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Sample records for age grade academic

  1. Academic Performance Difficulties: Age and Grade at First Referral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Marsha J.; Kordinak, S. Thomas; Bruce, A. Jerry

    2008-01-01

    Archival records of 43 children referred for diagnosis and treatment for academic difficulties were examined. Results revealed a significant difference for age at first referral and diagnoses. Those with disorders such as learning disability and severe emotional disturbance tended to be older, while the ADHD and dysthymic disorders tended to be…

  2. Under the Radar: The Impact of Relatively Young Age for Grade Level on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryken, Klazina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether age differences affect students' academic achievement, and whether age differences affect students in low-income areas differently than those in mixed or higher-income areas. Student achievement data for grades 3, 7, and 11 in language arts and math were obtained from a variety of schools…

  3. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains the updated academic standards of Arizona for Grade 8. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 8; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading…

  4. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  5. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006 --Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  6. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  7. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for Grade 1. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 1; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  8. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 3. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 3; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  9. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades…

  10. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades…

  11. Student Perception of Academic Grading: Personality, Academic Orientation, and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippin, Gregory K.; Lafreniere, Kathryn D.; Page, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Factors influencing student perceptions of academic grading were examined, with an emphasis on furthering understanding of the relevance of effort to students' conceptualization of grading. Students demonstrated a conceptualization of grading where effort should be weighted comparably to actual performance in importance to the composition of a…

  12. Academic Testing and Grading with Spreadsheet Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Explains how spreadsheet software can be used in the design and grading of academic tests and in assigning grades. Macro programs and menu-driven software are highlighted and an example using IBM PCs and Lotus 1-2-3 software is given. (Author/LRW)

  13. A Contentious Triangle: Grading and Academic Freedom in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the tensions created by academic freedom and grading in universities between academic staff and academic administration. Additionally, the impact of grading and academic standards on students' academic freedom is addressed, as well as the impact of corporatisation in the academy. By reviewing the existing literature and case…

  14. Holding Back and Holding behind: Grade Retention and Students' Non-Academic and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the implications of grade retention (repeating a grade) and social promotion (automatic promotion to the next grade each year) for high school students' academic and non-academic outcomes. Based on data from 3261 high school students, structural equation modeling demonstrated that, after controlling for interactions with…

  15. Academic Achievement and the Third Grade African American Male

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shropshire, Delia F. B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…

  16. Academic Freedom and Student Grading in Greek Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadimitriou, Antigoni

    2011-01-01

    The issue of who has the final say on academic standards (grading), academics or managers, has hitherto not arisen in Greece. Professors entitled to research, to teach and to inquire is a freedom expressed by the Greek Constitution. This article presents a contemporary view and raises concerns about the future and the longevity of academic freedom…

  17. The Effect of Grade Placement on English Language Learners' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    Many English Language Learners (ELLs) migrate to the United States at older ages and administrators must choose a grade in which to place these new entrants as soon as they register for school. In this study, I estimate the effect of grade placement on the short-term academic performance of ELLs who enroll in the Miami-Dade County Public School…

  18. Fidelity as a Precondition for Integrity in Grading Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, D. Royce

    2010-01-01

    If a grade is to be trusted as an authentic representation of a student's level of academic achievement, one of the requirements is that all the elements that contribute to that grade must qualify as achievement, and not be something else. The implications of taking this proposition literally turn out to be far reaching. Many elements that are…

  19. Relationship between Grade Span Configuration and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dove, Mary Jane; Pearson, L. Carolyn; Hooper, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between grade span configuration and academic achievement of 6th-grade students as measured by the Arkansas Benchmark Examination, which is the approved NCLB criterion-referenced annual assessment, was examined. The results of a one-between two-within analysis of variance for the 3-year state-wide study of 6th graders' combined…

  20. Grade Inflation: Academic Standards in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Lester H., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a provocative look at the issues and controversies surrounding grade inflation, and, more generally, grading practices in American higher education. The contributors confront the issues from a number of different disciplines and varying points of view. Topics explored include empirical evidence for and against the claim that…

  1. Academic Talent and Grade Achievement of Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Clinton I.

    Among students and faculty as well, there are widespread beliefs that some departmental programs impose stringent demands on students while others are relatively undemanding. A second notion is that students with a given level of academic talent gravitate to departments whose demands correspond with the student's talent. It was therefore the…

  2. Academic Research in the Cyberspace Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses research in the cyberspace era, exploring why academics may be naive about what information they are being allowed to access on the academic databases they rely on for research. Asserts that the real issue of the cyberspace age is the marketing of knowledge. (EV)

  3. Personality Traits and Intelligence Predict Academic School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Monsen, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which personality traits and intelligence scores predict school level academic performance (AP), (British GCSE: General Certificate of Secondary Education; America Grade 10) in different disciplines. The participant sample consisted of approximately 250 school pupils from three schools in the South East of…

  4. Indiana's Academic Standards: 11th Grade English/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet of academic standards spells out what students should know and be able to do in Grade 11 English/Language Arts. The booklet gives examples to help students understand what is required to meet the standards and provides a list of 10 things parents can do to help their child get a good education. It outlines the following seven…

  5. Indiana's Academic Standards: 9th Grade English/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet of academic standards spells out what students should be able to do in Grade 9 English/Language Arts. The booklet gives examples to help students understand what is required to meet the standards and comes accompanied with a list of 10 things parents can do to help their child get a good education. It outlines the following seven…

  6. Indiana's Academic Standards: 12th Grade English/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet of academic standards spells out what students should know and be able to do in Grade 12 English/Language Arts. The booklet gives examples to help students understand what is required to meet the standards and provides parents with a list of 10 things they can do to help their child get a good education. It outlines the following…

  7. Indiana's Academic Standards: 10th Grade English/Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This booklet of academic standards spells out what students should know and be able to do in Grade 10 English/Language Arts. The booklet gives examples to help students understand what is required to meet the standards and provides a list of 10 things parents can do to help their child get a good education. It outlines the following seven…

  8. Academic Achievement for Fifth-Grade Students in Elementary and Intermediate School Settings: Grade Span Configurations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Julie P.; Clark, David; Moore, George W.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Slate, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Few researchers have addressed student achievement outcomes as a function of grade configurations for older elementary-aged students. Thus, this study was designed to determine differences between students' Grade 5 reading and mathematics achievement in elementary schools (K-5) as compared to intermediate schools (Grade 5, 5-6) for 5 academic…

  9. Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status in School-Aged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…

  10. Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

  11. Developmental Changes in Cognitive Persistence and Academic Achievement between Grade 4 and Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozsa, Krisztian; Morgan, George A.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes changes in cognitive persistence, a key measure of mastery motivation, between the ages of 10 (grade 4) and 14 (grade 8). Prior research in the field of mastery motivation has focused mainly on early childhood. No longitudinal research findings have been published about age changes in mastery motivation during the school…

  12. Children with Co-occurring Academic and Behavior Problems in First grade: Distal Outcomes in Twelfth Grade

    PubMed Central

    Darney, Dana; Reinke, Wendy M.; Herman, Keith C.; Stormont, Melissa; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the eleven year longitudinal association between students identified in first grade as having academic and behavior problems and distal outcomes in twelfth grade. The study extends prior research that identified latent classes of academic and behavior problems in a longitudinal community sample of 678 predominately African American first-grade students. The type and number of classes identified in first grade differed by gender, but results indicated that students within the classes of behavior and academic problems had long-term negative outcomes in the twelfth grade. The class with co-occurring academic and behavior problems in first grade had the greatest risk for negative distal outcomes for both boys and girls including higher likelihood of special education placement, mental health service use, poor academic achievement, and school dropout. Implications for prevention, early intervention, and current practices in schools are discussed. PMID:23375176

  13. Relationship of Age, Marital Status, and Work Experience of Community College Nursing Students to Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frerichs, Marian L.

    To investigate differences in academic success due to age (younger or older than age 23), marital status, and nursing experience, a three-way analysis of variance was performed on the grade point averages of 1,435 female nursing students enrolled in 22 Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) programs in Illinois. The sample, representing over 90 percent of…

  14. THE EFFECT OF SELF-SET GRADE GOALS AND CORE SELF-EVALUATIONS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: A DIARY STUDY.

    PubMed

    Bipp, Tanja; Kleingeld, Ad; Van Den Tooren, Marieke; Schinkel, Sonja

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this diary study was to examine the effect of self-set grade goals and core self-evaluations on academic performance. Data were collected among 59 university students (M age = 18.4 yr., SD = 0.8) in a 2-wk. exam period on up to five exam days. Multilevel analyses revealed that the individual grade goals students set for their exams were positively related to the grades they obtained for these exams. However, the goal-performance relationship only applied to students scoring high on core self-evaluations. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of the effect of self-set grade goals and core self-evaluations on academic performance and imply important practical applications to enhance academic performance.

  15. Academic Performance in Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes: A 2-Yr Study of Academic Motivation and Grade Expectation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic…

  16. Learning- and grade-orientation, sex, and prediction of self-reported academic performance.

    PubMed

    Page, Stewart; Alexitch, Louise R

    2003-02-01

    148 undergraduate students completed the LOGO-II scale, a measure of educational orientation, i.e., learning-oriented and grade-oriented attitudes and behaviors, and were asked to report their current and expected grades, as well as their self-assessed academic skill. Generally, learning orientation was positively correlated with academic performance, but grade orientation was negatively correlated with performance. Learning orientation and grade orientation predicted academic performance for men but not women. Implications of these findings, including the possibility of encouraging students to assume a more learning-oriented approach to their education, are discussed.

  17. Academic performance in human anatomy and physiology classes: a 2-yr study of academic motivation and grade expectation.

    PubMed

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-03-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic motivation scale for HAP based on self-determination theory was administered in class during the first 3 wk of each semester. Students with higher grade point averages, who studied for longer hours and reported to be more motivated to succeed, did better academically in these classes. There was a significant relationship between students' scores on the adapted academic motivation scale and performance. Students were more extrinsically motivated to succeed in HAP courses than intrinsically motivated to succeed, and the analyses revealed that the most significant predictor of final grade was within the extrinsic scale (introjected and external types). Students' motivations remained stable throughout the course sequence. The data showed a significant relationship between HAP students' expected grade and their final grade in class. Finally, 65.5% of students overestimated their final grade, with 29% of students overestimating by two to four letter grades. PMID:26847254

  18. The Relationship of Time Perspective to Age, Gender, and Academic Achievement among Academically Talented Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…

  19. Effects of Extracurricular Participation during Middle School on Academic Motivation and Achievement at Grade 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im, Myung Hee; Hughes, Jan N.; Cao, Qian; Kwok, Oi-man

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of participating in two domains of extracurricular activities (sports and performance arts/clubs) in Grades 7 and 8 on Grade 9 academic motivation and letter grades, above baseline performance. Participants were 483 students (55% male; 33% Euro-American, 25% African American, and 39% Latino). Propensity score weighting…

  20. Prematriculation Program Grades as Predictors of Black and Other Nontraditional Students' First-Year Academic Performances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesser, Al; Lewis, Lloyd

    1992-01-01

    A study explored predictors of African-American and other nontraditional medical students' first-year academic performance at the Medical College of Georgia. Variables included undergraduate grades and grades in a summer prematriculation program (SPP) featuring biochemistry, anatomy, and immunology courses. SPP grades were found useful in…

  1. Grading Practice as Valid Measures of Academic Achievement of Secondary Schools Students for National Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiekem, Enwefa

    2015-01-01

    Assigning grades is probably the most important measurement decision that classroom teachers makes. When teachers are provided with some measurement instruction, they still use subjective value judgments when assigning grades to students. This paper therefore, examines the grading practice as valid measures of academic achievement in secondary…

  2. Uncovering nurse educators' beliefs and values about grading academic papers: guidelines for best practices.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn-Magee, Kathy; Clauson, Marion

    2013-09-01

    Fair and consistent assessment, specifically grading, is crucial to teaching and learning scholarship and is a professional responsibility of nurse educators. Yet, many would agree that assessment is one of the most challenging aspects of their role. Despite differing beliefs, values, and meanings attributed to grading and grades, teachers' grading practices should be guided by principles and supported by policies. Inconsistent grading practices among educators, students' unrealistic expectations of grades, and a trend toward grade inflation may be contributing to both educators' and students' concerns. A teaching scholarship project that led to a research study explored nurse educators' beliefs, values, and practices related to the grading of written academic work. The purpose of this article is to share the findings and the resulting grading guidelines that were developed to support nurse educators' endeavors to enact equitable grading practices.

  3. Uncovering nurse educators' beliefs and values about grading academic papers: guidelines for best practices.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn-Magee, Kathy; Clauson, Marion

    2013-09-01

    Fair and consistent assessment, specifically grading, is crucial to teaching and learning scholarship and is a professional responsibility of nurse educators. Yet, many would agree that assessment is one of the most challenging aspects of their role. Despite differing beliefs, values, and meanings attributed to grading and grades, teachers' grading practices should be guided by principles and supported by policies. Inconsistent grading practices among educators, students' unrealistic expectations of grades, and a trend toward grade inflation may be contributing to both educators' and students' concerns. A teaching scholarship project that led to a research study explored nurse educators' beliefs, values, and practices related to the grading of written academic work. The purpose of this article is to share the findings and the resulting grading guidelines that were developed to support nurse educators' endeavors to enact equitable grading practices. PMID:23952770

  4. Academic performance and perceived validity of grades: an additional case for self-enhancement.

    PubMed

    Woo, T O; Frank, N

    2000-04-01

    The authors investigated the role of academic self-esteem and academic performance in U.S. college students' perceptions of the validity of their grades (overall grade point average [GPA]). A sample of 208 (80 male, 128 female) college students completed a survey that included an academic self-esteem scale and a measure of the perceived validity of grades. The authors assessed academic performance level by the participants' actual overall GPAs. The results of a hierarchical multiple regression analysis supported the weak form of self-enhancement theory (J. S. Shrauger, 1975). Thus, regardless of their self-esteem levels, the students with higher GPAs, compared with those with lower GPAs, tended to see the overall GPA as a more valid indicator of academic ability.

  5. Relation of Gender, Course Enrollment, and Grades to Distinct Forms of Academic Dishonesty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, L. C.; Kirkpatrick, K. M.; Burgoon, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    A thorough understanding of academic dishonesty and the students who engage in it is necessary to develop appropriate policies and educational interventions to discourage such actions. The present study examines the frequency of academic dishonesty and the characteristics (i.e. gender, course enrollment, and grades) of students who engage in…

  6. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF ELEVENTH GRADE PUERTO RICAN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FARQUHAR, WILLIAM M.; CHRISTENSEN, EDWARD W.

    THIS STUDY INVOLVED--(1) EXPLORING ACADEMIC MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS IN PUERTO RICAN 11TH-GRADE STUDENTS, (2) CREATING A MEASURE FOR THESE FACTORS WHICH MIGHT BE USABLE IN OTHER LATIN AMERICAN AREAS, AND (3) INVESTIGATING THE CHILD-REARING AND OTHER PSYCHO-SOCIAL FACTORS RELATED TO ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT. THE METHOD INVOLVED THREE STAGES--(1)…

  7. Student Challenges to Grades and Academic Dismissals: Are They Losing Battles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lallo, Dina

    1992-01-01

    Theories under which college students have challenged academic dismissals are examined, the standard courts apply when examining challenges is explored, and a case in which relief was denied a student challenging a test grade is discussed. Conflict between an institution's academic freedom and a student's due-process rights is considered. (MSE)

  8. Age-Related Differences in Academic Burnout of Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jayoung; Puig, Ana; Lea, Eunkyoung; Lee, Sang Min

    2013-01-01

    Korean adolescents experience considerable stress because of an educational system that focuses primarily on college entrance examinations, pressure for academic achievement, and a competitive atmosphere in school. The main purpose of this study was to explore age differences in the construct of Korean adolescents' academic burnout. Once…

  9. Social Studies for Academically Talented Students: Grades 6-8, Middle School. Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evansville-Vanderburgh School Corp., IN.

    This social studies curriculum guide is designed to challenge academically talented middle school students, encourage them to acquire and use critical thinking skills, and recognize the importance of global awareness. Areas of study include Latin America and Canada for grade six, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia for grade seven, and U.S.…

  10. Teacher Competence and the Academic Achievement of Sixth Grade Students in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Seruwagi, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the influence of teacher competence on the academic achievement of sixth grade students in Uganda. The investigation is based on data sourced from the 2009 Southern African Consortium for Monitoring Education Quality (SACMEQ) survey comprising 5,148 records of sixth grade students enrolled in primary schools in Uganda. The…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of School Connectedness and Academic Outcomes across Sixth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaus, Kate; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Rakes, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examines the extent to which school connectedness (i.e., students' perceptions of school support and the number of adults with whom they have a positive relationship) is associated with academic outcomes across sixth grade for students from high poverty neighborhoods. Data were collected from 330 sixth-grade students…

  12. Comparison of Dental Students' Academic Performance Using Honors/Pass/Fail and Letter Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leske, Gary S.; Ripa, Louis

    1985-01-01

    Performance in a second-year course in pedodontics/orthodontics for three classes at the State University of New York at Stony Brook School of Dental Medicine who received grades under an honors/pass/fail system was compared to that of three academically comparable classes that received letter grades. (Author/MLW)

  13. Academic Dishonesty in a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Pamela M.

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the perceptions and behaviors of online adjunct faculty members pertaining to academic dishonesty. Participants taught in the online division of a proprietary university system. Survey methodology was used to explore three research questions focusing on reporting behavior, the perception of support by the university when…

  14. Grade Integrity and the Representation of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, D. Royce

    2009-01-01

    In this article, grade integrity is defined as the extent to which each grade awarded, either at the conclusion of a course or module of study, or for an extended response to an assessment task, is strictly commensurate with the quality, breadth and depth of a student's performance. The three basic requirements for this aspiration to be realised…

  15. Adiposity and Physical Activity Are Not Related to Academic Achievement in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Monique M.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Newton, Robert; Sothern, Melinda; Webber, Larry S.; Davis, Allison B.; Williamson, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the hypotheses that in elementary school students: 1) adiposity and academic achievement are negatively correlated and 2) physical activity and academic achievement are positively correlated. Method Participants were 1963 children in fourth through sixth grades. Adiposity was assessed by calculating body mass index (BMI) percentile and percent body fat and academic achievement with statewide standardized tests in four content areas. Socioeconomic status and age were control variables. A subset of participants (n = 261) wore an accelerometer for three days to provide objective measurement of physical activity. Additionally, the association between weight status and academic achievement was examined by comparing children who could be classified as “extremely obese” and the rest of the sample, as well as comparing children who could be classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese. Extreme obesity was defined as >= 1.2 times the 95th percentile. Results Results indicated that there were no significant associations between adiposity or physical activity and achievement in students. No academic achievement differences were found between children with BMI percentiles within the extreme obesity range and those who did not fall within the extreme obesity classification. Additionally, no academic achievement differences were found for children with BMI percentiles within the normal weight, overweight, or obese ranges. Conclusion These results do not support the hypotheses that increased adiposity is associated with decreased academic achievement or that greater physical activity is related to improved achievement. However, these results are limited by methodological weaknesses, especially the use of cross-sectional data. PMID:22617499

  16. Does neighborhood deprivation modify the effect of preterm birth on children's first grade academic performance?

    PubMed

    Richards, Jennifer L; Chapple-McGruder, Theresa; Williams, Bryan L; Kramer, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    Children's cognitive development and academic performance are linked to both fetal and early childhood factors, including preterm birth and family socioeconomic status. We evaluated whether the relationship between preterm birth (PTB) and first grade standardized test performance among Georgia public school students was modified by neighborhood deprivation in early childhood. The Georgia Birth to School cohort followed 327,698 children born in Georgia from 1998 to 2002 through to end-of-year first grade standardized tests. Binomial and log-binomial generalized estimating equations were used to estimate risk differences and risk ratios for the associations of both PTB and the Neighborhood Deprivation Index for the census tract in which each child's mother resided at the time of birth with test failure (versus passing). The presence of additive and multiplicative interaction was assessed. PTB was strongly associated with test failure, with increasing risk for earlier gestational ages. There was positive additive interaction between PTB and neighborhood deprivation. The main effect of PTB versus term birth increased risk of mathematics failure: 15.9% (95%CI: 13.3-18.5%) for early, 5.0% (95% CI: 4.1-5.9%) for moderate, and 1.3% (95%CI: 0.9-1.7%) for late preterm. Each 1 standard deviation increase in neighborhood deprivation was associated with 0.6% increased risk of mathematics failure. For children exposed to both PTB and higher neighborhood deprivation, test failure was 4.8%, 1.5%, and 0.8% greater than the sum of two main effects for early, moderate, and late PTB, respectively. Results were similar, but slightly attenuated, for reading and English/language arts. Our results suggest that PTB and neighborhood deprivation additively interact to produce greater risk among doubly exposed children than would be predicted from the sum of the effects of the two exposures. Understanding socioeconomic disparities in the effect of PTB on academic outcomes at school entry is

  17. Social and Academic Benefits of Looping Primary Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Mary Kate

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the practice of teachers staying with a group of students for more than one year. This is referred to as looping in educational practice. The problem of constant uncertainty or change of a new teacher year to year, creates less academic time and student anxiety. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects…

  18. Grade Level and Achievement of Immigrants' Children: Academic Redshirting in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pong, Suet-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Data from Hong Kong PISA 2003 show that 15-year-old Hong Kong students who have immigrant parents from mainland China are grossly overrepresented in grades below the modal grade attended by most native Hong Kong students. Same-age comparison, when grade level is not taken into account, puts immigrants' children at a disadvantaged position in the…

  19. Academic Freedom and Grading: The Role of Placement Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Placement providers can be successfully involved in assessing students. This is demonstrated in the Monash University Faculty of Information Technology Cooperative Education Program. Students are thoroughly prepared for their placements and industry supervisors receive written assessment guidelines. Not one student has been awarded a pass grade by…

  20. On Automated Grading of Programming Assignments in an Academic Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheang, Brenda; Kurnia, Andy; Lim, Andrew; Oon, Wee-Chong

    2003-01-01

    Practise is one of the most important steps in learning the art of computer programming. Unfortunately, human grading of programming assignments is a tedious and error-prone task, a problem compounded by the large enrolments of many programming courses. As a result, students in such courses tend to be given fewer programming assignments than…

  1. Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ishaan K; Kurpad, Anura V; Chomitz, Virginia R; Thomas, Tinku

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P < 0.05). After standardizing scores across grade levels and adjusting for school, gender, socioeconomic status, and weight status (BMI Z-score), children with greater aerobic capacities (mL * kg(-1) * min(-1)) had greater odds of scoring above average on math and Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively). This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and

  2. Professor Age and Gender Affect Student Perceptions and Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joye, Shauna W.; Wilson, Janie H.

    2015-01-01

    Student evaluations provide rich information about teaching performance, but a number of factors beyond teacher effectiveness influence student evaluations. In this study we examined the effects of professor gender and perceived age on ratings of effectiveness and rapport as well as academic performance. We also asked students to rate professor…

  3. Predictors of situational disengagement in the academic setting: the contribution of grades, perceived competence, and academic motivation.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Caudroit, Johan; Boiché, Julie; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND. Although psychological disengagement is a well-documented phenomenon in the academic setting, the attempts to identify its predictors are scarce. In addition, existing research has mainly focused on chronic disengagement and less is known on the determinants of situational disengagement. AIMS. The purpose of the present study was to identify the predictors of situational disengagement in a physical education (PE) setting. In line with the core postulate of psychological disengagement, it was hypothesized that grades contribute to discounting through a decrease in perceived competence. Drawing upon self-determination theory, it was also expected that devaluing reflects the motivational orientations of individuals. SAMPLE. A total of 120 students who were in seventh, eighth, and ninth grades. METHOD. Students were asked to report their motivation towards PE and their perceived competence at the beginning of a 10-week cycle. Perceived competence in PE and psychological disengagement were assessed at the end of cycle, after grades were communicated individually to each student. RESULTS. The results revealed that grades significantly predicted discounting, through perceived competence, but did not predict devaluing. Devaluing was negatively predicted by integrated and identified regulations, and positively predicted by amotivation, whereas no motivational variables were related to discounting. CONCLUSION. The present study extends the core postulate of psychological disengagement to situational disengagement. It revealed that students may temporarily disengage their self-esteem from performance feedback through discounting, but are less inclined to devalue the academic domain when faced with negative feedback in a particular situation because of their motivational orientations.

  4. Copyright for Academics in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Colin; McCaughey, Martha

    2012-01-01

    When faculty members consider copyright in the digital age, it is often in relation to things they can't (or shouldn't) do. For example, they can't have too much material placed in online reserve, they can't scan journal articles to create digital versions of what used to be called "course packs," and they can't post an excerpt from a work of…

  5. [Engagement and academics results of the grade students].

    PubMed

    García Rodríguez, José Juan; Labajos Manzanares, Maria Teresa; Luque, Francisca Fernández

    2013-09-01

    The academic engagement is a three-feature psychological welfare (determination, knowledge absorptive capability and dedication) as an intrinsic commitment towards the studies. The main aim of this study is to know the motivational status in students and to compare this with their academic performance. For the purpose of this paper, it was carried out an observational, correlational, cross-sectional study. The target population is the students carrying out the clinical training in the University of Malaga as part of the Nursing Degree. According to the data achieved, the mean score are the followings: determination 3.46 out of 6 (ST 1.05), dedication 5.16 out of 6 (ST 0.97) and knowledge absorptive capability 3.59 out of 6 (ST 1.18). The engagement global mean score of the nursing students enrolled in this University School of Nursing is 4.1 out of 6. It is worthy to mention the levels for dedication, ranging from almost always and always, which involves a remarkable vocation towards their profession. The marks on Practicum II-III have evidenced an association with the engagement determination (p < 0.008), and knowledge absorption capability (p < 0.036). Marks on Practicum I have not evidenced any association.

  6. Academic Achievement of Ugandan Sixth Grade Students: Influence of Parents' Education Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Kizito, Omala Saint; Jjemba, Evans

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the influence of a father and mother's education on the academic achievement of their child. The investigation is based on data sourced from the 2009 Southern African Consortium for Monitoring Education Quality survey comprising 5,148 records of sixth grade students enrolled in Ugandan primary schools. Students' percentage…

  7. The Relationship between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Ninth-Grade Students in Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Shellie Lyne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose, scope, and method of study. The purpose of this study was to determine if and to what degree a relationship existed between physical fitness and the academic achievement of ninth-grade public school students in Arkansas. A sample of 152 students from four different schools participated in the study. The dependent variable was academic…

  8. Rationale and Content for English-Language Arts. Survey of Academic Skills: Grade 12. Preliminary Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    As a preliminary version of the rationale and content for the English-language arts portion of the "Survey of Academic Skills: Grade 12," this booklet describes elements of the new reading and editing tests to be used to complement a direct writing assessment in this part of the 1987-88 California Assessment Program (CAP). After a brief…

  9. Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Performance in Fourth Grade Students: Exploring an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donato, Jeanne M.

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the effectiveness of a teacher-implemented intervention of eight sessions integrated into an existing curriculum to reduce test anxiety and improve academic performance in fourth grade students. The experimental group, n=23 was drawn from a sample of 64 students in a southwestern Rhode Island public school…

  10. The Effects of Using Animations on Sixth Grade Students' Academic Success in Turkish Grammar Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gün, Mesut

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study is to determine how and to what extent the use of animations impacts auditory acquisition, one of the key learning fields in 6th grade grammar, as measured by students' academic success and completion rates. By using a pre-test and post-test design, this empirical study randomly divided a group of Turkish 6th…

  11. The Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) as a Predictor of Third-Grade Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichta, Lawrence J., Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Evaluated the Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) using a sample of 28 third graders. The third graders' scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test were correlated with their total STAR scores from prekindergarten testing. Results showed the STAR is a useful instrument for predicting third grade achievement. (Author/JAC)

  12. Small Classes in the Early Grades, Academic Achievement, and Graduating From High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Jeremy D.; Gerber, Susan B.; Boyd-Zaharias, Jayne

    2005-01-01

    This investigation addressed 3 questions about the long-term effects of early school experiences: (a) Is participation in small classes in the early grades (K-3) related to high school graduation? (b) Is academic achievement in K-3 related to high school graduation? (c) If class size is related to graduation, is the relationship explained by the…

  13. Pre-Veterinary Medical Grade Point Averages as Predictors of Academic Success in Veterinary College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julius, Marcia F.; Kaiser, Herbert E.

    1978-01-01

    A five-year longitudinal study was designed to find the best predictors of academic success in veterinary school at Kansas State University and to set up a multiple regression formula to be used in selecting students. The preveterinary grade point average was found to be the best predictor. (JMD)

  14. 42 CFR 21.31 - Eligibility; all grades; academic and professional education and professional training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... education and professional training and experience. 21.31 Section 21.31 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... grades; academic and professional education and professional training and experience. The Surgeon General... the education, training, and experience required under this subpart, and evidence thereof, shall be...

  15. Temperamental Attention and Activity, Classroom Emotional Support, and Academic Achievement in Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Gallagher, Kathleen Cranley; White, Jamie M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the interplay of children's temperamental attention and activity (assessed when children were 4-and-a-half years old) and classroom emotional support as they relate to children's academic achievement in third grade. Particular focus is placed on the moderating role of classroom emotional support on the…

  16. The Relationship between Selected Skill Measures of Kindergarten and First Grade Students and Academic Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terbush, Richard I.; And Others

    A study was conducted to determine which of five tests used in the Early Prevention of School Failure (EPSF) program were the best predictors of student academic success at the end of first grade. The tests, which were administered upon children's entrance to kindergarten, were the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), the Preschool Language…

  17. Social Experiences in Kindergarten and Academic Achievement in Grade 1: A Monozygotic Twin Difference Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Dionne, Ginette

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how different types of social experiences in kindergarten relate to Grade 1 academic achievement, while controlling for possible genetic and shared environmental influences through the use of the monozygotic (MZ) twin difference method. Social experiences in kindergarten included relationship quality with the…

  18. Academic Social Networking Brings Web 2.0 Technologies to the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taranto, Gregory; Dalbon, Melissa; Gaetano, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The middle grades are an exciting time for adolescents to explore, learn, and collaborate with one another (National Middle School Association, 2010). By incorporating an academic social network as part of the classroom experience, collaboration and active learning take on new forms, and a transformation from passive learning to active learning…

  19. Cognitive, Academic, and Attitudinal Predictors of the Grade Point Averages of College Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christopher; Wren, Carol T.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined cognitive, academic, and attitudinal predictors of college grade point average (GPA) among 84 college students with learning disabilities (LD) attending a large midwestern university. Results indicated that Full Scale IQ and one factor (delay/avoidance) on the self-reported study habits scale accounted for a significant amount…

  20. Relationship of Intelligence Quotients to Academic Achievement in the Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Janis L.

    This study examined the relationship between intelligence as defined by a verbal and nonverbal combined score, obtained on the Otis-Lennon School Ability Test and final grades received in the following six academic subjects: reading, math, spelling, science, English and social studies. The sample for this study consisted of 159 elementary students…

  1. Orange County Academic Decathlon for 9th and 10th Grade Students. Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Academic Decathalon Association, CA.

    Orange County (California) students in grades 9 and 10 compete in an annually held series of 10 competitive events measuring academic strengths. These events include tests in grammar and literature, fine arts, mathematics, science, social science, study skills, and a super quiz--a team event held before a large audience. In addition, there are…

  2. 42 CFR 21.31 - Eligibility; all grades; academic and professional education and professional training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility; all grades; academic and professional education and professional training and experience. 21.31 Section 21.31 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.31 Eligibility;...

  3. Family Factors Associated with High Academic Competence in Former Head Start Children at Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Nancy M.; Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Weinberg, Richard A.; Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Ramey, Craig T.

    2002-01-01

    A group of 162 out of 5,400 former Head Start children were identified at the end of third grade as highest achieving and thriving both socially and academically. Families of these children had somewhat more resources on which to call and somewhat fewer stresses. Caretakers of high achievers ascribed to more positive parenting attitudes and were…

  4. Age and sex graded helminth infections in a Nigerian village.

    PubMed

    Arinola, O; Fawole, O

    1995-02-01

    Prevalence of helminth parasites was carried out in both male and female villagers graded into three age groups (5-14 years, 15-25 years, 26-55 years). Children between 5 and 14 years of age had the highest prevalence of Ascaris, Schistosoma haematobium and Trichuris while the villagers between 26-55 years of age had lowest prevalence of these parasites. However, hookworms were highly common among the villagers aged between 26 and 55 years and least common among the school children aged between 5 and 14 years. Female children between the ages of 5 and 14 years and males of the same age group were highly infested with Ascaris and Trichuris. This finding in a Nigerian village suggested that helminth infestation is age and sex dependent which is therefore a factor of the frequency in host-parasite contact determined by mode of life of the parasites and the hosts. PMID:7796748

  5. Improving Age Appropriate Social Skills To Enhance Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Lisa; Logan, Karen; Sprecher, Sharon; Streitmatter, Barbara

    This action research project examined the impact of a program for improving age-inappropriate behaviors that interfere with personal and academic progress. A total of 69 students from 3 elementary classrooms and 2 speech therapy groups were involved in the research. The targeted population consisted of fourth and sixth graders; students with…

  6. Family and ability correlates of academic grades: social status group differences.

    PubMed

    García Bacete, Francisco-Juan; Oliver Rodríguez, Juan Carlos

    2004-08-01

    In a continuation of work by Marjoribanks (2003), using a sample of 150 seventh grade students, relationships among Parent Involvement as defined by factor scores of four measures of parents' involvement completed by teachers: teacher-parent contacts, teacher-parent communication, parents' involvement at home, and parents' participation in school, Intellectual Ability as defined by Verbal Intelligence using the Yuste's Differential and General Aptitudes Battery-M, and Academic Grades as defined by the average grade for all subject matter were examined. Analysis showed different predictive models for children's academic achievement as a function of social status. For children of low and middle social status, Intellectual Ability was the single predictor. For children of high social status the predictors were Parents' Involvement and the interaction of Parents' Involvement and Intellectual Ability.

  7. Effect of Retention in First Grade on Parents’ Educational Expectations and Children’s Academic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.; Kowk, Oi-man; Im, MyungHee

    2013-01-01

    The effect of retention in first grade (Year 1) on parents’ educational expectations was tested in a sample of 530 ethnically diverse and academically at-risk children. Participants attended one of three school districts in Texas. Of the 530 children, 118 were retained in first grade. Retention had a negative effect on parent expectations in Year 2, which was maintained in Year 3. Year 2 parent expectations partially mediated the effect of retention in first grade on Year 3 reading and math achievement and child academic self-efficacy. All effects controlled for Year 1 measures of the outcome. Results were similar across gender, economic adversity, and ethnicity. Implications for minimizing the negative effect of retention on parents’ expectations are suggested. PMID:24357865

  8. The Relative Age Effect and Its Influence on Academic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Juan-José; García-Rubio, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Purpose The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE). This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders. Methods The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years) in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE) from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5), in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest. Results The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the

  9. Hope and optimism: latent structures and influences on grade expectancy and academic performance.

    PubMed

    Rand, Kevin L

    2009-02-01

    A synthesized model of trait hope (Snyder 1994, 2002) and trait optimism (Scheier & Carver, 1985) is proposed. In this model hope and optimism are conceptualized as facets of an overarching trait called goal attitude. Structural equation modeling is used to test the plausibility of the proposed model in a sample of 345 students in a university psychology course who completed the Adult Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991) and the Life Orientation Test-Revised (Scheier, Carver, & Bridges, 1994). The proposed model shows acceptable fit to the observed data. The synthesized model is used to examine the unique and common influences of hope and optimism on grade expectancy and academic performance in 312 students who completed the course. The results show that hope uniquely influenced students' grade expectancies, whereas optimism did not. In turn, grade expectancies influenced academic performance. Neither hope nor optimism had a unique, direct influence on academic performance. In contrast, the shared aspect of hope and optimism (i.e., goal attitude) had a direct influence on academic performance.

  10. The Effect of Kindergarten Entry Age on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buten, Nicole A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of kindergarten entry age on the scores of the eighth grade Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) math and reading scores, while controlling for the demographic variables of gender and socioeconomic status. The subjects included 1,197 students who participated in the randomized, long-term STAR (Student-Teacher…

  11. Evocative gene-parenting correlations and academic performance at first grade: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Propper, Cathi B; Shanahan, Michael J; Russo, Rosemary; Mills-Koonce, W Roger

    2012-11-01

    Academic performance during the first years of school lays the groundwork for subsequent trajectories of academic success throughout childhood and adolescence. The current study tests a model according to which a gene-parenting correlation in the first 3 years of life is associated with subsequent psychosocial adjustment and then academic performance in the first grade (as indicated by teachers' assessment of academic behavior and two subscales of the Woodcock-Johnson Test of Achievement, Third Edition). Drawing on multiple waves of data from the Durham Child Health and Development Study, we find that risk alleles for dopamine receptor genes (dopamine receptor D4 for girls, dopamine receptor D2 for boys) are associated with less sensitive parenting. For girls, parenting mediates the link between dopamine receptor D4 and all academic outcomes. There is some indication that parenting also influences girls' withdrawn behavior in the classroom, which in turn influences teachers' assessments of academic performance. For boys, some evidence suggests that parenting is associated with emotion regulation, which is associated with teachers' assessments of academic behavior and both subscales of the Woodcock-Johnson. Replications of this exploratory study are necessary, but these findings provide a first step in understanding how evocative correlations in the home may predict indicators of psychosocial adjustment that in turn influence performance and achievement at school.

