian taste bud is an onion-shaped epithelial structure with 50-100 tightly packed cells, including taste receptor cells, supporting cells, and basal cells. Taste receptor cells detect nutrients and toxins in the oral cavity and transmit the sensory information to gustatory nerve endings in the buds. Supporting cells may play a role in the clearance of excess neurotransmitters after their release from taste receptor cells. Basal cells are precursor cells that differentiate into mature taste cells. Similar to other epithelial cells, taste cells turn over continuously, with an average life span of about 8-12 days. To maintain structural homeostasis in taste buds, new cells are generated to replace dying cells. Several recent studies using genetic lineage tracing methods have identified populations of progenitor/stem cells for taste buds, although contributions of these progenitor/stem cell populations to taste bud homeostasis have yet to be fully determined. Some regulatory factors of taste cell differentiation and degeneration have been identified, but our understanding of these aspects of taste bud homoeostasis remains limited. Many patients with various diseases develop taste disorders, including taste loss and taste distortion. Decline in taste function also occurs during aging. Recent studies suggest that disruption or alteration of taste bud homeostasis may contribute to taste dysfunction associated with disease and aging. PMID:24287552

  6. Age Differences in Strategy Shift: Retrieval Avoidance or General Shift Reluctance?

    PubMed Central

    Frank, David J.; Touron, Dayna R.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of metacognitive age differences in skill acquisition strategies have relied exclusively on tasks with a processing shift from an algorithm to retrieval strategy. Older adults’ demonstrated reluctance to shift strategies in such tasks could reflect either a specific aversion to a memory retrieval strategy or a general, inertial resistance to strategy change. Haider and Frensch’s (1999) alphabet verification task (AVT) affords a non-retrieval-based strategy shift. Participants verify the continuation of alphabet strings such as D E F G [4] L, with the bracketed digit indicating a number of letters to be skipped. When all deviations are restricted to the letter-digit-letter portion, participants can speed their responses by selectively attend only to that part of the stimulus. We adapted the AVT to include conditions which promoted shift to a retrieval strategy, a selective attention strategy, or both strategies. Item-level strategy reports were validated by eye movement data. Older adults shifted more slowly to the retrieval strategy but more quickly to the selective attention strategy than young adults, indicating a retrieval-strategy avoidance. Strategy confidence and perceived strategy difficulty correlated with shift to the two strategies in both age groups. Perceived speed of responses with each strategy specifically correlated with older adults’ strategy choices, suggesting that some older adults avoid retrieval because they do not appreciate its efficiency benefits. PMID:23088195

  7. Sexual Health and Well-being Among Older Men and Women in England: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Lee, David M; Nazroo, James; O'Connor, Daryl B; Blake, Margaret; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-01-01

    We describe levels of sexual activity, problems with sexual functioning, and concerns about sexual health among older adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), and associations with age, health, and partnership factors. Specifically, a total of 6,201 core ELSA participants (56 % women) aged 50 to >90 completed a comprehensive Sexual Relationships and Activities questionnaire (SRA-Q) included in ELSA Wave 6 (2012/13). The prevalence of reporting any sexual activity in the last year declined with age, with women less likely than men at all ages to report being sexually active. Poorer health was associated with lower levels of sexual activity and a higher prevalence of problems with sexual functioning, particularly among men. Difficulties most frequently reported by sexually active women related to becoming sexually aroused (32 %) and achieving orgasm (27 %), while for men it was erectile function (39 %). Sexual health concerns most commonly reported by women related to their level of sexual desire (11 %) and frequency of sexual activities (8 %). Among men it was level of sexual desire (15 %) and erectile difficulties (14 %). While the likelihood of reporting sexual health concerns tended to decrease with age in women, the opposite was seen in men. Poor sexual functioning and disagreements with a partner about initiating and/or feeling obligated to have sex were associated with greater concerns about and dissatisfaction with overall sex life. Levels of sexual activity decline with increasing age, although a sizable minority of men and women remain sexually active until the eighth and ninth decades of life. Problems with sexual functioning were relatively common, but overall levels of sexual health concerns were much lower. Sexually active men reported higher levels of concern with their sexual health and sexual dissatisfaction than women at all ages. Older peoples' sexual health should be managed, not just in the context of their age, gender

  8. Sexual Health and Well-being Among Older Men and Women in England: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Lee, David M; Nazroo, James; O'Connor, Daryl B; Blake, Margaret; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-01-01

    We describe levels of sexual activity, problems with sexual functioning, and concerns about sexual health among older adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), and associations with age, health, and partnership factors. Specifically, a total of 6,201 core ELSA participants (56 % women) aged 50 to >90 completed a comprehensive Sexual Relationships and Activities questionnaire (SRA-Q) included in ELSA Wave 6 (2012/13). The prevalence of reporting any sexual activity in the last year declined with age, with women less likely than men at all ages to report being sexually active. Poorer health was associated with lower levels of sexual activity and a higher prevalence of problems with sexual functioning, particularly among men. Difficulties most frequently reported by sexually active women related to becoming sexually aroused (32 %) and achieving orgasm (27 %), while for men it was erectile function (39 %). Sexual health concerns most commonly reported by women related to their level of sexual desire (11 %) and frequency of sexual activities (8 %). Among men it was level of sexual desire (15 %) and erectile difficulties (14 %). While the likelihood of reporting sexual health concerns tended to decrease with age in women, the opposite was seen in men. Poor sexual functioning and disagreements with a partner about initiating and/or feeling obligated to have sex were associated with greater concerns about and dissatisfaction with overall sex life. Levels of sexual activity decline with increasing age, although a sizable minority of men and women remain sexually active until the eighth and ninth decades of life. Problems with sexual functioning were relatively common, but overall levels of sexual health concerns were much lower. Sexually active men reported higher levels of concern with their sexual health and sexual dissatisfaction than women at all ages. Older peoples' sexual health should be managed, not just in the context of their age, gender

  9. Health care leadership in an age of change.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the leadership practices of a sample of network and hospital administrators in metropolitan Victoria, Australia. It was undertaken in the mid-1990s when the State Liberal-National (Coalition) Government in Victoria established Melbourne's metropolitan health care networks. I argue that leadership, and the process of leading, contributes significantly to the success of the hospital in a time of turmoil and change. The sample was taken from the seven health care networks and consisted of 15 network and hospital administrators. Bolman and Deal's frames of leadership--structural, human resource, political and symbolic--were used as a framework to categorize the leadership practices of the administrators. The findings suggest a preference for the structural frame--an anticipated result, since the hospital environment is more conducive to a style of leadership that emphasizes rationality and objectivity. The human resource frame was the second preferred frame, followed by the political and symbolic. These findings suggest that network and hospital administrators focus more on intellectual than spiritual development, and perhaps this tendency needs to be addressed when educating present and future hospital leaders.

  10. The Role of Social Relationships in Predicting Loneliness: The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Leitsch, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explore associations between objective and subjective social network characteristics and loneliness in later life, using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a nationally representative sample of individuals ages 57 to 85 in the United States. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the associations…

  11. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  12. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  13. Income Inequality in Health at All Ages: A Comparison of the United States and England

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. I systematically examined income gradients in health in the United States and England across the life span (ages birth to 80 years), separately for females and males, for a number of health conditions. Methods. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the United States (n = 36 360) and the Health Survey for England (n = 55 783), I calculated weighted prevalence rates and risk ratios by income level for the following health risk factors or conditions: obesity, hypertension, diabetes, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high cholesterol ratio, heart attack or angina, stroke, and asthma. Results. In the United States and England, the income gradients in health are very similar across age, gender, and numerous health conditions, and are robust to adjustments for race/ethnicity, health behaviors, body mass index, and health insurance. Conclusions. Health disparities by income are pervasive in England as well as in the United States, despite better overall health, universal health insurance, and more generous social protection spending in England. PMID:22994174

  14. [General Practitioner Sentinel Network as a Tool of [Public] Health Surveillance].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Fonseca, Rita Carvalho; Matias-Dias, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Current strategies of European health advocate the strengthening of the role of public health, requiring from decision-makers the ability to defend and enhance the health of individuals and populations in all policies. In the pursuit of this objective, public health should be evidence-based and so public health surveillance, seen as an important tool of public health since the nineteenth century, plays a central role in public health practice through the production and dissemination of the health information necessary for health planning and for evaluation of public health actions. Within the practice of public health estimations of disease frequency are important for outbreak control, health assessment, health needs assessment and estimation of health gains, but unfortunately these estimations are not always available for the entire population. In those cases and for diseases with high prevalence sentinel surveillance based in sentinel networks have some advantages for specific groups, namely needed of scarce resources and obtainment of quick results.The central role of family doctors in chronic disease management, their knowledge on individuals and families and their responsibilities in the management of a clear defined patients list are characteristics that make general practice an appropriate context to develop a sentinel network. In fact, in Portugal there is a general practitioner sentinel network named Rede Médicos-Sentinela working since 1989 which estimated, for the last 25 years, incidence rates of several chronic diseases, some of them targeted on national priority health programs. Thus, we consider that Rede Médicos-Sentinela can be integrated in a national surveillance system for chronic diseases in Portugal. PMID:26926891

  15. [Periodic health examination: a collaboration between an academic institution, a private firm and general practitioners].

