Science.gov

Sample records for age group children

  1. Language Assessment Methods for Three Age Groups of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Ann R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes results of a survey of licensed Midwestern school-based speech-language pathologists (N=326) regarding methods used to assess the language of children ages 3 to 5 years, 6 to 11 years, and 12 to 18 years. Striking similarities were found in methods used for each age group. The relationship of these methods to recommended…

  2. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  3. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  4. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  5. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  6. Immigrant Differences in School-Age Children's Verbal Trajectories: A Look at Four Racial/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Tama; Xue, Yange; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    This study explored inter- and intraindividual immigrant group differences in children's English verbal ability over ages 6-16 in 4 racial/ethnic groups--White Americans, Black Americans, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans (N=2,136). Although all children's mean verbal scores increased with age, immigrant children (except for Black Americans)…

  7. Standards of Fair Play in Same- and Mixed-Age Groups of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, William G.

    The present study investigated the hypothesis that children do not use the same standards of fair play in mixed-age situations as in same-age situations. It was further hypothesized that in mixed-age encounters, younger children would use cues associated with older children (i.e., physical size) as a basis for reward deservingness. Older children,…

  8. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores. PMID:25540495

  9. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  10. Risk groups in children under six months of age using self-organizing maps.

    PubMed

    Schilithz, A O C; Kale, P L; Gama, S G N; Nobre, F F

    2014-06-01

    Fetal and infant growth tends to follow irregular patterns and, particularly in developing countries, these patterns are greatly influenced by unfavorable living conditions and interactions with complications during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify groups of children with different risk profiles for growth development. The study sample comprised 496 girls and 508 boys under six months of age from 27 pediatric primary health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were obtained through interviews with the mothers and by reviewing each child's health card. An unsupervised learning, know as a self-organizing map (SOM) and a K-means algorithm were used for cluster analysis to identify groups of children. Four groups of infants were identified. The first (139) consisted of infants born exclusively by cesarean delivery, and their mothers were exclusively multiparous; the highest prevalences of prematurity and low birthweight, a high prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and a low proportion of hospitalization were observed for this group. The second (247 infants) and the third (298 infants) groups had the best and worst perinatal and infant health indicators, respectively. The infants of the fourth group (318) were born heavier, had a low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding, and had a higher rate of hospitalization. Using a SOM, it was possible to identify children with common features, although no differences between groups were found with respect to the adequacy of postnatal weight. Pregnant women and children with characteristics similar to those of group 3 require early intervention and more attention in public policy. PMID:24725333

  11. Effective Group Work for Elementary School-Age Children Whose Parents Are Divorcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia-Waack, Janice; Gerrity, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Parental divorce is the issue of most concern for elementary school children. This article describes interventions for children-of-divorce groups for elementary school children. Suggests guidelines related to goal setting; securing agency and parental consent; leadership planning; recruitment, screening, and selection of members; group member…

  12. Fears and Related Anxieties across Three Age Groups of Mexican American and White Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared levels and types of fears and anxieties in a sample of Mexican American children and adolescents with disabilities to a group of White children and adolescents with similar disabilities. Students (N = 238), parents, and teachers completed the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (T. H. Ollendick, 1983) and the Revised…

  13. Effectiveness of a School-Based Early Intervention CBT Group Programme for Children with Anxiety Aged 5-7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruocco, Sylvia; Gordon, Jocelynne; McLean, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Early manifestations of anxiety in childhood confer significant distress and life interference. This study reports on the first controlled trial of the "Get Lost Mr. Scary" programme, a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group intervention for children with anxiety aged 5-7 years. Participants were 134 children (65 males and 69 females) drawn…

  14. The Feasibility of a Group Bender-Gestalt Test for Preschool and Primary School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Denis P.

    1975-01-01

    Study devised and tested a method for group administration of the Bender-Gestalt Test that would be feasible for screening large groups of beginning school-age children. Results indicate that the group method of presentation can yield results as valid and reliable as the traditional individual method of administration. (Author)

  15. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children's Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Wiegand, Ryan E; Omedo, Martin; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization recommendations for the timing and target population for mass drug administration (MDA) for schistosomiasis are based on the prevalence of infection in school children within a given community. In a large study comparing MDA approaches for Schistosoma mansoni control, we evaluated whether prevalence of infection and egg burdens in 9- to 12-year-old students reflected infection levels in young children and adults in the same community. Cross-sectional surveys of preadolescents (9-12 years old) were compared with those of first year students (5-8 years old) in 225 villages and adults (20-55 years old) in 150 villages along the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Village schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity levels in preadolescents strongly correlated (P < 0.0001) with prevalence and infection intensity for other age groups in the community. Our findings suggest that S. mansoni prevalence and intensity among 9- to 12-year-olds are valid for community sampling purposes in mapping for MDAs.

  16. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children's Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Wiegand, Ryan E; Omedo, Martin; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization recommendations for the timing and target population for mass drug administration (MDA) for schistosomiasis are based on the prevalence of infection in school children within a given community. In a large study comparing MDA approaches for Schistosoma mansoni control, we evaluated whether prevalence of infection and egg burdens in 9- to 12-year-old students reflected infection levels in young children and adults in the same community. Cross-sectional surveys of preadolescents (9-12 years old) were compared with those of first year students (5-8 years old) in 225 villages and adults (20-55 years old) in 150 villages along the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Village schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity levels in preadolescents strongly correlated (P < 0.0001) with prevalence and infection intensity for other age groups in the community. Our findings suggest that S. mansoni prevalence and intensity among 9- to 12-year-olds are valid for community sampling purposes in mapping for MDAs. PMID:26416108

  17. Development of an Outreach Group for Children Ages Five through Thirteen Who Have Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Corinne

    This practicum took place at a spouse abuse shelter located in a county classified as urban in the southeast United States. It was found that once a family left the shelter, support groups were not available to help the children with feelings related to living in a home where domestic violence has occurred. Most of these children were already…

  18. Effect of occupation-based groups on self-concept of children aged 5-8: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Scurlock, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this pilot study was to ascertain the effectiveness of an occupation-based after-school program for improving self-concept in children, ages five through eight. Fifty-four randomly selected children ages five through eight from two schools (one being the control group) with similar socioeconomic status along the Ohio River were involved in this research study. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PCSA; Harter & Pike, 1984) was administered to all participants (N = 54), four subtests were analyzed: cognitive competence, social competence with peers, physical competence in sports, and maternal acceptance. The experimental group (n = 25) attended occupation-based groups two times a week after school. The control group (n = 29) did not participate in an after-school program. Data from pre-test and post-test were analyzed using a t-test. Findings demonstrated that the experimental group improved their self-concept scores when compared to the control group in the areas of peer acceptance and cognitive competence. This would offer tentative evidence that an after-school program directed by occupational therapists that is designed to improve self-concept may be successful. PMID:25338266

  19. Acute Respiratory Infections among Under-Five Age Group Children at Urban Slums of Gulbarga City: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Pattankar, Jayashree; Puttahonnappa, Suresh Kuralayanapalya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Among all illness, Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) account for 30-60% of paediatric outpatient attendance and 20-30% of hospital admissions. Aim To study the morbidity pattern of ARI among under-five-age group children and to assess the determinants. Materials and Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted for a one year period, comprising a cumulative sample of 400 children from 3 urban slums of Gulbarga city. History of nasal discharge, cough, fever, sore throat, breathing difficulty, any discharge from ear alone or in combination, was used in the recognition of an ARI episode. Respiratory rate >60/minute (<2 month infants), >50(2-11 months) and >40(1-5 years) in a child with cough, cold or fever singly or in combination was considered the criteria for recognition of pneumonia. Results Out of the 400 surveyed, ARI was detected among 109 children giving an incidence of 27.25%. Among these, Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) was found among 19.25% and Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) among 8%. ARI was observed among 38.04% of infants, 37.84% of 2-3-year-old children, 36.87% of boys, 40.43% of children born to illiterate father’s, 35.77% of SES class IV & 40.79% of SES class V, and 41.89% of children with family history of respiratory illness. All these data were found to be statistically significant. High rates of ARI were also observed among 41.36% of children living in households with firewood fuel usage, 35.04% of children with pets in the household, 34.82% of children with delayed milestones, 53.85% of children with grade IV and 66.67% of children with grade V malnutrition. More episodes occurred during winter months of the year (Oct – Jan). During the follow-up phase of study done on a cohort of 112 children for a period of one year, an attack rate of 3.27 episodes/child/year was observed. Conclusion Community education programs should focus on addressing specific issues viz. identification of respiratory illness

  20. BMI Group-Related Differences in Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Preschool-Age Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…

  1. Accuracy of Cameriere, Haavikko, and Willems radiographic methods on age estimation on Bosnian-Herzegovian children age groups 6-13.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Cameriere, Roberto; Nakaš, Enita; Galić, Elizabeta; Selimović, Edin; Brkić, Hrvoje

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the accuracy of the Cameriere European formula (Cameriere), adopted Haavikko method from 1974 (Haavikko), and revisited Demirjian method by Willems (Willems) for age estimation on orthopantomograms (OPGs) of Bosnian-Herzegovian (BH) children age groups 6-13 years. The accuracy was determined as difference between estimated dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA) and the absolute accuracy (absolute difference) was assessed by analyzing OPGs of 591 girls and 498 boys. The Cameriere method overestimated the mean age by 0.09 year for girls and underestimated by -0.02 year for boys. The Haavikko method underestimated the mean age by -0.29 year for girls and -0.09 year for boys. The Willems method overestimated the mean age by 0.24 year in girls and by 0.42 year in boys. The absolute accuracies were 0.53 year for girls and 0.55 year for boys for Cameriere method; for Haavikko method, 0.59 year for girls and 0.62 year for boys; and for Willems method 0.69 year for girls and 0.67 year for boys. In conclusion, Cameriere method is the most accurate for estimating the age of BH children age groups 6-13 years using OPGs, following adopted Haavikko method and Willems method.

  2. Cephalometric effects of face mask/expansion therapy in Class III children: a comparison of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Kapust, A J; Sinclair, P M; Turley, P K

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue effects of face mask/expansion therapy and to examine the effect of age on treatment response. Pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric radiographs from 63 subjects (4 to 13 years) who had a Class III malocclusion were analyzed. Serial cephalometric tracings of 32 subjects with Class I occlusion made at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 years were used as controls. Landmarks were digitized on each tracing and treatment effects were measured by using cranial base and maxillary superimposition techniques. Annual rate differences were compared with t tests for the combined treated group (N = 63) and between stratified treated groups (4 to 7 years N = 15, 7 to 10 years N = 32, 10 to 14 years N = 16). The treated group (N = 63) demonstrated significant (p < 0.001) hard and soft tissue changes that resulted from treatment. Skeletal change was primarily a result of anterior and vertical movement of the maxillae. Mandibular position was directed in a downward and backward vector. Orthodontic changes contributed to the correction, and soft tissue effects resulted in a more convex profile. Minimal significant differences were observed between age groups when comparing angular and linear measurements alone. However, when analyzing the algebraic sum of treatment effects (Johnston analysis), significantly (p < 0.01) greater differences were observed in apical base change (ABCH) and total molar correction (6/6) in the younger age groups. This study demonstrates that face mask/expansion therapy produces dentofacial changes that combine to improve the Class III malocclusion. Although early treatment may be most effective, face mask therapy can provide a viable option for older children as well.

