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Sample records for age group 21-30

  1. 1 CFR 21.30 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General. 21.30 Section 21.30 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS... contents become effective. OMB Control Numbers ...

  2. Dynamics of a smile in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Chetan, Patil; Tandon, Pradeep; Singh, Gulshan K; Nagar, Amit; Prasad, Veerendra; Chugh, Vinay K

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate smile in different age groups and to detect gender differences in smile. Digital videographic records of 241 randomly selected subjects were obtained for smile analysis. The subjects were divided into four groups by age (15-20 years, 21-30 years, 31-40 years, and 41-50 years). Each group was further subdivided by gender. After 41 subjects were excluded, the smile dimensions of 200 subjects were analyzed by two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with Duncan's multiple range post hoc test. All dynamic measurements (change in upper lip length, upper lip thickness, commissure height, and intercommissural width from rest to smile) decreased with age in both males and females. Changes in upper lip length and commissure height on smiling were greater in males as compared with females of the same age groups. Changes in intercommissural width on smiling were greater in females as compared with males in all age groups. Smile changes with increase in age, and the changes differ between males and females. Females had a wider smile as compared with males of similar age groups.

  3. [Symptomatic and asymptomatic infections of Demodex spp. in eye lashes of patients of different age groups].

    PubMed

    Kuźna-Grygiel, Wanda; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Czepita, Damian; Sambor, Izabella

    2004-01-01

    Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis were looked for on eyelashes sampled from 481 people, aged 3 through 96. The persons studied were divided into 9 age groups. Magnitude of the infection symptoms was assessed based on macroscopic changes of eye-lid edges and on interviews with patients. An increase of the prevalence of infection and intensification of the symptoms were observed to coincide with the age increase of the persons studied. No significant differences were demonstrated between the infection frequencies of women and men. Symptoms of ocular demodecosis were more frequent only in women of group III (aged 21-30) and group V (41-50) (p < 0.05).

  4. 21 CFR 21.30 - Records of contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records of contractors. 21.30 Section 21.30 Food... PRIVACY Requirements for Specific Categories of Records § 21.30 Records of contractors. (a) Systems of... contractors to accomplish Food and Drug Administration functions, from which information is retrieved...

  5. GUIDANCE ON SELECTING AGE GROUPS FOR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance document provides a set of early-lifestage age groups for Environmental Protection Agency scientists to consider when assessing children’s exposure to environmental contaminants and the resultant potential dose. These recommended age groups are based on current understanding of differences in behavior and physiology which may impact exposures in children. A consistent set of early-life age groups, supported by an underlying scientific rationale, is expected to improve Agency exposure and risk assessments for children by increasing the consistency and comparability of risk assessments across the Agency; by improving accuracy and transparency in assessments for those cases where current practice might too broadly combine behaviorally and physiologically disparate age groups; and by fostering a consistent approach to future exposure surveys and monitoring efforts to generate improved exposure factors for children. see description

  6. GUIDANCE ON SELECTING AGE GROUPS FOR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance document provides a set of early-lifestage age groups for Environmental Protection Agency scientists to consider when assessing children’s exposure to environmental contaminants and the resultant potential dose. These recommended age groups are based on current understanding of differences in behavior and physiology which may impact exposures in children. A consistent set of early-life age groups, supported by an underlying scientific rationale, is expected to improve Agency exposure and risk assessments for children by increasing the consistency and comparability of risk assessments across the Agency; by improving accuracy and transparency in assessments for those cases where current practice might too broadly combine behaviorally and physiologically disparate age groups; and by fostering a consistent approach to future exposure surveys and monitoring efforts to generate improved exposure factors for children. see description

  7. Voluntary Group Participation by Third Age Australians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Claire; Swindell, Rick

    A study investigated characteristics of retirees and types of voluntary groups they joined after retirement. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and completed questionnaires of 206 Australians over age 50. Five categories of voluntary organizations were studied: intellectually challenging, sporting/exercise, social, helping others,…

  8. 50 CFR 21.30 - Raptor propagation permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Specific Permit Provisions § 21.30 Raptor... Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) (16 U.S.C. 703 et seq.) prohibits any person from capturing from the wild... Flora, the Wild Bird Conservation Act, and State regulations, may affect propagation-related activities...

  9. 50 CFR 21.30 - Raptor propagation permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 21.30 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., such as illness, military service, or for a family emergency. The person(s) caring for your raptors may... programs, you must provide information about the biology, ecological roles, and conservation needs...

  10. 50 CFR 21.30 - Raptor propagation permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Specific Permit Provisions § 21.30 Raptor... Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) (16 U.S.C. 703 et seq.) prohibits any person from capturing from the wild... Flora, the Wild Bird Conservation Act, and State regulations, may affect propagation-related...

  11. 50 CFR 21.30 - Raptor propagation permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Specific Permit Provisions § 21.30 Raptor... Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) (16 U.S.C. 703 et seq.) prohibits any person from capturing from the wild... Flora, the Wild Bird Conservation Act, and State regulations, may affect propagation-related...

  12. 50 CFR 21.30 - Raptor propagation permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... times by the properly completed form 3-186A (Migratory Bird Acquisition/Disposition Report) designating... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Specific Permit Provisions § 21.30 Raptor... raptor propagation permits to the appropriate Regional Director (Attention: Migratory bird permit...

  13. Age Group Differences in Perceived Age Discrimination: Associations With Self-Perceptions of Aging.

    PubMed

    Giasson, Hannah L; Queen, Tara L; Larkina, Marina; Smith, Jacqui

    2017-08-01

    From midlife onwards, age stereotypes increasingly underlie social judgments and contribute to age-based discrimination. Whereas many studies compare differences between young and older adults in reports of age discrimination or sensitivity to age stereotypes, few consider age group differences among adults over 50. We form subgroups corresponding to social age group membership (early midlife, late midlife, young old, oldest old) and examine differences in reported experiences of everyday age discrimination and associations with self-perceptions of aging. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS: N = 15,071; M Age = 68, range 50-101), multivariate logistic regression was used to examine experiences of everyday discrimination attributed to age, and associations between age discrimination and self-perceptions of aging, in four age groups: early midlife, late midlife, young old, oldest old. People in the early midlife group (aged 50-59) reported more experiences of unfair treatment than the older age groups but were less likely to attribute their experiences to age discrimination. After controlling for covariates, individuals in all age groups who perceived their own aging positively were less likely to report experiences of age discrimination. The magnitude of this effect, however, was greatest in the early midlife group. Findings support proposals that midlife is a pivotal life period when individuals adjust to life events and social role transitions. Future longitudinal studies will provide further insight into whether positive self-perceptions of aging are especially important in this phase of the life course.

  14. Acute Viral Hepatitis in Pediatric Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Kc, Sudhamshu; Sharma, Dilip; Poudyal, Nandu; Basnet, Bhupendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Our clinical experience showed that there has been no decrease in pediatric cases of acute viral hepatitis in Kathmandu. The objective of the study was to analyze the etiology, clinical features, laboratory parameters, sonological findings and other to determine the probable prognostic factors of Acute Viral Hepatitis in pediatric population. Consecutive patients of suspected Acute Viral Hepatitis, below the age of 15 years, attending the liver clinic between January 2006 and December 2010 were studied. After clinical examination they were subjected to blood tests and ultrasound examination of abdomen. The patients were divided in 3 age groups; 0-5, 5-10 and 5-15 years. Clinical features, laboratory parameters, ultrasound findings were compared in three age groups. Etiology of Acute Viral Hepatitis was Hepatitis A virus 266 (85%), Hepatitis E virus in 24 (8%), Hepatitis B virus in 15 (5%). In 7(2%) patients etiology was unknown. Three patients went to acute liver failure but improved with conservative treatment. There was no statistical difference in most of the parameters studied in different age groups. Ascites was more common in 5-10 years age group. Patients with secondary bacterial infection, ultrasound evidence of prominent biliary tree and ascites were associated with increased duration of illness. Patients with history of herbal medications had prolonged cholestasis. Hepatitis A is most common cause of Acute Viral Hepatitis in pediatric population. Improper use of herbal medications, secondary bacterial infection and faulty dietary intake was associated with prolonged illness. Patients with prominent biliary radicals should be treated with antibiotics even with normal blood counts for earlier recovery.

  15. [The electrocardiogram in the paediatric age group].

    PubMed

    Sanches, M; Coelho, A; Oliveira, E; Lopes, A

    2014-09-01

    A properly interpreted electrocardiogram (ECG) provides important information and is an inexpensive and easy test to perform. It continues to be the method of choice for the diagnosis of arrhythmias. Although the principles of cardiac electrophysiology are the same, there are anatomical and physiological age-dependent changes which produce specific alterations in the paediatric ECG, and which may be misinterpreted as pathological. The intention of this article is to address in a systematic way the most relevant aspects of the paediatric ECG, to propose a possible reading scheme of the ECG and to review the electrocardiograph tracings most frequently found in the paediatric age group.

  16. Vitreous Hemorrhage in Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    AlHarkan, Dora H.; Kahtani, Eman S.; Gikandi, Priscilla W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To identify and study causes of vitreous hemorrhage (VH) in pediatric age group and to investigate factors predicting visual and anatomical outcomes. Procedure. A retrospective review of patients aged 16 years or less with the diagnosis of vitreous hemorrhage from January 2005 until December 2010. Results. A total number of 230 patients (240 eyes) were identified. Traumatic vitreous hemorrhage accounted for 82.5%. In cases of accidental trauma, final visual acuity of 20/200 was significantly associated with visual acuity of ≥20/200 at presentation and the absence of retinal detachment at last follow-up. Patients with nontraumatic vitreous hemorrhage were significantly younger with higher rates of enucleation/evisceration/exenteration and retinal detachment at last follow-up compared to traumatic cases. Conclusion. Trauma is the most common cause of VH in pediatric age group. In this group, initial visual acuity was the most important predictor for visual outcome, and the presence of retinal detachment is a negative predictor for final good visual outcome. The outcome is significantly worse in nontraumatic cases compared to traumatic cases. PMID:25505975

  17. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  18. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  19. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  20. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  1. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  2. Age-group differences in saccadic interference.

    PubMed

    Gottlob, Lawrence R; Fillmore, Mark T; Abroms, Ben D

    2007-03-01

    We examined age-group differences in a saccadic interference task, which requires that participants execute a saccade (eye movement) toward an abrupt-onset visual target presented to the right or left of fixation. On some trials, we imposed diffuse interference by bilateral (top and bottom) flashes of light presented 20 to 210 ms after target onset. When the flashes followed the cue at shorter intervals, time to execute a saccade was slowed relative to no-flash trials. This slowing was greater and sustained over a larger cue-flash interval for older participants than for the young participants. The results indicate that, when diffuse distractors are used, older adults are more susceptible to saccade disruption than are young adults.

  3. Effect of yellow filter on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity under glare condition among different age groups.

    PubMed

    Mahjoob, Monireh; Heydarian, Samira; Koochi, Somayyeh

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of yellow filter on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity under glare condition for various ages. A total of 60 subjects, aged 5-60 years, with no ocular pathology and no previous surgery were assessed in this cross-sectional study. We divided subjects into six subgroups according to their ages, and the number of subjects in each group was 10: group 1, aged 5-10 years; group 2, aged 11-20 years; group 3, aged 21-30 years; group 4, aged 31-40 years; group 5, aged 41-50 years; and group 6, aged 51-60 years. Snellen visual acuity and Pelli Robson contrast sensitivity with and without glare and with the use of yellow filter under glare condition were determined. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS, version 20. Our results showed a significant reduction in contrast sensitivity under glare condition in all age groups (p = 0.000), which improved significantly with the use of yellow filter (p = 0.000). Although when data in different age groups were analyzed separately, this improvement was only significant in older subjects, aged 51-60 years (p = 0.007). No significant difference was found between Snellen visual acuity with and without glare (p = 0.083), and also we found no yellow filter effect on visual acuity under glare condition. We conclude that yellow filter, which absorbs short wavelength, may provide significant contrast sensitivity benefits for individuals and influences older subjects more than younger ones.

  4. 42 CFR 21.30 - Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and professional training and experience. 21.30 Section 21.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.30 Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience. The level of academic attainment...

  5. 42 CFR 21.30 - Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience. 21.30 Section 21.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.30 Determination of...

  6. 42 CFR 21.30 - Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience. 21.30 Section 21.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.30 Determination of...

  7. 42 CFR 21.30 - Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience. 21.30 Section 21.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.30 Determination of...

  8. 42 CFR 21.30 - Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of creditable years of educational and professional training and experience. 21.30 Section 21.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.30 Determination of...

  9. Multi-age-grouping paradigm for young swimmers.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kosuke; Jamison, Paul L; Stager, Joel M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the adequacy of "multi-age" classification systems in youth sports with a specific focus on the unisex multi-age-groupings used by USA Swimming. In addition, we offer an analytical rationale for the multi-age-groupings and potential alternatives. We examined the top 100 US swim performances for three years (2005, 2006, and 2007) for girls and boys in 15 age-groups (7 to 20 years and a singular group of 21 years and older). Data for each age and sex were pooled over the three years and means were calculated for each of seven competitive swim events. Swim times differed among each age up to the 14-year age-group in girls (F (14,30885) = 183.9, P < 0.01, Cohen's d = 1.19-3.72, large effect) and 16-year age-group in boys (F (14,30885) = 308.7, P < 0.01, Cohen's d = 0.81-3.64, large effect) for all events. Age-related differences in swim times continued later in boys than girls likely due to differences between the sexes in timing of growth and maturation. Because of the differences in swim performance in contemporary multi-age-groups, stratifying swimmers by a single age is the best means to ensure competitive fairness and equality, although there is no rationale for swimmers under the age of 8 years to compete in separate unisex competitive groups.

  10. Hepatitis B virus infection among different sex and age groups in Pakistani Punjab

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious health problem in the developing countries including Pakistan. Various risk factors are responsible for the spread of this infectious disease. Prevalence of HBV infection in apparently suspected individual of Punjab province of Pakistan was analyzed during January 2008 to December 2010. Current study was aimed to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of HBV infection. Methodology Four thousand eight hundred and ninety patients suffering from chronic liver disease were screened for the presence of HBV DNA using qualitative Real Time PCR methodology to confirm their status of infection. A predesigned standard questionnaire was filled for all the patients that included information about the possible risk factors. Results A total of 4890 ELISA positive patients were screened for Hepatitis B virus infection. Of these 3143 were positive for HBV, includes 68.15% males and 31.85% females. Male were observed to be more frequently infected as compared to the female with a positivity ratio of 2.14: 1. The rate of infection increases with the passage of time in the course of three years. Highest frequency of infection was found in the age of 21-30 was 34.93% followed by 23.83% in 31-40. Only (13.39%) were belonging to the age group 11-20 year. The rate of infection declines with increasing age as shown by age groups 41-50 (16.13%) and 51-60 (7.09%). While children aged 0-10 and very old >60 age groups were very less frequently 1.49% and 1.65% infected respectively. Important risk factors contributing to HBV spread include barber risk (23.60%), blood transfusion (4.04%), History of injection 26.19%, Reuse of syringes 26.60%, dental risk (11.20%) and surgical procedure (4.26%). Among the entire respondents trend sharing personal items was very common. History of injection, barber risk, surgery and dental procedure and reuse of syringes appear as major risk factors for the transmission. Conclusion Male were more

  11. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Bültmann, Ute; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Methods The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender. Results Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups. Conclusions Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of

  12. The Subculture of the Aging, Aging Group-Conciousness, and Morale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, William C.

    The central concern of this paper is to examine the subculture of the aging theory and the relationship between aging group-consciousness and morale. Aging group-consciousness is postulated to be one of the major components of an aging subculture. A study of 81 older people was conducted in a rural, multi-story housing facility. Questionnaires…

  13. School's Out! Group Day Care for the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth; Milich, Cynthia

    This report on group day care is designed to: (1) examine the kinds of group programs for school-age children which exist in Los Angeles County, (2) describe the conditions necessary for program operation, and (3) consider the issue of quality as it relates to community expansion of day care services for children of school age. The report is…

  14. Differentiation of Occupational Perceptions Among Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Hypothesizes that occupational perceptions are more specific for older age groups than for younger age groups. Hypothesis was tested by using latent root analysis and minimum residual factor analysis to analyze intercorrelations among six Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) scales for five large and diverse samples. Both analyses supported the…

  15. Redefining meaningful age groups in the context of disease.

    PubMed

    Geifman, Nophar; Cohen, Raphael; Rubin, Eitan

    2013-12-01

    Age is an important factor when considering phenotypic changes in health and disease. Currently, the use of age information in medicine is somewhat simplistic, with ages commonly being grouped into a small number of crude ranges reflecting the major stages of development and aging, such as childhood or adolescence. Here, we investigate the possibility of redefining age groups using the recently developed Age-Phenome Knowledge-base (APK) that holds over 35,000 literature-derived entries describing relationships between age and phenotype. Clustering of APK data suggests 13 new, partially overlapping, age groups. The diseases that define these groups suggest that the proposed divisions are biologically meaningful. We further show that the number of different age ranges that should be considered depends on the type of disease being evaluated. This finding was further strengthened by similar results obtained from clinical blood measurement data. The grouping of diseases that share a similar pattern of disease-related reports directly mirrors, in some cases, medical knowledge of disease-age relationships. In other cases, our results may be used to generate new and reasonable hypotheses regarding links between diseases.

  16. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  17. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  18. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  19. Changes in the incomes of age groups, 1984-89.

    PubMed

    Radner, D B

    1991-12-01

    In terms of changes in the incomes of age groups, the 1984-89 period was very different from the periods that immediately preceded it. This summary focuses on changes for aged family units. During the 1984-89 period, the rate of growth of real median income of aged units was substantially lower than in other subperiods since 1967, the first year for which comparable detailed estimates are available. During the 1984-89 period, the ratio of aged to nonaged median incomes fell for 4 consecutive years, after generally rising since about 1970. The relative medians of almost all detailed aged age groups fell at least slightly from 1984 to 1989, after a period of substantial rises. The increases in income for aged units during 1984-89 were higher for high-income units than for low-income units, producing an increase in inequality. The percentage of aged persons who were poor fell slightly from 1984 to 1989, but that percentage remained above the rates for other adult age groups. A relatively high percentage of aged persons had income that was less than 50 percent above the poverty threshold. The increase in the real mean total income of aged units from 1984 to 1989 was the net result of substantial increases in earnings and pension income and a substantial decrease in property income. In contrast, the much larger increase in real mean total income for aged units from 1979 to 1984 was characterized by a large increase in property income, substantial increases in Social Security benefits and pension income, and a small decrease in earnings.

  20. Negative impact of asthma on patients in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Alith, Marcela Batan; Gazzotti, Mariana Rodrigues; Montealegre, Federico; Fish, James; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Jardim, José Roberto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of asthma on patients in Brazil, by age group (12-17 years, 18-40 years, and ≥ 41 years). From a survey conducted in Latin America in 2011, we obtained data on 400 patients diagnosed with asthma and residing in one of four Brazilian state capitals (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador). The data had been collected using a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. For the patients who were minors, the parents/guardians had completed the questionnaire. The questions addressed asthma control, number of hospitalizations, number of emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. We stratified the data by the selected age groups. The proportions of patients who responded in the affirmative to the following questions were significantly higher in the 12- to 17-year age group than in the other two groups: "Have you had at least one episode of severe asthma that prevented you from playing/exercising in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.012); "Have you been absent from school/work in the last 12 months?" (p < 0.001); "Have you discontinued your asthma relief or control medication in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.008). In addition, 30.2% of the patients in the 12- to 17-year age group reported that normal physical exertion was very limiting (p = 0.010 vs. the other groups), whereas 14% of the patients in the ≥ 41-year age group described social activities as very limiting (p = 0.011 vs. the other groups). In this sample, asthma had a greater impact on the patients between 12 and 17 years of age, which might be attributable to poor treatment compliance.

  1. Age-group differences in inhibiting an oculomotor response.

    PubMed

    Gottlob, Lawrence R; Fillmore, Mark T; Abroms, Ben D

    2007-11-01

    Age-group differences were examined in the delayed oculomotor response task, which requires that observers delay the execution of a saccade (eye movement) toward an abrupt-onset visual cue. This task differs from antisaccade and attentional capture in that inhibition causes saccades to be postponed, not redirected. Older adults executed more premature saccades than young adults, but there were no age-group differences in latency or accuracy of saccades executed at the proper time. The results suggest that older adults are less capable of inhibiting a prepotent saccadic response, but that other aspects of visual working memory related to the task are preserved.

  2. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention.

  3. Menopausal age in various ethnic groups in Israel.

    PubMed

    Neri, A; Bider, D; Lidor, Y; Ovadia, J

    1982-12-01

    The effects of various parameters on age at menopause have been investigated in five ethnic groups in Israel comprising East European, West European, North African, Israeli and other Middle Eastern (Mediterranean) women, respectively. The data were acquired by means of anonymous questionnaires and were programmed for 1770 women. Correlation coefficients between various variables and age at menopause revealed three variables which have a straight correlation, vis. obesity index, number of children, and years of amenorrhoea (during the reproductive years). The years-of-smoking variable has an inverse correlation with age at menopause. East Europeans have the highest age at menarche. Two-way analysis of variance has shown that the obesity index, years of amenorrhoea, number of children and years-of-smoking parameters are individually more important than ethnic origin. The finding that the age at menopause is highest in the North African group is explained by the higher incidence in this group of high parity, a greater number of amenorrhoea, obesity, and low cigarette consumption. Since many habits (such as smoking, diet, use of contraceptive pills, multiple partners and marital obligations) are subject to frequent change in the modern world, it is of the utmost importance to repeat such a study every few years.

  4. Maximum Bite Force Analysis in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Patricia; Vieira, Marilena; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF) is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI), using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo), and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil), on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups. PMID:25992105

  5. Age Group and Sex of Students Fall 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    This report provides statistical tables on the age group and sex of full-time and part-time graduate and undergraduate students in the State University of New York (SUNY) system for Fall 1990. Part I contains data for the entire system including headcount tables with corresponding percent distribution arrays. Part II shows headcount and percentage…

  6. An Adolescent Age Group Approach to Examining Youth Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…

  7. Youth Assets and Delayed Coitarche across Developmental Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that assets are associated with youth abstinence, but whether these relationships are constant across developmental age groups has not been shown. Data for this study were obtained from two independent datasets collected across a 2-year period using in-person, in-home interviews of youth (52% female; 44% Caucasian,…

  8. Group demographics in the mental patient movement: group location, age, and size as structural factors.

    PubMed

    Emerick, R E

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a descriptive overview of the mental patient selfhelp movement based on a sample of 104 groups. Groups are classified in terms of group structure, group affiliation, and evaluation of psychiatry and are then described in a demographic profile that includes the factors of location, age and size. After a review of the literature on functional models of selfhelp groups, the mental patient movement is shown to be composed of groups with widely varying political philosophies-from radical "separatist" groups promoting consciousness-raising, empowerment, and social reform to conservative "partnership" groups that emphasize individual reform through "alternative therapy". The movement is shown to be increasingly dominated by moderate "supportive" groups and, as such, is characterized as a true client-controlled social or "community" alternative to the professionally-controlled medical programs that dominate the mental health system today.

  9. Coupling of Temperament with Mental Illness in Four Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Mobile Device Accuracy for Step Counting Across Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yi; Bian, Jiang; Gurka, Matthew J; Parish, Alice; Smith, Megan D; Lee, Alexandra M; Buford, Thomas W

    2017-01-01

    Background Only one in five American meets the physical activity recommendations of the Department of Health and Human Services. The proliferation of wearable devices and smartphones for physical activity tracking has led to an increasing number of interventions designed to facilitate regular physical activity, in particular to address the obesity epidemic, but also for cardiovascular disease patients, cancer survivors, and older adults. However, the inconsistent findings pertaining to the accuracy of wearable devices for step counting needs to be addressed, as well as factors known to affect gait (and thus potentially impact accuracy) such as age, body mass index (BMI), or leading arm. Objective We aim to assess the accuracy of recent mobile devices for counting steps, across three different age groups. Methods We recruited 60 participants in three age groups: 18-39 years, 40-64 years, and 65-84 years, who completed two separate 1000 step walks on a treadmill at a self-selected speed between 2 and 3 miles per hour. We tested two smartphones attached on each side of the waist, and five wrist-based devices worn on both wrists (2 devices on one wrist and 3 devices on the other), as well as the Actigraph wGT3X-BT, and swapped sides between each walk. All devices were swapped dominant-to-nondominant side and vice-versa between the two 1000 step walks. The number of steps was recorded with a tally counter. Age, sex, height, weight, and dominant hand were self-reported by each participant. Results Among the 60 participants, 36 were female (60%) and 54 were right-handed (90%). Median age was 53 years (min=19, max=83), median BMI was 24.1 (min=18.4, max=39.6). There was no significant difference in left- and right-hand step counts by device. Our analyses show that the Fitbit Surge significantly undercounted steps across all age groups. Samsung Gear S2 significantly undercounted steps only for participants among the 40-64 year age group. Finally, the Nexus 6P significantly

  11. Mobile Device Accuracy for Step Counting Across Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Modave, François; Guo, Yi; Bian, Jiang; Gurka, Matthew J; Parish, Alice; Smith, Megan D; Lee, Alexandra M; Buford, Thomas W

    2017-06-28

    Only one in five American meets the physical activity recommendations of the Department of Health and Human Services. The proliferation of wearable devices and smartphones for physical activity tracking has led to an increasing number of interventions designed to facilitate regular physical activity, in particular to address the obesity epidemic, but also for cardiovascular disease patients, cancer survivors, and older adults. However, the inconsistent findings pertaining to the accuracy of wearable devices for step counting needs to be addressed, as well as factors known to affect gait (and thus potentially impact accuracy) such as age, body mass index (BMI), or leading arm. We aim to assess the accuracy of recent mobile devices for counting steps, across three different age groups. We recruited 60 participants in three age groups: 18-39 years, 40-64 years, and 65-84 years, who completed two separate 1000 step walks on a treadmill at a self-selected speed between 2 and 3 miles per hour. We tested two smartphones attached on each side of the waist, and five wrist-based devices worn on both wrists (2 devices on one wrist and 3 devices on the other), as well as the Actigraph wGT3X-BT, and swapped sides between each walk. All devices were swapped dominant-to-nondominant side and vice-versa between the two 1000 step walks. The number of steps was recorded with a tally counter. Age, sex, height, weight, and dominant hand were self-reported by each participant. Among the 60 participants, 36 were female (60%) and 54 were right-handed (90%). Median age was 53 years (min=19, max=83), median BMI was 24.1 (min=18.4, max=39.6). There was no significant difference in left- and right-hand step counts by device. Our analyses show that the Fitbit Surge significantly undercounted steps across all age groups. Samsung Gear S2 significantly undercounted steps only for participants among the 40-64 year age group. Finally, the Nexus 6P significantly undercounted steps for the group

  12. Reliability of Tethered Swimming Evaluation in Age Group Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Nuno; Marinho, Daniel A; Batalha, Nuno; Marques, Mário C; Morouço, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability of tethered swimming in the evaluation of age group swimmers. The sample was composed of 8 male national level swimmers with at least 4 years of experience in competitive swimming. Each swimmer performed two 30 second maximal intensity tethered swimming tests, on separate days. Individual force-time curves were registered to assess maximum force, mean force and the mean impulse of force. Both consistency and reliability were very strong, with Cronbach’s Alpha values ranging from 0.970 to 0.995. All the applied metrics presented a very high agreement between tests, with the mean impulse of force presenting the highest. These results indicate that tethered swimming can be used to evaluate age group swimmers. Furthermore, better comprehension of the swimmers ability to effectively exert force in the water can be obtained using the impulse of force. PMID:25114742

  13. Acute pancreatitis in the paediatric age group: a personal experience.

    PubMed

    Cosentini, A; Stranieri, G; Capillo, S; Notarangelo, L; Madonna, L; Iannini, S; Ferro, V; Defilippo, V; Defilippo, R G; Rubino, R

    2005-01-01

    Although relatively rare, acute pancreatitis is the most common disease complex involving the pancreas in the paediatric age group. The etiology of the disease is often unknown, and Italian epidemiological data on the paediatric population and, in particular, on the etiology of the disease are not available (except for studies of prevalence). Within the field of the most frequently encountered pancreatitis in the age range of our interest (i.e. 0-18 years), not only the commonly observed forms whose etiopathogenesis is ascribable to cholelithiasis must be mentioned but also those forms due to proteic-caloric malnutrition that are becoming increasingly common. The presenting clinical symptoms and signs may not be typical and the laboratory tests may not always be sensitive enough. In such age range chronic recurrent pancreatitis plays a very important epidemiologic role. Approximately 40% of children and teenagers admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of pancreatitis report a previous episode of the disease. Irreversible changes in pancreatic parenchyma develop in those patients in whom the disease progresses, leading to pancreatic insufficiency. Such a morbid condition (chronic pancreatitis) is more often observed in adolescents, in whom the disease manifests itself with a vague repetitive dyspeptic symptomatology, after alternating remissions and recrudescences, not always clinically evident. In children, the clinical picture most commonly encountered is represented by recurrent abdominal pains, in view of the fact that the patients are frequently affected by thalassaemia. The pseudocystic evolution of the disease is the most common organic damage resulting from the chronic progression of the pancreatic impairment. A few differences have been found with respect to severity, etiology, and mortality of pancreatitis in the paediatric age group as compared with older age groups. Both the general practitioner with a paediatric practice and the paediatrician

  14. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  15. Learning science in small multi-age groups: the role of age composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-06-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by pre-primary children aged 4-6. The second part included one primary class attended by students aged 6-8 in addition to the pre-primary classes. Students were involved in inquiry-based science activities. Two sources of data were used: Lesson recordings and children's assessments. The data from both sources were separately analyzed and the findings plotted. The resulting graphs indicate a linear relationship between the overall performance of the younger children in a class and the number of older ones participating in the groups in each class. It seems that the age composition of the groups can significantly affect the overall cognitive achievements of the younger children and preferentially determines the time within which this factor reaches its maximum value. The findings can be utilized in deciding the age composition of small groups in a class with the aim of facilitating the younger children's learning in science.

  16. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated.

  17. [Rational balanced nutrition of schoolchildren of various age groups].

    PubMed

    Kulikova, N V; Samolyuk, N G; Fedotov, A S; Krotenko, N M

    2013-01-01

    The problem of nutrition of schoolchildren as the main index of health status is considered. Recommendations for implementation of correction system of school feeding in conditions of Siberia will be presented. The purpose of work: on the basis of the results of monitoring living activity and assessment of the health of schoolchildren of different age groups in Siberia to develop guidelines on the rational balanced nutrition. Studies bear witness to inadequate diet and regimen of feeding of schoolchildren. In Siberia a progressive deterioration in the health of students during the years of learning is observed, part of diseases is associated with an unbalanced diet. We offer the project, in course of realization of which study in schools are carried out, scientifically grounded recommendations on appropriate diet and regimen of feeding for schoolchildren of different age groups in the Siberia in the cold and warm period of the year are developed. Implementation of recommendations will result in the general improvement of children health and reduction in medical aid appealability due to diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Task factor usability ratings for different age groups writing Chinese.

    PubMed

    Chan, A H S; So, J C Y

    2009-11-01

    This study evaluated how different task factors affect performance and user subjective preferences for three different age groups of Chinese subjects (6-11, 20-23, 65-70 years) when hand writing Chinese characters. The subjects copied Chinese character sentences with different settings for the task factors of writing plane angle (horizontal 0 degrees , slanted 15 degrees ), writing direction (horizontal, vertical), and line spacing (5 mm, 7 mm and no lines). Writing speed was measured and subjective preferences (effectiveness and satisfaction) were assessed for each of the task factor settings. The result showed that there was a conflict between writing speed and personal preference for the line spacing factor; 5 mm line spacing increased writing speed but it was the least preferred. It was also found that: vertical and horizontal writing directions and a slanted work surface suited school-aged children; a horizontal work surface and horizontal writing direction suited university students; and a horizontal writing direction with either a horizontal or slanted work surface suited the older adults.

  19. Scurvy in pediatric age group – A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009–2014) with search terms “scurvy” “vitamin C deficiency” “ascorbic acid deficiency” “scurvy and children” “scurvy and pediatric age group”. There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  20. High blood pressure in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Helena; Antonio, Natália; Rodrigues, Dina; Da Silva, Marinho; Pêgo, Mariano; Providência, Luís Augusto

    2010-03-01

    The definition of hypertension (HT) in the pediatric age group is based on the normal distribution of blood pressure (BP) in healthy children. Normal BP is defined as being below the 90th percentile for gender, age and height, and hypertension as equal to or higher than the 95th percentile on at least three separate occasions. If the values are above the 90th percentile but below the 95th percentile, the child should be considered prehypertensive. Ambulatory BP monitoring is useful in the assessment of BP levels in the young. P values in children and adolescents have creased in the last decade, in parallel with increases in body mass index, and HT now has a prevalence of 2-5%. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is one of the main predictors of HT in adulthood, but it is also associated with other cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, inflammation and impaired vascular function. Left ventricular hypertrophy is the most prominent evidence of target organ damage caused by hypertension in children and adolescents. The goal for antihypertensive treatment is to reduce BP below the 95th percentile. Weight control, with regular physical activity and dietary changes, is the primary therapy for obesity-related hypertension. Weight loss decreases not only BP but also other cardiovascular risk factors. The indications for use of antihypertensive drugs are: symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, established hypertensive target organ damage, stage 2 hypertension and failure of nonpharmacologic measures.

  1. Swimming and cardiovascular fitness in the older age group.

    PubMed

    Arthur, R J

    1975-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is an extraordinarily common and devastating disorder of middle aged and even young men in the United States and Western Europe. An increasing risk of developing the disease is associated with such factors as high blood pressure, obesity, high levels of cholesterol in the blood serum, cigarette smoking, certain behavioral patterns, decreased vital capacity and a low level of physical activity. There is much evidence to indicate that exercise may well help prevent heart attacks through such mechanisms as increasing heart efficiency, decreasing the level of serum cholesterol, decreasing obesity, decreasing high blood pressure and promoting psychic well-being. It is necessary, however, that the exercise be continued throughout life. Athletic activity in high school or college is of no help in later years. The exercise must be part of a regular scheduled year-round activity. It is suggested that swimming has many unique advantages for such an endeavor. The Amateur Athletic Union of the United States has developed competition in older age groups as a motivating force for the continuance of a regular training program of a healthful nature.

  2. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  3. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  4. A study of the prevalence of thalassemia and its correlation with liver function test in different age and sex group in the Chittagong district of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Palit, Sarmi; Bhuiyan, Robiul H.; Aklima, Jannatul; Emran, Talha B.; Dash, Raju

    2012-01-01

    Thalassemia is the name of a group of genetic, inherited disorders of the blood. More specifically, it is a disorder of the hemoglobin molecule inside the red blood cells. According to World health Organization (WHO), there are about 3% beta-thalassemia carrier and about 4% Hb E/beta-thalassemia carrier in Bangladesh. Our objective is to identify the prevalence of beta-thalassemia in our adolescent populations and to review risk factors that would most easily identify a subset of adolescent patients at greatest risk for the development of beta-thalassemia. We also made a study of clinical profile of 53 thalassemic patients, observing the relationship between the patients with their verity ages and sex. The cases are taken on the basis of their age (2-30 years), beta-thalassemia major, clinical jaundice with history of chronic blood transfusion. The cases excluded those who had jaundice due to viral hepatitis or hepatitis due to heavy metal poisoning (Arsenic) and those with spleenectomy. Liver function test has been evaluated in 53 patients. That were recorded with some relevant demographical data such as age, sex, blood group where median age was of 16 years and mean (±SD) age 15.4151 ± 7.90918. Among them were 21 (39.6%) female and 32 (60.4%) male. With an average 15.1% (8 in no.) beta-thalassemia, 7.5% (4 in no.) beta-thalassemia major and 77.4% (41 in no.) E-beta-thalassemia cases have been found in the study. Mean (±SD) TSB in total 53 subjects with age group 2-10 years and 21-30 years is significant. The study revealed that in thalassemic patients when the age is more, the disease progresses with their complication. Hepatic complication is mainly due to being hepatocellular in nature than that of obstructive one. PMID:24826050

  5. Diabetes technology and treatments in the paediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Shalitin, S; Peter Chase, H

    2011-02-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases and its incidence has doubled during the last decade. The goals of intensive management of diabetes were established in 1993 by the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) (1). Children with T1D and their caregivers continue to face the challenge to maintain blood glucose levels in the near-normal range. It is important to prevent sustained hyperglycaemia which is associated with long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications and to avoid recurrent episodes of hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia, especially in young children, which may have adverse effects on cognitive function and impede efforts to achieve the recommended glycaemic targets. Advances in the use of technology that may help maintain the metabolic control goals for young people with T1D were centred on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) (2-4), continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) (5-7), and combining both technologies into a closed-loop system (8-10). The dilemma in paediatrics of patient selection for insulin pump therapy was found to be most successful in those with more frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and younger age prior to pump initiation (2). Similarly, those who used a dual-wave bolus probably paid closer attention to their management and had lower HbA1c levels (3). The advantage of using a pre-meal bolus to improve postprandial glucose levels was shown to offer another potential method to improve glycaemic control (4). SMBG is an important component of therapy in patients with diabetes, especially in the paediatric age group. Standard use of glucose meters for SMBG provides only intermittent single blood glucose levels, without giving the 'whole picture' of glucose variability during the 24 h, and especially during the night, when blood glucose levels are seldom measured. Therefore, the use of a device such as real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) that provides

  6. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  7. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  8. The Pros and Cons of Mixed-Age Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodish, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Recently, numerous larger schools have tried to capture the potential advantages of a wide age range in their classrooms. The nongraded organizational system recognizes and plans for varied student abilities, provides for different rates of progress, and adjusts to individual emotional and social needs. Both advantages and disadvantages are…

  9. Diversity, Group Identity, and Citizenship Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide immigration and quests for rights by minority groups have caused social scientists and educators to raise serious questions about liberal assimilationist conceptions of citizenship that historically have dominated citizenship education in nation-states. The author of this article challenges liberal assimilationist conceptions of…

  10. The relationship between age-stereotypes and health locus of control across adult age-groups.

    PubMed

    Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2015-01-01

    This study integrates healthy ageing and health psychology theories to explore the mechanisms underlying the relationship between health control expectancies and age-attitudes on the process of ageing well. Specifically, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between age-stereotypes and health locus of control. A population-based survey of 739 adults aged 20-97 years (mean = 57.3 years, SD = 13.66; 42% female) explored attitudes towards ageing and health attitudes. A path-analytical approach was used to investigate moderating effects of age and gender. Higher age-stereotype endorsement was associated with higher chance (β = 2.91, p < .001) and powerful other (β = 1.07, p = .012) health expectancies, after controlling for age, gender, education and self-rated health. Significant age and gender interactions were found to influence the relationship between age-stereotypes and internal health locus of control. Our findings suggest that the relationship between age-stereotypes and health locus of control dimensions must be considered within the context of age and gender. The findings point to the importance of targeting health promotion and interventions through addressing negative age-attitudes.

  11. The effect of group composition and age on social behavior and competition in groups of weaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Faerevik, G; Jensen, M B; Bøe, K E

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how group composition affects behavior and weight gain of newly weaned dairy calves and how age within heterogeneous groups affects behavior and competition. Seventy-two calves were introduced into 6 groups of 12 calves, of which 3 groups were homogeneous and 3 groups were heterogeneous (including 6 young and 6 old calves). The 9.8 mx9.5 m large experimental pen had 4 separate lying areas as well as a feeding area. Behavior and subgrouping were recorded on d 1, 7, and 14 after grouping, and calves were weighed before and after the experimental period of 14 d. Analysis of the effect of group composition on behavior and weight gain included young calves in heterogeneous groups and calves in homogeneous groups within the same age range at grouping (30 to 42 d). Irrespective of group composition, time spent feeding and lying increased, whereas time spent active decreased from d 1 to 7. In homogeneous groups, calves were more explorative on d 1 after grouping. Finally, calves in homogeneous groups had a higher average daily weight gain than calves in heterogeneous groups. Analysis of the effect of age included young and old calves of heterogeneous groups. Young calves were less explorative than old calves. Young calves were more active than old calves on d 1 but less active on d 7. Time spent lying and lying alone increased over time. More displacements from the feed manger were performed by old calves than by young calves. An analysis including all calves in both homogeneous and heterogeneous groups showed that when lying, calves were evenly distributed on the 4 lying areas and formed subgroups of on average 3 calves. In conclusion, age heterogeneity leads to increased competition, which may have a negative influence on the young calves' performance.

  12. Alliance for aging research AD biomarkers work group: structural MRI.

    PubMed

    Jack, Clifford R

    2011-12-01

    Biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are increasingly important. All modern AD therapeutic trials employ AD biomarkers in some capacity. In addition, AD biomarkers are an essential component of recently updated diagnostic criteria for AD from the National Institute on Aging--Alzheimer's Association. Biomarkers serve as proxies for specific pathophysiological features of disease. The 5 most well established AD biomarkers include both brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measures--cerebrospinal fluid Abeta and tau, amyloid positron emission tomography (PET), fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This article reviews evidence supporting the position that MRI is a biomarker of neurodegenerative atrophy. Topics covered include methods of extracting quantitative and semiquantitative information from structural MRI; imaging-autopsy correlation; and evidence supporting diagnostic and prognostic value of MRI measures. Finally, the place of MRI in a hypothetical model of temporal ordering of AD biomarkers is reviewed.

  13. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  14. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  15. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A

    2015-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50-64; 65-79; 80 and older). Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old-old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  17. [Effect of obesity on pulmonary function in asthmatic children of different age groups].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Wen; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xue-Li; Liang, Fan-Mei; Luo, Rong

    2017-05-01

    To study the effect of obesity on pulmonary function in newly diagnosed asthmatic children of different age groups. Two hundred and ninety-four children with newly diagnosed asthma were classified into preschool-age (<6 years) and school-age (6 to 12.5 years) groups. They were then classified into obese, overweight, and normal-weight subgroups based on their body mass index (BMI). All the children underwent pulmonary function tests, including large airway function tests [forced vital capacity (FVC%) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%)] and small airway function tests [maximal expiratory flow at 25% of vital capacity (MEF25%), maximal expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (MEF50%), and maximal expiratory flow at 75% of vital capacity (MEF75%)]. The school-age group showed lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% than the preschool-age group (P<0.05) after adjustment for sex and BMI. The normal-weight children in the school-age group had lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% compared with their counterparts in the preschool-age group (P<0.05). The overweight children in the school-age group showed lower FVC% and MEF50% than those in the preschool-age group. However, all the pulmonary function parameters showed no significant differences between the obese children in the preschool-age and school-age groups. In the preschool-age group, FVC%, FEV1%, and MEF75% of the obese children were lower than those of the normal-weight children. In the school-age group, only FVC% and FEV1% showed differences between the obese and normal-weight children (P<0.05). The effect of obesity on the pulmonary function varies with age in children with asthma, and the effect is more obvious in those of preschool age.

  18. Prevalence of vaginitis in different age groups among females in Greece.

    PubMed

    Sianou, Argiri; Galyfos, George; Moragianni, Dimitra; Baka, Stavroula

    2017-08-01

    Patients with vaginitis were classified into four groups: Group A (prepubertal under-aged females); Group B (pubertal under-aged females); Group C (reproductive age adult females); Group D (postmenopausal adult females). All vaginal specimens underwent microscopy, amine testing, Gram staining and culturing. Overall, 163 patients were included (33, 14, 81 and 35 patients, respectively). The most common infection was bacterial vaginosis (BV), followed by Ureaplasma infection, aerobic vaginitis (AV) and candidiasis. The most common AV-associated organism was Escherichia coli and the most common BV-associated organism was Gardnerella vaginalis. AV was more frequent in Group A, BV in Group C and Ureaplasma infections in Groups C/D. Decreased lactobacilli concentrations were associated with BV in fertile patients (Groups B-C). Although presentation of vaginitis is similar among females of different age in Greece, type and prevalence of pathogens differ. Normal vaginal flora changes are associated with higher risk of vaginitis in specific age groups. Impact Statement The worldwide incidence of reproductive tract infections has been increasing, with specific pathogens being associated with significant risk of morbidity and complications. However, literature data on the distribution of such infections in different age groups is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence and causes of vaginitis in adult and non-adult females of all ages. This study has shown that although presentation of vaginitis is similar among females of different age groups and menstrual status in Greece, type and prevalence of responsible pathogens are different among groups. Changes in normal vaginal flora seem to be associated with higher risk of vaginitis in specific age-groups as well. These findings could contribute in adjusting diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for each age group according to the prevailing pathogens. Further research on antibiotic

  19. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  20. [Results of troponin I testing by high sensitive method in three age groups of healthy population].

    PubMed

    Pushkin, A S; Yakovlev, A A; Akhmedov, T A; Rukavishnikova, S A; Ryzhak, G A

    2017-01-01

    Article is about troponin I testing by high sensitive method in healthy population group. 165 people (employees of hospital) were examined, 71 % - women and 29 % - men. Inclusion criteria were as follows: absence of active complaints at the time of health examination and during the previous 30 days. All the examinees were divided into three age groups: 18-34 years (middle age, I period), 35-54 years (middle age, II period), above 55 years (old age). Research of correlation between cardiac troponin I and age of healthy population group was the main aim of investigation.

  1. Performance trends in age group breaststroke swimmers in the FINA World Championships 1986-2014.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2016-10-31

    Performance trends in breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level in pool competitions are well investigated for elite swimmers, but not for age group swimmers. This study investigated trends in participation, performance and sex difference in performance in a total of 35,143 (16,160 women and 18,983 men) age group breaststroke swimmers aged 25-29 to 95-99 years competing in the Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) World Masters Championships between 1986 and 2014. Trends in participation were analysed using linear regression analyses and trends in performance were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses with sex, distance and calendar year as fixed variables. Women and men improved performance in all age groups. For age groups 25-29 to 85-89 years, men were faster than women. For age groups 90-94 to 95-99 years, men were not faster than women. Sex and distance showed a significant interaction for all distances in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years. In 50 m, women reduced the gap to men in age groups 40-44 to 70-74 years and in 100 m and 200 m, women reduced the gap in age groups 50-54 to 60-64 years. In summary, (i) women and men improved performance in all race distances and in all age groups, (ii) men were faster than women from 25 to 89 years, but not from 90 to 99 years, and (iii), women reduced the gap to men between ~40 and ~75 years, but not in younger (<40 years) or older (>75 years) age groups. Based on these findings for a time period of nearly 30 years, we may assume a further increase in participation and a further improvement in performance in the near future in age group breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level.

  2. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Matheus M; Reis, Júlia G; Carvalho, Regiane L; Tanaka, Erika H; Hyppolito, Miguel A; Abreu, Daniela C C

    2015-01-01

    muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women.

  3. Sources of energy from meals versus snacks in 220 people in four age groups.

    PubMed

    Summerbell, C D; Moody, R C; Shanks, J; Stock, M J; Geissler, C

    1995-01-01

    To assess meals versus snacks in terms of their contribution to total daily energy intake (TDI), macronutrient composition, and food commodity profile. Meals and snacks were assessed from 220 7-day weighed dietary records. 187 records were obtained from three separate existing studies, and reanalysed. These studies contained data on three different age groups in the British population; elderly group (n = 88), middle-aged group (n = 40), young adult group (n = 59). A separate study of 13-14-year-olds living in Croydon was conducted from which 33 usable diet records were collected (adolescent group). Boys in the adolescent group consumed more of their TDI as snacks (29.0%) compared with men in the young adult (18.9%) and elderly groups (16.6%), but not the middle-aged group (25.8%). Females consumed about the same percentage of their TDI as snacks; adolescent group 23.6%, young adult group 19.4%, middle-aged group 21.4%, elderly group 17.9%. Meals were higher in protein and fat, and lower in total sugars, compared with snacks. Chocolate confectionery, crisps and fizzy drinks and squashes were popular snack foods in the adolescent group. Unlike snacks, the food commodity profiles of meals were similar in all age groups. This study shows that foods and drinks consumed as snacks by the British public, including the elderly, have a relatively high total sugar composition. These results add to the concern relating snack foods with dental caries.

  4. Influence of Aqueous-Salt Conditions on the Structure and Dynamics of the Monomeric and Novel Dimeric forms of the Alzheimer s ABeta21-30 protein fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Micholas Dean

    The behavior of the Alzheimer's related peptide Abeta is the subject of much study. In typical computational studies the environment local to the peptide is assumed to be pure water; however, in vivo the peptide is found in the extracellular space near the plasma membrane which is rich in ionic species. In this thesis, the hypothesis that the presence of group I/IIA salts will result in increased sampling of disordered structures as well as modify the dynamics of meta-stable structural motifs in the small folding nucleus of the Abeta peptide (Abeta21-30) is examined under a variety of ionic environments and was shown that of the tested salts, CaCl2 (and MgCl2, to a much lesser degree) did increase the propensity for disordered states; while, the group IA salts, KCl and NaCl, had little effect on the secondary structure of the peptide. Further, study of three familial mutations of this peptide region is also performed under aqueous salt-environments to elucidate further mechanistic details of how aqueous salts modify the region's behavior. Finally, as experimental results have highlighted that aggregation rates of the full-length peptide are modified by the presence of CaCl2, this work examines novel dimers states of Abeta21-30 and their stabilities when exposed to CaCl2.

  5. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years) and older (64-85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  6. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  7. Finisher and performance trends in female and male mountain ultramarathoners by age group

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Eichenberger, Evelyn; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined changes according to age group in the number of finishers and running times for athletes in female and male mountain ultramarathoners competing in the 78 km Swiss Alpine Marathon, the largest mountain ultramarathon in Europe and held in high alpine terrain. Methods The association between age and performance was investigated using analysis of variance and both single and multilevel regression analyses. Results Between 1998 and 2011, a total of 1,781 women and 12,198 men finished the Swiss Alpine Marathon. The number of female finishers increased (r2 = 0.64, P = 0.001), whereas the number of male finishers (r2 = 0.18, P = 0.15) showed no change. The annual top ten men became older and slower, whereas the annual top ten women became older but not slower. Regarding the number of finishers in the age groups, the number of female finishers decreased in the age group 18–24 years, whereas the number of finishers increased in the age groups 30–34, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, and 70–74 years. In the age groups 25–29 and 35–39 years, the number of finishers showed no changes across the years. In the age group 70–74 years, the increase in number of finishers was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. For men, the number of finishers decreased in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, and 35–39 years. In the age groups 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 70–74, and 75–79 years, the number of finishers increased. In the age group 40–44 years, the increase was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. Female finishers in the age group 40–44 years became faster over time. For men, finishers in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, 40–44, and 45–49 years became slower. Conclusion The number of women older than 30 years and men older than 40 years increased in the Swiss Alpine Marathon. Performance improved in women aged 40–44 years but

  8. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  9. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  10. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  11. Difference in Perception of Pregnancy Risk in Two Maternal Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Ziba; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Pooralajal, Jalal; Aghababaei, Soodabeh

    2017-05-01

    Various health risks and complications may happen during pregnancy for both the mother and her child. Women should be informed of the risk associated with their pregnancy. To compare the differences of perception of pregnancy risk of two maternal age groups of healthy nulliparous women. In an analytical, descriptive cross-sectional study, 240 nulliparous pregnant women (160 women aged 18 to 35 years as a normal age group and 80 women < 18 years as a high risk age group) were randomly selected. Women were asked to complete questionnaire which included sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy history, perception of pregnancy risk and pregnancy related anxiety. Overall, women of < 18 years (high-risk group) perceived the risks of pregnancy higher than those of 18-35 years age women (reference group). Women in high-risk group rated their risks for herself, having haemorrhaging, having a cesarean birth and dying during pregnancy to be significantly higher than reference group. There was a statistically significant relationship between maternal age and perception of pregnancy risk (p<0.003). There was also a statistically significant relationship between pregnancy related anxiety and perception of pregnancy risk (p<0.002). Women's perception of pregnancy risk is different in various maternal age groups. Maternal age can be considered as one of the important factors affecting perception of pregnancy risk. By routine screening of perception of pregnancy risk during prenatal care more effective risk consulting model could be designed.

  12. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  13. Religious Affiliation Among Older Age Groups Worldwide: Estimates for 2010 and Projections Until 2050.

    PubMed

    Skirbekk, Vegard; Potancoková, Michaela; Hackett, Conrad; Stonawski, Marcin

    2016-11-09

    The religious landscape of older adults around the world is changing profoundly. Yet until now, no study has chronicled these changes or compared expected aging patterns of religious groups. Differential aging among religious groups can have important economic and social consequences. This study estimates and projects the future religious composition by age at the global and regional levels. This study presents estimates of age structures by religion for 2010 and projections until 2050. It is based on analyses of more than 2,500 censuses, registers, and surveys from 198 countries. Regional and global results are the aggregate of demographic projections carried out at the country level. In 2010, Muslims were least likely to be aged 60 or older (7% of all Muslims), and Jews were most likely to be in this age group (20% of all Jews). By 2050, we project that Buddhists and the religiously unaffiliated will have the oldest populations (both will have 32% above the age of 60), whereas Muslims will remain the youngest religious group (with only 16% above the age of 60). Christians will, globally, age relatively slowly, from 14% to 21% above the age of 60 from 2010 to 2050. The religious landscape among the world's seniors will change fundamentally in the coming years, due to the combination of rapid aging among the religiously unaffiliated and Buddhist populations and the persistence of relatively young age structures among Muslims and Christians, which are the dominant religions in Africa.