  12. Children's Temperament and Academic Skill Development during First Grade: Teachers' Interaction Styles as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viljaranta, Jaana; Aunola, Kaisa; Mullola, Sari; Virkkala, Johanna; Hirvonen, Riikka; Pakarinen, Eija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed 156 Finnish children (M[subscript age] = 7.25 years) during the first grade of primary school to examine to what extent parent- and teacher-rated temperament impacts children's math and reading skill development during the first grade, and the extent to which this impact would be mediated by teachers' interaction styles…

  13. African-American parents' racial and ethnic socialization and adolescent academic grades: teasing out the role of gender.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tiffany L; Linver, Miriam R; Evans, Melanie; DeGennaro, Donna

    2009-02-01

    This study examined the relationship of racial and ethnic socialization and academic achievement in a sample of 218 African American adolescents (grades 9-12; 52% girls) attending a public high school in the northeastern United States. Researchers were particularly interested in whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between racial and ethnic socialization and academic grades. Results indicated that aspects of ethnic socialization, African American cultural values and African American heritage were linked to adolescent grades. Additionally, adolescent gender was found to moderate the association between these socialization variables and grades. The findings also suggest that socialization provided by paternal caregivers around African American cultural values and African American heritage may have differential effects for academic grades than the socialization messages provided by maternal caregivers. Information generated from this study broadens the understanding of socialization factors that can facilitate positive academic outcomes in African American youth and has practical implications for parents and educators.

  14. On-Demand Grades: The Effect of Online Grade Book Access on Student Mastery and Performance Goal Orientations, Grade Orientation, Academic Self Efficacy, and Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seldow, Adam Lowell

    2010-01-01

    With the widespread growth of broadband Internet access, teachers, and in many cases, schools and school districts are transitioning from traditional paper-based grade books to student accessible online (Web-based) grade books. Online grade books offer students 24/7, on demand access to grades and various other student data, and have the potential…

  15. Grades--Scores--Predictions: A Study of the Efficiency of High School Grades and American College Test Scores in Predicting Academic Achievement at Montgomery College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gell, Robert L.; Bleil, David F.

    This report analyzes the relationship between high school grades, American College Test (ACT) scores, and first-semester college grades. Based on the Standard Research Service of the ACT program, 1,379 students in the fall 1969 freshman class of Montgomery College (Maryland) were studied. Measures of academic background used ACT scores in English,…

  16. Evaluations of mosquito age grading techniques based on morphological changes.

    PubMed

    Hugo, L E; Quick-Miles, S; Kay, B H; Ryan, P A

    2008-05-01

    Evaluations were made of the accuracy and practicality of mosquito age grading methods based on changes to mosquito morphology; including the Detinova ovarian tracheation, midgut meconium, Polovodova ovariole dilatation, ovarian injection, and daily growth line methods. Laboratory maintained Aedes vigilax (Skuse) and Culex annulirostris (Skuse) females of known chronological and physiological ages were used for these assessments. Application of the Detinova technique to laboratory reared Ae. vigilax females in a blinded trial enabled the successful identification of nulliparous and parous females in 83.7-89.8% of specimens. The success rate for identifying nulliparous females increased to 87.8-98.0% when observations of ovarian tracheation were combined with observations of the presence of midgut meconium. However, application of the Polovodova method only enabled 57.5% of nulliparous, 1-parous, 2-parous, and 3-parous Ae. vigilax females to be correctly classified, and ovarian injections were found to be unfeasible. Poor correlation was observed between the number of growth lines per phragma and the calendar age of laboratory reared Ae. vigilax females. In summary, morphological age grading methods that offer simple two-category predictions (ovarian tracheation and midgut meconium methods) were found to provide high-accuracy classifications, whereas methods that offer the separation of multiple age categories (ovariolar dilatation and growth line methods) were found to be extremely difficult and of low accuracy. The usefulness of the morphology-based methods is discussed in view of the availability of new mosquito age grading techniques based on cuticular hydrocarbon and gene transcription changes. PMID:18533427

  17. Low Academic Competence in First Grade as a Risk Factor for Depressive Cognitions and Symptoms in Middle School

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Keith C.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of low academic competence in the emergence of depressive cognitions and symptoms. Structural equation modeling was conducted on a longitudinal sample of African American boys (n = 253) and girls (n = 221). Results supported the hypothesized path models from academic competence in 1st grade to depressive symptoms in 7th grade, controlling for a host of correlated constructs (conduct problems, inattention, social problems). Perceived control in 6th grade mediated the effect of academic competence on depressive symptoms. Although the models fit the data well for both boys and girls, the path coefficients were notably larger for girls; in particular, multiple-group analysis revealed a statistically stronger effect of low academic competence on perceptions of control for girls. The study and findings fit well with counseling psychologists’ commitment to prevention activities and to culture-specific research. Implications for designing interventions and prevention strategies for children with early academic problems are discussed. PMID:26279587

  18. The Effects of GIS on Students' Academic Achievement and Motivation in Seventh-Grade Social Studies Lessons in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladag, Elif

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effect of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on the academic achievement and motivation of seventh-grade students. The study used a quasi-experimental design and a set of social studies lessons. The study was conducted over the 2006-2007 academic year on the students of a primary school at Ankara, Turkey's…

  19. The Association of Self-Reported Sleep, Weight Status, and Academic Performance in Fifth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroebele, Nanette; McNally, Janise; Plog, Amy; Siegfried, Scott; Hill, James O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To improve support and justi?cation for health promotion efforts in schools, it is helpful to understand how students' health behaviors affect academic performance. Methods: Fifth-grade students completed an online school-administered health survey with questions regarding their eating behavior, physical activity, academic performance,…

  20. Accountability in Grading Student Work: Securing Academic Standards in a Twenty-First Century Quality Assurance Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Sue; Boyd, Pete

    2012-01-01

    This article, using a student outcomes definition of academic standards, reports on academics' sense of standards as enacted through marking practices. Twelve lecturers from two UK universities were asked to "think aloud" as they graded written assignments followed by a semi-structured interview. The interview data were used to investigate the…

  1. Implicit Theories of Ability of Grade 6 Science Students: Relation to Epistemological Beliefs and Academic Motivation and Achievement in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jason A.; Pajares, Frank

    2010-01-01

    We investigated: (a) the associations of implicit theories and epistemological beliefs and their effects on the academic motivation and achievement of students in Grade 6 science and (b) the mean differences of implicit theories, epistemological beliefs, and academic motivation and achievement as a function of gender and race/ethnicity (N=508).…

  2. Improving the Academic Achievement of Third and Fourth Grade Underachievers as a Result of Improved Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coakley, Barbara Fairfax

    This study was designed to improve the academic achievement of 35 third- and fourth-grade underachievers through improved self-esteem. Specific goals included focusing on self-concept and learning skills reinforcement, with the ultimate goal of increasing academic performance and motivation. Large group sessions with students focused on…

  3. The Relationship of Mental Pressure with Optimism and Academic Achievement Motivation among Second Grade Male High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouni, Ali Sedigh; Jenaabadi, Hossein; Pourghaz, Abdulwahab

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the relationship of mental pressure with optimism and academic achievement motivation among second grade second period male high school students. This study followed a descriptive-correlational method. The sample included 200 second grade second period male high school students in Sooran. Data collection tools in…

  4. Making Their Voices Count: Using Students' Perspectives to Inform Literacy Instruction for Striving Middle Grade Readers with Academic Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of lack of reading and poor reading skills are problematic for all students, regardless of background; however, for middle grade striving readers with academic difficulties these problems can lead to lower self-efficacy and motivation to engage in literacy tasks. Using the perspectives of urban, middle grade special education…

  5. Trajectories of Aggression from Toddlerhood to Age 9 Predict Academic and Social Functioning through Age 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Susan B.; Spieker, Susan; Burchinal, Margaret; Poe, Michele D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined behavior problems and social and academic outcomes from ages 9 through 12 in children classified into five trajectories of physical aggression, on the basis of maternal ratings obtained from 24 months through 9 years (N = 1195). Methods:…

  6. Children's early approaches to learning and academic trajectories through fifth grade.

    PubMed

    Li-Grining, Christine P; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Maldonado-Carreño, Carolina; Haas, Kelly

    2010-09-01

    Children's early approaches to learning (ATL) enhance their adaptation to the demands they experience with the start of formal schooling. The current study uses individual growth modeling to investigate whether children's early ATL, which includes persistence, emotion regulation, and attentiveness, explain individual differences in their academic trajectories during elementary school. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), the present investigation examined the association between ATL at kindergarten entry and trajectories of reading and math achievement across 6 waves of data from kindergarten, 1st, 3rd, and 5th grade (n = 10,666). The current study found a positive link between early ATL and individual trajectories of reading and math performance. Overall, children's early ATL was equally beneficial for children regardless of their race/ethnicity and dimensions of their socioeconomic background. However, links between early ATL and academic trajectories differed by their gender and initial levels of math and reading achievement. PMID:20822223

  7. College female and male heavy internet users' profiles of practices and their academic grades and psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Yen; Tzeng, Jeng-Yi

    2010-06-01

    This study presents the profiles of heavy Internet users and provides empirical evidence that it is not how much time university students spend online but what they do online that is associated with academic grades and psychological adjustment. Using a nationally representative sample from Taiwan, we employed K-mean cluster analysis and identified profiles based on nine Internet practices in which users engaged. Female heavy users favoring information seeking and chatting had better academic performance but tended to feel more depressed than nonheavy users, while those favoring information seeking, chatting, and online games had lower academic grades and greater loneliness, physical illness, and depression scores than nonheavy users. In contrast, only male heavy users favoring online games had lower academic grades, whereas those who favored information seeking, chatting, and online games were more likely than nonheavy users to feel physically ill and depressed. PMID:20557244

  8. Effects of Ritalin on Academic Achievement from First to Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberger, William; Cannon, Christie

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 13 subjects (ages 9 to 11) identified with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and placed on Ritalin between first and second grade, found cognitive and achievement scores were lower before medication, dosage levels tended to increase over time, and few of the children in general-education classes received supplementary…

  9. The effects of differentiated instruction on academic achievement in a second-grade science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrier, Ann M.

    Education in the United States is moving quickly toward holding school districts more accountable for the academic success of all students. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine if utilizing differentiated instructional strategies had an impact on student achievement. Differentiated instruction, based on the theory of constructivism, is a means of meeting the needs of all learners within a single classroom. Teachers must vary how and what they teach, as well as how they evaluate. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to determine the impact instruction using differentiated strategies had on the academic achievement of second-grade students in life science and in physical science. Students in the differentiated instructional classes were found to score significantly greater than their traditionally instructed peers. School districts across the United States can benefit from the findings of this study. Teachers at all levels should be trained in differentiated instruction to better serve their students. Differentiated instruction provides all children better opportunities to learn, resulting in more academically equipped and contributing members of society.

  10. An Investigation of Gender and Age Differences in Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah; St. Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated gender- and age-related differences in academic motivation and classroom behaviour in adolescents. Eight hundred and fifty-five students (415 girls and 440 boys) aged 11-16 ("M" age = 13.96, "SD" = 1.47) filled in a questionnaire that examined student academic motivation and teachers completed a…

  11. Longitudinal Predictors of School-age Academic Achievement: Unique Contributions of Toddler-age Aggression, Oppositionality, Inattention, and Hyperactivity

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Lauretta M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin

    2012-01-01

    This project examined the unique predictive validity of parent ratings of toddler-age aggression, oppositionality, inattention, and hyperactivity-impulsivity to academic achievement at school-age in a sample of 566 high-risk children and families. The study also investigated potential indirect effects of the Family Check-Up on school-age academic achievement through changes in child behavior problems. The results demonstrated that toddler-age aggression was most consistently associated with school-age academic achievement, albeit modestly. Moreover, findings showed that the intervention predicted greater decreases in aggression from ages 2-3 to 4-5 compared to controls. The results suggest that in high-risk toddler-aged children, aggression may be a more consistent predictor of school-age academic achievement than other externalizing dimensions, which has implications for early identification and efforts to promote children's adaptation. PMID:22527610

  12. Mitigating the Effects of Negative Stereotyping of Aging and the Elderly in Primary Grade Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutknecht, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Discusses depictions of aging and the elderly in primary grade reading instructional materials. Investigates the attitudes of primary grade students toward aging and the elderly. Suggests instructional approaches and materials that can mitigate the effects of negative stereotyping of aging and the elderly. (RS)

  13. First-grade retention in the Flemish educational context: Effects on children's academic growth, psychosocial growth, and school career throughout primary education.

    PubMed

    Goos, Mieke; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick; Petry, Katja; de Bilde, Jerissa

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the effects of first-grade retention on children's academic growth, psychosocial growth, and future school career by following a cohort of first graders until the start of secondary school. The study took place in the Flemish educational context where primary school students are taught in uniform curricular year groups; the same curricular goals are set for all students, irrespective of ability; and grade retention is used as the main way to cater for students not reaching these goals. Propensity score stratification was used to deal with selection bias. Three-level curvilinear growth curve models, encompassing both grade and age comparisons, were used to model children's growth in math skills, reading fluency skills, and psychosocial skills. Two-level logistic regression models were used to model children's likelihood of repeating any grade between Grades 2 and 6, transitioning to a special education primary school, moving to another primary school, and transitioning to the A (versus B) track in secondary education. Overall, results showed that first-grade retention was less helpful for struggling students than generally thought by parents and educators. Limitations of the study and further research suggestions are provided, and practical implications are discussed.

  14. Impacts of a Discussion-Based Academic Language Program on Classroom Interactions in 4th through 7th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria; Jones, Stephanie M.; Kim, Ha Yeon; Kim, James; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory analysis of treatment-control differences in the quality of classroom interactions in 4th through 7th grade urban classrooms. Word Generation (WG) is a research-based academic language program for middle school students designed to teach novel vocabulary and literacy through language arts, math, science, and…

  15. Academic Self-Efficacy, Faculty-Student Interactions, and Student Characteristics as Predictors of Grade Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosnell, Joan C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore student characteristics, academic self-efficacy, and faculty-student interactions as predictors of grade point average for upper-division (college level third and fourth year) education students at a public 4-year degree-granting community college. The study examined the effects of student characteristics…

  16. An Examination of the Efficacy of Insights in Enhancing the Academic and Behavioral Development of Children in Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Erin E.; Cappella, Elise; McCormick, Meghan P.; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of this group randomized trial was to test the efficacy of INSIGHTS Into Children's Temperament (INSIGHTS) in increasing the academic achievement and sustained attention and reducing the disruptive behavior problems of low-income kindergarten and 1st grade children. Twenty-two urban elementary schools serving low-income…

  17. Matching of Learning Styles and Teaching Styles: Advantage and Disadvantage on Ninth-Grade Students' Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damrongpanit, Suntonrapot; Reungtragul, Auyporn

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify learning styles of ninth-grade students, to identify teaching styles of four subject teachers, and to compare four academic achievements between different matching conditions of students' learning styles and teachers' teaching styles. The research participants comprised of 3,382 ninth-grade…

  18. The Effect of Grade Configuration on the Academic Achievement of Special Needs Students: The Case of New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Derrick E.

    2013-01-01

    For over thirty years, research has been conducted on the relative benefits of integrating the sixth through eighth grades within the structure of the K-8 elementary school or of establishing a freestanding middle school structure. While the available research clearly supports the positive effects of the K-8 structure on academic achievement in…

  19. African-American Parents' Racial and Ethnic Socialization and Adolescent Academic Grades: Teasing out the Role of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Linver, Miriam R.; Evans, Melanie; DeGennaro, Donna

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of racial and ethnic socialization and academic achievement in a sample of 218 African American adolescents (grades 9-12; 52% girls) attending a public high school in the northeastern United States. Researchers were particularly interested in whether adolescent gender moderated the relationship between racial…

  20. Defending Academic Freedom in the Age of Garcetti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelFattore, Joan

    2011-01-01

    As the 2006 Supreme Court decision in "Garcetti v. Ceballos" continues to reverberate in academe, the best way for faculty members to defend their academic freedom is not through the courts but through clear university policies. A promising alternative to the First Amendment approach is to follow the example of private universities in defining…

  1. Factors in seventh grade academics associated with performance levels on the tenth grade biology end of course test in selected middle and high schools in northwest Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jennifer Henry

    This study attempted to identify factors in seventh grade academics that are associated with overall success in tenth grade biology. The study addressed the following research questions: Are there significant differences in performance levels in seventh grade Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) scores in science, math, reading, and language arts associated with performance categories in tenth grade biology End of Course Test (EOCT) and the following demographic variables : gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability category, and English language proficiency level? Is there a relationship among the categorical variables on the tenth grade biology EOCT and the same five demographic variables? Retrospective causal comparative research was used on a representative sample from the middle schools in three North Georgia counties who took the four CRCTs in the 2006-2007 school year, and took the biology EOCT in the 2009-2010 school year. Chi square was used to determine the relationships of the various demographic variables on three biology EOCT performance categories. Twoway ANOVA determined relationships between the seventh grade CRCT scores of students in the various demographic groups and their performance levels on the biology EOCT. Students' performance levels on the biology EOCT matched their performance levels on the seventh grade CRCTs consistently. Females performed better than males on all seventh grade CRCTs. Black and Hispanic students did worse than White and Asian/Asian Indian students on the math CRCT. Students living in poverty did worse on reading and language arts CRCTs than students who were better off. Special education students did worse on science, reading, and language arts CRCTs than students not receiving special education services. English language learners did worse than native English speakers on all seventh grade CRCTs. These findings suggest that remedial measures may be taken in the seventh grade that could impact

  2. A Preliminary Investigation into the Effect of Standards-Based Grading on the Academic Performance of African-American Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury-Bailey, Mary

    With the implementation of No Child Left Behind came a wave of educational reform intended for those working with student populations whose academic performance seemed to indicate an alienation from the educational process. Central to these reforms was the implementation of standards-based instruction and their accompanying standardized assessments; however, in one area reform seemed nonexistent---the teacher's gradebook. (Erickson, 2010, Marzano, 2006; Scriffiny, 2008). Given the link between the grading process and achievement motivation, Ames (1992) suggested the use of practices that promote mastery goal orientation. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of standards-based grading system as a factor contributing to mastery goal orientation on the academic performance of urban African American students. To determine the degree of impact, this study first compared the course content averages and End-of-Course-Test (EOCT) scores for science classes using a traditional grading system to those using a standards-based grading system by employing an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). While there was an increase in all grading areas, two showed a significant difference---the Physical Science course content average (p = 0.024) and ix the Biology EOCT scores (p = 0.0876). These gains suggest that standards-based grading can have a positive impact on the academic performance of African American students. Secondly, this study examined the correlation between the course content averages and the EOCT scores for both the traditional and standards-based grading system; for both Physical Science and Biology, there was a stronger correlation between these two scores for the standards-based grading system.

  3. The social status of aggressive students across contexts: the role of classroom status hierarchy, academic achievement, and grade.

    PubMed

    Garandeau, Claire F; Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C

    2011-11-01

    This study tested the effects of 5 classroom contextual features on the social status (perceived popularity and social preference) that peers accord to aggressive students in late elementary school, including classroom peer status hierarchy (whether within-classroom differences in popularity are large or small), classroom academic level, and grade level as the main predictors of interest as well as classroom aggression and ethnic composition as controls. Multilevel analyses were conducted on an ethnically diverse sample of 968 fourth- and fifth-graders from 46 classrooms in 9 schools. Associations between aggression and status varied greatly from one classroom to another. Aggressive students were more popular and better liked in classrooms with higher levels of peer status hierarchy. Aggressive students had higher social status in Grade 5 than in Grade 4 and lower social preference in classrooms of higher academic level. Classroom aggression and ethnic composition did not moderate aggression-status associations. Limitations and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Longitudinal Predictors of School-Age Academic Achievement: Unique Contributions of Toddler-Age Aggression, Oppositionality, Inattention, and Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Lauretta M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin

    2012-01-01

    This project examined the unique predictive validity of parent ratings of toddler-age aggression, oppositionality, inattention, and hyperactivity-impulsivity to academic achievement at school-age in a sample of 566 high-risk children and families. The study also investigated potential indirect effects of the Family Check-Up on school-age academic…

  5. Achievement, Engagement, and Behavior Outcomes of Youth at Risk Following a Pre-Eighth-Grade Summer Academic Enrichment Program and Participation in a School-Wide, School Year Long, Ownership, Mastery, and Grading Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alati, David K.

    2011-01-01

    No significant differences in beginning eighth-grade pretest compared to ending eighth-grade posttest California Achievement Test Normal Curve Equivalent Scores were found for youth at risk who completed a pre-eighth-grade summer academic enrichment program where comparisons for reading vocabulary t(19) = 0.46, p = 0.33 (one-tailed), d = 0.107,…

  6. The Effects of a Ninth Grade Academy on Dropout Rates, Attendance Rates, and Academic Performance of Ninth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Partricka L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated data from 5 high schools in West Tennessee. The study examined whether a ninth-grade transition program (i.e., the Ninth-grade Academy) had an effect on student achievement and engagement, which was measured by English I End-of-Course Test Scores, attendance rates, and dropout rates. All of the schools were treatment…

  7. Academic Self-Concept and Emotion Relations: Domain Specificity and Age Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Thomas; Cronjaeger, Hanna; Frenzel, Anne C.; Ludtke, Oliver; Hall, Nathan C.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations between academic self-concepts and the emotions of enjoyment, pride, anxiety, anger, and boredom as experienced in mathematics, physics, German, and English classes (N=1710; grades 8 and 11). In line with our hypotheses derived from appraisal-based emotion theories and self-efficacy research,…

  8. Resourcefulness: A Protective Factor Buffer against the Academic Stress of School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Grace Suk Man; He, Xuesong

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were twofold: to examine the interaction of academic stress and student resourcefulness on subject grades and to identify the factors of parental support that contribute to student resourcefulness. The participants of this cross-sectional study were 695 fifth and sixth graders from four major districts in Shanghai.…

  9. The Academic Library in the Life of Undergraduate: An Investigation of Undergraduates' Academic Information Behaviors in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozaklis, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation research investigated undergraduates' academic information behaviors in the modern digital age to identify their perspective on the role of the academic library in their academic life. The research examined usage of a broad range of information sources and means to access, selection criteria, and obstacles encountered during…

  10. Retaining the wisdom: Academic nurse leaders' reflections on extending the working life of aging nurse faculty.

    PubMed

    Falk, Nancy L

    2014-01-01

    Aging nurse faculty members are vital human resources who serve as educators, researchers, and leaders within baccalaureate nursing (BSN) programs. On average, aging nurse faculty members are over 50 years of age and face key retirement decisions over the next decade. The purpose of this study was to begin to build substantive theory about academic nurse leaders' perceptions of extending the academic working life of aging nurse faculty members. Nine academic nurse leaders from BSN programs nationwide were interviewed in this grounded theory study. Data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Four categories emerged: valuing aging nurse faculty, enduring environmental challenges, recognizing stakeholder incongruence, and readjusting. Findings reveal that aging nurse faculty members are highly valued by academic nurse leaders, bringing wisdom, experience, and institutional, historical, and cultural awareness to their many roles. Yet, some aging nurse faculty fail to keep knowledge, skills, and teaching modes current, which is problematic given the multiple environmental challenges that academic nurse leaders face. Stakeholder incongruence arises as a mismatch between the needs of the BSN program and the skills and contributions of aging nurse faculty members. BSN programs, program leaders, and aging nurse faculty members can lessen incongruence by readjusting to address the pressures, tensions, and ongoing change. PMID:24503313

  11. The Relationship Between Physical Fitness, Preadolescent Obesity, and Academic Achievement in Seventh Grade Students in South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Phillip Stephen

    Abstract It was not known if, or to what degree, a relationship existed among academic achievement in science, physical fitness, and preadolescent obesity. This quantitative, correlational study explored the relationship between physical fitness, preadolescent obesity, and academic achievement in 136 seventh grade students at an urban middle school in South Carolina who received 50 minutes of physical education daily for one semester. The researcher hypothesized that the level of physical fitness influences preadolescent obesity and academic performance. The hypotheses stated that there would be a positive correlation between physical fitness and achievement in science, a negative correlation between preadolescent obesity and achievement in science, and a negative correlation between fitness and preadolescent obesity. Pearson product-moment correlations were used to test the hypotheses. Physical fitness was measured using the FitnessGram. Academic performance was measured using the science benchmark assessment. The results revealed that physical fitness was positively correlated with academic achievement (r = .32, p = .001), obesity was negatively related to academic achievement (r = -.27, p = .001), and students' BMI was negatively related to physical fitness (r = -.71, p < .001). The findings of this research have significant implications for school policy and public health in terms of the possibilities for physical activity interventions. Keywords: FitnessGram, physical fitness, preadolescent obesity, body mass index.

  12. Teaching Scientific/Academic Writing in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peretz, Arna

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a graduate-level scientific/academic writing course for non-native speakers (NNS) of English at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU), Israel, which is taught in a technology-enhanced or blended learning environment. The use and integration of electronic discourses, such as email and Powerpoint, on-screen marking…

  13. Mothers' and fathers' involvement with school-age children's care and academic activities in Navajo Indian families.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Ziarat; Anziano, Michael C

    2008-04-01

    This exploratory study examined mothers' and fathers' reports of time involvement in their school-age children's care and academic activities. The study also explored the relationship between parents' socioeconomic status (SES) variables (age, education, income, work hours, and length of marriage) and their relative involvement with children. Mother and father dyads from 34 two-parent Navajo (Diné) Indian families with a second- or third-grade child participated in the study. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that mothers invested significantly more time in children's care on demand and academic activities than fathers, but the differences in maternal and paternal perceptions of time involvement in routine care were not significant. The gender of the child did not influence the amount of time parents invested in children's care and academic activities. Mothers' involvement with children was not related to any of the SES variables. Fathers' involvement was significantly associated with work hours and length of marriage, and work hours produced significant interaction with fathers' involvement with children. Findings are discussed in light of gender role differences in parental involvement with children within Navajo families. PMID:18426283

  14. Language Learning Strategies, Course Grades, and Age in EFL Secondary School Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragant, Elsa; Victori, Mia

    2012-01-01

    In studies dealing with language learning strategies in the school context, the variables of proficiency and age are often difficult to isolate since students accumulate more hours of foreign language instruction as they move up from grade to grade. This study aimed to deal with these two variables independently by analysing learning strategy use…

  15. Making the Grade: The Importance of Academic Enablers in the Elementary School Counseling Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barna, Jennifer S.; Brott, Pamelia E.

    2014-01-01

    Elementary school counselors can support academic achievement by connecting their comprehensive programs to increasing academic competence. One valuable framework focuses on academic enablers, which are identified as interpersonal skills, motivation, engagement, and study skills (DiPerna, 2004). In this article, the authors (a) discuss the…

  16. An effective science tutorial model for at-risk, academically unacceptable students in grades 4 -- 8: A Delphi study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adair, J. Kathleen

    This study explored science-specific strategies and materials that might be effective components in a Response to Intervention (RTI) science tutorial model for at-risk, academically unsuccessful students in grades 4 -- 8. Through an iterative Delphi process of responding to three rounds of questionnaires, a nationwide panel of 63 experts in the field of science education identified and came to consensus on 44 effective strategies and six instructional materials and types of equipment for supplemental instruction in science, resulting in a three tier RTI tutorial model. This model provides an initial guide for science educators in applicable practices for each tier of the RTI framework, and was developed to assist administrators, program managers, and science educators in developing effective, systemic RTI instructional programming for science education in grades 4 -- 8, and may provide an additional planning tool in determining evidence-based practices that may lead to achievement for at-risk, academically unsuccessful students in grades 4 -- 8. Future research on specific intervention strategies within science and their effects on science achievement are needed, as well as a further examination to test the efficacy of the model on rates of science achievement for at-risk, academically unsuccessful students.

  17. Predictors of Situational Disengagement in the Academic Setting: The Contribution of Grades, Perceived Competence, and Academic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Yannick; Caudroit, Johan; Boiche, Julie; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although psychological disengagement is a well-documented phenomenon in the academic setting, the attempts to identify its predictors are scarce. In addition, existing research has mainly focused on chronic disengagement and less is known on the determinants of situational disengagement. Aims: The purpose of the present study was to…

  18. Understanding the Influence of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Class on Inequalities in Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes among Eighth-Grade Students: Findings from an Intersectionality Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bécares, Laia; Priest, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender inequalities in academic achievement have been widely reported in the US, but how these three axes of inequality intersect to determine academic and non-academic outcomes among school-aged children is not well understood. Using data from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten (ECLS-K; N = 10,115), we apply an intersectionality approach to examine inequalities across eighth-grade outcomes at the intersection of six racial/ethnic and gender groups (Latino girls and boys, Black girls and boys, and White girls and boys) and four classes of socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage. Results of mixture models show large inequalities in socioemotional outcomes (internalizing behavior, locus of control, and self-concept) across classes of advantage/disadvantage. Within classes of advantage/disadvantage, racial/ethnic and gender inequalities are predominantly found in the most advantaged class, where Black boys and girls, and Latina girls, underperform White boys in academic assessments, but not in socioemotional outcomes. In these latter outcomes, Black boys and girls perform better than White boys. Latino boys show small differences as compared to White boys, mainly in science assessments. The contrasting outcomes between racial/ethnic and gender minorities in self-assessment and socioemotional outcomes, as compared to standardized assessments, highlight the detrimental effect that intersecting racial/ethnic and gender discrimination have in patterning academic outcomes that predict success in adult life. Interventions to eliminate achievement gaps cannot fully succeed as long as social stratification caused by gender and racial discrimination is not addressed. PMID:26505623

  19. Understanding the Influence of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Class on Inequalities in Academic and Non-Academic Outcomes among Eighth-Grade Students: Findings from an Intersectionality Approach.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia; Priest, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and gender inequalities in academic achievement have been widely reported in the US, but how these three axes of inequality intersect to determine academic and non-academic outcomes among school-aged children is not well understood. Using data from the US Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K; N = 10,115), we apply an intersectionality approach to examine inequalities across eighth-grade outcomes at the intersection of six racial/ethnic and gender groups (Latino girls and boys, Black girls and boys, and White girls and boys) and four classes of socioeconomic advantage/disadvantage. Results of mixture models show large inequalities in socioemotional outcomes (internalizing behavior, locus of control, and self-concept) across classes of advantage/disadvantage. Within classes of advantage/disadvantage, racial/ethnic and gender inequalities are predominantly found in the most advantaged class, where Black boys and girls, and Latina girls, underperform White boys in academic assessments, but not in socioemotional outcomes. In these latter outcomes, Black boys and girls perform better than White boys. Latino boys show small differences as compared to White boys, mainly in science assessments. The contrasting outcomes between racial/ethnic and gender minorities in self-assessment and socioemotional outcomes, as compared to standardized assessments, highlight the detrimental effect that intersecting racial/ethnic and gender discrimination have in patterning academic outcomes that predict success in adult life. Interventions to eliminate achievement gaps cannot fully succeed as long as social stratification caused by gender and racial discrimination is not addressed. PMID:26505623

  20. No More Shopping for Grades at B-Mart; Re-Establishing Grades as Indicators of Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Gregory; Baines, Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    The report card grade has come to serve a variety of purposes: (1) Substantiation for state funding; (2) A public relations opportunity to help generate positive feelings between a school and the community; (3) A vehicle used by the teacher to increase a student's self-esteem; (4) An opportunity to reward a student's likability; and (5) A chance…

  1. An Ecological Study of Food Desert Prevalence and 4th Grade Academic Achievement in New York State School Districts

    PubMed Central

    Frndak, Seth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background This ecological study examines the relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level. Design and methods Sample included 232 suburban and urban school districts in New York State. Multiple open-source databases were merged to obtain: 4th grade science, English and math scores, school district demographic composition (NYS Report Card), regional socioeconomic indicators (American Community Survey), school district quality (US Common Core of Data), and food desert data (USDA Food Desert Atlas). Multiple regression models assessed the percentage of variation in achievement scores explained by food desert variables, after controlling for additional predictors. Results The proportion of individuals living in food deserts significantly explained 4th grade achievement scores, after accounting for additional predictors. School districts with higher proportions of individuals living in food desert regions demonstrated lower 4th grade achievement across science, English and math. Conclusions Food deserts appear to be related to academic achievement at the school district level among urban and suburban regions. Further research is needed to better understand how food access is associated with academic achievement at the individual level. Significance for public health The prevalence of food deserts in the United States is of national concern. As poor nutrition in United States children continues to spark debate, food deserts are being evaluated as potential sources of low fruit and vegetable intake and high obesity rates. Cognitive development and IQ have been linked to nutrition patterns, suggesting that children in food desert regions may have a disadvantage academically. This research evaluates if an ecological relationship between food desert prevalence and academic achievement at the school district level can be demonstrated. Results suggest that food desert prevalence may relate to poor academic performance at

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Grade Span Configurations and Academic Achievement among 6-8 and K-8 Public Schools in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of grade span configurations on academic achievement in middle and K-8 public schools in the state of Texas. More specifically, academic achievement was examined and compared between two different school settings (i.e., middle schools and K-8 schools) for sixth-, seventh-, and…

  3. Unmet Needs of Low Academic Level Adult (0-4th Grade Level) Students: A Follow-Up Study. A Special Demonstration/Teacher Training Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portage Township Schools, IN.

    An Indiana 310 Project was conducted to determine the needs of very low level adult basic education students (0-4th grade). Specifically, the study sought to answer the following four questions: (1) What brings low academic level students into ABE programs? (2) What aspects of the ABE programs do low academic level students dislike? (3) Why do low…

  4. Web 2.0 Tools and Academic Literacy Development in a US Urban School: A Case Study of a Second-Grade English Language Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Dong-shin

    2014-01-01

    This study explores a second-grade English language learner's literacy development and ability to use blogging for social and academic purposes, in the context of learning academic writing genres in a US urban school. Grounded in sociocultural theories, it conceptualizes learning as appropriation, and language as a dynamic and functional…

  5. Determining the Effects of Using Different Writing Activities on the Academic Achievements Secondary School 7th Grade Students and Their Attitudes Towards the Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzoglu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the effects of using writing activities with different learning purposes by the secondary school 7th grade students on their academic achievement and attitudes towards the course. The study was carried out in a secondary school located in the centre of Erzurum in 2012-2013 academic year; the study is a…

  6. Will the Liberal Arts Survive the Bronze Age of American Academe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Kimball begins this essay by comparing the start of the "golden age" of liberal arts education as the period between about 1950 and 1975 when American higher education's revenue and enrollments of colleges and universities grew enormously. During the subsequent silver age of academe, ending in the Great Recession of 2008-2009,…

  7. The effects of academic literacy instruction on engagement and conceptual understanding of biology of ninth-grade students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Susan C.

    Academic language, discourse, vocabulary, motivation, and comprehension of complex texts and concepts are keys to learning subject-area content. The need for a disciplinary literacy approach in high school classrooms accelerates as students become increasing disengaged in school and as content complexity increases. In the present quasi-experimental mixed-method study, a ninth-grade biology unit was designed with an emphasis on promoting academic literacy skills, discourse, meaningful constructivist learning, interest development, and positive learning experiences in order to learn science content. Quantitative and qualitative analyses on a variety of measures completed by 222 students in two high schools revealed that those who received academic literacy instruction in science class performed at significantly higher levels of conceptual understanding of biology content, academic language and vocabulary use, reasoned thought, engagement, and quality of learning experience than control-group students receiving traditionally-organized instruction. Academic literacy was embedded into biology instruction to engage students in meaning-making discourses of science to promote learning. Academic literacy activities were organized according the phases of interest development to trigger and sustain interest and goal-oriented engagement throughout the unit. Specific methods included the Generative Vocabulary Matrix (GVM), scenario-based writing, and involvement in a variety of strategically-placed discourse activities to sustain or "boost" engagement for learning. Traditional instruction for the control group included teacher lecture, whole-group discussion, a conceptual organizer, and textbook reading. Theoretical foundations include flow theory, sociocultural learning theory, and interest theory. Qualitative data were obtained from field notes and participants' journals. Quantitative survey data were collected and analyzed using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) to

  8. Demands and Opportunities: Analyzing Academic Language in a First Grade Dual Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucero, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    Academic language, the register necessary to be successful in school, has been widely studied in recent years. Researchers have devoted much energy to defining the construct of academic language and identifying ways that teachers can support students--particularly those learning two languages simultaneously--as they develop it. Several scholars…

  9. Teacher Turnover Impact on 1st-8th Grade Student Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Johnnie M.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of schools and students not meeting academic achievement standards affects the community and the nation's future workforce. This paper examines many of the factors influencing achievement with special attention given to the facts of teacher turnover in the schools. Teacher turnover and the sad state of the academic achievement of…

  10. The Differences in Academic Achievement between Single-Sex Education and Coeducation Classes in Fifth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoggins, Donna K.

    2009-01-01

    Single-sex education is an instructional innovation implemented to improve student academic achievement by teaching to the learning styles and interests of boys and/or girls. This ex post facto quantitative study examined the differences in academic achievement between single-sex education and coeducation classes on students' achievement in…

  11. Signaling Organization and Stance: Academic Language Use in Middle Grade Persuasive Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    Effective academic writing is accessible to readers because writers follow shared conventions for organization and signal their stance on particular topics; however, few specifics are known about how middle graders might develop knowledge of and use these academic language forms and functions to signal their organization and stance in persuasive…

  12. People Through the Ages. Social Studies Interim Grade Guide for Grade Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Curriculum Development Branch.

    Supplementary units of study help eighth graders in Manitoba explore the ways people lived within selected societies of the past and realize that life today is closely related to developments which have occurred through the ages. Units and subtopics are: (1) Life during Prehistoric and Early Historic Times--prehistoric times, life in early river…

  13. School-age adopted Chinese girls' behavioral adjustment, academic performance, and social skills: longitudinal results.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2009-04-01

    Longitudinal data on 177 school-age adopted Chinese girls (Time 1: mean age = 8.92 years, SD = 1.76; Time 2: mean age = 11.18 years, SD = 1.79) were analyzed to determine their long-term outcomes in behavioral adjustment, academic performance (measured with the Child Behavior Checklist/6-18), and social skills (measured with the Social Skills Rating System) and how these outcomes were related to preadoption adversity. More than 90% of the girls were adopted at 24 months or younger (M = 19.25, SD = 21.67). Results revealed that over a 2-year period, there was a moderate to strong stability in the children's behavioral adjustment and academic performance. However, there was a significant increase in the number of children with deviant internalizing problems. At both times, higher degrees of preadoption adversity were related to more internalizing problems and poorer academic performance. Children who were adopted at older ages had poorer academic performance. Children who were older had a lower level of assertion and a higher level of responsibility. Children's attention problems at Time 1 mediated the effect of preadoption adversity on academic performance at Time 2.