  3. The Analysis of Certain Differences in Motor Skills of Sedentary Male Children in the 9-14 Age Group Based on the Biological Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayraktar, Isik; Yaman, Nigar; Zorba, Erdal; Yaman, Metin; Günay, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study consists of the analysis of certain differences in motor skills of male children who are sedentary and in the age group of 9-14, in relation to the biological maturity. 522 sedentary male children from various parts of Turkey participated in this study. Body height and body weight measurements were taken from the participants…

  4. Focus Groups with Working Parents of School-Aged Children: What's Needed to Improve Family Meals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Rydell, Sarah; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Garwick, Ann; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Dudovitz, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To conduct focus groups to identify parents' perceptions of barriers to family meals and elucidate ideas to guide the development of interventions to overcome barriers. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 27 working parents in urban community settings. Results: Parents reported enjoying the sharing/bonding…

  5. Fatigue and mood correlates of sleep length in three age-social groups: School children, students, and employees.

    PubMed

    Oginska, Halszka; Pokorski, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to trace the consequences of insufficient sleep, in terms of chronic sleep reduction rather than acute sleep deprivation, on fatigue, mood, cognitive performance self-estimations, and daytime sleepiness in different age-social groups. The age group of the subjects reflects their social situation and their working time organization: adolescents (n = 191) obeyed the strict school schedules with starting times often before 08:00 h; university students (n = 115) had more flexible timetables; young employees (n = 126) were engaged in regular morning schedules or irregular daytime hours or day and night shifts. A questionnaire study determined the declared need of sleep, self-reported sleep length, chronic fatigue (using a scale comprised of eight fatigue symptoms and four mood and three cognitive items), and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale). The declared need for sleep decreased in subsequent age groups from 9 h 23 min in school children to 8 h 22 min in university students and to 7 h 37 min in young employees. Consequently, the discrepancy between preferred and real sleep length (sleep deficit) was the largest in adolescents: 106 min. Females showed a greater need of sleep than males (p = .025) and significantly more fatigue, mood, and cognitive problems; they also exhibited higher level of daytime sleepiness (p < .000). The sleep index (reported sleep length related to requirements) correlated significantly with all health issues in women (p < .000), while only with fatigue symptoms in men (p = .013). Actual sleep length was unrelated to mood and fatigue issues; the declared individual need of sleep and sleep index showed significant associations, especially in the group of adolescents. The most frequent complaints of adolescents included tiredness on awakening (46%), nervousness, and general weakness; university students reported excessive drowsiness (50%), tension, and nervousness; employees suffered mostly from negative moods

  6. The dietary intake of a group of vegetarian children aged 7-11 years compared with matched omnivores.

    PubMed

    Nathan, I; Hackett, A F; Kirby, S

    1996-04-01

    There is a lack of information concerning the diet of vegetarian children. The present study compared the dietary intake of fifty vegetarian children, aged 7-11 years, with fifty matched omnivores. Three 3 d food records were completed by each child at intervals of 6 months. The day after completing the record each child was interviewed to clarify food items and assess portion sizes. Food records were analysed using Microdiet (University of Salford). Finger-prick cholesterol and haemoglobin measurements were taken from a subsample of the group. Only one child's family was a member of the Vegetarian Society and almost one-third of vegetarian children had omnivorous parents (seventeen of fifty subjects). The energy intake (MJ) of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the omnivores, 7.6 (SD 1.05) and 8.0 (SD 1.36) respectively; there were no significant differences in Fe or fat intakes. For the vegetarians polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio (P:S 0.7 (SD 0.04)) and NSP intake (13.8 (SD 0.7) g/d) were significantly higher than those of the omnivores (P:S 0.5 (SD 0.02), NSP 10.3 (SD 0.4) g/d). There was no significant difference in cholesterol measurements (mmol/l) between the two groups: vegetarian 3.5 (SD 0.12), omnivores 3.7 (SD 0.15). The haemoglobin level (g/l) of the vegetarians (11.8 (SD 0.2)) was significantly below that of the omnivores (12.4 (SD 0.2)); 47.5% of the vegetarian children fell below the third percentile of the Dallman reference curves (Dallman & Siimes, 1979). The intake of the vegetarians more closely resembled current recommendations (Department of Health, 1991), although they need to be as aware as omnivores of the need to reduce fat intake. The haemoglobin levels of vegetarian children suggest that they need dietary advice to ensure optimal absorption of Fe.

  7. Children's Divorce Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Gary S.; Bleck, Robert T.

    1977-01-01

    Elementary school counselors can implement a specific strategy to meet the needs of the children of divorce by using many of the techniques already in use. The activities used in the Children's Divorce Groups are ones that have been skillfully developed by counselors familiar with the developmental model of counseling. (Author/PC)

  8. Does the Age and Familiarity of the Informant Group Influence the Tendency of 3- and 4-year-old Children to Conform?

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Nicola; Stevenson, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The authors' aim was to explore whether the age and the familiarity of the individuals comprising a group majority influenced the tendency of 3- and 4-year-old children to conform. Participants were presented with 2 variants of a novel task in which they were required to judge which of 3 line-drawn tigers had the greatest number of stripes. The participants made their judgments in 2 contexts, first after viewing 5 informants perform the task incorrectly, and second without viewing the responses of other individuals. The informants comprised a group of familiar children, a group of unfamiliar children, a group of familiar adults, or a group of unfamiliar adults. The results showed that the children displayed selective conformity with respect to informant age, readily adopting the incorrect response when it was indicated by an adult majority, but failing to do so when the same incorrect response was indicated by a majority of children. In contrast the familiarity of the individuals comprising the majority had little influence on the tendency of children to conform. These results suggest that children are not blanket conformists, rather they respond selectively depending on characteristics of the individuals comprising the group majority. PMID:27341477

  9. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rezaul Karim, Mohammad; Ahmad, Sk. Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas. Materials and methods: It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method. Results: The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01) lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49%) in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%). Stunting (p < 0.01), wasting (p < 0.05) and underweight (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children. Conclusion: In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status. PMID:25530768

  10. Assessing Minority Group Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beeman N., Ed.

    Contents of this book include the following collection of articles: "Assessing Minority Group Children: Challenges for School Psychologists," Thomas Oakland; "The NEA Testing Moratorium," Boyd Bosma; "Cultural Myopia: The Need for a Corrective Lens," Martin H. Gerry; "Assumptions Underlying Psychological Testing," T. Ernest Newland;…

  11. Group Intervention to Promote Social Skills in School-Age Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Reconsidering Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Kathleen; De Los Reyes, Andres; Cicchetti, Domenic; Scahill, Lawrence; Klin, Ami

    2009-01-01

    A consistent result in the evaluation of group-delivered intervention to promote social reciprocity in children with PDDs is that outcome data are inconclusive. Lack of robust evidence of efficacy confounds understanding of these interventions and their value to the field. It is conceivable that the construct of impaired social reciprocity in PDD…

  12. [Postvaccinal immunity and immunological aspects of Haemophilus influenzae carrier state in children of different age groups after the administration of "Act-HIB" vaccine].

    PubMed

    Gorbunov, S G; Bondarenko, V M; Demina, A A; Spirikhina, L V; Iastrebova, N E; Vaneeva, N P; Orlova, E V; Tamazian, G V; Zakharova, N I

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with H. influenzae (different serotypes) carrier state and immune response before and after the administration of the vaccine "Act-HIB" to children of different age groups. Children aged up to 1 year and over 1 year have been found to differ in the dynamics of carrier state and in the concentration of antibodies of different classes to the antigens of this infective agent, which makes it necessary to carry out their early immunization with a view to ensure their protection from H. influenzae infection.

  13. How Do Children Share Information in Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gummerum, Michaela; Leman, Patrick J.; Hollins, Tara S.

    2014-01-01

    Group decision making should be particularly beneficial when group members share unique information, because then a group can make a better decision than each group member alone. This study examined how elementary-school children share unique information during group decision making. Seventy-nine groups of 3 same-sex and same-age 7- and 9-year-old…

  14. Distribution of Candida albicans in the oral cavity of children aged 3-5 years of Uygur and Han nationality and their genotype in caries-active groups.

    PubMed

    Wu, N; Lin, J; Wu, L; Zhao, J

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the distribution of Candida albicans in the oral cavity of 3-5-year-old children of Uygur and Han nationalities as well as their genotypes in caries-active groups in the Urumqi municipality. CHROMagar Candida was separately cultivated, and we identified 359 Uygur and Han children aged 3-5 years. We randomly selected 20 Han children and 20 Uygur children for this study. We chose a bacterial strain for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 25S rDNA genotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) genotyping. The rate of caries-active in Han children was higher than that in Uygur children, with values of 39.6 and 24.3%, respectively. The detection rate of C. albicans was closely correlated to the caries filling index classification (X(2) = 31.037, P = 0.000, r = 0.421; X(2) = 80.454, P = 0.000, r = 0.497). PCR of 25S rDNA from 40 strains of Han and Uygur children revealed 3 genotypes, while RAPD analysis revealed 5 genotypes. The distribution of 25S rDNA genotyping of Han children from PCR differed from that of Uygur children (X(2) = 7.697, P = 0.021), both of which were mainly the A type. RAPD genotyping of both Han and Uygur children showed similar results (X(2) = 1.573, P = 0.814). There were differences in the distributions of C. albicans in children of different nationalities. C. albicans is a key factor causing caries. The PCR 25S rDNA genotyping method is simple and sensitive, while the RAPD genotyping method is reliable and comprehensive. PMID:25730012

  15. Prevalence of overweight and obese school children aged between 7 to 16 years amongst the major 3 ethnic groups in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kasmini, K; Idris, M N; Fatimah, A; Hanafiah, S; Iran, H; Asmah Bee, M N

    1997-09-01

    6239 children aged 7 to 16 years, attending 22 primary and secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were screened using a self report questionnaire, with their heights and weights measured using a digital electronic SECA beam balance. The selection was done by a two staged stratified random sampling from a total of 226 schools in Kuala Lumpur. The racial distribution was 56.7% Malays, 33.8% Chinese and 8.1% Indians; 3.6% (n:222) of the children were identified as obese and 6% (n:373) identified as overweight. The definitions of obese and overweight were computed using growth charts of the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) from the median of the reference population. There were no significant differences amongst the 3 major ethnic groups in the obese group. The differences were significant in the overweight group with the Indians most overweight, followed by the Chinese and the Malays.