  14. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  15. Age group and sex differences in performance on a computerized neurocognitive battery in children age 8–21

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Ruben C.; Richard, Jan; Calkins, Monica E.; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Hansen, John A.; Bilker, Warren B.; Loughead, James; Connolly, John J.; Qiu, Haijun; Mentch, Frank D.; Abou-Sleiman, Patrick M.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gur, Raquel E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Examine age group effects and sex differences by applying a comprehensive computerized battery of identical behavioral measures linked to brain systems in youths that were already genotyped. Such information is needed to incorporate behavioral data as neuropsychological “biomarkers” in large-scale genomic studies. Method We developed and applied a brief computerized neurocognitive battery that provides measures of performance accuracy and response time for executive-control, episodic memory, complex cognition, social cognition and sensorimotor speed domains. We tested a population-based sample of 3500 genotyped youths ages 8–21 years. Results Substantial improvement with age occurred for both accuracy and speed, but the rates varied by domain. The most pronounced improvement was noted in executive control functions, specifically attention, and in motor speed, with some effect sizes exceeding 1.8 standard deviation units. The least pronounced age group effect was in memory, where only face memory showed a large effect size on improved accuracy. Sex differences had much smaller effect sizes but were evident, with females outperforming males on attention, word and face memory, reasoning speed and all social cognition tests and males outperforming females in spatial processing and sensorimotor and motor speed. These sex differences in most domains were seen already at the youngest age groups, and age group × sex interactions indicated divergence at the oldest groups with females becoming faster but less accurate than males. Conclusions The results indicate that cognitive performance improves substantially in this age span, with large effect sizes that differ by domain. The more pronounced improvement for executive and reasoning domains than for memory suggests that memory capacities have reached their apex before age 8. Performance was sexually modulated and most sex differences were apparent by early adolescence. PMID:22251308

  16. Benefits of gregarious feeding by aposematic caterpillars depend on group age structure.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stuart A; Stastny, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Gregarious feeding is a common feature of herbivorous insects and can range from beneficial (e.g. dilution of predation risk) to costly (e.g. competition). Group age structure should influence these costs and benefits, particularly when old and young larvae differ in their feeding mode or apparency to predators. We investigated the relative value of gregarious feeding by aposematic larvae of Uresiphita reversalis that we observed feeding in groups of mixed ages and variable densities on wild Lupinus diffusus. In a manipulative field experiment, the survivorship and growth of young larvae were enhanced in the presence of older conspecifics, but not in large groups of similarly aged larvae. Estimates of insect damage and induced plant responses suggest that mixed-age groups enhance plant quality for young larvae while avoiding competition. We conclude that benefits of gregariousness in this species are contingent on group age structure, a finding of significance for the ecology and evolution of gregariousness and other social behaviours.

  17. Constraining the age of the Mitu Group, South-East Peru: U-Pb ages of detrital and igneous zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitsma, Mariël.; Schaltegger, Urs; Spikings, Richard; Winkler, Wilfried; Carlotto, Victor

    2010-05-01

    Inverted extensional basins with continental deposits of the Mitu Group straddle the Eastern Cordillera of Peru. The present study investigates the Mitu Group of south-east Peru (13-16°S), which consists of continental clastic sedimentary rocks and interbedded basaltic to andesitic lavas. There is a paucity of geochemical and geochronological data from the Mitu Group, and the interpretation of its evolution is complicated by i) rapid changes in fault structure along-strike of the graben system, and ii) inversion during Andean orogenesis. Due to dominating coarse-grained clastics, the Mitu Group is devoid of fossils and its age is poorly bracketed to the Permo-Triassic, based on its stratigraphic relationships with the underlying Copacabana and overlying Pucará groups. The upper strata of the Copacabana Group have been constrained by palynology to the Artinskian, while marine fossils at the base of the Pucará Group indicate a Norian age. The Pucará Group is only present in northern Peru, whereas the Mitu Group has an erosional contact with overlying Cretaceous sandstones in the study area. Preliminary data suggest that the lower Mitu Group is middle Triassic, leaving a significant hiatus between the Copacabana and Mitu groups. Laser ablation ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating was utilized to characterize pre- and syn-rift detrital zircon assemblages in sandstones, as well as to date the syn-rift volcanic and plutonic activity. Detrital zircon U-Pb age histograms of medium grained sandstones in the pre-rift Ambo and Copacabana groups contain several age populations, which can be immediately linked to major events identified along the western Gondwanan margin, such as the Sunsas/Grenville (1 Ga) and Pampean (0.55 Ga) orogenies, as well as the Famatinian arc (0.45 Ga). The youngest zircon in the population assigns a maximum deposition age to the rock; these zircons are of late Mississippian age for the Ambo and latest Pennsylvanian for the Copacabana groups. The

  18. Prevalence of Unique Pediatric Pathologies Encountered by Paramedic Students Across Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Ernest, Eric V; Brazelton, Tom B; Carhart, Elliot D; Studnek, Jonathan R; Tritt, Patricia L; Philip, Genghis A; Burnett, Aaron M

    2016-08-01

    Introduction Traditionally, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) educators have divided the pediatric population into age groups to assist in targeting their clinical and didactic curriculum. Currently, the accrediting body for paramedic training programs requires student exposure to pediatric patients based entirely on age without specifying exposure to specific pathologies within each age stratification. Identifying which pathologies are most common within the different pediatric age groups would allow educators to design curriculum targeting the most prevalent pathologies in each age group and incorporating the physiologic and psychological developmental milestones commonly seen at that age. Hypothesis It was hypothesized that there are unique clusterings of pathologies, represented by paramedic student primary impressions, that are found in different age groups which can be used to target provider education. This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data documented by paramedic students in the Fisdap (Field Internship Student Data Acquisition Project; Saint Paul, Minnesota USA) database over a one-year period. For the purposes of this study, pediatric patients were defined arbitrarily as those between the ages of 0-16 years. All paramedic student primary impressions recorded in Fisdap for patients aged 0-16 years were abstracted. Primary impression by age was calculated and graphed. The frequency of primary impression was then assessed for significance of trend by age with an alpha ≤.05 considered significant. The following primary impressions showed clinically and statistically significant variability in prevalence among different pediatric age groups: respiratory distress, medical-other, abdominal pain, seizure, overdose/poisoning, behavioral, and cardiac. In patients less than 13 years old, respiratory and other-medical were the most common two primary impressions and both decreased with age. In patients 5-16 years old, the prevalence of

  19. Energy Cost Expression for a Youth Compendium of Physical Activities: Rationale for Using Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, K A; Watson, K B; McMurray, R G; Bassett, D R; Butte, N F; Crouter, S E; Herrmann, S D; Trost, S G; Ainsworth, B E; Fulton, J E; Berrigan, D

    2017-08-08

    This study compared the accuracy of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) prediction using two methods of accounting for age dependency versus one standard (single) value across all ages. PAEE estimates were derived by pooling data from five studies. Participants, 6-18 years (n=929), engaged in 14 activities while in a room calorimeter or wearing a portable metabolic analyzer. Linear regression was used to estimate the measurement error in PAEE (expressed as METy) associated with using age-groups (6-9, 10-12, 13-15, and 16-18 years) and age-in-years (each year of chronological age (e.g., 12=12.0-12.99 years)) versus the standard (a single value across all ages). Age-groups and age-in-years showed similar error, and both showed less error than the standard method for cycling, skilled and moderate-to-vigorous intensity activities. For sedentary and light activities, the standard had similar error to the other two methods. Mean values for root mean square error ranged from 0.2-1.7 METy across all activities. Error reduction ranged from -0.2-21.7% for age-groups and -0.23-18.2% for age-in-years, compared to the standard. Accounting for age showed lower errors than a standard (single) value; using an age-dependent model in the Youth Compendium is recommended.

  20. Safety and efficacy of retrograde intrarenal surgery in patients of different age groups.

    PubMed

    Tolga-Gulpinar, M; Resorlu, B; Atis, G; Tepeler, A; Ozyuvali, E; Oztuna, D; Resorlu, M; Akbas, A; Sancak, E B; Unsal, A

    2015-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) to treat renal stones in different age groups of patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of 947 patients who underwent RIRS for renal calculi between January 2008 and January 2014. Age at RIRS was analysed both as a continuous and categorical variable and patients were categorized into three age groups; aged ≤ 15 years at surgery (group i, n=51), 16 - 60 years (group Ii, n=726) and>60 years (group iii, n=170). We compared the 3 groups with the regard to stone characteristics, operative parameters and postoperative outcomes. The stone-free rate was 78.4% in group i, 77.5% in group ii, and 81.1% in group iii (P=.587). A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only stone size and stone number had significant influence on the stone-free rates after RIRS. Intraoperative complications occurred 13.7% in group i, 5.6% group ii, and 7.6% in group iii. Overall complication rates in children were higher than adult patients but the differences were not statistically significant. We found that only operation time was associated with the increased risk of intraoperative complications. Peroperative medical complications developed in 8 patients (.8%) in group ii and 2 patients (1.1%) in group iii. A 48-year-old man died from septic shock 5 days after the surgery. RIRS was observed to be a safe and effective procedure in all age groups of patients with stone disease, therefore age should not be considered as a limiting factor. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Age-Group Differences in Interference from Young and Older Emotional Faces

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Natalie C.; Johnson, Marcia K.

    2009-01-01

    Human attention is selective, focusing on some aspects of events at the expense of others. In particular, angry faces engage attention. Most studies have used pictures of young faces, even when comparing young and older age groups. Two experiments asked (1) whether task-irrelevant faces of young and older individuals with happy, angry, and neutral expressions disrupt performance on a face-unrelated task, (2) whether interference varies for faces of different ages and different facial expressions, and (3) whether young and older adults differ in this regard. Participants gave speeded responses on a number task while irrelevant faces appeared in the background. Both age groups were more distracted by own than other-age faces. In addition, young participants' responses were slower for angry than happy faces, whereas older participants' responses were slower for happy than angry faces. Factors underlying age-group differences in interference from emotional faces of different ages are discussed. PMID:21286236

  2. Electronic paper display preferred viewing distance and character size for different age groups.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Chieh

    2011-09-01

    This study explores the preferred viewing distance and character size for an electronic paper display for three age groups. Proofreading speed and accuracy ratio were measured during Chinese proofreading tests using the preferred character size and minimum acceptable character size. Data analysis showed that the mean preferred viewing distance for young, middle-aged and older groups was 503, 455 and 444 mm, respectively. The mean preferred character size determined by young, middle-aged and older groups was 42.0, 50.0 and 55.2 min arc, respectively. The proofreading test results indicated that the older group proofread significantly more slowly (1.25 word/sec) than the young (1.76 word/sec) and middle-aged groups (1.74 word/sec). Further, the participants proofread more correctly with their preferred character size (73.3%) than with their minimum acceptable character size (65.4%). This study provides valuable information for the design of Chinese text presentations for various age groups. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study confirmed the preferred viewing distance and character size for E-paper display were influenced by age. The preferred Chinese character size for young, middle-aged and older people was 42, 50 and 55 min arc, respectively. Therefore, the age factor should be considered for E-paper displays design and video display terminal (VDT) guidelines.

  3. Annual age-grouping and athlete development: a meta-analytical review of relative age effects in sport.

    PubMed

    Cobley, Stephen; Baker, Joseph; Wattie, Nick; McKenna, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Annual age-grouping is a common organizational strategy in sport. However, such a strategy appears to promote relative age effects (RAEs). RAEs refer both to the immediate participation and long-term attainment constraints in sport, occurring as a result of chronological age and associated physical (e.g. height) differences as well as selection practices in annual age-grouped cohorts. This article represents the first meta-analytical review of RAEs, aimed to collectively determine (i) the overall prevalence and strength of RAEs across and within sports, and (ii) identify moderator variables. A total of 38 studies, spanning 1984-2007, containing 253 independent samples across 14 sports and 16 countries were re-examined and included in a single analysis using odds ratios and random effects procedures for combining study estimates. Overall results identified consistent prevalence of RAEs, but with small effect sizes. Effect size increased linearly with relative age differences. Follow-up analyses identified age category, skill level and sport context as moderators of RAE magnitude. Sports context involving adolescent (aged 15-18 years) males, at the representative (i.e. regional and national) level in highly popular sports appear most at risk to RAE inequalities. Researchers need to understand the mechanisms by which RAEs magnify and subside, as well as confirm whether RAEs exist in female and more culturally diverse contexts. To reduce and eliminate this social inequality from influencing athletes' experiences, especially within developmental periods, direct policy, organizational and practitioner intervention is required.

  4. Dermatological disease in the older age group: a cross-sectional study in aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Maneka S; Vandal, Alain C; Jarrett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of dermatological disease in aged care facilities, and the relationship between cognitive or physical disability and significant disease. Setting 2 large aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand, each providing low and high level care. Participants All 161 residents of the facilities were invited to participate. The only exclusion criterion was inability to obtain consent from the individual or designated guardian. 88 participants were recruited—66 females (75%), 22 males (25%) with average age 87.1 years (SD 5.5 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary—presence of significant skin disease (defined as that which in the opinion of the investigators needed treatment or was identified as a patient concern) diagnosed clinically on full dermatological examination by a dermatologist or dermatology trainee. Secondary—functional and cognitive status (Rehabilitation Complexity Scale and Abbreviated Mental Test Score). Results 81.8% were found to have at least one significant condition. The most common disorders were onychomycosis 42 (47.7%), basal cell carcinoma 13 (14.8%), asteototic eczema 11 (12.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ 9 (10.2%). Other findings were invasive squamous cell carcinoma 7 (8%), bullous pemphigoid 2 (2.3%), melanoma 2 (2.3%), lichen sclerosus 2 (2.3%) and carcinoma of the breast 1 (1.1%). Inflammatory disease was more common in those with little physical disability compared with those with serious physical disability (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6, p=0.04). No significant association was found between skin disease and cognitive impairment. Conclusions A high rate of dermatological disease was found. Findings ranged from frequent but not life-threatening conditions (eg, onychomycosis), to those associated with a significant morbidity (eg, eczema, lichen sclerosus and bullous pemphigoid), to potentially life-threatening (eg, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and breast cancer

  5. Periadolescent rats (P41-50) exhibit increased susceptibility to D-methamphetamine-induced long-term spatial and sequential learning deficits compared to juvenile (P21-30 or P31-40) or adult rats (P51-60).

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Reed, Tracy M; Morford, LaRonda L; Fukumura, Masao; Wood, Sandra L; Brown, Carrie A; Skelton, Matthew R; McCrea, Anne E; Rock, Stephanie L; Williams, Michael T

    2005-01-01

    We have previously shown that P11-20 treatment with d-methamphetamine (MA) induces impaired spatial navigation in the Morris water maze (MWM), whereas P1-10 treatment does not. Little is known about the long-term behavioral consequences of MA during juvenile, adolescent, and early adult brain development. In dose-response experiments, we tested successive 10-day intervals of exposure to MA in rats (P21-30, P31-40, P41-50, and P51-60; four doses per day). MA dosing prior to P21 produces little or no toxicity; however, we observed an increased toxicity with advancing age. Across-age comparisons revealed no MWM acquisition or Cincinnati water maze (CWM) effects after MA treatment on P21-30 (2.5-10 mg/kg/dose), P31-40 (1.25-7.5 mg/kg/dose), or P51-60 (1.25-5.0 mg/kg/dose); however, significantly impaired MWM acquisition was observed after P41-50 MA treatment at the highest dose (6.25 mg/kg/dose). Learning in the CWM was also impaired in this group. No effects were seen at 1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg/dose following P41-50 MA treatment. MWM reversal learning trials after P41-50 treatment showed a trend towards longer latency in all MA dose groups, but no effect on double-reversal trials. Reversal and double-reversal also showed no effects at the other exposure ages. No differences in straight channel swimming or cued learning in the MWM were seen after MA treatment at any exposure age. P41-50 is the periadolescent stage of brain development in rodents. The effects observed at this age may suggest a previously unrecognized period of susceptibility for MA-induced cognitive deficits.

  6. How do groups work? Age differences in performance and the social outcomes of peer collaboration.

    PubMed

    Leman, Patrick J

    2015-05-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were awarded to the best performing individuals. Findings, both in terms of social outcomes and performance in the quiz, indicated that the 8-year olds viewed the benefits of group membership in terms of the opportunities to receive information from other members. The 13-year olds, in contrast, viewed group collaboration as a constructive process where success was connected with group cohesiveness. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Personality-informed interventions for healthy aging: conclusions from a National Institute on Aging work group.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-05-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how. In fact, the notion that personality could be changed was part and parcel of many schools of psychotherapy, which suggested that long-term and meaningful change in symptoms could not be achieved without change in relevant aspects of personality. We review intervention research documenting change in personality. On the basis of an integrative view of personality as a complex system, we describe a bottom-up model of change in which interventions to change basic personality processes eventuate in changes at the trait level. A 2nd framework leverages the descriptive and predictive power of personality to tailor individual risk prediction and treatment, as well as refine public health programs, to the relevant dispositional characteristics of the target population. These methods dovetail with, and add a systematic and rigorous psychosocial dimension to, the personalized medicine and patient-centeredness movements in medicine. In addition to improving health through earlier intervention and increased fit between treatments and persons, cost-effectiveness improvements can be realized by more accurate resource allocation. Numerous examples from the personality, health, and aging literature on Conscientiousness and other traits are provided throughout, and we conclude with a series of recommendations for research in these emerging areas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Other age groups than children need to be considered as carriers of Streptococcal pneumoniae serotypes.

    PubMed

    Slotved, Hans-Christian

    2016-10-02

    We need to raise the issue that focus on children as the only carriage group for pneumococci is not optimal; we need to consider that other age groups might also be carriers of pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in unvaccinated age groups. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have successfully removed IPD from vaccinated children. Studies have shown an effect of PCV reducing the pneumococcal carriage of PCV serotypes in children. The status for several countries having used PCV for many years is that they do not see PCV serotypes neither carried nor as a cause of IPD in children. PCV vaccination of children has shown a herd protection effect in unvaccinated groups as a reduction in IPD cases caused by PCV serotypes. However, not all PCV serotypes have disappeared as the cause of IPD in the unvaccinated age groups. The author therefore believes that if we are to see PCV serotypes disappear as a cause of IPD in unvaccinated age groups, we need to perform further carriage studies to examine carriage in other age groups. Alternatively, all age groups should be vaccinated against pneumococci to eliminate IPD caused by PCV serotypes from possible hidden carriers.

  9. Paleontological evidence of Paleozoic age for the Walden Creek Group, Ocoee Supergroup, Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unrug, Raphael; Unrug, Sophia

    1990-11-01

    A newly discovered fossil assemblage including trilobite, ostracod, bryozoan, and microcrinoid fragments and agglutinated foraminifers has been found in the Wilhite Formation, Walden Creek Group, Ocoee Supergroup, in the foothills of the Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee. These fossils prove a Paleozoic age for the Walden Creek Group, which had been interpreted to be of Late Proterozoic age. The foraminiferal assemblage indicaes the Silurian as the older age limit for the Walden Creek Group. These findings make necessary a redefinition of the Ocoee sedimentary basin and reinterpretation of models of the evolution of the Blue Ridge structural province.

  10. Testing principle working mechanisms of the health action process approach for subjective physical age groups.

    PubMed

    Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; Fink, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in social-cognitive predictors and self-regulatory planning, as proposed by the health action process approach (HAPA), across three different subjective physical age groups for physical activity. With a cross-sectional design, 521 participants across the chronological age span from 25 to 86 years (M = 48.79; SD = 12.66) were separated into three groups: those who feel physically younger than they are in terms of chronological age, the same perceived and chronological age, and feeling physically older compared to their chronological age. Participants were assessed regarding their perceived vulnerability, outcome expectancies, general intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and stages of physical activity (non-intenders, intenders, and actors). Data were analysed via mean comparison and multigroup structural equation modelling. Mean differences for all but one construct were eminent in all groups, generally showing that those feeling physically younger also report better social-cognitive predictors of physical activity (e.g. lower perceived vulnerability) in comparison to those who feel the same age or older. The model showed that basic working mechanisms of the HAPA can be applied to all groups. With that, the results provide for the first time evidence that principle working mechanism of the HAPA can be applied to all subjective physical age groups. These may be used to tailor health promoting interventions according to participants' needs as a more suitable proxy than chronological age.

  11. [The assessment of flow velocity in carotid and intracranial arteries in three different age groups].

    PubMed

    Niebudek, S

    1998-01-01

    In this report we assess the systolic maximal flow velocity in carotid and intracranial arteries in 191 subjects with no history of cerebral vascular disease in 3 age groups: 20-40 years (1 group), 41-60 years (2 group), and above 60 years (3 group). The subjects were assessed using Sonomed Transcranial Doppler Spectrograph according to generally accepted principles. The purpose of the study was to establish the mean value of maximal flow velocity in each particular artery in three age groups, and to observe the changes in this parameter with age. The results were analyzed using statistical methods and a significant decrease in blood flow, Vmax, was found in all investigated arteries. A mean decrease of 8.02% in flow velocity Vmax was found, when comparing groups 2 and 1, and difference 15.99% comparing 3 and 1.

  12. Cephalometric and anthropometric data of obstructive apnea in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Borges, Paulo de Tarso Moura; Silva, Benedito Borges da; Moita Neto, José Machado; Borges, Núbia Evangelista de Sá; Li, Li M

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome usually present with changes in upper airway morphology and/or body fat distribution, which may occur throughout life and increase the severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with age. To correlate cephalometric and anthropometric measures with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity in different age groups. A retrospective study of cephalometric and anthropometric measures of 102 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was analyzed. Patients were divided into three age groups (≥20 and <40 years, ≥40 and <60 years, and ≥60 years). Pearson's correlation was performed for these measures with the apnea-hypopnea index in the full sample, and subsequently by age group. The cephalometric measures MP-H (distance between the mandibular plane and the hyoid bone) and PNS-P (distance between the posterior nasal spine and the tip of the soft palate) and the neck and waist circumferences showed a statistically significant correlation with apnea-hypopnea index in both the full sample and in the ≥40 and <60 years age group. These variables did not show any significant correlation with the other two age groups (<40 and ≥60 years). Cephalometric measurements MP-H and PNS-P and cervical and waist circumferences correlated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity in patients in the ≥40 and <60 age group. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong-Liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-Jun; Wang, Yu-Long; Ji, Qing-Hai

    2016-06-08

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were built to analyze the outcomes and risk factors. Increasing age gradient with a 10-year interval was associated with the trend of higher proportions for male gender, grade III/IV and summary stage of distant metastases. Both CSS and OS continued to worsen with increasing age, being poorest in in the oldest age group (≥71); multivariate analysis confirmed that CSS continued to fall with each age decade, significantly starting at 60 years (HR = 7.5, 95% 1.0-54.1, p = 0.047) compared to the young group (≤20). Similarly, multivariate analysis suggested that OS continued worsening with increasing age, but starting at 40 years (HR = 3.7, 95% 1.4-10.1, p = 0.009) compared to the young group. The current study suggests that an age exceeding 60 years itself represents an unfavorable prognostic factor and high risk for cancer-specific death in DTC.

  14. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  15. A self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young moving groups in the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2015-11-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young ( ≲ 200 Myr), nearby ( ≲ 100 pc) moving groups in the solar neighbourhood based on homogeneous fitting of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones using the τ2 maximum-likelihood fitting statistic of Naylor & Jeffries in the MV, V - J colour-magnitude diagram. The final adopted ages for the groups are as follows: 149^{+51}_{-19} {Myr} for the AB Dor moving group, 24 ± 3 Myr for the β Pic moving group (BPMG), 45^{+11}_{-7} {Myr} for the Carina association, 42^{+6}_{-4} {Myr} for the Columba association, 11 ± 3 Myr for the η Cha cluster, 45 ± 4 Myr for the Tucana-Horologium moving group (Tuc-Hor), 10 ± 3 Myr for the TW Hya association and 22^{+4}_{-3} {Myr} for the 32 Ori group. At this stage we are uncomfortable assigning a final, unambiguous age to the Argus association as our membership list for the association appears to suffer from a high level of contamination, and therefore it remains unclear whether these stars represent a single population of coeval stars. Our isochronal ages for both the BPMG and Tuc-Hor are consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary (LDB) ages, which unlike isochronal ages, are relatively insensitive to the choice of low-mass evolutionary models. This consistency between the isochronal and LDB ages instils confidence that our self-consistent, absolute age scale for young, nearby moving groups is robust, and hence we suggest that these ages be adopted for future studies of these groups. Software implementing the methods described in this study is available from http://www.astro.ex.ac.uk/people/timn/tau-squared/.

  16. [The consequences of the demographic revolution and of the aging of society: restructuring the age groups and modifying intergenerational relations].

    PubMed

    Loriaux, M

    1995-01-01

    The consequences of demographic aging in developed societies are examined. The author notes that "demographic aging has intensified over the last decades, bringing with it a significant modification in relationships between age groups and the sexes.... These changes in demographic structures bring with them the reorganization in intergenerational relations, the most spectacular instance of which...[is] the coexistence at the same time and in the same place of four or five generations of direct descendants." The author develops the hypothesis that a new attitude toward old age is needed in which "the social status of the elderly must be reinstated, and everything must be brought into play to encourage the integration of different age groups and intergenerational solidarity, so as to arrive in the best possible conditions at what [can be termed] the 'era of old age'...which will accompany the coming of the post-industrial society with its orientation toward the mass production of leisure and of services." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  17. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  18. Guidance on Selecting Age Groups for Monitoring and Assessing Childhood Exposures to Environmental Contaminants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document recommends a set of age groupings based on current understanding of differences in lifestage behavior and anatomy and physiology that can serve as a starting set for consideration by Agency risk assessors and researchers.

  19. Health literacy among different age groups in Germany: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Berens, Eva-Maria; Vogt, Dominique; Messer, Melanie; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Schaeffer, Doris

    2016-11-09

    Health literacy is of increasing importance in public health research. It is a necessary pre-condition for the involvement in decisions about health and health care and related to health outcomes. Knowledge about limited health literacy in different age groups is crucial to better target public health interventions for subgroups of the population. However, little is known about health literacy in Germany. The study therefore assesses the prevalence of limited health literacy and associated factors among different age groups. The Health Literacy Survey Germany is a cross-sectional study with 2,000 participants aged 15 years or older in private households. Perceived health literacy was assessed via computer-assisted personal interviews using the HLS-EU-Q-47 questionnaire. Descriptive analyses, chi-square tests and odds ratios were performed stratified for different age groups. The population affected by limited perceived health literacy increases by age. Of the respondents aged 15-29 years, 47.3 % had limited perceived health literacy and 47.2 % of those aged 30-45 years, whereas 55.2 % of the respondents aged 46-64 years and 66.4 % aged 65 years and older showed limited perceived health literacy. In all age groups, limited perceived health literacy was associated with limited functional health literacy, low social status, and a high frequency of doctor visits. The results suggest a need to further investigate perceived health literacy in all phases of the life-course. Particular attention should be devoted to persons with lower social status, limited functional health literacy and/or a high number of doctor visits in all age groups.

  20. Vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours across different age groups in Swedish Adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13–14, 15–16 and 17–18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15–16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in

  1. [A discussion on setting up target age group for immunization against leptospirosis].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, J T; Wang, S S; Lan, W L

    1995-08-01

    This paper presented the lesson of setting up a false immunization priority age group for leptospirosis which failed to prevent the leptospirosis outbreak. Our experience was that in the rice paddy field type endemic area the priority age group for the vaccination against leptopirosis should be 15 to 34 year olds followed by 35 years old or above. There was no preventive effect in the vaccination for the children 14 years old or yaunger, to our observation.

  2. Vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours across different age groups in Swedish Adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13-14, 15-16 and 17-18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15-16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in adolescents

  3. Cenomanian-? early Turonian minimum age of the Chubut Group, Argentina: SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Manuel; Márquez, Marcelo; De La Cruz, Rita; Navarrete, César; Fanning, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Four new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages older than 93 Ma from samples of the two uppermost formations accumulated in two different depocenters (Golfo de San Jorge and Cañadón Asfalto basins) of the Chubut Group in central Argentinean Patagonia, establish a pre-late Cenomanian-? early Turonian age for the group. It also confirms a coeval and comparable evolution of the two depocenters, where distal pyroclastic material was deposited together with fluvial and lacustrine facies.

  4. Non-fatal self-poisoning across age groups, in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning in common in Sri Lanka, but little is known about variation of psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent across differing ages. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka across three different age groups (namely 14-24 years, 25-34 years and ≥ 35 years). It was anticipated that the findings of the study would inform and guide development of preventive interventions for non-fatal self-poisoning in this country. 935 participants were interviewed within one week of admission to hospital for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning, over a consecutive 14-month period. Socio-demographic factors, types of poison ingested, triggers and psychiatric morbidity was examined as a function of age. Results showed that a majority (83%) of participants were aged below 35 years. Younger participants aged <25 years were significantly more likely to ingest medicinal overdoses, compared to older persons (aged 25-34 years, and ≥ 35 years), who were more likely to ingest pesticides. Recent interpersonal conflict was a proximal trigger seen in all age groups, but suicidal intent, depression and alcohol use disorders increased with age. The overall study findings indicate that most who carry out acts of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka are young (aged <35 years). Interpersonal conflict as a trigger is common to all age groups, but psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent is higher in the older age groups, as is pesticide ingestion. Age specific interventions may be efficacious in the prevention of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka.

  5. Trends in Female Breast Cancer by Age Group in the Chiang Mai Population

    PubMed

    Sripan, Patumrat; Sriplung, Hutcha; Pongnikorn, Donsuk; Virani, Shama; Bilheem, Surichai; Chaisaengkhaum, Udomlak; Maneesai, Puttachart; Waisri, Narate; Hanpragopsuk, Chirapong; Tansiri, Panrada; Khamsan, Varunee; Poungsombat, Malisa; Mawoot, Aumnart; Chitapanarux, Imjai

    2017-05-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to determine incidence trends of female breast cancer according to age groups and to predict future change in Chiang Mai women through 2028. Method: Data were collected from all hospitals in Chiang Mai in northern Thailand, from 1989 through 2013, and used to investigate effects of age, year of diagnosis (period) and year of birth (cohort) on female breast cancer incidences using an age-period-cohort model. This model features geometric cut trends to predict change by young (<40 years), middle-aged (40-59) and elderly (≥60) age groups. Result: Of 5, 417 female breast cancer patients with a median age of 50 years (interquartile range: 43 to 59 years), 15%, 61% and 24% were young, middle-aged and elderly, respectively. Seventy nine percent of cancer cases in this study were detected at advanced stage. The trend in stage classification showed an increase in percentage of early stage and a decrease in metastatic cancers. Linear trends for cohort and period were not found in young females but were observed in middle-aged and elderly groups. Age-standardized rates (ASR) can be expected to remain stable around 6.8 per 100,000 women-years in young females. In the other age groups, the ASR trends were calculated to increase and reach peaks in 2024 of 120.2 and 138.2 per 100,000 women-years, respectively. Conclusion: Cohort effects or generation-specific effects, such as life style factors and the year of diagnosis (period) might have impacted on increased incidence in women aged over 40 years but not those under 40 years. A budget should be provided for treatment facilities and strategies to detect early stage cancers. The cost effectiveness of screening measures i.e. mammographic screening may need to be reconsidered for women age over 40 years. Creative Commons Attribution License

  6. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive memories…

  7. Age Group Differences and Estimated Frequencies of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William H., III

    1995-01-01

    Reports results of analyses of key tables in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Atlas of Type Tables. Significant age group effects on every dimension indicates the need to reestimate population norms for each continuum on the MBTI for interpreting scores of people of various ages. (LKS)

  8. The Effects of Music on Age Group Swimmers' Motivation and Practice Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckel, Bryan D.

    This study examined the effects of music on the motivation of 22 female and 5 male swimmers ages 10-13 years. These age-group swimmers practiced 2.0-2.5 hours per day and had six training sessions per week. Using observation logs, surveys, and open-ended questions, the study analyzed swimmers' perceptions of, and behavior when, listening to music…

  9. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  10. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  11. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive memories…

  12. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  13. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  14. Age Group Differences in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Functional Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.; Kim, Johnny S.

    2007-01-01

    This study used data from the 2000 interview wave of the Health and Retirement Study to examine age group differences in the likelihood of self-reported depressive symptomatology among a nationally representative sample of 3,035 adults age 55 years or older who had at least one activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily…

  15. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak.

    PubMed

    Worby, Colin J; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-08-17

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic's peak. We found children aged 11-12y, 13-14y and 8-10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak's ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11-12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak's ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8-10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8-14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation.

  16. The applicability of Greulich and Pyle atlas to assess skeletal age for four ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Mansourvar, Marjan; Ismail, Maizatul Akmar; Raj, Ram Gopal; Kareem, Sameem Abdul; Aik, Saw; Gunalan, Roshan; Antony, Chermaine Deepa

    2014-02-01

    Recently, determination of skeletal age, defined as the assessment of bone age, has rapidly become an important task between forensic experts and radiologists. The Greulich-Pyle (GP) atlas is one of the most frequently used methods for the assessment of skeletal age around the world. After presentation of the GP approach for the estimation of the bone age, much research has been conducted to examine the usability of this method in various geographic or ethnic categories. This study investigates on a small-scale and compares the reliability of the GP atlas for assessment of the bone age for four ethnic groups - Asian, African/American, Caucasian and Hispanic - for a different range of ages. Plain radiographs of 184 left hands and wrists for males from the healthy sample between 1 to 18 years of age for four ethnic groups were taken. The skeletal age (SA) was estimated by a radiologist using the GP atlas. The blind method was utilized. The mean (SA) results were compared with mean chronological ages (CA) for the separate ethnic groups. SPSS was used to conduct the analysis and the paired t-test was applied to show the difference between the mean CA and mean SA achieved from the GP atlas. The results from the GP atlas were compared to the CA of the samples. In Asian subjects the mean difference was 0.873 years. The GP atlas showed delayed bone age at 2-7 ages (from 0.2 to 2.3 year) and then advanced bone age for age 8. In the African/American subjects the difference between CA and SA was statistically significant (P-value = 0.048). The mean difference in the Caucasian and Hispanic subjects reflects no considerable distinction with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.3088 and 0.3766, respectively, (P-value >0.05 for both groups). According to the present study, it is concluded that although the GP atlas is reliable for Caucasian and Hispanic ethnic groups it is not applicable for other ethnic groups for different ranges of age, especially in the sample of the male African

  17. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  18. The causes of difficult tracheal intubation and preoperative assessments in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyoung-Yong; Kim, Jin-Seo; Koo, Gill Hoi; Kim, Jin-Yun; Woo, Young-Cheol; Jung, Yong Hun; Kang, Hyun; Shin, Hwa-Yong; Yang, So-Young

    2013-01-01

    Background We studied the differences in airway assessment factors among old, middle, and young age groups, and evaluated the frequency and causes of difficult intubation among these groups. Methods Patients were divided into young (< 40 yr, n = 75 ), middle (40-59 yr, n = 83), and old (≥ 60 yr, n = 89) group. Airway assessment factors such as head and neck movement, thyromental distance, interincisor gap, dentition, Mallampati score, and Arné score were assessed. After muscle relaxation, cervical joint rigidity and Cormack-Lehane (C-L) grade were assessed. The differences in airway assessment factors between difficult (C-L grade 3, 4) and easy (C-L grade 1, 2) intubation were then examined. Logistic regression analysis was also carried out to identify the extent to which airway assessment factors reflected difficult intubation. Results As aging, head and neck movement, thyromental distance, and interincisor gap decreased, the grade of dentition, Mallampati score, cervical joint rigidity and the ratio of Arné score > 11 increased. In the old and middle group, the incidence of difficult intubation was increased compared with the young group. Dentition in the young group, Mallampati score and interinsisor gap in the middle group and Mallampati score, cervical joint rigidity in the old group respectively predicted difficult intubation. Conclusions Compared to young individuals, middle-aged or elderly adults are likely to experience more difficulty in endotracheal intubation and its predictive factors could vary by age group. PMID:23646239

  19. Differentiated effects of social participation components on suicidal ideation across age groups in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide among adults in the Korean population merits study to improve the understanding of the salient risk and protective factors because suicide rates in Korea have increased dramatically over the past 20 years. However, the association between social participation and suicidal ideation is poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to identify the components of social participation in Korean society and to examine the processes through which the components of social participation influence the degree of suicidal ideation people experience across age groups. Methods This study used survey data from the 2010 Seoul Welfare Panel Study. The sample population was restricted to adults aged 20 or older and was categorised into three groups by respondents’ ages. The groups were defined as 'young adults’ (aged 20–39), 'middle-aged adults’ (aged 40–64) and 'the elderly’ (age 65 or more). Three dimensions of social participation were identified by factor analysis – friendship network and hobby group, religious involvement, and instrumental social participation. Results In the young adult group, only instrumental participation was statistically significant (-0.10, p = 0.06). In the middle-aged adult group, only friendship network and hobby group had a strong association with suicidal ideation (-0.11, p = 0.01). Interestingly, for the elderly, religious involvement was related to suicidal ideation, but in a positive way (0.26, p = 0.02). Conclusion The study results supported the theory that different components of social participation are associated with a lower risk of suicidal ideation in different stages of adulthood. PMID:24067075

  20. On the relative role of different age groups in influenza epidemics.

    PubMed

    Worby, Colin J; Chaves, Sandra S; Wallinga, Jacco; Lipsitch, Marc; Finelli, Lyn; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-12-01

    The identification of key "driver" groups in influenza epidemics is of much interest for the implementation of effective public health response strategies, including vaccination programs. However, the relative importance of different age groups in propagating epidemics is uncertain. During a communicable disease outbreak, some groups may be disproportionately represented during the outbreak's ascent due to increased susceptibility and/or contact rates. Such groups or subpopulations can be identified by considering the proportion of cases within the subpopulation occurring before (Bp) and after the epidemic peak (Ap) to calculate the subpopulation's relative risk, RR=Bp/Ap. We estimated RR for several subpopulations (age groups) using data on laboratory-confirmed US influenza hospitalizations during epidemics between 2009-2014. Additionally, we simulated various influenza outbreaks in an age-stratified population, relating the RR to the impact of vaccination in each subpopulation on the epidemic's initial effective reproductive number R_e(0). We found that children aged 5-17 had the highest estimates of RR during the five largest influenza A outbreaks, though the relative magnitude of RR in this age group compared to other age groups varied, being highest for the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. For the 2010-2011 and 2012-2013 influenza B epidemics, adults aged 18-49, and 0-4 year-olds had the highest estimates of RR respectively. For 83% of simulated epidemics, the group with the highest RR was also the group for which initial distribution of a given quantity of vaccine would result in the largest reduction of R_e(0). In the largest 40% of simulated outbreaks, the group with the highest RR and the largest vaccination impact was children 5-17. While the relative importance of different age groups in propagating influenza outbreaks varies, children aged 5-17 play the leading role during the largest influenza A epidemics. Extra vaccination efforts for this group may contribute

  1. The conformations of the amyloid-β (21-30) fragment can be described by three families in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Mousseau, Normand; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2006-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease has been linked to the self-assembly of the amyloid-β protein of 40 and 42 residues. Although monomers are in equilibrium with higher-order species ranging from dimers to heptamers, structural knowledge of the monomeric amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides is an important issue. Recent experimental data have shown that the fragment (21-30) is protease-resistant within full-length Aβ peptides and displays two structural families in solution. Because the details of the Aβ21-30 structures found using distinct force fields and protocols differ at various degrees from those of the NMR structures, we revisit the conformational space of this peptide using the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) coupled with a coarse-grained force field (OPEP v.3.0). We find that although Aβ21-30 does not have a secondary structure, it dominantly populates three structural families, with a loop spanning residues Val24-Lys28. The first two families, which differ in the nature of the electrostatic interactions, satisfy the five interproton rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY) distances and superpose well onto the NMR structures. The third family, which cannot be seen by ROESY NMR experiments, displays a more open structure. This numeric study complements the experimental results by providing a much more detailed description of the dominant structures. Moreover, it provides further evidence of the capability of ART OPEP in providing a reliable conformational picture of peptides in solution.

  2. The conformations of the amyloid-beta (21-30) fragment can be described by three families in solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Mousseau, Normand; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2006-08-28

    Alzheimer's disease has been linked to the self-assembly of the amyloid-beta protein of 40 and 42 residues. Although monomers are in equilibrium with higher-order species ranging from dimers to heptamers, structural knowledge of the monomeric amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides is an important issue. Recent experimental data have shown that the fragment (21-30) is protease-resistant within full-length Abeta peptides and displays two structural families in solution. Because the details of the Abeta(21-30) structures found using distinct force fields and protocols differ at various degrees from those of the NMR structures, we revisit the conformational space of this peptide using the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) coupled with a coarse-grained force field (OPEP v.3.0). We find that although Abeta(21-30) does not have a secondary structure, it dominantly populates three structural families, with a loop spanning residues Val24-Lys28. The first two families, which differ in the nature of the electrostatic interactions, satisfy the five interproton rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY) distances and superpose well onto the NMR structures. The third family, which cannot be seen by ROESY NMR experiments, displays a more open structure. This numeric study complements the experimental results by providing a much more detailed description of the dominant structures. Moreover, it provides further evidence of the capability of ART OPEP in providing a reliable conformational picture of peptides in solution.

  3. Prevalence, Formation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of Interdisciplinary Student Aging Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine J.; Vandenberg, Edward V.; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and…

  4. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  5. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  6. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  7. The Effects of Multi-Age Grouping on Young Children and Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Melanie K.; Green, Virginia P.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review on the effects of multiage groupings (MAGs) in the primary grades supports their use and argues that children in MAGs perform as well academically as children in single-age groupings (SAGs) and develop better self-concept and school attitudes than children in SAGs. Expresses concerns over lack of training and support for…

  8. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  9. Attitudes about Aging Well among a Diverse Group of Older Americans: Implications for Promoting Cognitive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Tseng, Winston; Wu, Bei; Beard, Renee L.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Ivey, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine perceptions about aging well in the context of cognitive health among a large and diverse group of older adults. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups were conducted with older adults living in the community ( N = 396; White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic). Participant descriptions …

  10. The Effects of Multi-Age Grouping on Young Children and Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Melanie K.; Green, Virginia P.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review on the effects of multiage groupings (MAGs) in the primary grades supports their use and argues that children in MAGs perform as well academically as children in single-age groupings (SAGs) and develop better self-concept and school attitudes than children in SAGs. Expresses concerns over lack of training and support for…

  11. Prevalence, Formation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of Interdisciplinary Student Aging Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine J.; Vandenberg, Edward V.; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and…

  12. Anthropometric difference of the knee on MRI according to gender and age groups.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyuksoo; Oh, Sohee; Chang, Chong Bum; Kang, Seung-Baik

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data from MRI images that were obtained from the non-arthritic knees in Asian adults, and to identify the existence of morphologic differences between age groups. This cross-sectional study included knee MR images of 535 patients (273 males, 262 females) taken for the evaluation of soft-tissue injuries, excluding cases with cartilage defect and malalignment. The age, gender, height, and BMI were also assessed. The patients were grouped into three different 20-year age groups (20-39, 40-59, and 60-79). The MRI analysis was performed on the anthropometric parameters of distal femur and posterior tibial slope. Age-related differences were found in femoral width, distance from the distal and posterior cartilage surface to the medial/lateral epicondyle, medial posterior condylar offset (PCO), and posterior condylar angle (PCA) (all P < 0.001), but not in lateral PCO, and medial/lateral tibial slopes. In the analysis of covariance analyses, significant interaction between gender and age groups was found in most parameters, but not in PCA, distance from the posterior cartilage surface to the medial epicondyle, or medial tibial slope. We found anthropometric differences among age groups exist in most of distal femoral parameters, but not in posterior tibial slope. The results of this study can be used by manufacturers to modify prostheses to be suitable for the future Asian elderly population.

  13. Sex-role stereotyping for selected sport and physical activities across age groups.

    PubMed

    Meaney, Karen S; Dornier, Lanie A; Owens, Mary S

    2002-06-01

    This investigation was designed to assess sex-role stereotyping across age groups. Participants (N=668) were girls and boys, students from Grades 3, 5, 8, and 10 at local public schools. All participants completed the Sport and Physical Activities Questionnaire on which were displayed pictures of 31 sport and physical activities. Participants were instructed to designate each activity as a boys' activity, a girls' activity, or a boys' and girls' activity. Chi-square analysis showed age-related differences in distribution of stereotyping of the activities. Over age groups there were more discrepancies between boys' and girls' ratings of activities as sex-specific. These findings suggest that sex-role stereotyping of sports and physical activities becomes more predominant across age groups.

  14. Population Analysis of Adverse Events in Different Age Groups Using Big Clinical Trials Data.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jake; Eldredge, Christina; Cho, Chi C; Cisler, Ron A

    2016-10-17

    Understanding adverse event patterns in clinical studies across populations is important for patient safety and protection in clinical trials as well as for developing appropriate drug therapies, procedures, and treatment plans. The objective of our study was to conduct a data-driven population-based analysis to estimate the incidence, diversity, and association patterns of adverse events by age of the clinical trials patients and participants. Two aspects of adverse event patterns were measured: (1) the adverse event incidence rate in each of the patient age groups and (2) the diversity of adverse events defined as distinct types of adverse events categorized by organ system. Statistical analysis was done on the summarized clinical trial data. The incident rate and diversity level in each of the age groups were compared with the lowest group (reference group) using t tests. Cohort data was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov, and 186,339 clinical studies were analyzed; data were extracted from the 17,853 clinical trials that reported clinical outcomes. The total number of clinical trial participants was 6,808,619, and total number of participants affected by adverse events in these trials was 1,840,432. The trial participants were divided into eight different age groups to support cross-age group comparison. In general, children and older patients are more susceptible to adverse events in clinical trial studies. Using the lowest incidence age group as the reference group (20-29 years), the incidence rate of the 0-9 years-old group was 31.41%, approximately 1.51 times higher (P=.04) than the young adult group (20-29 years) at 20.76%. The second-highest group is the 50-59 years-old group with an incidence rate of 30.09%, significantly higher (P<.001) when compared with the lowest incidence in the 20-29 years-old group. The adverse event diversity also increased with increase in patient age. Clinical studies that recruited older patients (older than 40 years) were more

  15. Population Analysis of Adverse Events in Different Age Groups Using Big Clinical Trials Data

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Christina; Cho, Chi C; Cisler, Ron A

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding adverse event patterns in clinical studies across populations is important for patient safety and protection in clinical trials as well as for developing appropriate drug therapies, procedures, and treatment plans. Objectives The objective of our study was to conduct a data-driven population-based analysis to estimate the incidence, diversity, and association patterns of adverse events by age of the clinical trials patients and participants. Methods Two aspects of adverse event patterns were measured: (1) the adverse event incidence rate in each of the patient age groups and (2) the diversity of adverse events defined as distinct types of adverse events categorized by organ system. Statistical analysis was done on the summarized clinical trial data. The incident rate and diversity level in each of the age groups were compared with the lowest group (reference group) using t tests. Cohort data was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov, and 186,339 clinical studies were analyzed; data were extracted from the 17,853 clinical trials that reported clinical outcomes. The total number of clinical trial participants was 6,808,619, and total number of participants affected by adverse events in these trials was 1,840,432. The trial participants were divided into eight different age groups to support cross-age group comparison. Results In general, children and older patients are more susceptible to adverse events in clinical trial studies. Using the lowest incidence age group as the reference group (20-29 years), the incidence rate of the 0-9 years-old group was 31.41%, approximately 1.51 times higher (P=.04) than the young adult group (20-29 years) at 20.76%. The second-highest group is the 50-59 years-old group with an incidence rate of 30.09%, significantly higher (P<.001) when compared with the lowest incidence in the 20-29 years-old group. The adverse event diversity also increased with increase in patient age. Clinical studies that recruited older

  16. Adequate dosing of micronutrients for different age groups in the life cycle.

    PubMed

    Bienz, Denise; Cori, Hector; Hornig, Dietrich

    2003-09-01

    Many studies of micronutrient supplementation in developing countries have used single-nutrient supplements with either vitamins or minerals. However, people in these countries often suffer from multiple, rather than single, micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this paper is to discuss the factors that go into determining the adequate dosing of vitamins and/or minerals for people of different ages. To elaborate on the adequacy of micronutrient doses in supplements, a model described by the US FNB was used, which calculates the difference between the mean observed intake for an individual and the estimated average requirement for a life stage and gender group. This model allows estimating the degree of confidence that a certain nutrient intake (from supplements and diet) is adequate. The US/Canadian DRI values have been used as the basis for these calculations, from which it can be concluded that a daily supplement of one RDA of each micronutrient is adequate to cover the personal requirements of all individuals in each respective age and gender group of the population, provided that 20 to 40% of an RDA is supplied by the diet--likely a realistic value for developing countries. DRI values vary significantly between different age groups, reflecting changing needs over a life cycle. With the objective of a supplement to be adequate and safe, the design of a one-for-all supplement covering all age groups is not realistic. Such a supplement would either underscore or surpass the required intake of some of the age groups. Additionally the dosage of certain micronutrients might exceed the upper level of intake for lower age groups. Therefore, it is suggested that three different supplements following the one RDA concept for all micronutrients be developed for research use in developing countries for the following age groups; 1 to 3 years, 4 to 13 years, and females > 14 years (excluding during pregnancy).

  17. Comparative genetic variability in HIV-1 subtype C nef gene in early age groups of infants.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Uma; Gupta, Poonam; Singhal, Megha; Singh, Supriya; Gupta, Sunil; Venkatesh, Srinivas; Rai, Arvind; Husain, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Targeting properties of vertically transmitted viruses in early infancy is important to understand disease progression. To investigate genotypic characteristics of transmitted viruses, blood samples were obtained from infants aged 6 weeks-18 months, categorized in two age groups, acute (<6 months) and early (>6-18 months). Nef having an important role in pathogenesis was selected to explore the viral characteristics. A total of 57 PCR positive samples, amplified by nef gene were sequenced. Analysis showed that 50 sequences belonged to subtype C. In one sequence of acute age group, a long insertion of 10 residues (AAERMRRAEP) in variable region and a 13 residues deletion (ATNNADCAWLEAQ) around proteolytic cleavage region of gene in another sequence was observed. Insertions were also observed in sequences of early age group, however, they ranged from two to eight residues only. In one sequence of early age group, 3/4 arginines at positions 19, 21, 22 of arginine cluster were mutated to glutamine, alanine, and glutamine, respectively. Entropy analysis of two age groups revealed presence of several residues with statistically significant differences in their variability. Among these, 15 (R18,R23,R24; A66,L68,Q71; E74,E77,E78; V87,M92; R119, P144, E167, and C176) belonged to functional motifs, out of which, 12 were in acute age group, suggesting that variability was greater in this group. Prediction of HLA binding peptide motif revealed that epitope LTFGWCFKL was present in >80% study sequences. This epitope was also present in maximum number of HLA types circulating in India and vaccine candidate sequences, suggesting that it may be helpful in designing an epitope-based vaccine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Lead intakes by different age-sex population groups from Chinese total diet study in 2000].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Gao, Junquan; Li, Xiaowei

    2007-07-01

    To estimate the dietary lead intakes by different age-sex population groups in China. The lead concentrations of food sample from 3rd Chinese total diet study were determined, and then were combined with the food consumption by population of ten age-sex groups, The lead intakes, and its distribution and dietary sources were obtained. It was found that the mean and median concentrations of lead in all food samples were 0.118 and 0.052mg/kg, respectively. The highest concentration of individual sample and mean concentrations of lead in preserved egg were 8.964mg/kg and 2.577mg/kg, respectively. The vegetable samples in Hubei Province were heavily contaminated. The lead intakes by different age-sex groups were estimated to be 54.9-112.7microg/day. The average dietary lead intakes by 2-7 years old group could reach 86.1% of PTWI, and individual lead intakes by about 30% children in this group exceed PTWI. But the average dietary lead intakes of other age-sex population groups ranged from 42.8% to 86.1% of PTWI. The main sources of dietary lead were cereals and vegetables in ten age-sex population groups, and could reach 72%-80% of total lead intakes. Although the dietary lead intakes by different age-sex population groups are all lower than PTWI, it should be decreased to a lower level. Moreover, the dietary exposures to lead are higher enough for 2-7 years old children and population in some provinces to be considered seriously.

  19. Differential symptomatology and functioning in borderline personality disorder across age groups.

    PubMed

    Frías, Álvaro; Palma, Carol; Solves, Laia; Martínez, Bárbara; Salvador, Ana

    2017-09-28

    There is increasing research aimed at addressing whether patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) may exhibit variations in symptomatology and functioning according to their chronological age. The current study consisted of 169 outpatients diagnosed with BPD, who were divided into four age groups as follows: 16-25 years (n = 41), 26-35 years (n = 43), 36-45 years (n = 45), and 46 and more years (n = 40). Age groups were compared for symptomatology, normal personality traits, psychiatric comorbidities, functioning, and treatment-related features. The younger group had significantly higher levels of physical/verbal aggression and suicide attempts relative to the older group. Conversely, the older group had significantly greater severity of somatization, depression, and anxiety symptoms. In addition, the older group showed significantly greater functional impairment overall and across physical/psychological domains, specifically when compared to the younger group. Overall, these findings may suggest that age-related symptoms should be considered when diagnosing BPD. Also, functional impairments should be the target interventions for older BPD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural equation models of memory performance across noise conditions and age groups.