  14. West Virginia Adolescents' Health Risk Behaviors: Differences by Gender, Age, Grade Level, and Level of Rurality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Merrill L.; And Others

    In 1990, the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was completed by a random sample of 1,448 West Virginia public-school students in grades 9-12. The sample was 51 percent male and 89 percent white. About 71 percent of subjects were aged 15-17; 39 percent were in the ninth grade. The YRBS covered behaviors producing vehicle-related or other injuries,…

  15. There is no relationship between academic achievement and body mass index among fourth-grade, predominantly African-American children.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Guinn, Caroline H; Tebbs, Joshua M; Royer, Julie A

    2013-04-01

    School-based initiatives to combat childhood obesity may use academic performance to measure success. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between academic achievement and body mass index percentile, socioeconomic status (SES), and race by linking existing datasets that are not routinely linked. Data from a school-based project (with National Institutes of Health funding) concerning dietary recall accuracy were linked with data from the state's Department of Education through the state's Office of Research and Statistics. Data were available on 1,504 fourth-grade, predominantly African-American children from 18 schools total in one district in South Carolina during the 2004-2005, 2005-2006, and 2006-2007 school years. School staff administered standardized tests in English, math, social studies, and science. Researchers measured children's weight and height. Children were categorized as low-SES, medium-SES, or high-SES based on eligibility for free, reduced-price, or full-price school meals, respectively. Results from marginal regression analyses for each sex for the four academic subjects, separately and combined, showed that test scores were not related to body mass index percentile, but were positively related to SES (P values <0.0001), and were related to race, with lower scores for African-American children than children of other races (P values <0.0039). Cost-efficient opportunities exist to create longitudinal data sets to investigate relationships between academic performance and obesity across kindergarten through 12th-grade children. State agencies can house body mass index data in state-based central repositories where staff can use globally unique identifiers and link data across agencies. Results from such studies could potentially change the way school administrators view nutrition and physical education.

  16. Approaches to Learning and Age in Predicting College Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Baris

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether the approaches to learning and age are significantly correlated to grade point average (GPA) in early childhood education students. In addition, another purpose of this study is to determine whether approaches to learning and age predicted students' GPAs in the Early Childhood Education Department. The…

  17. Relationships between Teacher-Assigned Grades and Academic Achievement as Determined by AIMS Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, R. Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationships between student achievement, as measured by Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards, and teacher-assigned grades within a large, urban Phoenix, Arizona school district. For the quantitative component of the study, a proportionate stratified random sample of 3rd grade students from…

  18. Reconceptualizing Academic Libraries and Archives in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Michael J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the concept of "the archive" in the digital age and the situation of libraries and archives within the lifecycle of information. After discussing the changing nature of books, records, scholarly communication, and the concept of "the archive," this paper merges book and record lifecycle models into a new archival cycle. To…

  19. A comparison of fathers' and mothers' contributions in the prediction of academic performance of school-age children in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Tam, Vicky C W

    2009-04-01

    Asystematic study of the linkages between gender issues and parenting is made among Chinese families. This study examines sex differences in parenting attributes across fathers and mothers and towards sons and daughters, and compares the contributions of fathers and mothers to the prediction of academic performance across boys and girls. Four parenting attributes are included: nurturance, psychological control, parental involvement in education, and parental academic efficacy. Data were collected from 461 Chinese father-mother-child triads of children studying Grade 3 to 5 in Hong Kong. Findings of this study, based on multivariate analysis of variance, showed that parental roles followed traditional Chinese cultural expectations. Compared to the fathers, Chinese mothers of school-age children in Hong Kong were more loving and caring, more involved in children's education, and more efficacious in promoting children's academic performance. Results of hierarchical regression analysis examining the role of child's sex as a moderator showed cross-sex influence in parental contribution to academic performance with respect to parental psychological control and academic efficacy. Specifically, boys benefited more from maternal efficacy than girls did and they were also more hampered by mothers with high psychological control, while girls' academic performance was more enhanced by paternal academic efficacy than boys. A gender-balance approach that highlights the significance of gender in moderating parental contributions to academic performance was thus supported. Future research should continue to focus on psychological control and domain-specific parental attributes as potential sources of gender-linked parent-child associations. Investigations should also explore other cognitive and noncognitive domains of child outcome, different child age groups, as well as Chinese populations in various geographical regions.

  20. Self-reported academic grades and other correlates of sugar-sweetened soda intake among US adolescents.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohyun; Sherry, Bettylou; Foti, Kathryn; Blanck, Heidi M

    2012-01-01

    High consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks has been associated with obesity and other adverse health consequences. This cross-sectional study examined the association of demographic characteristics, weight status, self-reported academic grades, and behavioral factors with sugar-sweetened soda intake among a nationally representative sample of US high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 16,188 students in grades 9 through 12. The main outcome measure was daily sugar-sweetened soda intake (eg, drank a can, bottle, or glass of soda [excluding diet soda] at least one time per day during the 7 days before the survey). Nationally, 29.2% of students reported drinking sugar-sweetened soda at least one time per day. Logistic regression analyses showed factors significantly associated with sugar-sweetened soda intake at least one time per day included male sex (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.47), Hispanic ethnicity (vs whites; OR=0.81), earning mostly B, C, and D/F grades (vs mostly As; OR=1.26, 1.66, and 2.19, respectively), eating vegetables fewer than three times per day (OR=0.72), trying to lose weight (OR=0.72), sleeping <8 hours (OR=1.18), watching television >2 hours/day (OR=1.71), playing video or computer games or using a computer for other than school work >2 hours/day (OR=1.53), being physically active at least 60 minutes/day on <5 days during the 7 days before the survey (OR=1.19), and current cigarette use (OR=2.01). The significant associations with poor self-reported academic grades, inadequate sleep, sedentary behaviors, and cigarette smoking suggest research should examine why soda consumption is associated with these behaviors to inform the design of future nutrition interventions.

  1. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence Through Age 32 Years

    PubMed Central

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2014-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first three years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity predicts social skills and academic achievement through mid-adolescence in a manner consistent with an Enduring Effects model of development and extended these findings using heterotypic indicators of social (effectiveness of romantic engagement) and academic competence (educational attainment) during adulthood. Although early socioeconomic factors and child gender accounted for the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity for social competence, covariates did not fully account for associations between early sensitivity and academic outcomes PMID:25521785

  2. Academic performance and intelligence scores of primary school-aged children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Ezenwosu, Osita; Emodi, Ifeoma; Ikefuna, Anthony; Chukwu, Barth

    2013-11-01

    Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are faced with complications which may interfere with their educational activities including academic performance. Reports on their academic performance are mainly from developed countries and the results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the academic performance of primary school-aged children with SCA in Nigeria and compare findings with a group of controls. Ninety children with SCA aged 5-11 years were consecutively recruited at the SCA clinic of UNTH Enugu and their age- and sex-matched normal classmates were enrolled as controls. Academic performance of the children with SCA was studied using the overall scores achieved in the three term examinations in the preceding academic year (2009/2010), while their intelligence quotient (IQ) was determined using the Draw-A-Person Test. The findings were compared with that of 90 controls. The mean overall academic score of the children with SCA of 62.71 ± 19.43% was similar to 67.47 ± 16.42% in the controls (P = .077). However, a significantly higher number of children with SCA (32.2% vs. 16.7% of the controls; P = .015) scored below 50%, thus, had poor performance. The mean IQ of the subjects (91.41 ±16.61%) was similar to that of the controls (95.56 ±17.31%, P = .103). However, more SCA patients had lower IQ scores than controls though not statistically significant (P = 0.083). The overall academic performance of children with SCA, therefore, compares favorably with that of controls although there is a higher prevalence of poor performance among them.

  3. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Gestational Age Neonates with Low Grade Periventricular-Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Allison H.; Hintz, Susan R.; Hibbs, Anna Maria; Walsh, Michele C.; Vohr, Betty R.; Bann, Carla M.; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18–22 months corrected age for extremely low gestational age infants with low grade (Grade 1 or 2) periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage to infants with either no hemorrhage or severe (Grade 3 or 4) hemorrhage on cranial ultrasound. Design Longitudinal observational study Setting Sixteen centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network Participants 1472 infants born at <27 weeks gestational age between 2006–2008 with ultrasound results within the first 28 days of life and surviving to 18–22 months with complete follow-up assessments were eligible. Main Exposure Low grade periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage Outcome Measures Outcomes included cerebral palsy, gross motor functional limitation, Bayley III cognitive and language scores, and composite measures of neurodevelopmental impairment. Regression modeling evaluated the association of hemorrhage severity with adverse outcomes while controlling for potentially confounding variables and center differences. Results Low grade hemorrhage was not associated with significant differences in unadjusted or adjusted risk of any adverse neurodevelopmental outcome compared to infants without hemorrhage. Compared with low grade hemorrhage, severe hemorrhage was associated with decrease in adjusted continuous cognitive (−3.91, [95% Confidence Interval [CI]: −6.41, −1.42]) and language (−3.19 [−6.19, −0.19]) scores as well as increased odds of each adjusted categorical outcome except severe cognitive impairment (OR: 1.46 [0.74, 2.88]) and mild language impairment (OR: 1.35 [0.88, 2.06]). Conclusion At 18–22 months, the neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely low gestational age infants with low grade periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage are not significantly different from those without hemorrhage. PMID:23460139

  4. The effects of early grade retention: Effect modification by prior achievement and age.

    PubMed

    Vandecandelaere, Machteld; Vansteelandt, Stijn; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the effects of early grade retention and different effects according to prior achievement and age. Within a population of children at risk of early retention, we compared the development throughout primary school in mathematics achievement after kindergarten retention, first-grade retention, and continuous promotion. Analyzing data from a large-scale longitudinal study using covariate balancing propensity score weighting, the findings revealed that early grade repeaters would score higher in mathematics if they were promoted each year instead. However, the effects diminished or even disappeared in the long term. Compared to kindergarten retention, first-grade retention was found to be more harmful for the mathematics development of younger children specifically. PMID:26790704

  5. Academic Achievement and Aging out of Care: Foster Parents' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Foster children experience multiple barriers and challenges that, amongst other issues, prevent them from achieving academically. At the age of 18, foster youth are forced out of the Department of Children and Families care, leading many of them to become homeless or to return to the homes from which they were displaced. Scholarly literature and…

  6. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  7. Engaging Students in Aging Research through the Academic Research Enhancement Award Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Sandra S.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the R15, Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) mechanism available through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for institutions that do not typically receive substantial NIH funding. Equipped with training received at the St. Scholastica National Institute on Social Work and Aging, I was able to secure AREA funding…

  8. Predicting the Motivation in College-Aged Learning Disabled Students Based on the Academic Motivation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Alberto D.

    2013-01-01

    Given the paucity of research on factors associated with motivation in learning disabled college students, the present study investigated the motivation levels in college students with learning disabilities. The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) has been validated cross-nationally and across all educational age groups of students having various…

  9. Minimally Verbal School-Aged Children with Autism: Communication, Academic Engagement and Classroom Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Kathryne Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Minimally verbal school aged children with autism (MVSACwA) receive the bulk of their behavioral and academic support in schools yet we know little about the environments to which they are exposed. This population of children has often been excluded from studies and thus, underrepresented in current data on autism. As increasing numbers of…

  10. Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties Using Functionally Graded Viscoelastic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Eshan V.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt concrete pavements are inherently graded viscoelastic structures. Oxidative aging of asphalt binder and temperature cycling due to climatic conditions being the major cause of non-homogeneity. Current pavement analysis and simulation procedures dwell on the use of layered approach to account for these non-homogeneities. The conventional…

  11. Mathematics Confidence, Grade-Level Choice, Gender, and Age in Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lesley Knoth

    2012-01-01

    Problem: The purpose of the study was to determine whether teachers' mathematics confidence influenced their choice of grade level. The study also examined whether there was a difference in teachers' mathematics confidence based on their age or gender. Method: A 6-item Mathematics Survey was distributed to 83 single-and multiple-subject…

  12. 42 CFR 21.28 - Age requirements, Regular Corps, senior assistant grade and below.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Age requirements, Regular Corps, senior assistant grade and below. 21.28 Section 21.28 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... active service in the Commissioned Corps of the Public Health Service shall be increased by the period...

  13. 42 CFR 21.28 - Age requirements, Regular Corps, senior assistant grade and below.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age requirements, Regular Corps, senior assistant grade and below. 21.28 Section 21.28 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... active service in the Commissioned Corps of the Public Health Service shall be increased by the period...

  14. Principles and Practices for Building Academic Self-Efficacy in Middle Grades Language Arts Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTigue, Erin; Liew, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Academic self-efficacy contributes to students' motivation and persistence for learning. However, motivation for reading and learning, and students' self-efficacy in school often declines in adolescence. This manuscript presents research-based strategies for facilitating students' motivations within the context of language arts classes.

  15. The Effects of Technology Instruction on the Academic Achievement of Fifth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Karen Cortina

    2012-01-01

    A digital native is an individual born between 1981 and 2001, and children born after 2001 are called millennials. Educators are expected to meet the needs of today's technologically savvy students. Some researchers assert that an academic "moral panic" is taking place that lacks the empirical and theoretical knowledge to support…

  16. Academic Internship Program: Curriculum Guide. The Great Exchange. Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlotte-Mecklenburg Public Schools, Charlotte, NC.

    This curriculum guide provides the framework for the Academic Internship Program (AIP) that is available to Charlotte-Mecklenburg (North Carolina) Public Schools' high school students. In each career area, information is provided to describe the purpose of the internship, the qualifications for the intern, the content/scope and competency goals…

  17. Perfectionism, Implicit Theories of Intelligence, and Taiwanese Eighth-Grade Students' Academic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2011-01-01

    The authors attempted to examine how Taiwanese junior high school students' perfectionistic tendencies and implicit theories of intelligence were related to their academic emotions and approach versus avoidance self-regulation, and to determine differences in contingent self-worth, emotions, and self-regulation among students with different…

  18. Authoritative Parenting, Parental Scaffolding of Long-Division Mathematics, and Children's Academic Competence in Fourth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattanah, J.F.; Pratt, M.W.; Cowan, P.A.; Cowan, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships among authoritative parenting, parental scaffolding of long-division math problems, and children's academic competence. In a sample of 70 two-parent middle class families participating in a longitudinal study on the transition to school, authoritative parenting was assessed globally at the beginning of…

  19. Performing the Grade: Urban Latino Youth, Gender Performance, and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foiles Sifuentes, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the intersection of race, gender, class, and academic success through an ethnographic case study in a Texas charter high school. The 98% working-class, Latino student population was exposed to an array of stigmas ascribed to their persons based on negative social stereotypes of race, ethnicity, gender, and class due to the…

  20. Academic Music: Music Instruction to Engage Third-Grade Students in Learning Basic Fraction Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courey, Susan Joan; Balogh, Endre; Siker, Jody Rebecca; Paik, Jae

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an academic music intervention on conceptual understanding of music notation, fraction symbols, fraction size, and equivalency of third graders from a multicultural, mixed socio-economic public school setting. Students (N = 67) were assigned by class to their general education mathematics program or to receive…

  1. Academic English in Fifth-Grade Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies Textbooks. CSE Report 642

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Frances A.; Bailey, Alison L.; Stevens, Robin; Huang, Becky; Lord, Carol

    2004-01-01

    This study expands on previous National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) work that has undertaken the articulation of the academic language construct for broad educational purposes. The primary goal was to describe the language of textbook selections in terms of vocabulary, grammar, and organization of…

  2. The Differential Effects of Age and First Grade Schooling on the Development of Infralogical and Logico-Mathematical Concrete Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Greenbaum, Charles; Artman, Lavee; Deluya, Nilly; Gappel-Gilon, Yael

    2008-01-01

    Using the ''between-grade levels'' regression discontinuity design, this study examined the hypothesized differential sensitivity of logico-mathematical (LM) and infralogical (IL) operational tasks to the effects of chronological age and first grade schooling in a sample of 580 1st and 2nd grade Israeli children. The results indicate that the…

  3. The Effect of a Stricter Academic Dismissal Policy on Course Selection, Student Effort, and Grading Leniency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keng, Shao-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses data from a four-year college in Taiwan to examine the effect of adopting a stricter dismissal policy on course selection, student effort, and grading practices. Under the new rule, students are dismissed if they fail 50 percent or more credits in "any" two semesters as opposed to two "consecutive" semesters.…

  4. Beyond Grade Retention and Social Promotion: Promoting the Social and Academic Competence of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Pletcher, Sarah M. W.; Graydon, Kelly; Schnurr, Britton L.; Nickerson, Amanda B.; Kundert, Deborah K.

    2006-01-01

    During the past decade, amidst the current context emphasizing educational standards and accountability, the practice of grade retention has increased. The call for an end to social promotion has generated a variety of recommendations and legislation regarding promotion policies. This context has served as a catalyst for numerous debates regarding…

  5. Academic, Social, and Emotional Needs in a Middle Grades Reform Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Lisa M.; Burke, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    During an evaluation of a new middle grades reform initiative, the program participants (i.e., teachers, coaches, and principals) reported they perceived that students' social and emotional needs interfaced with implementation of the reform. In particular, participants perceived that students' need for a safe, supportive, and engaging environment…

  6. Selected Factors Related to the Mathematics Academic Achievement of Eighth Grade English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine selected factors related to the 8th grade mathematics achievement levels of English Language Learner (ELL) students in selected South Texas middle schools. The dependent variable, ELL mathematics achievement, was measured by the ELL student's raw score on the State of Texas Assessment of Academic…

  7. Instructor Grading Variation and Its Implications for Assessment, Advising, and Academic Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boese, Larry; Birdsall, Les

    The Diablo Valley College (California) Research Office assessed the variation of grades in multiple-section courses and its impact on the ability to predict student success. All classes selected for the study were general education offerings applicable for the Associate of Arts degree and/or transfer, and were taught by more than one instructor. A…

  8. The Influence of Academic Performance, Demographic Background, and Discipline on College Grades and Course Withdrawals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prather, James E.; Sturgeon, Joseph S.

    The performance of students who persisted or withdrew from courses was compared in a survey of all undergraduate students enrolled at Georgia State University during the spring 1981 quarter. Multivariate analysis was applied to three aspects of withdrawal and performance: course grades, the length of time withdrawing students stayed in the course,…

  9. Foundational Study of School Start Date and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Gayle

    2013-01-01

    There is a relative absence of research that specifically uses Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) data to investigate the relationship between birthdate of kindergartners and later academic success in third grade. This quantitative study investigated school start age and academic success on the 3rd grade Reading TAKS in a sample of…

  10. Characterization of Aging Behavior in M250 Grade Maraging Steel Using Ultrasonic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, K. V.; Kumar, Anish; Jayakumar, T.; Raj, Baldev; Ray, K. K.

    2007-02-01

    Ultrasonic measurements have been carried out in M250 grade maraging steel specimens subjected to solution annealing at 1093 K for 1 hour followed by aging at 755 K for various durations in the range of 0.25 to 100 hours. The influence of aging on microstructure, room temperature hardness, and ultrasonic parameters (longitudinal and shear wave velocities and Poisson’s ratio) has been studied in order to derive correlations among these parameters in aged M250 maraging steel. Both hardness and ultrasonic velocities exhibit almost similar behaviors with aging time. They increase with the precipitation of intermetallic phases, Ni3Ti and Fe2Mo, and decrease with the reversion of martensite to austenite. Ultrasonic shear wave velocity is found to be more influenced by the precipitation of intermetallic phases, whereas longitudinal wave velocity is influenced more by the reversion of martensite to austenite. Unlike hardness and ultrasonic velocities, the Poisson’s ratio exhibits a monotonous decrease with aging time and, hence, can be used for unambiguous monitoring of the aging process in M250 maraging steel. Further, none of the parameters, i.e., hardness, ultrasonic velocity, or Poisson’s ratio, alone could identify the initiation of the reversion of austenite at early stage; however, the same could be identified from the correlation between ultrasonic velocity and Poisson’s ratio, indicating the advantage of using the multiparametric approach for comprehensive characterization of complex aging behavior in M250 grade maraging steel.

  11. Canonical Nlrp3 inflammasome links systemic low grade inflammation to functional decline in aging

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Yun-Hee; Grant, Ryan W.; McCabe, Laura R.; Albarado, Diana C.; Nguyen, Kim Yen; Ravussin, Anthony; Pistell, Paul; Newman, Susan; Carter, Renee; Laque, Amanda; Münzberg, Heike; Rosen, Clifford J.; Ingram, Donald K.; Salbaum, J. Michael; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite a wealth of clinical data showing an association between inflammation and degenerative disorders in elderly, the immune sensors that causally link systemic inflammation to aging remain unclear. Here we detail a mechanism that the Nlrp3 inflammasome controls systemic low grade age-related ‘sterile’ inflammation in both periphery and brain independently of the non-canonical caspase-11 inflammasome. Ablation of Nlrp3 inflammasome protected mice from age-related increases in the innate immune activation, alterations in CNS transcriptome and astrogliosis. Consistent with the hypothesis that systemic low grade inflammation promotes age-related degenerative changes, the deficient Nlrp3 inflammasome mediated caspase-1 activity improved glycemic control and attenuated bone loss and thymic demise. Notably, IL-1 mediated only Nlrp3 inflammasome dependent improvement in cognitive function and motor performance in aged mice. These studies reveal Nlrp3 inflammasome as an upstream target that controls age-related inflammation and offer innovative therapeutic strategy to lower Nlrp3 activity to delay multiple age-related chronic diseases. PMID:24093676

  12. The correlation between academic achievements, self-esteem and motivation of female seventh grade students: A mixed methods approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henman, Karen

    During the early grades, female students generally display enthusiasm for learning science. As these same students go though school, however, their level of motivation changes. Once female students reach high school, many lack the confidence to take chemistry and physics. Then, in college they lack the background necessary to major in chemistry, physics, and engineering. This study used quantitative data to investigate the correlation between female students' motivation, self-esteem, and standards-based state science achievement tests combined with a qualitative survey of student's perceptions of parents' attitudes toward science. The Children's Science Motivation Inventory (CAIMI) determined students' levels of motivation toward science. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI) ascertained female students' overall self-esteem. The ISTEP+ exam given in the 6th grade measured the students' academic achievement in science. Trained examiners who interviewed students comprised the qualitative component of the study. Each examiner elaborated on selected questions from the CSEI and CAIMI to determine the students' perceptions of parental attitudes toward science. A multiple regression was used to determine the correlation between self-esteem, motivation, and achievement in science. The correlation was strongest between motivation. Interviews revealed parents and teachers had the most influence on students' perception of science. In understanding the correlation between female students' motivation, achievement, and self-esteem, schools will gain further knowledge into how students relate to the academic field of science and can thus promote females' participation in more science courses in high school. This then will provide females the necessary background knowledge to pursue a greater number of science majors in college.

  13. Personal and family perfectionism of Taiwanese college students: relationships with depression, self-esteem, achievement motivation, and academic grades.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kenneth T

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of perfectionism studies have been conducted across different countries outside of the Western framework. Using an international egalitarian approach that adopts indigenous frameworks and concepts from the cultural context of the population studied is imperative. This study examines different groups of perfectionists with a sample of 348 Taiwanese college students, emphasizing the collectivistic culture. In particular, this is a follow-up study to further explore characteristics of a group with low standards/high discrepancy--a feeling that they are not good enough despite having low standards--found in a previous study with Taiwanese students. More specifically, this study investigates whether the source of the high discrepancy scores among this group is related to having higher perfectionistic standards from their family. Perfectionism was examined not only from a personal/individualistic perspective, but also from a familistic dimension to reflect Taiwanese collectivistic cultural values. Results partially supported the hypotheses--this group reported having higher family discrepancy, but not family standards, than nonperfectionists. However, this group of participants reported lower academic grades, which implies the possibility of their discrepancy being associated with poorer performance. Four cluster groups--adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, nonperfectionists, and those with low standards/high discrepancy--were compared on their levels of depression, self-esteem, achievement motivation, and academic grades. Maladaptive perfectionists reported the highest depression level, while adaptive perfectionists reported the highest self-esteem. Results also show that aspects of personal perfectionism and family perfectionism related to self-esteem differently among this sample. Findings and implications are discussed with consideration of the collectivistic cultural context in Taiwan.

  14. Discrepancies between academic achievement and intellectual ability in higher-functioning school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Estes, Annette; Rivera, Vanessa; Bryan, Matthew; Cali, Philip; Dawson, Geraldine

    2011-08-01

    Academic achievement patterns and their relationships with intellectual ability, social abilities, and problem behavior are described in a sample of 30 higher-functioning, 9-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both social abilities and problem behavior have been found to be predictive of academic achievement in typically developing children but this has not been well studied in children with ASD. Participants were tested for academic achievement and intellectual ability at age 9. Problem behaviors were assessed through parent report and social functioning through teacher report at age 6 and 9. Significant discrepancies between children's actual academic achievement and their expected achievement based on their intellectual ability were found in 27 of 30 (90%) children. Both lower than expected and higher than expected achievement was observed. Children with improved social skills at age 6 demonstrated higher levels of academic achievement, specifically word reading, at age 9. No relationship was found between children's level of problem behavior and level of academic achievement. These results suggest that the large majority of higher-functioning children with ASD show discrepancies between actual achievement levels and levels predicted by their intellectual ability. In some cases, children are achieving higher than expected, whereas in others, they are achieving lower than expected. Improved social abilities may contribute to academic achievement. Future studies should further explore factors that can promote strong academic achievement, including studies that examine whether intervention to improve social functioning can support academic achievement in children with ASD. PMID:21042871

  15. Discrepancies between academic achievement and intellectual ability in higher-functioning school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Estes, Annette; Rivera, Vanessa; Bryan, Matthew; Cali, Philip; Dawson, Geraldine

    2011-08-01

    Academic achievement patterns and their relationships with intellectual ability, social abilities, and problem behavior are described in a sample of 30 higher-functioning, 9-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both social abilities and problem behavior have been found to be predictive of academic achievement in typically developing children but this has not been well studied in children with ASD. Participants were tested for academic achievement and intellectual ability at age 9. Problem behaviors were assessed through parent report and social functioning through teacher report at age 6 and 9. Significant discrepancies between children's actual academic achievement and their expected achievement based on their intellectual ability were found in 27 of 30 (90%) children. Both lower than expected and higher than expected achievement was observed. Children with improved social skills at age 6 demonstrated higher levels of academic achievement, specifically word reading, at age 9. No relationship was found between children's level of problem behavior and level of academic achievement. These results suggest that the large majority of higher-functioning children with ASD show discrepancies between actual achievement levels and levels predicted by their intellectual ability. In some cases, children are achieving higher than expected, whereas in others, they are achieving lower than expected. Improved social abilities may contribute to academic achievement. Future studies should further explore factors that can promote strong academic achievement, including studies that examine whether intervention to improve social functioning can support academic achievement in children with ASD.

  16. The department of internal medicine: hub of the academic health center response to the aging imperative.

    PubMed

    Hazzard, W R

    2000-08-15

    In the 21st century, geriatrics will increasingly dominate U.S. health care as the median age of the population progressively increases. Academic departments of geriatrics have been created in nations that have already experienced this shift. As an alternative strategy that builds on traditional strengths of academic medicine in the United States, departments of internal medicine should lead a multidepartmental, pan-institutional response to the aging imperative. Recognition of gerontology and geriatric medicine as central to the missions of internal medicine in clinical care, education, and research must be increased. In the process, academic departments of internal medicine will develop a high level of geriatric expertise and will launch many programs that address this challenge. Successful development of geriatric programs will serve as a catalyst to strengthen the integration among and between generalists and subspecialists. This will entail developing optimal sites and systems of geriatric care--at different levels of care and over time--that can enhance the geriatric education of medical students, residents, fellows, and practicing physicians. The study of aging and geriatric health care will also become an integral part of departmental research, in its subspecialty divisions as well as its divisions of general internal medicine and geriatrics. This strategy is urgently recommended as both a challenge and an opportunity for all departments of internal medicine. PMID:10929171

  17. Pathways to Advancing Aging Policy-Relevant Research in Academic Settings.

    PubMed

    Kietzman, Kathryn G; Troy, Lisa M; Green, Carmen R; Wallace, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    Policy-level changes have a significant influence on the health and well-being of aging populations. Yet there is often a gap between scientific knowledge and policy action. Although previous research has identified barriers and facilitators to effective knowledge translation, little attention has been given to the role of academic institutions in knowledge generation. This exploratory focus group study examines barriers and pathways to developing and maintaining an aging policy-relevant research agenda in academic settings, and additional challenges associated with minority group membership in this pursuit. Participants were personally committed to conducting policy-relevant research despite institutional barriers such as fewer funding opportunities and less value attributed to their research, particularly in the context of tenure and promotion. Although many viewed their research as an opportunity to make a difference, especially for underserved older adult populations, a number of minority group participants expressed that their policy research interests were marginalized. Participants offer individual and institutional-level strategies for addressing barriers, including collaborating with community members and colleagues and engaging mentors within and outside of their academic institutions. Reframing the valuation of policy research through the diversification of funding and publishing opportunities can better support scholars engaged in aging policy-relevant research. PMID:26849290

  18. Pathways to Advancing Aging Policy-Relevant Research in Academic Settings

    PubMed Central

    KIETZMAN, KATHRYN G.; TROY, LISA M.; GREEN, CARMEN R.; WALLACE, STEVEN P.

    2016-01-01

    Policy-level changes have a significant influence on the health and well-being of aging populations. Yet there is often a gap between scientific knowledge and policy action. Although previous research has identified barriers and facilitators to effective knowledge translation, little attention has been given to the role of academic institutions in knowledge generation. This exploratory focus group study examines barriers and pathways to developing and maintaining an aging policy-relevant research agenda in academic settings, and additional challenges associated with minority group membership in this pursuit. Participants were personally committed to conducting policy-relevant research despite institutional barriers such as fewer funding opportunities and less value attributed to their research, particularly in the context of tenure and promotion. Although many viewed their research as an opportunity to make a difference, especially for underserved older adult populations, a number of minority group participants expressed that their policy research interests were marginalized. Participants offer individual and institutional-level strategies for addressing barriers, including collaborating with community members and colleagues and engaging mentors within and outside of their academic institutions. Reframing the valuation of policy research through the diversification of funding and publishing opportunities can better support scholars engaged in aging policy-relevant research. PMID:26849290

  19. Factors Mediating the Relationship between Social Skills and Academic Grades in a Sample of Students Diagnosed with Learning Disabilities or Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milsom, Amy; Glanville, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Research has found students with high incidence disabilities to be at risk for academic difficulties and school dropout. Using data from the NLTS-2 database, relationships between social skills and grades were examined for students who were diagnosed with learning disabilities or emotional disturbance. Results revealed significant direct and…

  20. Teacher's Guide to Resources of the Oklahoma Historical Society, Keyed to the Priority Academic Student Skills (PASS), Grades 6-12 Oklahoma History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Diffusion Network (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    This guide is correlated to the PASS (Priority Academic Student Skills) objectives for Oklahoma history in grades 6-12. The guide was developed to aid in the teaching of the PASS objectives by identifying primary sources, audiovisual materials, field trips and scholarly materials that relate to each objective. The guide is divided into seven…

  1. Impact of Full-Day Head Start Prekindergarten Class Model on Student Academic Performance, Cognitive Skills, and Learning Behaviors by the End of Grade 2. Evaluation Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Huafang; Modarresi, Shahpar

    2013-01-01

    This brief describes the impact of the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) 2007-2008 full-day Head Start prekindergarten (pre-K) class model on student academic performance, cognitive skills, and learning behaviors by the end of Grade 2. This is the fourth impact study of the MCPS full-day Head Start pre-K class model. The following…

  2. Differential Prediction of Study Success across Academic Programs in the Swedish Context: The Validity of Grades and Tests as Selection Instruments for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliffordson, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the predictive validity of criterion- and norm-referenced grades and the Swedish Scholastic Aptitude Test (SweSAT) and, in particular, possible differences in the prediction of achievement in higher education across academic programs. The analyses were based on credit points obtained by 164,106 Swedish…

  3. The Relation of Classroom Environment and School Belonging to Academic Self-Efficacy among Urban Fourth- and Fifth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Susan D.; Wernsman, Jamie; Rose, Dale S.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, 149 low-income, ethnically heterogeneous, fourth- and fifth-grade students completed self-report surveys in the fall and spring of 1 academic year. We examined classroom climate (satisfaction, cohesion, friction, task difficulty, and competition) and school belonging in relation to language arts and math and science self-efficacy,…

  4. [An Analysis of El Camino College Students According to Their Majors, Perceptions of Academic Relevancy, and Unit and Grade Point Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garlock, Jerry

    These three separate studies of students at El Camino College (California) discuss their majors, perceptions of academic relevancy, and grade point characteristics. Sub-groups of students (freshman/sophomore, full-time/part-time) are compared according to their major divisions (physical sciences, fine arts, natural sciences, etc.) and also…

  5. The Efficiency of Computer-Aided Instruction and Creative Drama on Academic Achievement in Teaching of Integers to Seventh Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Abdullah; Özturk, Mesut; Ertör, Eren

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to compare computer-aided instruction, creative drama and traditional teaching methods in teaching of Integers to the seventh grade students. The study was conducted in a primary school with eighty-seven students (N=87) in a county of Agri, in spring term of academic year 2011-2012. A non equivalent control group quasi experimental…

  6. Looking beyond Grades: Comparing Self-Esteem and Perceived Academic Control as Predictors of First-Year College Students' Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.; Renaud, Robert D.; Hladkyj, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found perceived academic control (PAC) to be a better predictor of first-year college students' grades than self-esteem; however, it is uncertain which construct is more important for students' well-being. The current study compared PAC and self-esteem on first-year college students' emotions, perceived stress, and…

  7. Relations among Multiple Types of Peer Victimization, Reactivity to Peer Victimization, and Academic Achievement in Fifth-Grade Goys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Michael T.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Swift, Lauren E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relations between multiple types of peer victimization, affective reactivity to victimization, and academic achievement. Participants (179 fifth-grade boys and girls) completed repeated daily measures of peer victimization and negative affect; a standardized measure of achievement was collected concurrently. The daily…

  8. Does Relative Age Influence Motor Test Performance of Fourth Grade Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattie, Nick; Tietjens, Maike; Schorer, Jörg; Ghanbari, Marie-Christine; Strauss, Bernd; Seidel, Ilka; Baker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore relative age's influence on physical and motor tests among fourth grade children (9 to 10 years) from Germany. Data from 1218 children (49% female) who had performed the German Motor Ability Test (Bös et al., 2009) were analysed. The test battery, which was comprised of physical and motor tests,…

  9. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VII. Topological rearrangement of hypothalamic aging networks.

    PubMed

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E; Green, Cara L; Wang, Yingchun; Han, Jing Dong J; Chen, Luonan; Promislow, Daniel E L; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R; Douglas, Alex

    2016-05-01

    Connectivity in a gene-gene network declines with age, typically within gene clusters. We explored the effect of short-term (3 months) graded calorie restriction (CR) (up to 40 %) on network structure of aging-associated genes in the murine hypothalamus by using conditional mutual information. The networks showed a topological rearrangement when exposed to graded CR with a higher relative within cluster connectivity at 40CR. We observed changes in gene centrality concordant with changes in CR level, with Ppargc1a, and Ppt1 having increased centrality and Etfdh, Traf3 and Abcc1 decreased centrality as CR increased. This change in gene centrality in a graded manner with CR, occurred in the absence of parallel changes in gene expression levels. This study emphasizes the importance of augmenting traditional differential gene expression analyses to better understand structural changes in the transcriptome. Overall our results suggested that CR induced changes in centrality of biological relevant genes that play an important role in preventing the age-associated loss of network integrity irrespective of their gene expression levels. PMID:27115072

  10. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VII. Topological rearrangement of hypothalamic aging networks

    PubMed Central

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Green, Cara L.; Wang, Yingchun; Han, Jing Dong J.; Chen, Luonan; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R.; Douglas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Connectivity in a gene-gene network declines with age, typically within gene clusters. We explored the effect of short-term (3 months) graded calorie restriction (CR) (up to 40 %) on network structure of aging-associated genes in the murine hypothalamus by using conditional mutual information. The networks showed a topological rearrangement when exposed to graded CR with a higher relative within cluster connectivity at 40CR. We observed changes in gene centrality concordant with changes in CR level, with Ppargc1a, and Ppt1 having increased centrality and Etfdh, Traf3 and Abcc1 decreased centrality as CR increased. This change in gene centrality in a graded manner with CR, occurred in the absence of parallel changes in gene expression levels. This study emphasizes the importance of augmenting traditional differential gene expression analyses to better understand structural changes in the transcriptome. Overall our results suggested that CR induced changes in centrality of biological relevant genes that play an important role in preventing the age-associated loss of network integrity irrespective of their gene expression levels. PMID:27115072

  11. Low grade inflammation as a common pathogenetic denominator in age-related diseases: novel drug targets for anti-ageing strategies and successful ageing achievement.