  16. Vitamin A status of the minority ethnic group of Karen hill tribe children aged 1-6 years in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tienboon, Prasong; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is the most common cause of childhood blindness in the developing world. It is estimated that by giving adequate vitamin A, in vitamin A deficient populations, child mortality from measles can be reduced by 50%, and mortality from diarrheal disease by 40%. Overall mortality in children 6-59 months of age can be reduced by 23%. This paper reported results from a study of vitamin A status and malnutrition of the minority ethnic group of Karen hill tribe children aged 1-6 years in the north of Thailand. All children aged 1-6 years (N = 158; 83 boys, 75 girls) from the three Karen villages (Mae Hae Tai, Mae Yot, Mae Raek) of Mae Chaem district in the north of Thailand were studied. The Karen is the largest mountain ethnic minority ("hill tribe") group in Thailand. All children were examined by a qualified medical doctor and were assessed for their vitamin A intakes using 24 hours dietary recall. Thai food composition table from Ministry of Health, Thailand were used as references. The results were compared with the Thai Recommended Dietary Allowances. Children aged 1-3 years and 4-6 years were separately analysed due to the differences in Thai Recommended Dietary Allowances between the two age groups. A whole blood of 300 microL was obtained by "fingerstick" for determination of serum vitamin A. Community or village's vitamin A status was assessed by using Simplified Dietary Assessment (SDA) method and Helen Keller International (HKI) food frequency method. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. All families of the study boys and girls had income lower than the Thailand poverty line (US $ 1,000/year). On average, 63% of children from Mae Hae Tai village, 1.5% of children from Mae Yot village and none of children from Mae Raek village had serum vitamin A<0.7 micromol/L which indicated VAD. All boys and only girls from Mae Raek village consumed vitamin A more than the Thai RDA but girls from Mae Hae Tai village and Mae Yot

  17. "Reference values" of trace elements in the hair of a sample group of Spanish children (aged 6-9 years) - are urban topsoils a source of contamination?

    PubMed

    Peña-Fernández, A; González-Muñoz, M J; Lobo-Bedmar, M C

    2014-07-01

    Human hair is used as a biomonitor to evaluate the environmental exposure to contaminants in the individual. However, the use of human hair is controversial, mainly because reference levels for pollutants in hair have not yet been set. In the case of Spain, few biomonitoring studies have involved infants and children. A biomonitoring study was conducted to investigate the possible normal values of trace elements of toxicological concern in children aged 6-9 years from the city of Alcalá de Henares, Community of Madrid (Spain), following the methodology and strict inclusion criteria previously developed by our group. Levels of Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Ti, Tl, V and Zn were monitored in scalp-hair from 117 healthy children (47 boys and 70 girls) between April and May of 2001. The levels of trace elements here described could be considered as possible "reference values" for children aged 6-9 years resident in the Community of Madrid. These values might also be selected as a preliminary screening tool to evaluate if a Spanish child has been exposed to any of the contaminants studied here. This study also investigated whether local urban topsoils were a source of metals for this population. PMID:24930126

  18. Prediction of Emotional Understanding and Emotion Regulation Skills of 4-5 Age Group Children with Parent-Child Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli, Esra

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to examine whether personal attributes, family characteristics of the child and parent-child relations predict children's emotional understanding and emotion regulation skills. The study was conducted with relational screening model, one of the screening models. Study sample included 423 children between the…

  19. School's Out! Group Day Care for the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth; Milich, Cynthia

    This report on group day care is designed to: (1) examine the kinds of group programs for school-age children which exist in Los Angeles County, (2) describe the conditions necessary for program operation, and (3) consider the issue of quality as it relates to community expansion of day care services for children of school age. The report is…

  20. Effects of Group Norms on Children's Intentions to Bully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    A minimal group study examined the effect of peer group norms on children's direct and indirect bullying intentions. Prior to an inter-group drawing competition, children (N = 85) aged seven and nine years were assigned to a group that had a norm of out-group dislike or out-group liking. Results indicated that, regardless of group norms, the…

  1. Comparative Study of Probiotic Ice Cream and Probiotic Drink on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Levels in 6-12 Years Age Group Children

    PubMed Central

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Reddy, K M Parveen; Kumar, N H Praveen; Nara, Asha; Ashwin, Devasya; Buddiga, Vinutna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most common health problems in the world. Probiotics are one the various preventive methods to reduce dental caries. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of probiotic ice cream and drink on salivary Streptococcus mutans levels in children of 6-12 years age group. Materials and Methods: A three phase study was carried out in children (n = 50) of 6-12 years age with zero decayed missing filled teeth (dmft)/DMFT. They were randomly divided into two equal groups. Saliva samples were collected before the consumptions of probiotic ice cream and probiotic drink. Colony count obtained was recorded as baseline data. For both groups probiotic ice cream and drink was given randomly for 7 days and a washout period of 90 days were given and then the saliva samples were collected and colony counting was done. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s paired t-test and multiple comparisons by Tukey’s honest significant difference test which showed, there is a significant reduction in salivary S. mutans level in both groups after 7 days period. However, after washout period only probiotic ice cream showed reduction whereas drink did not. Also, there was no significant difference between probiotic ice cream and drink. Conclusion: Probiotic organisms definitely have a role in reducing the salivary S. mutans level and ice cream would be a better choice than drink. However, the prolonged use of the agents and their effects on caries is still to be determined. PMID:26435616

  2. Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

  3. Neisseria meningitidis Group A IgG1 and IgG2 Subclass Immune Response in African Children Aged 12–23 Months Following Meningococcal Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Holme, Daniel; Findlow, Helen; Sow, Samba O.; Idoko, Olubukola T.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Carlone, George; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Borrow, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Background. A group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT, was licensed in 2010 and was previously studied in a phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate its safety and immunogenicity in African children 12–23 months of age. Methods. Subjects received either PsA-TT; meningococcal group A, C, W, Y polysaccharide vaccine (PsACWY); or Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (Hib-TT). Forty weeks following primary vaccination, the 3 groups were further randomized to receive either PsA-TT, one-fifth dose of PsACWY, or Hib-TT. Group A–specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass response was characterized using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. The predominant IgG subclass response, regardless of vaccine, was IgG1. One month following primary vaccination, the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of IgG1 and IgG2 in the PsA-TT group were 21.73 µg/mL and 6.27 µg/mL, whereas in the PsACWY group the mean GMCs were 2.01 µg/mL and 0.97 µg/mL, respectively (P < .0001). Group A–specific IgG1 and IgG2 GMCs remained greater in the PsA-TT group than in the PsACWY group 40 weeks following primary vaccination (P < .0001). One week following revaccination, those given 2 doses of PsA-TT had the greatest IgG1 and IgG2 GMCs of 125.23 µg/mL and 36.12 µg/mL, respectively (P = .0008), and demonstrated a significant increase in IgG1:IgG2 mean ratio, indicative of the T-cell–dependent response associated with conjugate vaccines. Conclusions. Vaccination of African children aged 12–24 months with either PsA-TT or PsACWY elicited a predominantly IgG1 response. The IgG1:IgG2 mean ratio decreased following successive vaccination with PsACWY, indicating a shift toward IgG2, suggestive of the T-cell–independent immune response commonly associated with polysaccharide antigens. Clinical Trials Registration. SRCTN78147026. PMID:26553689

  4. Children's Group Nous: Understanding and Applying Peer Exclusion Within and Between Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Pelletier, Joseph; Ferrell, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    In Study 1, 167 English children aged 6-8 or 9-11 evaluated peer English or French soccer fans that were loyal or partially disloyal. In Study 2, 149 children aged 5-11 made judgments about generic inclusion norms between and within competitive groups. In both studies, children's understanding of intergroup inclusion/exclusion norms (group nous)…

  5. 75 FR 27141 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing Dependent Coverage of Children to Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ45 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing... Labor and the Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health... health plans and health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan under...

  6. Adult Children and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

  7. The Development of Object Categorization in Young Children: Hierarchical Inclusiveness, Age, Perceptual Attribute, and Group versus Individual Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Arterberry, Martha E.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple levels of category inclusiveness in 4 object domains (animals, vehicles, fruit, and furniture) were examined using a sequential touching procedure and assessed in both individual and group analyses in eighty 12-, 18-, 24-, and 30-month-olds. The roles of stimulus discriminability and child motor development, fatigue, and actions were also…

  8. Group Aquatic Aerobic Exercise for Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M.; O'Neill, Margaret E.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's …

  9. [Determination of the frequency of human bocavirus and other respiratory viruses among 0-2 years age group children diagnosed as acute bronchiolitis].

    PubMed

    Uyar, Mustafa; Kuyucu, Necdet; Tezcan, Seda; Aslan, Gönül; Tasdelen, Bahar

    2014-04-01

    Acute bronchiolitis, mostly seen in infants and younger children, is a lower respiratory tract infection frequently caused by viral agents. We aimed to determine the frequency of a broad panel of respiratory viruses including human bocavirus (HBoV) and to assess the clinical characteristics of acute bronchiolitis in a group of children under 24 months of age. A total of 62 children (45 male, 17 female; age range: 0-2 years) with the initial diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis and 33 healthy children (21 male, 12 female; age range: 0-2 years) as control group who were admitted to the Pediatrics Department of Mersin University Hospital, southern Turkey, from January to July 2010 were included in the study. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from the study groups and the detection of respiratory viruses [respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A & B; rhinovirus (RV); human metapneumovirus (hMPV) A & B; influenza virus type A [H1N1, H3N2, H1N1v], B & C; parainfluenza virus (PIV) type 1, 2, 3 & 4A/B; adenovirus (AdV); HBoV; coronavirus (CoV 229E); enterovirus (EV)], were performed by using a commercial system namely CLART®Pneumovir (Clinical Array Technology, Genomica, Spain) based on the principle of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) and DNA microarray. Demographic features, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients, treatment protocols and the relationship between the length of hospitalization and the viral agents determined were also evaluated. Of the 62 samples collected from bronchiolitis cases, at least one virus was detected in 52 (83.9%) and viral co-infections were detected in 31 (50%) of them. Including the co-infections, RSV was the most commonly identified virus (n= 21; 33.9%), followed by influenza A [H1N1] (n= 18; 29%), RV (n= 18; 29%), hMPV (n= 13; 21%), PIV (n= 10; 16.1%), AdV (n= 5; 8%), HBoV (n= 3; 4.8%) and EV (n= 1; 1.6%). Of the 33 samples from healthy children, at least one virus was detected in 21 (63.6%) and viral co-infections were

  10. The Peer Attitudes toward Children Who Stutter Scale: Reliability, Known Groups Validity, and Negativity of Elementary School-Age Children's Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langevin, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Peer Attitudes Toward Children who Stutter (PATCS) scale (Langevin, M., & Hagler, P. (2004). Development of a scale to measure peer attitudes toward children who stutter. In A.K. Bothe (Ed.), Evidence-based treatment of stuttering: empirical bases and clinical applications (pp. 139-171). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum…

  11. School-age children development

    MedlinePlus

    ... to deal with failure or frustration without losing self-esteem. There are many causes of school failure, including: ... to deal with failure or frustration without losing self-esteem. SAFETY Safety is important for school-age children. ...