    PubMed

    Enmarker, Ingela; Boman, Eva; Hygge, Staffan

    2006-12-01

    Competing models of declarative memory were tested with structural equation models to analyze whether a second-order latent variable structure for episodic and semantic memory was invariant across age groups and across noise exposure conditions. Data were taken from three previous experimental noise studies that were performed with the same design, procedure, and dependent measures, and with participants from four age groups (13-14, 18-20, 35-45, and 55-65 years). Two noise conditions, road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech, were compared to a quiet control group. The structural models put to the test were taken from Nyberg et al. (2003), which employed several memory tests that were the same as ours and studied age-groups that partly overlapped with our groups. In addition we also varied noise exposure conditions. Our analyses replicated and supported the second-order semantic-episodic memory models in Nyberg et al. (2003). The latent variable structures were invariant across age groups, with the exception of our youngest group, which by itself showed a less clear latent structure. The obtained structures were also invariant across noise exposure conditions. We also noted that our text memory items, which did not have a counterpart in the study by Nyberg et al. (2003), tend to form a separate latent variable loading on episodic memory.

  1. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of cadaveric human pinealocytes in various age groups.

    PubMed

    Rabia, Ansa; Tahir, Mohammad; Munir, Bushra; Sami, Waqas

    2011-07-01

    To determine age-related quantitative and qualitative changes in human pinealocytes using cadaveric material. Analytical cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, from January to December 2008. Thirty pineal glands from human cadavers ranging from 16-80 years of age were collected from mortuary of King Edward Medical University, Lahore, using purposive non-probability sampling. These were divided into three different age groups: I, II and III each between 16 to 30, 31 to 45 and 46 to 80 years of age respectively. Pinealocytes were counted; their mean diameter and that of their nuclei was calculated from a total of 30 cells per slide, using 4 μm thick H and E stained histological sections. Mean ± S.E.M. was calculated for quantitative variables. One-way ANOVA was applied to observe group mean differences among three groups. The number of pinealocytes decreased with aging but the difference was statistically insignificant when compared between groups (p=0.234). There was no change in size of pinealocyte soma and its nucleus (p=0.889 and 0.898 respectively). The number and size of pinealocytes, and their nuclei remained unaltered with advancing age.

  2. Population biology of intestinal enterococcus isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Tedim, Ana P; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  3. Population Biology of Intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Individuals in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  4. Justice between age groups: an objection to the prudential lifespan approach.

    PubMed

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2013-01-01

    Societal aging raises challenging ethical questions regarding the just distribution of health care between young and old. This article considers a proposal for age-based rationing of health care, which is based on the prudential life span account of justice between age groups. While important objections have been raised against the prudential life span account, it continues to dominate scholarly debates. This article introduces a new objection, one that develops out of the well-established disability critique of social contract theories. I show the implications of this critique for the prudential life span account and for the special case of age-group justice. The result is that age-based rationing based on the prudential life span approach is not supported, and that the prudential life span approach itself is not the best way to think about allocating health care between age groups. I propose an alternative approach that avoids the disability objection, and consider its implications for specific proposals for age-based rationing of health care.

  5. [Evaluation of oral midazolam conscious sedation in different age groups in pediatric dentistry].

    PubMed

    Jing, Quan; Wan, Kuo; Ma, Lin; Chen, Xi; Tong, Ya-li

    2010-12-01

    To summarize the effect of oral midazolam sedation in a group of uncooperative patients in pediatric dentistry and analyze the influence of age on treatment results and safety. Oral midazolam conscious sedation (dosages range: 0.50 - 0.75 mg/kg) was applied to 109 uncooperative pediatric patients in outpatient department. The patients were divided into two age groups: group A (under 3 years) and group B (over 3 years). Treatment results and safety were statistically analyzed. The mean success rate was 71% (77/109), which was higher in group B [78% (54/69)] than in group A [58% (23/40)]. The incidence of adverse reactions was 17% (19/109), which was higher in group A [28% (11/40)] than in group B [12% (8/69)]. Oral midazolam conscious sedation at a dosage range of 0.50 - 0.75 mg/kg is more effective and safe in pediatric dental patients over 3 years of age.

  6. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method: Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results: (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion: Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436

  7. Effect of Age Group on Technical-Tactical Performance Profile of the Serve in Men's Volleyball.

    PubMed

    García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical-tactical performance profile of the serve for various age groups and categories of competition in men's volleyball. The sample comprised 13,262 serves performed by 986 players in 299 sets observed in various categories of competition (U-14, U-16, U-19, national senior, and international senior). An observational design was used. The variables studied were category of competition, type of execution, and serve performance. The results showed that for higher age groups (senior categories), there were significantly fewer jump serves and poorer serve performance, regardless of players' maturity and training development. The use of the jump serves increased the serve risk while attempting to hinder the organization of the opponent attack. This paper discusses the serve evolution and the implications on the training process at the different age groups in men's volleyball.

  8. A Search for Impact Debris in the Pliocene Age Sirius Group, Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Ralph P.; Boyd, Hiram

    2003-01-01

    The Sirius Group is a mixed sequence of interbedded diamictite and mudstone of Pliocene age found at scattered locations along the length of the Transantarctic Mountains. Sirius Group rocks are usually considered tillites, but contain some very "un-tillite" elements. Within section and from site to site, Sirius Group rocks vary considerably in terms of texture and relative abundance of clast lithologies, recording a history that includes shifting influences of glacial, lacustrine, fluvial and wetland processes. The colorful heritage of the Sirius Group has generated a lot of interest due to its potential as a record of changes in the behavior of the East Antarctic icesheet during a climatologically interesting period.

  9. Effect of smile index and incisal edge position on perception of attractiveness in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Chou, J-C; Nelson, A; Katwal, D; Elathamna, E N; Durski, M T

    2016-11-01

    Changes in occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) and age have been found to affect Smile Index (SI, width/height of smile). Limited information is available regarding the aesthetic effects of these changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attractiveness of digitally manipulated smile images with differences in SI and incisal edge position (IEP) judged by respondents in different age groups. A total of 12 smile images were generated with varying SI (3·5, 5·3, 7·2, 9·0) and IEP (High, Medium, Low). Fifty respondents each in four age groups (15-24, 25-39, 40-54, 55+) evaluated the attractiveness of the 12 images using a 0-10 visual analog scale (VAS, 10 being most attractive). A repeated-measures three-factorial mixed model assessed differences. SI, IEP and age of respondents were found to significantly influence attractiveness score (P < 0·01 for all). With all age groups combined, SI = 7·2/IEP = Medium was most attractive (VAS = 7·22), followed by SI = 9·0/IEP = Medium, and SI = 5·3/IEP = Medium (VAS = 6·53 and 6·48, respectively). SI = 3·5/IEP = High and SI = 3·5/IEP = Low were least attractive (VAS = 1·99 and VAS = 2·58, respectively). Age group significantly influenced aesthetic perception, with younger respondents more critical in differences in SI and IEP. SI and IEP significantly influenced attractiveness of the smile in all respondent age groups. Low SI (i.e. 3·5) combined with high or low IEP was unattractive. Medium SI to high SI (i.e. 5·3-9·0) combined with medium IEP were considered attractive. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The effect of age on skin color and color heterogeneity in four ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    de Rigal, Jean; Des Mazis, Isabelle; Diridollou, Stephane; Querleux, Bernard; Yang, Grace; Leroy, Frederce; Barbosa, Vietoria Holloway

    2010-05-01

    Few comparative data are available on age-related changes in skin color among different ethnic groups. The aim of the study was to measure and analyze the skin color and color heterogeneity in four different ethnic groups living in the same local environment and to determine the effects of age on these skin color characteristics. Female volunteers (385) from four ethnic populations (African-American, Caucasian, Chinese and Mexicans) living in the same city were enrolled after informed consent. Skin color was measured on two facial areas, forehead and cheek. The subjects were further divided into six age ranges: 19-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70 and 71-87 years to determine any age-related effects on the skin color and color heterogeneity in both areas. According to the L(*)a(*)b(*) CIE system, clarity (fairness/lightness) was found to be lower in the African-American group whereas the hue was lower in Caucasians, which means more red skin. A clear, statistically significant darkening of the skin with age was observed in all ethnic groups, while evidence of yellowing of the skin was shown in the Chinese volunteers. Overall, the skin color of the face of African-Americans was more heterogeneous than in the other ethnic groups, but showed the least increase with age. Our study revealed interesting differences in skin color and color heterogeneity with respect to ethnicity and age-related alterations. Data obtained are very useful in improving our knowledge about the skin of people of different origins and helps in the development of specific cosmetic products that are well adapted to all these populations.

  11. Sleep quality, use of hypnotics and sleeping habits in different age-groups among older people.

    PubMed

    Hägg, Miriam; Houston, Britta; Elmståhl, Sölve; Ekström, Henrik; Wann-Hansson, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among older people (>65 years). Further, long-term use of sedative hypnoticsin older people is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, older people represent a large span of life years, and few studies have included the oldest-old above 85 years. To investigate and compare sleep quality, use of hypnotics and sleeping habits in different age groups of the older population in the Scania region, Sweden and in relation to sociodemographic- and functional status. A cross-sectional population-based study including 2931 people aged 60-93 years from five different municipalities in Scania was performed during 2001-2004. The sample was divided into age groups, young old (60-72 years), old-old (78-84 years) and oldest-old (87-93) years. Data constitutes of sleep related questions, sociodemographic- and functional status from the study 'Good Ageing in Skane'. Descriptive statistics were used to describe sleep quality, hypnotics use and sleeping habitsin relation to sociodemographic- and functional status. The aim was to investigate associations, not the magnitude of associations between variables. In all age groups, those who used hypnotics and were living alone had significantly poorer sleep quality and shortest sleeping time than nonhypnotic users and those who lived together. A significant increase of hypnotics and frequency of use was seen with increasing age. Frequency of napping increased significantly with degree of dependence in all age groups and with increasing age. Insomnia is still a problem and hypnotic use has not improved sleep for a large number of older people. Hypnotics are effective as short-term treatment, however, nonpharmacological interventions and psychological and behavioural therapies should be considered for treating older people with chronic insomnia.

  12. The Influence of Older Age Groups to Sustainable Product Design Research of Urban Public Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen-juan, Zhang; Hou-peng, Song

    2017-01-01

    Through summarize the status quo of public facilities design to older age groups in China and a variety of factors what influence on them, the essay, from different perspective, is designed to put forward basic principle to sustainable design of public facilities for the aged in the city, and thus further promote and popularize the necessity of sustainable design applications in the future design of public facilities for elderly people.

  13. [Effects of Meek skin grafting on patients with extensive deep burn at different age groups].

    PubMed

    Di, H P; Niu, X H; Li, Q; Li, X L; Xue, J D; Cao, D Y; Han, D W; Xia, C D

    2017-03-20

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Meek skin grafting on patients with extensive deep burn at different age groups. Methods: Eighty-four patients with extensive deep burns conforming to the study criteria were hospitalized in our unit from April 2011 to April 2015. Patients were divided into children group (C, with age less than 12 years old), young and middle-aged group (YM, with age more than 18 years and less than 50 years old), and old age group (O, with age more than 55 years old) according to age, with 28 patients in each group. All patients received Meek skin grafting treatment. The use of autologous skin area, operation time, wound healing time, and hospitalization time were recorded. The survival rate of skin graft on post operation day 7, complete wound healing rate in post treatment week 2, and the mortality were calculated. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, t test, and χ(2) test. Results: The use of autologous skin area of patients in group C was (5.1±1.0)% total body surface area (TBSA), significantly less than (8.3±1.0)%TBSA and (8.3±1.4)%TBSA in groups YM and O, respectively (with t values 32.900 and 52.624, respectively, P values below 0.05). The operation time, wound healing time, and hospitalization time of patients in group C were (1.368±0.562) h, (9.6±0.6) and (32±11) d, significantly shorter than those in group YM [(3.235±0.011) h, (16.9±2.6) and (48±12) d, respectively] and group O [(3.692±0.481) h, (17.3±2.6) and (46±13) d, respectively, with t values from 4.350 to 21.160, P values below 0.05]. The survival rate of skin graft of patients on post operation day 7 in group C was (92±15)%, significantly higher than (81±10)% and (72±12)% in groups YM and O, respectively (with t values 5.509 and 3.229, respectively, P values below 0.05). The above indexes in groups YM and O were similar (with t values from 0.576 to 22.958, P values above 0.05). Complete wound healing rate in post treatment week 2 and the

  14. Dynamics of telomere length in different age groups in a Latvian population.

    PubMed

    Zole, Egija; Pliss, Liana; Ranka, Renate; Krumina, Astrida; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2013-12-01

    The shortening of telomeres with ageing is a well-documented observation; however, the reported number of nucleotides in telomeres varies between different laboratories and studies. Such variability is likely caused by ethnic differences between the populations studied. Until now, there were no studies that investigated the variability of telomere length in a senescent Latvian population of the most common mitochondrial haplogroups, defined as H (45%), U (25%), Y chromosomal N1c (40%) and R1a1 (40%). Telomere length was determined in 121 individuals in different age groups, including a control group containing individuals of 20-40 years old and groups of individuals between 60-70 years old, 71-80 years old, 81-90 years old, and above 90 years old. Telomere length was determined using the Southern blot telomeric restriction fragment assay (TRF). Decreased telomere length with ageing was confirmed, but a comparison of centenarians and individuals between 60-90 years of age did not demonstrate a significant difference in telomere length. However, significant variability in telomere length was observed in the control group, indicating probable rapid telomere shortening in some individuals that could lead up to development of health status decline appearing with ageing. Telomere length measured in mononuclear blood cells (MNC) was compared with the telomere length measured in whole peripheral white blood cells (WBC) using TRF. Telomere length in MNC was longer than in WBC for the control group with individuals 20 to 40 years old; in contrast, for the group of individuals aged 65 to 85 years old, measured telomere length was shorter in MNC when compared to WBC.

  15. Energy reserve modification in different age groups of Daphnia schoedleri (Anomopoda: Daphniidae) exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Arzate-Cárdenas, Mario Alberto; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando

    2012-07-01

    Caloric content is a reliable biomaker of effect since it is modified by exposure to toxicants that can alter basal metabolism. Since organisms' age modifies how energy resources are allocated and modifies the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the response to toxic agents could be altered with age. Seven age groups of Daphnia schoedleri (0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28-day-old) were exposed for 24h to two sublethal concentrations of Cr(VI): 1/25 and 1/5 of the 48 h EC(50) of each age group, to determine the age at which susceptibility to Cr(VI) is highest. To evaluate energy content, carbohydrate, protein and lipid reserves were quantified and antioxidant enzymes activity was assessed (SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR). Furthermore, an integrative approach was applied to evaluate both sets of responses and interpret them as a whole in a simply visual way, achieved by the integrated biomarker response approach. Results indicate that Cr(VI) induced significant differences in all age groups. Seven and 14-day-old organisms were exposed to the highest concentrations (based on their EC50) and showed greater tolerance to this metal. Susceptibility to the toxicant was highest in younger specimens in which energy requirements are greater due to high growth rates (basal metabolism), as a result of which more energy reserves are expended to satisfy demands in terms of growth and response to toxicants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Seroprevalence study of anti diphtheria antibodies in two age-groups of Romanian adults.

    PubMed

    Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Coldea, Ileana-Luminiţa; Ilie, Anamaria; Stănescu, Aurora; Ungureanu, Vasilica; Popa, Mircea Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Diphtheria represents a serious infectious disease with high epidemic potential. It is a vaccine preventable disease (a minimum vaccine coverage of 95% for children of 1 year and 90% in adults could prevent the disease). Diphtheria vaccination is included in the National Immunization Program (NIP). Complete vaccination for children consists in DTaP (diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine) vaccine administration from the age of 2 months until 4 years and dT vaccine (tetanus toxoid and a reduced dose of diphtheria toxoid) at 14 years old. The aim of this paper was to highlight the protection against diphtheria of an age segment of the Romanian adult population (20 to 39 years old) using a seroprevalence study. The Romanian subjects were selected from two age groups: 20-29 years (n = 219) and 30-39 years (n = 229), representative for all counties of Romania. The commercial kit Anti-Diphtheria Toxoid ELISA (IgG) (EUROIMMUN) was used to detect the antibodies of IgG class against diphtheria toxoid in the sera obtained from our subjects. We detected a 56.6% rate of positive sera (> 0.1 IU/ml--protection level) for the 20-29 age group and 31.7% positivity for the 30-39 age group. These data show a low protection level against diphtheria of the Romanian adult population, which decreases with age. The serologic data on preventable vaccine diseases are useful in order to evaluate the success of the immunization programs.

  17. Evaluation of human antibody responses to diphtheria toxin subunits A and B in various age groups.

    PubMed

    Karakus, R; Caglar, K; Aybay, C

    2007-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate human antibody responses to diphtheria toxin subunits in various age groups. Antibodies against the intact diphtheria toxin and the diphtheria toxin subunits A and B were evaluated in 1319 individuals using a double-antigen ELISA. Although high levels of protection (83.6%, 95% CI 79.2-87.4) were found in children and adolescents, the middle-aged adult population was less protected (28.8%, 95% CI 24.3-33.6). An increase in age was associated with a decrease in the frequency of protected individuals in the 0-39-year age group (p <0.001). Anti-subunit B levels correlated well (p <0.01) with levels of antibodies against the intact toxin. In children aged < or =16 years, the intervals at which the peaks in geometric mean titres of anti-subunit B antibodies were observed were found to correlate with the ages at which booster doses are administered. Overall, males appeared to be more protected than females (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.34-2.08, p <0.001). A small group of individuals had antibody levels of > or =0.1 IU/mL against the intact toxin, but did not have protective antibody against subunit B. Determination of anti-subunit B antibody levels should help in evaluating the effectiveness of diphtheria boosters and other aspects of diphtheria immunity.

  18. The Importance of Properly Compensating for Head Movements During MEG Acquisition Across Different Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric; Taulu, Samu

    2017-03-01

    Unlike EEG sensors, which are attached to the head, MEG sensors are located outside the head surface on a fixed external device. Subject head movements during acquisition thus distort the magnetic field distributions measured by the sensors. Previous studies have looked at the effect of head movements, but no study has comprehensively looked at the effect of head movements across age groups, particularly in infants. Using MEG recordings from subjects ranging in age from 3 months through adults, here we first quantify the variability in head position as a function of age group. We then combine these measured head movements with brain activity simulations to determine how head movements bias source localization from sensor magnetic fields measured during movement. We find that large amounts of head movement, especially common in infant age groups, can result in large localization errors. We then show that proper application of head movement compensation techniques can restore localization accuracy to pre-movement levels. We also find that proper noise covariance estimation (e.g., during the baseline period) is important to minimize localization bias following head movement compensation. Our findings suggest that head position measurement during acquisition and compensation during analysis is recommended for researchers working with subject populations or age groups that could have substantial head movements. This is especially important in infant MEG studies.

  19. Age group analysis of psychological, physical and functional deterioration in patients hospitalized for pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Martín-Salvador, Adelina; Torres-Sánchez, Irene; Sáez-Roca, Germán; López-Torres, Isabel; Rodríguez-Alzueta, Elisabeth; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2015-10-01

    Hospital admissions due to pneumonia range from 1.1 to 4 per 1,000 patients and this figure increases with age. Hospitalization causes a decline in functional status. Physical impairment impedes recovery and constitutes a higher risk of disability and mortality in elderly people. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of hospital stay in patients with pneumonia related with age. A total of 116 patients with pneumonia were included in this study, and divided into two age groups:<75 years (n=68) and ≥ 75 years (n=48). Respiratory function, physical function and psychological and emotional profile were evaluated. Pneumonia severity, nutritional status, independence and comorbidities were also assessed. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences between both age groups in pneumonia severity and comorbidities. Significant improvements between admission and discharge were found in lung function in both groups (p<0.05), while a significant decrease (p<0.05) in strength assessed by dynamometer was found in the ≥75 years group. Hospitalization leads to a significant physical impairment in patients admitted for pneumonia. This deterioration increases with age. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Axial Length, Anterior Chamber Depth-A Study in Different Age Groups and Refractive Errors

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Veena; Rajeshbhai, Gandhi Parth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Axial length and anterior chamber depth play an important role in refractive status of the eye in different age groups. Material and Methods: The present study has been done on 240 patients (480 eyes) who attended eye OPD of Department of Ophthalmology at NIMS Medical College & Hospital Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. The patients attending eye OPD between July 2011 to December 2012 of different ages groups were without significant history of any ocular disease. The axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured and compared. Conclusion: Hypermetropic eyes have shallow anterior chamber depth and shorter axial length as compared to myopic and emmtropic eyes. PMID:24298478

  1. Suicide attempts presenting to trauma centers: trends across age groups using the National Trauma Data Bank.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Eva M; Woodward, Christopher J; Musso, Mandi W; Jones, Glenn N

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to examine the epidemiology and mortality of violent suicide attempts presenting to trauma centers and to describe differences in male and female suicide attempters presenting to trauma centers by decade of age. Data from the National Trauma Data Bank (American College of Surgeons) years 2010-2012 were used for this study. E-codes indicative of self-inflicted injury (e950-e959) were used to identify violent suicide attempts. Incidents were categorized by decade of age at admission. We examined the effects of age and sex on rates of violent suicide attempts, mechanism used, and mortality. In all, 36035 violent suicide attempts were identified in the National Trauma Data Bank. Proportion of in-hospital mortality differed significantly with age (P< .001). Individuals aged 20 to 29 years had a significantly higher number of attempts with 15.6% mortality, whereas individuals aged 80 plus year had fewer attempts but with 45.9% mortality. There were significant interactions between sex and age on lethality of suicide attempts (P< .01) and mechanism chosen (P< .01), with men being more likely to use firearms across age groups. This study highlights the importance of examining the epidemiology of suicide attempts across sex and age. There are significant differences in rate of attempts, lethality of mechanism, and in-hospital mortality. Future studies should continue to investigate violent suicide attempts to design and implement effective treatment strategies targeted toward specific populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ages of the Xinghuadukou Group in the Erguna Block, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Hou, W.

    2016-12-01

    The Xinghuadukou group is outcropped in the Erguna block (EB) of NE China, which is an important component of the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This group was previously classified as Paleoproterozoic in age. However, recent studies reported Paleozoic ages from the meta-volcanic rocks, Paleoproterozoic to Neoarchean detrital zircon ages from the meta-sedimentary rocks and Neoproterozoic ages from the granitoids. The tectonic affinity of the EB is still debated. In order to clarify the aforementioned issues, 19 samples were collected from the Xinghuadukou group from the Mohe region in NE China. All samples underwent gneiss facies metamorphism, including two-mica granitic gneiss and quartz biotite gneiss. Based on the protolith discrimination diagram of Si—(al+fm)-(c+alk) system, 7 samples originated from sedimentary rocks and the other 12 of igneous origin. The orthogneiss samples were plotted as diorite, granodiorite and granite respectively in TAS, showing felsic character (SiO2 57% - 74%). One orthogneiss and one paragneiss samples were chosen to conduct the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon age analysis. Apart from one zircon with the age of 742 Ma shows evident metamorphic rim, all zircons from the orthogneiss show euhedral to subhedral prismatic shape and typical concentric or oscillatory structure indicating the igneous origin. The concordant age of 2478±26 Ma was generated, indicating the existence of the near Archean basement of the EB. The detrital zircons from the paragneiss produced age populations cluster at 0.6, 0.8, 1.9, 2.6 and 2.7 Ga, lacking of the Grenville event age. The youngest zircon age is 395 Ma, taken as the maximum depositional age of the sedimentary protolith. According to the new data obtained, it is suggested that the Xinghuadukou group comprises the early Paleoproterozoic granite-gneiss, which proves the granitic basement of the Erguna block. The sedimentary rocks formed overlying the basement during the early

  3. Rorschach Comprehensive System data for 100 nonpatient children from the United States in two age groups.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Mel; Shaffer, Thomas W

    2007-01-01

    Building on our previously published study (Hamel, Shaffer, & Erdberg, 2000), which provided data on 100 nonpatient children aged 6 to 12 from the United States, we here provide reference data for two more homogeneous age subgroups: 6 to 9 (N = 50) and 10 to 12 (N = 50). Inclusion criteria are described, and expanded interrater reliability statistics at the response level are presented along with scores for the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2001) at each age grouping. In addition to the children being administered the Rorschach, their parents were given the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-93 (CPRS-93; Conners, 1989), and these results are presented as well.

  4. The infrarenal aortic diameter in relation to age: only part of the population in older age groups shows an increase.

    PubMed

    Wilmink, A B; Pleumeekers, H J; Hoes, A W; Hubbard, C S; Grobbee, D E; Quick, C R

    1998-11-01

    To resolve whether the infrarenal aortic diameter (IAD) continues to increase throughout life; to ascertain the relationship between IAD and age, sex, body size, and smoking status, and to determine whether these factors influence the IAD over the entire range of aortic diameters or only in a proportion. Combined cross-sectional data from two population-based screening programmes for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in Huntingdon (U.K.) and Rotterdam (The Netherlands). The antero-posterior diameter of the infrarenal aorta was measured. The influences of age, gender, body size and smoking status were examined. Data were analysed from 3066 women and 8270 men. In men, mean IAD rose from 20.7 mm to 23.5 mm in the older age groups. However, IADs remained constant below the 75th perentile in men and the 85th percentile in women. Similarly only the top 15-25% of the aortic diameters were larger in smokers compared with non-smokers. The aortic diameter increased with age in only a minority of the population. Furthermore, known risk factors for AAA contributed to aortic dilatation in only the upper tail of the frequency distribution. Thus only 25% of men and 15% of women may be prone to aortic dilatation.

  5. Comparison of pain control medication in three age groups of elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Honari, S; Patterson, D R; Gibbons, J; Martin-Herz, S P; Mann, R; Gibran, N S; Heimbach, D M

    1997-01-01

    There are no published reports of burn pain management in the elderly population. To assess the range of requirement and use of opioids among elderly patients with burns of different age categories, a retrospective review of 89 consecutive admissions of patients over 55 years of age (January 1995 through July 1996) was conducted. Complete data were available on 44 patients with a burn mean total body surface area of 17.2%. Patient ages ranged from 55 to 92 years. Individuals were divided into three age categories: Group I (55 to 65) n = 20; Group II (66 to 75) n = 14; and Group III (76 to 92) n = 10. Use of commonly prescribed opioids for procedural pain and breakthrough pain were evaluated. We compared the opioid equivalents of medications prescribed versus the actual amount administered. Paired t tests comparing minimum amount of medication ordered with that given revealed Group I patients received significantly more procedural medication than the minimum prescribed (t = 3.88, p = 0.001), and that Group III patients were given significantly less as needed medication than the minimum prescribed (t = 2.58, p < 0.05).

  6. [Chinese Total Diet Study in 2000. Cadium intakes by different age-sex population groups].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Gao, Junquan; Li, Xiaowei

    2008-05-01

    To estimate the dietary cadium intakes by different age-sex groups in China. The cadium concentrations of food sample from 3rd Chinese total diet study were determined, and then combine these data with the food consumption by population of ten age-sex groups, The cadium intakes, and its distribution and dietary sources were obtained. It was found that the mean and median concentrations of cadium in all food samples were 0.046 and 0.006 mg/kg, respectively. The cadium contents in shellfish and liver were far higher than other food staffs. The cadium intakes by different age-sex groups were estimated to be 12.0 - 25.9 microg/day, ranged from 30.3% to 67.0% of PTWI. The individual dietary cadium intakes by 14% children in 2 - 7 years old group exceed PTWI. Cereals, vegetables and seafood were the main sources of cadium exposure, and contributed about 80% of total intakes. Although the dietary cadium intakes by different age-sex groups are all lower than PTWI, they are increased in the past decade. Moreover, in some provinces, the cadium burden of people is heavy.

  7. Teaching the Moon: A Study of Teaching Methodology Across Age Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, F.; Paust, N.

    2012-08-01

    In this study I attempted to determine the most effective teaching style for teaching elementary, middle school, and undergraduate students about lunar phases and eclipses. Within each age group, there were two sub groups, one of which was introduced to the material in a standard lecture format while the other sub-group interacted with the content through activities and demonstrations. After their respective lessons, both sub-groups were given the same post-instruction test in order to assess their comprehension of the content. The results from this experiment provided insight into effective teaching styles and common misconceptions about lunar phases and eclipses at different age levels, as well as introducing new interactive teaching activities for elementary, middle school and undergraduate students.

  8. Metabolomic profiling reveals severe skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of metabolism in aged FBN rats.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Sean M; Dugle, Janis E; Kennedy, Adam D; McDunn, Jonathan E; Kline, William; Guo, Lining; Guttridge, Denis C; Pereira, Suzette L; Edens, Neile K

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles exhibit age-related adaptive and pathological remodeling. Several muscles in particular undergo progressive atrophy and degeneration beyond median lifespan. To better understand myocellular responses to aging, we used semi-quantitative global metabolomic profiling to characterize trends in metabolic changes between 15-month-old adult and 32-month-old aged Fischer 344 × Brown Norway (FBN) male rats. The FBN rat gastrocnemius muscle exhibits age-dependent atrophy, whereas the soleus muscle, up until 32 months, exhibits markedly fewer signs of atrophy. Both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were analyzed, as well as plasma and urine. Compared to adult gastrocnemius, aged gastrocnemius showed evidence of reduced glycolytic metabolism, including accumulation of glycolytic, glycogenolytic, and pentose phosphate pathway intermediates. Pyruvate was elevated with age, yet levels of citrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide were reduced, consistent with mitochondrial abnormalities. Indicative of muscle atrophy, 3-methylhistidine and free amino acids were elevated in aged gastrocnemius. The monounsaturated fatty acids oleate, cis-vaccenate, and palmitoleate also increased in aged gastrocnemius, suggesting altered lipid metabolism. Compared to gastrocnemius, aged soleus exhibited far fewer changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but did show reductions in several glycolytic intermediates, fumarate, malate, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Plasma biochemicals showing the largest age-related increases included glycocholate, heme, 1,5-anhydroglucitol, 1-palmitoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine, palmitoleate, and creatine. These changes suggest reduced insulin sensitivity in aged FBN rats. Altogether, these data highlight skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of glucose and lipid metabolism consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction in aged FBN rats.

  9. Predicting age groups of Twitter users based on language and metadata features.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Kim, Annice E; Chew, Robert F; Ruddle, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Health organizations are increasingly using social media, such as Twitter, to disseminate health messages to target audiences. Determining the extent to which the target audience (e.g., age groups) was reached is critical to evaluating the impact of social media education campaigns. The main objective of this study was to examine the separate and joint predictive validity of linguistic and metadata features in predicting the age of Twitter users. We created a labeled dataset of Twitter users across different age groups (youth, young adults, adults) by collecting publicly available birthday announcement tweets using the Twitter Search application programming interface. We manually reviewed results and, for each age-labeled handle, collected the 200 most recent publicly available tweets and user handles' metadata. The labeled data were split into training and test datasets. We created separate models to examine the predictive validity of language features only, metadata features only, language and metadata features, and words/phrases from another age-validated dataset. We estimated accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 metrics for each model. An L1-regularized logistic regression model was conducted for each age group, and predicted probabilities between the training and test sets were compared for each age group. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated to examine the relative importance of significant features. Models containing both Tweet language features and metadata features performed the best (74% precision, 74% recall, 74% F1) while the model containing only Twitter metadata features were least accurate (58% precision, 60% recall, and 57% F1 score). Top predictive features included use of terms such as "school" for youth and "college" for young adults. Overall, it was more challenging to predict older adults accurately. These results suggest that examining linguistic and Twitter metadata features to predict youth and young adult Twitter users may be helpful for

  10. Predicting age groups of Twitter users based on language and metadata features

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Chew, Robert F.; Ruddle, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Health organizations are increasingly using social media, such as Twitter, to disseminate health messages to target audiences. Determining the extent to which the target audience (e.g., age groups) was reached is critical to evaluating the impact of social media education campaigns. The main objective of this study was to examine the separate and joint predictive validity of linguistic and metadata features in predicting the age of Twitter users. We created a labeled dataset of Twitter users across different age groups (youth, young adults, adults) by collecting publicly available birthday announcement tweets using the Twitter Search application programming interface. We manually reviewed results and, for each age-labeled handle, collected the 200 most recent publicly available tweets and user handles’ metadata. The labeled data were split into training and test datasets. We created separate models to examine the predictive validity of language features only, metadata features only, language and metadata features, and words/phrases from another age-validated dataset. We estimated accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 metrics for each model. An L1-regularized logistic regression model was conducted for each age group, and predicted probabilities between the training and test sets were compared for each age group. Cohen’s d effect sizes were calculated to examine the relative importance of significant features. Models containing both Tweet language features and metadata features performed the best (74% precision, 74% recall, 74% F1) while the model containing only Twitter metadata features were least accurate (58% precision, 60% recall, and 57% F1 score). Top predictive features included use of terms such as “school” for youth and “college” for young adults. Overall, it was more challenging to predict older adults accurately. These results suggest that examining linguistic and Twitter metadata features to predict youth and young adult Twitter users may be

  11. Modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease and subjective memory impairment across age groups.

    PubMed

    Chen, Stephen T; Siddarth, Prabha; Ercoli, Linda M; Merrill, David A; Torres-Gil, Fernando; Small, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older adults. Research is limited on the potential link between these risk factors and subjective memory impairment (SMI), which may precede AD and other dementias. Examination of these potential relationships may help identify those at risk for AD at a stage when interventions may delay or prevent further memory problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk factors for AD are associated with SMI among different age groups. Trained interviewers conducted daily telephone surveys (Gallup-Healthways) of a representative community sample of 18,614 U.S. respondents, including 4,425 younger (age 18 to 39 years), 6,365 middle-aged (40 to 59 years), and 7,824 older (60 to 99 years) adults. The surveyors collected data on demographics, lifestyles, and medical information. Less education, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, less exercise, obesity and depression, and interactions among them, were examined for associations with SMI. Weighted logistic regressions and chi-square tests were used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for SMI with each risk factor and pairwise interactions across age groups. Depression, less education, less exercise, and hypertension were significantly associated with SMI in all three age groups. Several interactions between risk factors were significant in younger and middle-aged adults and influenced their associations with SMI. Frequency of SMI increased with age and number of risk factors. Odds of having SMI increased significantly with just having one risk factor. These results indicate that modifiable risk factors for AD are also associated with SMI, suggesting that these relationships occur in a broad range of ages and may be targeted to mitigate further memory problems. Whether modifying these risk factors reduces SMI and the eventual incidence of AD and other dementias later in life remains to be determined.

  12. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  13. Cardiovascular reactivity in Black South-African males of different age groups: the influence of urbanization.

    PubMed

    van Rooyen, J M; Huisman, H W; Eloff, F C; Laubscher, P J; Malan, L; Steyn, H S; Malan, N T

    2002-01-01

    Blacks in an urban environment seem to be more vulnerable to excessive increases in blood pressure during daily life events. This greater cardiovascular reactivity during acute stress situations in urban Blacks may lead to the development of hypertension in their later lives. Because Blacks in South Africa are involved in a massive process of urbanization, which may lead to chronic diseases of lifestyle like hypertension and diabetes, this study was undertaken to compare the cardiovascular reactivity patterns of urbanized and rural Black males in the North-West province of South Africa. Two hundred twenty-three Black males of different age groups, Group 1: younger than 25 years of age; Group 2: between 25 and 44 years of age; and Group 3: 45 years of age and older. Participants were randomly selected from rural and urbanized settlements. After resting blood pressure was recorded with a Finapres apparatus, and cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, and total peripheral vascular resistance had been obtained, an acute laboratory stressor (hand dynamometer exercise) was applied and the above measurements repeated. The SBP, DBP, and MAP increased 28% and 42% in both the rural and the urbanized groups. There was a shift from a central reactivity pattern (increased cardiac output) in the young rural group (< 25 years) to a peripheral reactivity pattern (increased total peripheral resistance) in the > or = 45 years old urbanized males after applying the stressor. Cardiovascular reactivity differs between Black males from a rural area compared to urbanized Black males. The urbanized males > or = 45 years of age were at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease because their total peripheral resistance reactivity increased the most during application of the stressor.

  14. Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marmontel, M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Kochman, H.I.; Humphrey, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Growth layers were observed in histological preparations of bones of known-age, known minimum-age, and tetracycline-marked free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), substantiating earlier preliminary findings of other studies. Detailed analysis of 17 new case histories showed that growth-layer group (GLG) counts in the periotic bone were consistent with known age, or time since tetracycline administration, but were less reliable in other bones. GLG counts were also made in periotic bones of 1,196 Florida manatees of unknown age found dead from 1974 through 1991. These counts were conducted in order to assess variability and to determine relationships among estimated age, size, sex, and degree of bone resorption. Resorption can interfere with accuracy of GLG counts. This effect does not occur until ages greater than about 15 yr and body lengths greater than 300 cm are attained. GLGs were also observed in periotic bones of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) but were not validated against known-age specimens. Use of GLG counts in the periotic bone is suitable for application to studies of population dynamics and other age-related aspects of manatee biology.

  15. Social support, depression, and physical disability: age and diagnostic group effects.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mark P; Smith, Amanda E; Bombardier, Charles H; Yorkston, Kathryn M; Miró, Jordi; Molton, Ivan R

    2014-04-01

    Social support is an important resource that may benefit individuals aging with physical disabilities, although its effects may vary depending on age, sex, and type of disability. To (1) examine differences in social support--and how support might vary as a function of age and sex--in samples of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury (SCI), and muscular dystrophy (MD) and (2) understand the extent that associations between different support domains and depression might be moderated by disability diagnosis, sex and age. A convenience sample (N = 1416) of individuals with MS, SCI, and MD completed surveys that included measures of perceived social support and depressive symptoms. No significant support differences were found between diagnostic groups. There was a gradual decrease in social support with chronological age, and women reported more support than men, particularly friend support. Levels of perceived friend support were negatively associated with depression, and the associations between social support and depression did not differ as a function of age, sex, or diagnosis. Social support is similarly associated with lower levels of depression for men and women, across disability diagnoses and all ages. Being a man and being older may be associated with lower levels of perceived support. Research is needed to determine if interventions that improve support will decrease depression and improve quality of life in persons with disabilities, particularly for men and individuals who are aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An evaluation of selective feeding by three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beck, K.; Neves, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    A tri-algal diet was fed to three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris: ages 2-3 d, 50-53 d, and 3-6 years. Changes in the relative abundance of each algal species were determined in 5-h feeding trials from feeding chambers and by gut content analyses. All age-groups rejected Scenedesmus quadricauda and preferentially selected Nannochloropsis oculata and Selenastrum capricornutum, principally on the basis of size. Changes in the relative abundance of algae in feeding chambers did not differ significantly among age-groups. Observed differences in the ingested quantities of the similar-sized N. oculata and S. capricornutum were attributed to other particle-related characteristics. Results indicate that the rainbow mussel can be fed similar-sized algae at ali ages in captive propagation facilities. When developing a suitable algal diet for rearing juvenile mussels, one probably need not investigate different species at each stage of development if the algae used are in the 2.8-8.5-??m size range.

  17. Happiness across age groups: results from the 2007 National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C; Bebbington, P; King, M; Jenkins, R; Farrell, M; Brugha, T; McManus, S; Stewart, R; Livingston, G

    2011-06-01

    To test our hypotheses that happiness declines with age, and that age moderates the relationship of other influences on happiness, so that they vary in different age groups. We analysed data from adults interviewed for the 2007 English National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, representative of people living in private homes. 7399 (57%) of people approached completed information about our main outcome measure, a single item measure of happiness. We compared happiness between younger adults (aged 16-59) and those aged 60-69, 70-79 and 80+. 2746 (39.6%) of people said that they were currently 'very happy', 3956 (52.4%) were 'fairly happy' and 697 (8.0%) were 'not too happy'. Levels of happiness did not vary with age. Social capital and participation predicted happiness across the age span. However, the impact of several variables was moderated by age. Compared with younger people, living with a partner more strongly predicted happiness in people in their 70s. Attendance at religious services or places and having qualifications were more important predictors of happiness in the oldest old, whereas having a social network of at least three people was relatively less important in this age group. Four out of 10 people reported being very happy, and five out of 10 were fairly happy. This is higher than levels reported in earlier surveys. Our findings suggest that interventions that increase social capital and participation may augment general happiness, health and recovery from illness and this would be an interesting area for future study. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Outcome Differences Across Age Groups. Data Notes. Volume 3, Number 2, March/April 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clery, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Using data from Achieving the Dream: Community College Count, this issue examines the differing developmental needs and enrollment and persistence patterns of Achieving the Dream students across different age groups. The data show older students in Achieving the Dream colleges tended to achieve higher grades and perform better academically than…

  19. Age Group and Sex of Students: Fall 1989. Report No. 8-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    The major tables of this annual report on student characteristics array four major characteristics: age group; sex; level (undergraduate/graduate); and load (full-time/part-time). The main body of the report is divided into five sections: Part I contains data for the entire system as well as each institution and institutional type; Part II…

  20. Bringing the Montessori Three-Year Multi-Age Group to the Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes the benefits of including the ninth grade within the 3-year multi-age group setting within a Montessori farm school. Notes how seventh, eighth, and ninth grades work together in one family cluster, allowing 15-year-olds to avoid the pecking order of the high school freshman year while developing personal leadership, confidence, and a…

  1. The relationship between intra-group age similarity and exercise adherence.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, William L; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Research within social and organizational psychology is replete with evidence for a positive relationship between intra-group demographic similarity and group-based attraction/involvement. This relationship, however, remains largely unexplored within applied health settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which intra-group age similarity relates to individual adherence behaviors within group-based exercise programs. A prospective observational design was used in which participants' (N=123) age similarity was assessed in relation to program adherence over a period of several months. Data were collected from within a large city in Western Canada during the winter of 2011. Analyses were performed using a multilevel framework shortly after data collection. A positive relationship was observed between age similarity and program adherence (β=0.19, SE=0.09, p=0.04). The findings are consistent with the notion that program adherence may be enhanced if age similarity is maximized. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Locus of Control and Other Psycho-Social Parameters in Successful American Age-Group Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Edmund J., Jr.; Straub, William F.

    Psycho-social factors in successful age-group swimmers were explored in this study. The subjects were 50 female and 39 male participants in the 1975 Amateur Athletic Union National Junior Olympics who were asked to answer a set of questions from an open-ended questionnaire. The results support a picture of young persons who invest a great deal of…

  3. Prevalence of multidrug-resistant E. coli in different age groups of dairy cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria has become a major public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance in commensal E. coli from different age-groups of animals on dairy farms. Materials: A total of 444 manur...

  4. Metabolic Effects of Chronic Heavy Physical Training on Male Age Group Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, Garret P.; And Others

    This study attempts to appraise the effectiveness of chronic heavy exercise on 13 male swimmers from 10 to 17 years of age. The experimental group trained six days a week, often with more than one workout per day. During this period, the principles of interval training were employed in conjunction with high-intensity swimming. At the completion of…

  5. A structural equation model of environmental correlates of adolescent obesity for age and gender groups.

    PubMed

    Nesbit, K C; Kolobe, T H; Sisson, S B; Ghement, I R

    2015-08-01

    The relationships between environmental correlates of adolescent obesity are complex and not yet well defined by current research, especially when considering age and gender. The purpose of this study was to test a model of proximal (home) and distal (neighbourhood) environmental correlates of obesity for adolescent age and gender groups. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study, using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health of 39 542 children ages 11-17 years. The model fit the data well for early adolescents (ages 11-14 years) (root mean square standard error of approximation [RMSEA] 0.040, 90% confidence interval [CI]: 0.039-0.041; comparative fit index [CFI] 0.947; Tucker-Lewis index [TLI] 0.929) and middle adolescents (ages 15-17 years) (RMSEA 0.037, 90% CI: 0.036-0.038; CFI 0.052; TLI 0.937). The model also fit the data well for boy adolescents (RMSEA 0.038, 90% CI: 0.037-0.039; CFI 0.951; TLI 0.935) and girl adolescents (RMSEA 0.038, 90% CI: 0.037-0.040; CFI 0.949; TLI 0.932). All models provide loadings of the environmental correlates of adolescent obesity for specific age and gender groups that can be used for early identification of risks and targeted interventions. © 2014 World Obesity.

  6. Sex differences over age groups in self-posed smiling in photographs.

    PubMed

    Otta, E

    1998-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate self-posed smiling behavior in photographs as a function of both sex and age. The photographs of 1,171 Brazilian middle-class people, taken in a wide variety of informal social settings were examined. Only 25.7% of the girls and 25.0% of the boys of 2- to 5-yrs-age group were seen smiling in the photographs. Older children, adolescents, and adults were much more expressive than young children. Furthermore, significantly more females were seen smiling than males. Females also smiled more expansively than males. Finally, smiling was less frequent among middle-aged and older groups, especially among males. The present study replicated the sex difference in self-posed smiling behavior consistently reported by American researchers examining college yearbook photographs. Further, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that, besides being associated with emotional experience, smiling has a strong social motivation.

  7. Study of pruritus vulvae in geriatric age group in tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasleen; Kalsy, Jyotika

    2017-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization criteria, geriatric population is people above 60 years of age. In this phase of life, a woman has already gone through menopause and its associated emotional, physical, and hormonal changes. These changes are due to gradual loss of estrogen that comes with menopause which results in dramatic changes in the appearance of vulva and vagina. With age, skin of vulva becomes thin, loses elasticity, and moisture so that the patient starts feeling burning and itchy sensation. The normal acidic pH changes to basic which alters the flora and makes the person prone to other bacterial infections. Apart from infections, there are many other dermatological and nondermatological causes of vulvar itching in this age group such as eczema, contact dermatitis, lichen planus (LP), lichen sclerosus atrophicans, lichen simplex chronicus (LSC), prolapse, incontinence, and carcinoma. The aim is to diagnose the causes of pruritus vulvae in the geriatric age group to decrease the misery of these patients. We selected 40 consecutive females of age group ranging from 60 to 75 years coming to skin OPD with the complaint of pruritus of vulvar region over a period of 1 year. Clinical examination, complete blood count, fasting blood sugar, wet mount, pap smear, and skin biopsy were done in every case. Out of the forty patients who were included in this study, 17 (42.5%) were diagnosed as a case of LSC and 11 (27.5%) patients had atrophic vaginitis. Three (7.5%) patients presented with tinea. Three (7.5%) cases were clinically diagnosed as scabies. Another 2 (5%) cases were diagnosed as LP and Candida was seen in other 2 (5%) cases. 1 (2.5%) case was diagnosed as bacillary vaginosis and 1 (2.5%) patient was of lichen sclerosus. Pruritus vulvae of geriatric age group are of diverse etiology, therefore, treatment based on precise diagnosis is of prime importance.

  8. The frequency of shisha (waterpipe) smoking in students of different age groups.

    PubMed

    Basir, Fasia; Khan, Muhammad Sheheryar; Ahmed, Bilal; Farooq, Wasfa; Virji, Rashna Naozer

    2014-04-01

    To determine the frequency of waterpipe smoking in students of different age groups. Cross-sectional survey. Karachi, Pakistan, from February 2012 to February 2013. The subjects were divided into two age groups. Group-I comprised of 13 - 17 years old randomly selected students from O' Level schools in Karachi and group-2 included 23 - 27 years old undergraduate and postgraduate students again randomly selected from various institutions in Karachi. A questionnaire was filled with prior consent, basic education on waterpipe smoking was given, and all the questions of the survey form were explained to the subjects according to context. In group-1, 39% students smoked waterpipe. Most students had been smoking waterpipe for the last 2 years. In group-2, 48% individuals smoked waterpipe, majority of smokers indulged in the last 5 years and among them, most were falling within the last 2 years. The frequency of waterpipe smoking in teenage students was 39% and older students for 48%. Social and recreational use of waterpipes is widespread among both groups despite being acknowledged by majority as a health hazard.

  9. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751

  10. GPs’ perspectives on secondary cardiovascular prevention in older age: a focus group study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van Peet, Petra G; Drewes, Yvonne M; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; de Ruijter, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Background Although guidelines recommend secondary cardiovascular prevention irrespective of age, in older age the uptake of treatment is lower than in younger age groups. Aim To explore the dilemmas GPs in the Netherlands encounter when implementing guidelines for secondary cardiovascular prevention in older age. Design and setting Qualitative study in four focus groups consisting of GPs (n = 23, from the northern part of the province South Holland) and a fifth focus group consisting of GP trainees (n = 4, from the Leiden University Medical Center). Method Focus group discussions were organised to elicit perspectives on the implementation of secondary cardiovascular prevention for older people. The 14 theoretical domains of the refined Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) were used for (deductive) coding of the focus group discussions. The coded texts were analysed, content was discussed, and barriers and facilitators were identified for each domain of the TDF. Results The main theme that emerged was ‘uncertainty’. Identified barriers were guideline-related, patient-related, and organisation-related. Identified facilitators were doctor-related, patient-related, and organisation-related. The main aim of secondary preventive treatment was improvement in quality of life. Conclusion GPs in the Netherlands are uncertain about many aspects of secondary cardiovascular prevention in older age; the guidelines themselves, their own role, patient factors, and the organisation of care. In view of this uncertainty, GPs consciously weigh all aspects of the situation in close dialogue with the individual patient, with the ultimate aim of improving quality of life. This highly-individualised care may largely explain the reduced prescription rates. PMID:26500321

  11. A hospital-based study to evaluate the incidence pattern of group A streptococcal throat infections from different age group patients.

    PubMed

    Ray, Dipanwita; Banerjee, Surajita; Bhattacharya, Sujata; Sinha, Sukanta; Bandyopadhyay, Debasis; Ghosal, Chaitry; Gupta, Siddhartha; Majumdar, Pallav Kumar; Saha, Somnath; Gupta, Soma; Bhattacharya, Basudev

    2010-02-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes(group A) is a major pathogen capable of causing a wide range of diseases in different age group of people. In this study 100 patients were selected who presented with the complaint of sore throat. All the patients were divided in four age groups. Streptococcus pyogenes colonies were confirmed on the basis of beta-haemolysis, bacitracin sensitivity test, and latex agglutination test for group A. Out of a total of 100 samples, 42 were confirmed as group A streptococcus. From this study, it has been observed that all age groups, with maximum occurrence in 5-15 years age group, were suffering from group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Therefore every case of sore throat especially affecting children should be investigated to detect the causative agent for initiation of proper therapy so that the more serious outcome like acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) can be prevented.

  12. Diplopia of Pediatric Orbital Blowout Fractures: A Retrospective Study of 83 Patients Classified by Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun; Shen, Qin; Lin, Ming; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Orbital blowout fractures are relatively rare in patients under 18 years of age, but may lead to serious complications. We conducted this retrospective study to evaluate diplopia, clinical characteristics, and postoperative results in cases of orbital blowout fractures in the pediatric population. Eighty-three patients, all less than 18 years old, with orbital blowout fractures, were divided into 3 groups by age: 0 to 6 years old, 7 to 12 years old, and 13 to 18 years old. The cause of injury, fracture locations, diplopia grades, ocular motility restrictions, enophthalmos, and postoperative results were reviewed from their records. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact analyses, analyses of variance, and logistic regressions were performed to determine characteristics associated with diplopia, and to identify factors related to residual diplopia in pediatric patients. The most common causes of injuries were traffic accidents in the 0 to 6 years old group, normal daily activities in the 7 to 12 years old group, and assaults in the 13 to 18 years old group. Floor fractures were the most common location in both the 0 to 6- and 7 to 12 years old groups, and medial-floor fractures were the most common location in the 13 to 18 years old group. The occurrence of preoperative diplopia was related to ocular motility restriction and enophthalmos, but not with the age group, the gender, the cause of injury, or the fracture locations. The time interval from injury to surgery was significant in the outcome of postoperative diplopia (P < 0.01). A statistical difference was also found in the recovery time from diplopia among the 3 age groups (P < 0.01). The characteristics of orbital blowout fracture varied among the different age groups. It was related to 2 factors, the cause of injury and fracture locations, which probably resulted from structural growth changes and differences in daily habits. Children had a slower recovery from orbital fractures, and the younger

  13. Diplopia of pediatric orbital blowout fractures: a retrospective study of 83 patients classified by age groups.

    PubMed

    Su, Yun; Shen, Qin; Lin, Ming; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-01-01

    Orbital blowout fractures are relatively rare in patients under 18 years of age, but may lead to serious complications. We conducted this retrospective study to evaluate diplopia, clinical characteristics, and postoperative results in cases of orbital blowout fractures in the pediatric population. Eighty-three patients, all less than 18 years old, with orbital blowout fractures, were divided into 3 groups by age: 0 to 6 years old, 7 to 12 years old, and 13 to 18 years old. The cause of injury, fracture locations, diplopia grades, ocular motility restrictions, enophthalmos, and postoperative results were reviewed from their records. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact analyses, analyses of variance, and logistic regressions were performed to determine characteristics associated with diplopia, and to identify factors related to residual diplopia in pediatric patients. The most common causes of injuries were traffic accidents in the 0 to 6 years old group, normal daily activities in the 7 to 12 years old group, and assaults in the 13 to 18 years old group. Floor fractures were the most common location in both the 0 to 6- and 7 to 12 years old groups, and medial-floor fractures were the most common location in the 13 to 18 years old group. The occurrence of preoperative diplopia was related to ocular motility restriction and enophthalmos, but not with the age group, the gender, the cause of injury, or the fracture locations. The time interval from injury to surgery was significant in the outcome of postoperative diplopia (P < 0.01). A statistical difference was also found in the recovery time from diplopia among the 3 age groups (P < 0.01). The characteristics of orbital blowout fracture varied among the different age groups. It was related to 2 factors, the cause of injury and fracture locations, which probably resulted from structural growth changes and differences in daily habits. Children had a slower recovery from orbital fractures, and the younger the

  14. Capturing heterogeneous group differences using mixture-of-experts: Application to a study of aging.

    PubMed

    Eavani, Harini; Hsieh, Meng Kang; An, Yang; Erus, Guray; Beason-Held, Lori; Resnick, Susan; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-01-15

    In MRI studies, linear multi-variate methods are often employed to identify regions or connections that are affected due to disease or normal aging. Such linear models inherently assume that there is a single, homogeneous abnormality pattern that is present in all affected individuals. While kernel-based methods can implicitly model a non-linear effect, and therefore the heterogeneity in the affected group, extracting and interpreting information about affected regions is difficult. In this paper, we present a method that explicitly models and captures heterogeneous patterns of change in the affected group relative to a reference group of controls. For this purpose, we use the Mixture-of-Experts (MOE) framework, which combines unsupervised modeling of mixtures of distributions with supervised learning of classifiers. MOE approximates the non-linear boundary between the two groups with a piece-wise linear boundary, thus allowing discovery of multiple patterns of group differences. In the case of patient/control comparisons, each such pattern aims to capture a different dimension of a disease, and hence to identify patient subgroups. We validated our model using multiple simulation scenarios and performance measures. We applied this method to resting state functional MRI data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, to investigate heterogeneous effects of aging on brain function in cognitively normal older adults (>85years) relative to a reference group of normal young to middle-aged adults (<60years). We found strong evidence for the presence of two subgroups of older adults, with similar age distributions in each subgroup, but different connectivity patterns associated with aging. While both older subgroups showed reduced functional connectivity in the Default Mode Network (DMN), increases in functional connectivity within the pre-frontal cortex as well as the bilateral insula were observed only for one of the two subgroups. Interestingly, the subgroup

  15. [Morpho-functional peculiarities of autoimmune gastritis in different age groups].