    PubMed

    Candore, G; Caruso, C; Jirillo, E; Magrone, T; Vasto, S

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, people are living much longer than they used to do, however they are not free from ageing. Ageing, an inexorable intrinsic process that affects all cells, tissues, organs and individuals, is a post-maturational process that, due to a diminished homeostasis and increased organism frailty, causes a reduction of the response to environmental stimuli and, in general, is associated to an increased predisposition to illness and death. However, the high incidence of death due to infectious, cardiovascular and cancer diseases underlies a common feature in these pathologies that is represented by dysregulation of both instructive and innate immunity. Several studies show that a low-grade systemic inflammation characterizes ageing and that inflammatory markers are significant predictors of mortality in old humans. This pro-inflammatory status of the elderly underlies biological mechanisms responsible for physical function decline and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis are initiated or worsened by systemic inflammation. Understanding of the ageing process should have a prominent role in new strategies for extending the health old population. Accordingly, as extensively discussed in the review and in the accompanying related papers, investigating ageing pathophysiology, particularly disentangling age-related low grade inflammation, is likely to provide important clues about how to develop drugs that can slow or delay ageing.

  12. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Attention Problems and Expressive Language and Emerging Academic Skills in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevenbergen, Andrea A.; Ryan, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between attention problems and expressive language and academic readiness skills in preschool-aged children from middle-class families. Forty-three children (44% female) were assessed individually for expressive language skills and knowledge of basic academic concepts (e.g. colours, letters and numbers). The…

  13. Academic Outcomes for School-Aged Children with Severe-Profound Hearing Loss and Early Unilateral and Bilateral Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarant, Julia Z.; Harris, David C.; Bennet, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to (a) determine whether academic outcomes for children who received early cochlear implants (CIs) are age appropriate, (b) determine whether bilateral CI use significantly improves academic outcomes, and (c) identify other factors that are predictive of these outcomes. Method: Forty-four 8-year-old children with…

  14. Autonomy and Task Performance: Explaining the Impact of Grades on Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulfrey, Caroline; Darnon, Celine; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    The use of grades to motivate constitutes an unresolved theoretical controversy. In 2 experiments carried out with different age groups and academic tracks, a standard-grade condition was compared with a condition in which differential scoring engendered higher grades and with a no-grade condition. The relative power of task performance and task…

  15. Academic Language Development through Technology: English Learners in a Fifth Grade Science Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hye Yeong

    Grounded in sociocultural models of learning, this study explores structures for participation and types of interaction that occur during the performance of technology-assisted tasks in a science classroom to detail some of the opportunities for learning made available to English learners (ELs) and some practices that might constitute effective instruction within such a context. In particular, this study explores how ELs use language to socialize and how they are socialized to use language during technology-assisted tasks in a science classroom within a given participant structure. Findings show that five different participant structures were used during technology-assisted tasks, all of which required ELs to understand and use varied interaction patterns; different levels of authority and responsibilities were given to interlocutors in each structure. As different participant structures employed different interactional patterns and practices, learners behaved according to differing norms expected by each participant structure. Findings showed that members of the class shared the rules regarding the initiation of interactions and open topics, as well as allowing time to listen and follow the cue of teachers or technology. In this sense, the class functioned as a community of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991). Each participant structure appeared to contribute to the variety of the interaction types, as well as to kinds of subsequent learning and socialization of ELs, providing divergent levels of transparency, legitimacy, and peripherality to ELs. The integration of technology unfolded differently across participant structures and has implications for ELs' academic language learning opportunities.

  16. Cognitive and motivational determinants of academic achievement and behaviour in third and fourth grade disadvantaged children.

    PubMed

    Kreitler, S; Zigler, E; Kagan, S; Olsen, D; Weissler, K; Kreitler, H

    1995-09-01

    While most studies on the determinants of learning deal with either cognition or motivation, there is a growing awareness that both should be considered. Our purpose was to examine the relative roles of cognitive and motivational factors for the scholastic achievement and behaviour of disadvantaged children. Cognition was conceptualised in terms of the psychosemantic theory that assesses cognitive processes by characteristics of the individual's meaning assignment (Kreitler & Kreitler, 1987a). Motivation was conceptualised in terms of the cognitive orientation (CO) theory which assumes that cognitive contents guide behaviour (Kreitler & Kreitler, 1982). Participants were 57 third and fourth graders of both genders, recommended for a remedial summer programme. They were administered the Meaning Test assessing cognitive abilities; the CO Questionnaire of Motivation for Learning assessing the disposition to learn; and the Metropolitan Achievement Test and the IOWA tests assessing verbal, mathematical and working skills. Teachers completed the Teacher-Child Rating Scale assessing six scholastic behaviours. Regression analyses showed that all dependent variables were predicted by the cognitive and motivational variables, better by specific than global predictors. Cognitive variables contributed more to the predictions, especially of academic achievements, and more in the case of verbal than mathematical abilities. In girls, motivational factors played a larger role than cognitive factors, absolutely and relative to boys. Implications for promoting scholastic achievements are discussed.

  17. Influence of Academic Self-Regulation, Critical Thinking, and Age on Online Graduate Students' Academic Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Karee E.; Rakes, Glenda C.; Rakes, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Academic help-seeking is an invaluable learning strategy that has not yet received much attention in the distance education research literature. The asynchronous nature of distance education and many online courses presents an inherent roadblock to help-seeking. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of academic self-regulation,…

  18. Effects of Age of English Exposure, Current Input/Output, and grade on bilingual language performance.

    PubMed

    Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D; Griffin, Zenzi M; Hixon, J Gregory

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluates the effects of Age of Exposure to English (AoEE) and Current Input/Output on language performance in a cross-sectional sample of Spanish-English bilingual children. First- (N = 586) and third-graders (N = 298) who spanned a wide range of bilingual language experience participated. Parents and teachers provided information about English and Spanish language use. Short tests of semantic and morphosyntactic development in Spanish and English were used to quantify children's knowledge of each language. There were significant interactions between AoEE and Current Input/Output for children at third grade in English and in both grades for Spanish. In English, the relationship between AoEE and language scores were linear for first- and third-graders. In Spanish a nonlinear relationship was observed. We discuss how much of the variance was accounted for by AoEE and Current Input/Output.

  19. Strategies to Achieve Congruence between Student Chronological Age and Grade Placement in the Compulsory Phase of Education in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Byron; Forcheh, Ntonghanwah

    2014-01-01

    In many developing countries, researchers and policy makers have downplayed issues of age in grade intentionally. This is done partly to avoid the pedagogical issues that over-age or under-age children in schools raise. It is also done to avoid putting extra pressure on government especially in developing nations that is still working hard to…

  20. Alternatives to the Grade Point Average as a Measure of Academic Achievement in College. ACT Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Bassiri, Dina; Schultz, E. Matthew

    College grade point average (GPA), a linear combination of assigned grades from different courses, is widely known to be an imperfect measure of student achievement. This unreliable measure decreases the predictive validity of college admission tests. Research has shown that adjusting course grades for differential grading practices improves…

  1. More than just fun and games: the longitudinal relationships between strategic video games, self-reported problem solving skills, and academic grades.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-07-01

    Some researchers have proposed that video games possess good learning principles and may promote problem solving skills. Empirical research regarding this relationship, however, is limited. The goal of the presented study was to examine whether strategic video game play (i.e., role playing and strategy games) predicted self-reported problem solving skills among a sample of 1,492 adolescents (50.8 % female), over the four high school years. The results showed that more strategic video game play predicted higher self-reported problem solving skills over time than less strategic video game play. In addition, the results showed support for an indirect association between strategic video game play and academic grades, in that strategic video game play predicted higher self-reported problem solving skills, and, in turn, higher self-reported problem solving skills predicted higher academic grades. The novel findings that strategic video games promote self-reported problem solving skills and indirectly predict academic grades are important considering that millions of adolescents play video games every day. PMID:23344653

  2. More than just fun and games: the longitudinal relationships between strategic video games, self-reported problem solving skills, and academic grades.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-07-01

    Some researchers have proposed that video games possess good learning principles and may promote problem solving skills. Empirical research regarding this relationship, however, is limited. The goal of the presented study was to examine whether strategic video game play (i.e., role playing and strategy games) predicted self-reported problem solving skills among a sample of 1,492 adolescents (50.8 % female), over the four high school years. The results showed that more strategic video game play predicted higher self-reported problem solving skills over time than less strategic video game play. In addition, the results showed support for an indirect association between strategic video game play and academic grades, in that strategic video game play predicted higher self-reported problem solving skills, and, in turn, higher self-reported problem solving skills predicted higher academic grades. The novel findings that strategic video games promote self-reported problem solving skills and indirectly predict academic grades are important considering that millions of adolescents play video games every day.

  3. Resetting of RbSr ages of volcanic rocks by low-grade burial metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asmeroma, Y.; Damon, P.; Shafiqullah, M.; Dickinson, W.R.; Zartman, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    We report a nine-point RbSr whole-rock isochron age of 70??3 Ma (MSWD 3.97) for Mid-Jurassic volcanic rocks. The same rocks have also been dated by the UThPb method on zircon, giving a crystallization age of 166 ?? 11 Ma, over twice as old as the RbSr age. The data demonstrate that whole-rock RbSr ages of volcanic rocks, even lava flows with SiO2 content as low as 57 wt.%, are susceptible to complete resetting. The rocks range in composition from rhyodacite tuffs to andesite lavas. The complete breakdown of all major minerals that contain Rb and Sr resulted in an alteration mineral assemblage consisting of phengite, albite, secondary quartz, and minor amounts of chlorite and epidote. Phengite is the K-bearing product of the breakdown of biotite and K-feldspar. Pressure during low-grade metamorphism of the volcanic rocks, estimated from phengite composition to have been in the range of 4 to 6 kbar, points to thrust-related burial as the main cause of resetting. Consequently, such reset isochrons may date large-scale events such as regional thrusting and metamorphism. The coherent resetting of the RbSr isochron suggests large-scale pervasive fluid movement during thrust-related burial metamorphism. ?? 1991.

  4. Correlation between aging grade of T91 steel and spectral characteristics of the laser-induced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Lu, Jidong; Dai, Yuan; Dong, Meirong; Zhong, Wanli; Yao, Shunchun

    2015-08-01

    T91 steel with favorable mechanical performance has become the representative heat-resistant steel used as heat exchange surfaces in supercritical and ultra-supercritical boilers. The organizational structure and mechanical properties change during the service period, called material aging, which affects the service life and the equipment safety. To develop a fast and easy aging predictive technique of heat exchange metal surfaces, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to investigate the plasma characteristics of T91 steel specimens with different aging grades. The metallographic structure, mechanical properties and spectral characteristics of the specimens were analyzed. Then, the correlations between the spectral characteristics and the aging grade were established. The analysis results show that the martensite substructure disappears, and the dimension of the carbide particles among the crystal lattices increases with aging. At the same time, the hardness of the samples gradually decreases. The peak intensities of both the matrix and the alloying element increases then decreases with aging, owing to the change of the metallography structure and mechanical properties. Furthermore, good unique value correlations between the intensity ratio of CrI/FeI, MoI/FeI and the aging grade are found. This demonstrates that LIBS is a possible new way to estimate the aging grade of metal materials.

  5. The enduring predictive significance of early maternal sensitivity: social and academic competence through age 32 years.

    PubMed

    Raby, K Lee; Roisman, Glenn I; Fraley, R Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A

    2015-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity predicts social skills and academic achievement through midadolescence in a manner consistent with an enduring effects model of development and extended these findings using heterotypic indicators of social competence (effectiveness of romantic engagement) and academic competence (educational attainment) during adulthood. Although early socioeconomic factors and child gender accounted for the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity for social competence, covariates did not fully account for associations between early sensitivity and academic outcomes.

  6. Relations between Executive Function and Academic Achievement from Ages 5 to 17 in a Large, Representative National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Best, John R.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in complex executive function (EF) in a large, representative sample (N = 2,036) aged 5 to 17 using the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS; Naglieri & Das, 1997a). Relations between complex EF and academic achievement were examined on a sub-sample (N = 1,395) given the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement–Revised (Woodcock & Johnson, 1989). Performance on the three complex EF tasks improved until at least age 15, although improvement slowed with increasing age and varied some across tasks. Moreover, the different developmental patterns in the correlations between completion time and accuracy provide clues to developmental processes. Examination of individual achievement subtests clarified the specific aspects of academic performance most related to complex EF. Finally, the correlation between complex EF and academic achievement varied across ages, but the developmental pattern of the strength of these correlations was remarkably similar for overall math and reading achievement, suggesting a domain-general relation between complex EF and academic achievement. PMID:21845021

  7. Predictors of Academic Achievement for School-Age Children with Sickle Cell Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kelsey E.; Patterson, Chavis A.; Szabo, Margo M.; Tarazi, Reem A.; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2013-01-01

    Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for neurocognitive impairment and poor academic achievement, although there is limited research on factors predicting academic achievement in this population. This study explores the relative contribution to academic achievement of a comprehensive set of factors, such as environmental…

  8. Examining the Link between Preschool Social-Emotional Competence and First Grade Academic Achievement: The Role of Attention Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Brittany L.; Warren, Heather K.; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, research has begun to identify cognitive and social-emotional predictors of early academic success. Yet few studies have examined the mechanisms by which children's social-emotional skills are associated with later academic success. The present study examines the associations between preschool emotion knowledge, kindergarten attention…

  9. The Relationship among Aerobic Capacity, Body Composition, and Academic Achievement of Fourth and Fifth Grade Hispanic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Jose A.; Roper, Emily A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown positive relationships between academic achievement and both physical activity and physical fitness. However, none of this research has focused on students from Hispanic backgrounds. Therefore, it is important to investigate the contributions of health-related fitness measures on Hispanic students' academic performance. The…

  10. Associations between Low-Income Children's Fine Motor Skills in Preschool and Academic Performance in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinehart, Laura; Manfra, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Given the growing literature pertaining to the importance of fine motor skills for later academic achievement (D. W. Grissmer, K. J. Grimm, S. M. Aiyer, W. M. Murrah, & J. S. Steele, 2010), the current study examines whether the fine motor skills of economically disadvantaged preschool students predict later academic performance…

  11. Academic Performance of Students with the Highest and Mediocre School-leaving Grades: Does the Aptitude Test for Medical Studies (TMS) Balance Their Prognoses?

    PubMed Central

    Kadmon, Guni; Kadmon, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Admission to undergraduate medical training in Germany occurs by central and local pathways. Central admission includes two distinct groups: Students with top school-leaving grades (best-SLG group) and students with inferior school-leaving grades who are admitted with a delay of up to seven years (delayed admission group). Students with academic difficulties and early dropouts are present in both groups. Local admission at our university involves the German Test for Medical Studies (TMS) and allows the admission by merit of students with a wide range of school-leaving grades. Aims: To examine the justification of a TMS-based strategy to reduce the admission of potentially weak best school-leavers and enhance the admission of potentially able candidates with mediocre school-leaving grades. Method: The prognostic contribution of the school-leaving (SL) GPA and the TMS to academic performance and to continuity in the pre-clinical part of the undergraduate medical program was examined in two study groups: best school leavers (SL grade 1.0, SL-GPA 823-900 points) and mediocre school leavers (SL grades 2.0-2.3, SL-GPA 689-660 points). The outcomes in both groups were compared in relation to their TMS results. The prospective study included four consecutive cohorts. Results: In each study group the TMS predicted the academic performance (β=0.442-0.446) and the continuity of studies (OR=0.890-0.853) better than the SL-GPA (β=0.238-0.047; OR=1.009-0.998). Attrition was most strongly associated with failing to take the TMS (OR=0.230-0.380). Mediocre school leavers with TMS scores ≥125 performed as well as the best school leavers. Mediocre school leavers with TMS scores between 110-124 performed on average less well but within the required standards. Best school leavers with mediocre TMS scores and 30% of the best school leavers who hadn't taken the TMS performed less well than most mediocre school leavers with high TMS scores. Discussion: The TMS appears to

  12. Academic Outcomes of the Chicago School Readiness Project in First Grade: Do Children's Approaches to Learning Mediate Treatment Effects on Academic Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li-Grining, Christine; Haas, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    The Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP), a randomized, classroom-based mental health intervention, aimed to improve teachers' behavior management of preschoolers' dysregulated behavior. The current follow-up study examines potential impacts on academic skills of first graders by enhancing their ATL. This investigation seeks to answer three…

  13. Salivary Cortisol, Socioemotional Functioning, and Academic Performance in Anxious and Non-Anxious Children of Elementary and Middle School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathewson, Karen J.; Miskovic, Vladimir; Cunningham, Charles E.; McHolm, Angela E.; Boyle, Michael H.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Individual and contextual variables were examined in relation to children's ability to cope with socioemotional and academic challenges in a sample of typically developing (n = 51) and anxious (n = 72) children of elementary and middle school age. Anxious children had greater social difficulties than controls and showed…

  14. The Enduring Predictive Significance of Early Maternal Sensitivity: Social and Academic Competence through Age 32 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Roisman, Glenn I.; Fraley, R. Chris; Simpson, Jeffry A.

    2015-01-01

    This study leveraged data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 243) to investigate the predictive significance of maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of life for social and academic competence through age 32 years. Structural model comparisons replicated previous findings that early maternal sensitivity…

  15. Associations between Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Emotional Adjustment, and Academic Achievement in Childhood: The Influence of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouzos, Andreas; Misailidi, Plousia; Hadjimattheou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) with children's socio-emotional adjustment at school and academic achievement. Children aged 8 to 10 (n = 106) and 11 to 13 years (n = 99) completed the youth version of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i: YV). Their socio-emotional adjustment was measured with…

  16. Teacher Network of Relationships Inventory: Measurement Invariance of Academically At-Risk Students across Ages 6 to 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jiun-Yu; Hughes, Jan N.

    2015-01-01

    We tested the longitudinal measurement invariance of the Teacher Network of Relationships Inventory (TNRI), a teacher-report measure of teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ), on a sample of 784 academically at-risk students across ages 6 to 15 years by comparing the model for each subsequent year with that of the previous year(s). The TNRI…

  17. Patterns of Close Relationships and Socioemotional and Academic Adjustment among School-Age Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Mikulincer, Mario

    2004-01-01

    This study examined patterns of close relationships among school-age children with learning disabilities (LD) as manifested in their attachment style, their self-perceived loneliness, their sense of coherence, and teacher ratings of their academic functioning. In line with resilience theory, this study also aimed to further explore predictors of…

  18. Peers and Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Study on Selection and Socialization Effects of In-Class Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to analyze whether in-class friends influence each other's grades, and whether adolescents tend to select friends that are similar to them in terms of academic achievement. During 1 academic year, 542 eighth-grade students (M age = 13.3 years) reported on 3 different occasions on their in-class friendship networks.…

  19. Effects of postmortem aging and USDA quality grade on Warner-Bratzler shear force values of seventeen individual beef muscles.

    PubMed

    Gruber, S L; Tatum, J D; Scanga, J A; Chapman, P L; Smith, G C; Belk, K E

    2006-12-01

    Forty USDA Select and 40 upper two-thirds USDA Choice beef carcasses were used to determine the effects of postmortem aging on tenderness of 17 individual beef muscles. Biceps femoris-long head, complexus, gluteus medius, infraspinatus, longissimus dorsi, psoas major, rectus femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, serratus ventralis, spinalis dorsi, supraspinatus, tensor fasciae latae, teres major, triceps brachii-long head, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis muscles were removed from each carcass. Seven steaks (2.54-cm thick) were cut from every muscle, and each steak was assigned to one of the following postmortem aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, or 28 d postmortem. After completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage (2 degrees C, never frozen), cooked to a peak internal temperature of 71 degrees C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Analysis of WBSF revealed a 3-way interaction (P = 0.004) among individual muscle, USDA quality grade, and postmortem aging period. With the exception of the Select teres major, WBSF of all muscles (both quality grades) decreased with increasing time of postmortem storage. Nonlinear regression was used to characterize the extent (aging response) and rate of decrease in WBSF from 2 through 28 d postmortem for each muscle within each quality grade. In general, WBSF of upper two-thirds Choice muscles decreased more rapidly from 2 to 10 d postmortem than did corresponding Select muscles. Muscles that had greater aging responses generally had greater 2-d WBSF values. The upper two-thirds Choice psoas major, serratus ventralis, and vastus lateralis muscles required similar aging times to complete a majority of the aging response (< or =0.1 kg of aging response remaining) compared with analogous Select muscles. The upper two-thirds Choice complexus, gluteus medius, semitendinosus, triceps brachii-long head, and vastus medialis muscles required 4 to 6 d less time to complete a

  20. What Is the Effect of the Rate of Transfer on the Academic Achievement of Fourth Grade Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefner, Mary

    A study examined the relationship between geographic mobility and school achievement. Subjects, 15 fourth-grade students who transferred more than twice and 47 fourth-grade students who did not transfer as often from a Chicago public school in a low socioeconomic area, had their scores on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills compared. Results indicated…

  1. Examining the Silence of Academic Disappointment: A Typology of Students' Reasons for Not Discussing Disappointing Grades with Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Courtney N.

    2013-01-01

    Although student-teacher interactions about disappointing grades can be beneficial, students do not always engage in them. The objective of this study was to explore the domain of reasons undergraduate students report for not discussing disappointing grades with their instructors. The data analysis yielded six main categories of reasons:…

  2. Age in Grade Congruence and Progression in Basic Education in Bangladesh. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 48

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Altaf

    2010-01-01

    In Bangladesh gross and net enrolment rates are used to measure overage and underage enrolment in the education system. However, due to the limits of these methods in exploring the issue of age in grade, the paper uses the CREATE Community and School Survey (COMSS) data from Bangladesh. COMSS was a longitudinal survey of 6,696 households with…

  3. Automatic Screening and Grading of Age-Related Macular Degeneration from Texture Analysis of Fundus Images.

    PubMed

    Phan, Thanh Vân; Seoud, Lama; Chakor, Hadi; Cheriet, Farida

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease which causes visual deficiency and irreversible blindness to the elderly. In this paper, an automatic classification method for AMD is proposed to perform robust and reproducible assessments in a telemedicine context. First, a study was carried out to highlight the most relevant features for AMD characterization based on texture, color, and visual context in fundus images. A support vector machine and a random forest were used to classify images according to the different AMD stages following the AREDS protocol and to evaluate the features' relevance. Experiments were conducted on a database of 279 fundus images coming from a telemedicine platform. The results demonstrate that local binary patterns in multiresolution are the most relevant for AMD classification, regardless of the classifier used. Depending on the classification task, our method achieves promising performances with areas under the ROC curve between 0.739 and 0.874 for screening and between 0.469 and 0.685 for grading. Moreover, the proposed automatic AMD classification system is robust with respect to image quality. PMID:27190636

  4. Automatic Screening and Grading of Age-Related Macular Degeneration from Texture Analysis of Fundus Images

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Thanh Vân; Seoud, Lama; Chakor, Hadi; Cheriet, Farida

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a disease which causes visual deficiency and irreversible blindness to the elderly. In this paper, an automatic classification method for AMD is proposed to perform robust and reproducible assessments in a telemedicine context. First, a study was carried out to highlight the most relevant features for AMD characterization based on texture, color, and visual context in fundus images. A support vector machine and a random forest were used to classify images according to the different AMD stages following the AREDS protocol and to evaluate the features' relevance. Experiments were conducted on a database of 279 fundus images coming from a telemedicine platform. The results demonstrate that local binary patterns in multiresolution are the most relevant for AMD classification, regardless of the classifier used. Depending on the classification task, our method achieves promising performances with areas under the ROC curve between 0.739 and 0.874 for screening and between 0.469 and 0.685 for grading. Moreover, the proposed automatic AMD classification system is robust with respect to image quality. PMID:27190636

  5. Children who were very low birth weight: development and academic achievement at nine years of age.

    PubMed

    Klein, N K; Hack, M; Breslau, N

    1989-02-01

    Children born at very low birth weights (VLBW) (less than or equal to 1500 g) who were beneficiaries of modern neonatal intensive care are reaching middle childhood, and their school achievement can be evaluated. We compared 65 9-year-old children born in 1976, who were very low birth weight and who were free of neurological impairment, with 65 children of normal birth weight who had been matched for race, sex, age, and social class on measures of IQ, cognitive, visuo-motor, and fine motor abilities, and academic achievement. VLBW children scored significantly lower than controls on the WISC-R, Bender-Gestalt, Purdue Pegboard, subtests from the Woodcock Johnson Cognitive Abilities Battery, and reading and mathematics (math) achievement. Exploratory analysis of a subset of 43 VLBW and matched controls with IQ scores greater than or equal to 85 yielded a similar trend, except that, on achievement tests, differences were significant only in math. Further analyses revealed that the differential in math achievement between VLBW and control children is not fully attributable to differences in IQ.

  6. The measurement of executive function at age 5: psychometric properties and relationship to academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Michael T; Blair, Clancy B; Wirth, R J; Greenberg, Mark

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties and criterion validity of a newly developed battery of executive function (EF) tasks for use in early childhood. The battery was included in the Family Life Project (FLP), a prospective longitudinal study of families who were oversampled from low-income and African American families at the birth of a new child (N = 1,292). Ninety-nine percent (N = 1,036) of children who participated in the age 5 home visit completed 1 or more (M = 5.8, Mdn = 6) of the 6 EF tasks. Results indicated that tasks worked equally well for children residing in low-income and not low-income homes, that task scores were most informative about the ability level of children in the low-average range, that performance on EF tasks was best characterized by a single factor, and that individual differences on the EF battery were strongly related to a latent variable measuring overall academic achievement, as well as to individual standardized tests that measured phonological awareness, letter-word identification, and early math skills. PMID:21966934

  7. Does Age of Entry Into First Grade Affect Students' Achievement in School? (Technical Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, B. Glen; Trimble, C. Scott

    This paper reports on research conducted to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between the achievement test scores of students who enter first grade as 5-year-olds, and those who enter first grade as 6-year-olds. Ex post facto research was conducted on 3 samples of students (17,000 from 1st grades, 17,500 from 4th…

  8. Low grade astrocytoma in children under the age of three years: a report from the Canadian pediatric brain tumour consortium.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Donna L; Keene, Daniel; Bartels, Ute; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Crooks, Bruce; Eisenstat, David D; Fryer, Chris; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Larouche, Valerie; Moghrabi, Albert; Wilson, Beverly; Zelcer, Shayna; Silva, Mariana; Bouffet, Eric

    2015-08-01

    In children under the age of 3 years, the most common solid tumors are brain tumors. Low grade astrocytomas represent 30-40 % of brain tumours in this age group. This study reviewed the incidence, characteristics, therapy, and outcome of children less than 36 months of age diagnosed with a low grade astrocytoma from 1990 to 2005 in Canada. A data bank was established using data collected from Canadian pediatric oncology centers on children less than age 3 diagnosed with brain tumors between 1990 and 2005. Cases of low grade astrocytoma were extracted from this data bank and their characteristics summarized. From the 579 cases in the data bank, 153 cases of low grade astrocytoma (26 %) were identified. The mean duration of symptoms prior to presentation was 13 weeks, and 53 % of patients underwent a greater than 90 % resection of their tumor, while 30 % underwent 10-90 % resection. Seventy-one percent of patients received no further therapy after surgery and of the 45 who received therapy following surgery, 43 received chemotherapy, and 5 received radiation therapy. Sixty-eight patients had recurrence or progression of their tumor. Eighty-seven percent of patients were alive at the time of the survey with a 2 year survival rate of 95.3 ± 1.8 %, 5 year survival rate of 93.1 ± 2.1 % and 10 year survival rate of 89.1 ± 2.8 %. The 5 year survival rate for Canadian children less than 36 months of age with a low grade astrocytoma was 93.0 ± 2.8 % which is similar to that for older children with this tumor.

  9. Early Educational Milestones as Predictors of Lifelong Academic Achievement, Midlife Adjustment, and Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Margaret L.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2008-01-01

    This study gathered follow-up data from the Terman Life Cycle Study (N = 1023) to examine how age at first reading and age at school entry relate to grade school academic performance, lifelong educational attainment, midlife health and mental adjustment, and longevity across eight decades. Early reading was associated with early academic success,…

  10. Academic Success as a Function of the Gender, Class, Age, Study Habits, and Employment of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammers, William J.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Slate, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the predominant study skills and weaknesses of college students in a sample of 366 undergraduates. Study skill weaknesses were identified in the areas of note-taking, reading skills, and time management. Study skills were also related to age, grade point average, and the number of hours spent studying each week. (SLD)

  11. Academic integrity in a mandatory physics lab: the influence of post-graduate aspirations and grade point averages.

    PubMed

    Bertram Gallant, Tricia; Anderson, Michael G; Killoran, Christine

    2013-03-01

    Research on academic cheating by high school students and undergraduates suggests that many students will do whatever it takes, including violating ethical classroom standards, to not be left behind or to race to the top. This behavior may be exacerbated among pre-med and pre-health professional school students enrolled in laboratory classes because of the typical disconnect between these students, their instructors and the perceived legitimacy of the laboratory work. There is little research, however, that has investigated the relationship between high aspirations and academic conduct. This study fills this research gap by investigating the beliefs, perceptions and self-reported academic conduct of highly aspirational students and their peers in mandatory physics labs. The findings suggest that physics laboratory classes may face particular challenges with highly aspirational students and cheating, but the paper offers practical solutions for addressing them.

  12. Academic Integrity in a Mandatory Physics Lab: The Influence of Post-Graduate Aspirations and Grade Point Averages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, Tricia Bertram; Anderson, Michael G.; Killoran, Christine

    2013-03-01

    Research on academic cheating by high school students and undergraduates suggests that many students will do whatever it takes, including violating ethical classroom standards, to not be left behind or to race to the top. This behavior may be exacerbated among pre-med and pre-health professional school students enrolled in laboratory classes because of the typical disconnect between these students, their instructors and the perceived legitimacy of the laboratory work. There is little research, however, that has investigated the relationship between high aspirations and academic conduct. This study fills this research gap by investigating the beliefs, perceptions and self-reported academic conduct of highly aspirational students and their peers in mandatory physics labs. The findings suggest that physics laboratory classes may face particular challenges with highly aspirational students and cheating, but the paper offers practical solutions for addressing them.

  13. To Be or Not to Be? Pupils' Explanations of the Malleability of Their Academic Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Karkkainen, Riitta; Kasanen, Kati

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The present study set out to examine the grounds on which pupils explain their possibilities of improving their competencies in mathematics and Finnish. Sample: A total of 103 girls and boys of the third grade (age nine years) and the sixth grade (age 12 years), children of academically and vocationally educated parents, were interviewed.…

  14. The Arts Tool Kit. Priority Academic Student Skills: Visual Art and General Music, Grades 1-12. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Gayla; Alexander, JoAnne C.; Bass, Elaine; Black, Paulette; Cesario, Robert; Clow, Jo Ellen; Dalton, Doug; Dedmon, Charla; Gabbard, Susan; Gabel, Barbara; Goree, Gary; Kyle, Nicholas; Martin, Rita; Merklin, Roxy; Riley, Patrick; Reed, John

    This kit is designed to help teachers throughout the state of Oklahoma implement the arts in the core curriculum. Suggestions are included for classroom activities that complement the arts competencies in the "Priority Academic Student Skills (PASS)." The kit is a collection of ideas to introduce or reinforce PASS. In the material is a condensed…

  15. Exploring the Roles of the Generative Vocabulary Matrix and Academic Literacy Engagement of Ninth Grade Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Sue C.

    2014-01-01

    Seeking to increase conceptual understanding by sustaining adolescents' engagement and interest in secondary science classrooms, an intervention, the Engagement Model of Academic Literacy for Learning (EngageALL), was designed to implement a disciplinary literacy approach and organize instruction according to characteristics of student…

  16. An Academic Comparison of Third Grade Reading Scores: Reflecting the Impact of Four-Year-Old Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towns, Debra

    2013-01-01

    In Wisconsin, increased academic performance has been a general assumption supporting the institutionalization and public funding of early childhood instruction. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between attendance in public four-year-old kindergarten and elementary level reading performance. This study…

  17. The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Developing the Sixth Grade Students Decision-Making Skill and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asha, Intisar K.; Al Hawi, Asma M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of cooperative learning on developing the sixth graders' decision making skill and their academic achievement. The study sample, which was selected randomly, consisted of (46) students and divided into two groups: the experimental group that taught using the cooperative learning strategy and the control…

  18. Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten Classroom Quality and Children's Social and Academic Skills in Early Elementary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokrova, Irina; Broekhuizen, Martine; Burchinal, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has shown that high quality early care and education (ECE) is positively related to the development of children's social and academic skills (e.g., Barnett, 2011; Lamb & Ahnert, 2006; NICHD ECCRN, 2006). There is evidence that high quality ECE experiences can improve children's levels of social adjustment (Bierman et…

  19. Parenting Practices among Low-Income Parents/Guardians of Academically Successful Fifth Grade African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Sanders, Tiffany; Mehta, Sejal; Behar-Horenstein, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Research investigating the relationship between parenting and academic achievement has provided conflicting results, particularly for low-income, culturally-diverse parents. Using resilience theory, the researchers conducted a case study with five low-income African American mothers. Findings suggest that educators can benefit from partnering with…

  20. The Influence of Library Services Upon the Academic Achievement of Twelfth Grade Students at Crestwood Senior High School, Chesapeake, Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Irlene W.

    One of the biggest problems in education is that of showing the necessity for the provision of library services and demonstrating the difference it makes in academic achievement. An even bigger difficulty, perhaps, has been the existence and application of instruments capable of giving statistical evidence. The problem of this study was to…

  1. Chemistry to music: Discovering how Music-based Teaching affects academic achievement and student motivation in an 8th grade science class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCammon, William Gavin Lodge, Jr.

    Teachers should have access to new and innovative tools in order to engage and motivate their students in the classroom. This is especially important as many students view school as an antiquated and dull environment - which they must seemingly suffer through to advance. School need not be a dreaded environment. The use of music as a tool for learning can be employed by any teacher to create an engaging and exciting atmosphere where students actively participate and learn to value their classroom experience. Through this study, a product and process was developed that is now available for any 8th grade science teacher interested in using music to enhance their content. In this study 8th grade students (n=41) in a public school classroom actively interacted with modern songs created to enhance the teaching of chemistry. Data were collected and analyzed in order to determine the effects that the music treatment had on student achievement and motivation, compared to a control group (n=35). Current literature provides a foundation for the benefits for music listening and training, but academic research in the area of using music as a tool for teaching content was noticeably absent. This study identifies a new area of research called "Music-based Teaching" which results in increases in motivation for 8th grade students learning chemistry. The unintended results of the study are additionally significant as the teacher conducting the treatment experienced newfound enthusiasm, passion, and excitement for her profession.

  2. A prospective study of Mexican American adolescents' academic success: considering family and individual factors.

    PubMed

    Roosa, Mark W; O'Donnell, Megan; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A; Zeiders, Katherine H; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana

    2012-03-01

    Mexican American youth are at greater risk of school failure than their peers. To identify factors that may contribute to academic success in this population, this study examined the prospective relationships from 5th grade to 7th grade of family (i.e., human capital [a parent with at least a high school education], residential stability, academically and occupationally positive family role models, and family structure) and individual characteristics (i.e., externalizing symptoms, bilingualism, gender, and immigrant status) to the academic performance of 749 Mexican American early adolescents (average age = 10.4 years and 48.7% were girls in 5th grade) from economically and culturally diverse families as these youth made the transition to junior high school. Results indicated that while controlling for prior academic performance, human capital and positive family role models assessed when adolescents were in 5th grade positively related to academic performance in 7th grade. Further, being a girl also was related to greater 7th grade academic success, whereas externalizing symptoms were negatively related to 7th grade academic performance. No other variables in the model were significantly and prospectively related to 7th grade academic performance. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed.

  3. Do Gender Differences Exist in the Academic Identification of African-American Elementary-School Aged Children?

    PubMed Central

    McMillian-Robinson, M. Monique; Frierson, Henry T.; Campbell, Frances A.

    2014-01-01

    The disidentification hypothesis predicts that African-American boys achieve less in school than African-American girls do because boys have less personal investment in doing well academically (i.e., they are disidentified). When do such gender differences emerge? Using self-perception and achievement data from longitudinal studies of children (N = 113) at high-risk for academic problems because they come from low-income families, the authors examined whether elementary school-aged and early adolescent African-American boys are more prone to low achievement and disidentification than African-American girls. Multiple regression analyses indicated no gender differences in reading or mathematics achievement between boys and girls at age 8 or at age 12. At 12, African-American boys’ self-esteem was predicted by academic performance in ways similar to that of African-American girls. Thus, no gender differences emerged in elementary school achievement and no gender-specific disengagement patterns were confirmed among at-risk African-American students. PMID:24790256

  4. The Effects of Developmentally Appropriate Practices on Academic Outcomes among Former Head Start Students and Classmates, Grades 1-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, M. Lee; Ramey, Sharon L.

    2003-01-01

    The educational ideology of Developmentally Appropriate Practices (DAP) in childhood education is influential, despite remarkably little empirical study. This article relates DAP to changes in achievement and receptive language among former Head Start children and classmates in Grades 1-3 (including between 1,564 and 4,764 children in 869 to 1,537…

  5. Improving Academic Achievement through Building Self-Esteem in At-Risk Limited English Proficient Ninth Grade Haitian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrick, Gloria H.