    PubMed

    Jacot, Sadowski I; Cornuz, J; Abetel, G

    2005-10-26

    A Swiss private company decided to launch a healthy lifestyle-oriented medical visit for its employees. Participating general practitioners had prior training through a one-day course. A brief physical examination, cholesterol and glucose analyses were included in the consultation. Half of the employees participated in the project. Health habits were similar to the general Swiss population. Four months later, 61% reported having changed at least one lifestyle health habit in order to improve their health. Most of participants and practitioners were satisfied with this type of consultation, that confirms the interest and the feasibility of such a project.

  16. Application of a general health policy model in the American health care crisis.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, R M

    1993-05-01

    There is near consensus that the US health care system requires reform. Only a quarter of the American public has faith in the current system. Health care was one of the major issues considered in the 1992 US presidential election and the search for innovative solutions has transcended administrations.

  17. Planning for End-of-Life Care: Findings from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Douglas D.; Tuokko, Holly; Stajduhar, Kelli I.; Lindsay, Joan; Buehler, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Steps involved in formalizing end-of-life care preferences and factors related to these steps are unclear in the literature. Using data from the third wave of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-3), we examined the relations between demographic and health predictors, on the one hand, and three outcomes, on the other (whether participants…

  18. Ageing and Health Status in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of the European POMONA II Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Meindert; Perry, Jonathan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Kerr, Mike; Lantman-De Valk, Henny Van Schrojenstein; Van Hove, Geert; Berger, Dasa Moravec; Azema, Bernard; Buono, Serafino; Cara, Alexandra Carmen; Germanavicius, Arunas; Linehan, Christine; Maatta, Tuomo; Tossebro, Jan; Weber, Germain

    2011-01-01

    Background: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). Method: The P15 was completed in a cross-sectional design…

  19. Health Disparities Grants Funded by National Institute on Aging: Trends between 2000 and 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Giyeon; DeCoster, Jamie; Huang, Chao-Hui; Parmelee, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The present study examined the characteristics of health disparities grants funded by National Institute on Aging (NIA) from 2000 to 2010. Objectives were (a) to examine longitudinal trends in health disparities-related grants funded by NIA and (b) to identify moderators of these trends. Design and Methods: Our primary data…

  20. The valuation of states of ill-health: the impact of age and disability.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, S; Brittis, S; Wu, A

    1991-01-01

    The effects of age and disability on valuations of health states used in deriving QALYs have not been examined. We compared the valuations of seven states of immobility and pain given by 88 subjects aged 20-89 years, and of various degrees of disability. They were asked to score each state, their present health and death, on a range from 'best' to 'worst' health. Only two states of health (no disability but moderate pain, and slight disability and moderate pain) were valued differently by older subjects. Disabled subjects tended to rate most ill-health states more adversely, and to rate death as substantially better than more severe states of ill-health. The development of explicit valuations of survival should take into account differences caused by disability, and examine other dimensions of illness experience.

  1. Evaluation of the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative: community program to promote awareness about mental health and aging issues.

    PubMed

    Zanjani, Faika; Kruger, Tina; Murray, Deborah

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative, designed to promote community awareness and knowledge about mental health and aging issues. This study occurred during 2007-2009 in 67 of 120 counties in Kentucky. A rural region (11 counties) received the intervention, consisting of focus groups, Extension Agent training, and television-based social marketing campaign. Partial-intervention counties (29 counties) received only the television-based social marketing campaign. The control counties (27 counties) received no intervention activities. Results indicated that the intervention counties agreed more with being able to assist elder adults with a potential mental illness. Also, the intervention counties understood the risk of consuming alcohol and medications better, but had a poorer recognition of drinking problems in elder adults. These findings need to be considered within study limitations, such as measurement error, degree of intervention exposure, and regional differences across intervention groups. The study demonstrates that community interventions on mental health awareness and knowledge are feasible within majority rural regions, with Extension Agents being gatekeepers, for promoting positive messages about mental health and aging issues. PMID:21234684

  2. Evaluation of the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative: community program to promote awareness about mental health and aging issues.

    PubMed

    Zanjani, Faika; Kruger, Tina; Murray, Deborah

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative, designed to promote community awareness and knowledge about mental health and aging issues. This study occurred during 2007-2009 in 67 of 120 counties in Kentucky. A rural region (11 counties) received the intervention, consisting of focus groups, Extension Agent training, and television-based social marketing campaign. Partial-intervention counties (29 counties) received only the television-based social marketing campaign. The control counties (27 counties) received no intervention activities. Results indicated that the intervention counties agreed more with being able to assist elder adults with a potential mental illness. Also, the intervention counties understood the risk of consuming alcohol and medications better, but had a poorer recognition of drinking problems in elder adults. These findings need to be considered within study limitations, such as measurement error, degree of intervention exposure, and regional differences across intervention groups. The study demonstrates that community interventions on mental health awareness and knowledge are feasible within majority rural regions, with Extension Agents being gatekeepers, for promoting positive messages about mental health and aging issues.

  3. Systems integrity in health and aging - an animal model approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human lifespan is positively correlated with childhood intelligence, as measured by psychometric (IQ) tests. The strength of this correlation is similar to the negative effect that smoking has on the life course. This result suggests that people who perform well on psychometric tests in childhood may remain healthier and live longer. The correlation, however, is debated: is it caused exclusively by social-environmental factors or could it also have a biological component? Biological traits of systems integrity that might result in correlations between brain function and lifespan have been suggested but are not well-established, and it is questioned what useful knowledge can come from understanding such mechanisms. In a recent study, we found a positive correlation between brain function and longevity in honey bees. Honey bees are highly social, but relevant social-environmental factors that contribute to cognition-survival correlations in humans are largely absent from insect colonies. Our results, therefore, suggest a biological explanation for the correlation in the bee. Here, we argue that individual differences in stress handling (coping) mechanisms, which both affect the bees’ performance in tests of brain function and their survival could be a trait of systems integrity. Individual differences in coping are much studied in vertebrates, and several species provide attractive models. Here, we discuss how pigs are an interesting model for studying behavioural, physiological and molecular mechanisms that are recruited during stress and that can drive correlations between health, cognition and longevity traits. By revealing biological factors that make individuals susceptible to stress, it might be possible to alleviate health and longevity disparities in people. PMID:24472488

  4. Dynamical network model for age-related health deficits and mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taneja, Swadhin; Mitnitski, Arnold B.; Rockwood, Kenneth; Rutenberg, Andrew D.

    2016-02-01

    How long people live depends on their health, and how it changes with age. Individual health can be tracked by the accumulation of age-related health deficits. The fraction of age-related deficits is a simple quantitative measure of human aging. This quantitative frailty index (F ) is as good as chronological age in predicting mortality. In this paper, we use a dynamical network model of deficits to explore the effects of interactions between deficits, deficit damage and repair processes, and the connection between the F and mortality. With our model, we qualitatively reproduce Gompertz's law of increasing human mortality with age, the broadening of the F distribution with age, the characteristic nonlinear increase of the F with age, and the increased mortality of high-frailty individuals. No explicit time-dependence in damage or repair rates is needed in our model. Instead, implicit time-dependence arises through deficit interactions—so that the average deficit damage rates increase, and deficit repair rates decrease, with age. We use a simple mortality criterion, where mortality occurs when the most connected node is damaged.

  5. General practitioners with a special interest in public health; at last a way to deliver public health in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, S.; David, M

    2005-01-01

    Primary care and public health both work to improve the population's health. The potential benefits of improved integration between these disciplines have however not been fully seen because of the lack of a structured way to deliver the integration. This article reviews the benefits, models of working, and challenges to the integration of public health and primary care. General practitioners with special interests (GPwSI) have now been created and formally recognised in clinical roles in the United Kingdom. It is proposed that the creation of GPwSI in public health offers an ideal model of a way of achieving integration and ensuring public health is delivered in primary care. PMID:16234417

  6. Health Promotion Behaviors and Chronic Diseases of Aging in the Elderly People of Iranshahr*- IR Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mofrad, Zahra Pishkar; Jahantigh, Mozhgan; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Aim: Aging is considered as the phenomenon of the day in the health arena of the world and Iran. It is anticipated that there will be an explosion of aging population in Iran in about 2031 and 20-25% of the population will be aged over 60 years. With aging, chronic diseases also increase and diminish the functional ability of older people. On the other hand, increased healthcare costs should be also added to this issue. Health promotion is a concept of process that continues throughout life. As much as health promotion is important in children and adults, it is equally important in older people. In fact, the elderlies, as a group, also acquire many benefits from health promotion behaviors. Due to the increasing elderly population, geriatric health promotion and enhancing the health level of older people is proposed as a health priority that should be properly planned. Hence, the present study has been conducted in this regard and aims to identify behaviors of health promotion and chronic diseases of aging in the elderly people of Iranshahr-Iran. Materials and Methods: The present research is a cross-sectional descriptive study whose population consists of 425 elderly people aged 60 years and over, who lived in the city of Iranshahr*, IR Iran. The random cluster sampling method has been used to select the research samples. The required information was collected using a questionnaire which was distributed among the older people through visiting their homes; then, the collected data was statistically analyzed using the statistical software of SPSS version 13. Findings: The research findings show that the mean age of older people is 66.33 ± 7.7 and the highest frequency belongs to the age group of 60 years and the maximum age is 92 years. 69.5% of the older people were in the age group of the young elderly (60-69 years) and 44% of them lived with their married children; also 55.8%, 81.9%, 70.5%, and 74.4% of them were respectively female, illiterate