    PubMed

    Novikova, V P; Sidorkin, A O; Anichkov, N M; Azanchevskaia, S V

    2011-01-01

    In 98 patients with chronic gastritis clinical-morphologic analysis was performed. The analysis included: the examination of gastric biopsy specimens, determination of HP-status by means of a group of methods, determination of antibodies to H+/K+ -ATPase of parietal cells of the gastric wall, IgG-EA-EBV and IgM-NA-EBN antibodies in the blood serum by means of IFA method, pepsinogene I, pepsinogene II, gastrin and antibodies to Hp with the use of Biohit gastric panel, 24-hour monitoring of intragastric pH with the use of Gastroscan-24 machine. Comparison of all parameters was performed in 4 groups: 27 children aged 6-17 with non-autoimmune gastritis and 119 children with gastritis of other etiology, 34 patients aged 18-80 with autoimmune gastritis and 43 patients of the same age group with non-autoimmune gastritis were described. Age-specific peculiarities of autoimmune gastritis in children were determined; and a diagnostic algorithm for its early diagnosis in the latter was developed.

  16. Capturing Age-group Differences and Developmental Change with the BASC Parent Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Baptiste; Hein, Sascha; Luthar, Suniya S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of age-group differences and intra-individual change across distinct developmental periods is often challenged by the use of age-appropriate (but non-parallel) measures. We present a short version of the Behavior Assessment System (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1998), Parent Rating Scales for Children (PRS-C) and Adolescents (PRS-A), which uses only their common-items to derive estimates of the initial constructs optimized for developmental studies. Measurement invariance of a three-factor model (Externalizing, Internalizing, Adaptive Skills) was tested across age-groups (161 mothers using PRS-C; 200 mothers using PRS-A) and over time (115 mothers using PRS-C at baseline and PRS-A five years later) with the original versus short PRS. Results indicated that the short PRS holds a sufficient level of invariance for a robust estimation of age-group differences and intra-individual change, as compared to the original PRS, which held only weak invariance leading to flawed developmental inferences. Importance of test-content parallelism for developmental studies is discussed. PMID:25045196

  17. Outcomes of 847 childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients in three age groups.

    PubMed

    Lopes, S R M; Gormezano, N W S; Gomes, R C; Aikawa, N E; Pereira, R M R; Terreri, M T; Magalhães, C S; Ferreira, J C; Okuda, E M; Sakamoto, A P; Sallum, A M E; Appenzeller, S; Ferriani, V P L; Barbosa, C M; Lotufo, S; Jesus, A A; Andrade, L E C; Campos, L M A; Bonfá, E; Silva, C A

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess outcomes of childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) in three different age groups evaluated at last visit: group A early-onset disease (<6 years), group B school age (≥6 and <12 years) and group C adolescent (≥12 and <18 years). Methods An observational cohort study was performed in ten pediatric rheumatology centers, including 847 cSLE patients. Results Group A had 39 (4%), B 395 (47%) and C 413 (49%). Median disease duration was significantly higher in group A compared to groups B and C (8.3 (0.1-23.4) vs 6.2 (0-17) vs 3.3 (0-14.6) years, p < 0.0001). The median Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SLICC/ACR-DI) (0 (0-9) vs 0 (0-6) vs 0 (0-7), p = 0.065) was comparable in the three groups. Further analysis of organ/system damage revealed that frequencies of neuropsychiatric (21% vs 10% vs 7%, p = 0.007), skin (10% vs 1% vs 3%, p = 0.002) and peripheral vascular involvements (5% vs 3% vs 0.3%, p = 0.008) were more often observed in group A compared to groups B and C. Frequencies of severe cumulative lupus manifestations such as nephritis, thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia were similar in all groups ( p > 0.05). Mortality rate was significantly higher in group A compared to groups B and C (15% vs 10% vs 6%, p = 0.028). Out of 69 deaths, 33/69 (48%) occurred within the first two years after diagnosis. Infections accounted for 54/69 (78%) of the deaths and 38/54 (70%) had concomitant disease activity. Conclusions This large multicenter study provided evidence that early-onset cSLE group had distinct outcomes. This group was characterized by higher mortality rate and neuropsychiatric/vascular/skin organ damage in spite of comparable frequencies of severe cumulative lupus manifestations. We also identified that overall death in cSLE patients was an early event mainly attributed to infection associated

  18. Farm fatalities to youth 1995-2000: A comparison by age groups.

    PubMed

    Goldcamp, Michael; Hendricks, Kitty J; Myers, John R

    2004-01-01

    Although a myriad of research illustrates the safety issues related to farm fatalities in youth populations, very little empirical evidence exists that includes work and non-work related farm fatalities to all youths under 20 years of age at the national level. This research will use death certificate data for the six years from 1995 to 2000 that were collected by NIOSH from all 50 state vital statistics registries. Demographic data from the 1998 CAIS were used in rate calculations. In addition to providing annual fatality rates and descriptions of the general causes of death, this research will examine the variation between age groups. Analysis of 695 total farm-related youth fatalities shows an average annual fatality rate of 9.3 fatalities per 100,000 youths. Males account for 80% of these fatalities. The most prevalent causes of death are: machinery (25%), motor vehicle (17%), drowning (16%), suicide (8%) and homicide (6%). Of all youth fatalities occurring while at work, 45% are to youths less than 16 years of age. This same age group accounts for 71% of all non-work related fatalities. This research will provide farm families and researchers more detailed information on farm hazards that contribute to the deaths of youths. As these youths may encounter hazards while working or playing in their daily environment, identification and elimination of these hazards will increase overall safety on the farm. This research also indicates the need to include youths under 16 years of age in future comprehensive farm safety research.

  19. The use and risk of portable electronic devices while cycling among different age groups.

    PubMed

    Goldenbeld, C; Houtenbos, M; Ehlers, E; De Waard, D

    2012-02-01

    In the Netherlands, a survey was set up to monitor the extent of the use of portable, electronic devices while cycling amongst different age groups of cyclists and to estimate the possible consequences for safety. The main research questions concerned age differences in the self-reported use of electronic devices while cycling, self-reported crash involvement and risk, and self-reported compensatory behaviour. Teen cyclists (12-17 years) and young adult cyclists (18-34 years) were more frequent users, and also more indiscriminate users of portable devices while cycling than middle-aged and older adult cyclists (35-49 years; 50+ years). After statistical correction for influences on crash risk of urbanization level, weekly time spent cycling, and cycling in more demanding traffic situations, the odds of being involved in a bicycle crash were estimated to be higher for teen cyclists and young adult cyclists who used electronic devices on every trip compared to same age groups cyclists who never used these devices. For middle-aged and older adult cyclists, the use of portable electronic devices was not a significant predictor of bicycle crashes, but frequency of cycling in demanding traffic situations was. Possible implications for education or legal measures are discussed. Results may inform researchers, policy makers, and cyclists themselves. Educational campaigns may use risk information to warn young cyclists about risk of device use while cycling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PREVENTIVE TRAINING PROGRAMME FOR PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE CORONARY EVENT-- CORRELATION BETWEEN SELECTED PARAMETERS AND AGE GROUPS.

    PubMed

    Vysoký, Robert; Fiala, Jindřich; Dosbaba, Filip; Bat'alik, Ladislav; Nehyba, Svatopluk; Ludka, Ondřej

    2015-09-01

    Interventional cardiovascular training programmes provide a prescription of optimal form and safe intensity. They are part of the second phase of cardiovascular rehabilitation which is a key point in the whole tertiary-preventive care for patients with coronary artery disease. The patients are hemodynamically adapted to a normal physical load, their aerobic capacity is gradually increased, and they learn principles of regular aerobic-resistance exercise. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of modified aerobic-resistance exercise on cardiorespiratory indicators in patients after acute coronary event, and evaluate the differences between monitored parameters in different age groups. The study was conducted on a group of 106 patients (85% of men) of an average age of 60.4 ± 10.9 years, with left ventricular ejec- tion fraction of 57.4 ± 7.2%. All subjects went through an acute coronary event. The time elapsed between the occurence of a coronary event and the beginning of the training programme was 35 ± 8 days. In patients after coronary artery bypass grafting, the time passed was 50 ± 16 days on average. All patients received a two-month aerobic-resistance training with a frequency of three times a week. The length of a training unit was set to 100 minutes (out of which 60 minutes were allocated to individual aerobic training). A significant negative correlation between age and average values of monitored parameters was observed. Even though the values of all parameters are decreasing with increasing age, a shift towards higher values in all parameters occurred after completing the training programme. The study reveals that there are interindividual differences between the parameter values. Asignificant difference in individual parameters was found between different age groups. The result of the study shows that a given parameter could characterize each age group. Completing the interventional training programme also led to a significant increase of

  1. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  2. Consumption of Cisatracurium in different age groups, using a closed loop computer controlled system.

    PubMed

    Joomye, Shehzaad; Yan, Donglai; Wang, Haiyun; Zhou, Guoqiang; Wang, Guolin

    2014-01-01

    We devised this study to quantify the effect of age on the consumption of cisatracurium under general anaesthesia, using a computer controlled closed loop infusion system. We further investigated this effect on, sufentanil and propofol consumption. 74 patients of physical status I and II, requiring general anaesthesia for elective abdominal surgery, were assigned to three groups. Patients in group 1 were aged from 20 to 45, group 2 were from 46 to 64, and group 3 above 65 years old. General Anesthesia was maintained with propofol and muscle paralysis was maintained using a closed-loop computer controlled infusion of cisatracurium. For analgesia, intermittent bolus of sufentanil 10 μg was given. Cisatracurium consumption in group 1, 2 and 3 were 1.8 ± 0.3, 1.6 ± 0.4 and 1.3 ± 0.4 μg/kg/min respectively. There was significant difference of cisatracurium consumption between group 1 and 3 (P = 0.002), and the consumption of cisatracurium in group 3 was less as compared with group 2 (P = 0.04). The average recovery index of patients in group 1, 2 and 3 were 8.8 ± 2.6, 11.5 ± 2.9 and 12.7 ± 2.5 minutes respectively. There were difference between group 1 and 2 (P = 0.02). As compared with group 1, the recovery index was still longer in group 3 (P = 0.001). Patients in group 1, 2 and 3 consumed an average sufentanil 0.4 ± 0.1, 0.4 ± 0.1 and 0.3 ± 0.1 μg/kg/hr, respectively. There were statistical significant between group 1 and 3 (P < 0.0001), and the same trend was found between group 2 and 3 (P = 0.03). The Consumption of propofol in group 1, 2 and 3 were 5.1 ± 0.4, 4.3 ± 0.6 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mg/kg/hr. The difference in the propofol consumption was found statistically significant when comparing between any two groups. We concluded that the sensitivity of anesthetic agents increased with age. Less medication was required to achieve a desirable effect in older patients specially those

  3. Correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and chronological age in a group of Iranian females

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients. PMID:26604958

  4. Group A Streptococcal Carriage and Seroepidemiology in Children up to 10 Years of Age in Australia.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Helen S; Richmond, Peter; Nissen, Michael; Lambert, Stephen; Booy, Robert; Reynolds, Graham; Sebastian, Shite; Pride, Michael; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Scully, Ingrid L

    2015-08-01

    Group A streptococci (GAS) and other β-hemolytic streptococci (BHS) cause pharyngitis, severe invasive disease and serious nonsuppurative sequelae including rheumatic heart disease and post streptococcal glomerulonephritis. The aim of this study was to assess carriage rates and anti-streptococcal C5a peptidase (anti-SCP) IgG levels and identify epidemiologic factors related to carriage or seropositivity in Australian children. A throat swab and blood sample were collected for microbiological and serological analysis (anti-SCP IgG) in 542 healthy children aged 0-10 years. Sequence analysis of the SCP gene was performed. Serological analysis used a competitive Luminex Immunoassay designed to preferentially detect functional antibody. GAS-positive culture prevalence in throat swabs was 5.0% (range 0-10%), with the highest rate in 5 and 9 years old children. The rate of non-GAS BHS carriage was low (<1%). The scp gene was present in all 22 isolates evaluated. As age of child increased, the rate of carriage increased; odds ratio, 1.14 (1.00, 1.29); P = 0.50. Geometric mean anti-SCP titers increased with each age-band from 2 to 7 years, then plateaued. Age, geographic location and number of children within the household were significantly associated with the presence of anti-SCP antibodies. Children are exposed to GAS and other BHS at a young age, which is important for determining the target age for vaccination to protect before the period of risk.

  5. Evaluation of cardiac function in a group of small for gestational age school-age children treated with growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Aurensanz Clemente, Esther; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Ruiz Frontera, Pablo; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2017-02-09

    Small for gestational age (SGA) patients have an increased risk of developing a cardiovascular pathology, as well as a metabolic syndrome. Our objective is to evaluate the cardiac morphology and function of SGA children treated with growth hormone (GH), identifying changes that could potentially have long-term consequences. We selected 23 SGA school-age patients and 23 healthy children. We measured their weight, height, blood pressure and heart rate. Using transthoracic echocardiography, we evaluated cardiac chamber size, ascending and abdominal aortic diameter as well as the systolic and diastolic function of both ventricles. SGA children have a higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P<.05) without significant changes in their heart rate. They also have a thicker interventricular septum (SGA Z-score 1.57 vs. 0.89; P=.026) and a worse right ventricular systolic function, with a lower TAPSE (SGA Z-score -0.98 vs. 0.95; P=.000), as well as a lower blood flow rate in the pulmonary artery (SGA 0.85m/s vs. 0.97m/s; P=.045). No significant difference was observed in the patients' left ventricular function. SGA patients' ascending aortic diameter was greater (SGA Z-score -1.09 vs. -1.93; P=.026), whereas the systolic abdominal aortic diameter was smaller (SGA Z-score-0.89 vs. -0.19; P=.015). We found functional and morphological cardiac changes in SGA school-age patients treated with GH. It is important to follow-up this patient group in order to determine if these changes contribute to an increased cardiac morbidity in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Cochlear implantees: Analysis of behavioral and objective measures for a clinical population of various age groups.

    PubMed

    Greisiger, Ralf; Shallop, Jon K; Hol, Per Kristian; Elle, Ole Jakob; Jablonski, Greg Eigner

    2015-01-01

    As of 2014 more than 1200 patients have received a cochlear implant (CI) at Oslo University Hospital (OUS) and approximately half of them have been children. The data obtained from these patients have been used to develop a comprehensive database for a systematic analysis of several objective measurements and programming measurements. During the past 10 years, we have used an objective measurements protocol for our CI surgeries. Our intra-operative protocol includes: Evoked Compound Action Potentials (ECAP), visually observed Electrically evoked Stapedius Reflex Threshold (ESRT), and electrode impedances. Post-operative (Post-OP) programming sessions typically begin 4-6 weeks after surgery and continue on a scheduled basis. The initial programming data include threshold levels (T-levels) and comfortable levels (C-levels) for the different patient age groups. In this study, we compared initial stimulation levels and stimulation levels after at least 1 year of CI with objective measurements obtained intra-operatively. This study focused on the development of a comprehensive database of detailed intra-operative objective measures and post-OP programming measurements from a group of 296 CI patients who received the same type of CI and electrode configuration (Cochlear Corporation CI with Contour electrode). This group included 92 bilateral CI patients. Measurements from 388 CI devices were studied. Patients were divided into 5 different age groups at the age of implantation: 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-20, and above 20 years in order to investigate age-related differences in programming levels and objective measurements. For the comparison analysis we used T- and C-levels obtained after the last day of initial programming and also after at least 1 year implant use. These programming levels were then correlated with some of the intra-operative objective measurements. T-levels were found to be the lowest for the youngest patient group and increased with age. C-levels varied

  7. Global stability of a multi-group model with vaccination age, distributed delay and random perturbation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinhu; Zhou, Yicang

    2015-10-01

    A multi-group epidemic model with distributed delay and vaccination age has been formulated and studied. Mathematical analysis shows that the global dynamics of the model is determined by the basic reproduction number R0: the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if R0 ≤ 1, and the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if R0 > 1. Lyapunov functionals are constructed by the non-negative matrix theory and a novel grouping technique to establish the global stability. The stochastic perturbation of the model is studied and it is proved that the endemic equilibrium of the stochastic model is stochastically asymptotically stable in the large under certain conditions.

  8. Are vocabulary tests measurement invariant between age groups? An item response analysis of three popular tests.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mark C; Berry, Jane M; Freeman, Sara P

    2014-12-01

    Relatively high vocabulary scores of older adults are generally interpreted as evidence that older adults possess more of a common ability than younger adults. Yet, this interpretation rests on empirical assumptions about the uniformity of item-response functions between groups. In this article, we test item response models of differential responding against datasets containing younger-, middle-aged-, and older-adult responses to three popular vocabulary tests (the Shipley, Ekstrom, and WAIS-R) to determine whether members of different age groups who achieve the same scores have the same probability of responding in the same categories (e.g., correct vs. incorrect) under the same conditions. Contrary to the null hypothesis of measurement invariance, datasets for all three tests exhibit substantial differential responding. Members of different age groups who achieve the same overall scores exhibit differing response probabilities in relation to the same items (differential item functioning) and appear to approach the tests in qualitatively different ways that generalize across items. Specifically, younger adults are more likely than older adults to leave items unanswered for partial credit on the Ekstrom, and to produce 2-point definitions on the WAIS-R. Yet, older adults score higher than younger adults, consistent with most reports of vocabulary outcomes in the cognitive aging literature. In light of these findings, the most generalizable conclusion to be drawn from the cognitive aging literature on vocabulary tests is simply that older adults tend to score higher than younger adults, and not that older adults possess more of a common ability.

  9. Attitudes toward mental health services: Age-group differences in Korean American adults

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A.; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the attitudes toward mental health services held by younger (aged 20–45, n = 209) and older (aged 60 and older, n = 462) groups of Korean Americans. Following Andersen’s (1968; A behavioral model of families’ use of health service, Center for Health Administration Studies) behavioral health model, predisposing (age, gender, marital status and education), need (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and enabling (acculturation, health insurance coverage and personal experience and beliefs) variables were considered. In the mean-level assessment, younger and older adults were found to hold a similar level of positive attitudes toward mental health services. In the multivariate analysis, culture-influenced beliefs were shown to have a substantial contribution to the model of attitudes toward mental health services in both age groups. The belief that depression is a medical condition was found to be a common predictor of positive attitudes across the groups. In the older adult sample, more negative attitudes were observed among those who believed that depression is a sign of personal weakness and that having a mentally ill family member brings shame to the whole family. Our findings show that older adults are not only more subject to cultural misconceptions and stigma related to mental disorders, but also their attitudes toward service use are negatively influenced by the cultural stigma. The findings provide important implications for interventions targeted to improve access to mental health care among minority populations. Based on the similarities and differences found between young and old, both general and age-specific strategies need to be developed in order to increase effectiveness of these programs. PMID:19197698

  10. Cytokine production by the tumor from patients with breast cancer in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Kunts, T A; Mikhaylova, E S; Marinkin, I O; Varaksin, N A; Autenshlyus, A I; Lyakhovich, V V

    2017-07-01

    Dependence of cytokine pattern in the tumor supernatant obtained after cultivation of biopsy samples-on the patients' age was evaluated among patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. An increase in VEGF and IL-6 production in a group of younger patients was observed. An increase only in interferon γ concentration was revealed in the supernatants of the tumor after addition of polyclonal activators to the culture medium. This result indicates likely secretion of interferon γ in younger patients. The relation among the production of angiogenic factors by tumor cells, age of the patients, and presence or absence of lymph node metastases shows that in such studies, patients have to be stratified by age.

  11. Group-based differences in anti-aging bias among medical students.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jorge G; Andrade, Allen D; Anam, Ramanakumar; Taldone, Sabrina; Karanam, Chandana; Hogue, Christie; Mintzer, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Medical students (MS) may develop ageist attitudes early in their training that may predict their future avoidance of caring for the elderly. This study sought to determine MS' patterns of explicit and implicit anti-aging bias, intent to practice with older people and using the quad model, the role of gender, race, and motivation-based differences. One hundred and three MS completed an online survey that included explicit and implicit measures. Explicit measures revealed a moderately positive perception of older people. Female medical students and those high in internal motivation showed lower anti-aging bias, and both were more likely to intend to practice with older people. Although the implicit measure revealed more negativity toward the elderly than the explicit measures, there were no group differences. However, using the quad model the authors identified gender, race, and motivation-based differences in controlled and automatic processes involved in anti-aging bias.

  12. Federalism and aging policy in the 1980s: implications for changing interest group roles in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Liebig, P S

    1992-01-01

    Shifts in the American political landscape during the 1980s had impacts on aging policy and on the behavior of aging interest groups through that decade. But perhaps even more important are the likely effects of those changes on aging policy and on the roles of age-related groups in the 1990s--and probably beyond. First, some of the major policy trends of the 1980s are sketched out, especially the renewed emphasis on federalism. Then, an assessment of their effects on aging policy and aging interest groups is provided. Next, a rationale for focusing on state-level policy and a discussion of current aging interest-group mobilization at the state level are presented. Last, the prospects for aging interest-group influence in the 1990s--a period in which the prior decade's emphasis on dual federalism is likely to continue--is addressed.

  13. Posterior scleritis in pediatric age group: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Radha; Suryawanshi, Milind; Isaac, Roshini; Philip, Santhosh K.

    2016-01-01

    Posterior scleritis is rare in both the adult and pediatric age groups. Increased awareness and availability of advanced diagnostic facilities aid in early diagnosis and management. Visual recovery is possible with systemic steroids and immunosuppression. We report the case of a 12-year-old male child who presented with poor vision in his right eye and was found to have retinal striae and disc edema due to posterior scleritis. PMID:27013832

  14. [Current model of breakfast for different age groups: children, a adolescents and adults].

    PubMed

    Núñez, C; Cuadrado, C; Carbajal, A; Moreiras, O

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to assess the current breakfast model in different age groups: children between the ages of 6 and 12 years (n = 54); adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 years (n = 174); and adults, older than 18 years of age (n = 252). For this a questionnaire has been designed that follows the standards of that used for a similar study by our team in 1984 on a sample of 1350 individuals. The modified and amplified questionnaire included open and closed questions about: the omission of breakfast and its causes, foods that are a part of breakfast, the most frequent types and the variations, the role of the second breakfast, the number of fasting hours since dinner, the time spent of breakfast, and the subjective opinion regarding the importance or not of having breakfast. 98.95% answer yes to the question do you have breakfast, but only 9% eats a nutritionally correct breakfast, one defined as that breakfast that supplies 20% of the total energy and includes foods from at least four different groups. All the children included some form of milk product in their breakfast. The adolescents consumed the lowest proportion of cereals (19.4%) and the highest proportion of pastries (24.2%). The percentage of adults who drink coffee with milk (57%) and sugar (37.7%) is significantly higher than that it the other two groups. Bread (37.7%), pastries (28.3%) and cookies (26.1%) are the solid foods eaten most by the adults. The children spend the longest time on breakfast. 35.9% of the sample varies their breakfast, 43.1% never does, and 21% does so sometimes. The average time elapsed between dinner and breakfast is 10.5 +/- 1.2 hours. It is advisable to have a more nutritionally balanced breakfast, including different foods from at least four groups, and including a greater variety in the menus.

  15. Age and group residence but not maternal dominance affect dominance rank in young domestic horses.

    PubMed

    Komárková, M; Bartošová, J; Dubcová, J

    2014-11-01

    We present a study focused on those factors influencing dominance position in young horses, with emphasis on the role of the mother. Horses, as other group-living polygynous mammals, form stable linear dominance hierarchies based on agonistic interactions. Higher dominance positions are believed to be connected, in both sexes, to better condition and higher reproductive success. Many variables play a role in forming the dominant-submissive relationships between horses; however, the maternal effect on the dominance position of the offspring still remains unclear, as do the possible mechanisms of transference ("inheritance"). We hypothesized that the maternal dominance position, plus differences in suckling parameters or maternal style, may be responsible for later outcome of the offspring's dominance position, characterized by 2 variables: index of fighting success (CB); and rate of winning encounters (RW). Our study animals were 8 groups of Kladruby horses, loose-housed lactating mares with foals (n = 66 mare-foal pairs); and subsequently 4 groups of the same foals at 3 yr of age. Our results revealed the impact of age on the dominance position of the young horses (P < 0.001 for CB, and P < 0.01 for RW), and residence in the group (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively); not the maternal dominance position. Older foals reached higher dominance positions, independent of the dominance position, age, or experience of the mother; therefore, we did not find support for direct inheritance of maternal rank. Nevertheless, the foals born to the same mare in 2 consecutive seasons (n = 16 mares) revealed fair repeatability in the dominance position they obtained at 3 yr of age (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.46). This suggests an important constant effect of the mother on the social success of her progeny; however, we did not find a significant effect of any of the tested variables describing maternal characteristics or maternal care. Dominance position depended

  16. Cognitive-affective symptoms of depression after myocardial infarction: different prognostic importance across age groups.

    PubMed

    Denollet, Johan; Freedland, Kenneth E; Carney, Robert M; de Jonge, Peter; Roest, Annelieke M

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive-affective symptoms of depression may not be as strongly related to prognosis after myocardial infarction (MI) as somatic depressive symptoms. Because it is not known whether this pattern of results is influenced by the age at which patients are diagnosed as having MI, we examined whether the importance of these symptoms is age dependent in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease study. Patients with depression after MI (n = 1823) in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease study were stratified into the following age groups: younger than 70 years (mean [standard deviation] = 55 [9.0] years) and 70 years or older (mean [standard deviation] = 76 [4.9] years). Measurements included demographic and clinical data and the Beck Depression Inventory. The end point was a composite of recurrent MI and mortality during a mean follow-up of 2.1 years. Patients 70 years or older had more severe manifestations of cardiac disease and somatic comorbidities than did patients younger than 70 years (p < .001). During follow-up, 456 patients died or had a recurrent MI. In patients 70 years or older, increasing age, disease severity, and comorbidities--but not depressive symptoms--independently predicted prognosis. In contrast, cognitive-affective symptoms of depression predicted death/MI in patients younger than 70 years (hazard ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.04, p = .011), after adjustment for disease severity and comorbidities. Somatic symptoms largely explained the link between cognitive-affective symptoms and adverse events, with the exception of hopelessness (hazard ratio = 1.47, 95% confidence interval = 1.11-1.95, p = .007), suggesting that somatic depressive symptoms accurately reflect the depressed mood state in this age group. Somatic symptoms and hopelessness independently predicted death/MI in MI patients younger than 70 years. Research needs to reexamine the modulating effect of age in studies on somatic and cognitive

  17. Perceived needs for mental health care and barriers to treatment across age groups.

    PubMed

    Forbes, M K; Crome, E; Sunderland, M; Wuthrich, V M

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to assess responses to a structured measure of perceived need for treatment to understand whether differences in treatment uptake across age groups are related to differences in: (1) perceived need for mental health care; (2) perceptions of treatment needs being met; and/or (3) perceived attitudinal and structural treatment barriers. Data from a nationally representative sample of the Australian population (2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing) were analysed using logistic and multinomial regression. All participants potentially benefiting from mental health services were included in analyses; including those reporting symptoms of mental disorders, using mental health services, or self-reporting significant mental health problems in the past 12 months (n = 5733). All regression analyses were adjusted for gender, the presence of chronic physical health conditions, disorder type, and disorder severity. Older adults were the least likely to report any perceived need for mental health care, and specifically reported lower needs for psychotherapy, information about available services, and support improving their ability to work. Older adults perceiving a need for mental health care were also the most likely to report having these needs met. There were no differences in attitudinal and structural barriers to treatment across age groups. These results highlight that age needs to be considered in strategies for improving engagement and efficacy of mental health services, as well as the need for further research to understand what drives age differences in perceived need for mental health care.

  18. Phylogeny and age of diversification of the planitibia species group of the Hawaiian Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Bonacum, James; O'Grady, Patrick M; Kambysellis, Michael; Desalle, Rob

    2005-10-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophila offer a unique opportunity to examine evolutionary questions because of the known ages of the Hawaiian Islands and the large number of species endemic to this archipelago. One of the more well studied groups of Hawaiian Drosophila is the planitibia species group, a long-standing population genetic model system. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis of all 17 taxa in the planitibia group based on nucleotide sequences from two mitochondrial (16S and COII) and four nuclear (Adh, Gpdh, Yp1, and Yp2) loci, accounting for over 4kb of sequence per taxon. We use these data to estimate major divergence times within this group. Our results suggest that the basal diversification within this group, calculated at 6.1 +/- 0.47 MY, predates the oldest high island of Kauai. The older diversifications in this group took place on Kauai, with subsequent colonization and speciation events occurring as new islands became available to Drosophila. Understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of this important group will place the existing population genetic work in a macroevolutionary context and stimulate additional work, particularly on those taxa endemic to the Maui Nui complex of islands.

  19. Effects of Dry-Land Strength and Conditioning Programs in Age Group Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Amaro, Nuno M; Marinho, Daniel A; Marques, Mário C; Batalha, Nuno P; Morouço, Pedro G

    2017-09-01

    Amaro, NM, Marinho, DA, Marques, MC, Batalha, N, and Morouço, PG. Effects of dry-land strength and conditioning programs in age group swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2447-2454, 2017-Even though dry-land S&C training is a common practice in the context of swimming, there are countless uncertainties over its effects in performance of age group swimmers. The objective was to investigate the effects of dry-land S&C programs in swimming performance of age group swimmers. A total of 21 male competitive swimmers (12.7 ± 0.7 years) were randomly assigned to the Control group (n = 7) and experimental groups GR1 and GR2 (n = 7 for each group). Control group performed a 10-week training period of swim training alone, GR1 followed a 6-week dry-land S&C program based on sets and repetitions plus a 4-week swim training program alone and GR2 followed a 6-week dry-land S&C program focused on explosiveness, plus a 4-week program of swim training alone. Results for the dry-land tests showed a time effect between week 0 and week 6 for vertical jump (p < 0.01) in both experimental groups, and for the GR2 ball throwing (p < 0.01), with moderate to strong effect sizes. The time × group analyses showed that for performance in 50 m, differences were significant, with the GR2 presenting higher improvements than their counterparts (F = 4.156; p = 0.007; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.316) at week 10. Concluding, the results suggest that 6 weeks of a complementary dry-land S&C training may lead to improvements in dry-land strength. Furthermore, a 4-week adaptation period was mandatory to achieve beneficial transfer for aquatic performance. Additional benefits may occur if coaches plan the dry-land S&C training focusing on explosiveness.

  20. Age, Tumor Characteristics, and Treatment Regimen as Event Predictors in Ewing: A Children's Oncology Group Report

    PubMed Central

    Marina, Neyssa; Granowetter, Linda; Grier, Holcombe E.; Womer, Richard B.; Randall, R. Lor; Marcus, Karen J.; McIlvaine, Elizabeth; Krailo, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To associate baseline patient characteristics and relapse across consecutive COG studies. Methods. We analyzed risk factors for LESFT patients in three randomized COG trials. We evaluated age at enrollment, primary site, gender, tumor size, and treatment (as randomized). We estimated event-free survival (EFS, Kaplan-Meier) and compared risk across groups (log-rank test). Characteristics were assessed by proportional hazards regression with the characteristic of interest as the only component. Confidence intervals (CI) for RR were derived. Factors related to outcome at level 0.05 were included in a multivariate regression model. Results. Between 12/1988 and 8/2005, 1444 patients were enrolled and data current to 2001, 2004, or 2008 were used. Patients were with a median age of 12 years (0–45), 55% male and 88% Caucasian. The 5-year EFS was 68.3% ± 1.3%. In univariate analysis age, treatment, and tumor location were identified for inclusion in the multivariate model, and all remained significant (p < 0.01). Since tumor size was not collected in the last study, the other two were reanalyzed. This model identified age, treatment, tumor location, and tumor size as significant predictors. Conclusion. Age > 18 years, pelvic tumor, size > 8 cms, and chemotherapy without ifosfamide/etoposide significantly predict worse outcome. AEWS0031 is NCT00006734, INT0091 and INT0054 designed before 1993 (unregistered). PMID:26508901

  1. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  2. How Accurate is Orthoptic Examination at Age One?: The Early vs. Late Strabismus Surgery Study Group.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    The Early vs. Late Strabismus Surgery Study Group is a group of strabismologists and orthoptists who wish to investigate whether early or late surgery is better in cases of infantile strabismus, in a controlled, multicentre, matched-pair trial: All infants will receive a standardized entry examination at age one and then be operated either before their second birthday in clinics A, or between the 32nd and 60th month of age in clinics B. The children will be evaluated at age six. After completion of the study, one child will be selected from each group, to form a pair of children with the same entry examination, who were operated early or late. Successive pairs will be generated so that finally two smaller groups with the same entry examinations are formed. These two groups can then be compared regarding degree of binocular vision, angle of squint and visual acuity of the worse eye. It was decided to perform first a pilot-study of the examination of infants age nine to 15 months, because we wanted to know to what degree of accuracy infants age one can be examined and what parts of the examination can be carried out most reliably and can therefore be used as parameters to match the pairs in the main study. 190 Children were each examined by three examiners on one day, according to a standardized examination sheet, and differences were quantified. We found that the angle of squint could be measured with reasonable precision: The largest difference between any two of the three measured angles averaged at 6.5″. The angle did not increase when the infant was examined a second or third time. Variability of the angle, vertical divergence and up-/downshoot-in-adduction could not be assessed reliably. On the other hand, restriction of abduction (in a 4-class scale) could be measured with adequate precision: in 58% there were no differences at all between the three examinations. The degree of amblyopia could be well assessed by observing the fixation pattern by means of

  3. Effect of Training on Physiological and Biochemical Variables of Soccer Players of Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Indranil; Khanna, Gulshan Lal; Chandra Dhara, Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To find out the effect of training on selected physiological and biochemical variables of Indian soccer players of different age groups. Methods A total of 120 soccer players volunteered for the study, were divided (n = 30) into 4 groups: (i) under 16 years (U16), (ii) under 19 years (U19), (iii) under 23 years (U23), (iv) senior (SR). The training sessions were divided into 2 phases (a) Preparatory Phase (PP, 8 weeks) and (b) Competitive Phase (CP, 4 weeks). The training program consisted of aerobic, anaerobic and skill development, and were completed 4 hrs/day; 5 days/week. Selected physiological and biochemical variables were measured at zero level (baseline data, BD) and at the end of PP and CP. Results A significant increase (P < 0.05) in lean body mass (LBM), VO2max, anaerobic power, grip and back strength, urea, uric acid and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C); and a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in body fat, hemoglobin (Hb), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected in some groups in PP and CP phases of the training when compare to BD. However, no significant change was found in body mass and maximal heart rate of the players after the training program. Conclusion This study would provide useful information for training and selection of soccer players of different age groups. PMID:22375187

  4. Tablet Apps and Dexterity: Comparison Between 3 Age Groups and Proof of Concept for Stroke Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kizony, Rachel; Zeilig, Gabi; Dudkiewicz, Israel; Schejter-Margalit, Tamara; Rand, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Touch screen tablet technology might be suitable for self-training of impaired dexterity poststroke. We compared performance of app-based hand activities in individuals without a disability from 3-age groups, and assessed the feasibility of using tablet apps in individuals with stroke. Experiment I included 172 Individuals without a disability: 79 young adults (26.2 [3.9] years old), 61 middle-aged adults (55.9 [5.1] years old), and 32 older adults (68.7 [3.0] years old). Experiment II included 20 individuals with stroke, aged 59.3 ± 13.7 years with impairment of the upper extremity. All participants performed the app-based "Tap-it" (tapping) task twice and the Nine Hole Peg Test. The stroke group practiced with additional apps and underwent clinical assessments. Significant differences in the tapping task performance were found between the 3 age groups (dominant hand time: F(2,169) = 30.57; P = 0.0001; and accuracy F(2,169) = 25.20; P = 0.0001; nondominant hand time: F(2,169) = 35.09; P = 0.0001; and accuracy F(2,169) = 19.62; P = 0.0001). Of the 20 individuals with stroke, 15 were able to complete the 2 trials of the tapping task, but all participants reported enjoying the experience and thought the apps may have potential for stroke rehabilitation to improve performance of the stroke-affected hand. Performance of tablet app-based hand activities was affected by impaired hand dexterity in older participants without a disability and in participants with stroke. Tablet apps may potentially provide a way to facilitate self-training of repetitive, task-oriented, isolated finger and hand movements to improve hand dexterity and function after stroke.Video abstract available for additional insights from the authors (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A118).

  5. Utility of Microbiological Profile of Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge in Rural Women of Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Results: Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Conclusion: Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae. PMID:25954668

  6. Repeated sprint and change-of-direction abilities in soccer players: effects of age group.

    PubMed

    Dellal, Alexandre; Wong, Del P

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the performance in repeated sprint ability (RSA) and repeated changes-of-direction (RCOD) among elite soccer players with different age categories. Forty-nine elite soccer players from the same club and from different age categories (Pro2: n = 8, U19: n = 18, U17: n = 13, and U15: n = 10) participated in this study. Each player was tested in both a RSA straight-line sprints (10 × 20 m with active recovery) and a RCOD test including four 100° COD at every 4 m (10 × 20 m with active recovery). The average time (AT), fastest time (FT), total time (TT), percentage of decrement score (%Dec), and RSA/RCOD index were recorded and calculated during all the RSA and RCOD tests. Results showed significant age group effects on RSA and RCOD parameters (p < 0.01) and RSA/RCOD index parameters (p < 0.01). Compared with other groups, U15 has significant (p < 0.05) higher values in RSA-AT, RSA-FT, RSA-TT, RCOD-AT, RCOD-FT, RCOD-TT, index-AT, index-FT, and index-TT. However, the trend of performance time and RSA/RCOD index was always similar (i.e., U15 > U17 > U19 > Pro2; Pro2 > U19 > U17 > U15) showing an age dependant for RSA and RCOD performance. The %Dec in RSA of U15 and U17 was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than U19 and Pro2, whereas the %Dec in RCOD of U15 was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than U19. In conclusion, the present study showed that the RSA and RCOD are age dependent, and therefore, coaches should plan a specific program differentiating the RSA and RCOD, while the individualized training could begin in U17.

  7. Patterns of Adverse Drug Reactions in Different Age Groups: Analysis of Spontaneous Reports by Community Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yun Mi; Shin, Wan Gyoon; Lee, Ju-Yeun; Choi, Soo An; Jo, Yun Hee; Youn, So Jung; Lee, Mo Se; Choi, Kwang Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) spontaneously reported by community pharmacists and to compare the ADRs by age. Methods ADRs reported to the Regional Pharmacovigilance Center of the Korean Pharmaceutical Association by community pharmacists from January 2013 to June 2014 were included. Causality was assessed using the WHO-Uppsala Monitoring Centre system. The patient population was classified into three age groups. We analyzed 31,398 (74.9%) ADRs from 9,705 patients, identified as having a causal relationship, from a total pool of 41,930 ADRs from 9,873 patients. Median patient age was 58.0 years; 66.9% were female. Results Gastrointestinal system (34.4%), nervous system (14.4%), and psychiatric (12.1%) disorders were the most frequent symptoms. Prevalent causative drugs were those for acid-related disorders (11.4%), anti-inflammatory products (10.5%), analgesics (7.2%), and antibacterials (7.1%). Comparisons by age revealed diarrhea and antibacterials to be most commonly associated with ADRs in children (p < 0.001), whereas dizziness was prevalent in the elderly (p < 0.001). Anaphylactic reaction was the most frequent serious event (19.7%), mainly associated with cephalosporins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Among 612 ADRs caused by nonprescription drugs, the leading symptoms and causative drugs were skin disorders (29.6%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (16.2%), respectively. Conclusions According to the community pharmacist reports, the leading clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with ADRs in outpatients differed among age groups. PMID:26172050

  8. Beyond the "Classic" Nurture Group Model: An Evaluation of Part-Time and Cross-Age Nurture Groups in a Scottish Local Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Karen; Lee, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This study begins to explore ways in which the principles underpinning the traditional "nurture group" model could be altered and age ranges extended while continuing to deliver the proven success of nurture groups in promoting children's social and emotional development. Part-time nurture groups were established in four different primary schools…

  9. Determinants of caregivers' vaccination intention with respect to child age group: a cross-sectional survey in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Shin, Kyung-Ah; Park, Kisoo

    2015-09-24

    This study examined how knowledge, risk perception, health beliefs and multidimensional health locus of control (HLC) were associated with caregivers' intention to vaccinate their child, and how these associations varied across child age groups. South Korea. The cross-sectional survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview among 1017 nationally representative caregivers who had children aged 12 or younger. The outcome variable was caregivers' intention to vaccinate their children. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that risk perception was negatively associated with vaccination intention only among the age group 4-6 (β=-0.127, p<0.05). Perceived benefit was the only significant predictor of the outcome variables for all three age groups. In contrast, perceived barrier was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7-12 (β=-0.104, p<0.05). Internal HLC was positively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7-12 (β=0.151, p<0.001), while chance HLC was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 0-3 (β=-0.121, p<0.05). This study identifies key vaccination intention determinants that are differentially associated with caregivers' children's age groups. To improve vaccination rates, it suggests the need for strategies tailored to children's age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Synchrotron-based XRD from rat bone of different age groups.

    PubMed

    Rao, D V; Gigante, G E; Cesareo, R; Brunetti, A; Schiavon, N; Akatsuka, T; Yuasa, T; Takeda, T

    2017-05-01

    Synchrotron-based XRD spectra from rat bone of different age groups (w, 56 w and 78w), lumber vertebra at early stages of bone formation, Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp) [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] bone fill with varying composition (60% and 70%) and bone cream (35-48%), has been acquired with 15keV synchrotron X-rays. Experiments were performed at Desy, Hamburg, Germany, utilizing the Resonant and Diffraction beamline (P9), with 15keV X-rays (λ=0.82666 A(0)). Diffraction data were quantitatively analyzed using the Rietveld refinement approach, which allowed us to characterize the structure of these samples in their early stages. Hydroxyapatite, received considerable attention in medical and materials sciences, since these materials are the hard tissues, such as bone and teeth. Higher bioactivity of these samples gained reasonable interest for biological application and for bone tissue repair in oral surgery and orthopedics. The results obtained from these samples, such as phase data, crystalline size of the phases, as well as the degree of crystallinity, confirm the apatite family crystallizing in a hexagonal system, space group P63/m with the lattice parameters of a=9.4328Å and c=6.8842Å (JCPDS card #09-0432). Synchrotron-based XRD patterns are relatively sharp and well resolved and can be attributed to the hexagonal crystal form of hydroxyapatite. All the samples were examined with scanning electron microscope at an accelerating voltage of 15kV. The presence of large globules of different sizes is observed, in small age groups of the rat bone (8w) and lumber vertebra (LV), as distinguished from, large age groups (56 and 78w) in all samples with different magnification, reflects an amorphous phase without significant traces of crystalline phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the morphology and crystalline properties of Hap, for all the samples, from 2 to 100μm resolution.

  11. Endoparasite prevalence and recurrence across different age groups of dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Gates, Maureen C; Nolan, Thomas J

    2009-12-03

    The apparent prevalence of endoparasite infections across different age groups was calculated from 6555 dogs and 1566 cats that had a fecal examination performed upon presentation to the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 1997 and 2007. Based on notations from the medical history indicating prior parasite infections, estimates of recurrence were generated for each common group of parasites, including Trichuris, Giardia, ascarids, hookworms, Cystoisospora, and tapeworms. Endoparasitism was predominantly a disease of younger animals, with peak prevalence observed almost uniformly in dogs under 6 months old, with the exception of Trichuris with its longer pre-patent period, and in cats less than 18 months old. Furthermore, nearly 50% of dogs under 6 months old with a history of parasites, were diagnosed with at least one species of parasite on subsequent fecal examination. The percentage dropped to 18.4% in animals aged 1-4 years, but again increased to 31.5% in animals over 10 years old. There was no reported recurrence of Giardia or Cystoisospora from canine or feline patients older than 1 year. The recurrence of whipworm rose steadily with age, while hookworm and roundworm recurrence peaked in patients 1-4 years old. Findings from the study emphasize the importance of follow up fecal examinations and treatments in patients diagnosed with endoparasites.

  12. Domestic central heating radiators: a cause for concern in all age groups.

    PubMed

    Harper, R D; Dickson, W A

    1996-05-01

    A retrospective analysis of all burns admitted to the Welsh Regional Burns and Plastic Surgery Unit, Chepstow, in the period 1 January 1990 to 1 October 1993, highlighted a group of 50 patients who had sustained contact burns from the radiators of domestic central heating systems. There was a male prevalence, with an average age of 43.4 years (range 6 months to 100 years). The mean TBSA burned was 1.58 per cent (range 0.13-6.0 per cent) and half of the injuries were full thickness depth. The forearm and hand were predominantly injured. Although the literature has indicated that the incidence of contact burns peaks at the extremes of the age spectrum, this study has shown that contact radiator burns can be sustained by all age groups. The aim of the audit was to investigate the mechanism of injury and link precipitating factors. The contribution of the high surface temperature of the radiator to the burn injury is alluded to. The various methods available to reduce this risk are discussed and the use of the low surface temperature radiator, already routinely used in health care premises, is advocated.

  13. Schwannoma of Upper Lip: Report of a Rare Case in a Rare Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Hajong, Debobratta; Naku, Narang; Sharma, Girish; Boruah, Manash

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma is a benign, encapsulated perineural tumour originating from the schwann cells of the neural sheath of peripheral motor and sensory nerves. It may develop at any age but is extremely rare in paediatric age group. The tumour is frequently located on the head and neck region, the tongue being the most common site followed by the palate, floor of mouth, buccal mucosa, lips and jaws. Schwannomas rarely occur in the lip area and it is exceedingly rare in the upper lip. The lesion is usually solitary but can be multiple when associated with neurofibromatosis. The diagnosis is usually confirmed after biopsy and anti-S100 protein immuno-histochemical staining is usually used to identify the tumour. In the present study the patient was a 14-year-old young girl with the schwannoma on the upper lip which is probably the third such case in a paediatric age group being reported and was excised without any recurrence at 2 year after excision. PMID:27656503

  14. Pain is prevalent and persisting in cancer survivors: differential factors across age groups.

    PubMed

    Moye, Jennifer; June, Andrea; Martin, Lindsey Ann; Gosian, Jeffrey; Herman, Levi I; Naik, Aanand D

    2014-04-01

    The Institute of Medicine documents a significant gap in care for long term side effects of cancer treatment, including pain. This paper characterizes age differences in the prevalence and predictive characteristics of pain to guide clinicians in identification and treatment. A sample of 170 adults with head and neck, esophageal, gastric, or colorectal cancers were recruited from two regional Veterans Administration Medical Centers. Face to face interviews were conducted 6, 12, and 18 months after diagnosis with the PROMIS scale to assess pain and PHQ-9 scale to assess depression. Descriptive statistics characterized incidence and prevalence of pain impact and intensity ratings. Multivariate linear hierarchical regression identified clinical characteristics associated with pain in older versus younger age groups. Clinically significant pain was endorsed in one third (32%) of the sample, with younger adults reporting higher levels of the impact of pain on daily activities and work, and also higher pain intensity ratings than older adults. In younger adults, pain ratings were most associated with lower social support and higher depression, as well as advanced cancer stage. In older adults, pain was multifactorial, associated with baseline comorbidities, adjuvant treatment, and both combat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Pain is a significant persisting problem for one in three cancer survivors, requiring ongoing assessment, even months later. Important differences in pain's determinants and impact are present by age group. Identification and treatment of pain, as well as associated conditions such as depression, may improve the quality of life in cancer survivors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Morphological, Physiological and Skating Performance Profiles of Male Age-Group Elite Ice Hockey Players.

    PubMed

    Allisse, Maxime; Sercia, Pierre; Comtois, Alain-Steve; Leone, Mario

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of morphological, physiological and skating performance profiles of elite age-group ice hockey players based on repeated measures spread over one season. In addition, the results of fitness tests and training programs performed in off-ice conditions and their relationship with skating performance were analyzed. Eighteen high level age-group ice hockey players (13.1 ± 0.6 years) were assessed off and on-ice at the beginning and at the end of the hockey season. A third evaluation was also conducted at the beginning of the following hockey season. The players were taller, heavier, and showed bone breadths and muscle girths above the reference population of the same age. Muscular variables improved significantly during and between the two hockey seasons (p < 0.05). However, maximal aerobic power improved only during the off-season. All skating performance tests exhibited significant enhancements during the hockey season, but not during the off-season where some degradation was observed. Finally, weak observed variances (generally <20% of the explained variance) between physiological variables measured off-ice and on-ice skating performance tests indicated important gaps, both in the choice of the off-ice assessment tools as well as in training methods conventionally used. The reflection on the best way to assess and train hockey players certainly deserves to be continued.

  16. Endoparasite prevalence and recurrence across different age groups of dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Maureen C.; Nolan, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The apparent prevalence of endoparasite infections across different age groups was calculated from 6,555 dogs and 1,566 cats that had a fecal examination performed upon presentation to the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 1997 and 2007. Based on notations from the medical history indicating prior parasite infections, estimates of recurrence were generated for each common group of parasites, including Trichuris, Giardia, ascarids, hookworms, Cystoisospora, and tapeworms. Endoparasitism was predominantly a disease of younger animals, with peak prevalence observed almost uniformly in dogs under 6 months old, with the exception of Trichuris with its longer pre-patent period, and in cats less than 18 months old. Furthermore, nearly 50% of dogs under 6 months old with a history of parasites, were diagnosed with at least one species of parasite on subsequent fecal examination. The percentage dropped to 18.4% in animals aged 1 – 4 years, but again increased to 31.5% in animals over 10 years old. There was no reported recurrence of Giardia or Cystoisospora from canine or feline patients older than 1 year. The recurrence of whipworm rose steadily with age, while hookworm and roundworm recurrence peaked in patients 1 - 4 years old. Findings from the study emphasize the importance of follow up fecal examinations and treatments in patients diagnosed with endoparasites. PMID:19709815

  17. The age of the Steens reversal and the Columbia River Basalt Group

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarboe, Nicholas A.; Coe, Robert S.; Renne, Paul R.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.

    2010-01-01

    The Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) eruptions have a well-defined relative magnetostratigraphy but have not been definitively correlated to the geomagnetic polarity time scale. 40Ar/39Ar ages are presented from lavas erupted in the R0 through N1magnetozones of the CRBG and in the transition between R0 and N0. Four ages from transitionally magnetized lava flows at Steens Mountain, Catlow Peak, and Poker Jim Ridge with a weighted mean age 16.58 ± 0.10 Ma1 and the more precise age 16.654 ± 0.025 Ma of the normally magnetized Oregon Canyon tuff at the top of the Catlow Peak section show that the oldest CRBG magnetozone (R0) correlates with the C5Cr chron. Bayesian statistical analysis applied to data from four flows at Catlow Peak (using the mean age of the Steens reversal) gives a best and preferred age of the Steens reversal of 16.73 + 0.13/−0.08 Ma (95% confidence). Depending on the geomagnetic polarity time scale model, the eruption rate from N0 through R2 (0.34–0.45 Ma in the middle and the bulk of the CRBG emplacement) averaged 0.30–0.41 km3/a and peaked at a rate 1 1/2 to 4 1/2 times higher during R2.