    A self-esteem building program was developed and implemented to reduce the failure and potential dropout rate of limited English proficient 9th-grade Haitian students (N=15) who were enrolled in bilingual classes and were selected based on recommendations from their bilingual teachers, referrals for behavior problems, and failure in two or more…

  6. The Correlation between Academic Achievements, Self-Esteem and Motivation of Female Seventh Grade Students: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henman, Karen

    2010-01-01

    During the early grades, female students generally display enthusiasm for learning science. As these same students go though school, however, their level of motivation changes. Once female students reach high school, many lack the confidence to take chemistry and physics. Then, in college they lack the background necessary to major in chemistry,…

  7. Women, Men, and Academic Performance in Science and Engineering: The Gender Difference in Undergraduate Grade Point Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonnert, Gerhard; Fox, Mary Frank

    2012-01-01

    Using longitudinal and multi-institutional data, this article takes an innovative approach in its analyses of gender differences in grade point averages (GPA) among undergraduate students in biology, the physical sciences, and engineering over a 16-year period. Assessed are hypotheses about (a) the gender ecology of science/engineering and (b) the…

  8. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Academic Music: Music Instruction to Engage Third-Grade Students in Learning Basic Fraction Concepts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of an intervention designed to teach mathematical concepts through music. Specifically, it investigated the effect of the intervention on third-grade students' understanding of fractions. Sixty-seven students from one northern California elementary school participated in the study over a period of six weeks; of…

  9. Literacy Growth in the Academic Year versus Summer from Preschool through Second Grade: Differential Effects of Schooling across Four Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skibbe, Lori E.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in literacy growth over the summer versus the school year were examined to isolate how schooling affects children's literacy development from preschool through second grade across four literacy skills. Children (n = 383) were tested individually twice each year for up to 4 years on measures of phonological awareness, decoding, reading…

  10. The Relationship of School Absenteeism with Body Mass Index, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status among Fourth-Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Suzanne D.; Royer, Julie A.; Hardin, James W.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Devlin, Christina M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Data from a school-based study concerning fourth-grade children's dietary recall accuracy were linked with data from the South Carolina Department of Education (SCDE) through the South Carolina Budget and Control Board Office of Research and Statistics (ORS) to investigate the relationships of children's school absenteeism with body…

  11. Does Class Size in First Grade Relate to Children's Academic and Social Performance or Observed Classroom Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allhusen, Virginia; Belsky, Jay; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn L.; Bradley, Robert; Brownwell, Celia A; Burchinal, Margaret; Campbell, Susan B.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; Cox, Martha; Friedman, Sarah L.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Houts, Renate M.; Huston, Aletha; Jaeger, Elizabeth; Johnson, Deborah J.; Kelly, Jean F.; Knoke, Bonnie; Marshall, Nancy; McCartney, Kathleen; Morrison, Frederick J.; O'Brien, Marion; Tresch Owen, Margaret; Payne, Chris; Phillips, Deborah; Pianta, Robert; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Robeson, Wendy W.; Spieker, Susan; Lowe Vandell, Deborah; Weinraub, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which first-grade class size predicted child outcomes and observed classroom processes for 651 children (in separate classrooms). Analyses examined observed child-adult ratios and teacher-reported class sizes. Smaller classrooms showed higher quality instructional and emotional support, although children were…

  12. Summary of a Three-Year Study of Academic and School Achievement Between Color-Deficient and Normal Primary Age Pupils: Phase Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampe, John M.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The results of this study suggest that little relationship exists between color vision and primary academic achievement. The authors believe that staff time could be more effectively utilized in a junior high school screening program for color vision rather than in the primary grades. (JC)

  13. Birthweight-Discordance and Differences in Early Parenting Relate to Monozygotic Twin Differences in Behaviour Problems and Academic Achievement at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbury, Kathryn; Dunn, Judith F.; Plomin, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal monozygotic (MZ) twin differences study explored associations between birthweight and early family environment and teacher-rated behaviour problems and academic achievement at age 7. MZ differences in anxiety, hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer problems and academic achievement correlated significantly with MZ differences in…

  14. Applicability of Greulich-Pyle and Tanner-Whitehouse grading methods to MRI when assessing hand bone age in forensic age estimation: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Urschler, Martin; Krauskopf, Astrid; Widek, Thomas; Sorantin, Erich; Ehammer, Thomas; Borkenstein, Martin; Yen, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2016-09-01

    Determination of skeletal development is a key pillar in forensic age estimation of living persons. Radiological assessment of hand bone age is widely used until the age of about 17-18 years, applying visual grading techniques to hand radiographs. This study investigated whether Greulich-Pyle (GP) and Tanner-Whitehouse (TW2) grading can be equally used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, which would offer the huge benefit of avoiding ionizing radiation. In 18 subjects aged between 7 and 17 years a radiograph and an MRI scan of the hand were performed. Epiphyseal ossification of hand bones was rated by two blinded radiologists with both GP and TW2. Correlation between hand MRIs and radiographs was analyzed by linear regression and inter-observer agreement was assessed. Correlation between age estimates from MRI and radiographs was high for both GP (r(2)=0.98) and TW2 (r(2)=0.93). MRI showed a tendency to estimate age slightly lower for 14-18 year-olds, which would be favorable regarding majority age determination in case this result could be reproduced using a currently not existing reference estimation method based on MRI data. Inter-observer agreement was similar for GP in radiographs and MRI, while for TW2, agreement in MRI was lower than in radiographs. In spite of limitations regarding sample size and recruited subjects, our results indicate that the use of GP and TW2 on MRI data offers the possibility of hand bone age estimation without the need for ionizing radiation. PMID:27344264

  15. Applicability of Greulich-Pyle and Tanner-Whitehouse grading methods to MRI when assessing hand bone age in forensic age estimation: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Urschler, Martin; Krauskopf, Astrid; Widek, Thomas; Sorantin, Erich; Ehammer, Thomas; Borkenstein, Martin; Yen, Kathrin; Scheurer, Eva

    2016-09-01

    Determination of skeletal development is a key pillar in forensic age estimation of living persons. Radiological assessment of hand bone age is widely used until the age of about 17-18 years, applying visual grading techniques to hand radiographs. This study investigated whether Greulich-Pyle (GP) and Tanner-Whitehouse (TW2) grading can be equally used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, which would offer the huge benefit of avoiding ionizing radiation. In 18 subjects aged between 7 and 17 years a radiograph and an MRI scan of the hand were performed. Epiphyseal ossification of hand bones was rated by two blinded radiologists with both GP and TW2. Correlation between hand MRIs and radiographs was analyzed by linear regression and inter-observer agreement was assessed. Correlation between age estimates from MRI and radiographs was high for both GP (r(2)=0.98) and TW2 (r(2)=0.93). MRI showed a tendency to estimate age slightly lower for 14-18 year-olds, which would be favorable regarding majority age determination in case this result could be reproduced using a currently not existing reference estimation method based on MRI data. Inter-observer agreement was similar for GP in radiographs and MRI, while for TW2, agreement in MRI was lower than in radiographs. In spite of limitations regarding sample size and recruited subjects, our results indicate that the use of GP and TW2 on MRI data offers the possibility of hand bone age estimation without the need for ionizing radiation.

  16. Figuring and Reconfiguring Grade Spans: While Most Remixes Result from Enrollment Challenges, Some Changes Start with Academics in Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Kimberly

    2005-01-01

    In his 20 years as a superintendent in five school districts across a wide swath of New York state, Paul Doyle has seen just about every grade-level configuration under the sun when it comes to public schools. In the 8,000-student Rome district where Doyle started as a superintendent back in 1985, campuses followed a K-6 configuration. Rome had an…

  17. Academic and Social Functioning Associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Latent Class Analyses of Trajectories from Kindergarten to Fifth Grade.

    PubMed

    DuPaul, George J; Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Maczuga, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to exhibit significantly lower academic and social functioning than other children. Yet the field currently lacks knowledge about specific impairment trajectories experienced by children with ADHD, which may constrain early screening and intervention effectiveness. Data were analyzed from a nationally representative U.S. cohort in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) for 590 children (72.7 % male) whose parents reported a formal diagnosis of ADHD. Children's math, reading, and interpersonal skills were assessed at 5 time points between kindergarten and fifth grade. Growth mixture model analyses indicated 4 latent trajectory classes for reading, 8 classes for math, and 4 classes for interpersonal skills. Membership in reading and math trajectory classes was strongly related; overlaps with interpersonal skills classes were weaker. Trajectory class membership was correlated with demographic characteristics and behavioral functioning. Children with ADHD display substantial heterogeneity in their reading, math, and interpersonal growth trajectories, with some groups of children especially likely to display relatively severe levels of academic and social impairment over time. Early screening and intervention to address impairment, particularly reading difficulties, among kindergarten students with ADHD is warranted.

  18. Academic and Social Functioning Associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Latent Class Analyses of Trajectories from Kindergarten to Fifth Grade.

    PubMed

    DuPaul, George J; Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Maczuga, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to exhibit significantly lower academic and social functioning than other children. Yet the field currently lacks knowledge about specific impairment trajectories experienced by children with ADHD, which may constrain early screening and intervention effectiveness. Data were analyzed from a nationally representative U.S. cohort in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) for 590 children (72.7 % male) whose parents reported a formal diagnosis of ADHD. Children's math, reading, and interpersonal skills were assessed at 5 time points between kindergarten and fifth grade. Growth mixture model analyses indicated 4 latent trajectory classes for reading, 8 classes for math, and 4 classes for interpersonal skills. Membership in reading and math trajectory classes was strongly related; overlaps with interpersonal skills classes were weaker. Trajectory class membership was correlated with demographic characteristics and behavioral functioning. Children with ADHD display substantial heterogeneity in their reading, math, and interpersonal growth trajectories, with some groups of children especially likely to display relatively severe levels of academic and social impairment over time. Early screening and intervention to address impairment, particularly reading difficulties, among kindergarten students with ADHD is warranted. PMID:26750108

  19. Developmental Models for Time of Testing x Cohort x Grade (Age) Research Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John Delane

    Missing data for a given cohort of students in a longitudinal study occurs for at least two reasons: either the student has moved or otherwise become unavailable for testing, or the cohort was not in the testing range at a given testing time. A developmental sampling for time of testing x cohort x grade research plan of testing is used to…

  20. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine effectiveness against high-grade cervical lesions by age at vaccination: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Herweijer, Eva; Sundström, Karin; Ploner, Alexander; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Sparén, Pär; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen

    2016-06-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16/18, included in HPV vaccines, contribute to the majority of cervical cancer, and a substantial proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2/3 or worse (CIN2+/CIN3+) including adenocarcinoma in situ or worse. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination on incidence of CIN2+ and CIN3+. A nationwide cohort of girls and young women resident in Sweden 2006-2013 and aged 13-29 (n = 1,333,691) was followed for vaccination and histologically confirmed high-grade cervical lesions. Data were collected using the Swedish nationwide healthcare registers. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and vaccine effectiveness [(1-IRR)x100%] comparing fully vaccinated with unvaccinated individuals. IRRs were adjusted for attained age and parental education, and stratified on vaccination initiation age. Effectiveness against CIN2+ was 75% (IRR = 0.25, 95%CI = 0.18-0.35) for those initiating vaccination before age 17, and 46% (IRR = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.46-0.64) and 22% (IRR = 0.78, 95%CI = 0.65-0.93) for those initiating vaccination at ages 17-19, and at ages 20-29, respectively. Vaccine effectiveness against CIN3+ was similar to vaccine effectiveness against CIN2+. Results were robust for both women participating to the organized screening program and for women at prescreening ages. We show high effectiveness of qHPV vaccination on CIN2+ and CIN3+ lesions, with greater effectiveness observed in girls younger at vaccination initiation. Continued monitoring of impact of HPV vaccination in the population is needed in order to evaluate both long-term vaccine effectiveness and to evaluate whether the vaccination program achieves anticipated effects in prevention of invasive cervical cancer.

  1. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine effectiveness against high-grade cervical lesions by age at vaccination: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Herweijer, Eva; Sundström, Karin; Ploner, Alexander; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Sparén, Pär; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen

    2016-06-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16/18, included in HPV vaccines, contribute to the majority of cervical cancer, and a substantial proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2/3 or worse (CIN2+/CIN3+) including adenocarcinoma in situ or worse. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination on incidence of CIN2+ and CIN3+. A nationwide cohort of girls and young women resident in Sweden 2006-2013 and aged 13-29 (n = 1,333,691) was followed for vaccination and histologically confirmed high-grade cervical lesions. Data were collected using the Swedish nationwide healthcare registers. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and vaccine effectiveness [(1-IRR)x100%] comparing fully vaccinated with unvaccinated individuals. IRRs were adjusted for attained age and parental education, and stratified on vaccination initiation age. Effectiveness against CIN2+ was 75% (IRR = 0.25, 95%CI = 0.18-0.35) for those initiating vaccination before age 17, and 46% (IRR = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.46-0.64) and 22% (IRR = 0.78, 95%CI = 0.65-0.93) for those initiating vaccination at ages 17-19, and at ages 20-29, respectively. Vaccine effectiveness against CIN3+ was similar to vaccine effectiveness against CIN2+. Results were robust for both women participating to the organized screening program and for women at prescreening ages. We show high effectiveness of qHPV vaccination on CIN2+ and CIN3+ lesions, with greater effectiveness observed in girls younger at vaccination initiation. Continued monitoring of impact of HPV vaccination in the population is needed in order to evaluate both long-term vaccine effectiveness and to evaluate whether the vaccination program achieves anticipated effects in prevention of invasive cervical cancer. PMID:26856527

  2. The Impact of Age and Gender on Prep Children's Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Margot

    2006-01-01

    Within the current climate of heightened interest in the education of young children, it is essential that consideration be given to different factors which may impact, either positively or negatively, on the achievement of young learners when their academic progress in literacy and numeracy is considered. The research study reported in this paper…

  3. Foundations of Academic Freedom: Making New Sense of Some Aging Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreescu, Liviu

    2009-01-01

    The article distinguishes between the various arguments traditionally offered as justifications for the principle of academic freedom. Four main arguments are identified, three consequentialist in nature (the argument from truth, the democratic argument, the argument from autonomy), and one nonconsequentialist (a variant of the autonomy argument).…

  4. Social-Emotional Factors and Academic Outcomes among Elementary-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark; Russo-Ponsaran, Nicole M.; Allen, Adelaide; Johnson, Jason K.; Warren-Khot, Heather K.

    2016-01-01

    Social-emotional comprehension involves encoding, interpreting, and reasoning about social-emotional information, and self-regulating. This study examined the mediating pathways through which social-emotional comprehension and social behaviour are related to academic outcomes in two ethnically and socioeconomically heterogeneous samples totaling…

  5. The Longitudinal Effects of Kindergarten Enrollment and Relative Age on Children's Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagli, Ummuhan Yesil; Jones, Ithel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research findings suggest that there may be some academic benefits for those children whose kindergarten enrollment is delayed, and the risk of underachievement seems to be greater for children who are younger when they first enter kindergarten. Although kindergarten enrollment occurs naturally, certain child, family, and childcare…

  6. A Quantitative Evaluation of Gender, Nationality, and Generational/Age Influence on Academic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Universities are challenged with finding ways to motivate the increasing number of diverse students so that the largest number of students can be expected to succeed. University success is measured by retention and graduation rates, which affect profit. A lack of academic motivation among increasingly diverse students influences student retention,…

  7. Traumatic Brain Injury in School-Age Children: Academic and Social Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyos-Jurado, Elsa; Paulsen, Jane S.; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Lindgren, Scott D.; Max, Jeffrey E.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the academic, behavioral, and social outcomes of a cohort of children and adolescents (N=43) following a traumatic brain injury. Findings reveal that premorbid functions were significant predictors of reading and spelling achievement and adaptive functioning. Discusses implications of results including program development, reintegration…

  8. African American Adolescent Mothers' Early Caregiving Involvement and Childrens' Behavior and Academic Performance at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    The United States continues to have the highest incidence of adolescent births among industrialized nations. This study used transactional and life span theories of development to examine whether caregiving patterns assessed over the first 24 months postpartum predicted children's behavior and academic achievement at 7 years. Participants included…

  9. The Coming of Age of the Academic Career: Differentiation and Professionalization of German Academic Positions from the 19th Century to the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waaijer, Cathelijn J. F.

    2015-01-01

    In modern academic career systems there are a large number of entry positions, much smaller numbers of intermediate positions, and still fewer full professorships. We examine how this system has developed in Germany, the country where the modern academic system was introduced, tracing the historical development of academic positions since the…

  10. Examining the Effects of READ 180 with Sixth Grade Students in a Southwest United States School District Based on a Formative Assessment--Measures of Academic Progress--and Its Impact on Leadership Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    An achievement gap in reading existed in a Southwest United States school district with Hispanic, economically disadvantaged, English Language Learners (ELLs), and special education sixth grade students based on Measures of Academic Progress data. This study investigated the effectiveness of the "READ 180" reading intervention program…

  11. Third and Fourth Grade Teacher Practices in Cognitive and Emotional/Social Development, Their Students' Opportunities for Emotional/Social Development, and Academic Self-Concept Moderated by Students' Mothers' Level of Education and Time Reading at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationships among third and fourth grade teacher practices in cognitive development: understanding, application, synthesis, and judgment; emotional/social development; their students' self-reported opportunities for emotional/social development; and academic self-concept. In addition, this study investigates the…

  12. Recalled Test Anxiety in Relation to Achievement, in the Context of General Academic Self-Concept, Study Habits, Parental Involvement and Socio-Economic Status among Grade 6 Ethiopian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, P. Mohan; Asfaw, Abebech

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive nature of test anxiety on achievement in the presence of perceived general academic self-concept, study habits, parental involvement in children's learning and socio-economic status. From a population of 2482 Grade 6 students from seven government primary schools of a sub-city in Addis Ababa, 497 participants…

  13. Marijuana Use from Middle to High School: Co-occurring Problem Behaviors, Teacher-Rated Academic Skills and Sixth-Grade Predictors.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, Heidi; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Orpinas, Pamela; Song, Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Rising marijuana use and its lowered perceived risk among adolescents highlight the importance of examining patterns of marijuana use over time. This study identified trajectories of marijuana use among adolescents followed from middle through high school, characterized these by co-occurring problem behaviors and teacher-rated academic skills (study skills, attention problems, and learning problems), and tested sixth-grade predictors of trajectory membership. The sample consisted of a randomly-selected cohort of 619 students assessed annually from sixth to twelfth grade. Using group-based modeling, we identified four trajectories of marijuana use: Abstainer (65.6%), Sporadic (13.9%), Experimental (11.5%), and Increasing (9.0%). Compared to Abstainers, students in the Sporadic, Experimental and Increasing trajectories reported significantly more co-occurring problem behaviors of alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and physical aggression. Sporadic and Experimental users reported significantly less smoking and physical aggression, but not alcohol use, than Increasing users. Teachers consistently rated Abstainers as having better study skills and less attention and learning problems than the three marijuana use groups. Compared to Abstainers, the odds of dropping out of high school was at least 2.7 times higher for students in the marijuana use trajectories. Dropout rates did not vary significantly between marijuana use groups. In sixth grade, being male, cigarette smoking, physical aggression and attention problems increased the odds of being in the marijuana use trajectories. Multiple indicators--student self-reports, teacher ratings and high school dropout records--showed that marijuana was not an isolated or benign event in the life of adolescents but part of an overall problem behavior syndrome.

  14. Prenatal Caloric Intake and the Development of Academic Achievement Among U.S. Children From Ages 5 to 14.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Eric J; Beaver, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relation between maternal caloric intake during pregnancy and growth in child academic achievement while controlling for important confounding influences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the current study examined the effects of reduced prenatal caloric intake on growth in scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test from ages 5 to 14. While models controlling for within-family covariates showed that prenatal caloric intake was associated with lower reading and mathematical achievement at age 5, models controlling for between-family covariates (such as maternal IQ) and unobserved familial confounders revealed only a statistically significant association between siblings differentially exposed to prenatal caloric intake and mathematical achievement at age 5.

  15. Relation of academic support from parents, teachers, and peers to Hong Kong adolescents' academic achievement: the mediating role of academic engagement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jennifer Jun-Li

    2005-05-01

    The author tested a model hypothesizing that students' self-perceived academic support (from parents, teachers, and peers) is related to their achievement directly and indirectly through their own perceived academic engagement. The participants were 270 adolescents (M age = 15.41 years, range = 14-20 years) from 3 grade levels (Forms 3-5, equivalent to Grades 9-11 in the United States) in a Hong Kong secondary school. The school principal and teachers helped to collect data based on these adolescents' responses to a self-report questionnaire, consisting of a demographic profile and 4 scales assessing their self-perceptions of the extent of parental, teacher, and peer support, and their own academic engagement. Academic achievement was measured by self-reported grades in math, English, and Chinese. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that adolescents' perceived parental, teacher, and peer support were all indirectly related to their academic achievement mediated by their own perceived academic engagement. The strength of the relationships, however, varied by support system, with perceived teacher support to achievement being the strongest, followed closely by perceived parental support, and then perceived peer support. In addition, both perceived parental support and perceived teacher support were directly related to academic achievement. However, perceived teacher support made the most total (direct and indirect) contribution to student achievement. Perceived peer support had the smallest, nonetheless significant, indirect relationship to academic achievement. However, the negative, direct influence of perceived peer support canceled out its positive, indirect influence on academic achievement. PMID:16779945

  16. Stability in Parents' Causal Attributions for Their Children's Academic Performance: A Nine-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enlund, Emmi; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the interindividual stability and mean-level changes in parents' causal attributions for their children's academic performance across a 9-year period from the first year in primary school (Grade 1, age 7) to the end of lower secondary school (Grade 9, age 16). In all, 212 children participated in the study. The results…

  17. Reading Instruction for Elementary-Age Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Academic and Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton-Arwood, Sally M.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Falk, Katherine B.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a reading intervention on the reading achievement and social behaviors of 6 third-grade students with emotional/behavioral disorders. Reading instruction occurred 4 days a week using the Horizons Fast Track reading program and Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies. Analyses indicated variable improvements in basic…

  18. Literacy Growth in the Academic Year versus Summer from Preschool through Second Grade: Differential Effects of Schooling across Four Skills

    PubMed Central

    Skibbe, Lori; Grimm, Kevin; Bowles, Ryan; Morrison, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Differences in literacy growth over the summer versus the school year were examined in order to isolate how schooling affects children’s literacy development from preschool through second grade across four literacy skills. Children (n = 383) were tested individually twice each year for up to four years on measures of phonological awareness, decoding, reading comprehension, and vocabulary. Growth curve analyses indicated that schooling effects were greatest for decoding skills and reading comprehension, were medium in size for phonological awareness, and were less evident for vocabulary. Except for vocabulary, relatively small amounts of growth were observed for preschoolers, followed by a period of rapid growth for kindergarteners and first graders, which slowed again for second graders. Findings demonstrate the differential effect of schooling on four separate literacy skills during the crucial school transition period. PMID:23645979

  19. Why Kids Need to Be Bored: A Case Study of Self-Reflection and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James D.

    2006-01-01

    This case study involved 3 middle school students in an assessment of the influence of self-reflection on general academic performance. It was hypothesized that increased self-reflection would have a positive influence on academic performance as measured by grades on tests, writing assignments, and homework. The participants were ages 13.4, 13.5,…

  20. Communication Apprehension, Teacher Perception, Intelligence, and Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Arden K.; Monroe, Eula Ewing

    To determine which variables best predict academic achievement, a study explored relationships among teacher perception of student communication apprehension (CA), intelligence, academic achievement, and self-reported CA in 203 public elementary school students, ages 8 to 12 years in grades 3-6. The Personal Report of Communication Fear (a 14-item…

  1. Ultrasonic Characterization of Aging Behavior in M250 Grade Maraging Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeheskel, Ori

    2009-03-01

    The increase in sound velocities during the aging of M250 maraging steel reported by Rajkumar et al. was analyzed. The present article provides a new perspective on why and to what extent the sound velocities change during aging. The main parameter that affects the elastic moduli and the sound velocities in the early and intermediate stages of aging in maraging steel is the depletion of Ni from the martensitic matrix due to Ni3Ti and Ni3Mo formation. The issue of sound velocity increase with aging time was addressed here in a few different ways to support the validity of Ni depletion.

  2. The Case against Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research shows that grades diminish students' interest in whatever they're learning, discourage students from taking academic risks, and reduce the quality of students' thinking, writes Kohn. Contrary to what many people assume, grades are not necessary to promote achievement. Attempts to "improve" grading--such as standards-based…

  3. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted.

  4. Age-graded risks for commercial sexual exploitation of male and female youth.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates male youth are affected by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). However, most studies investigating risk markers influencing age of onset of CSE have focused on vulnerabilities of girls and women. Using a sample of 1,354 serious youthful offenders (of whom approximately 8% of males and females reported being paid for sex), the current study assessed whether risks associated with age of onset of CSE for girls and young women operated similarly in boys and young men. Findings showed that African American male youth were at heightened risk for CSE, while female youth of all races/ethnicities were at similar risk. For all youth, maternal substance use and earlier age of first sex were associated with early age of onset of CSE. For male youth, experiencing rape and substance use dependency were associated with early age of onset. Psychotic symptoms, likely experienced as social alienation, were associated with both early and late age of onset. For all youth, lower educational attainment was associated with CSE beginning in later adolescence or young adulthood. In addition, substance use dependency was linked to late age of onset for female youth. Implications of the study findings for theory development and application to CSE are noted. PMID:24366965

  5. To Study or to Sleep? The Academic Costs of Extra Studying at the Expense of Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Huynh, Virginia W.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined how nightly variations in adolescents' study and sleep time are associated with academic problems on the following day. Participants ("N" = 535, 9th grade M[subscript age] = 14.88) completed daily diaries every day for 14 days in 9th, 10th, and 12th grades. Results suggest that regardless of how much a student…

  6. Effect of accelerated aging on the viscoelastic properties of a medical grade silicone.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Aziza; Hukins, David W L; Kukureka, Stephen N

    2015-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of cylinders (diameter 5 mm, height 2.2 ± 0.2 mm) of Nagor silicone elastomer of medium hardness, were investigated before and after the specimens had undergone accelerated aging in saline solution at 70°C for 38, 76 and 114 days (to simulate aging at 37°C, for 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively). All sets of specimens were immersed in physiological saline solution at 37°C during testing and the properties were measured using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). A sinusoidal cyclic compression of 40 N ± 5 N was applied over a frequency range, f, of 0.02-25 Hz. Values of the storage, E', and loss, E″, moduli were found to depend on f; the dependence of E' or E″ on the logarithm (base 10) of f was represented by a second-order polynomial. After accelerated aging, the E' and E″ values did not increase significantly (p<0.05). Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that accelerated aging did not affect the surface morphology of silicone. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) showed that accelerated aging had a negligible effect on the surface chemical structures of the material. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed no changes to the bulk properties of silicone, following accelerated aging.

  7. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine effectiveness against high‐grade cervical lesions by age at vaccination: A population‐based study

    PubMed Central

    Sundström, Karin; Ploner, Alexander; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Sparén, Pär; Arnheim‐Dahlström, Lisen

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16/18, included in HPV vaccines, contribute to the majority of cervical cancer, and a substantial proportion of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 2/3 or worse (CIN2+/CIN3+) including adenocarcinoma in situ or worse. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination on incidence of CIN2+ and CIN3+. A nationwide cohort of girls and young women resident in Sweden 2006–2013 and aged 13–29 (n = 1,333,691) was followed for vaccination and histologically confirmed high‐grade cervical lesions. Data were collected using the Swedish nationwide healthcare registers. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and vaccine effectiveness [(1‐IRR)x100%] comparing fully vaccinated with unvaccinated individuals. IRRs were adjusted for attained age and parental education, and stratified on vaccination initiation age. Effectiveness against CIN2+ was 75% (IRR = 0.25, 95%CI = 0.18–0.35) for those initiating vaccination before age 17, and 46% (IRR = 0.54, 95%CI = 0.46–0.64) and 22% (IRR = 0.78, 95%CI = 0.65–0.93) for those initiating vaccination at ages 17–19, and at ages 20–29, respectively. Vaccine effectiveness against CIN3+ was similar to vaccine effectiveness against CIN2+. Results were robust for both women participating to the organized screening program and for women at prescreening ages. We show high effectiveness of qHPV vaccination on CIN2+ and CIN3+ lesions, with greater effectiveness observed in girls younger at vaccination initiation. Continued monitoring of impact of HPV vaccination in the population is needed in order to evaluate both long‐term vaccine effectiveness and to evaluate whether the vaccination program achieves anticipated effects in prevention of invasive cervical cancer. PMID:26856527

  8. Indirect Effects of the Family Check-Up on School-Age Academic Achievement Through Improvements in Parenting in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Lauretta M.; Shelleby, Elizabeth C.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the hypothesis that the impact of the Family Check-Up on parent use of positive behavior support would indirectly improve academic achievement scores at school age. The study included a sample of 731 high-risk families recruited from Women, Infant, and Children Supplemental Nutrition Program settings in 3 geographically distinct areas. The results demonstrated that changes in positive parenting between the child ages of 2 and 3 were associated with higher scores on children’s school-age academic achievement, as measured by the Woodcock–Johnson III (W-J) Academic Skills composite. Moreover, structural equation modeling revealed that random assignment to the intervention was associated with higher levels of children’s academic achievement at age 5 and age 7.5 indirectly, through greater increases in parents’ use of positive behavior support in intervention families than in control families. Results are discussed with respect to the potential of a brief parenting intervention for improving parenting practices that promote academic achievement up to 5 years later. The results have promising implications for efforts to promote child adaptation in the school environment. PMID:24319295

  9. X-Ray Diffraction Profile Analysis for Characterizing Isothermal Aging Behavior of M250 Grade Maraging Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, S.; Jayakumar, T.; Rao, B. P. C.; Kumar, Anish; Rajkumar, K. V.; Raj, Baldev

    2008-08-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were carried out to characterize aging behavior of M250 grade maraging steel samples subjected to isothermal aging at 755 K for varying durations of 0.25, 1, 3, 10, 40, 70, and 100 hours. Earlier studies had shown typical features of precipitation hardening, wherein the hardness increased to a peak value due to precipitation of intermetallics and decreased upon further aging (overaging) due to reversion of martensite to austenite. Intermetallic precipitates, while coherent, are expected to increase the microstrain in the matrix. Hence, an attempt has been made in the present study to understand the microstructural changes in these samples using XRD line profile analysis. The anisotropic broadening with diffraction angle observed in the simple Williamson Hall (WH) plot has been addressed using the modified WH (mWH) approach, which takes into account the contrast caused by dislocations on line profiles, leading to new scaling factors in the WH plot. The normalized mean square strain and crystallite size estimated from mWH have been used to infer early precipitation and to characterize aging behavior. The normalized mean square strain has been used to determine the Avrami exponent in the Johnson Mehl Avrami (JMA) equation, which deals with the kinetics of precipitation. The Avrami exponent thus determined has matched well with values found by other methods, as reported in literature.

  10. Effects of Age of English Exposure, Current Input/Output, and Grade on Bilingual Language Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Griffin, Zenzi M.; Hixon, J. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of Age of Exposure to English (AoEE) and Current Input/Output on language performance in a cross-sectional sample of Spanish-English bilingual children. First- (N = 586) and third-graders (N = 298) who spanned a wide range of bilingual language experience participated. Parents and teachers provided information…

  11. Jekyll and Hyde and Me: Age-Graded Differences in Conceptions of Self-Unity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proulx, Travis; Chandler, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This research details the changing ways in which young people of different ages differently warrant the conviction that, notwithstanding evidence of good and bad behaviours, selves can be understood as unified across the various roles and contexts that they occupy. Canadian adolescents and young adults were asked to explain the apparent disunity…

  12. High-precision UPb ages of metamorphic rutile: application to the cooling history of high-grade terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mezger, K.; Hanson, G.N.; Bohlen, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    hornblende and feldspar. The concordant UPb ages as well as the similar ages over a large area suggest that rutile has a well-defined temperature of closure. At a cooling rate of about 0.5-1??C/Ma the closure temperature for UPb diffusion in rutile is about 420??C for grains with a radius of 0.009-0.021 cm, and about 380??C for grains with a radius of 0.007-0.009 cm. UPb rutile ages obtained on different grain sizes indicate a cooling rate of about 0.5??C/Ma for the Pikwitonei granulite domain at 2460-2300 Ma. UPb ages for rutile thus provide high-precision ages for evaluating the cooling history of high-grade terranes and can be critical to the quantitative development of thermal models for crustal evolution. ?? 1989.

  13. Low-grade systemic inflammation connects aging, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Guarner, Verónica; Rubio-Ruiz, Maria Esther

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with immunosenescence and accompanied by a chronic inflammatory state which contributes to metabolic syndrome, diabetes and their cardiovascular consequences. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes overlap, leading to the hypothesis that both share an inflammatory basis. Obesity is increased in the elderly population, and adipose tissue induces a state of systemic inflammation partially induced by adipokines. The liver plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of nutrients and exhibits alterations in the expression of genes associated with inflammation, cellular stress and fibrosis. Hepatic steatosis and its related inflammatory state (steatohepatitis) are the main hepatic complications of obesity and metabolic diseases. Aging-linked declines in expression and activity of endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperones and folding enzymes compromise proper protein folding and the adaptive response of the unfolded protein response. These changes predispose aged individuals to CVDs. CVDs and endothelial dysfunction are characterized by a chronic alteration of inflammatory function and markers of inflammation and the innate immune response, including C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, TNF-α, and several cell adhesion molecules are linked to the occurrence of myocardial infarction and stroke in healthy elderly populations and patients with metabolic diseases.

  14. Effects of dry, vacuum, and special bag aging; USDA quality grade; and end-point temperature on yields and eating quality of beef Longissimus lumborum steaks.

    PubMed

    Dikeman, Michael E; Obuz, Ersel; Gök, Veli; Akkaya, Levent; Stroda, Sally

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three aging methods: (dry (D), wet (W), and special bag (SB)); two quality grades [USDA Choice((≥Small(50) marbling) and Select); and two cooked end-point temperatures (62.8 °C and 71.1 °C) on physico-chemical traits of instrumental tenderness, color, and sensory properties of Longissimus lumborum beef muscle. Dry-aged loins had higher (P<0.0001) weight loss than W or SB aged loins. However, D and SB aged loins had similar (P>0.05) combined losses. W aged loins had higher (P<0.01) L* values than D or SB aged loins. Warner-Bratzler shear force of steaks was not affected (P>0.05) by aging method or quality grade but increased (P<0.0001) as end-point temperature increased. Sensory panel evaluation also showed no effect (P>0.05) of aging method or quality grade on myofibrillar tenderness, juiciness, connective tissue amount, overall tenderness or off flavor intensity. Steaks cooked to 62.8 °C were juicier (P<0.05) than those cooked to 71.1 °C. Neither D nor SB aging had advantages over W aging.

  15. Effects of dry, vacuum, and special bag aging; USDA quality grade; and end-point temperature on yields and eating quality of beef Longissimus lumborum steaks.

    PubMed

    Dikeman, Michael E; Obuz, Ersel; Gök, Veli; Akkaya, Levent; Stroda, Sally

    2013-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of three aging methods: (dry (D), wet (W), and special bag (SB)); two quality grades [USDA Choice((≥Small(50) marbling) and Select); and two cooked end-point temperatures (62.8 °C and 71.1 °C) on physico-chemical traits of instrumental tenderness, color, and sensory properties of Longissimus lumborum beef muscle. Dry-aged loins had higher (P<0.0001) weight loss than W or SB aged loins. However, D and SB aged loins had similar (P>0.05) combined losses. W aged loins had higher (P<0.01) L* values than D or SB aged loins. Warner-Bratzler shear force of steaks was not affected (P>0.05) by aging method or quality grade but increased (P<0.0001) as end-point temperature increased. Sensory panel evaluation also showed no effect (P>0.05) of aging method or quality grade on myofibrillar tenderness, juiciness, connective tissue amount, overall tenderness or off flavor intensity. Steaks cooked to 62.8 °C were juicier (P<0.05) than those cooked to 71.1 °C. Neither D nor SB aging had advantages over W aging. PMID:23501255

  16. Bridging the Gap between Academic Gerontology and the Educational Needs of the Aging Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karcher, Barbara C.; Whittlesey, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    Colleges and universities have failed to meet the long-recognized, growing need for nonacademic-credit gerontology education. With the explosive growth of the aging network, other organizations have readily responded to the fast-growing market. Results of two needs assessments over a 5-year period demonstrate employers' higher support for…

  17. Generation Psy: Student Characteristics and Academic Achievement in a Three-Year Problem-Based Learning Bachelor Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Koning, Bjorn B.; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Smeets, Guus; van der Molen, Henk T.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the simultaneous impact of demographic, personality, intelligence, and (prior) study performance factors on students' academic achievement in a three-year academic problem-based psychology program. Information regarding students' gender, age, nationality, pre-university education, high school grades, Big Five personality…

  18. The Minnesota Grading System Using Fundus Autofluorescence of Eye Bank Eyes: A Correlation To Age-Related Macular Degeneration (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Timothy W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To establish a grading system of eye bank eyes using fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and identify a methodology that correlates FAF to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with clinical correlation to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). Methods Two hundred sixty-two eye bank eyes were evaluated using a standardized analysis of FAF. Measurements were taken with the confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO). First, high-resolution, digital, stereoscopic, color images were obtained and graded according to AREDS criteria. With the neurosensory retina removed, mean FAF values were obtained from cSLO images using software analysis that excludes areas of atrophy and other artifact, generating an FAF value from a grading template. Age and AMD grade were compared to FAF values. An internal fluorescence reference standard was tested. Results Standardization of the cSLO machine demonstrated that reliable data could be acquired after a 1-hour warm-up. Images obtained prior to 1 hour had falsely elevated levels of FAF. In this initial analysis, there was no statistical correlation of age to mean FAF. There was a statistically significant decrease in FAF from AREDS grade 1, 2 to 3, 4 (P < .0001). An internal fluorescent standard may serve as a quantitative reference. Conclusions The Minnesota Grading System (MGS) of FAF (MGS-FAF) establishes a standardized methodology for grading eye bank tissue to quantify FAF compounds in the retinal pigment epithelium and correlate these findings to the AREDS. Future studies could then correlate specific FAF to the aging process, histopathology AMD phenotypes, and other maculopathies, as well as to analyze the biochemistry of autofluorescent fluorophores. PMID:19277247

  19. Exploring academic procrastination among Turkish students: possible gender differences in prevalence and reasons.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan; Ferrari, Joseph R

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined the prevalence of and reasons, or excuses, for academic procrastination as a function of gender and academic grade level. In Study 1, a factor analysis of responses by 203 Turkish undergraduate students to an academic procrastination measure provided evidence of reliability and validity for the revised scale. In Study 2,784 students (363 women, 421 men; M age = 20.6 years, SD age = 1.74 years) completed the validated Turkish Procrastination Assessment Scale-Students. The results were that 52% of students self-reported frequent academic procrastination, with male students reporting more frequent procrastination on academic tasks than female students. Significantly more female students than male students reported greater academic procrastination because of fear of failure and laziness; male students reported more academic procrastination as a result of risk taking and rebellion against control than did female students.