  7. True believers? Characteristics of general practitioners in Victorian community health centres.

    PubMed

    Montalto, M; Dunt, D; Young, D

    1994-12-01

    General practitioners have been part of multidisciplinary services in Victoria Community Health Centres (CHCs) for 20 years. This model institutionalizes a high degree of integration between general practitioners and other primary care and community service personnel. Of 51 eligible full-time general practitioners in Victorian CHCs, 46 were interviewed, using a structured questionnaire. General practitioners in CHCs were younger, less experienced and more likely to be female than other general practitioners. Nearly three-quarters were salaried. The philosophy of practice and the conditions of employment were the commonest reasons for entering CHC practice. Teamwork and the conditions of employment were felt to be the biggest advantages of CHC practice, while difficulties with management and the perceived loss of professional ownership and control were the commonest disadvantages. None reported interference from the CHC management in their clinical practice. Nearly a quarter of full-time CHC general practitioners do not undertake any formal community health promotion activities. Forty-five per cent of respondents intended to leave their CHC within the next five years. Universal health insurance has diminished the impact of CHC general practice. The philosophy of CHCs and the salaried nature of the employment continues to attract general practitioners. High staff turnover is a feature of CHC general practice, in part related to young doctors making an initial, but not long-term commitment to CHC practice. However, the loss of professional control and management difficulties should be addressed, as these may contribute to the high turnover.

  8. [Depression and perceived general control, effort and reward at work, in men and women at age 45-64, residents of Cracow].

    PubMed

    Dojka, Ewa; Pajak, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relation between depression: effort and reward at work, perceived general control, control over life and over health. The studied sample were 3544 men and women aged 45-64 years, residents of Cracow. After adjustment for age, education, marital status, smoking and physical activity the increase of the effort coefficient by 1 standard deviation was related with an increase in the risk of depression by 31% in men and 43% in women. Increase of the reward coefficient by 1 standard deviation was related to a decline in the risk of depression by 31% in men and 36% in women. Increase of the perceived general control coefficient by 1 standard deviation was related with a decrease in the risk of depression by 55% in men and 51% in women and increase in the perceived life control coefficient by 1 standard deviation was related to a decline in the risk of depression by 62% in men and 52% in women. Increase of the health control coefficient by 1 standard deviation was related with a decrease in the risk of depression by 17% in women only. Effort and reward at work, perceived general control and control over life was related to depression in men and women. Perceived control over health was related to depression in women but not in men.

  9. Predictors of health practices within age-sex groups: National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences, 1979.

    PubMed Central

    Rakowski, W

    1988-01-01

    Health promotion-disease prevention programs share with health behavior research the common objective of identifying population subgroups toward whom services can be targeted. For this report, six age-sex groups were examined to determine similarities and differences in the predictors of eight health practice indices. Data were from the 1979 National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences. Results showed very little similarity of predictors across the three age cohorts (20-34, 35-49, 50-64), between men and women, and among the six age-sex groups. No predictor achieved significance consistently for several health practices in any of the six groups, although years of education made the best showing. The lack of overlap among predictors helps to explain why health promotion messages and recruitment strategies may not appeal to as diverse an audience as initially intended. Possible explanations for the absence of similar predictors include differences in the nature of the various practices themselves, absence of data on intentions behind a person's behavior, and the "over-determined" character of an individual person's behavior. PMID:3136496

  10. Age, Health and Culture: An Examination of Health Among Spanish-Speaking Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Gil, Fernando

    The study examined the utilization of health care facilities, the barriers to utilization, the need for health services, the coping mechanisms (family, religion, folk medicine, or other vehicles used by older persons to help cope with health problems), and the way in which the different phases (prevention, initial utilization, and maintenance) of…

  11. Age, time, and cohort effects on functional status and self-rated health in elderly men.

    PubMed Central

    Hoeymans, N; Feskens, E J; van den Bos, G A; Kromhout, D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated age-related changes in functional status and self-rated health in elderly men, taking into account changes over time and differences between birth cohorts. METHODS: The Zutphen Elderly Study is a longitudinal study of men born in the Netherlands between 1900 and 1920. Functional status and self-rated health were measured in 513 men in 1990, in 381 men in 1993, and in 340 men in 1995. Age, time, and cohort effects were analyzed in a mixed longitudinal model. RESULTS: Longitudinal analyses showed that during 5 years of follow-up, the proportion of men without disabilities decreased from 53% to 39%, whereas the percentage who rated themselves as healthy decreased from 50% to 35%. Cross-sectional analyses confirmed changes in functional status, suggesting an age effect. Time-series analyses confirmed changes in self-rated health, suggesting a time effect. No birth-cohort effects were found. CONCLUSIONS: Functional status deteriorates with age, whereas self-rated health is not related to age in men aged 70 years and older. The observed 5-year decline in self-rated health seemed to be due to a secular trend. PMID:9357342

  12. How Can We Link General Medical and Behavioral Health Care? International Models for Practice and Policy.

    PubMed

    Pincus, Harold Alan; Jun, Miraya; Franx, Gerdien; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina; Ito, Hiroto; Mossialos, Elias

    2015-08-01

    A range of integration models for providing effective care to individuals with comorbid general medical and behavioral health conditions have been described and tested in varied settings internationally for several subsets of this population. This column examines models in three countries selected to showcase implementation in a variety of health systems: the national health system in England, nationally regulated individual insurance market in the Netherlands, and a mixture of employer-sponsored and government-funded health insurance plans in Japan. The authors describe a set of key practices for and challenges to the successful implementation of these models.

  13. Adolescent over-general memory, life events and mental health outcomes: Findings from a UK cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Catherine; Heron, Jon; Gunnell, David; Lewis, Glyn; Evans, Jonathan; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggesting that over-general memory (OGM) may moderate the effect of life events on depressive symptoms and suicidality has sampled older adolescents or adults, or younger adolescents in high-risk populations, and has been conducted over relatively short follow-up periods. The authors examined the relationship between OGM at age 13 and life events and mental health outcomes (depression, self-harm, suicidal ideation and planning) at age 16 years within a sample of 5792 adolescents participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), approximately 3800 of whom had also provided data on depression and self-harm. There was no clear evidence of either direct or interactive effects of OGM at age 13 on levels of depression at age 16. Similarly there was no clear evidence of either direct or interactive effects of OGM on suicidal ideation and self-harm. Although there was some evidence that over-general autobiographical memory was associated with reduced risk of suicidal planning and increased risk of self-harm, these associations were absent when confounding variables were taken into account. The findings imply that although OGM is a marker of vulnerability to depression and related psychopathology in high-risk groups, this cannot be assumed to generalise to whole populations. PMID:25716137

  14. Adolescent over-general memory, life events and mental health outcomes: Findings from a UK cohort study.

    PubMed

    Crane, Catherine; Heron, Jon; Gunnell, David; Lewis, Glyn; Evans, Jonathan; Williams, J Mark G

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggesting that over-general memory (OGM) may moderate the effect of life events on depressive symptoms and suicidality has sampled older adolescents or adults, or younger adolescents in high-risk populations, and has been conducted over relatively short follow-up periods. The authors examined the relationship between OGM at age 13 and life events and mental health outcomes (depression, self-harm, suicidal ideation and planning) at age 16 years within a sample of 5792 adolescents participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), approximately 3800 of whom had also provided data on depression and self-harm. There was no clear evidence of either direct or interactive effects of OGM at age 13 on levels of depression at age 16. Similarly there was no clear evidence of either direct or interactive effects of OGM on suicidal ideation and self-harm. Although there was some evidence that over-general autobiographical memory was associated with reduced risk of suicidal planning and increased risk of self-harm, these associations were absent when confounding variables were taken into account. The findings imply that although OGM is a marker of vulnerability to depression and related psychopathology in high-risk groups, this cannot be assumed to generalise to whole populations.

  15. Mitochondria in health, aging and diseases: the epigenetic perspective.

    PubMed

    D'Aquila, Patrizia; Bellizzi, Dina; Passarino, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The rate/quality of human aging and the development/progression of diseases depend on a complex interplay among genetics, epigenetics and environment. In this scenario, mitochondrial function (or dysfunction) and mitochondrial DNA have emerged as major players. This is mainly due to their crucial role in energetic balance, in modulating epigenetic programs and in influencing cell stress response. Moreover, it is also emerging the existence of epigenetic changes in mitochondrial DNA and of non coding mitochondrial RNAs which, together with the nuclear ones, play regulatory roles in numerous human phenotypes. In this review we will provide an overview on "mitochondrial epigenetics" state of the art, by summarizing the involvement of mitochondrial function and of mitochondria-nucleus communication in regulating nuclear epigenome, as well as the key aspects of the epigenetic marks related to mitochondrial DNA. Despite the limited data available in the literature to date, mainly due to the novelty of the topic, the intriguing interplay of the mitochondrial epigenetic changes in both physiological and pathological conditions will also be presented.