  18. Social skills groups for people aged 6 to 21 with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

    PubMed

    Reichow, Brian; Steiner, Amanda M; Volkmar, Fred

    2012-07-11

    Since autism was first described, major difficulties in social interaction have been a defining feature of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Social skills groups are a common intervention for individuals with ASD. Although a frequently recommended practice, the few studies that have addressed the efficacy of social skills groups have shown mixed results. To determine the effectiveness of social skills groups for improving social competence, social communication, and quality of life for people with ASD who are six to 21 years of age. We searched the following databases in December 2011: CENTRAL (2011 Issue 4), MEDLINE (1948 to November Week 3, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to Week 50, 2011), PsycINFO (1887 to December Week 2, 2011), CINAHL (1937 to current), ERIC (1966 to current), Sociological Abstracts (1952 to current), OCLC WorldCat (12 December 2011), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to 16 December 2011), and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (20 December 2011). We also searched the reference lists of published papers. Randomized control trials (RCTs) comparing treatment (social skills groups) with a control group who were not receiving the treatment for participants aged six to 21 years with ASD. The control group could be no intervention, wait list, or treatment as usual. Outcomes sought were standardized measures of social competence, social communication, quality of life, emotion recognition, and any other specific behaviors. Two review authors independently selected and appraised studies for inclusion and assessed the risk of bias in each included study. All outcome data were continuous and standardized mean difference effect sizes (ES) with small sample correction were calculated. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis where possible. We included five RCTs evaluating the effects of social skills groups in 196 participants with ASD aged 6 to 21 years old. The results show there is some evidence that social skills groups improve overall

  19. Cochrane review: social skills groups for people aged 6 to 21 with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

    PubMed

    Reichow, Brian; Steiner, Amanda M; Volkmar, Fred

    2013-03-07

    Since autism was first described, major difficulties in social interaction have been a defining feature of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Social skills groups are a common intervention for individuals with ASD. Although a frequently recommended practice, the few studies that have addressed the efficacy of social skills groups have shown mixed results. To determine the effectiveness of social skills groups for improving social competence, social communication, and quality of life for people with ASD who are six to 21 years of age. We searched the following databases in December 2011: CENTRAL (2011 Issue 4), MEDLINE (1948 to November Week 3, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to Week 50, 2011), PsycINFO (1887 to December Week 2, 2011), CINAHL (1937 to current), ERIC (1966 to current), Sociological Abstracts (1952 to current), OCLC WorldCat (12 December 2011), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to 16 December 2011), and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (20 December 2011). We also searched the reference lists of published papers. Randomized control trials (RCTs) comparing treatment (social skills groups) with a control group who were not receiving the treatment for participants aged six to 21 years with ASD. The control group could be no intervention, wait list, or treatment as usual. Outcomes sought were standardized measures of social competence, social communication, quality of life, emotion recognition, and any other specific behaviors. Two review authors independently selected and appraised studies for inclusion and assessed the risk of bias in each included study. All outcome data were continuous and standardized mean difference effect sizes (ES) with small sample correction were calculated. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis where possible. We included five RCTs evaluating the effects of social skills groups in 196 participants with ASD aged 6 to 21 years old. The results show there is some evidence that social skills groups improve overall

  20. Cortisol Responses to a Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents: Variations by Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; McQuillan, Mollie T.; Mirous, Heather J.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N = 191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of 5 adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  1. Cortisol responses to a group public speaking task for adolescents: variations by age, gender, and race.

    PubMed

    Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development.

  2. An analysis of dietary micronutrient intakes in two age groups of black South African women.

    PubMed

    Hattingh, Z; Walsh, C M; Bester, C J; Oguntibeju, O O

    2008-11-01

    To assess micronutrient intake of black women living in Mangaung, South Africa. A sample of 500 pre-menopausal black South African women (496 qualified to participate) from two age groups (25-34 and 35-44 years) were selected randomly in Mangaung, the black residential area of Bloemfontein. A validated Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (QFFQ) was used to determine dietary intake of participants. Data were categorized into the two age groups. Median micronutrient intakes were compared to the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and Adequate Intake (AI). The prevalence of women with intakes < or = 67% of the RDA was calculated. Median calcium and vitamin D intakes were lower than the AI. Of all women, 46.2% to 62.2% consumed < or = 67% of the RDA for total iron, selenium, folate and vitamin C, and more than 94% consumed < or = 67% of the RDA for selenium. At least 25% of all women consumed < or = 67% of the RDA for vitamin A and E. The vitamin B6 intake of older women was inadequate and a fairly large percentage of the total sample consumed < or = 67% of the RDA. Generally, micronutrient intakes were adequate in this population. Attention should be given to those micronutrients where median intakes were < or = 67% of the RDA and those that were not at or above the respective AI in these groups of women.

  3. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children's Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Wiegand, Ryan E; Omedo, Martin; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization recommendations for the timing and target population for mass drug administration (MDA) for schistosomiasis are based on the prevalence of infection in school children within a given community. In a large study comparing MDA approaches for Schistosoma mansoni control, we evaluated whether prevalence of infection and egg burdens in 9- to 12-year-old students reflected infection levels in young children and adults in the same community. Cross-sectional surveys of preadolescents (9-12 years old) were compared with those of first year students (5-8 years old) in 225 villages and adults (20-55 years old) in 150 villages along the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Village schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity levels in preadolescents strongly correlated (P < 0.0001) with prevalence and infection intensity for other age groups in the community. Our findings suggest that S. mansoni prevalence and intensity among 9- to 12-year-olds are valid for community sampling purposes in mapping for MDAs.

  4. Building Bridges for Innovation in Ageing: Synergies between Action Groups of the EIP on AHA.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Bewick, M; Cano, A; Eklund, P; Fico, G; Goswami, N; Guldemond, N A; Henderson, D; Hinkema, M J; Liotta, G; Mair, A; Molloy, W; Monaco, A; Monsonis-Paya, I; Nizinska, A; Papadopoulos, H; Pavlickova, A; Pecorelli, S; Prados-Torres, A; Roller-Wirnsberger, R E; Somekh, D; Vera-Muñoz, C; Visser, F; Farrell, J; Malva, J; Andersen Ranberg, K; Camuzat, T; Carriazo, A M; Crooks, G; Gutter, Z; Iaccarino, G; Manuel de Keenoy, E; Moda, G; Rodriguez-Mañas, L; Vontetsianos, T; Abreu, C; Alonso, J; Alonso-Bouzon, C; Ankri, J; Arredondo, M T; Avolio, F; Bedbrook, A; Białoszewski, A Z; Blain, H; Bourret, R; Cabrera-Umpierrez, M F; Catala, A; O'Caoimh, R; Cesari, M; Chavannes, N H; Correia-da-Sousa, J; Dedeu, T; Ferrando, M; Ferri, M; Fokkens, W J; Garcia-Lizana, F; Guérin, O; Hellings, P W; Haahtela, T; Illario, M; Inzerilli, M C; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Kardas, P; Keil, T; Maggio, M; Mendez-Zorrilla, A; Menditto, E; Mercier, J; Michel, J P; Murray, R; Nogues, M; O'Byrne-Maguire, I; Pappa, D; Parent, A S; Pastorino, M; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Siciliano, P; Teixeira, A M; Tsartara, S I; Valiulis, A; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Wickman, M; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Barbagallo, M; Canonica, G W; Klimek, L; Maggi, S; Aberer, W; Akdis, C; Adcock, I M; Agache, I; Albera, C; Alonso-Trujillo, F; Angel Guarcia, M; Annesi-Maesano, I; Apostolo, J; Arshad, S H; Attalin, V; Avignon, A; Bachert, C; Baroni, I; Bel, E; Benson, M; Bescos, C; Blasi, F; Barbara, C; Bergmann, K C; Bernard, P L; Bonini, S; Bousquet, P J; Branchini, B; Brightling, C E; Bruguière, V; Bunu, C; Bush, A; Caimmi, D P; Calderon, M A; Canovas, G; Cardona, V; Carlsen, K H; Cesario, A; Chkhartishvili, E; Chiron, R; Chivato, T; Chung, K F; d'Angelantonio, M; De Carlo, G; Cholley, D; Chorin, F; Combe, B; Compas, B; Costa, D J; Costa, E; Coste, O; Coupet, A-L; Crepaldi, G; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Demoly, P; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Du Toit, G; Dubakiene, R; Dupeyron, A; Emuzyte, R; Fiocchi, A; Wagner, A; Fletcher, M; Fonseca, J; Fougère, B; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, G; Garcia-Aymeric, J; Garcia-Zapirain, B; Gemicioğlu, B; Gouder, C; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Hermosilla-Gimeno, I; Héve, D; Holland, C; Humbert, M; Hyland, M; Johnston, S L; Just, J; Jutel, M; Kaidashev, I P; Khaitov, M; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keijser, W; Kerstjens, H; Knezović, J; Kowalski, M; Koppelman, G H; Kotska, T; Kovac, M; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lepore, V; MacNee, W; Maggio, M; Magnan, A; Majer, I; Manning, P; Marcucci, M; Marti, T; Masoli, M; Melen, E; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Millot-Keurinck, J; Mlinarić, H; Momas, I; Montefort, S; Morais-Almeida, M; Moreno-Casbas, T; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nadif, R; Nalin, M; Navarro-Pardo, E; Nekam, K; Ninot, G; Paccard, D; Pais, S; Palummeri, E; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N K; Papanikolaou, C; Passalacqua, G; Pastor, E; Perrot, M; Plavec, D; Popov, T A; Postma, D S; Price, D; Raffort, N; Reuzeau, J C; Robine, J M; Rodenas, F; Robusto, F; Roche, N; Romano, A; Romano, V; Rosado-Pinto, J; Roubille, F; Ruiz, F; Ryan, D; Salcedo, T; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Scichilone, N; Siciliano, P; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Sourdet, S; Sousa-Costa, E; Spranger, O; Sooronbaev, T; Sruk, V; Sterk, P J; Todo-Bom, A; Touchon, J; Tramontano, D; Triggiani, M; Tsartara, S I; Valero, A L; Valovirta, E; van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; van den Berge, M; Vandenplas, O; Ventura, M T; Vergara, I; Vezzani, G; Vidal, D; Viegi, G; Wagemann, M; Whalley, B; Wickman, M; Wilson, N; Yiallouros, P K; Žagar, M; Zaidi, A; Zidarn, M; Hoogerwerf, E J; Usero, J; Zuffada, R; Senn, A; de Oliveira-Alves, B

    2017-01-01

    The Strategic Implementation Plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) proposed six Action Groups. After almost three years of activity, many achievements have been obtained through commitments or collaborative work of the Action Groups. However, they have often worked in silos and, consequently, synergies between Action Groups have been proposed to strengthen the triple win of the EIP on AHA. The paper presents the methodology and current status of the Task Force on EIP on AHA synergies. Synergies are in line with the Action Groups' new Renovated Action Plan (2016-2018) to ensure that their future objectives are coherent and fully connected. The outcomes and impact of synergies are using the Monitoring and Assessment Framework for the EIP on AHA (MAFEIP). Eight proposals for synergies have been approved by the Task Force: Five cross-cutting synergies which can be used for all current and future synergies as they consider overarching domains (appropriate polypharmacy, citizen empowerment, teaching and coaching on AHA, deployment of synergies to EU regions, Responsible Research and Innovation), and three cross-cutting synergies focussing on current Action Group activities (falls, frailty, integrated care and chronic respiratory diseases).

  5. The changing national policy system: complexity, Medicare, and implications for aging groups.

    PubMed

    Hill, B S; Hinckley, K A

    1991-01-01

    Changes in congressional processes, health agendas, and competitive positions of physician and hospital groups in the 1980s have produced important setbacks for such group interests within Medicare. Though united and successful in opposing Carter's 1977-79 hospital cost-containment proposals, these groups were subjected to severe new limits on hospital reimbursements under the 1982 budget reconciliation act. Thereafter, problems in protecting their interests continued or increased. Disagreements among hospital groups (e.g., the American Hospital Association and the former Federation of American Hospitals) surfaced over the Prospective Payment System introduced in 1983. In 1984, Congress instituted a freeze on physicians' Medicare fees despite AMA opposition. This projected narrow self-interest, thus decreasing the AMA's credibility. Further cost restrictions were imposed in 1985-86 budget acts. The problems of these organizations indicate that if aging groups are to protect their own stake in Medicare in the new political context, they must be particularly concerned with unity, credibility, and long-term perspectives.

  6. Characterization of Normal Mediolateral Angular Direction of Lower Eyelid Eyelashes in Different Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Procianoy, Fernando; Mendonça, Taís B; Bins, Cristiane A; Lang, Martha P L

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the normal eyelash mediolateral angular direction of the lower eyelid in different age groups. Sixty patients were divided into 3 groups: G1 - 6 to 12 years; G2 - 20 to 35; and G3 - 60 to 85. Digital photographs were obtained and eyelids were divided in lateral, central, and medial portions. Eyelash mediolateral angular direction relative to a baseline was measured and data were compared between portions and groups. The mean eyelash mediolateral angular direction in the medial portion were: G1: 133.79° ± 17.56° SD; G2: 137.74° ± 10.5° SD; and G3: 116.05° ± 26.71° SD. The mean difference in angle between G1 and G3 was 17.74° (p = 0.015) and between G2 and G3 was 21.69° (p = 0.000). The mean eyelash mediolateral angular direction in central portion were: G1: 64.36° ± 12.58° SD; G2: 77.07° ± 12.17° SD; and G3: 84.9° ± 18.48° SD. The mean difference between Group 1 and 2 was 12.71° (p = 0.001) and between Group 1 and 3 was 20.54° (p = 0.000). The mean eyelash mediolateral angular direction in the lateral portion were: Group 1: 40.57° ± 6.78° SD; Group 2: 37.21° ± 5.69° SD; and Group 3: 38.48° ± 8.35° SD. This study identified that lashes in the lateral portion of lower eyelid tend to maintain the same angular position throughout life. On the central and medial portions it tends to approach a 90° angle with age. The authors believe that this modification throughout life may be related to factors, such as involutional horizontal eyelid laxity and orbicular muscle modifications.

  7. Spectrum of aortic valve abnormalities associated with aortic dilation across age groups in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Laura J; Baba, Ridhwan Y; Arai, Andrew E; Bandettini, W Patricia; Rosing, Douglas R; Bakalov, Vladimir; Sachdev, Vandana; Bondy, Carolyn A

    2013-11-01

    Congenital aortic valve fusion is associated with aortic dilation, aneurysm, and rupture in girls and women with Turner syndrome. Our objective was to characterize aortic valve structure in subjects with Turner syndrome and to determine the prevalence of aortic dilation and valve dysfunction associated with different types of aortic valves. The aortic valve and thoracic aorta were characterized by cardiovascular MRI in 208 subjects with Turner syndrome in an institutional review board-approved natural history study. Echocardiography was used to measure peak velocities across the aortic valve and the degree of aortic regurgitation. Four distinct valve morphologies were identified: tricuspid aortic valve, 64% (n=133); partially fused aortic valve, 12% (n=25); bicuspid aortic valve, 23% (n=47); and unicuspid aortic valve, 1% (n=3). Age and body surface area were similar in the 4 valve morphology groups. There was a significant trend, independent of age, toward larger body surface area-indexed ascending aortic diameters with increasing valve fusion. Ascending aortic diameters were (mean±SD) 16.9±3.3, 18.3±3.3, and 19.8±3.9 mm/m(2) (P<0.0001) for tricuspid aortic valve, partially fused aortic valve, and bicuspid aortic valve+unicuspid aortic valve, respectively. Partially fused aortic valve, bicuspid aortic valve, and unicuspid aortic valve were significantly associated with mild aortic regurgitation and elevated peak velocities across the aortic valve. Aortic valve abnormalities in Turner syndrome occur with a spectrum of severity and are associated with aortic root dilation across age groups. Partial fusion of the aortic valve, traditionally regarded as an acquired valve problem, had an equal age distribution and was associated with an increased ascending aortic diameters.

  8. Age Group Comparisons of TENS Response among Individuals with Chronic Axial Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Corey B.; Riley, Joseph L.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Bishop, Mark D.; George, Steven Z.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a highly prevalent and disabling musculoskeletal pain condition among older adults. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is commonly used to treat CLBP, however, TENS response for older adults compared to younger adults is untested. In a dose-response study stratified by age, sixty participants with axial CLBP (20 young, 20 middle-aged, 20 older) received four 20-minute sessions of high frequency, high intensity TENS over a two to three-week period in a laboratory-controlled setting. Experimental measures of pain sensitivity (mechanical pressure pain detection threshold, PPT) and central pain excitability (phasic heat temporal summation, TS; heat aftersensations, AS) were assessed before and after TENS. Episodic or immediate axial CLBP relief was assessed after TENS via measures of resting pain, movement-evoked-pain, and self-reported disability. Cumulative or prolonged axial CLBP relief was assessed by comparing daily pain report across sessions. Independent of age, individuals experienced episodic increase in PPT and reduction in AS following TENS application. Similarly, all groups, on average, experienced episodic axial CLBP relief via improved resting pain, movement-evoked pain, and disability report. Under this design, no cumulative effect was observed as daily pain did not improve for any age group across the four sessions. However, older adults received higher TENS amplitude across all sessions in achieving similar TENS responses to younger adults. These findings suggest that older adults experience similar episodic axial CLBP relief as younger individuals following high frequency, high intensity TENS when higher dosage parameters are used. PMID:26342650

  9. Age Differences and Changes of Coping Behavior in Three Age Groups: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Rott, Christoph; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With increasing age, older adults are more likely to be challenged by an increasing number of physical, functional and social losses. As a result, coping with losses becomes a central theme in very late life. This study investigated age differences and age changes in active behavioral, active cognitive and avoidance coping and related coping to…

  10. Age Differences and Changes of Coping Behavior in Three Age Groups: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Rott, Christoph; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With increasing age, older adults are more likely to be challenged by an increasing number of physical, functional and social losses. As a result, coping with losses becomes a central theme in very late life. This study investigated age differences and age changes in active behavioral, active cognitive and avoidance coping and related coping to…

  11. Trends in birth across high-parity groups by race/ethnicity and maternal age.

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Muktar H.; Salihu, Hamisu M.; Keith, Louis G.; Ehiri, John E.; Islam, M. Aminul; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The changing racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. population along with delayed childbearing suggest that shifts in the demographic composition of gravidas are likely. It is unclear whether trends in the proportion of births to parous women in the United States have changed over the decades by race and ethnicity, reflecting parallel changes in population demographics. METHODS: Singleton deliveries > or = 20 weeks of gestation in the United States from 1989 through 2000 were analyzed using data from the "Natality data files" assembled by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). We classified maternal age into three categories; younger mothers (aged < 30 years), mature mothers (30-39 years) and older mothers (> or = 40 years) and maternal race/ethnicity into three groups: blacks (non-Hispanic), Hispanics and whites (non-Hispanic). We computed birth rates by period of delivery across the entire population and repeated the analysis stratified by age and maternal race. Chi-squared statistics for linear trend were utilized to assess linear trend across three four-year phases: 1989-1992, 1993-1996 and 1997-2000. In estimating the association between race/ethnicity and parity status, the direct method of standardization was employed to adjust for maternal age. RESULTS: Over the study period, the total number of births to blacks and whites diminished consistently (p for trend < 0.001), whereas among Hispanics a progressive increase in the total number of deliveries was evident (p for trend < 0.001). Black and white women experienced a reduction in total deliveries equivalent to 10% and 9.3%, respectively, while Hispanic women showed a substantial increment in total births (25%). Regardless of race or ethnicity, birth rate was associated with increase in maternal age in a dose-effect fashion among the high (5-9 previous live births), very high (10-14 previous live births) and extremely high (> or = 15 previous live births) parity groups (p for trend

  12. Trends in birth across high-parity groups by race/ethnicity and maternal age.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Muktar H; Salihu, Hamisu M; Keith, Louis G; Ehiri, John E; Islam, M Aminul; Jolly, Pauline E

    2005-06-01

    The changing racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. population along with delayed childbearing suggest that shifts in the demographic composition of gravidas are likely. It is unclear whether trends in the proportion of births to parous women in the United States have changed over the decades by race and ethnicity, reflecting parallel changes in population demographics. Singleton deliveries > or = 20 weeks of gestation in the United States from 1989 through 2000 were analyzed using data from the "Natality data files" assembled by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). We classified maternal age into three categories; younger mothers (aged < 30 years), mature mothers (30-39 years) and older mothers (> or = 40 years) and maternal race/ethnicity into three groups: blacks (non-Hispanic), Hispanics and whites (non-Hispanic). We computed birth rates by period of delivery across the entire population and repeated the analysis stratified by age and maternal race. Chi-squared statistics for linear trend were utilized to assess linear trend across three four-year phases: 1989-1992, 1993-1996 and 1997-2000. In estimating the association between race/ethnicity and parity status, the direct method of standardization was employed to adjust for maternal age. Over the study period, the total number of births to blacks and whites diminished consistently (p for trend < 0.001), whereas among Hispanics a progressive increase in the total number of deliveries was evident (p for trend < 0.001). Black and white women experienced a reduction in total deliveries equivalent to 10% and 9.3%, respectively, while Hispanic women showed a substantial increment in total births (25%). Regardless of race or ethnicity, birth rate was associated with increase in maternal age in a dose-effect fashion among the high (5-9 previous live births), very high (10-14 previous live births) and extremely high (> or = 15 previous live births) parity groups (p for trend < 0.001). After maternal age

  13. Pattern of fractures across pediatric age groups: analysis of individual and lifestyle factors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the epidemiology of children's fractures is essential to develop preventive strategies. The aim of this study was to analyze the individual/lifestyle determinants of fractures across pediatric age groups. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in the first six months of 2008 through questionnaire on a sample of children from an outpatient clinic for pediatric fractures. Differences in gender, anatomic site, circumstances and location of fracture occurrence, behavioural lifestyle, and calcium intake were investigated among three different age classes (pre-school children, school children, and adolescents). Results The sample consisted of 382 subjects (2-14 years of age) sustaining a fracture after low or moderate trauma. Males were at a higher risk of fractures than females; greater than two-thirds of injuries occurred after low-energy trauma and the upper limb was more frequently involved. With increasing age, the male/female ratio and time spent in sports participation increased (p < 0.001), while calcium intake and time spent in sedentary behaviors decreased (p < 0.001 and < 0.003, respectively). Gender discordance existed in pre-school children with respect to the anatomic location, and in school children and adolescents with respect to the dynamics. In the adolescent group, males were more physically active and also more sedentary than females. Fractures most frequently occurred in homes (41.6%), followed by playgrounds and footpaths (26.2%), sports facilities (18.3%), and educational facilities (13.9%), with gender differences existing only in adolescence. Twenty-three percent of the subjects sustained one or more fractures in the past. The percentage of recurrent fractures increased with age (p = 0.001), with a similar trend in both genders. Conclusions Gender differences were shown in the prevalence of injuries, characteristics, and circumstances across ages. These differences may be explained by the related changes in

  14. Perceptions of mental workload in Dutch university employees of different ages: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As academic workload seems to be increasing, many studies examined factors that contribute to the mental workload of academics. Age-related differences in work motives and intellectual ability may lead to differences in experienced workload and in the way employees experience work features. This study aims to obtain a better understanding of age differences in sources of mental workload. 33 academics from one faculty discussed causes of workload during focus group interviews, stratified by age. Findings Among our participants, the influence of ageing seems most evident in employees’ actions and reactions, while the causes of workload mentioned seemed largely similar. These individual reactions to workload may also be driven by differences in tenure. Most positively assessed work characteristics were: interaction with colleagues and students and autonomy. Aspects most often indicated as increasing the workload, were organisational aspects as obstacles for ‘getting the best out of people’ and the feeling that overtime seems unavoidable. Many employees indicated to feel stretched between the ‘greediness’ of the organisation and their own high working standards, and many fear to be assigned even less time for research if they do not meet the rigorous output criteria. Moreover, despite great efforts on their part, promotion opportunities seem limited. A more pronounced role for the supervisor seems appreciated by employees of all ages, although the specific interpretation varied between individuals and career stages. Conclusions To preserve good working conditions and quality of work, it seems important to scrutinize the output requirements and tenure-based needs for employee supervision. PMID:23506458

  15. Tracking 10-year competitive winning performance of judo athletes across age groups.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Takito, Monica Y; Mazzei, Leandro; Miarka, Bianca; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-08-01

    Little information is available concerning early specialization and competitive success in judo across the early training years. Thus, the present objective was to verify the stability of individual competitive performance of a state-level championship for judo athletes who had been previously successful. For this, 406 athletes from six age groups (9 to 20+ years old) of each sex were followed for 10 years. Using recorded data from the São Paulo State Judo Federation beginning in 1999, the scores and standings for these judo players were analyzed. The proportion of medal winners during this period was not constant, differing from the grand mean in all groups of both 204 males and 202 females. At the end of this period, only 7% of the male and 5% of the female athletes had maintained their competitive levels. Successful competitive performance in early judo competition was not associated with success later in adulthood.

  16. Effect of Yoga Nidra on physiological variables in patients of menstrual disturbances of reproductive age group.

    PubMed

    Monika; Singh, Uma; Ghildiyal, Archana; Kala, Sarswati; Srivastava, Neena

    2012-01-01

    Aim of this study was to see any effect on autonomic functions in menstrual disturbances patients after Yoga Nidra practice. The subjects for the study were 150 females with menstrual irregularities, 28.08 +/- 7.43 years of mean age, referred from department of Obstetrics and Gynecology CSMMU, UP, Lucknow. Subjects were divided randomly in to two groups' intervention and in control groups -seventy five (75) in each group. Out of these, one hundred twenty six (126) completed the study protocol. The yogic intervention consisted of 35-40 minutes/day, five days in a week till six months. An autonomic function testing was done in both the groups at zero time and after six months. A significant positive effect was observed when yoga therapy was used as an adjunct in the patients of menstrual disturbances. There were significant improvements in the blood pressure, postural hypotension and sustained hand grip, heart rate expiration inspiration ratio and 30:15 beat ratios of the subjects after yogic practice.

  17. What it Takes to Successfully Implement Technology for Aging in Place: Focus Groups With Stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Eveline JM; Luijkx, Katrien G; Vrijhoef, Hubertus JM

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in empowering older adults to age in place by deploying various types of technology (ie, eHealth, ambient assisted living technology, smart home technology, and gerontechnology). However, initiatives aimed at implementing these technologies are complicated by the fact that multiple stakeholder groups are involved. Goals and motives of stakeholders may not always be transparent or aligned, yet research on convergent and divergent positions of stakeholders is scarce. Objective To provide insight into the positions of stakeholder groups involved in the implementation of technology for aging in place by answering the following questions: What kind of technology do stakeholders see as relevant? What do stakeholders aim to achieve by implementing technology? What is needed to achieve successful implementations? Methods Mono-disciplinary focus groups were conducted with participants (n=29) representing five groups of stakeholders: older adults (6/29, 21%), care professionals (7/29, 24%), managers within home care or social work organizations (5/29, 17%), technology designers and suppliers (6/29, 21%), and policy makers (5/29, 17%). Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Stakeholders considered 26 different types of technologies to be relevant for enabling independent living. Only 6 out of 26 (23%) types of technology were mentioned by all stakeholder groups. Care professionals mentioned fewer different types of technology than other groups. All stakeholder groups felt that the implementation of technology for aging in place can be considered a success when (1) older adults’ needs and wishes are prioritized during development and deployment of the technology, (2) the technology is accepted by older adults, (3) the technology provides benefits to older adults, and (4) favorable prerequisites for the use of technology by older adults exist. While stakeholders seemed to have identical aims, several underlying

  18. What it Takes to Successfully Implement Technology for Aging in Place: Focus Groups With Stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Peek, Sebastiaan Theodorus Michaël; Wouters, Eveline J M; Luijkx, Katrien G; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M

    2016-05-03

    There is a growing interest in empowering older adults to age in place by deploying various types of technology (ie, eHealth, ambient assisted living technology, smart home technology, and gerontechnology). However, initiatives aimed at implementing these technologies are complicated by the fact that multiple stakeholder groups are involved. Goals and motives of stakeholders may not always be transparent or aligned, yet research on convergent and divergent positions of stakeholders is scarce. To provide insight into the positions of stakeholder groups involved in the implementation of technology for aging in place by answering the following questions: What kind of technology do stakeholders see as relevant? What do stakeholders aim to achieve by implementing technology? What is needed to achieve successful implementations? Mono-disciplinary focus groups were conducted with participants (n=29) representing five groups of stakeholders: older adults (6/29, 21%), care professionals (7/29, 24%), managers within home care or social work organizations (5/29, 17%), technology designers and suppliers (6/29, 21%), and policy makers (5/29, 17%). Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Stakeholders considered 26 different types of technologies to be relevant for enabling independent living. Only 6 out of 26 (23%) types of technology were mentioned by all stakeholder groups. Care professionals mentioned fewer different types of technology than other groups. All stakeholder groups felt that the implementation of technology for aging in place can be considered a success when (1) older adults' needs and wishes are prioritized during development and deployment of the technology, (2) the technology is accepted by older adults, (3) the technology provides benefits to older adults, and (4) favorable prerequisites for the use of technology by older adults exist. While stakeholders seemed to have identical aims, several underlying differences emerged, for example, with regard

  19. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  20. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sundheim, Leif; Lillegaard, Inger Therese; Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Brodal, Guro; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl

    2017-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group. PMID:28165414

  1. Sternal Gland Scent-Marking Signals Sex, Age, Rank, and Group Identity in Captive Mandrills.

    PubMed

    Vaglio, Stefano; Minicozzi, Pamela; Romoli, Riccardo; Boscaro, Francesca; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Moneti, Gloriano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2016-02-01

    Mandrills are one of the few Old World primates to show scent-marking. We combined ethological and chemical approaches to improve our understanding of this behavior in 3 zoo-managed groups. We observed the olfactory behavior performed by adults and adolescents (N = 39) for 775h. We investigated the volatile components of sternal scent-marks using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared volatile profiles with traits of the signaler. Males marked more than females and within each sex the frequency of scent-marking was related to age and dominance status, but alpha males scent-marked most frequently and particularly in specific areas at the enclosure boundaries. We identified a total of 77 volatile components of sternal gland secretion, including compounds functioning as male sex pheromones in other mammals, in scent-marks spontaneously released on filter paper by 27 male and 18 female mandrills. We confirmed our previous findings that chemical profiles contain information including sex, male age and rank, and we also found that odor may encode information about group membership in mandrills. Our results support the hypotheses that scent-marking signals the status of the dominant male as well as playing territorial functions but also suggest that it is part of sociosexual communication.

  2. Metabolism of Oxycodone in Human Hepatocytes from Different Age Groups and Prediction of Hepatic Plasma Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Korjamo, Timo; Tolonen, Ari; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Turpeinen, Miia; Kokki, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Oxycodone is commonly used to treat severe pain in adults and children. It is extensively metabolized in the liver in adults, but the maturation of metabolism is not well understood. Our aim was to study the metabolism of oxycodone in cryopreserved human hepatocytes from different age groups (3 days, 2 and 5 months, 4 years, adult pool) and predict hepatic plasma clearance of oxycodone using these data. Oxycodone (0.1, 1, and 10 μM) was incubated with hepatocytes for 4 h, and 1 μM oxycodone also with CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole (1 μM). Oxycodone and noroxycodone concentrations were determined at several time points with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. In vitro clearance of oxycodone was used to predict hepatic plasma clearance, using the well-stirred model and published physiological parameters. Noroxycodone was the major metabolite in all batches and ketoconazole inhibited the metabolism markedly in most cases. A clear correlation between in vitro oxycodone clearance and CYP3A4 activity was observed. The predicted hepatic plasma clearances were typically much lower than the published median total plasma clearance from pharmacokinetic studies. The data suggests that there are no children-specific metabolites of oxycodone. Moreover, CYP3A activity seems to be the major determinant in metabolic clearance of oxycodone regardless of age group or individual variability in hepatocyte batches. PMID:22291644

  3. The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Dai, K

    1991-03-01

    Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome.

  4. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-06-04

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively.

  5. Teenagers' oral health attitudes and behavior in Japan: comparison by sex and age group.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Makoto; Takase, Naoko; Sasahara, Hisako; Okada, Mitsugi

    2008-06-01

    We investigated sex and age group differences in attitudes to oral health among school-age children using an Oral Self-Care Appraisal (OSCA) to systematically determine changes in oral health knowledge, attitude, and behavior across developmental stages. The subjects (n = 1584) were stratified after random sampling so that each school grade analyzed contained 88 boys and 88 girls. Factor analysis was undertaken to identify a set of underlying factors, with 10 factors considered in the cross-sectional study. Our results showed that the factors toothbrushing, persistence, and sociability were more predominant in primary school children than in junior high and senior high school students. Furthermore, postponement of visiting the dentist and resignation to one's own dental cavities became more predominant in proportion to the level of school education. Girls had significantly higher scores than boys for desire to improve oral care, dental anxiety, dependency on snacks, toothbrushing, concern over number of cavities, and sociability. Together, the results indicated that the oral health care behavior of girls was better than that of boys, and that the tendency to postpone visiting the dentist and resignation to one's own dental cavities increased markedly with age.

  6. Review of tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in the South African paediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Tamer Ali; van As, Arjan Bastiaan

    2016-12-01

    Children, and in particular young children under the age of three, are the most vulnerable for aspiration and ingestion of foreign bodies (FBs). The Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town is the only children's hospital in South Africa and is unique in having a dedicated trauma unit for children under the age of 13 as part of its institution. Core activities of Childsafe South Africa (CSA), located at the hospital, are data accumulation and interpretation, development of educational programmes, health inculcation and advising in legislation involving child health. To achieve this task, CSA works in close co-operation with government, industry, non-governmental and community predicated organisations, community groups and individuals. A database of all children treated for trauma at CSA has been maintained since 1991; it currently contains detailed information of over 170,000 injuries in children under the age of 13. This review consists of a literature review combined with data from our database and aims to provide information on our experiences with tracheobronchial aspiration of FBs in children.

  7. Review of tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in the South African paediatric age group

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Tamer Ali

    2016-01-01

    Children, and in particular young children under the age of three, are the most vulnerable for aspiration and ingestion of foreign bodies (FBs). The Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital in Cape Town is the only children’s hospital in South Africa and is unique in having a dedicated trauma unit for children under the age of 13 as part of its institution. Core activities of Childsafe South Africa (CSA), located at the hospital, are data accumulation and interpretation, development of educational programmes, health inculcation and advising in legislation involving child health. To achieve this task, CSA works in close co-operation with government, industry, non-governmental and community predicated organisations, community groups and individuals. A database of all children treated for trauma at CSA has been maintained since 1991; it currently contains detailed information of over 170,000 injuries in children under the age of 13. This review consists of a literature review combined with data from our database and aims to provide information on our experiences with tracheobronchial aspiration of FBs in children. PMID:28149578

  8. Use of a physiological profile to document motor impairment in ageing and in clinical groups.

    PubMed

    Lord, S R; Delbaere, K; Gandevia, S C

    2016-08-15

    Ageing decreases exercise performance and is frequently accompanied by reductions in cognitive performance. Deterioration in the physiological capacity to stand, locomote and exercise can manifest itself as falling over and represents a significant deterioration in sensorimotor control. In the elderly, falling leads to serious morbidity and mortality with major societal costs. Measurement of a suite of physiological capacities that are required for successful motor performance (including vision, muscle strength, proprioception and balance) has been used to produce a physiological profile assessment (PPA) which has been tracked over the age spectrum and in different diseases (e.g. multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease). As well as measures of specific physiological capacities, the PPA generates an overall 'score' which quantitatively measures an individual's cumulative risk of falling. The present review collates data from the PPA (and the physiological capacities it measures) as well as its use in strategies to reduce falls in the elderly and those with different diseases. We emphasise that (i) motor impairment arises via reductions in a wide range of sensorimotor abilities; (ii) the PPA approach not only gives a snapshot of the physiological capacity of an individual, but it also gives insight into the deficits among groups of individuals with particular diseases; and (iii) deficits in seemingly restricted and disparate physiological domains (e.g. vision, strength, cognition) are funnelled into impairments in tasks requiring upright balance. Motor impairments become more prevalent with ageing but careful physiological measurement and appropriate interventions offer a way to maximise health across the lifespan.

  9. The influence of gender and gender typicality on autobiographical memory across event types and age groups.

    PubMed

    Grysman, Azriel; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie A; Graci, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Gender differences in autobiographical memory emerge in some data collection paradigms and not others. The present study included an extensive analysis of gender differences in autobiographical narratives. Data were collected from 196 participants, evenly split by gender and by age group (emerging adults, ages 18-29, and young adults, ages 30-40). Each participant reported four narratives, including an event that had occurred in the last 2 years, a high point, a low point, and a self-defining memory. Additionally, all participants completed self-report measures of masculine and feminine gender typicality. The narratives were coded along six dimensions-namely coherence, connectedness, agency, affect, factual elaboration, and interpretive elaboration. The results indicated that females expressed more affect, connection, and factual elaboration than males across all narratives, and that feminine typicality predicted increased connectedness in narratives. Masculine typicality predicted higher agency, lower connectedness, and lower affect, but only for some narratives and not others. These findings support an approach that views autobiographical reminiscing as a feminine-typed activity and that identifies gender differences as being linked to categorical gender, but also to one's feminine gender typicality, whereas the influences of masculine gender typicality were more context-dependent. We suggest that implicit gendered socialization and more explicit gender typicality each contribute to gendered autobiographies.

  10. Somatic, Endurance Performance and Heart Rate Variability Profiles of Professional Soccer Players Grouped According to Age

    PubMed Central

    Botek, Michal; McKune, Andrew J.; Klimešová, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional study compared somatic, endurance performance determinants and heart rate variability (HRV) profiles of professional soccer players divided into different age groups: GI (17–19.9 years; n = 23), GII (20–24.9 years; n = 45), GIII (25–29.9 years; n = 30), and GIV (30–39 years; n = 26). Players underwent somatic and HRV assessment and maximal exercise testing. HRV was analyzed by spectral analysis of HRV, and high (HF) and low (LF) frequency power was transformed by a natural logarithm (Ln). Players in GIV (83 ± 7 kg) were heavier (p < 0.05) compared to both GI (73 ± 6 kg), and GII (78 ± 6 kg). Significantly lower maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, ml•kg-1•min-1) was observed for GIV (56.6 ± 3.8) compared to GI (59.6 ± 3.9), GII (59.4 ± 4.2) and GIV (59.7 ± 4.1). All agegroups, except for GII, demonstrated comparable relative maximal power output (Pmax). For supine HRV, significantly lower Ln HF (ms2) was identified in both GIII (7.1 ± 0.8) and GIV (6.9 ± 1.0) compared to GI (7.9 ± 0.6) and GII (7.7 ± 0.9). In conclusion, soccer players aged >25 years showed negligible differences in Pmax unlike the age group differences demonstrated in VO2max. A shift towards relative sympathetic dominance, particularly due to reduced vagal activity, was apparent after approximately 8 years of competing at the professional level. PMID:28031758

  11. Effect of defocus on response time in different age groups: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Balamurali; Sultani, Kaiser; Cossette, Christopher; Burr, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    To assess the response time associated with visual performance (VP) tasks in the presence of defocus in different presbyopic populations. 58 eyes between the ages of 35 and 50 years were studied. Subjects were categorized as pre-presbyopic (35-39 years), early-presbyopic (40-45 years), and mid-presbyopic (46-50 years). VP measurements obtained monocularly included distance and near high contrast (HC) and low contrast (LC) optotype recognition, and contrast threshold at 12cpd for different defocus magnitudes between 0D and 3D in 1D steps. Response time defined as the time taken to recognize and verbalize an optotype, was compared among different presbyopic age groups. From 58 eyes, mean (SD) response time for high contrast distance visual acuity for 0D through 3D ranged between 1.48 (0.23) and 1.87 (0.31)s, whereas low contrast distance visual acuity ranged between 1.5 (0.22) and 2.09 (0.49)s. Mean response time for high contrast near visual acuity for 0D through 3D ranged between 1.56 (0.19) and 2.23 (0.45)s. However, for low contrast near visual acuity it ranged between 1.75 (0.32) and 2.71 (0.94)s. Mean (SD) response time for 12cpd ranged between 2.11 (0.50) and 5.72 (1.09)s. ANOVA revealed a significant difference in response time for distance, near visual acuity and contrast sensitivity as a function of defocus for different age groups. Response time is increased in the presence of increasing defocus for both distance and near visual acuity and could impact on performance for critical tasks. Full correction of visual acuity at distance and near in presbyopes is warranted always. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Determinants of caregivers’ vaccination intention with respect to child age group: a cross-sectional survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Shin, Kyung-Ah; Park, Kisoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined how knowledge, risk perception, health beliefs and multidimensional health locus of control (HLC) were associated with caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their child, and how these associations varied across child age groups. Setting South Korea. Methods The cross-sectional survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview among 1017 nationally representative caregivers who had children aged 12 or younger. The outcome variable was caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their children. Results Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that risk perception was negatively associated with vaccination intention only among the age group 4–6 (β=−0.127, p<0.05). Perceived benefit was the only significant predictor of the outcome variables for all three age groups. In contrast, perceived barrier was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=−0.104, p<0.05). Internal HLC was positively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=0.151, p<0.001), while chance HLC was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 0–3 (β=−0.121, p<0.05). Conclusions This study identifies key vaccination intention determinants that are differentially associated with caregivers’ children's age groups. To improve vaccination rates, it suggests the need for strategies tailored to children's age. PMID:26408283

  13. Teachers Observe to Learn: Differences in Social Behavior of Toddlers and Preschoolers in Same-Age and Multiage Groupings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Mary Ellin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an action research conducted by a group of teachers comparing multiage with same-age interactions of children, especially among toddlers. The research involving 31 children ranging in age from two through five-and-a-half was conducted under optimal conditions, with small groups, low teacher-child ratios, and highly trained…

  14. Mixed-Age Grouping in Kindergarten: A Best Case Example of Developmentally Appropriate Practice or Horace Mann's Worst Nightmare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tercek, Patricia M.

    This practicum study examined kindergarten teachers' perspectives regarding mixed-age groupings that included kindergarten students. The study focused on pedagogical reasons for using mixed-age grouping, ingredients necessary for successful implementation of a multiage program that includes kindergartners, and the perceived effects of a multiage…

  15. Factors associated with dental caries in a group of American Indian children at age 36 months.

    PubMed

    Warren, John J; Blanchette, Derek; Dawson, Deborah V; Marshall, Teresa A; Phipps, Kathy R; Starr, Delores; Drake, David R

    2016-04-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is rampant among American Indian children, but there has been relatively little study of this problem. This article reports on risk factors for caries for a group of American Indian children at age 36 months as part of a longitudinal study. Pregnant women from a Northern Plains Tribal community were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study of caries and caries risk factors. Standardized dental examinations were completed on children, and questionnaires were completed by mothers at baseline and when children were 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 28, and 36 months of age. Examinations were surface-specific for dental caries, and the questionnaires collected data on demographic, dietary, and behavioral factors. Nonparametric bivariate tests and logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for caries at 36 months, and negative binomial regression was used to identify factors related to caries severity (dmf counts). Among the 232 children, and caries prevalence for cavitated lesions was 80%, with an additional 15% having only noncavitated lesions. The mean dmfs was 9.6, and of the total dmfs, nearly 62% of affected surfaces were decayed, 31% were missing, and 7% were filled. Logistic regression identified higher added-sugar beverage consumption, younger maternal age at baseline, higher maternal DMFS at baseline, and greater number of people in the household as significant (P < 0.05) risk factors. Negative binomial regression found that only maternal DMFS was associated with child dmf counts. By the age of 36 months, dental caries is nearly universal in this population of American Indian children. Caries risk factors included sugared beverage consumption, greater household size, and maternal factors, but further analyses are needed to better understand caries in this population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Factors Associated with Dental Caries in a Group of American Indian Children at age 36 Months

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John J.; Blanchette, Derek; Dawson, Deborah V.; Marshall, Teresa A.; Phipps, Kathy R.; Starr, Delores; Drake, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Early childhood caries (ECC) is rampant among American Indian children, but there has been relatively little study of this problem. This paper reports on risk factors for caries for a group of American Indian children at age 36 months as part of a longitudinal study. Methods Pregnant women from a Northern Plains Tribal community were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study of caries and caries risk factors. Standardized dental examinations were completed on children and questionnaires were completed by mothers at baseline and when children were 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 28 and 36 months of age. Examinations were surface-specific for dental caries, and the questionnaires collected data on demographic, dietary and behavioral factors. Non-parametric bivariate tests and logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for caries at 36 months, and negative binomial regression was used to identify factors related to caries severity (dmf counts). Results Among the 232 children, and caries prevalence for cavitated lesions was 80%, with an additional 15% having only non-cavitated lesions. The mean dmfs was 9.6, and of the total dmfs, nearly 62% of affected surfaces were decayed, 31% were missing, and 7% were filled. Logistic regression identified higher added sugar beverage consumption, younger maternal age at baseline, higher maternal DMFS at baseline, and greater number of people in the household as significant (p<0.05) risk factors. Negative binomial regression found that only maternal DMFS was associated with child dmf counts. Conclusions By the age of 36 months, dental caries is nearly universal in this population of American Indian children. Caries risk factors included sugared beverage consumption, greater household size and maternal factors, but further analyses are needed to better understand caries in this population. PMID:26544674

  17. Quantifying the impact of expanded age group campaigns for polio eradication.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bradley G; Behrend, Matthew R; Klein, Daniel J; Upfill-Brown, Alexander M; Eckhoff, Philip A; Hu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    A priority of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) 2013-2018 strategic plan is to evaluate the potential impact on polio eradication resulting from expanding one or more Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs) to children beyond age five-years in polio endemic countries. It has been hypothesized that such expanded age group (EAG) campaigns could accelerate polio eradication by eliminating immunity gaps in older children that may have resulted from past periods of low vaccination coverage. Using an individual-based mathematical model, we quantified the impact of EAG campaigns in terms of probability of elimination, reduction in polio transmission and age stratified immunity levels. The model was specifically calibrated to seroprevalence data from a polio-endemic region: Zaria, Nigeria. We compared the impact of EAG campaigns, which depend only on age, to more targeted interventions which focus on reaching missed populations. We found that EAG campaigns would not significantly improve prospects for polio eradication; the probability of elimination increased by 8% (from 24% at baseline to 32%) when expanding three annual SIAs to 5-14 year old children and by 18% when expanding all six annual SIAs. In contrast, expanding only two of the annual SIAs to target hard-to-reach populations at modest vaccination coverage-representing less than one tenth of additional vaccinations required for the six SIA EAG scenario-increased the probability of elimination by 55%. Implementation of EAG campaigns in polio endemic regions would not improve prospects for eradication. In endemic areas, vaccination campaigns which do not target missed populations will not benefit polio eradication efforts.

  18. Hydroacoustic separation of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Stetter S.L.; Rudstam, L. G.; Stritzel, Thomson J.L.; Parrish, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Separate assessment of young-of-year (YOY) and yearling-and-older (YAO) fish is desirable from both ecological and management perspectives. Acoustic assessments provide information on fish population size structure in the target strength (TS) distribution, but interpretation of TS distributions must be done carefully, as single age groups can produce multiple TS modes. We assessed the ability of in situ TS distributions to identify Lake Champlain rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in June, July, and September of 2001 using mobile and stationary surveys, knowledge of vertical distribution preferences, and predicted TS from trawl catches. YAO rainbow smelt (93-179 mm total length) had wide TS distributions between -60 and -35 dB in all 3 months with two modes at approximately -50 and -40 dB. Most stationary survey single-fish tracks attributed to YAO had targets in both TS modes and a wide TS range often over 15 dB. Between June and September, YOY rainbow smelt TS increased, but single-fish tracks were unimodal, and the TS range was smaller (6 dB). Overlap in TS attributed to YOY and YAO increased from no overlap in June (YOY TS -76 to -61 dB, 15-25 mm) to moderate overlap in July (-76 to -50 dB, 25-63 mm) to considerable overlap in September (-68 to -45 dB, 33-80 mm). In June and July, the TS distribution changed abruptly at the thermocline, indicating almost complete separation of the two groups. A more gradual TS transition was evident in September, indicating substantial overlap between YOY and YAO. Separate estimates can be obtained in September by decomposing TS overlap into components attributed to YOY and YAO rainbow smelt. However, this decomposition introduces additional uncertainty and an assessment in July or possibly August is preferable to obtain separate abundance estimates of YOY and YAO. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Bhattathiry, Malini M.; Ethirajan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP), which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of “unmet need for FP” and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed. PMID:24696634

  20. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  1. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. Lastly, the co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  2. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    DOE PAGES

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; ...

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for twomore » interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. Lastly, the co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.« less

  3. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Z B; Luan, J H; Miller, M K; Yu, C Y; Liu, C T

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  4. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications. PMID:26892834

  5. Swimming Training Assessment: The Critical Velocity and the 400-m Test for Age-Group Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Zacca, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Ricardo Jorge P; Pyne, David B; Castro, Flávio Antônio de S

    2016-05-01

    To verify the metabolic responses of oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentrations [La], and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) when swimming at an intensity corresponding to the critical velocity (CV) assessed by a 4-parameter model (CV4par), and to check the reliability when using only a single 400-m maximal front crawl bout (T400) for CV4par assessment in age-group swimmers. Ten age-group swimmers (14-16 years old) performed 50-, 100-, 200-, 400- (T400), 800-, and 1,500-m maximal front crawl bouts to calculate CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured immediately after bouts. Swimmers then performed 3 × 10-minute front crawl (45 seconds rest) at CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured after 10 minutes of rest (Rest), warm-up (Pre), each 10-minute repetition, and at the end of the test (Post). CV4par was 1.33 ± 0.08 m·s. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were similar between first 10-minute and Post time points in the 3 × 10-minute protocol. CV4par was equivalent to 92 ± 2% of the mean swimming speed of T400 (v400) for these swimmers. CV4par calculated through a single T400 (92%v400) showed excellent agreement (r = 0.30; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.05 m·s, p = 0.39), low coefficient of variation (2%), and root mean square error of 0.02 ± 0.01 m·s when plotted against CV4par assessed through a 4-parameter model. These results generated the equation CV4par = 0.92 × v400. A single T400 can be used reliably to estimate the CV4par typically derived with 6 efforts in age-group swimmers.

  6. Increase in participation but decrease in performance in age group mountain marathoners in the 'Jungfrau Marathon': a Swiss phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Zingg, Matthias A; Rüst, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    Participation and performance trends for age group marathoners have been investigated for large city marathons such as the 'New York City Marathon' but not for mountain marathons. This study investigated participation and trends in performance and sex difference in the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' held in Switzerland from 2000 to 2014 using single and mixed effects regression analyses. Results were compared to a city marathon (Lausanne Marathon) also held in Switzerland during the same period. Sex difference was calculated using the equation ([race time in women] - [race time in men]/[race time in men] × 100). Changes in sex differences across calendar years and were investigated using linear regression models. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', participation in all female and male age groups increased with exception of women in age groups 18-24 and men in age groups 30-34, 40-44 and 60-64 years where participation remained unchanged. In 'Lausanne Marathon', participation increased in women in age groups 30-34 to 40-44 years. In men, participation increased in age groups 25-29 to 44-44 years and 50-54 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon' runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 to 70-74 years. In 'Lausanne Marathon', runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 and 30-34 to 65-69 years, but not for 25-29, 70-74 and 75-79 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', sex difference increased in age groups 25-29 (from 4 to 10 %) and 60-64 years (from 3 to 8 %) but decreased in age group 40-44 years (from 12 to 6 %). In 'Lausanne Marathon', the sex difference showed no changes. In summary, participation increased in most female and male age groups but performance decreased in most age groups for both the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' and the city marathon 'Lausanne Marathon'. The sex differences were lower in the 'Jungfrau Marathon' (~6-7 %) compared to the 'Lausanne Marathon' where the sex difference was ~10-12 % from age groups 18-24 to 55

  7. Nutritional deficiencies in the pediatric age group in a multicultural developed country, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Haimi, Motti; Lerner, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide. Diseases and morbid conditions have been described to result from nutritional deficiencies. It is essential to address nutrient deficiencies as these may lead to chronic long-term health problems such as rickets, iron deficiency anemia, goiter, obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, cancer and osteoporosis. In the present review we surveyed the extent and severity of nutritional deficiencies in Israel through a selective and comprehensive Medline review of previous reports and studies performed during the last 40 years. Israeli populations have multiple nutritional deficiencies, including iron, calcium, zinc, folic acid, and vitamins B12, C, D and E, spanning all age groups, several minorities, and specific regions. In Israel, some of the nutrients are mandatorily implemented and many of them are implemented voluntarily by local industries. We suggest ways to prevent and treat the nutritional deficiencies, as a step to promote food fortification in Israel. PMID:24868510

  8. [Peculiarities of cardiovascular system pathology depending on psychological profile in patients of senior age groups].

    PubMed

    Prokhorenko, I O

    2013-01-01

    Interrelations between peculiarities of psychological profile of patients of senior age groups (according to Cattel), level of stress hormones in blood and background pathology of cardiovascular system were studied. Levels of catecholamine and corticosteroids in dynamics, rate of magnesium in erythrocytes and calcium in plaques of coronary arteries as well as fats, Holter ECG, daily profiles of blood pressure, vasomotor function of endothelium and microcirculation were analysed. It is established that stress hormones indirectly determine original form of stress reaction depending on patients' psychological profile. This contributes to the development of one or another form of cardiovascular system pathology. Excessive alcohol intake also promotes progression of cardiovascular system pathology. Depression, being a reflection of disbalance of stress hormones levels, can be used as a marker of unfavourable course of cardiovascular pathology.