  12. Children in an Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendov, Blagovest

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes the main themes and presents recommendations of the international conference, "Children in an Information Age: Tomorrow's Problems Today," that was held in Bulgaria in 1985. Topics discussed include computer training for children; the need for well designed research; the teacher-computer relationship; artificial intelligence; and reform…

  13. Examining Play among Young Children in Single-Age and Multi-Age Preschool Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youhne, Mia Song

    2009-01-01

    Advocates for multi-age classrooms claim multi-age groupings benefit children (Brynes, Shuster, & Jones, 1994). Currently, there is a lack of research examining play among students in multi-age classrooms. If indeed there is a positive benefit of play among children, research is needed to examine these behaviors among and between young children in…

  14. Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder before or after the Age of 6 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsdottir, Sigridur Loa; Saemundsen, Evald; Antonsdottir, Ingibjorg Sif; Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Olason, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This study compared children with early and late diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). All children in four consecutive birth cohorts in Iceland diagnosed with ASD were divided into two groups based on their age at initial ASD diagnosis: 58 children were diagnosed before age 6 (group 1) and 41 children after age 6 (group 2). Children in…

  15. [Young children, toddlers and school age children].

    PubMed

    Heller-Rouassant, Solange; Flores-Quijano, María Eugenia

    2016-09-01

    Cow´s milk represents a very important source of proteins of high biological value and calcium in the child´s diet. The aim of this article is to review the available evidences of its role in nutrition of young children and school age children. Its main benefits are related with effects in linear growth, bone health and oral health, as protein source in early severe malnutrition, and it does not appears to influence metabolic syndrome risk and autism. High protein content in cow´s milk and increased protein consumption by children during the complementary feeding period is associated to the risk of developing a high body mass index and obesity in school-age children; therefore, milk consumption should be mildly restricted during the second year of life and to 480-720 ml/day during the first years of life. Its relationship with some diseases has not been confirmed, and milk consumption is associated with iron deficiency. The use of low-fat cow's milk instead of regular milk in young children remains controversial and its introduction is not advised before 2 to 4 years of age. PMID:27603883

  16. Age Banding and Its Impact on Children and Their Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Claire; Maynard, Sally

    2012-01-01

    The study described here investigates the thoughts and opinions of young readers related to age banding on children's books. Emphasizing the views of children themselves, rather than adults such as parents, librarians, teachers and authors, the research involved a series of three focus groups involving children aged 11-13 years. The discussions…

  17. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  18. Depleted iron stores and iron deficiency anemia associated with reduced ferritin and hepcidin and elevated soluble transferrin receptors in a multiethnic group of preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Hope A; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Cohen, Tamara R; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry

    2015-09-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is prevalent in subgroups of the Canadian population. The objective of this study was to examine iron status and anemia in preschool-age children. Healthy children (n = 430, 2-5 years old, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) were sampled from randomly selected daycares. Anthropometry, demographics, and diet were assessed. Biochemistry included hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), ferritin index, markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)), and hepcidin. Iron deficiency and anemia cutoffs conformed to the World Health Organization criteria. Differences among categories were tested using mixed-model ANOVA or χ(2) tests. Children were 3.8 ± 1.0 years of age, with a body mass index z score of 0.48 ± 0.97, and 51% were white. Adjusted intakes of iron indicated <1% were at risk for deficiency. Hemoglobin was higher in white children, whereas ferritin was higher with greater age and female sex. Inflammatory markers and hepcidin did not vary with any demographic variable. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 16.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 13.0-20.0). Three percent (95% CI, 1.4-4.6) of children had iron deficiency anemia and 12.8% (95% CI, 9.6-16.0) had unexplained anemia. Children with iron deficiency, with and without anemia, had lower plasma ferritin and hepcidin but higher sTfR, ferritin index, and IL-6, whereas those with unexplained anemia had elevated TNFα. We conclude that iron deficiency anemia is not very common in young children in Montreal. While iron deficiency without anemia is more common than iron deficiency with anemia, the correspondingly reduced circulating hepcidin would have enabled heightened absorption of dietary iron in support of erythropoiesis.

  19. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  20. Assessment of selenium and mercury in biological samples of normal and night blindness children of age groups (3-7) and (8-12) years.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Atif; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Arain, Salma Aslam; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Khan, Naeemullah; Arain, Mariam Shazadi; Ali, Jamshed

    2015-03-01

    The causes of night blindness in children are multifactorial and particular consideration has been given to childhood nutritional deficiency, which is the most common problem found in underdeveloped countries. Such deficiency can result in physiological and pathological processes that in turn influence biological sample composition. This study was designed to compare the levels of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in scalp hair, blood, and urine of night blindness children age ranged (3-7) and (8-12) years of both genders, comparing them to sex- and age-matched controls. A microwave-assisted wet acid digestion procedure was developed as a sample pretreatment for the determination of Se and Hg in biological samples of night blindness children. The proposed method was validated by using conventional wet digestion and certified reference samples of hair, blood, and urine. The Se and Hg in biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, prior to microwave acid digestion, respectively. The concentration of Se was decreased in scalp hair and blood samples of male and female night blindness children while Hg was higher in all biological samples as compared to referent subjects. The Se concentration was inversely associated with the risk of night blindness in both genders. These results add to an increasing body of evidence that Se is a protecting element for night blindness. These data present guidance to clinicians and other professional investigating deficiency of essential micronutrients in biological samples (scalp hair and blood) of night blindness children. PMID:25655123

  1. Sentence comprehension in post-institutionalized school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, post-institutionalized (PI) children. We compared the performance of these PI children to an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. We hypothesized that PI children would perform below clinical threshold on tasks of sentence comprehension and that poor sentence comprehension would be associated with poor performance in working memory. Method Twenty-three PI children and 36 comparison children were administered sentence comprehension and spatial memory tasks from standardized assessments. Results Some oral sentence comprehension skills and the spatial working memory skills were weaker in the school-aged PI children than in the age-matched comparison children. A mediational analysis demonstrated that poor spatial working memory performance partially explains the sentence comprehension differences between the two groups. Conclusion These findings provide valuable information to better plan early intervention and special education for PI children. PMID:22199198

  2. In-office survey of children's hazard exposure in the Chicago area: age-specific exposure information and methodological lessons. Pediatric Practice Research Group.

    PubMed

    Senturia, Y D; Binns, H J; Christoffel, K K; Tanz, R R

    1993-06-01

    Anticipatory guidance on injury prevention should reflect the risks children face, yet hazard exposure information is generally unavailable. The objectives of this study were (1) to obtain information on age-specific exposure of Chicago-area children to amusement park rides, sleds, snow discs, bunkbeds, skateboards, fireworks, toboggans, and air guns and (2) to assess methodological issues in gathering exposure information by parental survey in pediatric practices. Questionnaires were received from 679 families, including 1469 children. The proportion of families with at least one exposed child varied: amusement park rides (94%), sleds (67%), snow discs (25%), bunkbeds (24%), skateboards (22%), fireworks (17%), toboggans (15%), and air guns and rifles (6%). Use of skateboards, air guns and rifles, and bunkbeds was highest in males. Use of skateboards, air guns and rifles, and snow discs peaked among young adolescents (ages 10 to 14), whereas use of sleds, toboggans and amusement park rides peaked among young children (ages 5 to 9) and young adolescents. Use of bunkbeds peaked among young children. Log linear analyses found: the likelihood of exposure to sleds and snow discs was highest in rural communities and for families owning their own home; toboggan exposure was highest among home owners; air gun and rifle exposure was highest in rural areas; fireworks exposure decreased with increased paternal education; exposure to skateboards was highest in single family dwellings and suburban home owners. This study generates the only available current estimates for use of these products, and demonstrates that in-office parental surveys concerning exposure are feasible. The findings can help guide future hazard exposure research and may affect anticipatory guidance in some settings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Consequences of "Minimal" Group Affiliations in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Yarrow; Baron, Andrew Scott; Carey, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments (total N = 140) tested the hypothesis that 5-year-old children's membership in randomly assigned "minimal" groups would be sufficient to induce intergroup bias. Children were randomly assigned to groups and engaged in tasks involving judgments of unfamiliar in-group or out-group children. Despite an absence of information…

  4. Learning science in small multi-age groups: the role of age composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-06-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by pre-primary children aged 4-6. The second part included one primary class attended by students aged 6-8 in addition to the pre-primary classes. Students were involved in inquiry-based science activities. Two sources of data were used: Lesson recordings and children's assessments. The data from both sources were separately analyzed and the findings plotted. The resulting graphs indicate a linear relationship between the overall performance of the younger children in a class and the number of older ones participating in the groups in each class. It seems that the age composition of the groups can significantly affect the overall cognitive achievements of the younger children and preferentially determines the time within which this factor reaches its maximum value. The findings can be utilized in deciding the age composition of small groups in a class with the aim of facilitating the younger children's learning in science.

  5. A Hospital Based Study to Establish the Correlation between Recurrent Wheeze and Vitamin D Deficiency Among Children of Age Group Less than 3 Years in Indian Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Santosh; Sheth, Ronak; Mauskar, Anupama V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early childhood wheezing is a heterogeneous condition, which has several phenotypic expressions and a complex relationship with the development of asthma later in life. New studies indicate the prevalence of recurrent wheeze to be associated with Vitamin D deficiency. This has not been explored in Indian settings widely, mandating this exploration. Aim To determine the severity of Vitamin D deficiency and its association with recurrent wheeze in children less than 3 years of age. Materials and Methods Consecutive type of non-probability sampling was followed for selection of study subjects with a total sample size to be 122 children in the Hospital setting. A pre- formed, pre- tested, structured interview schedule was used to obtain information. Estimation of 25 (OH) Vitamin D was done using ELISA method. Kit used for estimation was DLD Diagnostika GMBH 25(OH) Vitamin D ELISA from Germany. Standard statistical tools were used including Logistic regression analysis, and ROC curve, p value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. SPSS software version 17.0 was used. Results Each 10ng/ml decrease in Vitamin D level is associated with 7.25% greater odds of wheezing. Our study also suggests, exclusive breast feeding and delaying of complementary feeding beyond 6 months of age are significant predictors of Vitamin D deficiency and have indirect association with increased incidence of wheezing in children. Conclusion The study concluded that Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of recurrent wheezing. PMID:27042548

  6. Age grouping to optimize augmentation success.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Robert W

    2010-05-01

    This article has described the different age groups that present for noninvasive injectable lip and perioral augmentation, as well as the breakdown of 3 subgroups that present within the 4 general age groups. With the fundamental understanding of these presenting groups and subgroups, the practicing augmenter will be able to better treatment plan and educate the patient on realistic and optimal aesthetic outcomes.