  16. Consumer-Involved Participatory Research to Address General Medical Health and Wellness in a Community Mental Health Setting.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Sharat P; Pancake, Laura S; Dandino, Elizabeth S; Wells, Kenneth B

    2015-12-01

    Barriers to sustainably implementing general medical interventions in community mental health (CMH) settings include role uncertainty, consumer engagement, workforce limitations, and sustainable reimbursement. To address these barriers, this project used a community-partnered participatory research framework to create a stakeholder-based general medical and wellness intervention in a large CMH organization, with consumers involved in all decision-making processes. Consumers faced practical barriers to participating in organizational decision making, but their narratives were critical in establishing priorities and ensuring sustainability. Addressing baseline knowledge and readiness of stakeholders and functional challenges to consumer involvement can aid stakeholder-based approaches to implementing general medical interventions in CMH settings.

  17. The effect of age on fluid intelligence is fully mediated by physical health.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Ingvar; Almkvist, Ove

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which the effect of age on cognitive ability is predicted by individual differences in physical health. The sample consisted of 118 volunteer subjects who were healthy and ranging in age from 26 to 91. The examinations included a clinical investigation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain neuroimaging, and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. The effect of age on fluid IQ with and without visual spatial praxis and on crystallized IQ was tested whether being fully-, partially- or non-mediated by physical health. Structural equation analyses showed that the best and most parsimonious fit to the data was provided by models that were fully mediated for fluid IQ without praxis, non-mediated for crystallized IQ and partially mediated for fluid IQ with praxis. The diseases of the circulatory and nervous systems were the major mediators. It was concluded from the pattern of findings that the effect of age on fluid intelligence is fully mediated by physical health, while crystallized intelligence is non-mediated and visual spatial praxis is partially mediated, influenced mainly by direct effects of age. Our findings imply that improving health by acting against the common age-related circulatory- and nervous system diseases and risk factors will oppose the decline in fluid intelligence with age.

  18. Is Health of the Aging Improved by Conditional Cash Transfer Programs? Evidence From Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Behrman, Jere R.

    2013-01-01

    Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs link public transfers to human capital investment in the hopes of alleviating current poverty and reducing its intergenerational transmission. Whereas nearly all studies of their effects have focused on youth, CCT programs may also have an impact on aging adults by increasing household resources or inducing changes in allocations of time of household members, which may be of substantial interest, particularly given the rapid aging of most populations. This article contributes to this underresearched area by examining health and work impacts on the aging for the best-known and most influential of these programs, the Mexican PROGRESA/Oportunidades program. For a number of health indicators, the program appears to significantly improve health, with larger effects for recipients with a greater time receiving benefits from the program. Most of these health effects are concentrated on women. PMID:23494570

  19. The impact of electronic health records on client safety in aged care homes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Yu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    This study collects and critically reviews the published literature to synthesize the risk factors for client safety in residential aged care and the potential contributions of electronic health records to reducing these risks. Three major types of risk factors for client safety were identified: risk factors related to the person's health; those related to the health and aged care system serving the person and those related to human error. Multiple strategies at all levels of an aged care organization are needed to reduce risks and improve client safety. Electronic health records can be one of the effective organizational mechanisms because it improves access to better information and integrates intelligent functions to support point-of-care decision making.

  20. Age at First Birth and Fathers' Subsequent Health: Evidence From Sibling and Twin Models

    PubMed Central

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 540 siblings and twins from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States, this study examines the relationship between the age at which men become biological fathers and their subsequent health. The analysis includes both between-family models that treat brothers as independent observations and within-family models that account for unobserved genetic and early-life environmental endowments shared by brothers within families. Findings indicate that age at first birth has a positive, linear effect on men's health, and this relationship is not explained by the confounding influences of unobserved early-life characteristics. However, the effect of age at first birth on fathers' health is explained by men's socioeconomic and family statuses. Whereas most research linking birth timing to specific diseases focuses narrowly on biological mechanisms among mothers, this study demonstrates the importance of reproductive decisions for men's health and well-being. PMID:19477723

  1. Active ageing: independence through technology assisted health optimisation.

    PubMed

    Manning, B R M; McCann, J; Benton, S; Bougourd, J

    2008-01-01

    The potential doubling in the percentage of the elderly within the populations of Europe and beyond over the next decades has focused informatics research on the development Assistive Technologies and Smart Homes. However its concentration on creating a supportive home environment also has the potential for makings its users over dependent on its facilities and as a result trapped within it. This paper outlines an approach that extends the smart homes concept out into the wider community to create a smart environment that not only maintains contact with all their home-based services, but also expands these to include other facilities needed to assist them whilst on the move. This involves the convergence of physiological monitoring, communications and computing with leading-edge textile technologies, which uses a multi-layered, multi-functional clothing system as a mobile and extended variant of a smart home IP hub. In addition to variable functionality capabilities of the clothing layers in terms of thermal, shock-absorbent and other characteristics, wireless IP connectivity is provided between layers with external links typically being WiFi enabled. Health optimisation is provided by on-going lifestyle guidance/action feedback based on auto-diagnostic analysis. PMID:18560086

  2. Relationship between age at gonadectomy and health problems in kittens adopted from shelters.

    PubMed

    Porters, N; Polis, I; Moons, C P H; Van de Maele, I; Ducatelle, R; Goethals, K; Duchateau, L; de Rooster, H

    2015-05-30

    Prepubertal gonadectomy (PPG) is promoted as a way of managing overpopulation in cats, but concerns about PPG and potential health issues still exist. The objective of the present study was to evaluate short-term and long-term health problems in cats subjected to PPG in comparison to gonadectomy at traditional age (TAG). In a prospective clinical trial, 800 shelter kittens aged between approximately 8 weeks and 12 weeks were recruited before adoption and randomly assigned to either the PPG group (gonadectomy performed immediately) or the TAG group (gonadectomy delayed until six months to eight months of age). Short-term health issues included mortality between when kittens arrived at the clinic and up to seven days after they returned to the shelter, as well as the occurrence of various other health issues arising in the first month following adoption. Kittens were followed-up until 24 months of age specifically for feline lower urinary tract disease, urethral obstruction (male cats), lameness, fractures and hypersensitivity disorders with dermatological presentation. In the short term, there were no significant differences between health problems in PPG and TAG kittens. Similarly, no significant differences were observed between treatment groups in terms of the type or number of health issues in the long term. In conclusion, there are no health-related contraindications to advocating PPG strategies in shelter cats. Ideally, PPG should be performed at the shelter facility itself as long as excellent infectious disease control and postoperative clinical observation before adoption are guaranteed. PMID:25820324

  3. Providing health information to the general public: a survey of current practices in academic health sciences libraries.

    PubMed

    Hollander, S M

    2000-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to 148 publicly and privately supported academic health sciences libraries affiliated with Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC-accredited medical schools in the United States and Canada to determine level of access and services provided to the general public. For purposes of this study, "general public" was defined as nonaffiliated students or health care professionals, attorneys and other nonhealth-related professionals, patients from affiliated or other hospitals or clinics, and general consumers. One hundred five (71%) libraries responded. Results showed 98% of publicly supported libraries and 88% of privately supported libraries provided access to some or all of the general public. Publicly supported libraries saw greater numbers of public patrons, often provided more services, and were more likely to circulate materials from their collections than were privately supported libraries. A significant number of academic health sciences libraries housed a collection of consumer-oriented materials and many provided some level of document delivery service, usually for a fee. Most allowed the public to use some or all library computers. Results of this study indicated that academic health sciences libraries played a significant role in serving the information-seeking public and suggested a need to develop written policies or guidelines covering the services that will be provided to minimize the impact of this service on primary clientele.

  4. Preferences of urban Zimbabweans for health and life lived at different ages.

    PubMed Central

    Jelsma, Jennifer; Shumba, Darlies; Kristian, Hansen; De Weerdt, Willy; De Cock, Paul

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the age-weighting preferences of urban Zimbabweans in relation to health care priorities. METHOD: A total of 67 randomly selected residents of a high-density area of Harare participated in the study. Participants were asked "person trade-off" questions to determine their preferences in terms of the numbers of people of various ages who would be saved from death and from suffering a year of ill-health relative to the number of 30-year-olds who would be saved from these eventualities. FINDINGS: The responses indicate that the value of averting a year of ill-health was judged greatest for 15-year-olds and was equal for people aged 1, 30, and 45 years. The value of averting a death primarily reflected the expected years of life lost, but the influence of age-weighting was evident in that 15 years was the most highly valued age. CONCLUSION: Although the age-weighting curves did not correspond exactly with the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) age-weights, Zimbabweans showed a preference for saving the lives of young adults. The GBD age-weights should be used to determine the disability-adjusted life years lost in the Zimbabwean population. PMID:11984606

  5. Expert perspectives on Western European prison health services: do ageing prisoners receive equivalent care?

    PubMed

    Bretschneider, Wiebke; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2014-09-01

    Health care in prison and particularly the health care of older prisoners are increasingly important topics due to the growth of the ageing prisoner population. The aim of this paper is to gain insight into the approaches used in the provision of equivalent health care to ageing prisoners and to confront the intuitive definition of equivalent care and the practical and ethical challenges that have been experienced by individuals working in this field. Forty interviews took place with experts working in the prison setting from three Western European countries to discover their views on prison health care. Experts indicated that the provision of equivalent care in prison is difficult mostly due to four factors: variability of care in different prisons, gatekeeper systems, lack of personnel, and delays in providing access. This lack of equivalence can be fixed by allocating adequate budgets and developing standards for health care in prison.