  20. Feasibility and Benefits of a School-based Academic and Counseling Program for Older School-Age Students with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Gwendolyn; Allen, April; Meeder, Linda; Bumpus, Janell; Lewis, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    An asthma education program for older school-age students with asthma was developed in collaboration with school personnel, health care professionals, and community partners. Feasibility and benefits were evaluated using a single-group, prospective, quasi-experimental design. The convenience sample, consisting of 28 grade 6 and 7 students with asthma, had 50% males, a diverse racial background, and a wide range of incomes. Feasibility and benefits were demonstrated by comparing pre-intervention to 1- and 12-month post-intervention evaluation of students who completed more than 70% of the 10 sessions. Statistically significant improvement sin cognitive, behavioral, psychosocial, and quality of life outcomes were seen from pre-intervention to 1-month post-intervention (all p < .03). Severity of asthma significantly improved from 1- to 12- month post-intervention (p = .04). PMID:22644890

  1. Academic Achievement of Red Deer College Students at Alberta Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burford, Charles Thomas

    The purpose of this study was to report on the academic achievement of Red Deer College transfer students at three Alberta Universities for 1968-1971. Transfer students were matched with native students from the universities using session year, year of program, degree sought, age, sex, and first year cumulative grade-point average. These matched…

  2. The Relationship between School Absence, Academic Performance, and Asthma Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moonie, Sheniz; Sterling, David A.; Figgs, Larry W.; Castro, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children with asthma experience more absenteeism from school compared with their nonasthma peers. Excessive absenteeism is related to lower student grades, psychological, social, and educational adjustment. Less is known about the relationship between the presence of asthma and the academic achievement in school-aged children. Since…

  3. Revisiting the Academic Hardiness Scale: Revision and Revalidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Peter A.; Conlon, Elizabeth G.; Dhaliwal, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    We used two studies to evaluate, modify, and provide initial validation for a revised Academic Hardiness scale. First, 16 experts rated scale items for content validity and identified two problematic questions. Second, confirmatory factor analyses with 300 Grade 10 students (46% boys, age range 14-17) identified a 17-item version to be the best…

  4. Age and tectonic implications of some low-grade metamorphic rocks from the Yucatan Channel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vedder, J.G.; MacLeod, N.S.; Lanphere, M.A.; Dillon, William P.

    1973-01-01

    Phyllite and marble dredged from the lower part of the continental slope between Cuba and the Yucatan Peninsula seem to support the contention that a pre-early Tertiary metamorphic belt extends from the western Greater Antilles into northern Central America. The minimum K-Ar ages derived from the samples suggest that the metamorphic event was pre-Late Cretaceous, and evaluation of the K-Ar data implies that this metamorphic event is not older than Late Jurassic. Greater antiquity, however, is inferred from structural and stratigraphic relations in British Honduras, where the latest regional metamorphic event was post-Early Permian and pre-Middle Jurassic.  Rifting and extension related to plate motions along the British Honduras Quintana Roo margin through Mesozoic and earliest Cenozoic time presumably would preclude extensive regional metamorphism, permitting only limited development of schistose rocks there during that interval. The timing of metamorphic events in western Cuba is uncertain, but a pre-Middle Jurassic episode possibly is reflected in the phyllite and marble terranes of Isla de Pinos and Sierra de Trinidad. Local incipient metamorphism of Early and Middle Jurassic strata in the Sierra de los Organos may have resulted from severe tectonism that began in Late Cretaceous time and diminished in the Eocene.

  5. Dynamics of Teacher-Student Relationships: Stability and Change across Elementary School and the Influence on Children's Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilt, Jantine L.; Hughes, Jan N.; Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man

    2012-01-01

    This study modeled teacher-student relationship trajectories throughout elementary school to predict gains in achievement in an ethnic-diverse sample of 657 academically at-risk students (mean age = 6.57 years, SD = 0.39). Teacher reports of warmth and conflict were collected in Grades 1-5. Achievement was tested in Grades 1 and 6. For conflict,…

  6. Socioeconomic Determinants of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomul, Ekber; Savasci, Havva Sebile

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the socioeconomic characteristics of elementary school 7th grade students in Burdur. The population of the study are 7th grade students who had education at elementary schools in Burdur in the 2007-2008 academic year. Two staged sampling was chosen as suitable for the…

  7. Academic Buoyancy: Towards an Understanding of Students' Everyday Academic Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2008-01-01

    Academic buoyancy is developed as a construct reflecting everyday academic resilience within a positive psychology context and is defined as students' ability to successfully deal with academic setbacks and challenges that are typical of the ordinary course of school life (e.g., poor grades, competing deadlines, exam pressure, difficult…

  8. A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE GRADED AND NONGRADED CURRICULUM PLANS ON ADULT MALES AT FLORIDA STATE PRISON HAVING ACADEMIC ABILITIES CORRESPONDING TO ELEMENTARY GRADES 1-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAMPBELL, BILLY RANDOLPH

    GRADED AND NONGRADED CURRICULUMS ARE REVIEWED, AND COMPARED, AT THE FLORIDA STATE PRISON. DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM A LITERATURE REVIEW, INTELLIGENCE AND ACHIEVEMENT TESTS, PUPIL INTEREST INVENTORIES, STUDENT RECORDS, OBSERVATIONS, CONFERENCES, AND CASE STUDIES. IT WAS FOUND THAT THE GRADED CURRICULUM HAD WEAKNESSES IN THE LANGUAGE ARTS SUBJECTS,…

  9. Discrepancies between Academic Achievement and Intellectual Ability in Higher-Functioning School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Annette; Rivera, Vanessa; Bryan, Matthew; Cali, Philip; Dawson, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Academic achievement patterns and their relationships with intellectual ability, social abilities, and problem behavior are described in a sample of 30 higher-functioning, 9-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both social abilities and problem behavior have been found to be predictive of academic achievement in typically…

  10. Improving Academic Performance of School-Age Children by Physical Activity in the Classroom: 1-Year Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Hartman, Esther; de Greeff, Johannes W.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background: An intervention was designed that combined physical activity with learning activities. It was based upon evidence for positive effects of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on academic achievement. The aim of this study was to describe the program implementation and effects on academic achievement after 1?year. Methods:…

  11. The impact of graded levels of day length on turkey health and behavior to 18 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Vermette, C; Schwean-Lardner, K; Gomis, S; Grahn, B H; Crowe, T G; Classen, H L

    2016-06-01

    The impact of graded levels of day length on turkey health and behavior was determined in hens and toms raised to 18 wk of age. Birds were allocated to one of 4 lighting treatments (trt) providing 14 (14L), 17 (17L), 20 (20L), and 23 (23L) h of day length. Two time-replicated trials were completed with each, providing 2 rooms per lighting trt and each room having 3 hen (n = 720) and 3 tom (n = 480) pens. Data collection included gait score (GS), the incidence of footpad dermatitis (FPD), breast buttons and blisters, ocular size and pressure (males only), and behavioral observations (males only). Data were analyzed using SAS 9.3 based on a completely randomized design nested within 4 lighting trt. Regression analysis established relationships between response criteria and day length. Differences were considered significant at P ≤ 0.05 and trends noted at P ≤ 0.10. Gait score, FPD, and the incidence of breast buttons and blisters were assessed on 5 birds per pen at 11 and 17 wk of age. Average GS increased linearly with day length at 11 and 17 wk for both hens and toms, but the effect was larger in toms. Day length did not affect FPD, but more lesions and severe scores were found for hens than toms. The presence of breast buttons and blisters increased linearly with day length (11 wk) with the effect on blisters predominately seen in toms. Eye weight and size increased with increasing day length at 12 and 18 wk. Ocular pressure was not affected by day length. Infrared cameras recorded tom behavior over a 24 h period, and behaviors were classified over 10-min intervals using a scan sampling technique at 11 and 17 wk. Alterations in behavioral repertoire were observed with a linear increase in inactive resting and a linear decrease in standing, walking, preening, and environmental and feather pecking behaviors with increased day length. To conclude, day length affected bird mobility and incidence of breast blisters in an age- and gender-specific manner, and time

  12. Teachers' Belief Systems and Grading Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Harry; Brown, Clarence

    This report investigated two hypotheses: 1) junior high school teachers with concrete belief systems would assign more unsatisfactory citizenship grades and lower academic grades than more abstract teachers; and 2) the correlation between citizenship and academic grades would be higher for concrete than abstract teachers. Ten teachers from…

  13. Stability and Change in High School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the stability of students' grades in high school courses during the academic year. Records of over 8,000 high school students from five large southeastern high schools were analyzed to determine the relationship between the first achievement grade students were assigned during an academic term and their final course grades.…

  14. Grade Inflation in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Carol

    Grade inflation has commanded increasing attention in the academic world in recent years, with administrators, faculty, and academic analysts unable to agree on whether grade inflation actually exists or is a myth to be debunked. This Digest reviews research in support of and against the existence of grade inflation. A statistical analysis report…

  15. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-29

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement.

  16. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-01

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents’ academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = –0.023, 95% confidence interval = –0.031, –0.015) and obesity (B = –0.025, 95% confidence interval = –0.039, –0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558

  17. A Comparative Study of the Academic Performance of Secondary School Pupils at Grade Twelve Level in English, French and Zambian Languages (1998-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chishiba, G. M.; Mukuka, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The study compared the performance of pupils at grade 12 level in Zambian languages, French and English during a period of ten years (1998-2008). Grade 12 is the final year of Secondary School Education in Zambia. This exercise was aimed at establishing the language with the best performance during the aforementioned period. The study, which was…

  18. The Impact of Hidden Grades on Student Decision-Making and Academic Performance: An Examination of a Policy Change at MIT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Colleges and universities work hard to create environments that encourage student learning, and they develop grading policies, in part, to motivate their students to perform well. Grades provide two kinds of information about a student's abilities and learned knowledge: "internal" information that informs the students themselves about the…

  19. The Impact of Hidden Grades on Student Decision-Making and Academic Performance: An Examination of a Policy Change at MIT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Colleges and universities work hard to create environments that encourage student learning, and they develop grading policies, in part, to motivate their students to perform well. Grades provide two kinds of information about a student's abilities and learned knowledge: "internal" information that informs the students themselves about the…

  20. Is the Cure Worse than the Disease? A Longitudinal Study on the Effect of Grade Retention in Secondary Education on Achievement and Academic Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamote, Carl; Pinxten, Maarten; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Van Damme, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Holding students back when they do not meet a specific attainment level is common practice in a lot of countries. However, this practice is not without controversy and recent studies point at the negative effects of grade retention, especially in the long-term. The majority of these studies focused on grade retention in primary education. In our…

  1. Grade 1 Students' Out-of-School Play and Its Relationship to School-Based Academic, Behavior, and Creativity Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Joanne S.; Petrakos, Hariclia H.; Venkatesh, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: This study explored the relationship between play and child development at the Grade 1 level. As previous research has noted a sudden curtailment of classroom play during this period, the relationship between play at home and children's school grades, behavior, and creativity scores was examined using correlational and…

  2. The Timing of Grade Skipping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Yi-Lung; Lohman, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the following: (a) the impact of sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and family income on the likelihood of whole-grade skipping between kindergarten and Grade 7 and (b) the effects of grade skipping during elementary or middle school on students' academic achievement in high school. The authors…

  3. The effects of an interactive television environment on the learning preferences, attitudes, and academic achievement of fifth- and seventh-grade students in a social studies and science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowes, Kathleen A.

    2002-09-01

    This study employed a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design with nonequivalent groups. It explored the effect of using interactive television (ITV) as a learning tool in an elementary setting. The Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale, which measures a student's learning preferences/attitudes toward learning, was used along with teacher mastery tests and an ITV evaluation survey. There were five research questions explored in the study: (1) What was the difference between the treatment and control groups with regards to learning preferences/attitudes as measured by the SDLRS-ABE? (2) What was the difference between the treatment and control groups with regards to academic achievement in science and in social studies as measured by teacher made mastery tests? (3) Was there a treatment-gender interaction for either the SDLRS-ABE or the science and social studies mastery tests? (4) What inter relationships existed among the SDLRS-ABE, science mastery tests, and social studies tests? (5) What did teacher evaluations of the ITV reveal? Forty 5th and thirty-seven 7th grade students participated in the study. There were treatment and control groups at each grade level. Groups were randomly assigned as intact classes. There were a number of noteworthy findings. There was a significant difference (p = .025) between males and females on the social studies mastery test and a treatment-control difference on the science mastery test (p = .040). Also a moderate relationship was found between the SDLRS-ABE pretest (r = .433) and the SDLRS-ABE posttest (r = .420) and the fifth grade treatment group science grades and a moderate correlation (r = 0.546) between the social studies grades, and the SDLRS-ABE posttest for the fifth grade treatment group. The teacher evaluations of the ITV sessions indicated the importance of interactivity between the sending and receiving sites. Teachers felt that this interactivity was key to holding the students' attention and fostering learning.

  4. Classroom context, school engagement, and academic achievement in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dotterer, Aryn M; Lowe, Katie

    2011-12-01

    Classroom context and school engagement are significant predictors of academic achievement. These factors are especially important for academically at-risk students. Grounded in an ecological systems perspective, this study examined links between classroom context, school engagement, and academic achievement among early adolescents. We took a multidimensional approach to the measurement of classroom context and school engagement, incorporating both observational and self-reported assessments of various dimensions of classroom context (instruction quality, social/emotional climate, and student-teacher relationship) and school engagement (psychological and behavioral engagement). Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we tested whether school engagement mediated the link between classroom context and academic achievement among 5th grade students, and whether these pathways were the same for students with previous achievement difficulties identified in 3rd grade. Participants included 1,014 children (50% female) in 5th grade (mean age = 11). The majority of the participants were white (77%) and 23% were children of color. Results indicated that psychological and behavioral engagement mediated the link between classroom context and academic achievement for students without previous achievement difficulties. However, for students with previous achievement difficulties psychological and behavioral engagement did not mediate the link between classroom context and academic achievement. These results suggest that improving classroom quality may not be sufficient to improve student engagement and achievement for students with previous achievement difficulties. Additional strategies may be needed for these students.

  5. The Project MACULA Retinal Pigment Epithelium Grading System for Histology and Optical Coherence Tomography in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zanzottera, Emma C.; Messinger, Jeffrey D.; Ach, Thomas; Smith, R. Theodore; Freund, K. Bailey; Curcio, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To seek pathways of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fate in age-related macular degeneration via a morphology grading system; provide nomenclature, visualization targets, and metrics for clinical imaging and model systems. Methods. Donor eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) or choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and one GA eye with previous clinical spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) imaging were processed for histology, photodocumented, and annotated at predefined locations. Retinal pigment epithelial cells contained spindle-shaped melanosomes, apposed a basal lamina or basal laminar deposit (BLamD), and exhibited recognizable morphologies. Thicknesses and unbiased estimates of frequencies were obtained. Results. In 13 GA eyes (449 locations), ‘Shedding,’ ‘Sloughed,’ and ‘Dissociated’ morphologies were abundant; 22.2% of atrophic locations had ‘Dissociated’ RPE. In 39 CNV eyes (1363 locations), 37.3% of locations with fibrovascular/fibrocellular scar had ‘Entombed’ RPE; ‘Sloughed,’ ‘Dissociated,’ and ‘Bilaminar’ morphologies were abundant. Of abnormal RPE, CNV and GA both had ∼35% ‘Sloughed’/‘Intraretinal,’ with more Intraretinal in CNV (9.5% vs. 1.8%). ‘Shedding’ cells associated with granule aggregations in BLamD. The RPE layer did not thin, and BLamD remained thick, with progression. Granule-containing material consistent with three morphologies correlated to SDOCT hyperreflective foci in the previously examined GA patient. Conclusions. Retinal pigment epithelium morphology indicates multiple pathways in GA and CNV. Atrophic/scarred areas have numerous cells capable of transcribing genes and generating imaging signals. Shed granule aggregates, possibly apoptotic, are visible in SDOCT, as are ‘Dissociated’ and ‘Sloughed’ cells. The significance of RPE phenotypes is addressable in longitudinal, high-resolution imaging in clinic populations. Data can motivate future molecular phenotyping

  6. Curriculum on Aging: An Intergenerational Program for Grades K-6. An ESEA Title IV-C Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, David P.; And Others

    This curriculum guide presents 200 activities designed to change children's negative attitudes about the elderly. The activities, many of which use cross generational teaching, are organized around four themes of aging: the process aging; aging in the United States; the image of aging; and preparation for aging. Interdisciplinary in nature, the…

  7. Modeling the Interaction of Academic Self-Beliefs, Frequency of Reading at Home, Emotional Support, and Reading Achievement: An RCT Study of At-Risk Early Readers in First Grade and Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fives, Allyn

    2016-01-01

    The current article examines what factors explained the success of a reading program delivered by older adult volunteers to at-risk early readers. The article also examines the direction of the relationship over time (both direct and mediated) between reading achievement, frequency of reading at home, and academic self-beliefs. Two hundred and…

  8. Academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant youth.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Gaytán, Francisco X; Bang, Hee Jin; Pakes, Juliana; O'Connor, Erin; Rhodes, Jean

    2010-05-01

    Immigration to the United States presents both challenges and opportunities that affect students' academic achievement. Using a 5-year longitudinal, mixed-methods approach, we identified varying academic trajectories of newcomer immigrant students from Central America, China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Mexico. Latent class growth curve analysis revealed that although some newcomer students performed at high or improving levels over time, others showed diminishing performance. Multinomial logistic regressions identified significant group differences in academic trajectories, particularly between the high-achieving youth and the other groups. In keeping with ecological-developmental and stage-environment fit theories, School Characteristics (school segregation rate, school poverty rate, and student perceptions of school violence), Family Characteristics (maternal education, parental employment, and household structure), and Individual Characteristics (academic English proficiency, academic engagement, psychological symptoms, gender, and 2 age-related risk factors, number of school transitions and being overaged for grade placement) were associated with different trajectories of academic performance. A series of case studies triangulate many of the quantitative findings as well as illuminate patterns that were not detected in the quantitative data. Thus, the mixed-methods approach sheds light on the cumulative developmental challenges that immigrant students face as they adjust to their new educational settings.

  9. Learning About Wisconsin: Activities, Historical Documents, and Resources Linked to Wisconsin's Model Academic Standards for Social Studies in Grades 4-12. Bulletin No. 99238.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortier, John D.; Grady, Susan M.; Prickette, Karen R.

    Wisconsin's Model Academic Standards for Social Studies provide direction for curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional development. The standards identify eras and themes in Wisconsin history. Many of these standards can be taught using content related to the study of Wisconsin. The sample lessons included in this document identify…

  10. The Impact of Cooperative and Traditional Learning on the Academic Achievement of Third Grade Students in Selected Rural School Districts in Northeast, South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Shawn Lamont L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact that cooperative learning and traditional learning have on the academic performance of elementary school students in rural school districts. Cooperative learning is considered a typical model that can maximize the effectiveness of constructivism. Slavin (1991, p. 71) completed a synthesis of research on cooperative…

  11. Achievement, Engagement, and Behavior Outcomes of At-Risk Youth Following Participation in a Required Ninth-Grade Academic Support Study Center Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Jeffrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Overall, pretest-posttest results for achievement, behavior, and engagement for at-risk boys not eligible (n = 13) and eligible (n = 9) for participation in the free or reduced price lunch program who completed a school-year long academic support study center program were not statistically different over time and end of school year for cumulative…

  12. Developing Academic English Language Proficiency Prototypes for 5th Grade Reading: Psychometric and Linguistic Profiles of Tasks. An Extended Executive Summary. CSE Report 720

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Alison L.; Huang, Becky H.; Shin, Hye Won; Farnsworth, Tim; Butler, Frances A.

    2007-01-01

    Within an evidentiary framework for operationally defining academic English language proficiency (AELP), linguistic analyses of standards, classroom discourse, and textbooks have led to specifications for assessment of AELP. The test development process described here is novel due to the emphasis on using linguistic profiles to inform the …

  13. Developing Academic English Language Proficiency Prototypes for 5th Grade Reading: Psychometric and Linguistic Profiles of Tasks. CSE Technical Report 727

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Alison L.; Huang, Becky H.; Shin, Hye Won; Farnsworth, Tim; Butler, Frances A.

    2007-01-01

    Within an evidentiary framework for operationally defining academic English language proficiency (AELP), linguistic analyses of standards, classroom discourse, and textbooks have led to specifications for assessment of AELP. The test development process described here is novel due to the emphasis on using linguistic profiles to inform the …

  14. An Investigation of an Arts Infusion Program on Creative Thinking, Academic Achievement, Affective Functioning, and Arts Appreciation of Children at Three Grade Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luftig, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of an arts infusion program (SPECTRA+) on the creative thinking, academic achievement, self-esteem, locus of control, and appreciation of the arts by school children (n=615). Reports that SPECTRA+ program children scored higher than the control group in creativity, self-esteem, and arts appreciation, while data for…

  15. A Multiple Case Study Analysis of Middle Grades Social Studies Teachers' Instructional Use of Digital Technology with Academically Talented Students at Three High-Performing Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Caroline C.

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate education for academically talented students incorporates the use of complex thinking skills, and encourages the development of interpersonal and leadership skills. One potential tool to achieve these goals is the use of instructional technology. Siegle (2004a, 2005) suggests that it is particularly appropriate to utilize technology…

  16. The Extended Theory of Planned Behaviour and College Grades: The Role of Cognition and Past Behaviour in the Prediction of Students' Academic Intentions and Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Velibor Bobo; Cameron, David Lansing; Høigaard, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the underlying processes influencing college students' academic achievement represents an important goal of educational research. The aim of the present study was to examine the utility of the extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the relative influence of cognitive processes and measures of past behaviour in the prediction…

  17. Academic Procrastination among College Students with Learning Disabilities: The Role of Positive and Negative Self-Oriented Perfectionism in Terms of Gender, Specialty and Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Adel Abdulla; Sherit, Asharaf Mohammed A.; Eissa, Mourad Ali; Mostafa, Amaal Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was three folds: to explore whether there were relationship between academic procrastination and positive and negative self-oriented perfectionism of college students with learning disabilities, the extent to which positive and negative self-oriented perfectionism of college students with learning disabilities predicts…

  18. An Action Research Study on the Influence of Gangsta Rap on Academic and Behavioral Issues of 5th Grade African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Shaun; Boes, Susan R.; Chibbaro, Julie S.

    2015-01-01

    This small action research study (ARS) began with a review of the literature examining the relationship of gangsta rap in regards to academic achievement, self-esteem, decision-making, identity issues and development of young African American males. The purpose of the ARS was to examine the correlation between gangsta rap and its influence on 5th…

  19. Effectiveness of a School- and Community-based Academic Asthma Health Education Program on Use of Effective Asthma Self-care Behaviors in Older School-age Students

    PubMed Central

    Kintner, Eileen K.; Cook, Gwendolyn; Marti, C. Nathan; Allen, April; Stoddard, Debbie; Harmon, Phyllis; Gomes, Melissa; Meeder, Linda; Van Egeren, Laurie A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of SHARP, an academic asthma health education and counseling program, on fostering use of effective asthma self-care behaviors. Design and Methods This was a phase III, two-group, cluster randomized, single-blinded, longitudinal design guided the study. Caregivers of 205 fourth- and fifth-grade students completed the asthma health behaviors survey at pre-intervention and 1, 12, and 24 months post-intervention. Analysis involved multilevel modeling. Results All students demonstrated improvement in episode management, risk-reduction/prevention, and health promotion behaviors; SHARP students demonstrated increased improvement in episode management and risk-reduction/prevention behaviors. Practice Implications Working with schoolteachers, nurses can improve use of effective asthma self-care behaviors. PMID:25443867

  20. Effectiveness of a School-based Academic Asthma Health Education and Counseling Program on Fostering Acceptance of Asthma in Older School-age Students with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kintner, Eileen K.; Cook, Gwendolyn; Marti, C. Nathan; Gomes, Melissa; Meeder, Linda; Van Egeren, Laurie A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of the academic asthma education and counseling SHARP program on fostering psychosocial acceptance of asthma. Design and Methods This was a phase III, two-group, cluster randomized, single-blinded, longitudinal study. Students from grades 4 and 5 (N = 205) with asthma and their caregivers completed surveys at pre-intervention and at 1, 12, and 24 months post-intervention. Analysis involved multilevel modeling. Results All students demonstrated significant improvement in aspects of acceptance; students in SHARP demonstrated significant improvement in openness to sharing and connectedness with teachers over students in the control condition. Practice Implications The SHARP program offers a well-tested, effective program for psychosocial acceptance of asthma, which is welcomed by schools. PMID:25443593

  1. Birthweight-discordance and differences in early parenting relate to monozygotic twin differences in behaviour problems and academic achievement at age 7.

    PubMed

    Asbury, Kathryn; Dunn, Judith F; Plomin, Robert

    2006-03-01

    This longitudinal monozygotic (MZ) twin differences study explored associations between birthweight and early family environment and teacher-rated behaviour problems and academic achievement at age 7. MZ differences in anxiety, hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer problems and academic achievement correlated significantly with MZ differences in birthweight and early family environment, showing effect sizes of up to 2%. As predicted by earlier research, associations increased at the extremes of discordance, even in a longitudinal, cross-rater design, with effect sizes reaching as high as 12%. As with previous research some of these non-shared environmental (NSE) relationships appeared to operate partly as a function of SES, family chaos and maternal depression. Higher-risk families generally showed stronger negative associations.

  2. Teaching the Age of the City: The Gilded Age and After (1865-1914). A Guide for Seventh Grade Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    Resource materials which lead to concept understandings of social change in New York City are presented in this seventh grade curriculum guide. By focusing on historical and social conditions, problems, and values in an objective manner, it is hoped that students learn through an inductive approach how to better deal with today's urbanization…

  3. Teaching Effectiveness, Course Evaluation, and Academic Performance: The Role of Academic Delay of Gratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2009-01-01

    Academic delay of gratification is a significant and positive predictor of students' final course grades, even after controlling for the effect of their rating of the course, expected grade, and degree of interest, importance, and utility of the academic task. Students' expected course grades are by far the strongest predictor of their final…

  4. Longitudinal Impact of Two Universal Preventive Interventions in First Grade on Educational Outcomes in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Zmuda, Jessika H.; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of 2 first-grade universal preventive interventions on academic outcomes (e.g., achievement, special education service use, graduation, postsecondary education) through age 19 in a sample of 678 urban, primarily African American children. The classroom-centered intervention combined the Good Behavior…

  5. Teacher-Student Relationship and Peer Disliking and Liking across Grades 1-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Im, Myung H.

    2016-01-01

    Between-child and within-child effects of teacher-student warmth and conflict on children's peer-nominated disliking and liking across Grades 1-4 (ages 6-10) were investigated in a sample of 746 ethnically diverse and academically at-risk children in Texas. Multilevel modeling controlled for time-invariant between-child differences while modeling…

  6. Physical Access to Schooling in South Africa: Mapping Dropout, Repetition and Age-Grade Progression in Two Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motala, Shireen; Dieltiens, Veerle; Sayed, Yusuf

    2009-01-01

    The Education for All and Millennium Development Goals commit national governments, international agencies and civil society to ensure that all children are provided with basic education. In South Africa this would mean full attendance in Grades (1-9). The achievement of universal primary education and gender equity across low-income countries are…

  7. Piaget: A Handbook for Parents and Teachers of Children in the Age of Discovery--Preschool Through Third Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Victoria; Peterson, Rosemary

    This handbook, primarily for parents and teachers of preschool through third grade children, provides some insights into Piaget's theories about how children think and learn and presents ideas for using Piagetian-type activities and games in the home or classroom. (The handbook does not attempt to give a comprehensive analysis of Piaget's theory…

  8. It's Not as Simple as It Seems: Doing Honest Academic Work in an Age of Point and Click

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenbury, Leila

    2009-01-01

    There have been and always will be those who try to game the system. The academic system is no exception, and probably since the time Plato and Socrates gathered students around them to discuss the philosophical verities there were those in the group who calculated how they could creatively prune what the master teachers asked them to do and…

  9. The Effects of Maternal Postnatal Depression and Child Sex on Academic Performance at Age 16 Years: A Developmental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne; Arteche, Adriane; Fearon, Pasco; Halligan, Sarah; Croudace, Tim; Cooper, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postnatal depression (PND) is associated with poor cognitive functioning in infancy and the early school years; long-term effects on academic outcome are not known. Method: Children of postnatally depressed (N = 50) and non-depressed mothers (N = 39), studied from infancy, were followed up at 16 years. We examined the effects on…

  10. Family Background, School-Age Trajectories of Activity Participation, and Academic Achievement at the Start of High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Smith, Chelsea; Leventhal, Tama

    2015-01-01

    Applying latent class and regression techniques to data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 997), this study explored the potential academic advantages of time spent in out-of-school activities. Of particular interest was how these potential advantages played out in relation to the timing and duration of activity…

  11. Prenatal Caloric Intake and the Development of Academic Achievement among U.S. Children from Ages 5 to 14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Eric J.; Beaver, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relation between maternal caloric intake during pregnancy and growth in child academic achievement while controlling for important confounding influences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the current study examined the effects of reduced prenatal caloric intake on growth in scores on the…

  12. Adaptation of the Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills to Turkish Children Aged 61 to 72 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uyanik, Ozgun; Kandir, Adalet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is s to adapt and apply t the Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills (K-SEALS) to Turkish children in the city of Ankara. In the study, a descriptive screening model was used. The population of the study consisted of children who showed normal developmental characteristics and who were enrolled at public…

  13. Teacher-Student Relationship and Academic Achievement: A Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Study on Three Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Košir, Katja; Tement, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Although the relation between teacher--student relationship and academic achievement has been addressed in many studies, the reciprocal relations between these two constructs have not been explored sufficiently. The aim of the present study was to test three competing models that hypothesized directionality of influence in relations between…

  14. SCC INITIATION AND GROWTH RATE STUDIES ON TITANIUM GRADE 7 AND BASE METAL, WELDED, AND AGED ALLOY 22 IN CONCENTRATED GROUNDWATER

    SciTech Connect

    J.H. Payer

    2005-08-01

    The stress corrosion crack initiation and growth rate response was evaluated on as-received, as-welded, cold worked and aged Alloy 22 (UNS N06022) and titanium Grades 7 (UNS R52400), 28 (UNS R55323) and 29 (UNS R56404) at 105-165 C in various aerated, concentrated groundwater environments. Time-to-failure experiments on actively-loaded tensile specimens at 105 C evaluated the effects of applied stress, welding, surface finish, shot peening, cold work, crevicing, and aging treatments in Alloy 22 (UNS N06022), and found these materials to be highly resistant to SCC (none observed). Long-term U-bend data at 165 C corroborated these findings. Titanium Grade 7 and stainless steels were also included in the 105 C test matrix. Long term crack growth rate data showed stable crack growth in titanium Grade 7. Recent creep tests in air confirm literature data that these alloys are quite susceptible to creep failure, even below the yield stress, and it is unclear whether cracking in SCC tests is only accelerated by the creep response, or whether creep is responsible for cracking. Alloy 22 exhibited stable growth rates under ''gentle'' cyclic loading, but was prone to crack arrest at fully static loading. No effect of Pb additions was observed.

  15. The Social Interactions of Students with Disabilities in a 5th Grade Level Inclusive Classroom and the Effect on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall-Reed, Estella

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative, ethnographic case study of 3 students with disabilities. The purpose of this research study was to observe and collect descriptive accounts of the social interactions that exist between the cultures in a 5th grade level inclusive classroom, such as the interactions between the special education students, general…

  16. The Relationship between Music and Visual Arts Formal Study and Academic Achievement on the Eighth-Grade Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Richard Allen, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the policy implications allowing administrators to exempt a student from required arts instruction if the student obtained unsatisfactory scores on the high-stake state mandated tests in English and mathematics. This study examined English language arts and math test scores for 37,222 eighth grade students…

  17. The Effect of Blended Learning Approach on Fifth Grade Students' Academic Achievement in My Beautiful Language Textbook and the Development of Their Verbal Creative Thinking in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Madani, Feras Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the effect of Blended Learning approach compared to the traditional learning approach on fifth grade students' achievement in My Beautiful Language Textbook and the development of their verbal creative thinking. The study consisted of 49 students among which 25 are males in the Experimental Group and 24 females in…

  18. The Long Term Effects of Social Skills Training in Elevating Overall Academic Grade Point Average, School Attendance, Health Level, and Resistance to Drug Use and Peer Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Nancy; Smith, Manuel J.

    Project STAR (Social Thinking and Reasoning Program) is a classroom-based social skills program for students in grades 5-8. To assess the long-term effectiveness of this program, students participated in the project (N=331) were compared with control students (N=191) during 1980-83. The hypothesis that there are significant differences in current…

  19. Comparison of Two Small-Group Learning Methods in 12th-Grade Physics Classes Focusing on Intrinsic Motivation and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Roland; Hanze, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Twelfth-grade physics classes with 344 students participated in a quasi-experimental study comparing two small-group learning settings. In the jigsaw classroom, in contrast to the cyclical rotation method, teaching expectancy as well as resource interdependence is established. The study is based on the self-determination theory of motivation,…

  20. Mean Cumulative Grade Point Average by Class, Sex, and Quarter for the Academic Years of 1971-1972 to 1975-1976 at the University of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wolf, Virginia A.

    This is one in a series of technical reports presenting summary statistics derived from the University of Washington registrar's office quarterly scholarship lists. Two types of tables are included: first, for each class, the mean cumulative grade-point average, standard deviation, and number of students enrolled in autum, winter, and spring…

  1. Academic Bias in Language Testing: A Construct Validity Critique of the IPT I Oral Grades K-6 Spanish Second Edition (IPT Spanish)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacSwan, Jeff; Mahoney, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Construct validity concerns for the IPT I Oral Grades K-6 Spanish Second Edition (IPT-S) as a measure of native oral language proficiency are examined. The examination included describing a subset of items that contributes most to overall score and native-language proficiency designation. Correlations between this subset of items and the overall…

  2. Modeling the Relationship between Lexico-Grammatical and Discourse Organization Skills in Middle Grade Writers: Insights into Later Productive Language Skills That Support Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Emily Phillips; Uccelli, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Learning to write in middle school requires the expansion of sentence-level and discourse-level language skills. In this study, we investigated later language development in the writing of a cross-sectional sample of 235 upper elementary and middle school students (grades 4-8) by examining the use of (1) lexico-grammatical forms that support…

  3. Academic Growth Trajectories of ELLs in NAEP Data: The Case of Fourth- and Eighth-Grade ELLs and Non-ELLs on Mathematics and Reading Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Nihat; Zarecky-Hodge, Ashley; Schreiber, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) data, this study examined (1) how fourth and eighth-grade ELLs' mathematics and reading scores on national tests compared to their non-ELL peers' scores over the testing period between 2003 and 2011, and (2) if gender and ethnicity contributed to variation in the growth patterns…

  4. A Synthesis of Peer-Mediated Academic Interventions for Secondary Struggling Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Jade; Reed, Deborah K.; Pyle, Nicole; Mitchell, Marisa; Barton, Erin E.

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis of the extant research on peer-mediated reading and math interventions for students in regular or alternative education settings with academic difficulties and disabilities in Grades 6 to 12 (ages 11-18) is presented. Interventions conducted between 2001 and 2012 targeting reading and math were included if they measured effects on at…

  5. Families' Goals, School Involvement, and Children's Academic Achievement: A Follow-Up Study Thirteen Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Diane W.

    2011-01-01

    A study conducted from 1996-2000 focused on the academic development of children within a statewide educational reform effort, including changing the organizational structure of the early years of schooling into nongraded primary programs (formerly age-based classrooms for kindergarteners through third grade). The multisite study involved children…

  6. Improving Academic Achievement of Students with Problematic Attendance by Implementing a Multisystemic School-Based Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, James Edward

    2010-01-01

    This study addressed the problem of poor attendance adversely affecting grades and learning. Current school policies do not address problematic attendance for all school-aged children, perpetuating trends of academic failure. The research objective was to determine if unexcused absences had a greater negative impact on a high-stakes test compared…

  7. Experiences of Violence and Deficits in Academic Achievement among Urban Primary School Children in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Henningham, Helen; Meeks-Gardner, Julie; Chang, Susan; Walker, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between children's experiences of three different types of violence and academic achievement among primary school children in Kingston, Jamaica. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 1300 children in grade 5 [mean (S.D.) age: 11 (0.5) years] from 29 government primary schools in urban…

  8. Does Adolescents' Disclosure to their Parents Matter for their Academic Adjustment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Cecilia S.-S.; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Dong, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The role of adolescents' disclosure to their parents in their academic adjustment was examined in a study of 825 American and Chinese adolescents (mean age = 12.73 years). Four times over the seventh and eighth grades, adolescents reported on their spontaneous disclosure of everyday activities to their parents, the quality of their relationships…

  9. Self-Representations of Social and Academic Competence: Contextual Correlates in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabella, Russell A.; Diener, Marissa L.