  7. Sentence Comprehension in Postinstitutionalized School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized (PI) children. The authors compared the performance of these PI children with that of an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. They hypothesized that PI…

  8. A Psychoeducational Group for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Nancy E.; Walker, Margaret E.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a campus-based psychoeducational support group for adult children of alcoholics. Outlines group goals; identifies recruitment procedures; and describes and evaluates sessions. Asserts that this successful group format could be easily adapted to other setting and age groups. (Author/ABB)

  9. The Special Value of Children's Age-Mixed Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, the normal social play of children involves kids of various ages. Our human and great-ape ancestors most likely lived in small groups with low birth rates, which made play with others of nearly the same age rare. Consequently, the evolutionary functions of children's social play are best understood by examining…

  10. Relative Weights of the Backpacks of Elementary-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Benjamin P.; Bryant, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school…

  11. The Study of Association between Mother Weight Efficacy Life-style with Feeding Practices, Food Groups Intake and Body Mass Index in Children Aged 3-6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Paknahad, Zamzam; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Doaei, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nutrition in childhood has a significant role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother's life-style has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child, child's diet and body mass index (BMI). This study paper aimed to investigate the association between mother's weight efficacy life-style (WEL) with feeding practices and diet in children aged 3-6 years. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, which was carried out in 18 Primary Schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child's demographics. Aspects of mother's WEL and mother's control practices were assessed using WEL questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. Child's dietary intake was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The role of mother's weight efficacy in predicting child's feeding practices and child's diet was assessed using the linear regression. Statistical significance for all P values was set at 0.003. Results: The results were showed that mother's weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices and child's dietary intake. The mothers with similar WEL applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety (β = 1.860), environmental control (β = 0.437), child involvement (β = 0.203) and less emotion regulation using foods (β = −0.213) and their children eat fewer snacks (β = −0.318) (PV= 0.003). Conclusions: The result of this study showed that maternal life-style was associated with feeding practices and child's intake. There was no significant relation between the maternal self-efficacy and child BMI. PMID:24554988

  12. Peer Group Rejection and Children's Outgroup Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith; Daly, Josh; McKenzie, David

    2010-01-01

    Two simulation studies examined the effect of peer group rejection on 7 and 9 year old children's outgroup prejudice. In Study 1, children (n = 88) pretended that they were accepted or rejected by their assigned group, prior to competing with a lower status outgroup. Results indicated that rejected versus accepted children showed increased…

  13. Comparison on three classification techniques for sex estimation from the bone length of Asian children below 19 years old: an analysis using different group of ages.

    PubMed

    Darmawan, M F; Yusuf, Suhaila M; Kadir, M R Abdul; Haron, H

    2015-02-01

    Sex estimation is used in forensic anthropology to assist the identification of individual remains. However, the estimation techniques tend to be unique and applicable only to a certain population. This paper analyzed sex estimation on living individual child below 19 years old using the length of 19 bones of left hand applied for three classification techniques, which were Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) multilayer perceptron. These techniques were carried out on X-ray images of the left hand taken from an Asian population data set. All the 19 bones of the left hand were measured using Free Image software, and all the techniques were performed using MATLAB. The group of age "16-19" years old and "7-9" years old were the groups that could be used for sex estimation with as their average of accuracy percentage was above 80%. ANN model was the best classification technique with the highest average of accuracy percentage in the two groups of age compared to other classification techniques. The results show that each classification technique has the best accuracy percentage on each different group of age. PMID:25540897

  14. The age at which meat is first included in the diet affects the incidence of iron deficiency and ferropenic anaemia in a group of pre-school children from Madrid.

    PubMed

    Requejo, A M; Navia, B; Ortega, R M; López-Sobaler, A M; Quintas, E; Gaspar, M J; Osorio, O

    1999-03-01

    A study was made into the effect of the age at which meat was first included in the diet on a series of haematological parameters and biochemical indicators of iron status in 94 pre-school children (aged 2-6 years) from Madrid (Spain). Those children who first took meat during their eighth month of life or earlier (Group A) showed better iron status that did those who were introduced to meat later (Group B). Significant differences were found in hemoglobin levels (P < 0.01), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) (P < 0.05), serum ferritin (P < 0.05), transferrin levels (P < 0.05) and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) (P < 0.001). Some 13.8% of all subjects showed iron deficiency and 5.3% showed ferropenic anaemia. These latter subjects were the last to have meat included in their diets (9.3 +/- 1.2 months compared to 7.4 +/- 2.0 months in those without ferropenic anaemia) (P < 0.05). It would appear that the age at which meat is included in the diet has an important effect on iron status in pre-school children. Delaying its inclusion beyond the age of eight months seems to be associated with an impairment of later iron status.

  15. Group Therapy for Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConachie, Helen; McLaughlin, Eleanor; Grahame, Victoria; Taylor, Helen; Honey, Emma; Tavernor, Laura; Rodgers, Jacqui; Freeston, Mark; Hemm, Cahley; Steen, Nick; Le Couteur, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the acceptability and feasibility of adapted group therapy for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder in a pilot randomised controlled trial. Method: A total of 32 children aged 9-13 years were randomised to immediate or delayed therapy using the "Exploring Feelings" manual (Attwood, 2004). Child and parent…

  16. Group Play Interventions for Children: Strategies for Teaching Prosocial Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Group play interventions are used to meet a broad range of developmental needs in children from various backgrounds. This book is for mental health practitioners working with children aged 5 through 12 to help them learn important social skills and self-control strategies such as making friends, asking for and offering help, controlling hands and…

  17. Understanding Children's Behavior in Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper emphasizes the need for early childhood teachers to value themselves more highly in order to better their work with young children. The goal of working with children must be to build their self-esteem so they like themselves as human beings. The document (1) reviews research findings that will help teachers make insightful caregiving…

  18. Group Music Training and Children's Prosocial Skills

    PubMed Central

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Corrigall, Kathleen A.; Dys, Sebastian P.; Malti, Tina

    2015-01-01

    We investigated if group music training in childhood is associated with prosocial skills. Children in 3rd or 4th grade who attended 10 months of music lessons taught in groups were compared to a control group of children matched for socio-economic status. All children were administered tests of prosocial skills near the beginning and end of the 10-month period. Compared to the control group, children in the music group had larger increases in sympathy and prosocial behavior, but this effect was limited to children who had poor prosocial skills before the lessons began. The effect was evident even when the lessons were compulsory, which minimized the role of self-selection. The results suggest that group music training facilitates the development of prosocial skills. PMID:26506414

  19. Group Music Training and Children's Prosocial Skills.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Corrigall, Kathleen A; Dys, Sebastian P; Malti, Tina

    2015-01-01

    We investigated if group music training in childhood is associated with prosocial skills. Children in 3rd or 4th grade who attended 10 months of music lessons taught in groups were compared to a control group of children matched for socio-economic status. All children were administered tests of prosocial skills near the beginning and end of the 10-month period. Compared to the control group, children in the music group had larger increases in sympathy and prosocial behavior, but this effect was limited to children who had poor prosocial skills before the lessons began. The effect was evident even when the lessons were compulsory, which minimized the role of self-selection. The results suggest that group music training facilitates the development of prosocial skills.

  20. Group Music Training and Children's Prosocial Skills.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Corrigall, Kathleen A; Dys, Sebastian P; Malti, Tina

    2015-01-01

    We investigated if group music training in childhood is associated with prosocial skills. Children in 3rd or 4th grade who attended 10 months of music lessons taught in groups were compared to a control group of children matched for socio-economic status. All children were administered tests of prosocial skills near the beginning and end of the 10-month period. Compared to the control group, children in the music group had larger increases in sympathy and prosocial behavior, but this effect was limited to children who had poor prosocial skills before the lessons began. The effect was evident even when the lessons were compulsory, which minimized the role of self-selection. The results suggest that group music training facilitates the development of prosocial skills. PMID:26506414

  1. [Ideal ages for marriage and having children].

    PubMed

    Unalan, T

    1994-01-01

    Referring to a 1992 study by Freedman and Blanc, the author of this paper states that during the 15-year period between 1965-70 and 1980-85 the fertility rate in developing countries dropped by 30% and reports that in Turkey the drop for the same period was around 46%, based on analysis using data from a 1988 Turkish Population and Health Survey. Using the same data, the author looks at what women consider the ideal age for marriage; bearing their first and last children and the ideal intervals between pregnancies, by region; settlement type; level of education and age groups. These ideals are examined to determine their effect on fertility rates, and it is found that women both get married and give birth to their first child sooner than they would prefer. It is also observed that the interval between births is shorter than women would wish. According to the study, Turkish women would like to have an average of 2.1 children, although the actual figure is higher. It is also noted that, on the average, women would like to have their last child at age 30 and would like to prevent pregnancy after this age. However, many women, despite this wish, do not actually use modern birth control techniques. It is therefore concluded that by increasing the awareness and availability of effective modern family planning, there is potential to further reduce Turkey's fertility rates.

  2. Association between family structure and food group intake in children

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Youn Joo; Paik, Hee Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTOVES Family has an impact on dietary intake of children as a proximal food environment and family structures are changing and becoming more diverse. This study was performed to identify the association between family structure and food group intake of children aged 3-18 years in Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 3,217 children with complete data on variables for household information, dietary intake and sampling weights were obtained from 2010-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Children's family structure was classified into 3 groups (Living with both parents, Living with one parent and Living without parents). To evaluate children's food group intake, scores of individual food groups ('Grains', 'Meat, Fish, Eggs and Beans', 'Vegetables', 'Fruits' and 'Milk and Dairy products') was calculated from percent adherence to the recommended servings of the Korean Food Guidance System (KFGS). 'Food group mean score' was obtained by calculating the average of five food group scores. RESULTS After adjusting for age, sex, number of family members, and household income, children living with both parents had higher scores in 'Fruits' (P < 0.01), 'Milk and Dairy products' (P < 0.05), and mean score of individual food group score (P < 0.001) compared to children living with one parent. Individual food group scores and mean scores of individual food group scores were associated with different socio-demographic factors in study children. Family structure was associated with 'Fruits,' 'Milk and Dairy products' score and mean scores of food group scores. CONCLUSIONS These results suggested that different approach might be required to solve nutrition problem in children depending on their family structure and other socio-demographic factors. PMID:25110568

  3. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  4. Children Rectify Inequalities for Disadvantaged Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Children's decisions regarding the allocation of societal resources in the context of preexisting inequalities were investigated. African American and European American children ages 5 to 6 years (n = 91) and 10 to 11 years (n = 94) judged the acceptability of a medical resource inequality on the basis of race, allocated medical supplies,…

  5. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  6. Age and learning environment: Are children implicit second language learners?

    PubMed

    Lichtman, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Children are thought to learn second languages (L2s) using primarily implicit mechanisms, in contrast to adults, who primarily rely on explicit language learning. This difference is usually attributed to cognitive maturation, but adults also receive more explicit instruction than children, which may influence their learning strategies. This study crosses instruction condition with age, teaching forty children aged 5;3 to 7;11 and forty adults an artificial mini-language under implicit or explicit training conditions. Participants produced novel sentences and judged sentence grammaticality equally well in either condition, but both children and adults in the explicit training condition developed greater awareness of the mini-language's structures - and greater awareness was associated with better performance for both age groups. Results show that explicit instruction affects children and adults in the same way, supporting the hypothesis that age differences in implicit vs. explicit L2 learning are not exclusively caused by maturation, but also influenced by instruction. PMID:26915737

  7. Short-term memory development: differences in serial position curves between age groups and latent classes.

    PubMed

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2014-10-01

    In studies on the development of cognitive processes, children are often grouped based on their ages before analyzing the data. After the analysis, the differences between age groups are interpreted as developmental differences. We argue that this approach is problematic because the variance in cognitive performance within an age group is considered to be measurement error. However, if a part of this variance is systematic, it can provide very useful information about the cognitive processes used by some children of a certain age but not others. In the current study, we presented 210 children aged 5 to 12 years with serial order short-term memory tasks. First we analyze our data according to the approach using age groups, and then we apply latent class analysis to form latent classes of children based on their performance instead of their ages. We display the results of the age groups and the latent classes in terms of serial position curves, and we discuss the differences in results. Our findings show that there are considerable differences in performance between the age groups and the latent classes. We interpret our findings as indicating that the latent class analysis yielded a much more meaningful way of grouping children in terms of cognitive processes than the a priori grouping of children based on their ages.