  6. Expert perspectives on Western European prison health services: do ageing prisoners receive equivalent care?

    PubMed

    Bretschneider, Wiebke; Elger, Bernice Simone

    2014-09-01

    Health care in prison and particularly the health care of older prisoners are increasingly important topics due to the growth of the ageing prisoner population. The aim of this paper is to gain insight into the approaches used in the provision of equivalent health care to ageing prisoners and to confront the intuitive definition of equivalent care and the practical and ethical challenges that have been experienced by individuals working in this field. Forty interviews took place with experts working in the prison setting from three Western European countries to discover their views on prison health care. Experts indicated that the provision of equivalent care in prison is difficult mostly due to four factors: variability of care in different prisons, gatekeeper systems, lack of personnel, and delays in providing access. This lack of equivalence can be fixed by allocating adequate budgets and developing standards for health care in prison. PMID:24965437

  7. Health Consequences of Long-Term Injection Heroin Use Among Aging Mexican American Men

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Luis R.; Kaplan, Charles; Valdez, Avelardo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Research on the health consequences of long-term injection drug use (IDU) is limited. This article examines these consequences among aging, male Mexican American injecting heroin users. Concern for this group is crucial, given its health disparities and the association of IDU with disease transmission. Method Aging, male Mexican American IDUs (N = 227) were recruited through intensive outreach. Participants self-reported health status, medical and substance use history, and completed behavioral and psychometric health scales. Results are compared to Hispanic national samples. Results Participants had significantly poorer self-rated health and negative health conditions. Selected medical conditions not associated with the heroin-use lifestyle (i.e., hypertension, diabetes, arthritis) were lower relative to the comparison samples. Discussion This population has a complex profile of health consequences linked to a heroin-using lifestyle. The study concludes that routine screening of infectious diseases and medical and behavioral conditions among aging substance using populations may contribute to reducing Hispanic health disparities. PMID:21451118

  8. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981. Health Services. Report and Executive Summary of the Technical Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, John; And Others

    The first section of this Technical Committee Report provides a brief summary of the major health problems of the elderly. Problems are categorized under the general headings of health maintenance, chronic illness, mental illness, multiple impairments, demographic characteristics, manpower (geriatric medicine, nursing, and other health…

  9. [Health Care Insurance in France: its impact on income distribution between age and social groups].

    PubMed

    Fourcade, N; Duval, J; Lardellier, R

    2013-08-01

    Our study, based on microsimulation models, evaluates the redistributive impact of health care insurance in France on income distribution between age and social groups. This work sheds light on the debate concerning the respective role of the public health care insurance (PHI) and the private supplemental health care insurance (SHI) in France. The analysis points out that the PHI enables the lowest-income households and the pensioners a better access to health care than they would have had under a complete private SHI. Due to the progressivity of taxes, low-income households contribute less to the PHI and get higher benefits because of a weaker health. Pensioners have low contributions to public health care finance but the highest health care expenditures.

  10. Addressing healthy aging populations in developing countries: unlocking the opportunity of eHealth and mHealth.

    PubMed

    Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar; Losa, Juan; Miranda, J Jaime; Cheyne, Natalie E

    2014-01-01

    Aging societies worldwide propose a significant challenge to the model and organisation of the delivery of healthcare services. In developing countries, communicable and non-communicable diseases are affecting how the ageing population access healthcare; this could be due to varying reasons such as geographical barriers, limited financial support and poor literacy. New information and communication technology, such as eHealth have the potential to improve access to healthcare, information exchange and improving public and personalised medicine for elderly groups. In this article we will first frame the context of information and communication technologies in light of an aging landscape. We will also discuss the problems related to implementing the needed infrastructure for uptake of new technology, with particular emphasis on developing countries. In so doing, we highlight areas where newer technologies can serve as promising tools or vehicles to address health and healthcare-related gaps and needs of elderly people living in resource-constrained settings.

  11. Burden of poor oral health in older age: findings from a population-based study of older British men

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S E; Whincup, P H; Watt, R G; Tsakos, G; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, L T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Evidence of the extent of poor oral health in the older UK adult population is limited. We describe the prevalence of oral health conditions, using objective clinical and subjective measures, in a population-based study of older men. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting and participants A representative sample of men aged 71–92 years in 2010–2012 from the British Regional Heart Study, initially recruited in 1978–1980 from general practices across Britain. Physical examination among 1660 men included the number of teeth, and periodontal disease in index teeth in each sextant (loss of attachment, periodontal pocket, gingival bleeding). Postal questionnaires (completed by 2147 men including all participants who were clinically examined) included self-rated oral health, oral impacts on daily life and current perception of dry mouth experience. Results Among 1660 men clinically examined, 338 (20%) were edentulous and a further 728 (43%) had <21 teeth. For periodontal disease, 233 (19%) had loss of attachment (>5.5 mm) affecting 1–20% of sites while 303 (24%) had >20% sites affected. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 16%. Among 2147 men who returned postal questionnaires, 35% reported fair/poor oral health; 11% reported difficulty eating due to oral health problems. 31% reported 1–2 symptoms of dry mouth and 20% reported 3–5 symptoms of dry mouth. The prevalence of edentulism, loss of attachment, or fair/poor self-rated oral health was greater in those from manual social class. Conclusions These findings highlight the high burden of poor oral health in older British men. This was reflected in both the objective clinical and subjective measures of oral health conditions. The determinants of these oral health problems in older populations merit further research to reduce the burden and consequences of poor oral health in older people. PMID:26715480

  12. The effect of educational intervention on health promoting lifestyle: Focusing on middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Mahdipour, Nosaybeh; Shahnazi, Hossein; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle affects people's health and life length, however, no sufficient studies have been done on the effect of lifestyle on middle-ageing, as the transitional period from adulthood to old-ageing, this study has been conducted to study the effect of educational intervention on health promoting lifestyle of middle-aged women in Lenjan city of Isfahan Province, Iran. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 88 middle-aged women were selected through randomized sampling from two health centers in Lenjan, and then were categorized into experimental and control groups. To collect data, a researcher-made demographic and life style questionnaire was used. The educational intervention was performed in five sessions. Data were collected from both groups in two stages: Before the intervention and 3 months after the education. Data were analyzed with using SPSS-20 and P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed that educational program had a positive significant effect on increasing the mean scores in the intervention group, considering the physical activity, mental health, and interpersonal relationship, P < 0.001. However, regarding the nutrition, the mean increase was not significant (P = 0.113). Conclusion: According to the findings, it is evident that educational intervention is beneficial for various aspects of middle-aged women's lifestyle. Therefore, applying a healthy lifestyle seems essential for having a healthy aging period, and educational intervention can be effective. PMID:26430678

  13. The Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Children 1 1/2 Years of Age--The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva; Landorph, Susanne; Jorgensen, Torben; Olsen, E. M.; Heering, K.; Kaas-Nielsen, S.; Samberg, V.; Lichtenberg, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC 2000, was established to investigate developmental psychopathology prospectively from birth in a general population. Methods: A random sample of 211 children from the CCC 2000 was investigated when the children were 1 1/2 years of age. The prevalence and associates of mental health problems and…

  14. A dyadic approach to health, cognition, and quality of life in aging adults.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Kyle J; Memel, Molly; Woolverton, Cindy; Sbarra, David A

    2015-06-01

    Married couples evidence interdependence in their psychological and physical wellbeing across the life span. This is particularly true in aging populations that experience declines in physical health and cognitive ability. This study investigated the effects of partners' physical health and cognition on quality of life (QoL) in a series of bivariate latent curve growth models. The sample included aging married couples (N = 8,187) who participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) study and provided data across 6 years. Results indicated that husbands' and wives' baseline levels and rates of change in QoL covaried significantly over time. In addition, husbands' and wives' physical health and cognition predicted their partners' baseline level of QoL above and beyond their own health and cognition, and these effects were of equivalent size for both men and women. The findings suggest that as couples age, husbands' and wives' QoL, cognition, and health are predictive of their partners' QoL.

  15. A scoping review of anorexia of aging correlates and their relevance to population health interventions.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mathieu; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Payette, Hélène

    2016-10-01

    Anorexia of aging (AA, i.e., loss of appetite and/or reduction of food intake with aging) is an important public health issue. It leads to unintentional weight loss, which is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality among seniors. AA has mainly been studied from a biological perspective and regarded as a normal physiological consequence of aging, rather than a negative health outcome with underlying determinants. Some potentially modifiable correlates have however been found to be associated with this geriatric condition. Here, we conducted a scoping review of the literature to: 1) identify AA correlates, and 2) discuss their relevance to population health interventions. Our results indicate two main categories of AA correlates, namely, physiopathological and non-physiopathological. The first category relates to physiological dysfunctions, pathologies involving (or culminating in) biomarker dysregulation, and polypharmacy. These correlates are difficult to modify, especially through population health interventions. The second category, which contains fewer correlates, includes potentially modifiable public health targets, such as food-related properties, psychological, sociocultural, and environmental issues. We conclude that there are several AA correlates. Some of them are modifiable and could be targeted for development and implementation as appropriate population health interventions to prevent appetite loss and promote maintenance of adequate food intake in aging.