    2010-01-01

    Self-representations of 1st-, 3rd-, and 5th-graders' social and academic competence were examined in relation to children's personal (grade/age); family (attachment to parents, marital conflict, anxiety related to conflict); and school (teacher appraisals) contexts. Children who reported higher levels of security of attachment to parents and lower…

  10. The Impact of the Academic Library on Student Success: Connecting the Dots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorpe, Angie; Lukes, Ria; Bever, Diane J.; He, Yan

    2016-01-01

    In an age of assessment and accountability, academic libraries feel much pressure to prove their value according to new university measurements of student success. This study describes a methodology for how libraries may examine student interactions with services to assess whether library usage impacts student grade point averages (GPAs) and…

  11. Pathways of Parenting Style on Adolescents' College Adjustment, Academic Achievement, and Alcohol Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Hummer, Justin F.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the pathways of parenting style (permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative) to alcohol consumption and consequences through the mediators of college adjustment and academic achievement (grade point average [GPA]). Participants were 289 students from a private, mid-size, West Coast university (mean age 19.01 years, 58.8%…

  12. U-Pb garnet, sphene, monazite, and rutile ages: Implications for the duration of high-grade metamorphism and cooling histories, Adirondack Mts. , New York

    SciTech Connect

    Mezger, K.; Rawnsley, C.M.; Hanson, G.N. ); Bohlen, S.R. )

    1991-05-01

    Garnet ages for the Lowlands range from 1,168-1,127 Ma, those from the central and southern Highlands from 1,154-1,013 Ma. Metamorphism in the Highlands may not have occurred as a single event but rather in several discrete thermal pulses. An age of 1,153 {plus minus} 3 Ma was determined for garnets in the syn-regional metamorphic contact aureole of the Diana syenite, consistent with that of the syenite intrusion, 1 155 {plus minus} 4 Ma. Garnets just outside the contact aureole give an age of 1,168 {plus minus} 6 Ma. In the Lowlands, monazite yielded an age of 1,161 {plus minus} 1 Ma, rutiles yielded ages of 1,005 {plus minus} 2 Ma and 953 {plus minus} 4 Ma, and sphene ages range from 1,156 to 1,103 Ma. In the Highlands, monazite yielded an age of 1,033 {plus minus} 1 Ma, rutiles yielded ages of 911 {plus minus} 2 Ma and 885 {plus minus} 2 and sphenes from 1,033 Ma to 991 Ma. The rutile and monazite ages indicate that both terranes cooled at time-integrated rates of ca. 1.5C/Ma for at least 150 Ma following the last phase of high-grade metamorphism. The Lowlands cooled to ca. 400C by ca. 1,000 Ma and the Highlands by ca. 900 Ma. The mineral ages indicate that metamorphic pressures and temperatures recorded by thermobarometry correspond to conditions attained polychronically over 150 Ma or more. Mineral ages combined with temperature estimates for peak metamorphism indicate that the closure temperature for the U-Pb system is >800C in garnet, 640-730C in monazite, and 500-670C in sphene.

  13. Maternal Perinatal Mental Health and Offspring Academic Achievement at Age 16: The Mediating Role of Childhood Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Rebecca M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Cordero, Miguel; Scerif, Gaia; Mahedy, Liam; Evans, Jonathan; Abioye, Abu; Stein, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Elucidating risk pathways for under-achieving at school can inform strategies to reduce the number of adolescents leaving school without passing grades in core subjects. Maternal depression can compromise the quality of parental care and is associated with multiple negative child outcomes. However, only a few small studies have…

  14. Social, Emotional, and Academic Impact of Residual Speech Errors in School-Aged Children: A Survey Study.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, Elaine R; Harel, Daphna; Byun, Tara McAllister

    2015-11-01

    Children with residual speech errors face an increased risk of social, emotional, and/or academic challenges relative to their peers with typical speech. Previous research has shown that the effects of speech sound disorder may persist into adulthood and span multiple domains of activity limitations and/or participation restrictions, as defined by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model. However, the nature and extent of these influences varies widely across children. This study aimed to expand the evidence base on the social, emotional, and academic impact of residual speech errors by collecting survey data from parents of children receiving treatment for /r/ misarticulation. By examining the relationship between an overall measure of impact (weighted summed score) and responses to 11 survey items, the present study offers preliminary suggestions for factors that could be considered when making decisions pertaining to treatment allocation in this population.

  15. Learned Resourcefulness Moderates the Relationship between Academic Stress and Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akgun, Serap; Ciarrochi, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Explored whether more resourceful students could protect themselves from academic stress, particularly in terms of not allowing stress to affect their grades. Focuses on college freshman (n=141) who completed measures of academic stress and learned resourcefulness. Includes references. (CMK)

  16. What Makes Siblings Different? The Development of Sibling Differences in Academic Achievement and Interests

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Alexander C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    To illuminate processes that contribute to the development of sibling differences, this study examined cross lagged links between parents’ beliefs about sibling differences in academic ability and differences between siblings’ grade point averages (GPAs), and cross lagged links between differences in siblings’ GPAs and sibling differences in academic interests. Data were collected from mothers, fathers, firstborn (M age at Time 1 = 15.71, SD = 1.07) and secondborn (M age at Time 1 = 13.18, SD = 1.29) youth from 388 European American Families on three annual occasions. Findings revealed that, after controlling for siblings’ average grades and prior differences in performance, parents’ beliefs about sibling differences in academic ability predicted differences in performance such that youth rated by parents as relatively more competent than their sibling earned relatively higher grades the following year. Siblings’ relative school performance, however, did not predict parents’ beliefs about differences between siblings’ competencies. Further, after controlling for average interests and grades, sibling differences in GPA predicted differences in siblings’ interests such that youth who had better grades than their siblings reported relatively stronger academic interests the following year. Differences in interest, however, did not predict sibling differences in GPA. Findings are discussed in terms the role of sibling dynamics in family socialization. PMID:26053351

  17. Aggression, social competence, and academic achievement in Chinese children: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinyin; Huang, Xiaorui; Chang, Lei; Wang, Li; Li, Dan

    2010-08-01

    The primary purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine, in a sample of Chinese children (initial M age = 8 years, N = 1,140), contributions of aggression to the development of social competence and academic achievement. Five waves of panel data on aggression and social and school performance were collected from peer evaluations, teacher ratings, and school records in Grades 2 to 5. Structural equation modeling revealed that aggression had unique effects on later social competence and academic achievement after their stabilities were controlled, particularly in the junior grades. Aggression also had significant indirect effects on social and academic outcomes through multiple pathways. Social competence and academic achievement contributed to the development of each other, but not aggression. The results indicate cascade effects of aggression in Chinese children from a developmental perspective.

  18. Parent involvement in the academic adjustment of Latino middle and high school youth: teacher expectations and school belonging as mediators.

    PubMed

    Kuperminc, Gabriel P; Darnell, Adam J; Alvarez-Jimenez, Anabel

    2008-08-01

    A path model based in a theory of social capital was tested with Latino middle school (n=195, 58% female, average 13.8 years of age) and high school students (n=129, 64% female, average 16.8 years of age). Most participants (77%) were immigrants (predominantly from Mexico). Questionnaires assessed student perceptions of parent involvement, school belonging, and academic competence. Teachers rated their expectations for student academic attainment and grades were obtained from school records. Perceived school belonging and teacher expectations mediated cross-sectional associations of parent involvement with academic adjustment. Links between parent involvement and academic adjustment were stronger for high school than middle school students. Middle school parent involvement was unrelated to teacher expectations and its indirect effect on school grades was non-significant. Future research should examine the link between middle school parent involvement and teacher expectations and its potential role in increasing Latino youths' school success.

  19. Evidence for the Importance of Academic Word Knowledge for the Academic Achievement of Diverse Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Dianna; Filippini, Alexis; Collins, Penelope; Biancarosa, Gina

    2012-01-01

    Despite the current theoretical momentum for the importance of academic English and the acknowledgment that academic materials increase in complexity through the grades, little empirical attention has been devoted to the role of academic English in academic achievement. This study examined the amount of variance in academic achievement explained…

  20. Grades as Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior coursework,…

  1. Grade Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renchler, Ron

    2000-01-01

    This issue reviews grade span, or grade configuration. Catherine Paglin and Jennifer Fager's "Grade Configuration: Who Goes Where?" provides an overview of issues and concerns related to grade spans and supplies profiles of eight Northwest schools with varying grade spans. David F. Wihry, Theodore Coladarci, and Curtis Meadow's "Grade Span and…

  2. Proposal for a new risk stratification classification for meningioma based on patient age, WHO tumor grade, size, localization, and karyotype

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Patrícia Henriques; Sousa, Pablo; Otero, Álvaro; Gonçalves, Jesus Maria; Ruiz, Laura; de Oliveira, Catarina; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Orfao, Alberto; Tabernero, Maria Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Background Tumor recurrence remains the major clinical complication of meningiomas, the majority of recurrences occurring among WHO grade I/benign tumors. In the present study, we propose a new scoring system for the prognostic stratification of meningioma patients based on analysis of a large series of meningiomas followed for a median of >5 years. Methods Tumor cytogenetics were systematically investigated by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization in 302 meningioma samples, and the proposed classification was further validated in an independent series of cases (n = 132) analyzed by high-density (500K) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Results Overall, we found an adverse impact on patient relapse-free survival (RFS) for males, presence of brain edema, younger patients (<55 years), tumor size >50 mm, tumor localization at intraventricular and anterior cranial base areas, WHO grade II/III meningiomas, and complex karyotypes; the latter 5 variables showed an independent predictive value in multivariate analysis. Based on these parameters, a prognostic score was established for each individual case, and patients were stratified into 4 risk categories with significantly different (P < .001) outcomes. These included a good prognosis group, consisting of approximately 20% of cases, that showed a RFS of 100% ± 0% at 10 years and a very poor-prognosis group with a RFS rate of 0% ± 0% at 10 years. The prognostic impact of the scoring system proposed here was also retained when WHO grade I cases were considered separately (P < .001). Conclusions Based on this risk-stratification classification, different strategies may be adopted for follow-up, and eventually also for treatment, of meningioma patients at different risks for relapse. PMID:24536048

  3. Using community--academic partnerships and a comprehensive school-based program to decrease health disparities in activity in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kynna; Suro, Zulma

    2014-01-01

    Many underserved school-age children do not meet the recommended guidelines for physical activity. While children ultimately depend on parents, they also look to schools for their access to developmentally appropriate physical activity. The present randomized controlled trial study utilized a community-academic partnered participatory research approach to evaluate the impact of a culturally sensitive, comprehensive, school-based, program, Kids N Fitness(©), on body mass index (BMI), and child physical activity behavior, including: daily physical activity, team sports participation, attending PE class, and TV viewing/computer game playing, among underserved children ages 8-12 (N = 251) in Los Angeles County. All measures were collected at baseline, 4 and 12 months post-intervention. Students who participated in the KNF program had significant decreases in BMI Z-score, TV viewing, and an increase in PE class attendance from baseline to the 12 month follow-up. Our study shows the value of utilizing community-academic partnerships and a culturally sensitive, multi-component, collaborative intervention.

  4. Grade Inflation Marches On: Grade Increases from the 1990s to 2000s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostal, Jack W.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Grade inflation threatens the integrity of college grades as indicators of academic achievement. In this study, we contribute to the literature on grade inflation by providing the first estimate of the size of grade increases at the student level between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s. By controlling for student characteristics and course-taking…

  5. Entrepreneurship Education and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Vegard

    2014-01-01

    The significant increase of entrepreneurship education (EE) is a trend in Europe. Entrepreneurship education is supposed to promote general and specific entrepreneurial abilities and improve academic performance. This paper evaluates whether EE influences academic performance, measured by Grade Point Average. The main indicator used for EE is the…

  6. Diet Quality and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florence, Michelle D.; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although the effects of nutrition on health and school performance are often cited, few research studies have examined the effect of diet quality on the academic performance of children. This study examines the association between overall diet quality and academic performance. Methods: In 2003, 5200 grade 5 students in Nova Scotia,…

  7. Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Aspect of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation (Pathophysiological ParaInflammation)

    PubMed Central

    Nita, Małgorzata; Ascaso, Francisco J.; Huerva, Valentín

    2014-01-01

    The products of oxidative stress trigger chronic low-grade inflammation (pathophysiological parainflammation) process in AMD patients. In early AMD, soft drusen contain many mediators of chronic low-grade inflammation such as C-reactive protein, adducts of the carboxyethylpyrrole protein, immunoglobulins, and acute phase molecules, as well as the complement-related proteins C3a, C5a, C5, C5b-9, CFH, CD35, and CD46. The complement system, mainly alternative pathway, mediates chronic autologous pathophysiological parainflammation in dry and exudative AMD, especially in the Y402H gene polymorphism, which causes hypofunction/lack of the protective complement factor H (CFH) and facilitates chronic inflammation mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP). Microglial activation induces photoreceptor cells injury and leads to the development of dry AMD. Many autoantibodies (antibodies against alpha beta crystallin, alpha-actinin, amyloid, C1q, chondroitin, collagen I, collagen III, collagen IV, elastin, fibronectin, heparan sulfate, histone H2A, histone H2B, hyaluronic acid, laminin, proteoglycan, vimentin, vitronectin, and aldolase C and pyruvate kinase M2) and overexpression of Fcc receptors play role in immune-mediated inflammation in AMD patients and in animal model. Macrophages infiltration of retinal/choroidal interface acts as protective factor in early AMD (M2 phenotype macrophages); however it acts as proinflammatory and proangiogenic factor in advanced AMD (M1 and M2 phenotype macrophages). PMID:25214719

  8. Children's effortful control and academic achievement: do relational peer victimization and classroom participation operate as mediators?

    PubMed

    Valiente, Carlos; Swanson, Jodi; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Berger, Rebecca H

    2014-08-01

    Given that early academic achievement is related to numerous developmental outcomes, understanding processes that promote early success in school is important. This study was designed to clarify how students' (N=291; M age in fall of kindergarten=5.66 years, SD=0.39 year) effortful control, relational peer victimization, and classroom participation relate to achievement, as students progress from kindergarten to first grade. Effortful control and achievement were assessed in kindergarten, classroom participation and relational peer victimization were assessed in the fall of first grade, and achievement was reassessed in the spring of first grade. Classroom participation, but not relational peer victimization, mediated relations between effortful control and first grade standardized and teacher-rated achievement, controlling for kindergarten achievement. Findings suggest that aspects of classroom participation, such as the ability to work independently, may be useful targets of intervention for enhancing academic achievement in young children. PMID:25107413

  9. Trajectories of Discrimination Across Adolescence: Associations With Academic, Psychological, and Behavioral Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Diane; Del Toro, Juan; Harding, Jessica F; Way, Niobe; Rarick, Jason R D

    2016-09-01

    The authors explored trajectories of perceived discrimination over a 6-year period (five assessments in 6th-11th grade) in relation to academic, behavioral, and psychological adjustment in 8th and 11th grades. They distinguished discrimination from adults versus peers in addition to overt versus covert discrimination from peers. The sample included 226 African American, White, Dominican, Puerto Rican, and Chinese adolescents (ages 11-12 at Time 1) recruited in sixth grade from six public schools in New York City. All forms of discrimination increased during middle school and decreased during high school. The frequency with which adolescents reported different sources and types of discrimination varied across ethnicity/race, but not gender. Initial levels and rates of change in discrimination predicted academic, behavioral, and psychological adjustment in 8th and 11th grades, albeit in complex ways. PMID:27684390

  10. Effects of Age on Adaptive Behavior Levels and Academic Skill Levels in Autistic and Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ando, Haruhiko; And Others

    1980-01-01

    It was found that the levels of toilet training, eating skills, participation in group activities, and self-control in the autistic children improved significantly with age. The skills of number concepts in the autistic children also improved with age. (Author)

  11. Teaching and Academic Standards Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handleman, Chester

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the decline of educational standards as reflected in national test scores and discusses four pedagogic causes for this decline: the abandonment of written tests in favor of objective, true/false testing techniques; nonpunitive grading and attendance policies; excessive use of technology in the classroom; and academic grade inflation. (JP)

  12. Is Collective Efficacy Age Graded? The Development and Evaluation of a New Measure of Collective Efficacy for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Galinsky, Adena M.; Cagney, Kathleen A.; Browning, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Community processes are key determinants of older adults' ability to age in place, but existing scales measuring these constructs may not provide accurate, unbiased measurements among older adults because they were designed with the concerns of child-rearing respondents in mind. This study examines the properties of a new theory-based measure of collective efficacy (CE) that accounts for the perspectives of older residents. Methods. Data come from the population-based Chicago Neighborhood Organization, Aging and Health study (N = 1,151), which surveyed adults aged 65 to 95. Using descriptive statistics, correlations, and factor analysis, we explored the acceptability, reliability, and validity of the new measure. Results. Principal component analysis indicated that the new scale measures a single latent factor. It had good internal consistency reliability, was highly correlated with the original scale, and was similarly associated with neighborhood exchange and disorder, self-rated health, mobility, and loneliness. The new scale also showed less age-differentiated nonresponse compared to the original scale. Discussion. The older adult CE scale has reliability and validity equivalent to that of the existing measure but benefits from a more developed theoretical grounding and reduced likelihood of age-related differential nonresponse. PMID:22315685

  13. Homework Involvement and Academic Achievement of Native and Immigrant Students

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Natalia; Regueiro, Bibiana; Epstein, Joyce L.; Piñeiro, Isabel; Díaz, Sara M.; Valle, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Homework is a debated issue in society and its relationship with academic achievement has been deeply studied in the last years. Nowadays, schools are multicultural stages in which students from different cultures and ethnicities work together. In this sense, the present study aims to compare homework involvement and academic achievement in a sample of native and immigrant students, as well as to study immigrant students’ relationship between homework involvement and Math achievement. The sample included 1328 students, 10–16 years old from Spanish families (85.6%) or immigrant students or students of immigrant origin (14.4%) from South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. The study was developed considering three informants: elementary and secondary students, their parents and their teachers. Results showed higher involvement in homework in native students than in immigrant. Between immigrants students, those who are more involved in homework have better academic achievement in Math at secondary grades. There weren’t found gender differences on homework involvement, but age differences were reported. Immigrant students are less involved in homework at secondary grades that students in elementary grades. The study highlights the relevance of homework involvement in academic achievement in immigrant students. PMID:27757097

  14. Predicting First Year University Students' Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olani, Aboma

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Premature withdrawal from university due to academic failure can present problems for students, families and educators. In an effort to widen the understanding regarding factors predicting academic success in higher institutions, prior academic achievement measures (preparatory school grade average point (GPA), aptitude test scores,…

  15. Age of Exploration. Grade 5 Model Lesson for Standard 5.2. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 5.2 is delineated as: Students trace the routes of early explorers and describe the early explorations of the Americas. The Age of Exploration, which began in the late 1400s, was an important era in the discovery and development of land yet unknown to Europeans. During this period, Europeans sought new sea routes to Asia…

  16. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status at Age One, Opportunities to Learn and Achievement in Mathematics in Fourth Grade in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cueto, Santiago; Guerrero, Gabriela; Leon, Juan; Zapata, Mayli; Freire, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Using Young Lives longitudinal data from Peru, this paper explores the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) measured at the age of one, opportunities to learn (OTL) and achievement in mathematics ten years later. Four variables of OTL were measured: hours of class per year, curriculum coverage, quality of teachers' feedback, and…

  17. The Effects of Cross-Age Tutoring on the Reading Ability of First and Second Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderberg, Rachel G.

    2013-01-01

    The positive effect of early intervention upon the reading abilities of struggling students has been well documented by research. Unfortunately, the current economic situation has eliminated the positions of many interventionists serving in school districts across the country. Cross-age tutoring has been implemented in many places as a replacement…

  18. Changes in Early Adolescents' Sense of Responsibility to Their Parents in the United States and China: Implications for Academic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Eva M.; Qin, Lili; Wang, Qian; Chen, Huichang

    2011-01-01

    This research examined American and Chinese children's sense of responsibility to their parents during early adolescence, with a focus on its implications for children's academic functioning. Four times over the seventh and eighth grades, 825 children (mean age = 12.73 years) in the United States and China reported on their sense of responsibility…

  19. Patterns and Predictors of Adolescent Academic Achievement and Performance in a Sample of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy; Hechtman, Lily

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined predictors of academic achievement, measured by standardized test scores, and performance, measured by school grades, in adolescents (Mn = 16.8) who met diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Combined type in early childhood (Mn age = 8.5; N = 579). Several mediation models were also…

  20. Age and Race Differences in Racial Stereotype Awareness and Endorsement

    PubMed Central

    Copping, Kristine E.; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Wood, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Age and race differences in race stereotype awareness and endorsement were examined in 382 Black and White fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Youth reported their own beliefs and their perceptions of adults’ beliefs about racial differences in ability in two domains: academics and sports. Children’s own endorsement of race stereotypes was highly correlated with their perceptions of adults’ race stereotypes. Blacks reported stronger traditional sports stereotypes than Whites, and fourth- and sixth-grade Blacks reported roughly egalitarian academic stereotypes. At every grade level, Whites reported academic stereotypes that favored Whites, and sixth and eighth grade Whites reported sports stereotypes that favored Blacks. Results support the tenets of status theory and have implications for identity development and achievement motivation in adolescents. PMID:23729837

  1. Guidelines for Grade Advancement of Precocious Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldhusen, John F.; Proctor, Theron B.; Black, Kathryn N.

    2002-01-01

    This reprint of an article on using grade advancement as a method for meeting the needs of some intellectually or academically gifted students is preceded by a commentary that concludes that popular sentiment and negative folklore supporting grade advancement are unfounded. Grade advancement guidelines are provided. (Contains references.) (CR)

  2. Academic buoyancy: Towards an understanding of students' everyday academic resilience.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew J; Marsh, Herbert W

    2008-02-01

    Academic buoyancy is developed as a construct reflecting everyday academic resilience within a positive psychology context and is defined as students' ability to successfully deal with academic setbacks and challenges that are typical of the ordinary course of school life (e.g., poor grades, competing deadlines, exam pressure, difficult schoolwork). Data were collected from 598 students in Years 8 and 10 at five Australian high schools. Half-way through the school year and then again at the end of the year, students were asked to rate their academic buoyancy as well as a set of hypothesized predictors (self-efficacy, control, academic engagement, anxiety, teacher-student relationship) in the area of mathematics. Multilevel modeling found that the bulk of variance in academic buoyancy was explained at the student level. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling showed that (a) Time 1 anxiety (negatively), self-efficacy, and academic engagement significantly predict Time 1 academic buoyancy; (b) Time 2 anxiety (negatively), self-efficacy, academic engagement, and teacher-student relationships explain variance in Time 2 academic buoyancy over and above that explained by academic buoyancy at Time 1; and (c) of the significant predictors, anxiety explains the bulk of variance in academic buoyancy. PMID:19083351

  3. Academic buoyancy: Towards an understanding of students' everyday academic resilience.

    PubMed

    Martin, Andrew J; Marsh, Herbert W

    2008-02-01

    Academic buoyancy is developed as a construct reflecting everyday academic resilience within a positive psychology context and is defined as students' ability to successfully deal with academic setbacks and challenges that are typical of the ordinary course of school life (e.g., poor grades, competing deadlines, exam pressure, difficult schoolwork). Data were collected from 598 students in Years 8 and 10 at five Australian high schools. Half-way through the school year and then again at the end of the year, students were asked to rate their academic buoyancy as well as a set of hypothesized predictors (self-efficacy, control, academic engagement, anxiety, teacher-student relationship) in the area of mathematics. Multilevel modeling found that the bulk of variance in academic buoyancy was explained at the student level. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling showed that (a) Time 1 anxiety (negatively), self-efficacy, and academic engagement significantly predict Time 1 academic buoyancy; (b) Time 2 anxiety (negatively), self-efficacy, academic engagement, and teacher-student relationships explain variance in Time 2 academic buoyancy over and above that explained by academic buoyancy at Time 1; and (c) of the significant predictors, anxiety explains the bulk of variance in academic buoyancy.

  4. Cardiovascular and metabolic responses of trained and untrained middle-aged men to a graded treadmill walking test.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D. H.; Williams, C.

    1983-01-01

    A treadmill walking test was developed in order to provide a suitable method of assessing the fitness levels of sedentary middle-aged men (mean age, 44.3 yrs) at submaximal intensity. The incremental stages of the test enabled subjects to terminate the workload whenever undue discomfort was experienced. The test procedure was used in a preliminary experiment to compare the cardiovascular and metabolic responses of trained and untrained middle-aged men to exercise. Heart rate responses to the test were significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in the untrained, compared with the trained, men as were the post-exercise blood lactic acid concentrations (p less than 0.01), Respiratory Exchange Ratios (p less than 0.01), Ventilatory Equivalents (p less than 0.05) and Rate of Perceived Exertion (p less than 0.01). However, there were no differences in the oxygen cost of walking between the two groups. Images p110-a p110-b PMID:6883018

  5. Nutritional quality of diet and academic performance in Chilean students

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore associations between the nutritional quality of diet at age 16 years and academic performance in students from Santiago, Chile. Methods We assessed the nutritional quality of diet, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, in 395 students aged 16.8 ± 0.5 years. Depending on the amount of saturated fat, fibre, sugar and salt in the foods, diet was categorized as unhealthy, fair or healthy. Academic performance was assessed using high school grade-point average (GPA) and tests for college admission in language and mathematics. Academic results on or above the 75th percentile in our sample were considered good academic performance. We tested associations between nutritional quality of diet and good academic performance using logistic regression models. We considered sociodemographic, educational and body-mass index (BMI) factors as potential confounders. Findings After controlling for potential confounding factors, an unhealthy diet at age 16 years was associated with reduced academic performance. Compared to participants with healthy diets, those with unhealthy diets were significantly less likely to perform well based on language tests (odds ratio, OR: 0.42; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.18–0.98) mathematics tests (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.15–0.82) or GPA (OR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.09–0.56). Conclusion In our sample, excessive consumption of energy-dense, low-fibre, high-fat foods at age 16 years was associated with reduced academic performance. PMID:26966329

  6. Associations of Student Temperament and Educational Competence with Academic Achievement: The Role of Teacher Age and Teacher and Student Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullola, Sari; Jokela, Markus; Ravaja, Niklas; Lipsanen, Jari; Hintsanen, Mirka; Alatupa, Saija; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    We examined associations of teacher-perceived student temperament and educational competence with school achievement, and how these associations were modified by students' gender and teachers' gender and age. Participants were 1063 Finnish ninth-graders (534 boys) and their 29 Mother Language teachers (all female) and 43 Mathematics teachers (17…

  7. A Quantitative Examination of Grade Configuration and Achievement of Eighth-Grade Students in Georgia on the Mathematics and Reading Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this causal comparative study was to examine effect of the K-8 grade span configuration on the academic achievement of 8th-grade students in the State of Georgia, and to determine the viability of the K-8 grade configuration as a strategy for improving the academic achievement of students at the middle grade levels. This study…

  8. Academic Blogging: Academic Practice and Academic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkup, Gill

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale study which investigates the role of blogging in professional academic practice in higher education. It draws on interviews with a sample of academics (scholars, researchers and teachers) who have blogs and on the author's own reflections on blogging to investigate the function of blogging in academic practice…

  9. Effects of Peer Academic Reputation on Achievement in Academically At-Risk Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Dyer, Nicole; Luo, Wen; Kwok, Oi-Man

    2009-01-01

    664 relatively low achieving first grade children were recruited into a longitudinal study. Measures of peer academic reputation (PAR), peer acceptance, teacher-rated academic engagement and achievement, and reading and math achievement were obtained in Year 2, when the majority of students were in second grade, and 1 year later. Measures of…

  10. Academic writing in a corpus of 4th grade science notebooks: An analysis of student language use and adult expectations of the genres of school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquinca, Alberto

    This is a study of language use in the context of an inquiry-based science curriculum in which conceptual understanding ratings are used split texts into groups of "successful" and "unsuccessful" texts. "Successful" texts could include known features of science language. 420 texts generated by students in 14 classrooms from three school districts, culled from a prior study on the effectiveness of science notebooks to assess understanding, in addition to the aforementioned ratings are the data sources. In science notebooks, students write in the process of learning (here, a unit on electricity). The analytical framework is systemic functional linguistics (Halliday and Matthiessen, 2004; Eggins, 2004), specifically the concepts of genre, register and nominalization. Genre classification involves an analysis of the purpose and register features in the text (Schleppegrell, 2004). The use of features of the scientific academic register, namely the use relational processes and nominalization (Halliday and Martin, 1993), requires transitivity analysis and noun analysis. Transitivity analysis, consisting of the identification of the process type, is conducted on 4737 ranking clauses. A manual count of each noun used in the corpus allows for a typology of nouns. Four school science genres, procedures, procedural recounts reports and explanations, are found. Most texts (85.4%) are factual, and 14.1% are classified as explanations, the analytical genre. Logistic regression analysis indicates that there is no significant probability that the texts classified as explanation are placed in the group of "successful" texts. In addition, material process clauses predominate in the corpus, followed by relational process clauses. Results of a logistic regression analysis indicate that there is a significant probability (Chi square = 15.23, p < .0001) that texts with a high rate of relational processes are placed in the group of "successful" texts. In addition, 59.5% of 6511 nouns are

  11. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  12. Student stress and academic performance: home hospital program.

    PubMed

    Yucha, Carolyn B; Kowalski, Susan; Cross, Chad

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether nursing students assigned to a home hospital experience less stress and improved academic performance. Students were assigned to a home hospital clinical placement (n = 78) or a control clinical placement (n = 79). Stress was measured using the Student Nurse Stress Index (SNSI) and Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory. Academic performance included score on the RN CAT, a standardized mock NCLEX-RN(®)-type test; nursing grade point average; and first attempt pass-fail on the NCLEX-RN. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups for age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, or score on the nurse entrance examination. There were significant changes in SNSI over time but not between groups. Academic load and state anxiety showed an interaction of time by group, with the home hospital group showing reductions over time, compared with the control group.

  13. Associations between different components of fitness and fatness with academic performance in Chilean youths

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the associations between different components of fitness and fatness with academic performance, adjusting the analysis by sex, age, socio-economic status, region and school type in a Chilean sample. Methods Data of fitness, fatness and academic performance was obtained from the Chilean System for the Assessment of Educational Quality test for eighth grade in 2011 and includes a sample of 18,746 subjects (49% females). Partial correlations adjusted by confounders were done to explore association between fitness and fatness components, and between the academic scores. Three unadjusted and adjusted linear regression models were done in order to analyze the associations of variables. Results Fatness has a negative association with academic performance when Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist to Height Ratio (WHR) are assessed independently. When BMI and WHR are assessed jointly and adjusted by cofounders, WHR is more associated with academic performance than BMI, and only the association of WHR is positive. For fitness components, strength was the variable most associated with the academic performance. Cardiorespiratory capacity was not associated with academic performance if fatness and other fitness components are included in the model. Conclusions Fitness and fatness are associated with academic performance. WHR and strength are more related with academic performance than BMI and cardiorespiratory capacity. PMID:27761345

  14. Academic and Psychosocial Antecedents of Academic Performance for Minority and Nonminority College Football Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Trent A.; Russell, Richard K.

    1995-01-01

    Investigated effects of academic and psychosocial variables on the academic performance of minority and nonminority college student athletes. Found higher levels of competitive trait anxiety and negative life stress were associated with lower fall-term grade point averages for certain nonminority athletes. The academic variable related weakly to…

  15. Peer Academic Reputation in Elementary School: Associations with Changes in Self-Concept and Academic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Scott D.; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Welsh, Janet A.

    2005-01-01

    The developmental significance of children's academic reputation among peers was examined in a longitudinal study of 400 children in Grades 3, 4, and 5. In the fall of Year 1, teachers rated children's academic skills and behavior, and peers provided nominations describing classmates' academic skills, social acceptance versus rejection, and…

  16. Academic achievement among immigrant and U.S.-born Latino adolescents: Associations with cultural, family, and acculturation factors

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Gudiño, Omar G.; Baweja, Shilpa; Nadeem, Erum

    2015-01-01

    This study examined proximal risk and protective factors that contribute to academic achievement among 130 Latino students. Participating students were 56.2% female and 35.3% foreign-born (mean age = 11.38, SD = .59). Acculturative stress, immigrant status, child gender, parental monitoring, traditional cultural values, mainstream values, and English language proficiency were explored in relation to academic achievement. Higher levels of parental monitoring, English language proficiency, and female gender were associated with higher grades, while mainstream values were associated with lower grades. In addition, a significant interaction between acculturative stress and immigrant status was found, such that higher acculturative stress was related to poorer grades for U.S.-born students in particular. Thus, parental monitoring and female gender are potential protective factors, while identification with mainstream values and low English language proficiency are risk factors for poor grades. U.S.-born students may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of acculturative stress. PMID:25983352

  17. Grading of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Comparison between Color Fundus Photography, Fluorescein Angiography, and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Mokwa, Nils F.; Keane, Pearse A.; Kirchhof, Bernd; Sadda, Srinivas R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To compare color fundus photography (FP), fluorescein angiography (FA), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) for the detection of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), choroidal neovascularisation (CNV), and CNV activity. Methods. FPs, FAs, and SDOCT volume scans from 120 eyes of 66 AMD and control patients were randomly collected. Control eyes were required to show no AMD, but other retinal pathology was allowed. The presence of drusen, pigmentary changes, CNV, and signs for CNV activity was independently analyzed for all imaging modalities. Results. AMD was diagnosed based on FP in 75 eyes. SDOCT and FA showed sensitivity (specificity) of 89% (76%) and 92% (82%), respectively. CNV was present on FA in 68 eyes. Sensitivity (specificity) was 78% (100%) for FP and 94% (98%) for SDOCT. CNV activity was detected by SDOCT or FA in 60 eyes with an agreement in 46 eyes. Sensitivity was 88% for SDOCT and 88% for FA. FP showed sensitivity of 38% and specificity of 98%. Conclusions. CNV lesions and activity may be missed by FP alone, but FP may help identifying drusen and pigmentary changes. SDOCT is highly sensitive for the detection of AMD, CNV, and CNV activity; however, it cannot fully replace FA. PMID:23762528

  18. Effect of aging on impact properties of ASTM A890 Grade 1C super duplex stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, Marcelo Forti, Leonardo Rodrigues Nogueira

    2008-02-15

    Super duplex stainless steels in the solution annealed condition are thermodynamically metastable systems which, when exposed to heat, present a strong tendency to 'seek' the most favorable thermodynamic condition. The main purpose of this study was to characterize the microstructure of a super duplex stainless steel in the as cast and solution annealed conditions, and to determine the influence of aging heat treatments on its impact strength, based on Charpy impact tests applied to V-notched test specimens. The sigma phase was found to begin precipitating at heat treatment temperatures above 760 deg. C and to dissolve completely only above 1040 deg. C, with the highest peak concentration of this phase appearing at close to 850 deg. C. Heat treatments conducted at temperatures of 580 deg. C to 740 deg. C led to a reduction of the energy absorbed in the Charpy impact test in response to the precipitation of a particulate phase with particle sizes ranging from 0.5 {mu}m to 1.0 {mu}m, with a chromium and iron-rich chemical composition.

  19. Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Pre-Orientation Summer Virtual Acclimation and Academic Advising (SVA[superscript 3]) Initiative for First-Year, Traditional-Aged College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golubski, Pamela M.

    2009-01-01

    The high school to college transition is a difficult time for most first-time, traditional-aged students. Students experience changes in interpersonal and social adjustment, academic and career concerns, and personal adjustment (Bishop, Gallagher, & Cohen, 2000). Failure to successfully adjust and acclimate into their new college community can…

  20. Zircon U-Pb ages, Hf isotope data, and tectonic implications of Early-Middle Triassic granitoids in the Ailaoshan high-grade metamorphic belt of Southeast Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenbin; Liu, Junlai; Chen, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Lisheng

    2016-05-01

    The Ailaoshan tectonic belt, where the effects of the Paleo-Tethyan ocean evolution and Indian-Eurasian plate collision are superimposed, is one of the most significant geological discontinuities in western Yunnan province of southeast Tibet. An Ailaoshan micro-block within the belt is bounded by the Ailaoshan suture zone to the west and the Red River Fault to the east, and consists of low- and high-grade metamorphic belts. Late Permian-Middle Triassic granitoids that are widely distributed to the west of the Ailaoshan suture zone and within the Ailaoshan micro-block may yield significant information on the Tethyan tectonic evolution of the Ailaoshan tectonic belt. This study reports new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotope data of four granitoids from the Ailaoshan high-grade metamorphic belt. Zircon grains from the Yinjie granitoid do not have inherited cores and yield a weighted mean U-Pb age of 247.1 ± 2.0 Ma. The zircon ɛ Hf(t) values range from 7.8 to 12.1, and Hf model ages from 775 to 546 Ma, indicating that the granitoid was derived from juvenile crust. The rims of zircons from the Majie and Yuanjiang granitoids yield weighted mean U-Pb ages of 239.5 ± 1.8 and 237.9 ± 2.6 Ma, respectively, whereas the cores yield ages of 1608-352 Ma. The ɛ Hf(t) values of zircon rims range from -20.4 to -5.3, yielding Hf model ages from 2557 to 1606 Ma and suggesting that the source magma of the Majie and Yuanjiang granitoids was derived from ancient crust. An additional granitoid located near the Majie Village yields a zircon U-Pb age of 241.2 ± 1.0 Ma. Based on our geochronological and geochemical data, combined with geological observations, we propose that the Ailaoshan micro-block was derived from the western margin of the Yangtze block, and is comparable to the Zhongzan and Nam Co micro-blocks. The presence of late Permian mafic rocks with rift-related geochemical characteristics within the Ailaoshan micro-block, together with granitoids derived

  1. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and noncognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades and undermines their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge…

  2. Evaluating a grading change at UCSD school of medicine: pass/fail grading is associated with decreased performance on preclinical exams but unchanged performance on USMLE step 1 scores

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the impact of a change in preclerkship grading system from Honors/Pass/Fail (H/P/F) to Pass/Fail (P/F) on University of California, San Diego (UCSD) medical students’ academic performance. Methods Academic performance of students in the classes of 2011 and 2012 (constant-grading classes) were collected and compared with performance of students in the class of 2013 (grading-change class) because the grading policy at UCSD SOM was changed for the class of 2013, from H/P/F during the first year (MS1) to P/F during the second year (MS2). For all students, data consisted of test scores from required preclinical courses from MS1 and MS2 years, and USMLE Step 1 scores. Linear regression analysis controlled for other factors that could be predictive of student performance (i.e., MCAT scores, undergraduate GPA, age, gender, etc.) in order to isolate the effect of the changed grading policy on academic performance. The change in grading policy in the MS2 year only, without any corresponding changes to the medical curriculum, presents a unique natural experiment with which to cleanly evaluate the effect of P/F grading on performance outcomes. Results After controlling for other factors, the grading policy change to P/F grading in the MS2 year had a negative impact on second-year grades relative to first-year grades (the constant-grading classes performed 1.65% points lower during their MS2 year compared to the MS1 year versus 3.25% points lower for the grading-change class, p < 0.0001), but had no observable impact on USMLE Step 1 scores. Conclusions A change in grading from H/P/F grading to P/F grading was associated with decreased performance on preclinical examinations but no decrease in performance on the USMLE Step 1 examination. These results are discussed in the broader context of the multitude of factors that should be considered in assessing the merits of various grading systems, and ultimately the authors recommend the continuation of pass

  3. Academic performance, educational aspiration and birth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a national longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal educational attainment has been associated with birth outcomes among adult mothers. However, limited research explores whether academic performance and educational aspiration influence birth outcomes among adolescent mothers. Methods Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used. Adolescent girls whose first pregnancy occurred after Wave I, during their adolescence, and ended with a singleton live birth were included. Adolescents’ grade point average (GPA), experience of ever skipping a grade and ever repeating a grade, and their aspiration to attend college were examined as predictors of birth outcomes (birthweight and gestational age; n = 763). Univariate statistics, bivariate analyses and multivariable models were run stratified on race using survey procedures. Results Among Black adolescents, those who ever skipped a grade had higher offspring’s birthweight. Among non-Black adolescents, ever skipping a grade and higher educational aspiration were associated with higher offspring’s birthweight; ever skipping a grade was also associated with higher gestational age. GPA was not statistically significantly associated with either birth outcome. The addition of smoking during pregnancy and prenatal care visit into the multivariable models did not change these associations. Conclusions Some indicators of higher academic performance and aspiration are associated with better birth outcomes among adolescents. Investing in improving educational opportunities may improve birth outcomes among teenage mothers. PMID:24422664

  4. Grading as a Sadomasochistic Activity or an Erotic Benevolent Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjarks, Larry D.