  8. Orthographic Word Knowledge Growth in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagovich, Stacy A.; Pak, Youngju; Miller, Margaret D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Natural reading experiences provide an opportunity for the development of orthographic word knowledge as well as other forms of partial word knowledge. The purpose of this study was to compare the orthographic word knowledge growth of school-age children with relatively low language skills (LL group) to that of age- and gender-matched…

  9. Foster Children: Risk Factors and Development at a Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumaret, A. C.; Duyme, M.; Tomkiewicz, S.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the family backgrounds, health and developmental characteristics of 127 children from disadvantaged and deprived environments adopted after age 4. Found that parental psychosocial antecedents, medical and health problems and difficulties in infancy were more prevalent in this group than in the general population. Late age of placement,…

  10. Speech Differences of Factory Worker Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    This article, which focuses on speech differences of age groups, is part of a larger study of occupational jargon, its characteristics and underlying features and the part it plays in reflecting the workers' knowledge of their jobs and their attitudes toward jobs in general. The project incorporated a case method of research in a china factory.…

  11. Using Dental Age to Estimate Chronological Age in Czech Children Aged 3-18 Years.

    PubMed

    Ginzelová, Kristina; Dostálová, Taťjana; Eliášová, Hana; Vinšů, Alex; Buček, Antonín; Bučková, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    The Demirjian methods to determine dental age are based on analysis of orthopantograms. The dental age estimation is based on establishing the tooth development stages. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of estimation of dental age by Demirjian in the use of all of his four methods. 505 Czech healthy boys and girls aged 3 to 18 years were examined radiographically at the Department of Stomatology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. It was mentioned the factors of underlying diseases influence the accuracy of the dental age estimation. For statistical evaluation, descriptive statistics was used to compare deviations of the mean values of chronological and dental age in each age group. The resulting difference between dental age and chronological age is not significant in both genders only when using both Demirjian 7-teeth methods of 1973 and 1976. Therefore these may be most appropriately used for forensic age estimation. There are shown standard deviation differences in different countries. Demirjian's original 7-teeth method from 1973 and Demirjian's revised 4-teeth method from 1976 appear to be the best methods for calculating the dental age of healthy Czech children of both genders. PMID:26093668

  12. Children in Residential Group Care with No Family Ties: Facing Existential Aloneness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvir, Orly; Weiner, Anita; Kupermintz, Hagai

    2012-01-01

    The issue of children living in residential group care in Israel completely without family ties is studied in order to explore the feelings of staff and uncover possible characteristics of these children. Data were collected through focus groups, questionnaires, and life stories of children who left group care at 18 years of age. Results reveal…

  13. [The electrocardiogram in the paediatric age group].

    PubMed

    Sanches, M; Coelho, A; Oliveira, E; Lopes, A

    2014-09-01

    A properly interpreted electrocardiogram (ECG) provides important information and is an inexpensive and easy test to perform. It continues to be the method of choice for the diagnosis of arrhythmias. Although the principles of cardiac electrophysiology are the same, there are anatomical and physiological age-dependent changes which produce specific alterations in the paediatric ECG, and which may be misinterpreted as pathological. The intention of this article is to address in a systematic way the most relevant aspects of the paediatric ECG, to propose a possible reading scheme of the ECG and to review the electrocardiograph tracings most frequently found in the paediatric age group.

  14. Education of Children Aged One to Three: A Curriculum Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furfey, Paul Hanly, Ed.

    This curriculum manual for teaching children aged one to three is a spin-off of the Infant Education Research Project, which studied the effect of intellectual stimulation on the growth of intelligence in a group of culturally deprived infants. The project involved the intensive instruction of a group of male, inner-city infants, who were visited…

  15. Group crisis intervention for children during ongoing war conflict.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Abdel Aziz; Vostanis, Panos; Karim, Khalid

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term impact of a group crisis intervention for children aged 9-15 years from five refugee camps in the Gaza Strip during ongoing war conflict. Children were selected if they reported moderate to severe posttraumatic stress reactions, and were allocated to group intervention (N=47) encouraging expression of experiences and emotions through storytelling, drawing, free play and role-play; education about symptoms (N=22); or no intervention (N=42). Children completed the CPTSD-RI and the CDI pre- and post-intervention. No significant impact of the group intervention was established on children's posttraumatic or depressive symptoms. Possible explanations of the findings are discussed, including the continuing exposure to trauma and the non-active nature of the intervention. PMID:15981138

  16. Children Displaced by Hurricane Katrina: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Houston, J. Brian; Wyche, Karen Fraser; Van Horn, Richard L.; Reyes, Gilbert; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; North, Carol S.

    2008-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 23 children and adolescents, aged 9 to 17 years, who relocated from Louisiana to Texas following Hurricane Katrina to explore their disaster, evacuation, and resettlement experiences. The resilience described by some was remarkable and, despite evidence of cultural disparity and stigma, many identified positive…

  17. Physicians' Attitudes toward Children with AIDS: Issues of Group Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, M. Christine; Jessee, Peggy O.; Gresham, Cathy

    1998-01-01

    Examined experiences with and opinions on dealing with pediatric AIDS patients among Pediatric and Family Medicine senior residents. Found that residents were willing to certify children to attend group care activities, but differences were observed by physician specialty and child age. Most felt that program administrators should be made aware,…

  18. [Lycopene intake by different aged women groups].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice. PMID:20839464

  19. Families with School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  20. Standards for Group Home Service for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Welfare League of America, Inc., New York, NY.

    This booklet presents a set of Child Welfare League standards for group home foster care services for children and adolescents provided through authorized public or voluntary social agencies. Group home services, as described in the standards, have characteristics of both foster family and institutional services, offering a relationship with a…

  1. Leading Psychoeducational Groups for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides readers with direction on how to organize psychoeducational groups while helping them enhance skills for effectively leading such groups. Offering an applied approach, the author integrates research and practice to suggest leadership strategies while addressing special issues such as children of divorce, anger management,…

  2. Group Size as a Determinant of Preschool Children's Frequency of Asking Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endsley, Richard C.; Gupta, Sadhana

    This study presents an evaluation of the effect of group size on the frequency with which young children ask questions. Subjects for the study were 32 preschool children (16 boys, 16 girls) ranging in age from 3.1 to 6.2 years. The children were divided into two non-overlapping age groups with mean ages of 3.6 and 5.2 years respectively. Each…

  3. Children's Ocular Components and Age, Gender, and Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Twelker, J. Daniel; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Messer, Dawn H.; Bhakta, Rita; Jones, Lisa A.; Mutti, Donald O.; Cotter, Susan A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Manny, Ruth E.; Zadnik, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This cross-sectional report includes ocular component data as a function of age, gender, and ethnicity from the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Methods The ocular components of 4881 school-aged children were examined using cycloplegic autorefraction (refractive error), keratometry (corneal curvature), ultrasonography (axial dimensions), and videophakometry (lens curvature). Results The average age (± SD) was 8.8 ± 2.3 years, and 2458 were girls (50.4%). Sixteen percent were African American, 14.8% were Asian, 22.9% were Hispanic, 11.6% were Native American, and 34.9% were White. More myopic/less hyperopic refractive error was associated with greater age, especially in Asians, less in Whites and African Americans. Corneal power varied slightly with age, with girls showing a greater mean corneal power. Native-American children had greater corneal toricity with a markedly flatter horizontal corneal power. Anterior chambers were deeper with age, and boys had deeper anterior chambers. Native-American children had the shallowest anterior chambers and Whites the deepest. Girls had higher Gullstrand and calculated lens powers than boys. Boys had longer vitreous chambers and axial lengths, and both were deeper with age. Native Americans had the longest vitreous chambers and Whites the shortest. Conclusions Most ocular components showed little clinically meaningful variation by ethnicity. The shallower anterior chambers and deeper vitreous chambers of Native-American children appeared to be offset by flatter corneas. The relatively deeper anterior chamber and shallower vitreous chambers of White children appeared to be offset by steeper corneas. Asian children had more myopic spherical equivalent refractive errors, but for a given refractive error the ocular parameters of Asian children were moderate in value compared to those of other ethnic groups. Asian children may develop longer, myopic eyes more often

  4. What Is a Group? Young Children's Perceptions of Different Types of Groups and Group Entitativity.

    PubMed

    Plötner, Maria; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To date, developmental research on groups has focused mainly on in-group biases and intergroup relations. However, little is known about children's general understanding of social groups and their perceptions of different forms of group. In this study, 5- to 6-year-old children were asked to evaluate prototypes of four key types of groups: an intimacy group (friends), a task group (people who are collaborating), a social category (people who look alike), and a loose association (people who coincidently meet at a tram stop). In line with previous work with adults, the vast majority of children perceived the intimacy group, task group, and social category, but not the loose association, to possess entitativity, that is, to be a 'real group.' In addition, children evaluated group member properties, social relations, and social obligations differently in each type of group, demonstrating that young children are able to distinguish between different types of in-group relations. The origins of the general group typology used by adults thus appear early in development. These findings contribute to our knowledge about children's intuitive understanding of groups and group members' behavior. PMID:27010484

  5. Examining Relative Age Effects in Fundamental Skill Proficiency in British Children Aged 6-11 Years.

    PubMed

    Birch, Samantha; Cummings, Laura; Oxford, Samuel W; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Birch, S, Cummings, L, Oxford, SW, and Duncan, MJ. Examining relative age effects in fundamental skill proficiency in British children aged 6-11 years. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2809-2815, 2016-The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that there is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for sports selection in age-grouped sports and that in such circumstances, relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. Few studies have examined this issue in nonselective groups of children, and none have examined whether there is evidence of any RAE in skill performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency within children placed in age groups according to the school year. Six FMS (sprint, side gallop, balance, jump, catch, and throw) were assessed in 539 school children (258 boys and 281 girls) aged 6-11 years (mean age ± SD = 7.7 ± 1.7 years). We examined differences in these FMS between gender groups and children born in different quarters of the year after controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). For balance, chronological age was significant as a covariate (p = 0.0001) with increases in age associated with increases in balance. Boys had significantly higher sprint mastery compared with girls (p = 0.012), and increased BMI was associated with poorer sprint mastery (p = 0.001). Boys had higher catching mastery than girls (p = 0.003), and children born in Q1 had significantly greater catching mastery than those born in Q2 (p = 0.015), Q3 (p = 0.019), and Q4 (p = 0.01). Results for throwing mastery also indicated higher mastery in boys compared with girls (p = 0.013) and that children born in Q1 had higher throwing proficiency than those born in Q4 (p = 0.038). These results are important if coaches are basing sport selection on measures of skilled performance, particularly in object-control skills. Categorizing children

  6. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  7. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  8. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  9. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  10. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  11. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  12. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated.