  16. A dyadic approach to health, cognition, and quality of life in aging adults.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Kyle J; Memel, Molly; Woolverton, Cindy; Sbarra, David A

    2015-06-01

    Married couples evidence interdependence in their psychological and physical wellbeing across the life span. This is particularly true in aging populations that experience declines in physical health and cognitive ability. This study investigated the effects of partners' physical health and cognition on quality of life (QoL) in a series of bivariate latent curve growth models. The sample included aging married couples (N = 8,187) who participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) study and provided data across 6 years. Results indicated that husbands' and wives' baseline levels and rates of change in QoL covaried significantly over time. In addition, husbands' and wives' physical health and cognition predicted their partners' baseline level of QoL above and beyond their own health and cognition, and these effects were of equivalent size for both men and women. The findings suggest that as couples age, husbands' and wives' QoL, cognition, and health are predictive of their partners' QoL. PMID:25938247

  17. A scoping review of anorexia of aging correlates and their relevance to population health interventions.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mathieu; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Payette, Hélène

    2016-10-01

    Anorexia of aging (AA, i.e., loss of appetite and/or reduction of food intake with aging) is an important public health issue. It leads to unintentional weight loss, which is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality among seniors. AA has mainly been studied from a biological perspective and regarded as a normal physiological consequence of aging, rather than a negative health outcome with underlying determinants. Some potentially modifiable correlates have however been found to be associated with this geriatric condition. Here, we conducted a scoping review of the literature to: 1) identify AA correlates, and 2) discuss their relevance to population health interventions. Our results indicate two main categories of AA correlates, namely, physiopathological and non-physiopathological. The first category relates to physiological dysfunctions, pathologies involving (or culminating in) biomarker dysregulation, and polypharmacy. These correlates are difficult to modify, especially through population health interventions. The second category, which contains fewer correlates, includes potentially modifiable public health targets, such as food-related properties, psychological, sociocultural, and environmental issues. We conclude that there are several AA correlates. Some of them are modifiable and could be targeted for development and implementation as appropriate population health interventions to prevent appetite loss and promote maintenance of adequate food intake in aging. PMID:27374898

  18. The methodology of the Italian HBSC 2010 study (Health Behaviour in School-aged Children).

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, G; Giacchi, M V; Dalmasso, P; Vieno, A; Nardone, P; Lamberti, A; Spinelli, A; Cavallo, F

    2013-01-01

    Italy has participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study since 2000. These surveys collect data every four years on the well-being and health behaviour of boys and girls aged 11, 13 and 15. Until 2007, the coordination group of the University of Turin, Siena and Padua directly sent the questionnaires to each sampled school to collect the data. The sample of about 4500 students was nationally representative. In 2008 the HBSC became part of the project "Surveys on behavioral risks in children aged 6-17 years", coordinated by the National Institute of Health (ISS) and promoted by the Ministry of Health, in collaboration with the Ministry of Education, University and Research. For the first time, in 2010, the survey was conducted by health workers in collaboration with teachers in all regions with a representative sample, not just at the national level, but also at regional level. In the 2,504 sampled schools, 77,113 students (25,079 eleven-year-old, 26,048 thirteen-year-old and 25,986 fifteen-year-old) completed an anonymous questionnaire. Knowledge of the health-related behaviour of school-aged adolescents may help monitoring and enable policies for young people to be formulated and implemented.

  19. Simple and Multivariate Relationships Between Spiritual Intelligence with General Health and Happiness.

    PubMed

    Amirian, Mohammad-Elyas; Fazilat-Pour, Masoud

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined simple and multivariate relationships of spiritual intelligence with general health and happiness. The employed method was descriptive and correlational. King's Spiritual Quotient scales, GHQ-28 and Oxford Happiness Inventory, are filled out by a sample consisted of 384 students, which were selected using stratified random sampling from the students of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Data are subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics including correlations and multivariate regressions. Bivariate correlations support positive and significant predictive value of spiritual intelligence toward general health and happiness. Further analysis showed that among the Spiritual Intelligence' subscales, Existential Critical Thinking Predicted General Health and Happiness, reversely. In addition, happiness was positively predicted by generation of personal meaning and transcendental awareness. The findings are discussed in line with the previous studies and the relevant theoretical background.

  20. Simple and Multivariate Relationships Between Spiritual Intelligence with General Health and Happiness.

    PubMed

    Amirian, Mohammad-Elyas; Fazilat-Pour, Masoud

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined simple and multivariate relationships of spiritual intelligence with general health and happiness. The employed method was descriptive and correlational. King's Spiritual Quotient scales, GHQ-28 and Oxford Happiness Inventory, are filled out by a sample consisted of 384 students, which were selected using stratified random sampling from the students of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Data are subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics including correlations and multivariate regressions. Bivariate correlations support positive and significant predictive value of spiritual intelligence toward general health and happiness. Further analysis showed that among the Spiritual Intelligence' subscales, Existential Critical Thinking Predicted General Health and Happiness, reversely. In addition, happiness was positively predicted by generation of personal meaning and transcendental awareness. The findings are discussed in line with the previous studies and the relevant theoretical background. PMID:25616864

  1. Primary care in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Health care and health status in general practice ambulatory care centres.

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, M.; Hodgetts, G.; Bardon, E.; Seguin, R.; Packer, D.; Geddes, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the health care and health status of patients attending primary care clinics in Bosnia and Herzegovina. DESIGN: Assisted administration patient survey. SETTING: Two ambulatory care clinics (ambulantas) in each of three cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Tuzla, Mostar, and Banja Luka. PARTICIPANTS: Patients attending the ambulantas during a 1-week period in March 1999; 885 answered questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Each patient listed demographic characteristics and answered questions on satisfaction with health care and with the physical and financial accessibility of health care services and medications. A validated health status questionnaire (EuroQoL), previously used in parts of the former Yugoslavia, was administered. RESULTS: Only 22% of patients were employed; 57% could not pay the nominal fee to see a physician; 71% walked to the clinic; mean distance from patients' homes to the clinics was 2.3 km; 63% could not get the medications prescribed (in 85% of cases because of cost, not availability); 80% to 90% of answers to satisfaction questions suggested high satisfaction with the care patients received from their doctors; 67% of the time patients were referred to a specialist by general practitioners; 33% had problems walking; 17% had problems with self-care; 36% had problems with usual daily activities; 72% had at least some pain or discomfort; and 62% described at least some anxiety or depression. The three cities showed significant differences; patients in Tuzla generally had lower health status and more problems with health care. CONCLUSION: Unemployment and financial considerations reduced health care access in Bosnia and Herzegovina. While only one third of patients had physical difficulties, two thirds had emotional problems or pain. Satisfaction with physicians' care was high. PMID:11228029

  2. Work Related Stress, Burnout, Job Satisfaction and General Health of Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Khamisa, Natasha; Oldenburg, Brian; Peltzer, Karl; Ilic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Gaps in research focusing on work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses is evident within developing contexts like South Africa. This study identified the relationship between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. A total of 1200 nurses from four hospitals were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study (75% response rate). Participants completed five questionnaires and multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Staff issues are best associated with burnout as well as job satisfaction. Burnout explained the highest amount of variance in mental health of nurses. These are known to compromise productivity and performance, as well as affect the quality of patient care. Issues, such as security risks in the workplace, affect job satisfaction and health of nurses. Although this is more salient to developing contexts it is important in developing strategies and intervention programs towards improving nurse and patient related outcomes. PMID:25588157

  3. Work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses.

    PubMed

    Khamisa, Natasha; Oldenburg, Brian; Peltzer, Karl; Ilic, Dragan

    2015-01-12

    Gaps in research focusing on work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses is evident within developing contexts like South Africa. This study identified the relationship between work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. A total of 1200 nurses from four hospitals were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study (75% response rate). Participants completed five questionnaires and multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Staff issues are best associated with burnout as well as job satisfaction. Burnout explained the highest amount of variance in mental health of nurses. These are known to compromise productivity and performance, as well as affect the quality of patient care. Issues, such as security risks in the workplace, affect job satisfaction and health of nurses. Although this is more salient to developing contexts it is important in developing strategies and intervention programs towards improving nurse and patient related outcomes.

  4. Validation of an Algorithm to Estimate Gestational Age in Electronic Health Plan Databases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Andrade, Susan E.; Cooper, William O.; Davis, Robert L.; Dublin, Sascha; Hammad, Tarek A.; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Pinheiro, Simone P.; Raebel, Marsha A.; Scott, Pamela E.; Smith, David H.; Dashevsky, Inna; Haffenreffer, Katie; Johnson, Karin E.; Toh, Sengwee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To validate an algorithm that uses delivery date and diagnosis codes to define gestational age at birth in electronic health plan databases. Methods Using data from 225,384 live born deliveries among women aged 15–45 years in 2001–2007 within 8 of the 11 health plans participating in the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program, we compared 1) the algorithm-derived gestational age versus the “gold-standard” gestational age obtained from the infant birth certificate files; and 2) the prenatal exposure status of two antidepressants (fluoxetine and sertraline) and two antibiotics (amoxicillin and azithromycin) as determined by the algorithm-derived versus the gold-standard gestational age. Results The mean algorithm-derived gestational age at birth was lower than the mean obtained from the birth certificate files among singleton deliveries (267.9 versus 273.5 days) but not among multiple-gestation deliveries (253.9 versus 252.6 days). The algorithm-derived prenatal exposure to the antidepressants had a sensitivity and a positive predictive value (PPV) of ≥95%, and a specificity and a negative predictive value (NPV) of almost 100%. Sensitivity and PPV were both ≥90%, and specificity and NPV were both >99% for the antibiotics. Conclusions A gestational age algorithm based upon electronic health plan data correctly classified medication exposure status in most live born deliveries, but misclassification may be higher for drugs typically used for short durations. PMID:23335117

  5. Environmental Health and Aging: Activity, Exposure and Biological Models to Improve Risk Assessment and Health Promotion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other public health agencies are concerned that the environmental health of America’s growing population of older adults has not been taken into consideration in current approaches to risk assessment. The reduced capacity to respo...