  9. SPECTRUM: A Training and Treatment Program for Continuous Glucose Monitoring for All Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Gehr, Bernhard; Holder, Martin; Kulzer, Bernhard; Lange, Karin; Liebl, Andreas; Sahm, Claudia; von Sengbusch, Simone; Schlüter, Sandra; Siegmund, Thorsten; Thurm, Ulrike; Ziegler, Ralph; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz

    2016-08-10

    Optimal usage of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) requires adequate preparation and training. Patients using a CGM system without special training often do not achieve their intended improvement of metabolic control or even stop using the system due to disappointing results. For this reason a structured training program called "SPECTRUM" was developed in Germany to ensure a high-quality standard for the use of CGM systems. This program is suitable for patients of all age groups and is applicable to all CGM systems and all forms of insulin therapy. Structured curricula (adults, parents of young children, adolescents) have been developed enabling diabetes centers with less experience to offer comprehensive CGM training. Key requirements of SPECTRUM were independency of manufacturers and product neutrality enabling certification for reimbursement after formal evaluation within the framework of a large clinical trial. SPECTRUM was published in January 2016 in German, and translations into other languages are planned.

  10. [Health Care Insurance in France: its impact on income distribution between age and social groups].

    PubMed

    Fourcade, N; Duval, J; Lardellier, R

    2013-08-01

    Our study, based on microsimulation models, evaluates the redistributive impact of health care insurance in France on income distribution between age and social groups. This work sheds light on the debate concerning the respective role of the public health care insurance (PHI) and the private supplemental health care insurance (SHI) in France. The analysis points out that the PHI enables the lowest-income households and the pensioners a better access to health care than they would have had under a complete private SHI. Due to the progressivity of taxes, low-income households contribute less to the PHI and get higher benefits because of a weaker health. Pensioners have low contributions to public health care finance but the highest health care expenditures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Domestic violence among ever married women of reproductive age group in a slum area of Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Abhik; Mallik, Sarmila; Sanyal, Debasish; Dasgupta, Samir; Pal, Dipak; Mukherjee, Anindya

    2012-01-01

    Domestic violence has serious impact on women's health and well-being. A nationwide survey conducted in India observed that 37.2% of women experienced violence after marriage. To assess the prevalence of domestic violence among the ever married women in reproductive age group and to find out the types of domestic violence and factors associated with it. The study was a community based cross-sectional study, conducted in a slum area of Kolkata. Overall prevalence of domestic violence was 54%, of which 41.9% suffered from both current and lifetime physical and psychological violence. Presence of property, higher per capita income and social support were protective factors against domestic violence, whereas alcohol addiction and multiple sex partners were the important contributory factors for it. The study recommended more social support, awareness and income generation for women in the slum areas.

  12. Topical-steroid-induced iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in the pediatric age group: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ashish; Goel, Manjusha; Pal, Pankaj; Gohiya, Poorva

    2013-10-01

    Cushing syndrome, a systemic disorder, is the result of abnormally high blood level of cortisol or other glucocorticoids. The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is prolonged exogenous administration of glucocorticoid hormones. Prolonged use of topical corticosteroids, particularly in children, may cause Cushing syndrome and suppression of the hypothalamopituitory-adrenal axis, which is less common than that of oral or parenteral route. However, iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in the infantile age group due to topical steroid is very rare and only a few patients have been reported to date in the literature. Here we report a case of iatrogenic Cushing syndrome due to topical steroid application in a 5-month-old female child admitted to the hospital for repeated episodes of fever and cough.

  13. Analysis of normal human eye with different age groups using infrared images.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Ng, E Y K; Yee, Gerk Chang; Hua, Tan Jian; Kagathi, Manjunath

    2009-06-01

    The human body temperature is a good health indicator. All objects emit thermal radiation as a function temperature and wavelength for all wavelengths. The wavelength of infrared rays lies between visible and microwave radiations ranging between 700 nm to 0.1 mm. Infrared (IR) imaging is relatively inexpensive, noninvasive and harmless. Nowadays, it is widely used in the medical field for diagnosis. In this work, we have applied image processing techniques on the IR images of the eye for the analysis of the ocular surface temperature (OST) of the normal subjects of three categories (young, middle and old ages). In our study, 67 IR normal images were analyzed. Two parameters, average ocular temperature and the temperature deviation were proposed to study the variability of OST in different normal category subjects. Our study shows that, the two parameters proposed, show distinct ranges for different groups with 'p' values less than 0.05.

  14. Identification of specific age groups with a high risk for developing cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Malinova, Vesna; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Voit, Martin; Suntheim, Patricia; Rohde, Veit; Mielke, Dorothee

    2016-07-01

    The impact of age on the incidence of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a matter of ongoing discussion. The aim of this study was to identify age groups with a higher risk for developing vasospasm, delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND), or delayed infarction (DI) and to identify a cut-off age for a better risk stratification. We defined six age groups (<30, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and >70 years). ROC analysis was performed to determine a cutoff age with the highest positive predictive value (PPV) for developing vasospasm, defined as a blood-flow-velocity-increase >120 cm/s in transcranial-Doppler-sonography (TCD). Multivariate binary-logistic-regression-analysis was then performed to evaluate differences in the incidence of cerebral vasospasm, DIND, and DI among the different age groups. A total of 753 patients were included in the study. The highest incidence (70 %) of TCD-vasospasm was found in patients between 30 and 39 years of age. The cutoff age with the highest PPV (65 %) for developing TCD-vasospasm was 38 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that age <38 years (OR 3.6; CI 95 % 2.1-6.1; p < 0.001) best predicted vasospasm, followed by the need for cerebrospinal fluid drainage (OR 1.5; CI 95 % 1.0-2.3; p = 0.04). However, lower age did not correlate with higher rates of DIND or infarcts. The overall vasospasm-incidence after aSAH is age-dependent and highest in the age group <38 years. Surprisingly, the higher incidence in the younger age group does not translate into a higher rate of DIND/DI. This finding may hint towards age-related biological factors influencing the association between arterial narrowing and cerebral ischemia.

  15. Ages and structural and dynamical parameters of two globular clusters in the M81 group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Song; Wu, Zhenyu; Zhang, TianMeng; Zou, Hu; Zhou, Zhimin; Nie, Jundan; Zhou, Xu; Peng, Xiyang; Wang, Jiali; Wu, Jianghua; Du, Cuihua; Yuan, Qirong

    2017-07-01

    GC-1 and GC-2 are two globular clusters (GCs) in the remote halo of M81 and M82 in the M81 group discovered by Jang et al. using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. These two GCs were observed as part of the Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut (BATC) Multicolor Sky Survey using 14 intermediate-band filters covering a wavelength range of 4000-10 000 Å. We accurately determine these two clusters' ages and masses by comparing their spectral energy distributions (from 2267 to 20 000 Å, comprising photometric data in the near-ultraviolet of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, 14 BATC intermediate-band and Two Micron All Sky Survey near-infrared JHKs filters) with theoretical stellar population-synthesis models, resulting in ages of 15.50 ± 3.20 for GC-1 and 15.10 ± 2.70 Gyr for GC-2. The masses of GC-1 and GC-2 obtained here are 1.77-2.04 × 106 and 5.20-7.11 × 106 M⊙, respectively. In addition, the deep observations with the Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide Field Camera 3 on the HST are used to provide the surface brightness profiles of GC-1 and GC-2. The structural and dynamical parameters are derived from fitting the profiles to three different models; in particular, the internal velocity dispersions of GC-1 and GC-2 are derived, which can be compared with ones obtained based on spectral observations in the future. For the first time, in this paper, the rh versus MV diagram shows that GC-2 is an ultra-compact dwarf in the M81 group.

  16. Scappoose Formation, Columbia County, Oregon: new evidence of age and relation to Columbia River basalt group

    SciTech Connect

    VanAtta, R.O.; Kelty, K.B.

    1985-05-01

    The Scappoose Formation, considered to be late Oligocene to early Miocene in age, was originally believed to be disconformably separated from both the underlying Pittsburg Bluff Formation and the overlying Yakima subgroup of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Recent mapping and petrography show that it lies disconformably on both the Keasey and Pittsburg Bluff Formations, and interfingers with the Yakima Basalt. The Scappoose is composed of fluvial sandstone, conglomerate, and carbonaceous to coal-bearing mud rock, intertongued with shallow neritic to estuarine siltstone, mud rock, and minor sandstone. Chemistry of basalt clasts from fluvial conglomerates reveals that they are derived from the Yakima subgroup. Basalt conglomerate and palagonitic sediments in the upper part of the formation are intercalated with Grande Ronde basalt (Yakima subgroup) flows at many localities. Flows of Yakima Basalt are also invasive into originally wet, unconsolidated Scappoose sediment. Grande Ronde basalt and the Frenchman Springs Member of the Wanapum basalt overlie conglomerate of the Scappoose. In places, the Scappoose Formation is absent, and Yakima Basalt lies directly on the Pittsburg Bluff and Keasey Formations. The thickness of both the Scappoose Formation and the Columbia River Basalt Group varies widely, indicating that both were deposited over a paleotopography with a relief up to 800 ft (245 m). The definition of the boundaries of the Scappoose Formation should be revised, owing to the disconformable relation of the Scappoose to both the underlying Keasey and Pittsburg Bluff Formations and to the Scappoose's intercalation with the overlying Yakima Basalt. Definition of age must also be revised, inasmuch as sedimentation of the formation was coeval with Columbia River Basalt volcanism.

  17. Morphology and Relative Age Modeling of Explosive craters in the Tatun Volcano Group, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chen-Kan; Song, Sheng-Rong

    2017-04-01

    The Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is located in the north of Taipei city for only 15 km away, and has been argued whether it is active or not for a long time. The Chihsingshan volcano is covered by many gas fumaroles and hot springs and is viewed as a relatively younger volcano of the TVG. Furthermore, using high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) can easily identify two apparent fault zones (or rifting valleys) with many craters, which pass through the eastern and the western edifice of Chihsingshan volcano, respectively. Shapes of those craters are nearly circular or elliptic, probably stand for the young eruptive events. This study utilizes 1 m x 1 m LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) DEM to investigate the small craters along the fault zones. The boundaries encompassing the crater were depicted by their steep slope, especially the intact ones. Eight and six craters have been determined from western and eastern side, and two and three of them are more intact, respectively. Numerous fractures exist in the linear extent are similar to the fault zones, but the morphology was destroyed by the downstream river system. The results of fractal dimensions analysis, a statistic method that tells the broken level of the shapes, may correlate with the age of those craters. Previous studies have proven this modeling method can fit the lava flow sequences of the TVG. Hence we try to find a suitable age modeling for the explosive craters in the same way, and then we can compare different ones for relative age and focus on the youngest one. In addition, field sampling at the craters such as Duck Pond and Dream Lake may be ideal archives of volcanic deposits from young volcanic events. With the combinations of LiDAR-DEM, fractal dimensions analysis and field sampling results, we could figure out the formation sequence of the craters.

  18. Rheumatic mitral regurgitation. The case for annuloplasty in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J G; Kawabori, I; Morgan, B C; Dillard, D H; Merendino, K A; Guntheroth, W G

    1975-08-01

    Eight youngsters (five female, three male, ages 10 to 19 years, mean 15 years) with isolated severe rheumatic mitral regurgitation have been subjected to mitral annuloplasty because of limiting symptoms and prominent ECG and X-ray changes. They have been followed for up to 11 years (mean 3.7 years), and 7 have had excellent results. An early (1961) patient had a small annulus and was not a favorable candidate; he had only transient improvement. Seven are greatly improved, have decreased cardiac size (often dramatic), and have improved ECG's. One has undergone successful pregnancy, and none has been limited in activities. The extent and duration of improvement, lack of mortality, and resumption of normal activities by these youngsters indicate surgical success. The essence of childhood and youth is activity and the future life span hopefully long; hence, annuloplasty would appear to be the procedure of choice for severe rheumatic mitral regurgitation in the pediatric age group, avoiding the usual need for anticoagulation and uncertain long-term results associated with mitral valve replacement.

  19. Age-Group Differences in Medial Cortex Activity Associated with Thinking About Self-Relevant Agendas

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Karen J.; Raye, Carol L.; Ebner, Natalie C.; Tubridy, Shannon M.; Frankel, Hillary; Johnson, Marcia K.

    2009-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study compared young and older adults’ brain activity as they thought about motivationally self-relevant agendas (hopes and aspirations, duties and obligations) and concrete control items (e.g., shape of USA). Young adults’ activity replicated a double dissociation (Johnson et al., 2006): an area of medial frontal gyrus/anterior cingulate cortex was most active during hopes and aspirations trials and an area of medial posterior cortex, primarily posterior cingulate, was most active during duties and obligations trials. Compared to young adults, older adults showed attenuated responses in medial cortex, especially in medial prefrontal cortex, with both less activity during self-relevant trials and less deactivation during control trials. The fMRI data, together with post-scan reports and the behavioral literature on age-group differences in motivational orientation, suggest that the differences in medial cortex seen in this study reflect young and older adults’ focus on different information during motivationally self-relevant thought. Differences also may be related to an age-associated deficit in controlled cognitive processes that are engaged by complex self-reflection and mediated by prefrontal cortex. PMID:19485660

  20. The Feasibility of a Group Bender-Gestalt Test for Preschool and Primary School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Denis P.

    1975-01-01

    Study devised and tested a method for group administration of the Bender-Gestalt Test that would be feasible for screening large groups of beginning school-age children. Results indicate that the group method of presentation can yield results as valid and reliable as the traditional individual method of administration. (Author)

  1. The Feasibility of a Group Bender-Gestalt Test for Preschool and Primary School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Denis P.

    1975-01-01

    Study devised and tested a method for group administration of the Bender-Gestalt Test that would be feasible for screening large groups of beginning school-age children. Results indicate that the group method of presentation can yield results as valid and reliable as the traditional individual method of administration. (Author)

  2. Environmental exposure of the pediatric age groups in Cairo City and its suburbs to cadmium pollution.

    PubMed

    Hossny, E; Mokhtar, G; El-Awady, M; Ali, I; Morsy, M; Dawood, A

    2001-06-12

    In a trial to assess the exposure of subjects in the pediatric age group to cadmium (Cd) pollution, serum Cd was estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry in 405 subjects, birth-18 years old, from Cairo City and its suburbs. Serum Cd mean concentrations were: 0.92 microg/l in 32 neonates (birth-4 weeks); 1.33 microg/l in 70 infants (4 weeks-2 years); 1.11 microg/l in 100 children in the preschool period (2-6 years); 1.34 microg/l in 103 primary school children (6-12 years); and 1.24 microg/l in 100 adolescents (12-18 years). In neonates, serum Cd was higher in babies with weights and heights that remained below the 5th percentile for age. Breast-fed infants had a serum Cd geometric mean level (1.25 microg/l) that was not in accordance to that of their mothers' milk (0.52 microg/l, P < 0.001), suggesting alternative routes of exposure. Environmental tobacco-smoke exposure was the most important determinant of Cd status in the school-aged children, the geometric mean being 1.42 microg/l in passive smokers vs. 1.2 microg/l in non-exposed children (P < 0.05). Moreover, adolescents who were active smokers had a significantly higher serum Cd level (1.7 microg/l) as compared to non-smokers (1.2 microg/l). Gender did influence the Cd status in adolescents, being higher among males, probably related to smoking, or to the difference in lifestyle of adolescents according to gender in the community. Alpha-1-microglobulinuria was accompanied by a higher serum Cd concentration in the group of adolescents only, suggesting a subclinical renal effect after several years of cumulative exposure. The residential classification, whether urban or suburban, did not influence the serum Cd status; neither did the present or past history of bronchial asthma. These findings certainly justify further evaluation of the problem of Cd pollution among Cairene individuals, knowing the long-term consequences of exposure to it. Systematic efforts for the proper disposal of Cd wastes and prevention

  3. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in Brazilian Samples of Different Age Groups: Findings from Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Brietzke, Elisa; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Kristensen, Christian Haag; Arteche, Adriane Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is internationally accepted as a key tool for the assessment of childhood abuse and neglect experiences. However, there are relative few psychometric studies available and some authors have proposed two different factor solutions. We examined the dimensional structure and internal consistency of the Brazilian version of the CTQ. A total of 1,925 participants from eight different clinical and non-clinical samples including adolescents, adults and elders were considered in this study. First, we performed Confirmatory Factor Analysis to investigate the goodness of fit of the two proposed competitive factor structure models for the CTQ. We also investigated the internal consistency of all factors. Second, multi-group analyses were used to investigate measurement invariance and population heterogeneity across age groups and sex. Our findings revealed that the alternative factor structure as opposed to the original factor structure was the most appropriate model within adolescents and adults Brazilian samples. We provide further evidence for the validity and reliability of the CTQ within the Brazilian samples and report that the alternative model showed an improvement in fit indexes and may be a better alternative over the original model. PMID:24475237

  4. Transepithelial corneal collagen crosslinking for progressive keratoconus in a pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Salman, Abdelrahman G

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of transepithelial corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) in children with keratoconus and the refractive changes induced by this treatment. Ophthalmology Department, Ain-Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt. Prospective comparative case series. Patients younger than 18 years with bilateral keratoconus had transepithelial CXL with the use of transepithelial riboflavin. The other eye was used as a control and was treated conservatively. The uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), and corneal tomography at 12 months were the main outcome measures. The mean age of the 22 patients (22 eyes) was 15.7 years ± 2.1 (SD). After transepithelial CXL, the improvement in the mean UDVA was statistically significant (from 0.95 ± 0.34 logMAR to 0.68 ± 0.45 logMAR) (P<.05). No eye lost lines of preoperative UDVA; 1 eye lost 1 line of preoperative CDVA. There was no improvement in the control group in UDVA or CDVA (P>.05). The mean simulated keratometry (K) decreased by a mean of 2.03 diopters (D), with mean flattening of the apical K by 2.20 D; both results were statistically significant (P<.05). In the control group, the simulated K increased by a mean of 0.59 D (P>.05), with mean steepening of the apical K by 2.9 D (P<.05). No significant changes occurred in the endothelial cell count in either group. Preliminary results of transepithelial CXL in children with keratoconus were encouraging, with no evidence of progression of keratoconus over 12 months. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The association between social capital and loneliness in different age groups: a population-based study in Western Finland.

    PubMed

    Nyqvist, Fredrica; Victor, Christina R; Forsman, Anna K; Cattan, Mima

    2016-07-11

    Previous studies of loneliness have largely focused on establishing risk factors in specific age groups such as in later life or in young people. Researchers have paid less attention to the link between social capital and loneliness across different age groups. The aim of this study was to examine the association between social capital and experienced loneliness in different age groups in a Finnish setting. The data originates from a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted among 4618 people aged 15-80 in Western Finland in 2011. The response rate was 46.2 %. The association between social capital, measured by frequency of social contacts, participation in organisational activities, trust and sense of belonging to the neighbourhood and loneliness was tested by logistic regression analyses stratified by four age groups. Frequent loneliness (defined as experienced often or sometimes) was higher among younger people (39.5 %) compared to older people (27.3 %). Low levels of trust were linked to loneliness in all four age groups. The association between other aspects of social capital and loneliness varied across age groups. Frequent loneliness is common among the general adult population and could be seen as a public health issue. Our findings imply that low social capital, especially in terms of low trust, may be a risk factor for loneliness. However, further research is needed to assess the influence of poor health and reverse causality as explanations for the findings.

  6. Prevalence of dental caries in 5 - 6 years and 12 - 13 years age group of school children of Kathmandu valley.

    PubMed

    Subedi, B; Shakya, P; Kc, U; Jnawali, M; Paudyal, B D; Acharya, A; Koirala, S; Singh, A

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common conditions affecting the general health of children. The present study was carried out among school children of Kathmandu valley to determine the prevalence of dental caries in two age groups. The study was conducted from December 2007 to May 2008. The age of the school children of the study was divided into two group: 5 - 6 years and 12 - 13 years. A stratified cluster sampling with proportional allocation was used while grouping the subjects. The dental status examination was done with the help of trained dentists. Decayed, missed and filled teeth index and decayed, missed and filled surfaces index (dmft for primary dentition and DMFT for permanent dentition) were used as the standard tools for the determination of prevalence. A total of 638 students (325 of age group 12 - 13 years and 313 of age group 5 - 6 years) from 30 different schools of the Kathmandu valley were included in the study. The caries status was found higher in the age group of 5 - 6 years than in the 12 - 13 years and it was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.001). The dmfs and caries percentage of the age group 5 - 6 years and the DMFS and caries percent of the 12 - 13 years was found to be 3.79, 69 % and 1.6, 53.23 % respectively. The dmft/dmfs value was found to be significant according to the districts in the 5 - 6 years age group whereas the DMFS was found statistically significant among the sexes of the 12 - 13 years age group. The caries percentage was found to be above the recommended level of the World Health Organization. However, the DMFS and DMFT values were within the WHO level.

  7. [Measles outbreak in the adult age group: evaluation of 28 cases].

    PubMed

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Akın, Hicran; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Kalkan, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the age group affected from measles has widened and the disease has become more common among adolescents and young adults. The number of measles case reports have increased in our country, particularly from 2010-2011, and measles outbreaks occurred in various regions in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographical and epidemiological characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, and complications of adult patients with measles who were affected during the outbreak. A total of 28 patients (25 male, 3 female; age range: 19-39 years, median age: 24) who were hospitalized and followed-up in our clinic between January 2013 and June 2013, were evaluated. In the serum sample of the index case, measles-specific IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA, and measles virus RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then genotyping was performed to detect the epidemiological relationship. In all of the other cases, measles IgM and IgG antibodies were screened by ELISA. The most common symptoms on admission included high fever (n= 28, 100%), malaise (n= 25, 89%), sore throat (n= 25, 89%), headache (n= 20, 71%) and cough (n= 18, 64%). At physical examination, rash (n= 28, 100%), lymphadenopathy (n= 11, 39%) and conjunctivitis (n= 10, 36%) were in the foreground, and Koplik spots were detected in five (18%) cases. The most common laboratory findings were; increased level of C-reactive protein (n= 15, 54%), leukopenia (n= 12, 43%) and increased serum levels of aminotransferases (n= 12, 43%), and thrombocytopenia was detected in five (18%) patients. One or more complications (secondary bacterial pneumonia in 5, diarrhea in 4, hepatitis in 3 and otitis in 2 cases) developed in the eight (29%) patients. Measles RT-PCR and IgM tests yielded positive results for the index case, and the isolate was identified as D8 strain by genotyping. Measles lgM antibodies were also positive in all of the other cases. The hospitalization period was

  8. Susceptibility to varicella in childbearing age women, Central Italy: is there a need for vaccinating this population group?

    PubMed

    Alfonsi, Valeria; Montomoli, Emanuele; Manini, Ilaria; Alberini, Isabella; Gentile, Chiara; Rota, Maria Cristina; Ciofi degli Atti, Marta Luisa

    2007-08-10

    We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antibodies in childbearing age women aged 17-42 years. Sera were collected in Central Italy in years 2001-2002 and were tested by a commercial VZV IgG enzyme immunoassay. Overall VZV seroprevalence was 80.9% and it showed a significant increase by age, confirming a considerable circulation of VZV also in the older age groups not commonly considered at high risk. This study further supports the importance of vaccinating susceptible adolescents and women of childbearing age in order to reduce both maternal and foetal complications associated with varicella in pregnancy.

  9. Emergency department visits related to functional abdominal pain in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Pant, Chaitanya; Deshpande, Abhishek; Sferra, Thomas J; Olyaee, Mojtaba

    2017-01-10

    To analyze visits to and admissions from the emergency department (ED) in children with a primary diagnosis of functional abdominal pain (FAP). This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (HCUP-NEDS 2008-2012). FAP-related ED visits were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. The most frequent secondary diagnoses associated with FAP-related ED visits were also extracted. In 2012, a total of 796,665 children presented to the ED with a primary diagnosis of FAP. This correlated to a rate of 11.5 ED visits/1000 population. The highest incidence of ED visits was observed for children in the 10-14-year age group; median (IQR) age of 11 (8) years. In analyzing the temporal trends associated with FAP-related ED visits, we observed an increase in both the overall number of visits (14.0%) as well as the population-adjusted incidence (16.0%) during the period 2008-2012. This coincided with a decreasing trend in hospital admissions from the ED; from 1.4% in 2008 to 1.0% in 2012 (-28.5%). The overwhelming majority (96.7%) of patients with FAP who presented to the ED were treated and released. On multivariate analysis, the leading factor associated with an increased likelihood of admission from the ED was teaching hospital status (aOR 2.07; 95% CI 1.97 to 2.18). The secondary diagnosis most commonly associated with FAP-related ED visits was nausea and/or emesis (19.8%). Pediatric FAP-related ED visits increased significantly from the period 2008 to 2012. However, the incidence of hospital admissions from the ED declined during the same period.

  10. Age constraints for Paleoproterozoic glaciation in the Lake Superior Region: Detrital zircon and hydrothermal xenotime ages for the Chocolay Group, Marquette Range Supergroup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallini, D.A.; Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    A geochronological study of the Chocolay Group at the base of the Paleoproterozoic Marquette Range Supergroup in Michigan, Lake Superior Region, is attempted for the first time, Age data from detrital zircon grains and hydrothermal xenotime from the basal glaciogenic formation, the Enchantment Lake Formation, and the stratigraphically higher Sturgeon Quartzite and its equivalent, the Sunday Quartzite, provide maximum and minimum age constraints for the Chocolay Group. The youngest detrital zircon population in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2317 ?? 6 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2306 ?? 9 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2647 ?? 5 Ma. The oldest hydrothermal xenotime age in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2133 ?? 11 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2115 ?? 5 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2207 ?? 5 Ma. The radiometric age data in this study implies the depositional age of the Chocolay Group is constrained to ???2.3-2.2 Ga, which proves its correlation with part of the Huronian Supergroup in the Lake Huron Region, Ontario, and reveals the unconformity that separates the Chocolay Group from the overlying Menominee Group is up to 325 million years in duration. The source(s) of the ??? 2.3 Ga detrital zircon populations in the Enchantment Lake Formation and Sturgeon Quartzite remains an enigma because no known rock units of this age are known in the Michigan area. It is speculated that once widespread volcano-sedimentary cover sequences in Michigan were removed or concealed prior to Chocolay Group deposition. The hydrothermal xenotime ages probably reflect basinal hydrothermal fluid flow associated with the period of extension involving rifting and major dyke formation, that affected the North American provinces between 2.2 and 2.1 Ga. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  11. [Validation of ORTO-15 Questionnaire in the group of urban youth aged 15-21].

    PubMed

    Stochel, Martyna; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata; Zejda, Jan; Hyrnik, Joanna; Jelonek, Ireneusz; Siwiec, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was the validation and adaptation of the ORTO-15 Questionnaire in the group of the Polish schoolgirls and schoolboys. The study included 399 participants (15-21 years old), all of them high school students in the city of Sosnowiec. The ORTO-15 is a tool created in Italy by L.M. Donini, comprising of 15 items describing intensification of orthorexia risk (population diagnosis). The validation procedure incorporated three basic methods to be applied in the reliability analysis - the comparison of double tests with the same method, the statistical properties analysis of test items as well as analysis of the relation of test items with the general test result. Moreover, the compliance of the ORTO-15 Questionnaire results with other questionnaire focused on eating habits (EAT-26) was studied. The reliability analysis of the ORTO-15 Questionnaire based on repeatability of the responses presents a very good (kappa: 0.81 - 1.00 for 5 items) and a good repeatability (kappa: 0.61 - 0.80 for 10 items). The reliability analysis based on the value of the Cronbach's α reached a satisfactory level (0.7 - 0.9). A full agreement of in the occurrence of orthorexia risk and the risk of eating disorders concerned 47.2% (Kappa = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.004 - 0.09) for the Ortho-40 and 88.2% (Kappa = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.17 - 0.47) for the Ortho-35. The ORTO-15 questionnaire is a reliable tool to identify the risk of ON in population studies in the group of urban youth aged 15 - 21.

  12. Frontal Lobe Morphometry with MRI in a Normal Age Group of 6-17 Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    İlkay Koşar, M; Otağ, İlhan; Sabancıoğulları, Vedat; Atalar, Mehmet; Tetiker, Hasan; Otağ, Aynur; Çimen, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Background Morphometric data of the frontal lobe are important for surgical planning of lesions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide suitable data for this purpose. Objectives In our study, the morphometric data of mid-sagittal MRI of the frontal lobe in certain age and gender groups of children have been presented. Patients and Methods In a normal age group of 6-17-year-old participants, the length of the line passing through predetermined different points, including the frontal pole (FP), commissura anterior (AC), commissura posterior (PC), the outermost point of corpus callosum genu (AGCC), the innermost point of corpus callosum genu (IGCC), tuberculum sella (TS), AGCC and IGCC points parallel to AC-PC line and the point such line crosses at the frontal lobe surface (FCS) were measured in three age groups (6-9, 10-13 and 14-17 years) for each gender. Results The frontal lobe morphometric data were higher in males than females. Frontal lobe measurements peak at the age group of 10-13 in the male and at the age group of 6-13 in the female. In boys, the length of FP-AC increases 4.1% in the 10-13 age group compared with the 6-9-year-old group, while this increase is 2.3% in girls. Conclusion Differences in age and gender groups were determined. While the length of AGCC-IGCC increases 10.4% in adults, in children aged 6-17, the length of AC-PC is 11.5% greater than adults. These data will contribute to the preliminary assessment for developing a surgical plan in fine interventions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings in children. PMID:23599707

  13. Frontal lobe morphometry with MRI in a normal age group of 6-17 year-olds.

    PubMed

    Ilkay Koşar, M; Otağ, Ilhan; Sabancıoğulları, Vedat; Atalar, Mehmet; Tetiker, Hasan; Otağ, Aynur; Cimen, Mehmet

    2012-12-01

    Morphometric data of the frontal lobe are important for surgical planning of lesions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide suitable data for this purpose. In our study, the morphometric data of mid-sagittal MRI of the frontal lobe in certain age and gender groups of children have been presented. In a normal age group of 6-17-year-old participants, the length of the line passing through predetermined different points, including the frontal pole (FP), commissura anterior (AC), commissura posterior (PC), the outermost point of corpus callosum genu (AGCC), the innermost point of corpus callosum genu (IGCC), tuberculum sella (TS), AGCC and IGCC points parallel to AC-PC line and the point such line crosses at the frontal lobe surface (FCS) were measured in three age groups (6-9, 10-13 and 14-17 years) for each gender. The frontal lobe morphometric data were higher in males than females. Frontal lobe measurements peak at the age group of 10-13 in the male and at the age group of 6-13 in the female. In boys, the length of FP-AC increases 4.1% in the 10-13 age group compared with the 6-9-year-old group, while this increase is 2.3% in girls. Differences in age and gender groups were determined. While the length of AGCC-IGCC increases 10.4% in adults, in children aged 6-17, the length of AC-PC is 11.5% greater than adults. These data will contribute to the preliminary assessment for developing a surgical plan in fine interventions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings in children.

  14. Clinical features of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in Taiwan: differences between young and senior age groups.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chung-Lan; Hsieh, Wan-Ling; Chern, Chang-Ming; Chen, Liang-Kung; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Chan, Rai-Chi

    2009-12-01

    BPPV is a common cause of vertigo. Several treatment procedures can facilitate recovery. In this study, we aimed to identify the demographic features, resolution and recurrence rates and impacts on daily activities in BPPV patient between young and senior age groups in Taiwan. This retrospective study recruited 218 patients of BPPV. Medical history, canal involvement, treatment required for complete resolution, symptom free period and recurrence rates were evaluated between the two age groups. Up to 80.7% of patients were successfully treated by a single treatment. For patients aged more than 65 years, the recurrence rate was 1.7 times higher than that in the younger age group (p = 0.07). The symptom-free period before recurrence was nearly 2.2 times longer in the senior age group (p = 0.03). Work-related activities were influenced more by BPPV in the younger age group (p = 0.03). We conclude that BPPV is prone to occur and recur in people of senior age. Clinicians should have the knowledge to diagnose different types of BPPV and treat it accordingly to prevent further complications.

  15. Socio-economic determinants of health behaviours across age groups: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Dorner, T E; Stronegger, W J; Hoffmann, K; Stein, K Viktoria; Niederkrotenthaler, T

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of different socio-economic variables on the lifestyle factors, like lack of physical activity, diet rich in meat, and smoking, across sex and age groups in the general Austrian population to formulate more targeted public health measures. The Austrian Health Interview Survey 2006-07 contains data of 15,474 people, representative for the general population. Statistical analyses included linear and logistic regression models. Lack of physical activity was more prevalent in women, while unhealthy nutrition and daily smoking were more prevalent in men. Overall, profession was the strongest predictor for health behaviour in men, while the educational level played the most significant role in women. Subjects in higher age groups had a more healthy nutrition and were less likely to smoke, but had a higher chance for lack of physical activity. Socio-economic factors predict lifestyle choices differently in different age groups. For example, in men, the highest percentage of daily smokers was found in the middle age, while the youngest age group was the one that smoked the most in women. Furthermore, the educational level had a reverse effect on women in the oldest age group, where those with tertiary education smoked three times more than those with less education. Our results emphasise the importance of taking a holistic approach towards health, including educational, cultural and age-specific policies to improve the overall health status and health equality of a population.

  16. Characterization of type 2 diabetes mellitus burden by age and ethnic groups based on a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Janice M S; Bailey, Robert A; Rupnow, Marcia F T; Annunziata, Kathy

    2014-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes. Risk factors for its development include older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism, physical inactivity, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to characterize T2DM burden, from a patient perspective, with respect to age and race/ethnicity. Adults aged ≥18 years with T2DM from a large, Internet-based, nationwide survey were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic and clinical characteristics (glycemic control, body mass index [BMI], comorbidities, and diabetes-related complications), hypoglycemic episodes, and medication adherence were used to assess diabetes burden. Degree of burden was compared across age (18-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years) and racial/ethnic (white, African American, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian) groups. An apparent association was found between glycemic control and medication adherence. Hispanics had the lowest percentage of participants with a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level <7.0% (24.4%) and the highest percentage of those not knowing their HbA1c levels (55.4%) but also had the poorest medication adherence among racial/ethnic groups. Conversely, American Indians and whites had the best glycemic control, HbA1c knowledge, and medication adherence. The 18- to 64-year age group had the poorest glycemic control (28.8%), the most with unknown HbA1c levels (46.3%), and the poorest medication adherence of the age groups. Mean BMIs were high (>30 mg/kg(2)) for all racial/ethnic groups other than the Asian group (28.9 mg/kg(2)). Approximately 71% of Asians were obese or overweight compared with ≥90% in the other racial/ethnic groups. Mean BMIs decreased with increasing age group (34.5, 32.6, and 29.8 kg/m(2) for the age groups of 18-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years, respectively). Regarding diabetes-related comorbidities, the Asian group had the lowest percentages of those with hypertension (39.1%) and

  17. The Effect of Reminiscence Group Work on Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem and Mood of Ageing People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Puyenbroeck, Joris; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the effects of reminiscence group work on the subjective well-being of ageing people with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The content of the successive group work sessions was manipulated as follows: a control-phase with three "current topics" sessions, an experimental phase with six "reminiscence" sessions and…

  18. The Effect of Reminiscence Group Work on Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem and Mood of Ageing People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Puyenbroeck, Joris; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the effects of reminiscence group work on the subjective well-being of ageing people with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The content of the successive group work sessions was manipulated as follows: a control-phase with three "current topics" sessions, an experimental phase with six "reminiscence" sessions and…

  19. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Katharine; Chen, Ping-An; Vazzano, Andrea; Thambinayagam, Ananthy; Pillay, Yogan; Loykissoonlal, Dayanund; Bonnecwe, Collen; Barron, Peter; Kiwango, Eva; Castor, Delivette; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15-49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa's efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC. The study team populated the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0) with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM), as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20-34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15-24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15-29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15-34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program's cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections. The VMMC program's impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15-34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25-34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them insufficient to support geographic targeting.

  20. Effect of Weather Variability on Seasonal Influenza Among Different Age Groups in Queensland, Australia: A Bayesian Spatiotemporal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaodong; Mengersen, Kerrie; Milinovich, Gabriel; Hu, Wenbiao

    2017-06-01

    The effects of weather variability on seasonal influenza among different age groups remain unclear. The comparative study aims to explore the differences in the associations between weather variability and seasonal influenza, and growth rates of seasonal influenza epidemics among different age groups in Queensland, Australia. Three Bayesian spatiotemporal conditional autoregressive models were fitted at the postal area level to quantify the relationships between seasonal influenza and monthly minimum temperature (MIT), monthly vapor pressure, school calendar pattern, and Index of Relative Socio-Economic Advantage and Disadvantage for 3 age groups (<15, 15-64, and ≥65 years). The results showed that the expected decrease in monthly influenza cases was 19.3% (95% credible interval [CI], 14.7%-23.4%), 16.3% (95% CI, 13.6%-19.0%), and 8.5% (95% CI, 1.5%-15.0%) for a 1°C increase in monthly MIT at <15, 15-64, and ≥65 years of age, respectively, while the average increase in the monthly influenza cases was 14.6% (95% CI, 9.0%-21.0%), 12.1% (95% CI, 8.8%-16.1%), and 9.2% (95% CI, 1.4%-16.9%) for a 1-hPa increase in vapor pressure. Weather variability appears to be more influential on seasonal influenza transmission in younger (0-14) age groups. The growth rates of influenza at postal area level were relatively small for older (≥65) age groups in Queensland, Australia.

  1. Does whom you work with matter? Effects of referent group gender and age composition on managers' compensation.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, Cheri; Atwater, Leanne E

    2003-08-01

    Much research has examined gender and age effects on compensation, concluding that a wage gap exists favoring men and negative stereotypes against older workers persist. Although the effect of an employee's gender or age has been widely studied, little work has examined the impact of the demographic characteristics of a focal employee's immediate referent groups (e.g., subordinates, peers, or supervisors) on pay. The effect of the gender and age composition of a focal manager's subordinates, peers, and supervisor on the manager's compensation levels was investigated in a sample of 2,178 managers across a wide range of organizations and functional areas. After controlling for a number of human capital variables, results indicated that not only does a wage gap favoring men exist, but also managerial pay is lower when managers' referent groups are largely female, when subordinates are outside the prime age group, and when peers and supervisors are younger.

  2. Extrinsic skin ageing in German, Chinese and Japanese women manifests differently in all three groups depending on ethnic background, age and anatomical site.

    PubMed

    Vierkötter, Andrea; Hüls, Anke; Yamamoto, Ai; Stolz, Sabine; Krämer, Ursula; Matsui, Mary S; Morita, Akimichi; Wang, Sijia; Li, Zhiwen; Jin, Li; Krutmann, Jean; Schikowski, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    It has been suggested that extrinsic skin ageing manifests differently in Caucasians versus East Asians. In particular, from previous studies it was concluded that Caucasians are more prone to develop wrinkles, whereas pigment spot formation is the hallmark of extrinsic skin ageing in East Asians. However, these assumptions are based on a very limited number of studies which did not include different East Asian populations. We here compare the manifestation of extrinsic skin ageing signs in German, Japanese and Chinese women by specifically elucidating the age and anatomical site dependence of any potential ethnic difference. In the present study, we assessed skin ageing in N=902 German, N=165 Japanese and N=1260 Chinese women ranging from 30 to 90 years by means of SCINEXA™. Linear regression analysis was used to test for ethnic differences and their age and site dependence adjusted for educational level, sun exposure, smoking and sun protection behaviours. Pigment spots and wrinkles on the face were present among all three ethnic groups and differences were influenced by age and anatomical sites independently of further influencing factors. Pigment spots on the forehead were most pronounced over the whole age range in Chinese and German women and least developed in Japanese. Pigment spots on cheeks were a typical extrinsic skin an ageing sign in the two East Asian populations in all age groups. However, in older German women they reach the same level as observed in the two East Asian populations. In contrast, pigment spots on arms and hands were significantly more pronounced in German women ≥45years of age. Wrinkles were not exclusively a skin an ageing sign of German women, but were also very pronounced in Chinese women on forehead, between the eyebrows and in the crow's feet area. These results corroborate the previous notion that the occurrence of pigments spots and wrinkles is different between Caucasians and East Asians. In addition, this study shows

  3. Absolute age constraints on the age and tectonics of the Middle and Late Proterozoic Pahrump Group, southern Death Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Calzia, J.P. ); Troxel, B.W.

    1993-04-01

    The Pahrump Group unconformably overlies 1.35 Ga granite, is unconformably overlain by the Late Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite, and is divided into the Crystal Spring Formation, the Beck Spring Dolomite, and the Kingston Peak Formation. Contacts between these formations are gradational through several meters of interbedded clastic and carbonate rocks. Lithologic data, sedimentary structures, and fossil assemblages suggest that the Pahrump Group, from middle Crystal Spring to lower Kingston Peak time, was deposited in an intratidal to supratidal environment. Diamictite, volcanic ash, and mono lithologic megabreccia suggest that the middle and the upper members of the Kingston Peak Formation were deposited in a higher energy sedimentary and tectonic environment. Dikes and sills of 1.08 Ga diabase intrude the gneiss and all members of the Crystal Spring Formation; erosional clasts of diabase first appear in the middle Kingston Peak Formation. The diabase sills are up to 450 m thick and have caused at least 20 percent inflation of the Crystal Spring, Beck Spring, and lower Kingston Peak formations. If these sedimentary rocks were deposited at or above wave base, evidence of intraplate rifting or gross stratigraphic inflation is not recorded in the Pahrump stratigraphy until middle and upper Kingston Peak time. Therefore, the stratigraphic and petrologic data suggest that the diabase was emplaced in the Crystal Spring Formation during post-lower but pre-middle Kingston Peak time. The Beck Spring Dolomite and the lower Kingston Peak Formation are older than 1.08 Ga; the contact between the lower and the middle Kingston Peak Formation is a regional disconformity that marks significant changes in the depositional and the tectonic environments of the Pahrump Group at about 1.08 Ga.

  4. Age-group Differences in Human Papillomavirus Types and Cofactors for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 Among Women Referred to Colposcopy

    PubMed Central

    Gargano, Julia W.; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Lee, Daisy R.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Steinau, Martin; Horowitz, Ira R.; Flowers, Lisa C.; Tadros, Talaat S.; Birdsong, George; Unger, Elizabeth R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recommendations for high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing as an adjunct to cytology for cervical cancer screening differ by age group, because HR-HPV tests lack adequate specificity in women aged <30. Here, we assess age-group differences in HPV types and other risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) versus CIN0–2 in women from four colposcopy clinics. Methods Women ages 18–69 (n=1658) were enrolled and completed structured interviews to elicit data on behavioral risk factors prior to their examinations. HPV genotyping was performed on exfoliated cervical cell samples. We estimated relative risks (RR) for HPV types and cofactors for CIN3+, overall and stratified by age group. Results After 2 years of follow-up, we identified 178 CIN3+, 1305 CIN0–2, and 175 indeterminate outcomes. Non-vaccine HR-HPV types were only associated with CIN3+ among women ≥30 (RR=2.3, 95% CI 1.5–3.4; <30: RR=0.9). Among all HR-HPV positive women, adjusting for age, significant cofactors for CIN3+ included current smoking (RR=1.5), former smoking (RR=1.8), regular Pap screening (RR=0.7), current regular condom use (RR=0.5), and parity ≥5 (RR=1.6, p-trend for increasing parity=.07). However, the parity association differed by age group (≥30: RR=1.8, p-trend=.008; <30: RR=0.9, p-trend=.55). Conclusions Subgroup variation by age in the risk of CIN3+ points to the importance of the timing of exposures in relation to CIN3+ detection. Impact Future screening strategies need to consider natural history and secular trends in cofactor prevalence in the pursuit of appropriately sensitive and specific screening tools applied to appropriate age groups. PMID:22028398

  5. Blood pressure categories and long-term risk of cardiovascular disease according to age group in Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Akira; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2012-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) categories defined by systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) are commonly used. However, the BP category-specific risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been thoroughly investigated in different age groups. The aim of this study was to assess long-term CVD risk and its impact according to BP categories and age group. Pooling individual data from 10 cohorts, we studied 67 309 Japanese individuals (40-89 years old) who were free of CVD at baseline: we categorized them as belonging to three age groups: 'middle-aged' (40-64 years), 'elderly' (65-74 years) and 'very elderly' (75-89 years). BP was classified according to the 2009 Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Cox models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for CVD deaths. We observed 1944 CVD deaths over a mean follow-up of 10.2 years. In all age groups, the overall relationship between BP category and CVD risk was positive, with a greater strength observed for younger age groups. We observed a trend of increased risk from SBP/DBP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg in the very elderly, and a significant increase from SBP/DBP ≥ 120/80 mm Hg in the other age groups. The population attributable fractions (PAFs) of CVD death in reference to the SBP/DBP<120/80 mm Hg category ranged from 23.4% in the very elderly to 60.3% in the middle-aged. We found an overall graded increase in CVD risk with higher BP category in the very elderly. The PAFs suggest that keeping BP levels low is an important strategy for primary CVD prevention, even in an elderly population.

  6. Diaphragmatic pathology: a cause of clinically unexplained death in the perinatal/paediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, S; Ostojic, N S; Rushton, D I; Cox, P M; Acland, P

    2005-04-01

    Sudden unexpected death in infancy and childhood requires a 'full' post-mortem investigation. Guidance from the Royal College of Pathologists recommends sampling of all the major organs. However, the diaphragm does not feature in this or in most lists of routine histology. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of sampling the diaphragm for histological examination during autopsy. We describe three autopsy cases of clinically unexplained death in the perinatal and paediatric age group that showed significant pathology of the diaphragm. In Case 1, a previously healthy five-year-old girl collapsed suddenly and died four days later. In Case 2, an eight-month-old infant had repeated episodes of respiratory arrest that culminated in death. Autopsy demonstrated a predominantly diaphragmatic myositis. In Case 3 a female neonate had a respiratory arrest three days after birth and died less than a month later. Autopsy showed multiple large calcified necrotic fibres in the diaphragm. The diaphragm is seldom sampled at autopsy. In the first two cases a predominantly diaphragmatic myositis was either the direct or underlying cause of death. In the third case long-standing diaphragmatic pathology of uncertain cause may have contributed to the original respiratory arrest. Had the diaphragm not been examined histologically, the cause of death would have remained unascertained in these cases. In cases of sudden death in infancy and childhood, failure to reach a diagnosis may lead to undue suspicion falling upon the child's carers. This underscores the need for full histology at post-mortem in child deaths, including diaphragmatic sampling.

  7. Analysis of oxytocin in milk samples and intake pattern in different age groups of Indian population.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Manjari; Ali, Shakir; Das, Mukul

    2014-06-01

    Oxytocin (OT) injections have been indiscriminately used to milk cattle in dairy industries. There is no study available regarding surveillance of OT in market milk samples. OT from milk samples was extracted by precipitation with trichloroacetic acid and passed through the solid phase extraction column. OT was eluted and evaporated to dryness under a gentle stream of nitrogen. The residue was either dissolved in milli Q water or buffer for analysis through HPLC or EIA. The intake assessment of OT through milk was assessed through the Food Frequency Recall method employing a Food Frequency Questionnaire. On the basis of milk consumption and the values of OT in milk, the actual intake of OT was calculated. In the present study, a total of 55 milk samples (39 milkman and 16 branded) were analyzed for occurrence of OT by EIA and UV-HPLC from different locations of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (India). OT contamination in milkman samples was found to be 21 pg/mL to 18.9 ng/mL with the mean value of 8.9 ng/mL. The average daily intake of OT in terms of µg/day/person was highest (2.3-2.4 µg/day/person) in 1-3-year age group. Since there is no prescribed level of OT in milk and the intake of OT through this commodity is quite high there is need to implement regulatory laws so that non-physiological OT exposure may not occur in children which may have deleterious effects.

  8. Acute mastoiditis in children aged 0-16 years--a national study of 678 cases in Sweden comparing different age groups.

    PubMed

    Groth, Anita; Enoksson, Frida; Hultcrantz, Malou; Stalfors, Joacim; Stenfeldt, Karin; Hermansson, Ann

    2012-10-01

    To compare the characteristics of acute mastoiditis in children in different age groups in order to identify risk groups and risk factors for acute mastoiditis. Records for all children aged 0-16 years treated for acute mastoiditis during 1993-2007 at 33 Ear, Nose and Throat departments in Sweden were reviewed retrospectively according to defined criteria for acute mastoiditis. A total of 678 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Acute mastoiditis was most common in children younger than two years of age and this group was characterized by less prior history of other diseases and ear diseases, fewer visits to health care centers and less antibiotic treatment before admission, shorter duration of symptoms before admission, hospitalization for fewer days and lower frequency of complications and mastoidectomies. These children also showed a higher incidence of clinical findings, increased inflammatory markers such as fever and heightened counts of C-reactive protein and white blood cells compared with older children. They also tested positive for significantly more samples of Streptococcus pneumoniae while the older children more often exhibited growth of Streptococcus pyogenes or Pseudomonas aeruginosa or no microbial growth. The characteristics of pediatric acute mastoiditis differed significantly between age groups. Acute mastoiditis was most common in children younger than two years of age. They showed more rapid progress of symptoms and more distinct signs of acute mastoiditis. This is probably the reason why parents rapidly seek medical care for small children and hospital treatment thus starts earlier in the youngest children, which may in turn explain the excellent outcome. This study showed that younger children have neither more severe acute mastoiditis nor more complications than older ones. The differences between age groups suggest that there are distinctions in the pathophysiology behind the onset and course of acute mastoiditis in younger and older

  9. Accuracy of Cameriere, Haavikko, and Willems radiographic methods on age estimation on Bosnian-Herzegovian children age groups 6-13.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Cameriere, Roberto; Nakaš, Enita; Galić, Elizabeta; Selimović, Edin; Brkić, Hrvoje

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the accuracy of the Cameriere European formula (Cameriere), adopted Haavikko method from 1974 (Haavikko), and revisited Demirjian method by Willems (Willems) for age estimation on orthopantomograms (OPGs) of Bosnian-Herzegovian (BH) children age groups 6-13 years. The accuracy was determined as difference between estimated dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA) and the absolute accuracy (absolute difference) was assessed by analyzing OPGs of 591 girls and 498 boys. The Cameriere method overestimated the mean age by 0.09 year for girls and underestimated by -0.02 year for boys. The Haavikko method underestimated the mean age by -0.29 year for girls and -0.09 year for boys. The Willems method overestimated the mean age by 0.24 year in girls and by 0.42 year in boys. The absolute accuracies were 0.53 year for girls and 0.55 year for boys for Cameriere method; for Haavikko method, 0.59 year for girls and 0.62 year for boys; and for Willems method 0.69 year for girls and 0.67 year for boys. In conclusion, Cameriere method is the most accurate for estimating the age of BH children age groups 6-13 years using OPGs, following adopted Haavikko method and Willems method.

  10. An Item Response Theory Analysis of DSM–IV Personality Disorder Criteria Across Younger and Older Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Balsis, Steve; Gleason, Marci E. J.; Woods, Carol M.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Many of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM–IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) personality disorder (PD) diagnostic criteria focus on a younger social and occupational context. The absence of age-appropriate criteria for older adults forces researchers and clinicians to draw conclusions based on existing criteria, which are likely inadequate. To explore which DSM–IV PD criteria contain age group measurement bias, the authors report 2 analyses of data on nearly 37,000 participants, ages 18–98 years, taken from a public data set that includes 7 of the 10 PDs (antisocial, avoidant, dependent, histrionic, obsessive–compulsive, paranoid, and schizoid). The 1st analysis revealed that older age groups tend to endorse fewer PD criteria than younger age groups. The 2nd analysis revealed that 29% of the criteria contain measurement bias. Although the latent variable structure for each PD was quite similar across younger and older age groups, some individual criteria were differentially endorsed by younger and older adults with equivalent PD pathology. The presence of measurement bias for these criteria raises questions concerning the assessment of PDs in older adults and the interpretation of existing data. PMID:17385993

  11. A survey of the causes of sudden cardiac death in the under 35-year-age group.

    PubMed

    Quigley, F; Greene, M; O'Connor, D; Kelly, F

    2005-09-01

    CRY (Cardiac Risk in the Young) is a registered Irish charity established by parents who are bereaved as a result of sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study is to establish the incidence and causes of sudden cardiac death in Dublin city in the 10-year period from 1st January 1993 to 31st December 2002. All sudden cardiac deaths in the under 35-year age group which were reported to the city coroner in the study period were examined. Details regarding age, sex, previous symptoms, investigations, circumstances of death and main pathological finding were recorded in each case. A total of 72 cases of sudden cardiac death in the under-35 year age group were reported. 52 were men. The median age was 26.5 years (range 12-34 years). The cause of death in 20 cases was reported as atherosclerotic Coronary Artery Disease. The second commonest cause of death (24% cases) was Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy was the commonest cause of death under the age of 25 years. Overall atherosclerotic coronary artery disease was the commonest cause of death in this group. The importance of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is highlighted by the fact it was the commonest cause of death in the under 25-year age group. Screening those at high risk of sudden cardiac death especially the relatives of those affected by Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy need to be discussed and implemented.

  12. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity.

    PubMed

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  13. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  14. Evaluating the perceived effectiveness of pregnancy-related cigarette package health warning labels among different gender/age groups.