  13. Predicting mortality from burns: the need for age-group specific models.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandra L; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2014-09-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000 to 2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. "One size fits all" models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  14. Predicting Mortality from Burn Injuries: The need for age-group specific models

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sandra L.; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G.; Palmieri, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000-2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. “One size fits all” models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  15. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems. Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes. Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries. Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child. PMID:26266395

  16. Children Associate Racial Groups with Wealth: Evidence from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.

    2012-01-01

    Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N=84) in South Africa associate higher-status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher-value belongings with White people more often than with multiracial or Black people and with multiracial people more often than with Black people, thus showing sensitivity to the de facto racial hierarchy in their society. There were no age-related changes in children’s tendency to associate racial groups with wealth differences. The implications of these results are discussed in light of the general tendency for people to legitimize and perpetuate the status quo. PMID:22860510

  17. Art therapy focus groups for children and adolescents with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Stafstrom, Carl E; Havlena, Janice; Krezinski, Anthony J

    2012-06-01

    Children with epilepsy are at risk for numerous psychological and social challenges. We hypothesized that art therapy focus groups would enhance the self-image of children and adolescents with epilepsy. Sixteen children with epilepsy, ages 7-18 years, were recruited from pediatric neurology clinics at the University of Wisconsin to participate in four art therapy sessions. Pre-group assessments included psychological screens (Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale; Childhood Attitude Toward Illness Scale; Impact of Childhood Neurologic Disability Scale) and art therapy instruments (Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale; Seizure Drawing Task; Levick Emotional and Cognitive Art Therapy Assessment). Developmental levels of drawings were significantly below age-expected standards. Following completion of focus groups, a repeat Childhood Attitude Toward Illness Scale showed no differences between pre- and post-test scores on any measure of this scale. However, subjects and parents were uniformly positive about their group experiences, suggesting a qualitative benefit from participation in art therapy focus groups.

  18. Can a Targeted, Group-Based CBT Intervention Reduce Depression and Anxiety and Improve Self-Concept in Primary-Age Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Cunningham, Enda

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined the impact of a 10 session, group-based, early-intervention cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme (Cool Connections) on anxiety, depression and self-concept in nine 8-11 year old pupils in Northern Ireland. The intervention was facilitated by a teacher, education welfare officer and two classroom assistants, with…

  19. Children's Expressive Drawing Strategies: The Effects of Mood, Age and Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misalidi, Plousia; Bonoti, Fotini

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate whether the impact of mood state on children's choice of expressive strategies (literal and non-literal content and abstract) varies as a function of mood valence, age and topic to be drawn. The sample (N?=?96) consisted of four groups of children aged 5, 7, 9 and 11years, respectively. Half of the children in…

  20. 29 CFR 2590.715-2714 - Eligibility of children until at least age 26.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dependent coverage of children other than in terms of a relationship between a child and the participant... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eligibility of children until at least age 26. 2590.715... Requirements § 2590.715-2714 Eligibility of children until at least age 26. (a) In general—(1) A group...

  1. 29 CFR 2590.715-2714 - Eligibility of children until at least age 26.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dependent coverage of children other than in terms of a relationship between a child and the participant... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eligibility of children until at least age 26. 2590.715... Requirements § 2590.715-2714 Eligibility of children until at least age 26. (a) In general—(1) A group...

  2. Functional Decline in Children Undergoing Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy after Age 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacWilliams, Bruce A.; Johnson, Barbara A.; Shuckra, Amy L.; D'Astous, Jacques L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare function and gait in a group of children older than most children who received selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) with age- and function-matched peers who received either orthopedic surgery or no surgical intervention. Method: A retrospective study examined ambulatory children with diplegic cerebral palsy, aged between 10 years and…

  3. Dental age estimation in Brazilian HIV children using Willems' method.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rafael Boschetti; da Silva Assunção, Luciana Reichert; Franco, Ademir; Zaroni, Fábio Marzullo; Holderbaum, Rejane Maria; Fernandes, Ângela

    2015-12-01

    The notification of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Brazilian children was first reported in 1984. Since that time more than 21 thousand children became infected. Approximately 99.6% of the children aged less than 13 years old are vertically infected. In this context, most of the children are abandoned after birth, or lose their relatives in a near future, growing with uncertain identification. The present study aims to estimate the dental age of Brazilian HIV patients in face of healthy patients paired by age and gender. The sample consisted of 160 panoramic radiographs of male (n: 80) and female (n: 80) patients aged between 4 and 15 years (mean age: 8.88 years), divided into HIV (n: 80) and control (n: 80) groups. The sample was analyzed by three trained examiners, using Willems' method, 2001. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was applied to test intra- and inter-examiner agreement, and Student paired t-test was used to determine the age association between HIV and control groups. Intra-examiner (ICC: from 0.993 to 0.997) and inter-examiner (ICC: from 0.991 to 0.995) agreement tests indicated high reproducibility of the method between the examiners (P<0.01). Willems' method revealed discrete statistical overestimation in HIV (2.86 months; P=0.019) and control (1.90 months; P=0.039) groups. However, stratified analysis by gender indicate that overestimation were only concentrated in male HIV (3.85 months; P=0.001) and control (2.86 months; P=0.022) patients. The significant statistical differences are not clinically relevant once only few months of discrepancy are detected applying Willems' method in a Brazilian HIV sample, making this method highly recommended for dental age estimation of both HIV and healthy children with unknown age.

  4. Empathy, Group Norms and Children's Ethnic Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Griffith, Judith; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Two minimal group studies (Ns=150, 123) examined the impact of emotional empathy on the ethnic attitudes of 5 to 12-year old white Anglo-Australian children. Study 1 evaluated the relationship between empathy and attitudes towards a same (Anglo-Australian) versus different ethnicity (Pacific Islander) outgroup. A significant empathy x outgroup…

  5. Peer group status as a moderator of group influence on children's deviant, aggressive, and prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Wendy E; Zarbatany, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    Group status was examined as a moderator of peer group socialization of deviant, aggressive, and prosocial behavior. In the fall and 3 months later, preadolescents and early adolescents provided self-reported scores for deviant behavior and group membership, and peer nominations for overt and relational aggression, prosocial behavior, and social preference. Using the social cognitive map, 116 groups were identified involving 526 children (282 girls; M age=12.05). Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that high group centrality (visibility) magnified group socialization of relational aggression, deviant behavior, and prosocial behavior, and low group acceptance magnified socialization of deviant behavior. Results suggest group influence on behavior is not uniform but depends on group status, especially group visibility within the larger peer context.

  6. Sleep disturbance in preschool-aged hyperactive and nonhyperactive children.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, B J; McNicol, J; Conte, R A; Moghadam, H K

    1987-12-01

    In spite of inadequate laboratory demonstrations of sleep problems in children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, the belief persists that such problems exist. Sleep restlessness is, in fact, one of the criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 3, definition of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, and sleep problems are listed on two major checklists often used for describing the symptoms of this disorder. In a series of three studies, sleep problems were investigated in preschool-aged children with attention deficit disorder relative to control children without the disorder. Results of the first two studies demonstrated clearly that parents of hyperactive children considered their children to have many more sleep problems than did parents of the control children. Parental daily documentation, which is less likely to be affected by reporting bias, was used in the third study. Although the results of the third study supported the finding of increased frequency of night wakings in these children, there was no difference in total sleep time or sleep onset latency between the two groups. Two other significant group differences (enuresis and night sweats) were primarily due to subgroups of children with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity. The greater number of sleep wakings, which disrupt parents' sleep, may be responsible for the clinical reports that these children are poor sleepers. PMID:3684394

  7. Correlates of Victimization in Hong Kong Children's Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tom, Shelley R.; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Xu, Yiyuan

    2010-01-01

    This study reports two separate cross-sectional investigations that focus on bully/victim problems among Hong Kong school children. Study 1 included 1361 children (670 boys, 691 girls; mean age = 12.6 years) and Study 2 included 288 children (153 boys, 135 girls; mean age = 9.6 years). Children's social and academic functioning was assessed with…

  8. Life threat and posttraumatic stress in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Pynoos, R S; Frederick, C; Nader, K; Arroyo, W; Steinberg, A; Eth, S; Nunez, F; Fairbanks, L

    1987-12-01

    One hundred fifty-nine children (14.5% of the student body) were sampled after a fatal sniper attack on their elementary school playground. Systematic self-reports of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were obtained by use of a child PTSD Reaction Index. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences by exposure but not by sex, ethnicity, or age. Additional analyses were conducted of individual item response, overall severity of PTSD reaction, symptom grouping, and previous life events. The results provide strong evidence that acute PTSD symptoms occur in school-age children with a notable correlation between proximity to the violence and type and number of PTSD symptoms. Sampling at approximately one month after the trauma provided adequate delineation among exposure groups. The symptom profile of highly exposed children lends validity to the diagnosis of acute PTSD in childhood.

  9. 29 CFR 2590.715-2714 - Eligibility of children until at least age 26.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility of children until at least age 26. 2590.715... Requirements § 2590.715-2714 Eligibility of children until at least age 26. (a) In general—(1) A group health... of age. (2) The rule of this paragraph (a) is illustrated by the following example: Example....

  10. Serving Hispanic School-Aged Children in after School Programming: Implications for School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Joy Pastan

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. school-age population has been experiencing dramatic demographic changes over the past two decades. Hispanic students constitute the fastest growing student group today, and this growth is expected to continue such that there will be more Hispanic school-aged children than non-Hispanic school-aged children in 2050. Unfortunately, Hispanic…

  11. Validity of a figure rating scale assessing body size perception in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Caterina; Battagliese, Gemma; Pezzuti, Lina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide data concerning the validity of a short sequence of face valid pictorial stimuli assessing the perception of body size in school-age children. A sequence of gender and age-appropriate silhouettes was administered to 314 boys and girls aged 6-14 years. The self-evaluations provided by the children correlated significantly with their actual BMI corrected for age. Furthermore, the children's self-evaluations always significantly correlated with the evaluations provided by the three external observers; i.e., both parents and the interviewers. The results indicate that this sequence of pictorial stimuli, depicting realistic human forms appropriate for children, is a valid measure of children's body image. Relevant differences across age groups were also found, indicating that before the age of eight, the correlations between the children's self-evaluations and their BMI or the judgments of the three observers are lower than in the other age groups. PMID:24264145

  12. Validity of a figure rating scale assessing body size perception in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Caterina; Battagliese, Gemma; Pezzuti, Lina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide data concerning the validity of a short sequence of face valid pictorial stimuli assessing the perception of body size in school-age children. A sequence of gender and age-appropriate silhouettes was administered to 314 boys and girls aged 6-14 years. The self-evaluations provided by the children correlated significantly with their actual BMI corrected for age. Furthermore, the children's self-evaluations always significantly correlated with the evaluations provided by the three external observers; i.e., both parents and the interviewers. The results indicate that this sequence of pictorial stimuli, depicting realistic human forms appropriate for children, is a valid measure of children's body image. Relevant differences across age groups were also found, indicating that before the age of eight, the correlations between the children's self-evaluations and their BMI or the judgments of the three observers are lower than in the other age groups.