  6. Effect of Health Literacy on Quality of Life amongst Patients with Ischaemic Heart Disease in Australian General Practice

    PubMed Central

    González-Chica, David Alejandro; Mnisi, Zandile; Avery, Jodie; Duszynski, Katherine; Doust, Jenny; Tideman, Philip; Murphy, Andrew; Burgess, Jacquii; Beilby, Justin; Stocks, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Background Appropriate understanding of health information by patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is fundamental for better management of risk factors and improved morbidity, which can also benefit their quality of life. Objectives To assess the relationship between health literacy and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD), and to investigate the role of sociodemographic and clinical variables as possible confounders. Methods Cross-sectional study of patients with IHD recruited from a stratified sample of general practices in two Australian states (Queensland and South Australia) between 2007 and 2009. Health literacy was measured using a validated questionnaire and classified as inadequate, marginal, or adequate. Physical and mental components of HRQoL were assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF12) questionnaire. Analyses were adjusted for confounders (sociodemographic variables, clinical history of IHD, number of CVD comorbidities, and CVD risk factors) using multiple linear regression. Results A total sample of 587 patients with IHD (mean age 72.0±8.4 years) was evaluated: 76.8% males, 84.2% retired or pensioner, and 51.4% with up to secondary educational level. Health literacy showed a mean of 39.6±6.7 points, with 14.3% (95%CI 11.8–17.3) classified as inadequate. Scores of the physical component of HRQoL were 39.6 (95%CI 37.1–42.1), 42.1 (95%CI 40.8–43.3) and 44.8 (95%CI 43.3–46.2) for inadequate, marginal, and adequate health literacy, respectively (p-value for trend = 0.001). This association persisted after adjustment for confounders. Health literacy was not associated with the mental component of HRQoL (p-value = 0.482). Advanced age, lower educational level, disadvantaged socioeconomic position, and a larger number of CVD comorbidities adversely affected both, health literacy and HRQoL. Conclusion Inadequate health literacy is a contributing factor to poor physical

  7. Socioeconomic status overrides age and gender in determining health-seeking behaviour in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Tomson, Göran; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the health-seeking behaviour of elderly members (aged > 60 years) of households in rural Bangladesh, to ascertain how their behaviour differs from that of younger people (aged 20-59 years) living in the same household and to explore the determinants of health-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on the health-seeking behaviour of household members aged > 20 years. Respondents were asked about major illnesses occurring within 15 days prior to the interview. The sample consisted of 966 households that had at least one resident who was aged > 60 (32% of 3031 households). FINDINGS: We found no major differences in health-seeking behaviour between elderly people and younger adults. On average about 35% (405/1169) of those who reported having been ill during the previous 15 days in both age groups chose self-care/self-treatment; for both age groups the most commonly consulted type of provider was a paraprofessional such as a village doctor, a medical assistant or a community health worker. A household's poverty status emerged as a major determinant of health-seeking behaviour. The odds ratio (OR) that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from unqualified allopathic practitioners was 0.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.78); the odds ratio that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from qualified allopathic practitioners was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.60-0.95). For self-care or self-treatment it was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.43-2.36). Patients' level of education affected whether they avoided self-care/self-treatment and drugstore salespeople (who are usually unlicensed and untrained but who diagnose illnesses and sell medicine) and instead chose a formal allopathic practitioner (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.15-1.96). When a household's poverty status was controlled for, there were no differences in age or gender in terms of health-care expenditure. CONCLUSION: We found that socioeconomic

  8. The impact of health insurance for children under age 6 in Vietnam: A regression discontinuity approach.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Michael; Mitra, Sophie; Mont, Daniel; Groce, Nora

    2015-11-01

    Accessing health services at an early age is important to future health and life outcomes. Yet, little is currently known on the role of health insurance in facilitating access to care for children. Exploiting a regression discontinuity design made possible through a policy to provide health insurance to pre-school aged children in Vietnam, this paper evaluates the impact of health insurance on the health care utilization outcomes of children at the eligibility threshold of six years. Using three rounds of the Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey, the study finds a positive impact on inpatient and outpatient visits and no significant impact on expenditures per visit at public facilities. We find moderately high use of private outpatient services and no evidence of a switch from private to covered public facilities under insurance. Results suggest that adopting public health insurance programs for children under age 6 may be an important vehicle to improving service utilization in a low- and middle-income country context. Challenges remain in providing adequate protections from the costs and other barriers to care.

  9. Demonstrating successful aging using the International Collaborative Study for Oral Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Atchison, K A; Andersen, R M

    2000-01-01

    As the lifespan increases and people are faced with 15 to 20 years of "old age," we ask what one considers successful aging with respect to oral health. We propose a comprehensive combination of outcome variables, maintenance of teeth, manageable periodontal condition, positive perceived oral health, satisfaction with their access to and receipt of dental services, and minimal functional problems, that together comprise a definition of successful aging. The International Collaborative Study for Oral Health Outcomes provides a data set for exploring the oral health of a diverse sample of older adults in US and international sites using the modified Andersen Behavioral Model. The percent of adults who report no natural teeth ranged from 16 percent in San Antonio to 59 percent in New Zealand. Seventy percent or more of the adults from each site rated their oral health as good/fair or better except in Poland. The current cohort of older adults is faring better on some indicators than others; nevertheless, ethnic minorities and poorer countries still demonstrate inequities. Dentistry must attempt to educate individuals early in their lifespan that a combination of personal oral health practices and current dental techniques offers the potential for successful oral health throughout one's lifetime.

  10. Mental health and bullying in the United States among children aged 6 to 17 years.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Frances Turcotte; Vivier, Patrick M; Gjelsvik, Annie

    2015-03-01

    This article examines the association between mental health disorders and being identified as a bully among children between the ages of 6 and 17 years. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were examined. A total of 63,997 children had data for both parental reported mental health and bullying status. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression was performed to assess the association between mental health status and being identified as a bully with an age-stratified analysis and sub-analysis by type of mental health disorder. In 2007, 15.2% of U.S. children ages 6 to 17 years were identified as bullies by their parent or guardian. Children with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or depression had a threefold increased odds of being a bully. The diagnosis of depression is associated with a 3.31 increased odds (95% CI = [2.7, 4.07]) of being identified as a bully. Children with anxiety and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had similar odds. The diagnosis of a mental health disorder is strongly associated with being identified as a bully. In particular, depression, anxiety, and ADHD are strongly associated with being identified as a bully. These findings emphasize the importance of providing psychological support to not only victims of bullying but bullies as well. Understanding the risk profile of childhood bullies is essential in gaining a better grasp of this public health problem and in creating useful and appropriate resources and interventions to decrease bullying.

  11. Life-course and cohort trajectories of mental health in the UK, 1991-2008--a multilevel age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    There is ongoing debate regarding the shape of life-course trajectories in mental health. Many argue the relationship is U-shaped, with mental health declining with age to mid-life, then improving. However, I argue that these models are beset by the age-period-cohort (APC) identification problem, whereby age, cohort and year of measurement are exactly collinear and their effects cannot be meaningfully separated. This means an apparent life-course effect could be explained by cohorts. This paper critiques two sets of literature: the substantive literature regarding life-course trajectories in mental health, and the methodological literature that claims erroneously to have 'solved' the APC identification problem statistically (e.g. using Yang and Land's Hierarchical APC-HAPC-model). I then use a variant of the HAPC model, making strong but justified assumptions that allow the modelling of life-course trajectories in mental health (measured by the General Health Questionnaire) net of any cohort effects, using data from the British Household Panel Survey, 1991-2008. The model additionally employs a complex multilevel structure that allows the relative importance of spatial (households, local authority districts) and temporal (periods, cohorts) levels to be assessed. Mental health is found to increase throughout the life-course; this slows at mid-life before worsening again into old age, but there is no evidence of a U-shape--I argue that such findings result from confounding with cohort processes (whereby more recent cohorts have generally worse mental health). Other covariates were also evaluated; income, smoking, education, social class, urbanity, ethnicity, gender and marriage were all related to mental health, with the latter two in particular affecting life-course and cohort trajectories. The paper shows the importance of understanding APC in life-course research generally, and mental health research in particular. PMID:25215933

  12. Life-course and cohort trajectories of mental health in the UK, 1991-2008--a multilevel age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    There is ongoing debate regarding the shape of life-course trajectories in mental health. Many argue the relationship is U-shaped, with mental health declining with age to mid-life, then improving. However, I argue that these models are beset by the age-period-cohort (APC) identification problem, whereby age, cohort and year of measurement are exactly collinear and their effects cannot be meaningfully separated. This means an apparent life-course effect could be explained by cohorts. This paper critiques two sets of literature: the substantive literature regarding life-course trajectories in mental health, and the methodological literature that claims erroneously to have 'solved' the APC identification problem statistically (e.g. using Yang and Land's Hierarchical APC-HAPC-model). I then use a variant of the HAPC model, making strong but justified assumptions that allow the modelling of life-course trajectories in mental health (measured by the General Health Questionnaire) net of any cohort effects, using data from the British Household Panel Survey, 1991-2008. The model additionally employs a complex multilevel structure that allows the relative importance of spatial (households, local authority districts) and temporal (periods, cohorts) levels to be assessed. Mental health is found to increase throughout the life-course; this slows at mid-life before worsening again into old age, but there is no evidence of a U-shape--I argue that such findings result from confounding with cohort processes (whereby more recent cohorts have generally worse mental health). Other covariates were also evaluated; income, smoking, education, social class, urbanity, ethnicity, gender and marriage were all related to mental health, with the latter two in particular affecting life-course and cohort trajectories. The paper shows the importance of understanding APC in life-course research generally, and mental health research in particular.