    PubMed

    Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Osman, Amira; Thrasher, James F

    2017-03-01

    The impact of pregnancy-related health warning labels (HWLs) appearing on cigarette packages on women of reproductive age and other socio-demographic groups is not well understood. The current study analyzes how different age/gender groups respond to pregnancy-related HWLs as compared to non-pregnancy HWLs. Data were analyzed from four waves of an online longitudinal study with adult smokers aged 18-64 in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the US. Participants were classified into four age\\gender groups: women 40 and under; men 40 and under; women over 40; men over 40. Participants rated one pregnancy-related and several non-pregnancy related labels on worry, believability, and motivation to quit. Country-specific adjusted linear GEE were estimated regressing ratings for each of the three key outcomes for 1) pregnancy-related HWLs and 2) a rating difference score that subtracted the average ratings of the non-pregnancy warning from the rating of the pregnancy warning. All models adjusted for socio-demographics and smoking related variables. In Mexico and Australia, where graphic pregnancy-related HWL imagery is used (i.e., premature infant), women of reproductive age reported stronger believability, worry, and quit motivation than all other groups. Results were similar in the US, where text only HWLs are used. In contrast in Canada, where the pregnancy-related HWL imagery features a pregnant woman, ratings were unassociated with gender/age groups. Stronger effects among women of reproductive age were limited to pregnancy HWLs in each country, except Canada. HWLs that depict graphic effects to illustrate smoking-related pregnancy risks appear to be perceived as particularly effective among women of reproductive age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Students' perceptions of being graded as a group in the college classroom: relations among students' age, employment, and perceived group satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Barfield, Rufus L

    2002-12-01

    This investigation compared and measured for different age groups of students, hours of employment, and previous grading experiences of one student cohort in relation to their perceived overall satisfaction with being graded as a group. A cohort of 230 students from a large southern metropolitan university enrolled in sections of two undergraduate classes. Group Interaction and Decision Making and Conflict Management, participated. Analysis indicated that (a) older students (28-47 years) were more likely to be dissatisfied with a group grade experience than middle (23-27 years) and younger (18-22 years) students. (b) Older students working part time were significantly more dissatisfied with the overall group experience than the younger part-time working students. (c) Older part-time working students were significantly more dissatisfied with the overall experience of working and being graded as a group than the middle part-time and middle full-time working students. Differences were noted between the older and younger students, which supported older students' overall dissatisfaction with their experience of being graded as a group. Common complaints by older students were that younger students were immature, irresponsible, lacked "real-life" experience, and had misplaced priorities. Common complaints by younger students were that older students were too serious and rigid. It is recommended that this work be extended to include other comparison groups, graduate students, and other disciplines.

  16. Pharyngeal Pressure Generation during Tongue-Hold Swallows across Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Macrae, Phoebe; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effects of the tongue-hold swallowing maneuver on pharyngeal pressure generation in healthy young and elderly research volunteers. Method: Sixty-eight healthy research volunteers (young, n = 34, mean age = 26.8 years, SD = 5.5; elderly, n = 34, mean age = 72.6 years, SD = 4.8; sex equally represented) performed 5…

  17. Pharyngeal Pressure Generation during Tongue-Hold Swallows across Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Macrae, Phoebe; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effects of the tongue-hold swallowing maneuver on pharyngeal pressure generation in healthy young and elderly research volunteers. Method: Sixty-eight healthy research volunteers (young, n = 34, mean age = 26.8 years, SD = 5.5; elderly, n = 34, mean age = 72.6 years, SD = 4.8; sex equally represented) performed 5…

  18. Physician employment practices in the medical group. Age discrimination in employment.

    PubMed

    Dent, R L; Thomas, S L

    1994-01-01

    Ronald L. Dent, C.P.A., and Steven L. Thomas, Ph.D., explore age discrimination issues in medical practices: how older physicians are being squeezed out. The authors also investigate the laws that are in place to protect older physicians from losing their jobs because of their age.

  19. Structural Validity of the Movement ABC-2 Test: Factor Structure Comparisons across Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Joerg; Henderson, Sheila E.; Sugden, David A.; Barnett, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Movement ABC test is one of the most widely used assessments in the field of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Improvements to the 2nd edition of the test (M-ABC-2) include an extension of the age range and reduction in the number of age bands as well as revision of tasks. The total test score provides a measure of motor…

  20. Structural Validity of the Movement ABC-2 Test: Factor Structure Comparisons across Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Joerg; Henderson, Sheila E.; Sugden, David A.; Barnett, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Movement ABC test is one of the most widely used assessments in the field of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Improvements to the 2nd edition of the test (M-ABC-2) include an extension of the age range and reduction in the number of age bands as well as revision of tasks. The total test score provides a measure of motor…

  1. A Note on Sex Differences in Mental Rotation in Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Eid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A large number of studies have reported average performance differences in favor of males in mental rotation tasks. However, it is still unclear to what extent the magnitude of the sex differences varies across age, and whether the differences increase with age. In this study, we reanalyzed data from a cross-sectional investigation of N = 1624…

  2. Genetic determination of telomere size in humans: A twin study of three age groups

    SciTech Connect

    Slagboom, P.E.; Droog, S.; Boomsma, D.I.

    1994-11-01

    Reduction of telomere length has been postulated to be a casual factor in cellular aging. Human telomeres terminate in tandemly arranged repeat arrays consisting of the (TTAGGG) motif. The length of these arrays in cells from human mitotic tissues is inversely related to the age of the donor, indicating telomere reduction with age. In addition to telemore length differences between different age cohorts, considerable variation is present among individuals of the same age. To investigate whether this variation can be ascribed to genetic influences, we have measured the size of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) in HaeIII-digested genomic DNA from 123 human MZ and DZ twin pairs 2-95 years of age. The average rate of telomere shortening was 31 bp/year, which is similar to that observed by others. Statistical analysis in 115 pairs 2-63 years of age indicates a 78% heritability for mean TRF length in this age cohort. The individual differences in mean TRF length in blood, therefore, seem to a large extent to be genetically determined. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. A Note on Sex Differences in Mental Rotation in Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Eid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A large number of studies have reported average performance differences in favor of males in mental rotation tasks. However, it is still unclear to what extent the magnitude of the sex differences varies across age, and whether the differences increase with age. In this study, we reanalyzed data from a cross-sectional investigation of N = 1624…

  4. How Hyperarousal and Sleep Reactivity Are Represented in Different Adult Age Groups: Results from a Large Cohort Study on Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Altena, Ellemarije; Chen, Ivy Y.; Daviaux, Yannick; Ivers, Hans; Philip, Pierre; Morin, Charles M.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperarousal is a 24-h state of elevated cognitive and physiological activation, and is a core feature of insomnia. The extent to which sleep quality is affected by stressful events—so-called sleep reactivity—is a vulnerability factor for developing insomnia. Given the increasing prevalence of insomnia with age, we aimed to investigate how hyperarousal and sleep reactivity were related to insomnia severity in different adult age groups. Data were derived from a large cohort study investigating the natural history of insomnia in a population-based sample (n = 1693). Baseline data of the Arousal Predisposition Scale (APS) and Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST) were examined across age and sleep/insomnia subgroups: 25–35 (n = 448), 35–45 (n = 528), and 45–55 year olds (n = 717); good sleepers (n = 931), individuals with insomnia symptoms (n = 450), and individuals with an insomnia syndrome (n = 312). Results from factorial analyses of variance (ANOVA) showed that APS scores decreased with increasing age, but increased with more severe sleep problems. FIRST scores were not significantly different across age groups, but showed the same strong increase as a function of sleep problem severity. The findings indicate that though arousal predisposition and sleep reactivity increase with more severe sleep problems, only arousal decreases with age. How arousing events affect an individual during daytime thus decreases with age, but how this arousal disrupts sleep is equivalent across different adult age groups. The main implication of these findings is that treatment of insomnia could be adapted for different age groups and take into consideration vulnerability factors such as hyperarousal and stress reactivity. PMID:28420079

  5. Associations of gender and age groups on the knowledge and use of drug information resources by American pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Clauson, Kevin A; Gershman, Jennifer; Polen, Hyla H

    2013-04-01

    To explore knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists and identify patterns influenced by gender and age-group classification. A survey questionnaire was mailed nationwide to 1,000 practitioners working in community (n = 500) and hospital (n = 500) settings who answer drug information questions as part of their expected job responsibilities. Responses pertaining to drug information resource use and knowledge of different types of drug-related queries, resource media preferences, and perceived adequacy of resources maintained in the pharmacy were analyzed by gender and age group. The t statistic was used to test for significant differences of means and percentages between genders and between age groups. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize other findings. Gender and age group classification influenced patterns of knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists. They also affected pharmacists' perceptions of the most common types of questions prompting them to consult a drug information reference, as well as the resources consulted. Micromedex, exclusively available in electronic format, was the most commonly consulted resource overall by pharmacists. Lexi-Comp Online was the leading choice by women, preferred over Micromedex, but was not one of the top two resources selected by men. This study successfully identified the influence of gender and age-group classification in assessing drug information resource knowledge and use of general and specific types of drug-related queries.

  6. Associations of gender and age groups on the knowledge and use of drug information resources by American pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Manuel J.; Clauson, Kevin A.; Gershman, Jennifer; Polen, Hyla H.

    Objective To explore knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists and identify patterns influenced by gender and age-group classification. Methods A survey questionnaire was mailed nationwide to 1,000 practitioners working in community (n = 500) and hospital (n = 500) settings who answer drug information questions as part of their expected job responsibilities. Responses pertaining to drug information resource use and knowledge of different types of drug-related queries, resource media preferences, and perceived adequacy of resources maintained in the pharmacy were analyzed by gender and age group. The t statistic was used to test for significant differences of means and percentages between genders and between age groups. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize other findings. Results Gender and age group classification influenced patterns of knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists. They also affected pharmacists’ perceptions of the most common types of questions prompting them to consult a drug information reference, as well as the resources consulted. Micromedex, exclusively available in electronic format, was the most commonly consulted resource overall by pharmacists. Lexi-Comp Online was the leading choice by women, preferred over Micromedex, but was not one of the top two resources selected by men. Conclusions This study successfully identified the influence of gender and age-group classification in assessing drug information resource knowledge and use of general and specific types of drug-related queries. PMID:24155853

  7. National survey on edentulism and its geographic distribution, among Mexicans 18 years of age and older (with emphasis in WHO age groups).

    PubMed

    Medina-Solís, C E; Pérez-Núñez, R; Maupomé, G; Avila-Burgos, L; Pontigo-Loyola, A P; Patiño-Marín, N; Villalobos-Rodelo, J J

    2008-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of edentulism in adults aged 18 years and older in Mexico and to describe its distribution in 20 of the 32 States in Mexico, highlighting the experience in the WHO age groups. A secondary analysis of the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2002-2003 (representative at the state level and part of the Word Health Survey) was undertaken. The sample design was probabilistic, stratified and through conglomerates. Data on dental conditions were available only for 20 of the 32 states of Mexico, leading to a total of 24 159 households (N = 54 638 654). The percentage of edentulism was determined as the proportion of subjects that self-reported complete loss of teeth. Data were analyzed using the SVY module for complex surveys in STATA 8.2. The mean age was 41.3 +/- 17.0 years (range 18-99). An estimated 6.3% (N = 3 437 816) of the population > or =18 years was edentulous. Lowest prevalences were observed in the states of Tlaxcala, Puebla and the Estado de Mexico with 3.4%, 3.8% and 4.5%, respectively. Highest prevalences were observed in San Luis Potosí, Colima, and Michoacán with 10.3%, 10.2% and 10.1%, respectively. Following the WHO age groups, the prevalence ranged from 2.4% in the 35-44 group through 25.5% in the 65-74 group. No obvious association between socio-economic and socio-demographic indicators at the state level and prevalence of edentulism was found. The prevalence of complete tooth loss observed in the present study varied greatly across states, although no straightforward association was found with socio-economic and socio-demographic indicators at the state level. This study could serve as a baseline to enable future evaluations of the oral status of Mexican adults and elders, following WHO age groups.

  8. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Deborah L; Hodgkin, Dominic; Fagan, Pebbles; Reif, Sharon; Horgan, Constance M

    2012-07-11

    Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,323,758) were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy.

  9. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. Methods The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,323,758) were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Results Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Conclusions Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy. PMID:22784412

  10. Engaging Focus Group Methodology: The 4-H Middle School-Aged Youth Learning and Leading Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson

    2015-01-01

    With young people, discussing complex issues such as learning and leading in a focus group can be a challenge. To help prime youth for the discussion, we created a focus group approach that featured a fun, interactive activity. This article includes a description of the focus group activity, lessons learned, and suggestions for additional…

  11. Engaging Focus Group Methodology: The 4-H Middle School-Aged Youth Learning and Leading Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson

    2015-01-01

    With young people, discussing complex issues such as learning and leading in a focus group can be a challenge. To help prime youth for the discussion, we created a focus group approach that featured a fun, interactive activity. This article includes a description of the focus group activity, lessons learned, and suggestions for additional…

  12. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W.; Crout, Richard J.; Weyant, Robert J.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1–5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6–11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12–17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18–59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1–5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6–11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12–17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  13. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1-5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6-11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12-17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18-59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1-5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6-11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12-17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men.

  14. The Comparison of Sagittal Spinopelvic Parameters between Young Adult Patients with L5 Spondylolysis and Age-Matched Control Group.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Min; Choi, Ha Young; Eun, Jong Pil

    2013-09-01

    To compare spinopelvic parameters in young adult patients with spondylolysis to those in age-matched patients without spondylolysis and investigate the clinical impact of sagittal spinopelvic parameters in patients with L5 spondylolysis. From 2009 to 2012, a total of 198 young adult male patients with spondylolysis were identified. Eighty age-matched patients without spondylolysis were also selected. Standing lateral films that included both hip joints were obtained for each subject. Pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis angle, sacral inclination, lumbosacral angle, and sacral table angle were measured in both groups. A comparative study of the spinopelvic parameters of these two groups was performed using SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Among the aforementioned spinopelvic parameters, PI, SS and STA were significantly different between patients with spondylolysis and those without spondylolysis. PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. Patients with spondylolysis have low STA at birth, which remains constant during growth; a low STA translates into high SS. As a result, PI is also increased in accordance with SS. Therefore, we suggest that STA is an important etiologic factor in young adult patients with L5 spondylolysis.

  15. The Comparison of Sagittal Spinopelvic Parameters between Young Adult Patients with L5 Spondylolysis and Age-Matched Control Group

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young Min; Choi, Ha Young

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare spinopelvic parameters in young adult patients with spondylolysis to those in age-matched patients without spondylolysis and investigate the clinical impact of sagittal spinopelvic parameters in patients with L5 spondylolysis. Methods From 2009 to 2012, a total of 198 young adult male patients with spondylolysis were identified. Eighty age-matched patients without spondylolysis were also selected. Standing lateral films that included both hip joints were obtained for each subject. Pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis angle, sacral inclination, lumbosacral angle, and sacral table angle were measured in both groups. A comparative study of the spinopelvic parameters of these two groups was performed using SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results Among the aforementioned spinopelvic parameters, PI, SS and STA were significantly different between patients with spondylolysis and those without spondylolysis. PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. Conclusion PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. Patients with spondylolysis have low STA at birth, which remains constant during growth; a low STA translates into high SS. As a result, PI is also increased in accordance with SS. Therefore, we suggest that STA is an important etiologic factor in young adult patients with L5 spondylolysis. PMID:24278649

  16. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Zytoon, Mohamed A.; Basahel, Abdulrahman M.

    2017-01-01

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels. PMID:28245578

  17. Effects of message framing on self-report and accelerometer-assessed physical activity across age and gender groups.

    PubMed

    Li, Kin-Kit; Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Fung, Helene H

    2014-02-01

    This study compared message-framing effects on physical activity (PA) across age and gender groups. Participants included 111 younger and 100 older adults (68% were women), randomly assigned to read gain-framed or loss-framed PA messages in promotion pamphlets, and who wore accelerometers for the following 14 days. Using regression analyses controlling for demographic and health factors, we found significant age-by-gender-by-framing interactions predicting self-report (B = -4.39, p = .01) and accelerometer-assessed PA (B = -2.44, p = .02) during the follow-up period. Gain-framed messages were more effective than loss-framed messages in promoting PA behaviors only among older men. We speculated that the age-related positivity effect, as well as the age and gender differences in issue involvement, explained the group differences in framing. In addition, more time availability and higher self-efficacy among older men might have contributed to the results.

  18. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Zytoon, Mohamed A; Basahel, Abdulrahman M

    2017-02-24

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels.

  19. [Current situation and comparison of age at menarche in 26 ethnic minority groups in Chinese girls in 2010].

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Zhang, Bing; Hu, Pei-jin; Ma, Jun

    2014-06-18

    To analyze the current situation of age at menarche (AAM) in Chinese ethnic minority girls aged 9-18 years, and compare the AAM with that of Chinese Han girls from the same province or autonomous region. Probit analyses were used to calculate the AAM in various ethnic minority groups of Chinese girls who participated in 2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance. The sample size of ethnic minority girls was 31 711, and the ethnic minorities were Mongolian, Hui, Tibetan, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Zhuang, Buyi, Korean, Dong, Yao, Bai, Tujia, Hani, Kazak, Dai, Li, Lisu, Wa, Shui, Dongxiang, Naxi, Kirgiz, Tu, Qiang and Sala. The local Han girls to compare with the AAM were also surveyed in 2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance. In the 13-year-old group, the percentage of menarche in Sala was the lowest (32.17%), while that in Korean was the highest (93.23%). At the age of 18, 99.60% ethnic minority girls appeared menstruating. The AAM of the top 3 ethnic minority groups were Korean (11.79 years), Mongolian (12.44 years) and Zhuang (12.52 years); and the last 3 ethnic minority groups were Dongxiang (14.36 years), Sala (14.32 years) and Shui (14.02 years). The AAM in Korean was 0.93 years earlier than that of the Han girls from Jilin province; the AAM in Mongolian was 0.14 years earlier than that of the Han girls from Neimenggu autonomous region; the AAM in Naxi and Qiang was close to that of the Han girls in the same province (region) (P>0.05); and the AAM in Hui, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Zhuang, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Bai, Tujia, Hani, Kazak, Dai, Li, Lisu, Wa, Shui, Dongxiang, Kirgiz, Tu, and Sala was later than that of the Han girls in the same province (region). The cluster analysis indicated that the 26 ethnic minority groups could be classified as three groups: Korean were classified into the earlier age group of AAM; Dongxiang, Sala, Uighur, Yi and Shui belonged to the later age group of AAM; and the other 20 ethnic minority groups were into the middle

  20. Habitual eating of breakfast, consumption frequency of selected food and overweight prevalence in adolescents from various age groups.

    PubMed

    Wüenstel, Justyna Weronika; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Wądołowska, Lidia; Słowińska, Małgorzata Anna; Niedźwiedzka, Ewa; Kurp, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    To assess the influence of eating breakfast on the consumption of selected food and overweight prevalence among adolescents from different age groups. The study group consisted of students aged 13-18.9 (n=1700). Their height and weight measurements were used to calculate their body mass index and interpreted according to international standards for adolescents. Food consumption was assessed via the frequency method and involved the consumption of breakfast, dietary "bre and sweetened beverages. We used Block's validated questionnaire to assess the intake of dietary "bre and its sources. Analysis of the results was carried out in three age groups: 13-14.9, 15-16.9 and 17-18.9 years old. We used one-factor logistic regression adjusted by gender. The percentage of adolescents with a regular habit of eating breakfast dropped by 5.7 percentage points when compared to adolescents aged 13-14.9 and 17-18.9 (from 54.2% to 48.5%), which was a phenomenon accompanied by an increase in the percentage of adolescents who ate breakfast irregularly or hardly ever (by 3.7 and 1.9 percentage points, respectively). Eating breakfast infrequently was related to a more frequent consumption of sweetened beverages (the odds ratio: from 2.32 to 2.67 depending on the age group) and a higher prevalence of a "bre-poor diet (from 1.49 to 2.23). Among adolescents aged 13-14.9 who hardly ever ate breakfast, the chance of being overweight increased by 83% in comparison to adolescents with regular habits of eating breakfast. The frequency of eating breakfast decreased with the adolescents' age, especially among girls. Eating breakfast infrequently was associated with unhealthy nutrition, typical examples of which are lower intake of dietary "bre and more frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, and in the youngest group of adolescents caused a higher prevalence of overweight.

  1. The biology of lantibiotics from the lacticin 481 group is coming of age.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Alain; Hindré, Thomas; Haras, Dominique; Le Pennec, Jean-Paul

    2007-03-01

    Lantibiotics are antimicrobial peptides from the bacteriocin family, secreted by Gram-positive bacteria. These peptides differ from other bacteriocins by the presence of (methyl)lanthionine residues, which result from enzymatic modification of precursor peptides encoded by structural genes. Several groups of lantibiotics have been distinguished, the largest of which is the lacticin 481 group. This group consists of at least 16 members, including lacticin 481, streptococcin A-FF22, mutacin II, nukacin ISK-1, and salivaricins. We present the first review devoted to this lantibiotic group, knowledge of which has increased significantly within the last few years. After updating the group composition and defining the common properties of these lantibiotics, we highlight the most recent developments. The latter concern: transcriptional regulation of the lantibiotic genes; understanding the biosynthetic machinery, in particular the ability to perform in vitro prepeptide maturation; characterization of a novel type of immunity protein; and broad application possibilities. This group differs in many aspects from the best known lantibiotic group (nisin group), but shares properties with less-studied groups such as the mersacidin, cytolysin and lactocin S groups.

  2. [Tissue specificity of antioxidant system functioning and lipid peroxidation in different age groups of Amur carp].

    PubMed

    Kras', S I; Tarasiuk, S I

    2011-01-01

    Key features of tissue enzymes functioning in antioxidant system (AOS) in sexually mature and immature individuals of Amur carp were studied. The activity of antioxidant enzymes was highest in the myocardium and subjected to age-related changes. It was concluded that changes in the functioning of AOS and intensity of lipid peroxidation processes are characterized by organ-tissue metabolic features and age peculiarities of metabolism that is most expressed in the myocardium.

  3. Using 40Ar/39Ar ages of intercalated silicic tuffs to date flood basalts: Precise ages for Steens Basalt Member of the Columbia River Basalt Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahood, Gail A.; Benson, Thomas R.

    2017-02-01

    To establish causality between flood basalt eruptions and extinction events and global environmental effects recorded by isotopic excursions in marine sediments, highly accurate and precise ages for the flood basalts are required. But flood basalts are intrinsically difficult to date. We illustrate how 40Ar/39Ar feldspar ages for silicic tuffs intercalated with and overlying sections of Steens Basalt, the earliest lavas of the Middle Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group in the northwestern United States, provide high-precision ages that, for the first time, make it possible to resolve age differences with stratigraphic position within a section of these flood lavas. The stratigraphically lowest rhyolitic tuff, a fall deposit, yielded an age of 16.592 ± ± 0.028 Ma (FCs = 28.02 Ma), and the uppermost, the alkali rhyolite ignimbrite Tuff of Oregon Canyon, is 16.468 ± ± 0.014 Ma. The argon and stratigraphic data indicate that Steens Basalt eruptions occurred from ∼16.64 to 16.43 Ma in the southern end of its distribution. We estimate that the Steens Mountain geomagnetic reversal occurred at 16.496 ± ± 0.028 Ma (±0.18 Ma total error). Our estimates of the timing for initiation of volcanism and volumetric eruptive rates do not seem to support volcanic forcing by the initial stages of Columbia River Basalt Group eruptions as an explanation for the abrupt warming and carbonate dissolution at the beginning of the Miocene Climatic Optimum.

  4. The role of age and ethnic group in face recognition memory: ERP evidence from a combined own-age and own-race bias study.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Young adult participants are known to more accurately remember faces from both their own age- and ethnic groups. The present study examined combined effects of such own-age and own-race biases by asking young Caucasian participants to learn and remember elderly and young Caucasian as well as elderly and young Asian faces. Neural correlates were assessed by recording event-related potentials (ERPs). Behavioral results indicated both an own-race bias for young but not elderly faces, and an own-age bias for Caucasian but not Asian faces. Importantly, no additional decrease in recognition memory for other-race/other-age faces was detected. An early parietal ERP old/new effect (300-500 ms) was most pronounced for young Caucasian "in-group" faces, while the old/new effect in a later time window (500-800 ms) was generally larger for own- as compared to other-race faces. In conclusion, these findings suggest at least partly different neural processes to accompany the own-race and own-age biases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Contextualizing older women's body images: Time dimensions, multiple reference groups, and age codings of appearance.

    PubMed

    Krekula, Clary

    2016-01-01

    The article sheds light on older women's body images and problematizes assumptions that women's aging is more painful and shameful than men's aging since men are not expected to live up to youthful beauty norms, the so-called double standard of aging hypothesis. Based on 12 qualitative interviews with women from the age of 75 from the Swedish capital area, I argue that older women have access to a double perspective of beauty, which means that they can relate to both youthful and age-related beauty norms. The results also illustrate that women's body image is created in a context where previous body images are central and that this time perspective can contribute toward a positive body image. Further, the results show how age codings of appearance-related qualities create a narrow framework for older women's body images and point to the benefits of shifting the analytical focus toward a material-semiotic body where corporeality and discourse are seen as interwoven.

  6. Aging and physical mobility in group-housed Old World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shively, Carol A; Willard, Stephanie L; Register, Thomas C; Bennett, Allyson J; Pierre, Peter J; Laudenslager, Mark L; Kitzman, Dalane W; Childers, Martin K; Grange, Robert W; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2012-10-01

    While indices of physical mobility such as gait speed are significant predictors of future morbidity/mortality in the elderly, mechanisms of these relationships are not understood. Relevant animal models of aging and physical mobility are needed to study these relationships. The goal of this study was to develop measures of physical mobility including activity levels and gait speed in Old World monkeys which vary with age in adults. Locomotor behaviors of 21 old ([Formula: see text] = 20 yoa) and 24 young ([Formula: see text] = 9 yoa) socially housed adult females of three species were recorded using focal sample and ad libitum behavior observation methods. Self-motivated walking speed was 17% slower in older than younger adults. Likewise, young adults climbed more frequently than older adults. Leaping and jumping were more common, on average, in young adults, but this difference did not reach significance. Overall activity levels did not vary significantly by age, and there were no significant age by species interactions in any of these behaviors. Of all the behaviors evaluated, walking speed measured in a simple and inexpensive manner appeared most sensitive to age and has the added feature of being least affected by differences in housing characteristics. Thus, walking speed may be a useful indicator of decline in physical mobility in nonhuman primate models of aging.

  7. [Quantity and quality of the aged population in Japan: the use of life tables for the assessment of group vitality].

    PubMed

    Soda, T

    1980-01-01

    Due to the gradual increase in standard of living and the development of health and welfare services, man has succeeded in decreasing the death rate for all age groups with the consequent prolongation of the lifespan as a whole. On the other hand, however, the quantitative accumulation of the elderly is causing serious anxiety among all groups of people. Thus, concern about care for the aged is very high. The author is not quite so pessimistic but it is expected that there will be a qualitative improvement in the productive activities of the elderly along with an increased lifespan. Though there is not yet sufficient data to confirm improvement in the physical and mental activities of this segment of Japanese population, there are life table functions related to life expectancy, increase of mortality rate, etc. as qualitative indicators of survival or productive ability for the aged. In Japan prior to World War 2, people between 15-60 were usually regarded as the productive age population. Life expectancy of males at age 60 was 12.6 years in the 6th life tables compiled for 1935-6. The same phenomenon of prolongation of the productive age period was also recognized in connection with other values. If the borderline age dividing productive and nonproductive elderly populations will move toward a higher age in the future, the proportion of nonproductive elderly as a percentage of the total as well as of the productive population will decrease markedly as compared to when the elderly borderline is fixed at the same age. It is advised that new ways be found to allocate the expanded labor force found among this group for providing some necessary services and functions. (author's modified)

  8. Age Group Differences in HIV Risk and Mental Health Problems among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2014-01-01

    HIV risk and mental health problems are prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. The purpose of this research was to study age group differences in HIV risk and mental health problems in this population. In the current study we divided a sample of 1,022 FSWs into three age groups (≤20 years, 21– 34 years, and ≥35 years). Results showed that among the three groups (a) older FSWs (≥35 years) were likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged (e.g., rural residency, little education, employment in low-paying venues, and low monthly income); (b) older FSWs reported the highest rates of inconsistent, ineffective condom use and STD history; (c) younger FSWs (≤20 years) reported the highest level of depression, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, regular-partner violence, and substance use; (d) all health-related risks except casual-partner violence were more prevalent among older and younger FSWs than among FSW aged 21–34 years; (e) age had a significant effect on all health indicators except suicide attempts after controlling for several key demographic factors. These findings indicate the need for intervention efforts to address varying needs among FSWs in different age groups. Specific interventional efforts are needed to reduce older FSWs’ exposure to HIV risk; meanwhile, more attention should be given to improve FSWs’ mental health status, especially among younger FSWs. PMID:24410298

  9. Lower Paleozoic Through Archean Detrital Zircon Ages From Metasedimentary Rocks of the Nome Group, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, J. M.; Miller, E. L.; Gehrels, G.

    2003-12-01

    Metamorphic rocks of Seward Peninsula have been divided into two groups based on their metamorphic grade and history: The Nome Group and the Kigluaik Group. Although it is sometime been assumed that the higher structural position of the Nome Group versus the Kigluaik Group indicates the Kigluaik Group is older, this relationship and the age of the protoliths of these rocks has never been well-established. The Nome Group includes (delete the) lower grade blueschist and greenschist facies rocks which are widespread across the Seward Peninsula (delete) Rock types include pelitic schist, more mafic chlorite-white mica-albite schist, marble, quartzite, and metabasite. An early metamorphic event (pre-120 Ma) occurred at high pressure and relatively low temperature, and is everywhere overprinted by younger deformation and greenschist facies Rare eclogite facies assemblages are preserved in metabasites, and garnet-glaucophane in some of the pelitic schists. The Kigluaik Group includes upper greenschist to granulite facies rocks that are exposed in the core of a gneiss dome. They record a younger event (~91 Ma) that occurred at higher temperatures and resulted in partial thermal overprinting of the Nome Group and upper greenschist to granulite facies assemblages forming in the Kigluaik Group. The Kigluaik Group and equivalent rocks in the Bendeleben and Darby Mountains represent at least in part similar protoliths to many of the units in the Nome Group (Till and Dumoulin, 1994). The boundary between the rocks of the Nome Group and those clearly affected by the second metamorphic event is placed arbitrarily at the "Biotite-in" isograd along the flanks of the gneiss dome. In order to assess the protolith ages and source rock ages for these units, detrital zircon ages were obtained from three samples from the Nome Group, with Kigluaik Group ages forthcoming. LA-MC-ICPMS U/Pb isotope analysis was used for dating. Two samples were collected from the western Kigluaik Mountains

  10. On the derivation of a full life table from mortality data recorded in five-year age groups.

    PubMed

    Pollard, J H

    1989-01-01

    Mortality data are often gathered using 5-year age groups rather than individual years of life. Furthermore, it is common practice to use a large open-ended interval (such as 85 and over) for mortality data at the older ages. These limitations of the data pose problems for the actuary or demographer who wishes to compile a full and accurate life table using individual years of life. The author devises formulae which handle these problems. He also devises methods for handling mortality during the 1st year of life and for dealing with other technical problems which arise in the compilation of the full life table from grouped data.

  11. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Performance in Subelite Gaelic Football Players From Under Thirteen to Senior Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Roe, Mark; Malone, Shane

    2016-11-01

    Roe, M and Malone, S. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance in subelite Gaelic football players from under thirteen to senior age groups. J Strength Cond Res 30 (11): 3187-3193, 2016-Gaelic football is indigenous to Ireland and has similar locomotion profiles to soccer and Australian Football. Given the increasing attention on long-term player development, investigations on age-related variation in Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) performance may provide useful information in talent identification, program design, and player monitoring. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate Yo-YoIR1 performance across Gaelic football age groups. Male participants (n = 355) were recruited from division one, Gaelic football teams. Participants were allocated to one of the 7 groups according to respective age groups from under 13 (U13), under 14, under 15 (U15), under 16 (U16), minor, under 21 (U21), to senior age groups. Total Yo-YoIR1 distance (m) increased progressively from U13 (885 ± 347 m) to U16 (1,595 ± 380 m) equating to a rate of change of 180.2%. In comparison to U13, total distance at minor (1,206 ± 327 m) increased by 136.4%. Subsequent increases were observed in U21 (1,585 ± 445 m) and senior players (2,365 ± 489). Minimum (800-880 m) and maximum (2,240-2,280 m) total distances were comparable for U15, U16, and U21 players. Differences in total distance (m) for all age groups were statistically significant when compared to U13 players (p < 0.002). In comparison to U13 players, the magnitude of differences between age groups for total distance was deemed to be large (effect size > 0.8). Similar trends were observed for maximum velocity and estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. The evolution of Yo-YoIR1 performance in Gaelic football players from adolescents to adulthood highlights how maturation may influence sport-related running ability. Changes in Yo-YoIR1 performance should be closely monitored to optimize interventions for

  12. [NUCLEAR AND PERIKARYA SIZES OF THE NEURONS IN THE NUCLEUS BASALIS OF MEYNERT AND POSTERIOR HYPOTHALAMUS IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS].

    PubMed

    Ishunina, T A

    2015-01-01

    Morphometric parameters of neuronal metabolic activity, such as the area of neuronal nuclei and perikarya and nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), tuberomamillary (TMN) and medial mammillary (MMN) hypothalamic nuclei of human subjects belonging to four age groups were studied. Statistically significant increase in the size of neuronal perikarya and their nuclei was found in elderly people aged 60-74 years. The surge in the metabolic activity of neurons in the NBM starts earlier than in the TMN and MMN, and becomes apparent morphologically in people of middle age (45-59 years). The age-related increase in the metabolic activity of neurons in the studied structures of the human brain participating in the regulation of memory and other cognitive functions, may represent protective, adaptive and/or compensatory mechanisms of the aging process that also prevents the development of Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Sex and age group differences in the associations between sleep duration and BMI from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ames, Megan E; Holfeld, Brett; Leadbeater, Bonnie J

    2016-08-01

    We examine concurrent and longitudinal associations between sleep duration (SD) and body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood, controlling for physical activity and internalising symptoms. Sex and age group differences (early adolescent group ages 12-15 years and late adolescent group ages 16-18 years) are examined. A randomly selected community-based sample of youth (N = 662; 48.3% males) were surveyed biannually from 2003 (T1) to 2014 (T6). We found sex and age group differences for the concurrent and longitudinal associations between SD and BMI. For males, shorter SD at baseline was concurrently related to higher BMI. For females, shorter SD at baseline was associated with longitudinal increases in BMI, for the late adolescent group only. Findings show that the association between SD and BMI, previously shown in childhood, continues to be significant in adolescence and young adulthood. Developmentally appropriate and sex-specific strategies for motivating and supporting healthy sleep habits in adolescence that may help to prevent weight gain into young adulthood are discussed.

  14. Focus Groups with Working Parents of School-Aged Children: What's Needed to Improve Family Meals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Rydell, Sarah; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Garwick, Ann; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Dudovitz, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To conduct focus groups to identify parents' perceptions of barriers to family meals and elucidate ideas to guide the development of interventions to overcome barriers. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 27 working parents in urban community settings. Results: Parents reported enjoying the sharing/bonding…

  15. The Autobiographical Group: A Tool for the Reconstruction of Past Life Experience with the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, Luis; Feixas, Guillem

    1993-01-01

    Used guided autobiography to foster reconstruction of past life experiences among 12 older adults in Barcelona, Spain. Found a significant and gradual change in the construing system of those participants in autobiographical group as compared to control group of 10 older adults. Distance of elements self-ideal/self and self-ideal/others…

  16. Age Difference and Face-Saving in an Inter-Generational Problem-Based Learning Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    This study used grounded theory methodology to investigate whether learning in a problem-based learning (PBL) group was influenced by student demographic diversity. Data comprised observations, in the form of video footage, of one first-year PBL group carried out over the period of an academic year, along with student interviews. Using the…

  17. Effective Group Work for Elementary School-Age Children Whose Parents Are Divorcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia-Waack, Janice; Gerrity, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Parental divorce is the issue of most concern for elementary school children. This article describes interventions for children-of-divorce groups for elementary school children. Suggests guidelines related to goal setting; securing agency and parental consent; leadership planning; recruitment, screening, and selection of members; group member…

  18. Focus Groups with Working Parents of School-Aged Children: What's Needed to Improve Family Meals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Rydell, Sarah; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Garwick, Ann; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Dudovitz, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To conduct focus groups to identify parents' perceptions of barriers to family meals and elucidate ideas to guide the development of interventions to overcome barriers. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 27 working parents in urban community settings. Results: Parents reported enjoying the sharing/bonding…

  19. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among High-Risk Age Groups in South Korea, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Young Ran; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Jeong, Young Eui

    2016-01-01

    After an extensive vaccination policy, Japanese encephalitis (JE) was nearly eliminated since the mid-1980s in South Korea. Vaccination in children shifted the affected age of JE patients from children to adults. However, an abrupt increase in JE cases occurred in 2010, and this trend has continued. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the JE virus (JEV) among high-risk age groups (≥40 years) in South Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to JEV in 945 subjects within four age groups (30–39, 40–49, 50–59, and 60–69 years) in 10 provinces. Of the 945 enrolled subjects, 927 (98.1%) exhibited antibodies against JEV. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies according to sex, age, or occupation. However, there were significant differences in the plaque reduction rate according to age and occupation; oldest age group had a higher reduction rate, and subjects who were employed in agriculture or forestry also had a higher value than the other occupations. We also found that three provinces (Gangwon, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam) had a relatively lower plaque reduction rate than the other locations. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were conducted to determine recent viral infections and 12 (2.2%) subjects were found to have been recently infected by the virus. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicated that the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies has been maintained at very high levels among adult age groups owing to vaccination or natural infections, or both. In the future, serosurveillance should be conducted periodically using more representative samples to better understand the population-level immunity to JE in South Korea. PMID:26807709

  20. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among High-Risk Age Groups in South Korea, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ju; Cha, Go-Woon; Ju, Young Ran; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Jeong, Young Eui

    2016-01-01

    After an extensive vaccination policy, Japanese encephalitis (JE) was nearly eliminated since the mid-1980s in South Korea. Vaccination in children shifted the affected age of JE patients from children to adults. However, an abrupt increase in JE cases occurred in 2010, and this trend has continued. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the JE virus (JEV) among high-risk age groups (≥40 years) in South Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to JEV in 945 subjects within four age groups (30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years) in 10 provinces. Of the 945 enrolled subjects, 927 (98.1%) exhibited antibodies against JEV. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies according to sex, age, or occupation. However, there were significant differences in the plaque reduction rate according to age and occupation; oldest age group had a higher reduction rate, and subjects who were employed in agriculture or forestry also had a higher value than the other occupations. We also found that three provinces (Gangwon, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam) had a relatively lower plaque reduction rate than the other locations. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were conducted to determine recent viral infections and 12 (1.3%) subjects were found to have been recently infected by the virus [corrected]. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicated that the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies has been maintained at very high levels among adult age groups owing to vaccination or natural infections, or both. In the future, serosurveillance should be conducted periodically using more representative samples to better understand the population-level immunity to JE in South Korea.

  1. Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services Among American Indians by Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Roh, Soonhee; Brown-Rice, Kathleen A; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Yee-Melichar, Darlene; Talbot, Elizabeth P

    2015-11-01

    This study examined determinants of attitudes toward mental health services with a sample of American Indian younger-old-adults (aged 50-64, n = 158) and American Indian older-old adults (aged 65 and older, n = 69). Adapting Andersen's behavioral model of healthcare utilization, predisposing factors, mental health needs, and enabling factors were considered as potential predictors. Female and those with higher levels of social support tend to report more positive attitudes toward mental health services. Culture-influenced personal belief was associated with negative attitudes toward mental health services among American Indian younger-old -adults. Age and higher chronic medical conditions were significantly related to negative attitudes toward mental health services. Health insurance was positively associated with positive attitudes toward mental health services in the American Indian older-old adults. Findings indicate that practitioners should engage how culture, social support, and chronic conditions influence the response to mental health needs when working with older American Indians.

  2. Coherence of Influenza Surveillance Data across Different Sources and Age Groups, Beijing, China, 2008-2015

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yanhui; Sun, Jingyi; Qin, Guoyou; Yang, Lin; Qin, Jingning; Xiao, Zheng; Ren, Jian; Qin, Di; Wang, Xiling; Zheng, Xueying

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is active during the winter and spring in the city of Beijing, which has a typical temperate climate with four clear distinct seasons. The clinical and laboratory surveillance data for influenza have been used to construct critical indicators for influenza activities in the community, and previous studies have reported varying degrees of association between laboratory-confirmed influenza specimens and outpatient consultation rates of influenza-like illness in subtropical cities. However, few studies have reported on this issue for cities in temperate regions, especially in developing countries. Furthermore, the mechanism behind age-specific seasonal epidemics remains unresolved, although it has been widely discussed. We utilized a wavelet analysis method to monitor the coherence of weekly percentage of laboratory-confirmed influenza specimens with the weekly outpatient consultation rates of influenza-like illness in Beijing, China. We first examined the seasonal pattern of laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza A (subtyped into seasonal A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) and pandemic virus A(H1N1) pdm09) and influenza B separately within the period from 2008–2015; then, we detected the coherence of clinical and laboratory surveillance data in this district, specially examining weekly time series of age-specific epidemics of influenza-like illnesses in the whole study period for three age categories (age 0–5, 5–15 and 25–60). We found that influenza A and B were both active in winter but were not always seasonally synchronous in Beijing. Synchronization between age ranges was found in most epidemic peaks from 2008–2015. Our findings suggested that peaks of influenza-like illness in individuals aged 0–5 and 5–15 years consistently appeared ahead of those of adults, implying the possibility that schoolchildren may lead epidemic fluctuations. PMID:28036373

  3. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training in Schools: A Comparison of Trainee Satisfaction among Different Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Hori, Shingo; Suzuki, Masaru; Yamazaki, Motoyasu; Aikawa, Naoki; Yamazaki, Hajime

    2016-09-25

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has recently been added to the school curriculum worldwide and is currently taught to students between the ages of 10 and 16 years. The effect of the age of trainees on their satisfaction with CPR training has yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to compare the satisfaction of trainees of different ages who participated in CPR training in schools in Japan. In total, 392 primary school students (10-11 years old), 1798 junior high school students (12-13 years old), and 4162 high schools students (15-16 years old) underwent the same 3-h course of CPR training, according to the guidelines of 2000 for Emergency Cardiovascular Care and CPR. The course was evaluated by a questionnaire completed by the participants. Primary school students responded most positively to all questions, including those reflecting enjoyment and the confidence of participants to apply CPR (Jonckheere-Terpstra test: P < 0.01). Exploratory factor analysis defined three latent variables (reaction, concentration, and naïveté) based on the seven variables addressed in the questionnaire. In the causal relationships analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM), naïveté (which is related to age) directly affected the other latent variables. The current model suggested that the students' satisfaction with CPR training was strongly related to their age. Primary school students enjoyed CPR training more and were more confident in their ability to perform CPR than junior high and high school students were. Therefore, children aged 10-11 years may be the most appropriate candidates for the introduction of CPR training in schools.

  4. PROGRESSIVE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF HUMAN CORTICAL BONE IN TENSION FOR TWO AGE GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Jeffry S.; Roy, Anuradha; Reyes, Michael J.; Wang, Xiaodu

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of bone for post-yield energy dissipation decreases with age. To gain information on the cause of such changes, we examined the mechanical behavior of human cadaveric bone as a function of progressive deformation. In this study, tensile specimens from tibiae of 9 middle aged and 8 elderly donors were loaded till failure in an incremental and cyclic (load-dwell-unload-dwell-reload) scheme. The elastic modulus, maximum stress, permanent strain, stress relaxation, viscoelastic time constant, plastic strain energy, elastic release strain energy, and hysteresis energy were determined at incremental strains of each loading cycle. Experimental results showed that elderly bone failed at much lower strains compared to middle aged bone, but little age-related differences were observed in the mechanical behavior of bone until the premature failure of elderly bone. Energy dissipation and permanent strain appeared to linearly increase with increasing strain, while non-linear changes occurred in the modulus loss and stress relaxation/time constant with increasing strain. Such changes suggest that two distinct stages may exist in the progressive deformation of bone. In Stage I, rapid damage accumulation and increased involvement of collagen in load bearing appeared to dominate the mechanical behavior of bone with limited energy dissipation (<20% of total energy dissipated), whereas Stage II is dominated by continuous plastic deformation, accompanied by major energy dissipation through all three pathways till failure. This study suggests that damaging mechanisms in bone vary with deformation and age affects the post-yield mechanisms causing a significant decline in the capacity of aged bone to dissipate energy. PMID:18437693

  5. Age-Related Differences in Functional Nodes of the Brain Cortex – A High Model Order Group ICA Study

    PubMed Central

    Littow, Harri; Elseoud, Ahmed Abou; Haapea, Marianne; Isohanni, Matti; Moilanen, Irma; Mankinen, Katariina; Nikkinen, Juha; Rahko, Jukka; Rantala, Heikki; Remes, Jukka; Starck, Tuomo; Tervonen, Osmo; Veijola, Juha; Beckmann, Christian; Kiviniemi, Vesa J.

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI measured with blood oxygen dependent (BOLD) contrast in the absence of intermittent tasks reflects spontaneous activity of so-called resting state networks (RSN) of the brain. Group level independent component analysis (ICA) of BOLD data can separate the human brain cortex into 42 independent RSNs. In this study we evaluated age-related effects from primary motor and sensory, and, higher level control RSNs. One hundred sixty-eight healthy subjects were scanned and divided into three groups: 55 adolescents (ADO, 13.2 ± 2.4 years), 59 young adults (YA, 22.2 ± 0.6 years), and 54 older adults (OA, 42.7 ± 0.5 years), all with normal IQ. High model order group probabilistic ICA components (70) were calculated and dual-regression analysis was used to compare 21 RSN's spatial differences between groups. The power spectra were derived from individual ICA mixing matrix time series of the group analyses for frequency domain analysis. We show that primary sensory and motor networks tend to alter more in younger age groups, whereas associative and higher level cognitive networks consolidate and re-arrange until older adulthood. The change has a common trend: both spatial extent and the low frequency power of the RSN's reduce with increasing age. We interpret these result as a sign of normal pruning via focusing of activity to less distributed local hubs. PMID:20953235

  6. Does the Great Valley Group contain Jurassic strata? Reevaluation of the age and early evolution of a classic forearc basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Surpless, K.D.; Graham, S.A.; Covault, J.A.; Wooden, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of Cretaceous detrital zircon in Upper Jurassic strata of the Great Valley Group may require revision of the lower Great Valley Group chronostratigraphy, with significant implications for the Late Jurassic-Cretaceous evolution of the continental margin. Samples (n = 7) collected from 100 km along strike in the purported Tithonian strata of the Great Valley Group contain 20 Cretaceous detrital zircon grains, based on sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe age determinations. These results suggest that Great Valley Group deposition was largely Cretaceous, creating a discrepancy between biostratigraphy based on Buchia zones and chronostratigraphy based on radiometric age dates. These results extend the duration of the Great Valley Group basal unconformity, providing temporal separation between Great Valley forearc deposition and creation of the Coast Range Ophiolite. If Great Valley forearc deposition began in Cretaceous time, then sediment by passed the developing forearc in the Late Jurassic, or the Franciscan subduction system did not fully develop until Cretaceous time. In addition to these constraints on the timing of deposition, pre-Mesozoic detrital zircon age signatures indicate that the Great Valley Group was linked to North America from its inception. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  7. Causes of dysphagia among different age groups: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Roden, Dylan F; Altman, Kenneth W

    2013-12-01

    Dysphagia is a common problem that has the potential to result in severe complications such as malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. Based on the complexity of swallowing, there may be many different causes. This article presents a systematic literature review to assess different comorbid disease associations with dysphagia based on age. The causes of dysphagia are different depending on age, affecting between 1.7% and 11.3% of the general population. Dysphagia can be a symptom representing disorders pertinent to any specialty of medicine. This review can be used to aid in the diagnosis of patients presenting with the complaint of dysphagia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The yo-yo intermittent recovery test in junior basketball players according to performance level and age group.

    PubMed

    Vernillo, Gianluca; Silvestri, Adriano; La Torre, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) ability to discriminate between elite, subelite junior basketball players, and a group of nonathletic healthy male athletes at 3 different age groups (U-14 to U-17). In a cross-sectional design, 119 age-matched participants spread over 3 groups, elite (n = 46), subelite (n = 42) junior basketball players, and nonathletic healthy male athletes (n = 31), were evaluated over a 5-week period. The participants undertook 2 familiarization trials of the Yo-Yo test performance and 3 test sessions on an indoor basketball court. When controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, the results showed that elite athletes had a significantly higher Yo-Yo performance compared with the subelite athletes (1,271 ± 385 vs. 861 ± 428 m; p < 0.0017; effect size [ES] 1.0 ± 0.35) and the nonathletic group (1,271 ± 385 vs. 738 ± 345 m; p < 0.0017; ES 1.45 ± 0.38). No statistical differences (p > 0.0017; ES from 0.02 to 0.39) were noted between participants' performance levels across age groups. Typical between-performance levels and -age groups differences in the Yo-Yo IR1 were observed. However, when controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, this study demonstrates that the Yo-Yo test is accurate only to discriminate elite junior basketball players but cannot be used to differentiate the basketball-specific aerobic performance for age.

  9. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Tongue in the Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Luc G. T.; Patel, Snehal G.; Shah, Jatin P.; Ganly, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare outcomes of a pediatric cohort of patients compared with a matched cohort of adult patients, all diagnosed as having squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral tongue. Outcomes of oral cancer in pediatric patients have not been studied, to our knowledge. Design Retrospective matched-pair cohort study. Setting Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. Patients A total of 10 pediatric and 40 adult patients diagnosed as having SCC of the oral tongue. Main Outcome Measures Overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results The 5-year OS was equivalent in the 2 groups: 70% in the pediatric group and 64% in the adult group (P=.97). The 5-year DSS was also equivalent: 80% in the pediatric group and 76% in the adult group (P=.90). The 5-year RFS was 70% in the pediatric group and 78% in the adult group (P=.54). Conclusions When pediatric and adult patients were matched for sex, tobacco use history, TNM status, surgical procedure, and adjuvant radiotherapy, outcomes for OS, DSS, and RFS were equivalent. Pediatric patients with SCC of the oral tongue should be treated similarly to adult patients. PMID:20644066

  10. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Katharine; Thambinayagam, Ananthy; Pillay, Yogan; Loykissoonlal, Dayanund; Bonnecwe, Collen; Barron, Peter; Kiwango, Eva; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15–49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa’s efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC. Methods and Findings The study team populated the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0) with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM), as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20–34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15–24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15–29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15–34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program’s cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections. Conclusion The VMMC program’s impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15–34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25–34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them

  11. Effect of ageing on isometric strength through joint range at knee and hip joints in three age groups of older adults.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Dinesh; Rowe, Philip J

    2009-01-01

    Strength of lower extremity muscles is an important determinant of mobility-based functional activities. Loss of strength with age produces functional limitation in activities of daily living such as rising from a chair or stair negotiation. However, there is limited information on the effect of age-related changes on the torque-producing ability of muscles through their ranges of joint motion. To investigate the effect of ageing on the torque-producing ability of lower extremity muscles in a large sample of older adults in three age groups. Eighty-two volunteers participated in this study and were divided into six groups according to their chronological age (60s, 70s and 80s and above) and gender (male, female). Isometric muscle strength was measured at the knee and hip joints at three positions through the joint range using a custom-built strain gauge torque dynamometer and a purpose built plinth. The peak torque of major muscle groups of the knee and hip joints decreased with increasing age at all the three joint positions at which strength was tested. The 80-year-olds had 20% lower strength compared to the 60-year-olds. Age-related decrease in muscle strength was significant when comparing 80-year-olds with the 60-year-olds (p < 0.05). Strength loss was noted to be higher at the inner (muscle is shortened from mid-position) and outer (muscle is lengthened from mid-position) ranges of muscle action when compared with the mid-range position (mid-position). Gender-based differences were significant for all the strength tests (p < 0.05). Strength decreased with increasing age at all the positions within joint range of motion for knee and hip joints. However, the percentage loss of muscle strength was different at different positions in the joint range. Our findings suggest that muscle strength was more preserved in the middle range of muscle function compared to the inner and outer range of muscle action. In older people, lower extremity muscles might be required

  12. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene polymorphism in two ethnic groups living in Brazil's southern region: association with age.

    PubMed

    Da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica; Oliveira, Graziela; Taufer, Maristela; Leal, Ney Furhmann; Schwanke, Carla Helena; Glock, Luiz; Moriguchi, Yukio; Moriguchi, Emilio Hideyuki

    2003-09-01

    Several studies have been published on the association between ACE (angiotensin I-converting enzyme) polymorphism and longevity. However, the results are controversial. We analyzed the association between ACE polymorphism and age in two different ethnic populations: a population originating from different European countries (Gaucha Population, GP) and a population originating from Japan (JP). Both populations live in Brazil's southern region. We determined the ACE genotype in 834 persons aged 10-104 years. The ACE genotype and allele frequencies differed between the two populations, with the D allele being more frequent in GP than JP. We found an association between the DD genotype and D allele and age in the GP group only. The ACE polymorphism-age association occurred at age >60 years in the GP population with decreasing II frequency. We cannot dismiss the possibility of the association between ACE polymorphism and age involving linkage disequilibrium, since the nature of this phenomenon is still controversial. From our studies, it appears that there is a correlation between age, ethnicity, and ACE polymorphism. More of such studies are warranted, as further investigation in this area will have a high clinical relevance to cardiovascular disease and aging research.

  13. Aging, Weight, and Health Among Adult Lesbian and Bisexual Women: A Metasynthesis of the Multisite "Healthy Weight Initiative" Focus Groups.