    Numerous research studies have been conducted concerning the negative aspects of grading: the low correlations between academic success (high grades) and later vocational or professional success, possible sadomasochistic motives of teachers in awarding grades, and grade assignment resulting from the teacher's sense of duty or responsibility to…

  5. Self-concept in adolescence: a longitudinal study on reciprocal effects of self-perceptions in academic and social domains.

    PubMed

    Preckel, Franzis; Niepel, Christoph; Schneider, Marian; Brunner, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Fostering social and academic self-concepts are central educational goals. During mid-adolescence academic engagement and success seem to be devalued by peers and to be negatively associated with students' social standing. For this age group, is the development of a positive academic self-concept compatible with the development of a positive social self-concept? We investigated relations among academic self-concept, social self-concept, and academic achievement. 1282 students (47.60% female) participated in three-waves of measurement in Grade 5, 6, and 8. Earlier social self-concept of acceptance negatively predicted changes in academic self-concept over time while earlier social self-concept of assertion positively predicted changes in academic self-concept. There were no significant relations between social self-concepts and achievement but positive reciprocal relations between academic self-concept and achievement. Results indicate that fostering adolescents self-concept in social and academic domains are compatible goals. However, some students need support in managing the challenge to coordinate social and academic goals.

  6. A ˜ 700 Ma Sm Nd garnet whole rock age from the granulite facies Central Kaoko Zone (Namibia): Evidence for a cryptic high-grade polymetamorphic history?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, S.; Kröner, A.; Kröner, S.

    2007-09-01

    Continental collision of the Kalahari and the Congo craton in Africa and the Rio de la Plata Craton in South America resulted in a structurally complex Neoproterozoic belt system, the Kaoko-Dom Feliciano-Ribeira belt. It is uncertain whether these three cratons collided more or less simultaneously during one single orogenic event at ˜ 580-550 Ma or whether the belt owe its structural and metamorphic features to several so far poorly constrained events. The Kaoko Belt (NW Nambia), representing the belt system between the southern Congo Craton and the Rio de la Plata Craton, is an ideal object to study these complexities. Within this belt, high-grade meta-igneous and metasedimentary rocks of the sillimanite-K-feldspar zone contain large garnet porphyroblasts that grew at ca. 730 ± 10 °C at 6.7 ± 1.2 kbar during peak metamorphic granulite-facies conditions. A Sm-Nd garnet-whole rock errorchron ( n = 7, MSWD = 6.0) obtained on a siliceous metasediment yielded an unexpected old age of 692 ±14 Ma which is interpreted as an inherited metamorphic age of an older granulite facies event. It is evident that the dated garnets survived the younger high-grade granulite facies metamorphism that occurred between ca. 570 and 520 Ma and preserved their old Sm-Nd isotope systematics implying that the closure temperature for Sm-Nd in garnet is higher than ca. 730 °C in this case. These results imply fast cooling rates at different times during the Pan-African orogeny that prevent isotopic homogenization at sample scale. Moreover, it is suggestive that trace element (REE) diffusion in garnet is considerably slower than major element diffusion. From a regional point of view, it is possible that these specific siliceous metasedimentary rocks may be unrelated to the Pan-African metamorphic evolution of the Kaoko Belt between 570 and 520 Ma and may represent lithological units that belong to so far unrecognized terranes in the Kaoko Belt.

  7. Children Who Desperately Want To Read, But Are Not Working at Grade Level: Use Movement Patterns as "Windows" To Discover Why.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corso, Marjorie

    A qualitative longitudinal study, first of four parts, compared developmental movement levels and academic learning levels in young children. Subjects were 28 children of various ages who were not working up to grade level but who did not qualify for learning disability services. Parents completed a detailed demographic survey and a neurological…

  8. The Impact of Birth Month, within Grade Levels, on Student Performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) Mathematics Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speziale, Kerry Maureen

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether chronological age differences among students in the same grade level affected their respective levels of academic performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics assessment. The study analyzed the additional independent variables of gender, socioeconomic status, and special education…

  9. Cognition, academic achievement, and epilepsy in school-age children: a case-control study in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Melbourne Chambers, R; Morrison-Levy, N; Chang, S; Tapper, J; Walker, S; Tulloch-Reid, M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 33 Jamaican children 7 to 12years old with uncomplicated epilepsy and 33 of their classroom peers matched for age and gender to determine whether epilepsy resulted in differences in cognitive ability and school achievement and if socioeconomic status or the environment had a moderating effect on any differences. Intelligence, language, memory, attention, executive function, and mathematics ability were assessed using selected tests from NEPSY, WISCR, TeaCh, WRAT3 - expanded, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The child's environment at home was measured using the Middle Childhood HOME inventory. Socioeconomic status was determined from a combination of household, crowding, possessions, and sanitation. We compared the characteristics of the cases and controls and used random effects regression models (using the matched pair as the cluster) to examine the relationship between cognition and epilepsy. We found that there was no significant difference in IQ, but children with epilepsy had lower scores on tests of memory (p<0.05), language (p<0.05), and attention (p<0.01) compared with their controls. In random effects models, epilepsy status had a significant effect on memory (coefficient=-0.14, CI: -0.23, -0.05), language (coefficient=-0.13, CI: -0.23, -0.04), and mathematics ability (coefficient=-0.01, CI: -0.02, -0.00). Adjustment for the home environment and socioeconomic status and inclusion of interaction terms for these variables did not alter these effects. In conclusion, we found that epilepsy status in Jamaican children has a significant effect on performance on tests of memory, language, and mathematics and that this effect is not modified or explained by socioeconomic status or the child's home environment. PMID:24632351

  10. Cognition, academic achievement, and epilepsy in school-age children: a case-control study in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Melbourne Chambers, R; Morrison-Levy, N; Chang, S; Tapper, J; Walker, S; Tulloch-Reid, M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a case-control study of 33 Jamaican children 7 to 12years old with uncomplicated epilepsy and 33 of their classroom peers matched for age and gender to determine whether epilepsy resulted in differences in cognitive ability and school achievement and if socioeconomic status or the environment had a moderating effect on any differences. Intelligence, language, memory, attention, executive function, and mathematics ability were assessed using selected tests from NEPSY, WISCR, TeaCh, WRAT3 - expanded, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. The child's environment at home was measured using the Middle Childhood HOME inventory. Socioeconomic status was determined from a combination of household, crowding, possessions, and sanitation. We compared the characteristics of the cases and controls and used random effects regression models (using the matched pair as the cluster) to examine the relationship between cognition and epilepsy. We found that there was no significant difference in IQ, but children with epilepsy had lower scores on tests of memory (p<0.05), language (p<0.05), and attention (p<0.01) compared with their controls. In random effects models, epilepsy status had a significant effect on memory (coefficient=-0.14, CI: -0.23, -0.05), language (coefficient=-0.13, CI: -0.23, -0.04), and mathematics ability (coefficient=-0.01, CI: -0.02, -0.00). Adjustment for the home environment and socioeconomic status and inclusion of interaction terms for these variables did not alter these effects. In conclusion, we found that epilepsy status in Jamaican children has a significant effect on performance on tests of memory, language, and mathematics and that this effect is not modified or explained by socioeconomic status or the child's home environment.

  11. Joint NCCTG and NABTC prognostic factors analysis for high-grade recurrent glioma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenting; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Buckner, Jan C.; Novotny, Paul J.; Chang, Susan M.; O'Fallon, Judith R.; Jaeckle, Kurt A.; Prados, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine prognostic factors in patients with high-grade recurrent glioma for 3 outcome variables (overall survival, progression-free survival [PFS], and PFS rate 6 months after study registration [PFS6]). Data from 15 North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) trials (n = 469, 1980–2004) and 12 North American Brain Tumor Consortium (NABTC) trials (n = 596, 1998–2002) were included. Eighteen prognostic variables were considered including type of treatment center (community/academic) and initial low-grade histology (yes/no). Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA), Cox proportional hazards, and logistic regression models with bootstrap resampling were used to identify prognostic variables. Longer survival was associated with last known grade (Grade) of III, younger age, ECOG performance score (PS) of 0, shorter time from initial diagnosis (DxTime), and no baseline steroid use. Factors associated with longer PFS were Grade III and shorter DxTime. For patients without temozolomide as part of the treatment regimen, the only factor associated with better PFS6 was Grade III, although DxTime was important in RPA and PS was important in logistic regression. Grade was the most important prognostic factor for all three endpoints regardless of the statistical method used. Other important variables for one or more endpoints included age, PS, and DxTime. Neither type of treatment center nor initial low-grade histology was identified as a major predictor for any endpoint. PMID:20150383

  12. Measurement of academic entitlement.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian K

    2013-10-01

    Members of Generation Y, or Millennials, have been accused of being lazy, whiny, pampered, and entitled, particularly in the college classroom. Using an equity theory framework, eight items from a measure of work entitlement were adapted to measure academic entitlement in a university setting in three independent samples. In Study 1 (n = 229), confirmatory factor analyses indicated good model fit to a unidimensional structure for the data. In Study 2 (n = 200), the questionnaire predicted unique variance in university satisfaction beyond two more general measures of dispositional entitlement. In Study 3 (n = 161), the measure predicted unique variance in perceptions of grade fairness beyond that which was predicted by another measure of academic entitlement. This analysis provides evidence of discriminant, convergent, incremental, concurrent criterion-related, and construct validity for the Academic Equity Preference Questionnaire.

  13. Measurement of academic entitlement.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brian K

    2013-10-01

    Members of Generation Y, or Millennials, have been accused of being lazy, whiny, pampered, and entitled, particularly in the college classroom. Using an equity theory framework, eight items from a measure of work entitlement were adapted to measure academic entitlement in a university setting in three independent samples. In Study 1 (n = 229), confirmatory factor analyses indicated good model fit to a unidimensional structure for the data. In Study 2 (n = 200), the questionnaire predicted unique variance in university satisfaction beyond two more general measures of dispositional entitlement. In Study 3 (n = 161), the measure predicted unique variance in perceptions of grade fairness beyond that which was predicted by another measure of academic entitlement. This analysis provides evidence of discriminant, convergent, incremental, concurrent criterion-related, and construct validity for the Academic Equity Preference Questionnaire. PMID:24597456

  14. The Interplay between Adolescents' Perceptions of Teacher-Student Relationships and Their Academic Self-Regulation: Does Liking a Specific Teacher Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raufelder, Diana; Scherber, Sandra; Wood, Megan A.

    2016-01-01

    Although positive teacher-student relationships are known to aid students' academic self-regulation, the emotional aspects of teacher liking are often neglected within research. The present study used a large sample of seventh- and eighth-grade students (N = 1,088; M[subscript Age] = 13.7) in secondary schools in Germany to investigate whether the…

  15. Academic writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.

    2003-10-01

    The series of workshops on academic writing have been developed by academic writing instructors from Language Teaching Centre, Central European University and presented at the Samara Academic Writing Workshops in November 2001. This paper presents only the part dealing with strucutre of an argumentative essay.

  16. Academic Jibberish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about academic jibberish. Alfie Kohn states that a great deal of academic writing is incomprehensible even to others in the same area of scholarship. Academic Jibberish may score points for the writer but does not help research or practice. The author discusses jibberish as a career strategy that impresses those…

  17. Academic performance and social competence of adolescents: predictions based on effortful control and empathy.

    PubMed

    Zorza, Juan P; Marino, Julián; de Lemus, Soledad; Acosta Mesas, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the predictive power of effortful control (EC) on empathy, academic performance, and social competence in adolescents. We obtained self-report measures of EC and dispositional empathy in 359 students (197 girls and 162 boys) aged between 12 and 14 years. Each student provided information about the prosocial behavior of the rest of his/her classmates and completed a sociogram. At the end of the school year, we calculated the mean grade of each student and the teacher responsible for each class completed a questionnaire on the academic skills of his/her students. The study confirmed the existence of a structural equation model (SEM) in which EC directly predicted academic performance and social competence. Additionally, empathic concern partially mediated the effect of EC on social competence. Finally, social competence significantly predicted academic performance. The article discusses the practical applications of the model proposed.

  18. Class start times, sleep, and academic performance in college: a path analysis.

    PubMed

    Onyper, Serge V; Thacher, Pamela V; Gilbert, Jack W; Gradess, Samuel G

    2012-04-01

    Path analysis was used to examine the relationship between class start times, sleep, circadian preference, and academic performance in college-aged adults. Consistent with observations in middle and high school students, college students with later class start times slept longer, experienced less daytime sleepiness, and were less likely to miss class. Chronotype was an important moderator of sleep schedules and daytime functioning; those with morning preference went to bed and woke up earlier and functioned better throughout the day. The benefits of taking later classes did not extend to academic performance, however; grades were somewhat lower in students with predominantly late class schedules. Furthermore, students taking later classes were at greater risk for increased alcohol consumption, and among all the factors affecting academic performance, alcohol misuse exerted the strongest effect. Thus, these results indicate that later class start times in college, while allowing for more sleep, also increase the likelihood of alcohol misuse, ultimately impeding academic success.

  19. Multiple Mini-Interview Performance Predicts Academic Difficulty in the PharmD Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Heldenbrand, Seth D; Flowers, Schwanda K; Bordelon, Bryan J; Gubbins, Paul O; O'Brien, Catherine; Stowe, Cindy D; Martin, Bradley C

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To identify admissions variable prognostics for academic difficulty in the PharmD curriculum to use for admissions determinations and early identification of at-risk students. Methods. Retrospective multivariate analysis of 2008-2012 admission data were linked with academic records to identify students with academic difficulty (ie, those with Ds, Fs, delayed progression). The influence of prepharmacy grade point average (GPA), composite Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) score, multiple-mini interview (MMI) score, age, credit hours, state residence, and prior degree on academic difficulty was estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Results. Students' (n=587) prepharmacy GPA, composite PCAT score, mean MMI score, and age were 3.6, 72.0, 5.5, 22.8 (SD=4.14 years), respectively. Students having a GPA <3.25, PCAT score <60th percentile, or MMI score <4.5, were approximately 12-, 7-, and 3-times more likely, respectively, to experience academic difficulty than those with a GPA ≥ 3.75, PCAT score >90, or MMI score of 5-6. Conclusion. Using GPA, PCAT, and MMI performance can predict academic difficulty and assist in the early identification of academically at-risk PharmD students. PMID:27073280

  20. Multiple Mini-Interview Performance Predicts Academic Difficulty in the PharmD Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Heldenbrand, Seth D; Flowers, Schwanda K; Bordelon, Bryan J; Gubbins, Paul O; O'Brien, Catherine; Stowe, Cindy D; Martin, Bradley C

    2016-03-25

    Objective. To identify admissions variable prognostics for academic difficulty in the PharmD curriculum to use for admissions determinations and early identification of at-risk students. Methods. Retrospective multivariate analysis of 2008-2012 admission data were linked with academic records to identify students with academic difficulty (ie, those with Ds, Fs, delayed progression). The influence of prepharmacy grade point average (GPA), composite Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) score, multiple-mini interview (MMI) score, age, credit hours, state residence, and prior degree on academic difficulty was estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Results. Students' (n=587) prepharmacy GPA, composite PCAT score, mean MMI score, and age were 3.6, 72.0, 5.5, 22.8 (SD=4.14 years), respectively. Students having a GPA <3.25, PCAT score <60th percentile, or MMI score <4.5, were approximately 12-, 7-, and 3-times more likely, respectively, to experience academic difficulty than those with a GPA ≥ 3.75, PCAT score >90, or MMI score of 5-6. Conclusion. Using GPA, PCAT, and MMI performance can predict academic difficulty and assist in the early identification of academically at-risk PharmD students.

  1. Multivitamin/Mineral supplementation does not affect standardized assessment of academic performance in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Adam I; Worobey, John; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie; Touger-Decker, Riva; Hom, David L; Smith, Jeffrey K

    2010-07-01

    Limited research suggests that micronutrient supplementation may have a positive effect on the academic performance and behavior of school-aged children. To determine the effect of multivitamin/mineral supplementation on academic performance, students in grades three through six (approximate age range=8 to 12 years old) were recruited from 37 parochial schools in northern New Jersey to participate in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted during the 2004-2005 academic school year. Participants were randomized to receive either a standard children's multivitamin/mineral supplement (MVM) or a placebo. MVM or placebo was administered in school only during lunch or snack period by a teacher or study personnel who were blinded to group assignment. The main outcome measured was change in scores on Terra Nova, a standardized achievement test administered by the State of New Jersey, at the beginning of March 2005 compared to March 2004. Compared with placebo, participants receiving MVM supplements showed no statistically significant improvement for Terra Nova National Percentile total scores by treatment assignment or for any of the subject area scores using repeated measures analysis of variance. No significant improvements were observed in secondary end points: number of days absent from school, tardiness, or grade point average. In conclusion, the in-school daily consumption of an MVM supplement by third- through sixth-grade inner-city children did not lead to improved school performance based upon standardized testing, grade point average, and absenteeism.

  2. Influence of music training on academic examination-induced stress in Thai adolescents.

    PubMed

    Laohawattanakun, Janejira; Chearskul, Supornpim; Dumrongphol, Hattaya; Jutapakdeegul, Nuanchan; Yensukjai, Juntima; Khumphan, Nipaporn; Niltiean, Songwit; Thangnipon, Wipawan

    2011-01-10

    Several pieces of evidence suggest that academic examinations fulfill the classical requirement of a psychological stressor. Academic examinations represent a stressful challenge to many students, but studies on examination-dependent corticosteroid response, a sensitive physiological indicator of a stress response, are inconsistent. In addition, several studies showed that music can decrease cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and other studies have found that music also may enhance a variety of cognitive functions, such as attention, learning, communication and memory. The present study investigated cortisol response in saliva of Thai adolescents taking academic examinations and analyzed the differences of the stress response between musician and control subjects. Also, we observed whether the academic examination-dependent corticosteroid response affected learning and memory in the test subjects, which comprised 30 musician and 30 control students, age ranging from 15 to 17 years. Mathematical examinations were used as the stressor. Pre- and post-academic examination saliva cortisol levels were measured including self-estimated stress levels. Results showed that the pre-academic examination saliva cortisol concentrations of the musician group are significantly lower than those of the control group, whereas there is no difference in the stress inventory scores. Interestingly, among students with grade point average (GPA) of >3.50, pre-academic examination cortisol levels are significantly lower in the musician compared with control group. This study suggests that under academic examination-induced stress condition, music training can reduce saliva cortisol level in Thai adolescents.

  3. Academic Interventions and Academic Achievement in the Middle School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kite, Toby G.

    2015-01-01

    After the passing of the Individuals with Disabilities Act of 2004, many schools began to use a Response to Intervention (RtI) model instead of the discrepancy model when identifying students with specific learning disabilities (National Center on Response to Intervention, 2011). When elementary schools adopted the RtI model, it was shown to be…

  4. How Academic Is Academic Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kym; Ling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    University provision for academic development is well established in the USA, UK and many other countries. However, arrangements for its provision and staffing vary. In Australia, there has been a trend towards professional rather than academic staff appointments. Is this appropriate? In this paper, the domains of academic development work are…

  5. Music and academic performance.

    PubMed

    Arnaud Cabanac; Perlovsky, Leonid; Bonniot-Cabanac, Marie-Claude; Cabanac, Michel

    2013-11-01

    In a previous study we demonstrated that listening to a pleasant music while performing an academic test helped students to overcome stress, to devote more time to more stressful and more complicated task and the grades were higher. Yet, there remained ambiguities as for the causes of the higher test performance of these students: do they perform better because they hear music during their examinations, or would they perform better anyway because they are more gifted/motivated? This motivated the current study as a preliminary step toward that general question: Do students who like/perform music have better grades than the others? Our results confirmed this hypothesis: students studying music have better grades in all subjects.

  6. Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency, Linguistic Interdependence, the Optimum Age Question and Some Other Matters. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Jim

    The existence of a global language proficiency factor is discussed. This factor, cognitive/academic language proficiency (CALP), is directly related to IQ and to other aspects of academic achievement. It accounts for the bulk of reliable variance in a wide variety of language learning measures. Three propositions concerning CALP are reviewed. (1)…

  7. Effects of Achievement Motivation, Social Identity, and Peer Group Norms on Academic Conformity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…

  8. Outcome Differences Across Age Groups. Data Notes. Volume 3, Number 2, March/April 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clery, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Using data from Achieving the Dream: Community College Count, this issue examines the differing developmental needs and enrollment and persistence patterns of Achieving the Dream students across different age groups. The data show older students in Achieving the Dream colleges tended to achieve higher grades and perform better academically than…

  9. An Examination of Compulsory School Attendance Ages and High School Dropout and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, Rebecca N.; Reschly, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    An increasingly popular, but underresearched, initiative aimed at reducing high school dropout is raising the compulsory school attendance age. This study used a national data set from academic years 2001-02 to 2005-06 to examine the grade level at which students drop out, rates of dropout over time, and high school completion by state, region of…

  10. Analysis of vitamin D status at two academic medical centers and a national reference laboratory: result patterns vary by age, gender, season, and patient location

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Testing for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has increased dramatically in recent years. The present report compares overall utilization and results for 25(OH)D orders at two academic medical centers - one in New York and one in Iowa – in order to characterize the vitamin D status of our inpatient and outpatient populations. Results are also compared to those from a national reference laboratory to determine whether patterns at these two institutions reflect those observed nationally. Methods Retrospective data queries of 25(OH)D orders and results were conducted using the laboratory information systems at Weill Cornell Medical College / New York Presbyterian Hospital (WCMC), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC), and ARUP Laboratories (ARUP). Chart review was conducted for cases with very high or low serum 25(OH)D levels in the WCMC and UIHC datasets. Results The majority of tests were ordered on females and outpatients. Average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in female versus male patients across most ages in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. As expected, average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in outpatients than inpatients. Serum 25(OH)D levels showed seasonal periodicity, with average levels higher in summer than winter and correlating to regional UV index. Area plots demonstrated a peak of increased 25(OH)D insufficiency / deficiency in adolescent females, although overall worse 25(OH)D status was found in male versus female patients in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. Surprisingly, improved 25(OH)D status was observed in patients starting near age 50. Finally, chart review of WCMC and UIHC datasets revealed over-supplementation (especially of ≥ 50,000 IU weekly doses) in the rare cases of very high 25(OH)D levels. General nutritional deficiency and/or severe illness was found in most cases of severe 25(OH)D deficiency. Conclusions 25(OH)D status of patients seen by healthcare providers varies according to age, gender, season

  11. Academic entitlement in pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Cain, Jeff; Romanelli, Frank; Smith, Kelly M

    2012-12-12

    The constructs of academic entitlement and student consumerism refer to students' attitudes toward education as a commodity and the underlying belief that as consumers, they should be catered to and given the opportunity to participate in the education process according to their preferences. Most discussions regarding these attitudes are anecdotal, but the pervasiveness of these accounts and the troubling effects that ensue warrant attention. Grade inflation, student incivility, altered classroom practices, and decreased faculty morale are all potential aftereffects of teaching students who hold academic entitlement beliefs. Numerous factors are posited as attributing to academic entitlement including personal issues, societal pressures, and broad academic practices. This paper discusses these factors and offers faculty members and administrators recommendations regarding practices that may curb or alleviate issues associated with academically entitled students. PMID:23275654

  12. Academic Entitlement in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Romanelli, Frank; Smith, Kelly M.

    2012-01-01

    The constructs of academic entitlement and student consumerism refer to students’ attitudes toward education as a commodity and the underlying belief that as consumers, they should be catered to and given the opportunity to participate in the education process according to their preferences. Most discussions regarding these attitudes are anecdotal, but the pervasiveness of these accounts and the troubling effects that ensue warrant attention. Grade inflation, student incivility, altered classroom practices, and decreased faculty morale are all potential aftereffects of teaching students who hold academic entitlement beliefs. Numerous factors are posited as attributing to academic entitlement including personal issues, societal pressures, and broad academic practices. This paper discusses these factors and offers faculty members and administrators recommendations regarding practices that may curb or alleviate issues associated with academically entitled students. PMID:23275654

  13. Massachusetts Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS). "Technical Descriptions of Risk Model Development": Early and Late Elementary Age Groupings (Grades 1-6)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (Department) created the grades 1-12 Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS) in response to district interest in the Early Warning Indicator Index (EWII) that the Department previously created for rising grade 9 students. Districts shared that the EWII data were helpful, but also…

  14. Massachusetts Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS). "Technical Descriptions of Risk Model Development": Middle and High School Age Groupings (Grades 7-12)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (Department) created the grades 1-12 Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS) in response to district interest in the Early Warning Indicator Index (EWII) that the Department previously created for rising grade 9 students. Districts shared that the EWII data were helpful, but also…

  15. Gaining Ground in the Middle Grades. Education Outlook. No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Trish; Rosin, Matthew; Kirst, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Educators and policymakers have debated in recent years how best to improve academic performance in the middle grades. In the absence of outcomes-based research about what works, school districts have reshuffled grade configurations, bolstered their focus on "academic rigor," and worked to ensure that students are engaged in school as they go…

  16. Development of Self-Concept in Grades One through Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larned, Donald T.; Muller, Douglas

    1979-01-01

    The positiveness of 147 elementary students' self-concept and self-esteem remained stable across grades for physical maturity and peer relations but showed a dramatic decline for academic success and school adaptiveness. Only academic success and self-esteem correlated with achievement, with these correlations increasing across grades. (Author/RL)

  17. Factors Relating to Student Grade Obsession: A Quantitative Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    The intense focus of students on grades attained in academia reflects a contemporary issue in higher education. The internal pressure that students experience regarding academics fuels student grade obsession. Researchers suggest that in addition to internal pressure, financial anxiety, the need to receive academic recognition and parental…

  18. Hemisphere Preference Test: psychometric properties and relations with academic performance among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Morales, Juan Francisco; Escribano Barreno, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The present study explored, in adolescents, the dimensionality (factorial structure), reliability (internal consistency and test-retest stability) and predictive validity (in relation with academic grades) of the Hemispheric Preference Test (HPT), a widely used self-report index of thinking styles among adults. A sample of 990 Spanish adolescents aged 10-14 completed HPT and reported their academic grades. Results indicated a two-factor structure for HPT that can be interpreted in terms of left- and right-Hemisphere Preference (HP). The two-factor structure was clearer in boys compared to girls. The internal consistency and test-retest at 6 and 12 months were satisfactory. Left-HP scores decreased with age whereas girls obtained a higher mean score on right-HP sub-scale. Finally, Left-HP accounted for a significant variance percentage on academic grades after controlling for age and sex. Results suggested that Spanish version of the HPT was effective and reliable among adolescents.

  19. Time Horizon in Students' Predictions of Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manger, Terje; Teigen, Karl Halvor

    1988-01-01

    Eight and two months before their final exam, 252 undergraduates in Norway stated their expectations and hopes for examination grades. Correlations between expected and obtained grades were low. A shift from optimism to pessimism occurred. Results confirm the time horizon's crucial role in the prediction of academic achievement. (TJH)

  20. The Leap into 4th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Fourth grade is a pivotal year, in which students commonly face increased academic demands. According to Anderson, teachers can help students make a smooth transition to 4th grade by introducing these new challenges in ways that are in line with 4th graders' common developmental characteristics: incredible energy and emotion, industriousness and…

  1. The Accuracy of Academic Gender Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Sylvia

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the accuracy of academic gender stereotypes by asking 265 college students to estimate the percentage of male and female students and their grade point averages (GPAs) and comparing these to the actual percentage of male and female students and GPAs. Results show the inaccuracies of academic gender stereotypes. (SLD)

  2. Developing a Student Conception of Academic Rigor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draeger, John; del Prado Hill, Pixita; Mahler, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    In this article we describe models of academic rigor from the student point of view. Drawing on a campus-wide survey, focus groups, and interviews with students, we found that students explained academic rigor in terms of workload, grading standards, level of difficulty, level of interest, and perceived relevance to future goals. These findings…

  3. College Seniors' Theory of Their Academic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Etten, Shawn; Pressley, Michael; McInerney, Dennis M.; Liem, Arief Darmanegara

    2008-01-01

    College seniors participated in an ethnographic interview study about their academic motivations. It was found that grades and graduation are 2 primary distal target goals that motivate their academic efforts during the senior year. A variety of proximal factors were also reported to affect the seniors' motivation. These factors can be divided…

  4. Sleep and academic performance in undergraduates: a multi-measure, multi-predictor approach.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ana Allen; Tavares, Jos; de Azevedo, Maria Helena P

    2011-11-01

    The present study examined the associations of sleep patterns with multiple measures of academic achievement of undergraduate university students and tested whether sleep variables emerged as significant predictors of subsequent academic performance when other potential predictors, such as class attendance, time devoted to study, and substance use are considered. A sample of 1654 (55% female) full-time undergraduates 17 to 25 yrs of age responded to a self-response questionnaire on sleep, academics, lifestyle, and well-being that was administered at the middle of the semester. In addition to self-reported measures of academic performance, a final grade for each student was collected at the end of the semester. Univariate analyses found that sleep phase, morningness/eveningness preference, sleep deprivation, sleep quality, and sleep irregularity were significantly associated with at least two academic performance measures. Among 15 potential predictors, stepwise multiple regression analysis identified 5 significant predictors of end-of-semester marks: previous academic achievement, class attendance, sufficient sleep, night outings, and sleep quality (R(2)=0.14 and adjusted R(2)=0.14, F(5, 1234)= 40.99, p < .0001). Associations between academic achievement and the remaining sleep variables as well as the academic, well-being, and lifestyle variables lost significance in stepwise regression. Together with class attendance, night outings, and previous academic achievement, self-reported sleep quality and self-reported frequency of sufficient sleep were among the main predictors of academic performance, adding an independent and significant contribution, regardless of academic variables and lifestyles of the students.

  5. Correlation of the health-promoting lifestyle, enrollment level, and academic performance of College of Nursing students in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Kandari, Fatimah; Vidal, Victoria L

    2007-06-01

    This descriptive study of 224 nursing students assessed their health-promoting lifestyle profile and correlated it with the levels of enrollment in nursing courses and academic performance. The health-promoting lifestyle profile was measured by Walker's Health-promoting Lifestyle Profile II instrument. Academic performance was measured by assessing the nursing grade point average and general grade point average of the students. The students had positive health-promoting lifestyles with significant differences noted between males and females in the overall profile, physical activity, interpersonal relations, and stress management. Sociodemographic variables, such as age, nationality, and marital status, but not income, showed an association with students' health-promoting lifestyles. A significant correlation was noted between students' nursing enrollment and level of health responsibility. No significant correlation was established between a health-promoting lifestyle and academic performance. This study poses a challenge for nurse educators to provide an effective environment to maximize students' potential to be future vanguards of health.

  6. Changes in Early Adolescents' Sense of Responsibility to their Parents in the United States and China: Implications for Academic Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Pomerantz, Eva M.; Qin, Lili; Wang, Qian; Chen, Huichang

    2011-01-01

    This research examined American and Chinese children's sense of responsibility to their parents during early adolescence, with a focus on its implications for children's academic functioning. Four times over the seventh and eighth grades, 825 children (mean age = 12.73 years) in the United States and China reported on their sense of responsibility to their parents. Information on children's academic functioning was also collected from children as well as school records. Although children's sense of responsibility to their parents declined over the seventh and eighth grades in the United States, this was not the case in China. In both countries, children's sense of responsibility was predictive of enhanced academic functioning among children over time. PMID:21466541

  7. An Examination of Academic Coping among Taiwanese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shu-Shen

    2015-01-01

    The author explored the relations among Taiwanese eighth-grade students' satisfactions of the basic psychological needs (i.e., the needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy), engagement versus disengagement coping with academic stress, self-regulated learning, and academic burnout. Three hundred and ninety-six eighth-grade Taiwanese students…

  8. Academics 2000: First Things First. Evaluation Report, 1998-99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Program Evaluation.

    This evaluation report profiles Academics 2000: First Things First, the Texas initiative under the Goals 2000 Educate America Act to raise the level of academic achievement of all Texas students by ensuring that each child achieves fourth-grade mastery of the foundation subjects by the end of fourth grade. The report states that, at the local…

  9. Academic Underachievement: Relationship with Cognitive Motivation, Achievement Motivation, and Conscientiousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preckel, Franzis; Holling, Heinz; Vock, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the role of need for cognition, achievement motivation, and conscientiousness on academic underachievement was investigated. Forty-seven male and 46 female students in Grades 7 to 10 participated in the study. Student attributes were assessed by self-report measures, school performance by academic grades, and intellectual abilities…

  10. Grade Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Where to locate the 7th and 8th grade is a perennial question. While there are many variations, three approaches are most often used---include them in a 7-12 secondary campus, maintain a separate middle grades campus, or include them as part of a K-8 program. Research says that grade configuration is inconclusive at best and there is no research…

  11. The Racial Academic Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Toneka M.

    2008-01-01

    Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

  12. Are International Undergraduates Struggling Academically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fass-Holmes, Barry; Vaughn, Allison A.

    2014-01-01

    Are international undergraduates struggling academically, and are their struggles due to weaknesses in English as a second language? The present study showed that 1) at most 10% of these students in three cohorts (ranging in size from N = 322 to N = 695) at an American west coast public university struggled (quarterly grade point averages below C)…

  13. Arizona Academic Standards, High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' updated academic standards for high school. The contents of this document contain: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--High School; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Proficiency and Distinction (Grades 9-12); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Proficiency and…

  14. Restarting Voluntary Leave and Academically Dismissed Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masat, Francis E.

    The use of "academic forgiveness," which allows students to be considered for readmission or graduation to college, is discussed, with attention to the procedures used by nine state colleges in New Jersey. The student is allowed an opportunity for low grades or other evaluations to be removed, under certain conditions, from grade point average…

  15. Raising Academic Achievement through Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackfelner, Carol; Ranallo, Barbara

    Research has demonstrated that parent involvement has many beneficial effects for students. This action research project designed and implemented a program to raise the academic achievement of second-grade students by increasing parent involvement. The students attended two second-grade classrooms in a west-central Illinois school. The problem of…

  16. Indiana Academic Standards for Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    This publication presents Indiana's Academic Standards for K-8 social studies grade-by-grade and organized into five content areas: (1) history; (2) civics and government; (3) geography; (4) economics; and (5) individuals, society, and culture (psychology, sociology, and anthropology). For instructional purposes, the content knowledge should be…

  17. Academic Freedom, Achievement Standards and Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, D. Royce

    2011-01-01

    The tension between the freedom of academics to grade the achievements of their students without interference or coercion and the prerogative of higher education institutions to control grading standards is often deliberated by weighing up the authority and rights of the two parties. An alternative approach is to start with an analysis of the…

  18. Academic Bullies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2008-01-01

    Many professors have been traumatized by academic bullies. Unlike bullies at school, the academic bully plays a more subtle game. Bullies may spread rumors to undermine a colleague's credibility or shut their target out of social conversations. The more aggressive of the species cuss out co-workers, even threatening to get physical. There is…

  19. Academic Decathlon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of California School Administrators.

    This position paper from the Research, Evaluation, and Accreditation Committee of the Association of California School Administrators (ACSA) presents a description of the Academic Decathlon program and offers recommendations for improving the program and ways that ACSA can assist the program. The description of the Academic Decathlon, a ten-event…

  20. Examining Relationships among Work Ethic, Academic Motivation and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriac, John P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, work ethic was examined as a predictor of academic motivation and performance. A total of 440 undergraduate students completed measures of work ethic and academic motivation, and reported their cumulative grade point average. Results indicated that several dimensions of work ethic were related to academic motivation and academic…