  13. Effects of changing exposure to neighbourhood greenness on general and mental health: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Weimann, Hanna; Rylander, Lars; Albin, Maria; Skärbäck, Erik; Grahn, Patrik; Östergren, Per-Olof; Björk, Jonas

    2015-05-01

    Green neighbourhood environments have been associated with physical and psychological wellbeing in adults. Access to greenness is potentially more important in vulnerable subgroups. In this study based on longitudinal survey data from southern Sweden the cohort was divided into prognostic groups for good self-reported general (n=8891) and mental (n=9444) health. We used independent survey data to assess perceived neighbourhood greenness in 1km(2) areas, and estimated effects of changing exposure longitudinally stratified by prognostic group. The overall effect on health was small and statistically uncertain (for general health OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.98-1.10, for mental health OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.14). A more beneficial effect of increased greenness was indicated among subjects with lowest prognostic of good general health (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.52). The study provided only weak evidence for beneficial effects of increased neighbourhood greenness triggered by changing residence. It seems that altered life circumstances, e.g. changed civil or socioeconomic status that often trigger a decision to move, are also the key determinants of the health consequences of changing residence.

  14. Effect of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phone base stations on general health and salivary function

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kushpal; Nagaraj, Anup; Yousuf, Asif; Ganta, Shravani; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiations in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. The present study aimed to determine the effect of electromagnetic radiations (EMRs) on unstimulated/stimulated salivary flow rate and other health-related problems between the general populations residing in proximity to and far away from mobile phone base stations. Materials and Methods: A total of four mobile base stations were randomly selected from four zones of Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Twenty individuals who were residing in proximity to the selected mobile phone towers were taken as the case group and the other 20 individuals (control group) who were living nearly 1 km away in the periphery were selected for salivary analysis. Questions related to sleep disturbances were measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other health problems were included in the questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results: It was unveiled that a majority of the subjects who were residing near the mobile base station complained of sleep disturbances, headache, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension. A majority of the study subjects had significantly lesser stimulated salivary secretion (P < 0.01) as compared to the control subjects. Conclusions: The effects of prolonged exposure to EMRs from mobile phone base stations on the health and well-being of the general population cannot be ruled out. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on general health and more specifically on oral health. PMID:27011934

  15. Age-associated cardiovascular changes in health: impact on cardiovascular disease in older persons.

    PubMed

    Lakatta, Edward G

    2002-01-01

    In the United States, cardiovascular disease, e.g., atherosclerosis and hypertension, that lead to heart failure and stroke, is the leading cause of mortality, accounting for over 40 percent of deaths in those aged 65 years and above. Over 80 percent of all cardio-vascular deaths occur in the same age group. Thus, age, per se, is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Clinical manifestations and prognosis of these cardiovascular diseases likely become altered in older persons with advanced age because interactions occur between age-associated cardiovascular changes in health and specific pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie a disease. A fundamental understanding of age-associated changes in cardiovascular structure and function ranging in scope from humans to molecules is required for effective and efficient prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in older persons. A sustained effort over the past two decades has been applied to characterize the multiple effects of aging in health on cardiovascular structure and function in a single study population, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging. In these studies, community dwelling, volunteer participants are rigorously screened to detect both clinical and occult cardiovascular disease and characterized with respect to lifestyle, e.g. exercise habits, in an attempt to deconvolute interactions among lifestyle, cardiovascular disease and the aging process in health. This review highlights some specific changes in resting cardiovascular structure and function and cardiovascular reserve capacity that occur with advancing age in healthy humans. Observations from relevant experiments in animal models have been integrated with those in humans to provide possible mechanistic insight.

  16. US health spending trends by age and gender: selected years 2002-10.

    PubMed

    Lassman, David; Hartman, Micah; Washington, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly; Catlin, Aaron

    2014-05-01

    This article presents estimates of personal health care spending by age and gender in selected years during the period 2002-10 and an analysis of the variation in spending among children, working-age adults, and the elderly. Our research found that in this period, aggregate spending on children's health care increased at the slowest rate. However, per capita spending for children grew more rapidly than that for working-age adults and the elderly. Per capita spending for the elderly remained about five times higher than spending for children. Overall, females spent more per capita than males, but the gap had decreased by 2010. The implementation of Medicare Part D, the effects of the recent recession, and the aging of the baby boomers affected the spending trends and distributions during the period of this study.

  17. 10th World IHEA and ECHE Joint Congress: health economics in the age of longevity.

    PubMed

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B; Getzen, Thomas E; Torbica, Aleksandra; Anegawa, Tomofumi

    2014-12-01

    The 10th consecutive World Health Economics conference was organized jointly by International Health Economics Association and European Conference on Health Economics Association and took place at The Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland in July 2014. It has attracted broad participation from the global professional community devoted to health economics teaching,research and policy applications. It has provided a forum for lively discussion on hot contemporary issues such as health expenditure projections, reimbursement regulations,health technology assessment, universal insurance coverage, demand and supply of hospital services, prosperity diseases, population aging and many others. The high-profile debate fostered by this meeting is likely to inspire further methodological advances worldwide and spreading of evidence-based policy practice from OECD towards emerging markets.

  18. A Comparison of the Lower Stratospheric Age-Spectra Derived from a General Circulation Model and Two Data Assimilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Zhu, Zhengxin; Pawson, Steven

    2002-01-01

    We use kinematic and diabatic back trajectory calculations, driven by winds from a general circulation model (GCM) and two different data assimilation systems (DAS), to compute the age spectrum at three latitudes in the lower stratosphere. The age-spectra are compared to chemical transport model (CTM) calculations, and the mean ages from all of these studies are compared to observations. The age spectra computed using the GCM winds show a reasonably isolated tropics in good agreement with observations; however, the age spectra determined from the DAS differ from the GCM spectra. For the DAS diabatic trajectory calculations there is too much exchange between the tropics and mid-latitudes. The age spectrum is thus too broad and the tropical mean age is too old as a result of mixing older mid latitude air with tropical air. Likewise the mid latitude mean age is too young due to the in mixing of tropical air. The DAS kinematic trajectory calculations show excessive vertical dispersion of parcels in addition to excessive exchange between the tropics and mid latitudes. Because air is moved rapidly to the troposphere from the vertical dispersion, the age spectrum is shifted toward the young side. The excessive vertical and meridional dispersion compensate in the kinematic case giving a reasonable tropical mean age. The CTM calculation of the age spectrum using the DAS winds shows the same vertical and meridional dispersive characteristics of the kinematic trajectory calculation. These results suggest that the current DAS products will not give realistic trace gas distributions for long integrations; they also help explain why the extra tropical mean ages determined in a number of previous DAS driven CTM s are too young compared with observations. Finally, we note trajectory-generated age spectra . show significant age anomalies correlated with the seasonal cycles. These anomalies can be linked to year-to-year variations in the tropical heating rate. The anomalies are

  19. Gender difference in health and its determinants in the old-aged population in India.

    PubMed

    Dhak, Biplab

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines the gender differential in health and its socioeconomic and demographic determinants in the old-age population of India based on the National Sample Survey 60th round data collected in 2004. As in developed countries, older women in India report poorer self-reported health and experience greater immobility compared with men. Stepwise logistic regression analysis shows that the gender differential in health is linked to various socioeconomic and demographic variables and that the gender gap could be narrowed with appropriate policy intervention. Specifically, paying special attention towards improving the socioeconomic status of widowed/separated women could attenuate a substantial portion of the observed gender gap in the health of the old-age population. PMID:19563694

  20. Genetic and environmental influences on optimism and its relationship to mental and self-rated health: a study of aging twins.

    PubMed

    Mosing, Miriam A; Zietsch, Brendan P; Shekar, Sri N; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G

    2009-11-01

    Optimism has been shown to be important in maintaining wellbeing into old age, but little is known about the sources of variation in optimism and its links to mental and somatic health. Optimism, mental, and self-rated health were measured in 3,053 twin individuals (501 MZF, 153 MZM, 274 DZF, 77 DZM, and 242 DZ opposite-sex twin pairs and 561 single twins) over 50 years using the life orientation test, the General Health Questionnaire and a single-item question for self-rated health. Additive genetic factors explained 36, 34, and 46% of the variation in optimism, mental, and self-rated health, respectively, with the remainder being due to non-shared environmental influences. Genetic influences accounted for most of the covariance between the variables (14-20% of the genetic variance) indicating that in older adults genes predisposing to high optimism also predispose to good mental health and self-rated health.