    PubMed

    Garbers, Samantha; McDonnell, Cheryl; Fogel, Sarah C; Eliason, Michele; Ingraham, Natalie; McElroy, Jane A; Radix, Anita; Haynes, Suzanne G

    2015-06-01

    Adult lesbian and bisexual (LB) women are more likely to be obese than adult heterosexual women. Achieving a healthy weight reduces health risks and improves quality of life, but the evidence based on successful weight interventions is limited. To inform a national initiative, a metasynthesis (a form of qualitative meta-analysis) of focus group data was conducted to gather lesbian and bisexual womens' perspectives. Analysis used de-identified transcripts and narrative reports from 11 focus groups guided by different semi-structured discussion guides with 65 participants from five locations. A literature search was conducted to identify existing themes in published literature and unpublished reports. Six key themes were identified: aging; physical and mental health status; community norms; subgroup differences; family and partner support; and awareness and tracking of diet and physical activity. Participants expressed feeling unprepared for age-related changes to their health and voiced interest in interventions addressing these issues. Their perspectives on community acceptance of body size shifted as they aged. Participants cited age, class, race, ethnicity, sexual identity, and gender expression as potential characteristics that may influence participation in interventions. Families were both a barrier to and a facilitator of health behaviors. Awareness and tracking of dietary habits, stressors, and physical activity levels emerged as a theme in more than half of the groups. An unsolicited, overarching theme was aging and its influence on the participants' perspectives on health and weight. Interventions should be tailored to the needs, goals, and community norms of LB women.

  14. Characteristics of Talented Dancers and Age Group Differences: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Imogen J.; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.; Redding, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the characteristics of talented dancers in relation to age. Physical (handgrip muscular strength, leg muscular power, hamstring flexibility and external hip rotation), psychological (passion, self-esteem and anxiety) and social (the motivational climate) characteristics were assessed in 334 students enrolled…

  15. Invariance of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model Across Gender and Age Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the likelihood of a TAME (extended technology acceptance model), in which the interrelationships among computer self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, intention to use and self-reported use of computer-mediated technology were tested. In addition, the gender- and age-invariant of its causal structure were evaluated. The…

  16. Characteristics of Talented Dancers and Age Group Differences: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Imogen J.; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.; Redding, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the characteristics of talented dancers in relation to age. Physical (handgrip muscular strength, leg muscular power, hamstring flexibility and external hip rotation), psychological (passion, self-esteem and anxiety) and social (the motivational climate) characteristics were assessed in 334 students enrolled…

  17. Program Development of Reminiscence Group Work for Ageing People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Puyenbroeck, Joris; Maes, Bea

    2006-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to adapt a narrative reminiscence program for the special needs of ageing people with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities. Research has shown that stimulating reminiscence in the elderly can be a meaningful activity, and holds promise for positive effects on well-being. Method: In the first stage (10…

  18. The Hierarchical Factor Model of ADHD: Invariant across Age and National Groupings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Sorge, Geoff B.; Flora, David B.; Chen, Wai; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Thompson, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary; Asherson, Philip; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factor structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of 1,373 children and adolescents with ADHD and their 1,772 unselected siblings recruited from different countries across a large age range. Hierarchical and correlated factor analytic models were compared separately in the ADHD and…

  19. Stratified at Seven: In-Class Ability Grouping and the Relative Age Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    There is an established body of evidence indicating that a pupil's relative age within their school year cohort is associated with academic attainment throughout compulsory education. In England, autumn-born pupils consistently attain at higher levels than summer-born pupils. Analysis here investigates a possible channel of this relative age…

  20. The Evolution of a Therapeutic Group Approach to School-Age Pregnant Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braen, Bernard B.

    This report evaluates the Young Mothers' Educational Development Program sponsored by the State University of New York, for pregnant girls between the ages of 16 and 21. The program provided needed services in the areas of obstetrics, pediatrics, education, social work, nursing, and psychology. The girls were Black, Caucasian, and Indian.…

  1. Intraoperative cholangiography. A review of indications and analysis of age-sex groups.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, S B; Lerner, H J; Leifer, E D; Lindheim, S R

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective review was performed of patients who had biliary tract stone formation as the primary diagnosis for hospitalization and indication for surgery. Five hundred and eighty-nine consecutive charts were reviewed of patients admitted between 1975 and 1979. Intraoperative cholangiography was performed in 166 patients of whom 22 had common duct exploration. Choledochotomy in this series was performed in 63 cases without utilizing pre-exploratory cholangiography. A normal intraoperative cholangiogram was found to be 100% accurate; however, an abnormal cholangiogram was associated with a 16% false positive rate of exploration of the common duct. The incidence of unsuspected common duct stones detected only by intraoperative cholangiography was 2.3%. Age-sex analysis confirms a 10-year mean age difference between men and women within the population of this study (p less than 0.001). This age-sex difference is maintained in patients without common duct pathology as well as in patients with sterile bile. However, the mean age difference between male and female patients with either demonstrable common duct obstruction by stones or infected bile as determined by routine intraoperative culture is not statistically significant. A review of the role of intraoperative cholangiography, and the experience at Northeastern Hospital is discussed. PMID:6639173

  2. Predicting the location of the hip joint centres, impact of age group and sex

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Reiko; McGinley, Jennifer; Briggs, Chris; Baker, Richard; Sangeux, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical gait analysis incorporating three-dimensional motion analysis plays a key role in planning surgical treatments in people with gait disability. The position of the Hip Joint Centre (HJC) within the pelvis is thus critical to ensure accurate data interpretation. The position of the HJC is determined from regression equations based on anthropometric measurements derived from relatively small datasets. Current equations do not take sex or age into account, even though pelvis shape is known to differ between sex, and gait analysis is performed in populations with wide range of age. Three dimensional images of 157 deceased individuals (37 children, 120 skeletally matured) were collected with computed tomography. The location of the HJC within the pelvis was determined and regression equations to locate the HJC were developed using various anthropometrics predictors. We determined if accuracy improved when age and sex were introduced as variables. Statistical analysis did not support differentiating the equations according to sex. We found that age only modestly improved accuracy. We propose a range of new regression equations, derived from the largest dataset collected for this purpose to date. PMID:27883044

  3. Act Smart. HIV/AIDS Education Curriculum for Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.

    This Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education curriculum was developed for boys and girls, ages 6 to 17 years. It is a supplement to a similar program, "SMART Moves," aimed at prevention of drug abuse and premature sexual activity. The Act SMART prevention team should consist of a staff…

  4. Creating Composite Age Groups to Smooth Percentile Rank Distributions of Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Francesca; Olson, Amy; Bansal, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    Individually administered tests are often normed on small samples, a process that may result in irregularities within and across various age or grade distributions. Test users often smooth distributions guided by Thurstone assumptions (normality and linearity) to result in norms that adhere to assumptions made about how the data should look. Test…

  5. Creating Composite Age Groups to Smooth Percentile Rank Distributions of Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Francesca; Olson, Amy; Bansal, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    Individually administered tests are often normed on small samples, a process that may result in irregularities within and across various age or grade distributions. Test users often smooth distributions guided by Thurstone assumptions (normality and linearity) to result in norms that adhere to assumptions made about how the data should look. Test…

  6. Protein intake and exercise for optimal muscle function with aging: Recommendations from the ESPEN Expert Group

    PubMed Central

    Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.; Bauer, Jurgen M.; Barazzoni, Rocco; Biolo, Gianni; Boirie, Yves; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Cederholm, Tommy; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso; Krznaric, Zeljko; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Singer, Pierre; Teta, Daniel; Tipton, Kevin; Calder, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    The aging process is associated with gradual and progressive loss of muscle mass along with lowered strength and physical endurance. This condition, sarcopenia, has been widely observed with aging in sedentary adults. Regular aerobic and resistance exercise programs have been shown to counteract most aspects of sarcopenia. In addition, good nutrition, especially adequate protein and energy intake, can help limit and treat age-related declines in muscle mass, strength, and functional abilities. Protein nutrition in combination with exercise is considered optimal for maintaining muscle function. With the goal of providing recommendations for health care professionals to help older adults sustain muscle strength and function into older age, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) hosted a Workshop on Protein Requirements in the Elderly, held in Dubrovnik on November 24 and 25, 2013. Based on the evidence presented and discussed, the following recommendations are made: (1) for healthy older people, the diet should provide at least 1.0 to 1.2 g protein/kg body weight/day (2) for older people who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition because they have acute or chronic illness, the diet should provide 1.2 to 1.5 g protein/kg body weight/day, with even higher intake for individuals with severe illness or injury, and (3) daily physical activity or exercise (resistance training, aerobic exercise) should be undertaken by all older people, for as long as possible. PMID:24814383

  7. Age Group and Sex of Students, Fall 1984, State University of New York. Report No. 8-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Office of Institutional Research and Analytical Studies.

    The 1984 SUNY annual report presents major statistical tables that array four student characteristics: age group, sex, level (undergraduate/graduate), and load (full- and part-time). Part 1 contains summary data for the entire system and each institution within the system. For each of the headcount tables, there is a corresponding table providing…

  8. Structuring Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Comparing Scripting by Assigning Roles with Regulation by Cross-Age Peer Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The present study focuses on comparing the impact of role assignment and cross-age peer tutors on students' level of knowledge construction in 15 asynchronous discussion groups of nine students each in a first-year university course (N=135). Content analysis was applied to analyse the level of knowledge construction in students' online postings.…

  9. Hematology and plasma biochemistry analytes in five age groups of immature, captive-reared loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    PubMed

    Rousselet, Estelle; Stacy, Nicole I; LaVictoire, Kara; Higgins, Benjamin M; Tocidlowski, Maryanne E; Flanagan, Joseph P; Godard-Codding, Céline A J

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: Blood samples of 85 immature, apparently healthy, captive-reared loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) were analyzed for 13 hematologic variables and total solids of 5 age groups (8, 20, 32, 44, and 56 mo old) and for 20 plasma biochemical analytes of 4 age groups (20 to 56 mo old). Each individual turtle was sampled under similar conditions during a blood collection period of 3 days. Hematologic analytes included packed cell volume, white blood cell (WBC) counts, WBC estimates, and leukocyte differentials. Biochemical analysis included albumin, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, chloride, cholesterol, creatine kinase, creatinine, gamma glutamyltransferase, globulins, glucose, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, total bilirubin, total protein, total solids, and uric acid. In due consideration of small sample size in all five age groups, the results of hematologic and biochemical analysis were used to determine ranges for these analytes and to compare values among consecutive age groups. Several significant differences in some hematologic and biochemical variables were identified and need to be considered in the interpretation of blood work of immature, growing sea turtles in human care.

  10. An Investigation of the Usability of the Stylus Pen for Various Age Groups on Personal Digital Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Xiangshi; Zhou, Xiaolei

    2011-01-01

    Many handheld devices with stylus pens are available in the market; however, there have been few studies which examine the effects of the size of the stylus pen on user performance and subjective preferences for handheld device interfaces for various age groups. Two experiments (pen-length experiment and pen-tip width/pen-width experiment) were…

  11. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  12. EVALUATION OF TERMINAL VERTEBRAL PLATE ON CERVICAL SPINE AT DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH INTERVERTEBRAL DISC THICKNESS

    PubMed Central

    Luiz Vieira, Juliano Silveira; da Silva Herrero, Carlos Fernando Pereira; Porto, Maximiliano Aguiar; Nogueira Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Garcia, Sérgio Britto; Zambelli Ramalho, Leandra Náira; Aparecido Defino, Helton Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate, by means of histomorphometry, terminal vertebral plate thickness, intervertebral disc thickness and its correlation on different age groups, seeking to identify its correlation. Methods: C4-C5 and C5-C6 cervical segments removed from human cadavers of both genders were assessed and divided into five groups of 10-year age intervals, from 21 years old. TVP and intervertebral disc thickness evaluation was made by means of histomorphometry of histological slides stained with hematoxylin and eosyn. Lower C4 TVP, upper C5 TVP, and upper C6 TVP de were compared between each other and to the interposed intervertebral disc thickness between relevant TVP. Results: The thickness of terminal vertebral plates adjacent to the same ID did not show statistic differences. However, the comparison of upper and lower vertebral plates thickness on the same cervical vertebra (C5), showed statistical difference on all age groups studied. We found a statistical correlation coefficient above 80% between terminal vertebral plate and adjacent intervertebral disc, with a proportional thickness reduction of both structures on the different cervical levels studied, and also on the different age groups assessed. Conclusion: Terminal vertebral plate shows a morphologic correlation with the intervertebral disc next to it, and does not show correlation with the terminal vertebral plate on the same vertebra. PMID:26998448

  13. Gender Differences in Physical Health and Psychosocial Well Being among Four Age-Groups of Elderly People in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, Sara; Bernstein, Judith H.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the well-established gender differences in physical and psychosocial well being in adulthood persist throughout different age groups of elderly persons, in order to support one of two opposing hypotheses: the convergence and divergence hypotheses. Data were collected by structured…

  14. Planning and Decision Making about the Future Care of Older Group Home Residents and Transition to Residential Aged Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, C.; Bowers, B.; Webber, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Planning for future care after the death of parental caregivers and adapting disability support systems to achieve the best possible quality of life for people with intellectual disability as they age have been important issues for more than two decades. This study examined perceptions held by family members, group home staff and…

  15. An Investigation of the Usability of the Stylus Pen for Various Age Groups on Personal Digital Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Xiangshi; Zhou, Xiaolei

    2011-01-01

    Many handheld devices with stylus pens are available in the market; however, there have been few studies which examine the effects of the size of the stylus pen on user performance and subjective preferences for handheld device interfaces for various age groups. Two experiments (pen-length experiment and pen-tip width/pen-width experiment) were…

  16. Planning and Decision Making about the Future Care of Older Group Home Residents and Transition to Residential Aged Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, C.; Bowers, B.; Webber, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Planning for future care after the death of parental caregivers and adapting disability support systems to achieve the best possible quality of life for people with intellectual disability as they age have been important issues for more than two decades. This study examined perceptions held by family members, group home staff and…

  17. Perceptions of Retirement Affect Career Commitment: The Mediating Role of Retirement System Satisfaction for Two Teacher Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Justin L.; Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated a sample of California elementary, intermediate, and high school employed teachers (N = 247) to assess the effects of retirement perceptions on career commitment among teachers who are in different age groupings. Using path analysis, the influence of five retirement perceptions variables was examined: concerns about…

  18. Effectiveness of a School-Based Early Intervention CBT Group Programme for Children with Anxiety Aged 5-7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruocco, Sylvia; Gordon, Jocelynne; McLean, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Early manifestations of anxiety in childhood confer significant distress and life interference. This study reports on the first controlled trial of the "Get Lost Mr. Scary" programme, a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group intervention for children with anxiety aged 5-7 years. Participants were 134 children (65 males and 69 females) drawn…

  19. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  20. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  1. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  2. Gender Differences in Physical Health and Psychosocial Well Being among Four Age-Groups of Elderly People in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, Sara; Bernstein, Judith H.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the well-established gender differences in physical and psychosocial well being in adulthood persist throughout different age groups of elderly persons, in order to support one of two opposing hypotheses: the convergence and divergence hypotheses. Data were collected by structured…

  3. Structuring Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Comparing Scripting by Assigning Roles with Regulation by Cross-Age Peer Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The present study focuses on comparing the impact of role assignment and cross-age peer tutors on students' level of knowledge construction in 15 asynchronous discussion groups of nine students each in a first-year university course (N=135). Content analysis was applied to analyse the level of knowledge construction in students' online postings.…

  4. Etiology and body area of injuries in young female dancers presenting to sports medicine clinic: A comparison by age group.

    PubMed

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Yin, Amy X; Sugimoto, Dai

    2015-11-01

    Improving knowledge regarding injuries sustained by pediatric dancers is important in order to better understand injury risk. The aim of this study is to analyze dance injury etiology and body area by age in a cohort of young female dancers presenting to a pediatric sports/dance medicine clinic. The cross-sectional epidemiological study of a 5% probability sample of dancers evaluated between 1/1/2000 and 12/31/2009 with a musculoskeletal injury requiring physician evaluation. A total of 2,133 charts were reviewed from which 171 female dancers 8-17 years old (mean age 14.7 years) were identified. Data were stratified by age, < 12 years and ≥ 12 years, and analyzed based on injury body area, type, and etiology. Fisher's exact test was used to determine statistical significance. Injuries sustained by dancers in the younger age category (< 12 years) were largely to the foot-ankle/lower leg/knee (93.3%) versus thigh-hip/spine/upper extremity (6.7%). In comparison, dancers in the older age group (≥ 12 years) had a large proportion of injuries to the foot-ankle/lower leg/knee (67.3%) as well, but had a notably larger fraction of injuries to the thigh-hip/spine/upper extremity (32.7%; p = 0.04). Approximately two-thirds of the injuries sustained in the younger age group (< 12 years) were classified as bony. In comparison, injuries in the older age group (≥ 12 years) were roughly half bony and half soft tissue (51.3% and 48.7%, respectively; p = 0.29). Most injuries were overuse in etiology for both younger and older age groups (86.7% and 82.1%, respectively; p = 1.00). Through puberty, there was a decline in the injuries to the foot-ankle/lower leg/knee. Conversely, there was an increase in the thigh/hip-pelvis/spine/upper extremity injuries through growth. Injuries to young female dancers in this study cohort were mostly categorized as overuse in etiology, and differed by the age group and the body area. Increased information regarding dance injuries can help guide

  5. Multinomial logistic regression model to assess the levels in trans, trans-muconic acid and inferential-risk age group among benzene-exposed group

    PubMed Central

    Mala, A.; Ravichandran, B.; Raghavan, S.; Rajmohan, H. R.

    2010-01-01

    There are only a few studies performed on multinomial logistic regression on the benzene-exposed occupational group. A study was carried out to assess the relationship between the benzene concentration and trans-trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA), biomarkers in urine samples from petrol filling workers. A total of 117 workers involved in this occupation were selected for this current study. Generally, logistic regression analysis (LR) is a common statistical technique that could be used to predict the likelihood of categorical or binary or dichotomous outcome variables. The multinomial logistic regression equations were used to predict the relationship between benzene concentration and t,t-MA. The results showed a significant correlation between benzene and t,t-MA among the petrol fillers. Prediction equations were estimated by adopting the physical characteristic viz., age, experience in years and job categories of petrol filling station workers. Interestingly, there was no significant difference observed among experience in years. Petrol fillers and cashiers having a higher occupational risk were in the age group of ≤24 and between 25 and 34 years. Among the petrol fillers, the t,t-MA levels with exceeding ACGIH TWA-TLV level was showing to be more significant. This study demonstrated that multinomial logistic regression is an effective model for profiling the greatest risk of the benzene-exposed group caused by different explanatory variables. PMID:21120078

  6. Sudden unexpected deaths in different age groups at Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand: a retrospective autopsy study during 2003-2007.

    PubMed

    Udnoon, Jitta; Chirachariyavej, Thamrong; Peonim, Vichan

    2009-01-01

    A sudden unexpected death is considered one type of medico-legal death in Thailand. In some studies, it comprises up to 50-60% of all medico-legal deaths. In this retrospective study, data were collected from 1,460 cases of sudden unexpected deaths, 39.9% of all deaths in which a medico-legal autopsy had been carried out. The study was conducted over a 5-year period from January 2003 to December 2007. There were 1,009 males and 451 females (M:F ratio = 2.2:1). The mean age was 55.3+/-0.98 years. The peak age group was the 46-60 years accounting for 28.2% of cases. The most common cause of death in all age groups was coronary atherosclerosis. Understanding epidemiological autopsy data is vital for determining the characteristics of the population involved.

  7. Structural validity of the Movement ABC-2 test: factor structure comparisons across three age groups.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Joerg; Henderson, Sheila E; Sugden, David A; Barnett, Anna L

    2011-01-01

    The Movement ABC test is one of the most widely used assessments in the field of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Improvements to the 2nd edition of the test (M-ABC-2) include an extension of the age range and reduction in the number of age bands as well as revision of tasks. The total test score provides a measure of motor performance, which can be used to help make a diagnosis of DCD. M-ABC-2 also provides 3 sub-scales for Manual Dexterity, Aiming and Catching and Balance but the validity of these conceptually derived sub-scales has not previously been reported. To examine the factor structure of the M-ABC-2 test across the three age bands (AB): AB1 (3-6-year olds), AB2 (7-10-year olds) and AB3 (11-16-year olds). Data from the 2007 standardisation sample (N=1172) were used in this study. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) and structural equation modelling (LISREL 8.8) were employed to explore the relationship between the tasks within each of the 3 age bands. A model trimming approach was used to arrive at a well fitting model. In AB1 a complex factor structure emerged providing evidence for an independent general factor, as well as specific factors representing the 3 test components. In AB2 a final model emerged with four correlated factors, an additional distinction being drawn between static and dynamic balance. In addition, a 2nd order general factor explained a considerable amount of variance in each primary factor. In AB3 CFA supported the 3-factor structure of the M-ABC-2, with only modest correlations between each factor. The confirmatory factor analyses undertaken in this study further validate the structural validity of the M-ABC-2 as it has developed over time. Although its tasks are largely associated with the three sub-components within each age band, there was also clear evidence for a change in the factor structure towards differentiation in motor abilities with age. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [A survey on anemia among children under 7 years of age from 15 minority ethnic groups in Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Yao, Li-qin; Zou, Tuan-biao; Liu, Jin-tao; Quan, Xing; Chen, Qian; Yang, Fa-bin; Hu, Li-sha; Zhao, Zhong-ming; Wang, Xing-tian

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the level and distribution characteristics of anemia of the minority ethnic group children in Yunnan. The cases with anemia were surveyed from 13 336 samples of 15 minority ethnic groups and Han children in Yunnan by Taking the method of random cluster sampling. The prevalence of anemia among the children under 7 years of age of 15 ethnic groups of minority in Yunnan was 13.6%. There are differences among the different ethnic groups (χ(2) = 716.33, P < 0.01), the highest was 26.6% in Jingpo, the lowest was 3.5% in Bai. There were differences among the different regions, the prevalence of anemia was high in the border regions City, the highest was 23.8% in Dehong; the prevalence of anemia was low in inland cities, the lowest was 2.7% in Fugong, and was higher in border areas. The prevalence of anemia was higher in boys (13.6%) than in girls (12.1%). There were differences among the different age in the different ethnic groups (6 months to 1 years old: χ(2) = 70.52, P < 0.01; 1 - 2 years old:χ(2) = 185.86, P < 0.01; 2 - 5 years old: χ(2) = 296.12, P < 0.01; 5 - 6 years old:χ(2) = 107.11, P < 0.01; 6 - 7 years old:χ(2) = 185.02, P < 0.01), the highest was 59.0% of Deang in 1 to 2 years old children. The trend of change was that the highest prevalence was seen in 6 months to 1 year old children, the prevalence gradually declined among older children, but rose again in children 6 years of age or older. The prevalence of anemia was 13.6% among the children of 15 ethnic minority under 7 years of age in Yunnan. There were differences among different ethnic groups of minority in different prefectures. There were differences among different ethnic groups of different age groups, but it was highest in 6 months to 1 year old children, it declined among older children, and rose in children 6 years of age or older. The prevalence of anemia was related to the ethnic and geographic factors.

  9. Off-premise alcohol purchasing in Australia: Variations by age group, income level and annual amount purchased.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Heng; Callinan, Sarah; Livingston, Michael; Room, Robin

    2017-03-01

    To delineate what type and how much alcohol is purchased from different types of off-licence premises and how this varies across demographic sub-groups, as a basis for public debate and decisions on pricing and planning policies to reduce alcohol-related harm in Australia. The data on alcohol purchasing from off-licence premises are taken from the Australian Alcohol Consumption and Purchasing survey-a nationally representative landline and mobile telephone survey in 2013 on the experiences with alcohol consumption and purchasing of 2020 Australians aged 16+. The present analysis uses data from 1730 respondents who purchased alcohol from off-licence premises in the previous 6 months. The majority (54%) of alcohol purchased from off-licence premises was sold from liquor barns (large warehouse-style alcohol stores), with bottle shops (31%) the second most common outlet. Cask wine was the cheapest alcohol available at off-licence premises in Australia. Respondents in higher alcohol purchasing quintiles and with those with lower income purchased a higher percentage of cheaper alcohol in their total volume of purchasing than lower purchasing quintiles and those with middle and higher income, and younger respondents purchased more expensive alcohol than older age groups. A minimum unit price or increasing alcohol taxes may effectively reduce alcohol purchasing for lower income heavy alcohol purchasers and older age groups from off-licence premise sources, and may be less effective on younger age groups. [Jiang H, Callinan S, Livingston M, Room R. Off-premise alcohol purchasing in Australia: Variations by age group, income level and annual amount purchased. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:210-219]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  10. Comparing the interface pressure redistribution of three different types of cushions: differences according to age groups and cushion preferences

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Su; Lee, Sang-Heon

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the change in interface pressure redistribution of three different types of cushions sat on by individuals in their 20s and older than 60 years old. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred and eleven college students and 100 persons than 60 years old were recruited. Sitting pressure redistribution was measured while subjects sat without cushions or on honeycomb, air, and memory foam cushions in that order. Subsequently, the cushion preference was measured. After obtaining all measurements, the mean total pressure and each quadrant’s mean and peak pressure were analyzed. [Results] The mean hip and the peak pressures were low in the group of females aged 60 years or older, and the highest in the group of males in their 20s. The hip pressure ratio was low in the groups of females in their 20s and 60 years or older, whereas the thigh pressure ratio was high in the same groups. The analysis of cushion preference showed that the groups of males (42.0%) and females (40.0%) in their 20s mostly preferred air cushion. The men (55.1%) and women (50.0%) aged 20 years or older selected honeycomb and air cushions as the first and third preferred cushions with a high response rate. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that gender and age should be considered when recommending appropriate pressure redistribution cushions. PMID:28210039

  11. Comparing the interface pressure redistribution of three different types of cushions: differences according to age groups and cushion preferences.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Su; Lee, Sang-Heon

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the change in interface pressure redistribution of three different types of cushions sat on by individuals in their 20s and older than 60 years old. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred and eleven college students and 100 persons than 60 years old were recruited. Sitting pressure redistribution was measured while subjects sat without cushions or on honeycomb, air, and memory foam cushions in that order. Subsequently, the cushion preference was measured. After obtaining all measurements, the mean total pressure and each quadrant's mean and peak pressure were analyzed. [Results] The mean hip and the peak pressures were low in the group of females aged 60 years or older, and the highest in the group of males in their 20s. The hip pressure ratio was low in the groups of females in their 20s and 60 years or older, whereas the thigh pressure ratio was high in the same groups. The analysis of cushion preference showed that the groups of males (42.0%) and females (40.0%) in their 20s mostly preferred air cushion. The men (55.1%) and women (50.0%) aged 20 years or older selected honeycomb and air cushions as the first and third preferred cushions with a high response rate. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that gender and age should be considered when recommending appropriate pressure redistribution cushions.

  12. Changes across age groups in self-choice elaboration effects on incidental memory.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Hiroshi; Konishi, Tomoko

    2004-08-01

    The present study investigated age differences in the effects of a self-choice elaboration and an experimenter-provided elaboration on incidental memory. Adults, sixth grade, and second grade subjects chose which of two sentence frames the target fit better in a self-choice elaboration condition. They then judged whether each target made sense in its sentence frame in the experimenter-provided elaboration, then did free recall tests. Only adults recalled better the targets with an image sentence with self-choice elaboration, rather than experimenter-provided elaboration. However, self-choice elaboration was far superior for the recall of targets with nonimage sentences only for second graders. Thus, the effects of self-choice elaboration were determined both by age and by type of sentence frame.

  13. The moderating role of sexual identity in group teletherapy for adults aging with HIV.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Bernadette Davantes; Lovejoy, Travis I; Heckman, Timothy G; Anderson, Timothy; Grimes, Tiffany; Sutton, Mark; Bianco, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    Older adults living with HIV/AIDS experience high rates of depression and suicidal ideation but are less likely than their younger counterparts to seek psychological services. HIV continues to disproportionately impact older men who have sex with men (MSM), many of whom were infected in their 20s and 30s. This study examined whether therapy attendance rates and the efficacies of two group-format teletherapies for the treatment of depression (coping effectiveness group training and supportive-expressive group therapy) were comparable for older MSM and older heterosexuals living with HIV. Intervention-outcome analyses found that older MSM and older heterosexuals living with HIV attended comparable numbers of teletherapy sessions. Older heterosexuals living with HIV who received telephone-administered supportive-expressive group therapy reported significantly greater reductions in depressive symptoms than SOC controls. A similar pattern was not found in older MSM. More research is needed to personalize and tailor group teletherapies for older MSM living with HIV.

  14. Protein intake and exercise for optimal muscle function with aging: recommendations from the ESPEN Expert Group.

    PubMed

    Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Bauer, Jürgen M; Barazzoni, Rocco; Biolo, Gianni; Boirie, Yves; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Cederholm, Tommy; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso; Krznariç, Zeljko; Nair, K Sreekumaran; Singer, Pierre; Teta, Daniel; Tipton, Kevin; Calder, Philip C

    2014-12-01

    The aging process is associated with gradual and progressive loss of muscle mass along with lowered strength and physical endurance. This condition, sarcopenia, has been widely observed with aging in sedentary adults. Regular aerobic and resistance exercise programs have been shown to counteract most aspects of sarcopenia. In addition, good nutrition, especially adequate protein and energy intake, can help limit and treat age-related declines in muscle mass, strength, and functional abilities. Protein nutrition in combination with exercise is considered optimal for maintaining muscle function. With the goal of providing recommendations for health care professionals to help older adults sustain muscle strength and function into older age, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) hosted a Workshop on Protein Requirements in the Elderly, held in Dubrovnik on November 24 and 25, 2013. Based on the evidence presented and discussed, the following recommendations are made (a) for healthy older people, the diet should provide at least 1.0-1.2 g protein/kg body weight/day, (b) for older people who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition because they have acute or chronic illness, the diet should provide 1.2-1.5 g protein/kg body weight/day, with even higher intake for individuals with severe illness or injury, and (c) daily physical activity or exercise (resistance training, aerobic exercise) should be undertaken by all older people, for as long as possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term Effects on Cognitive Trajectories of Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy in Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Espeland, Mark A; Rapp, Stephen R; Manson, JoAnn E; Goveas, Joseph S; Shumaker, Sally A; Hayden, Kathleen M; Weitlauf, Julie C; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Baker, Laura D; Padula, Claudia B; Hou, Lifang; Resnick, Susan M

    2017-06-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy may have long-term effects on cognitive function depending on women's age. Postintervention follow-up was conducted with annual cognitive assessments of two randomized controlled clinical trial cohorts, beginning an average of 6-7 years after study medications were terminated: 1,376 women who had enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative when aged 50-54 years and 2,880 who had enrolled when aged 65-79 years. Women had been randomly assigned to 0.625mg/d conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) for those with prior hysterectomy (mean 7.1 years), CEE with 2.5mg/d medroxyprogesterone acetate for those without prior hysterectomy (mean 5.4 years), or matching placebos. Hormone therapy, when prescribed to women aged 50-54 years, had no significant long-term posttreatment effects on cognitive function and on changes in cognitive function. When prescribed to older women, it was associated with long-term mean (SE) relative decrements (standard deviation units) in global cognitive function of 0.081 (0.029), working memory of 0.070 (0.025), and executive function of 0.054 (0.023), all p < .05. These decrements were relatively stable over time. Findings did not vary depending on the hormone therapy regimen, prior use, or years from last menstrual period. Mean intervention effects were small; however, the largest were comparable in magnitude to those seen during the trial's active intervention phase. CEE-based hormone therapy delivered near the time of menopause provides neither cognitive benefit nor detriment. If administered in older women, it results in small decrements in several cognitive domains that remain for many years.

  16. Burden of acute sore throat and group A streptococcal pharyngitis in school-aged children and their families in Australia.

    PubMed

    Danchin, Margaret H; Rogers, Susan; Kelpie, Loraine; Selvaraj, Gowri; Curtis, Nigel; Carlin, John B; Nolan, Terence M; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, transmission, carriage, and risk factors for group A streptococcal pharyngitis in school-aged children and their families. A 16-month, prospective, family-based cohort study was undertaken from August 2001 through December 2002 in Melbourne, Australia. A total of 202 families (853 people) with at least 1 child aged 3 to 12 years were randomly selected from 3 primary care practices across suburban Melbourne to collect surveillance data for acute group A streptococcal pharyngitis, including serology for index and secondary cases and intermittent carriage data. Cohort retention was 97% for 16 months. The incidence of acute sore throat, group A streptococcal swab-positive pharyngitis, and serologically confirmed group A streptococcal pharyngitis was 33, 13, and 8 per 100 child-years, respectively, for school-aged children (5-12 years) and 60, 20, and 15 per 100 family-years, respectively. Sore throat was less common in adults than children, but adults with sore throat were as likely as children to have group A streptococcal culture-positive or serologically proven pharyngitis. In families who had a primary case, 43% had at least 1 secondary case, and in family members who were at risk, 13% contracted a secondary case. The spring, summer, and winter carriage rates for children were 13%, 8%, and 16%, respectively, and for adults the rate was 2% across all seasons. Group A streptococcal pharyngitis is still common, and the peak incidence occurs in school-aged children. However, the incidence in adults is higher than expected, and the number of secondary cases in families may be an important factor when considering the potential benefits of treatment.

  17. Alteration of functional state of peripheral blood erythrocytes in women of different age groups at dislipidemia conditions.

    PubMed

    Ratiani, L; Intskirveli, N; Ormotsadze, G; Sanikidze, T

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was identification of statistically reliable correlations and the cause-effect relationships between viability of red blood cells and dislipidema parametres and/or metabolic disorders, induced by age related alterations of estrogen content, in women of different ages (reproductive, menopausal) On the basis of the analysis of research results we can conclude that in the different age groups of women with atherosclerosis-induced cardiovascular diseases revealed estrogen-related dependence between Tg-s and HDL content, functional status of phereperial blood erytrotcites and severity of dislipidemia. The aterogenic index Tg/HD proved to be sensitive marker of dislipidemia in reproductive aging women, but does't reflect disorders of lipid metabolism in postmenosal women. It was proved the existence of reliable corelation between red blood cells dysfunction indicator, spherulation quality, and atherogenic index Tg/HDL highlights; however, the correlation coefficient is 2 times higher in the reproductive age as in menopause. Spherulation quality of red blood cells at low HDL content showd fast growth rate in reproductive-aged women, and was unsensetive to HDL content in postmenopasal women. It was concluded that age-related lack of estrogens in postmenopausal women indirectly contributes to decrease protection of red blood cells against oxidative damage, reduces their deformabelity and disturbances the rheological properties. So, Spherulation quality of red blood cells may be used as a diagnostic marker of severity of atherosclerosis.

  18. Fears and Related Anxieties across Three Age Groups of Mexican American and White Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared levels and types of fears and anxieties in a sample of Mexican American children and adolescents with disabilities to a group of White children and adolescents with similar disabilities. Students (N = 238), parents, and teachers completed the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (T. H. Ollendick, 1983) and the Revised…

  19. Bill Gates' Great-Great-Granddaughter's Honeymoon: An Astronomy Activity for Several Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    When students finish a unit or course on the planets these days, they are often overwhelmed with facts, comparisons, and images. A good culminating activity, to help them organize their thinking (and review), is to have them divide into small groups (travel agencies) and come up with their top ten solar system "tourist sights" for future space…

  20. Fears and Related Anxieties across Three Age Groups of Mexican American and White Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared levels and types of fears and anxieties in a sample of Mexican American children and adolescents with disabilities to a group of White children and adolescents with similar disabilities. Students (N = 238), parents, and teachers completed the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (T. H. Ollendick, 1983) and the Revised…

  1. Developing and Implementing Democratic Parenting Methods in a Group Home Servicing Children Ages Three to Eleven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Lucia, Sister Paul Marie

    Society still carries the lingering remains of the autocratic cultural mores of reward and punishment. Staff in a group home setting for children must be aware of the complexity caused by the mingling of autocratic and democratic mores. This phenomenon causes discrepancy in parenting methods. It was surmised that training the staff (N=4) at one…

  2. Interactions on an Elementary School Playground: Variations by Age, Gender, Race, Group Size, and Playground Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tracey E.; Phillipsen, Leslie C.

    1998-01-01

    Observed 88 first and second graders and 76 fifth and sixth graders during playground interactions. A time-sampling procedure recorded gender, race, and group size of all interactive play in seven playground areas. Found that mixed-gender interactions were more likely than same-gender ones to include other races, and mixed-race interactions…

  3. Bill Gates' Great-Great-Granddaughter's Honeymoon: An Astronomy Activity for Several Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    When students finish a unit or course on the planets these days, they are often overwhelmed with facts, comparisons, and images. A good culminating activity, to help them organize their thinking (and review), is to have them divide into small groups (travel agencies) and come up with their top ten solar system "tourist sights" for future space…

  4. Developing and Implementing Democratic Parenting Methods in a Group Home Servicing Children Ages Three to Eleven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Lucia, Sister Paul Marie

    Society still carries the lingering remains of the autocratic cultural mores of reward and punishment. Staff in a group home setting for children must be aware of the complexity caused by the mingling of autocratic and democratic mores. This phenomenon causes discrepancy in parenting methods. It was surmised that training the staff (N=4) at one…

  5. Epidemiology and management of head injury in paediatric age group in North-Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chinda, J Y; Abubakar, A M; Umaru, Habila; Tahir, Chubado; Adamu, S; Wabada, S

    2013-01-01

    Paediatric head injury (HI) is the single most common cause of death and permanent disability in children world over, and this is increasingly becoming worrisome in our society because of increased risks and proneness to road traffic accidents on our highways and streets. The study set to determine causes and management of HI among children in our society. A retrospective review of all children aged 0-15 years with traumatic head injury (THIs) who were managed at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital between July, 2006 and August, 2008. A total of 45 children with THIs presented to the casualty unit of the hospital; 30 (66.7%) were boys and 15 (33.3%) were girls. Three (6.7%) children were less than 1 year of age, 21 (46.7%) were between 1 years and 6 years while 16 (35.6%) and 5 (11.0%) were aged 7-11 years and 12-15 years respectively. Thirty six (80.0%) of the children were pedestrians, 6 (13.4%) fell from a height, while 2 (4.4%) and 1 (2.2% were as a result of home accident and assault, respectively. Twenty one patients (46.7%) had mild HI, while 53.3% had moderate to severe category. Forty one (91.1%) of children were managed as in-patients, mostly (95.1%) by conservative non-operative management, while 4 (8.9%) were treated on the out-patient basis. The mortality rate was 17.8%. H1 among children is of a great concern, because of its incremental magnitude, due to increasing child labour and interstate religious discipleship among children, with attendant high mortality and permanent disabilities. Necessary laws and legislations should be formulated and implemented with organized campaigns and public enlightenment to prevent and mitigate this menace.

  6. Early-age Acute Leukemia: Revisiting Two Decades of the Brazilian Collaborative Study Group.

    PubMed

    Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Andrade, Francianne Gomes

    2016-11-01

    The understanding of leukemogenesis in early-age acute leukemia (EAL) has improved remarkably. Initiating somatic mutations detected in dried neonatal blood spots (DNBS) and in cord blood samples of affected children with leukemia have been proven to be acquired prenatally. However, to date, few epidemiological studies have been carried out exploring EAL that include infants and children 13-24 months of age at the diagnosis. Maternal exposure to transplacental DNA-damaging substances during pregnancy has been suggested to be a risk factor for EAL. Most cases of infants with acute lymphoblastic (i-ALL) or myeloid leukemia (i-AML) have KMT2A gene rearrangements (KMT2A-r), which disturb its essential role as an epigenetic regulator of hematopoiesis. Due to the short latency period for EAL and the fact that KMT2A-r resembles those found in secondary AML, exposure to topoisomerase II inhibitors has been associated with transplacental risk as proxi for causality. EAL studies have been conducted in Brazil for over two decades, combining observational epidemiology, leukemia biology, and clinical data. EAL was investigated considering (i) age strata (infants vs. 13-24 months-old); (ii) somatic mutations associated with i-ALL and i-AML; (iii) ethnic-geographic variations; (iv) contribution of maternal genotypes; and (v) time latency of exposures and mutations in DNBS. Interactions of acquired and constitutive gene mutations are challenging tools to test risk factor associations for EAL. In this review we summarize the EAL scenario (including B-cell precursor-ALL, T-ALL, and AML) results combining environmental and genetic susceptibility risk factors and we raise questions that should be considered for further action. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of occupation-based groups on self-concept of children aged 5-8: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Scurlock, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this pilot study was to ascertain the effectiveness of an occupation-based after-school program for improving self-concept in children, ages five through eight. Fifty-four randomly selected children ages five through eight from two schools (one being the control group) with similar socioeconomic status along the Ohio River were involved in this research study. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PCSA; Harter & Pike, 1984) was administered to all participants (N = 54), four subtests were analyzed: cognitive competence, social competence with peers, physical competence in sports, and maternal acceptance. The experimental group (n = 25) attended occupation-based groups two times a week after school. The control group (n = 29) did not participate in an after-school program. Data from pre-test and post-test were analyzed using a t-test. Findings demonstrated that the experimental group improved their self-concept scores when compared to the control group in the areas of peer acceptance and cognitive competence. This would offer tentative evidence that an after-school program directed by occupational therapists that is designed to improve self-concept may be successful.

  8. Hematology and serum biochemistry parameters for rescued common palm civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ali Anwar; Jayarajah, Praveena; Han, Gwen Wong Yee; Yin, Serena Jocelyn Oh Wai; Rasedee, Abdullah

    2017-06-29

    Currently, there are no complete parameters established for serum biochemistry and hematology for the determination of health status of rescued common palm civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus). In this study, blood samples were obtained from 18 adults and 15 juvenile civets caught on Singapore Main Island. Significant age-related differences (P<0.05) were noted in the hemoglobin, erythrocyte count, packed cell volume (PCV), total serum protein and globulin concentration in the adult civets showing higher values compared with the juvenile civets. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05) in juveniles compared with adult civets.

  9. Propofol for pediatric tracheal intubation with deep anesthesia during sevoflurane induction: dosing according to elapsed time for two age groups.

    PubMed

    Politis, George D; Stemland, Christopher J; Balireddy, Ravi K; Brockhaus, Julie; Hughes, Kevin R; Goins, Matthew D; McMurry, Timothy L

    2014-02-01

    To determine, for two different age groups, the effect of duration of sevoflurane administration on the amount of propofol needed when performing tracheal intubation. Classic Dixon's Up-and-Down sequential method. University based operating rooms. 106 ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients aged one to 11 years. Patients were allocated to the 1-6 year (≥ 12 and < 72 mos) and 6-11 year (≥ 72 and < 132 mos) age groups. Midazolam 0.5 mg/kg was given orally to the 1-6 year group, and all patients were induced with 8% dialed sevoflurane and 67% nitrous oxide (N2O), with N2O discontinued and sevoflurane dialed to 5% after one minute and 1.5 minutes for the younger and older age groups, respectively. Intravenous access was obtained and propofol was promptly administered. Propofol dose was determined according to age group and whether propofol was given 2-4, 4-6, or 6-8 minutes after the start of sevoflurane induction, with Dixon's Up and Down Method used separately for each specific age/time group. Tracheal intubation conditions one minute after propofol were evaluated. Isotonic regression determined propofol ED50 estimates for excellent tracheal intubation conditions, and linear regression determined the effect of propofol dose on change in systolic blood pressure (SBP). Estimated propofol ED50 doses for 1-6 year olds, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were 1.48 mg/kg (0.80, 2.03), 0.00 mg/kg (0.00, 0.38), and 0.07 mg/kg (0.00, 0.68) in the 2-4, 4-6, and 6-8 minute groups, respectively, with estimated differences between the 2-4 minute group versus the 4-6 and 6-8 minute groups being 1.47 mg/kg (95% CI = 1.04, 2.06) and 1.41 mg/kg (95% CI = 0.74, 2.04), respectively. Estimated propofol ED50 doses for 6-11 year olds, with 95% CIs, were 2.35 mg/kg (1.97, 2.45) and 2.33 mg/kg (1.59, 2.45) in the 2-4 and 4-6 minute groups, respectively. Diminutions in SBP at one minute and two minutes after propofol administration were dose dependent for children 1-6 years of age

  10. Cognitive correlates of psychosocial outcome following traumatic brain injury in early childhood: comparisons between groups of children aged under and over 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Tonks, James; Williams, W Huw; Yates, Phil; Slater, Alan

    2011-04-01

    Children with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) commonly present with socioemotional difficulties, as well as accompanying multiple cognitive impairments. Often difficulties worsen at around 10 years old. This change is associated with frontal system changes, and tests of executive function (EF) predict outcome. However, children with TBI sometimes present with socioemotional difficulties despite apparent cognitive recovery. Our aims were to explore potential cognitive and socioemotional effects following childhood TBI, before and after the age of 10 years. We also wanted to identify cognitive correlates of psychosocial dysfunction. Measures of cognitive function and socioemotional disturbance administered to 14 children with TBI aged 8-10 years, and 14 children with TBI aged 10-16 years, were compared to control data from 22 non-injured 8- to 10 year-olds and 67 non-injured 10- to 16-year-olds. Results indicated that only the older group of children with TBI were impaired in tests of EF, but significant socioemotional difficulties were commonly evident in both groups. Processing speed (as well as EF) was found to correlate with socioemotional disturbance. We conclude that poor processing speed may also index the risk of socioemotional difficulties, but our general findings indicate that cognitive functions relevant to socioemotional functioning are not readily testable in younger children and are not strongly associated with such outcomes as they may be in adults.

  11. Effect of smoking and ABO blood groups on maternal age at child bearing and on birth weight.

    PubMed

    Gloria-Bottini, F; Cozzoli, E; Neri, A; Bottini, E; Magrini, A

    2011-11-01

    The negative effects of cigarette smoking on human reproduction and on birth weight are well documented. On the other hand ABO system, encoding for glycosyltransferases, contributes to biosynthesis of antigens and oligosaccharide structures involved in blastocyst adhesion and intrauterine selection. In this paper we have searched for possible interaction between ABO system and smoking concerning their effects on maternal age at child bearing and on birth weight. We have studied 395 consecutive healthy puerperae from the White Caucasian population of Rome. ABO blood group was determined by standard laboratory methods. Three-way contingency table analysis was performed according to Sokal and Rohlf and Chi square test of independence by SPSS programs. The proportion of smokers is higher in A phenotype than in other ABO types among young puerperae (≤ 24 years) while it is lower in A phenotype than in other types among older women. The negative effects of smoke on birth weight is much more evident in women with A blood group than in women carrying other ABO phenotypes. The interaction between smoking and ABO blood groups concerning their effects on birth weight is influenced by gender of newborn and by maternal age. ABO blood groups and smoking could have a joint influence on maternal age at child bearing and on birth weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Using a focus group to determine car seat use among mothers of children aged 3 to 7 years.

    PubMed

    Medoff-Cooper, Barbara; Tulman, Lorraine

    2007-01-01

    This study built on prior research and examined the beliefs, behaviors, barriers and motivating factors for use of child car seats with children aged 3 to 7 years. Two focus groups of eight mothers each were conducted using a structured interview guide. One group consisted of African American and Latina women, the other of White women. All of the mothers believed that properly restraining their children while riding in a car protected the children from injury. Most also reported that they have used car seats for their children. African American and Latina mothers, however, reported more inconsistent use of the seats, particularly with older children of this age group. They were also more likely to report greater resistance by their children to use car seats. In this small study, there were ethnic disparities in differences in use of child car seats for children aged 3 to 7; this subject requires more research. In the meantime, public health programs on child car seats are needed and should take into account differing beliefs and behaviors of various cultural groups.

  13. Archean Age Fossils from Northwestern Australia (Approximately 3.3 to 3.5 GA, Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Penny A. Morris

    1999-01-01

    Archean aged rocks from the Pilbara Block area of western Australia (Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation, -3.3-3.5 Ga) contain microfossils that are composed of various sizes of spheres and filaments. The first descriptions of these microfossils were published in the late 1970's (Dunlop, 1978; Dunlop, et. al., 1978). The authenticity of the microfossils is well established. The small size of the microfossils prevents isotope dating, at least with the present technology. Microbiologists, however, have established guidelines to determine the authenticity of the Archean aged organic remains (Schopf, Walter, 1992).

  14. Archean Age Fossils from Northwestern Australia (Approximately 3.3 to 3.5 GA, Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Penny A. Morris

    1999-01-01

    Archean aged rocks from the Pilbara Block area of western Australia (Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation, -3.3-3.5 Ga) contain microfossils that are composed of various sizes of spheres and filaments. The first descriptions of these microfossils were published in the late 1970's (Dunlop, 1978; Dunlop, et. al., 1978). The authenticity of the microfossils is well established. The small size of the microfossils prevents isotope dating, at least with the present technology. Microbiologists, however, have established guidelines to determine the authenticity of the Archean aged organic remains (Schopf, Walter, 1992).

  15. Epidemiology of autism in adults across age groups and ability levels.

    PubMed

    Brugha, Traolach S; Spiers, Nicola; Bankart, John; Cooper, Sally-Ann; McManus, Sally; Scott, Fiona J; Smith, Jane; Tyrer, Freya

    2016-12-01

    The epidemiology of autism in adults has relied on untested projections using childhood research. To derive representative estimates of the prevalence of autism and key associations in adults of all ages and ability levels. Comparable clinical diagnostic assessments of 7274 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey participants combined with a population case-register survey of 290 adults with intellectual disability. The combined prevalence of autism in adults of all ages in England was 11/1000 (95% CI 3-19/1000). It was higher in those with moderate to profound intellectual disability (odds ratio (OR) = 63.5, 95% CI 27.4-147.2). Male gender was a strong predictor of autism only in those with no or mild intellectual disability (adjusted OR = 8.5, 95% CI 2.0-34.9; interaction with gender, P = 0.03). Few adults with autism have intellectual disability; however, autism is more prevalent in this population. Autism measures may miss more women with autism. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  16. Periodontal health and its relationship with salivary factors among different age groups in a Saudi population.

    PubMed

    Farsi, Najat; Al Amoudi, Najlaa; Farsi, Jamila; Bokhary, Sahar; Sonbul, Hilal

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the periodontal condition of children, adolescents and young Saudi adults and to investigate its relationship with salivary variables and oral hygiene status. A sample of 114 children, 99 adolescents and 99 young adults were randomly selected from patients attending dental clinics at the school of dentistry. Clinical examination of oral health status included using WHO Community Periodontal Index and Green and Vermillion oral hygiene index. In addition, salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and microbial flora were measured. A healthy periodontal condition was found in 6.7% of the sample. Calculus was the most frequently encountered periodontal disease. Children had better periodontal condition than adolescents and adults. Males had higher plaque and gingival scores than females. The salivary flow rate and pH were significantly higher in individuals with good periodontal condition. The salivary level of fluoride and buffering capacity was not related to the periodontal condition. Yeast was the only microorganism related to periodontal condition. The relationship between poor periodontal condition and high plaque score was highly significant. Periodontal disease increased with age and was strongly related to salivary flow rate, pH value and yeast level, as well as plaque accumulation. Preventive efforts must be increased in order to achieve the WHO goal for the year 2010 of no more than one sextant showing bleeding or calculus at the age of 15.

  17. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia-prone age groups in Semarang, Java Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Farida, Helmia; Severin, Juliëtte A; Gasem, M Hussein; Keuter, Monique; Wahyono, Hendro; van den Broek, Peterhans; Hermans, Peter W M; Verbrugh, Henri A

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a worldwide occurring pathogen Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae precedes pneumonia and other pneumococcal diseases in the community. Little is known about S. pneumoniae carriage in Indonesia, complicating strategies to control pneumococcal diseases. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae in Semarang, Indonesia. A population-based survey was performed in Semarang, Indonesia. Nasopharyngeal swabs and questionnaires were taken from 496 healthy young (6-60 month-old) children and 45-70 year-old adults. Forty-three percent of children aged 6-60 months and 11% of adults aged 45-75 years carried S. pneumoniae. Determinants of carriage were being a child (OR 7.7; 95% CI = 4.5-13.0), passive smoking (OR 2.1; 95% CI = 1.3-3.4), and contact with toddler(s) at home (OR 3.0; 95% CI = 1.9-4.7). The most frequent serotypes found were 6A/B and 15B/C. The current commercially available vaccines cover <50% serotypes found in children. Twenty-four percent of S. pneumoniae strains were penicillin non-susceptible, and 45% were resistant to cotrimoxazol. The limited coverage of commercially available vaccines against the serotypes found in this population, and the high proportion of non-susceptibility to penicillin and cotrimoxazol suggest the need for region-specific information and strategies to control S. pneumoniae.

  18. Arthroplasty Utilization in the United States is Predicted by Age-Specific Population Groups.

    PubMed

    Bashinskaya, Bronislava; Zimmerman, Ryan M; Walcott, Brian P; Antoci, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common indication for hip and knee arthroplasty. An accurate assessment of current trends in healthcare utilization as they relate to arthroplasty may predict the needs of a growing elderly population in the United States. First, incidence data was queried from the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1993 to 2009. Patients undergoing total knee and hip arthroplasty were identified. Then, the United States Census Bureau was queried for population data from the same study period as well as to provide future projections. Arthroplasty followed linear regression models with the population group >64 years in both hip and knee groups. Projections for procedure incidence in the year 2050 based on these models were calculated to be 1,859,553 cases (hip) and 4,174,554 cases (knee). The need for hip and knee arthroplasty is expected to grow significantly in the upcoming years, given population growth predictions.

  19. Influence of the age and sex of human hosts on the distribution of Escherichia coli ECOR groups an