  13. 45 CFR 147.120 - Eligibility of children until at least age 26.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility of children until at least age 26. 147... HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETS § 147.120 Eligibility of children until at least age 26. (a) In general—(1) A group health...

  14. Supporting Children's Transition to School Age Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2016-01-01

    While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…

  15. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    Child Care and Development Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…

  16. Relationship between age and white matter integrity in children with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Wesonga, Erika; Shimony, Joshua S; Rutlin, Jerrel; Grange, Dorothy K; White, Desiree A

    2016-06-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has shown poorer microstructural white matter integrity in children with phenylketonuria (PKU), specifically decreases in mean diffusivity (MD), in comparison with healthy children. However, little research has been conducted to investigate the relationship between age and white matter integrity in this population. The present study examined group differences in the relationship between age and MD across a range of brain regions in 31 children with early- and continuously-treated PKU and 51 healthy control children. Relationships among MD, age, and group were explored using hierarchical linear regression and Pearson correlation. Results indicated a stronger age-related decrease in MD for children with PKU in comparison with healthy children in 4 of the 10 brain regions examined, suggesting that the trajectory of white matter development is abnormal in children with PKU. Further research using longitudinal methodology is needed to fully elucidate our understanding of white matter development in children with PKU.

  17. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    PubMed

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children. PMID:26656554

  18. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    PubMed

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children.

  19. Childhood cancer and ethnic group in Britain: a United Kingdom children's Cancer Study Group (UKCCSG) study.

    PubMed Central

    Stiller, C. A.; McKinney, P. A.; Bunch, K. J.; Bailey, C. C.; Lewis, I. J.

    1991-01-01

    We present here the results of the largest study of childhood cancer and ethnic group in Britain, based on 7,658 children treated at paediatric oncology centres throughout the country. Incidence rates could not be calculated and so relative frequencies were analysed by the log-linear modelling method of Kaldor et al. (1990) with allowance made for regional variations in the ages and diagnostic groups of the children included in the study. Children of Asian (Indian sub-continent) and West Indian ethnic origin had similar patterns of incidence for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia to White Caucasians. There was a significant excess of Hodgkin's disease among Asian children compared with Caucasians with an estimated relative risk (RR) of 2.09; this excess was greatest in the 0-4 age group (RR = 6.67). There were significant deficits of Wilms' tumour and rhabdomyosarcoma among Asian children, each with a frequency around half that among Caucasians, whereas West Indians had a significant excess of Wilms' tumour (RR = 2.55). Asian and West Indian children each had a non-significant twofold RR for unilateral retinoblastoma. The results suggest that the incidence of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is associated with environmental determinants in the country of residence which are most likely to relate to lifestyle factors. The occurrence of retinoblastoma, Wilms' tumour and Hodgkin's disease in early childhood is apparently related more to ethnicity than to geographical location and may reflect genetic factors or environmental exposures specific to the lifestyle of particular ethnic groups. PMID:1654982

  20. Ages and Ages: The Multiplication of Children's "Ages" in Early Twentieth-Century Child Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauvais, Clementine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of "discovering," labelling and calculating different "ages" in children. Those new "ages"--from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more--were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to,…

  1. Sleep patterns of school-age children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2006-07-01

    Sleep patterns of 32 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared to those of 32 typically developing age- and gender-matched children, using parent survey and one week of diary and actigraphic monitoring. Parents of children with AS/HFA more commonly reported that their children had difficulty falling asleep. One week of sleep recording with diary and actigraphy confirmed that children in the AS/HFA group spent a longer time awake in bed before falling asleep than children in the control group, possibly because the children in the AS/HFA group had earlier bedtimes. Other essential aspects of sleep patterns coincided between the groups. The sleep patterns of children with AS and HFA did not differ.

  2. Scurvy in pediatric age group – A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009–2014) with search terms “scurvy” “vitamin C deficiency” “ascorbic acid deficiency” “scurvy and children” “scurvy and pediatric age group”. There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  3. Adult Age, Gender, and Race Group Differences in Images of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foos, Paul W.; Clark, M. Cherie; Terrell, Debra F.

    2006-01-01

    Younger and older African American and Caucasian American adults, who were matched by age ("M" age = 40.63 years), completed a survey on perceptions of aging and subjective age. The 2 groups did not differ in the age they considered someone to be old ("M" age = 74.5 years). However, when asked which age was the happiest age, African Americans…

  4. Epigenetic age analysis of children who seem to evade aging.

    PubMed

    Walker, Richard F; Liu, Jia Sophie; Peters, Brock A; Ritz, Beate R; Wu, Timothy; Ophoff, Roel A; Horvath, Steve

    2015-05-01

    We previously reported the unusual case of a teenage girl stricken with multifocal developmental dysfunctions whose physical development was dramatically delayed resulting in her appearing to be a toddler or at best a preschooler, even unto the occasion of her death at the age of 20 years. Her life-long physician felt that the disorder was unique in the world and that future treatments for age-related diseases might emerge from its study. The objectives of our research were to determine if other such cases exist, and if so, whether aging is actually slowed. Of seven children characterized by dramatically slow developmental rates, five also had associated disorders displayed by the first case. All of the identified subjects were female. To objectively measure the age of blood tissue from these subjects, we used a highly accurate biomarker of aging known as "epigenetic clock" based on DNA methylation levels. No statistically significant differences in chronological and epigenetic ages were detected in any of the newly discovered cases.

  5. Epigenetic age analysis of children who seem to evade aging.

    PubMed

    Walker, Richard F; Liu, Jia Sophie; Peters, Brock A; Ritz, Beate R; Wu, Timothy; Ophoff, Roel A; Horvath, Steve

    2015-05-01

    We previously reported the unusual case of a teenage girl stricken with multifocal developmental dysfunctions whose physical development was dramatically delayed resulting in her appearing to be a toddler or at best a preschooler, even unto the occasion of her death at the age of 20 years. Her life-long physician felt that the disorder was unique in the world and that future treatments for age-related diseases might emerge from its study. The objectives of our research were to determine if other such cases exist, and if so, whether aging is actually slowed. Of seven children characterized by dramatically slow developmental rates, five also had associated disorders displayed by the first case. All of the identified subjects were female. To objectively measure the age of blood tissue from these subjects, we used a highly accurate biomarker of aging known as "epigenetic clock" based on DNA methylation levels. No statistically significant differences in chronological and epigenetic ages were detected in any of the newly discovered cases. PMID:25991677

  6. "Make Sure You Keep Our House Safe!" Thematic Analysis of a Children's Psychotherapy Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devi, Akasha; Fenn, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic thematic analysis of one particular latency-aged children's group and includes a discussion about potentially helpful outcomes measures. The impetus for our small, practice-based qualitative research project came from the two papers by Reid (1999) and Canham (2002) about children's psychotherapy groups,…

  7. Children in Residential Care: Development and Validation of a Group Climate Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strijbosch, E. L. L.; van der Helm, G. H. P.; van Brandenburg, M. E. T.; Mecking, M.; Wissink, I. B.; Stams, G. J. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the development and validation of the Group Climate Instrument for Children aged 8 to 15 years (GCIC 8-15), which purports to measure the quality of group climate in residential care. Methods: A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on data of 117 children in Dutch residential youth care. Reliability analysis was…

  8. Aggressive and Prosocial Peer Group Functioning: Effects on Children's Social, School, and Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung-Hall, Janet; Chen, Xinyin

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aggressive and prosocial contexts of peer groups on children's socioemotional and school adjustment. Data on informal peer groups, social functioning, and different aspects of adjustment were collected from multiple sources in a sample of elementary school children (149 boys, 181 girls; M age = 10 years).…

  9. Preschool Children's Attention to Environmental Messages about Groups: Social Categorization and the Origins of Intergroup Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Meagan M.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of adults' labeling and use of social groups on preschool children's intergroup attitudes. Children (N=87, aged 3-5) attending day care were given measures of classification skill and self-esteem and assigned to membership in a novel ("red" or "blue") social group. In experimental classrooms, teachers…

  10. Reading and coherent motion perception in school age children.

    PubMed

    Kassaliete, Evita; Lacis, Ivars; Fomins, Sergejs; Krumina, Gunta

    2015-07-01

    This study includes an evaluation, according to age, of the reading and global motion perception developmental trajectories of 2027 school age children in typical stages of development. Reading is assessed using the reading rate score test, for which all of the student participants, regardless of age, received the same passage of text of a medium difficulty reading level. The coherent motion perception threshold is determined according to the adaptive psychophysical protocol based on a four-alternative, forced-choice procedure. Three different dot velocities: 2, 5, and 8 deg/s were used for both assemblies of coherent or randomly moving dots. Reading rate score test results exhibit a wide dispersion across all age groups, so much so that the outlier data overlap, for both the 8 and 18-year-old student-participant age groups. Latvian children's reading fluency developmental trajectories reach maturation at 12-13 years of age. After the age of 13, reading rate scores increase slowly; however, the linear regression slope is different from zero and positive: F(1, 827) = 45.3; p < 0.0001. One hundred eighty-one student-participants having results below the 10th percentile were classified as weak readers in our study group. The reading fluency developmental trajectory of this particular group of student-participants does not exhibit any statistically significant saturation until the age of 18 years old. Coherent motion detection thresholds decrease with age and do not reach saturation. Tests with slower moving dots (2 deg/s) yield results that exhibit significant differences between strong and weak readers. PMID:25911276

  11. Early Childhood Teachers' Affectionate Behavior: Differential Expression to Female Children, Male Children, and Groups of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botkin, Darla; Twardosz, Sandra

    Examined were differences in the amount of affectionate behavior early childhood teachers expressed to (1) individual children and groups of children, and (2) female and male children. Data were collected through naturalistic observations of 47 female teachers in six day care centers. Teachers' affectionate behaviors and the types of recipients…

  12. Latin American Consensus: Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Children born small for gestational age (SGA) experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of children born SGA is a critical issue. Leading experts in pediatric endocrinology throughout Latin America established working groups in order to discuss key challenges regarding the evaluation and management of children born SGA and ultimately develop a consensus statement. Discussion SGA is defined as a birth weight and/or birth length greater than 2 standard deviations (SD) below the population reference mean for gestational age. SGA refers to body size and implies length-weight reference data in a geographical population whose ethnicity is known and specific to this group. Ideally, each country/region within Latin America should establish its own standards and make relevant updates. SGA children should be evaluated with standardized measures by trained personnel every 3 months during year 1 and every 6 months during year 2. Those without catch-up growth within the first 6 months of life need further evaluation, as do children whose weight is ≤ -2 SD at age 2 years. Growth hormone treatment can begin in SGA children > 2 years with short stature (< -2.0 SD) and a growth velocity < 25th percentile for their age, and should continue until final height (a growth velocity below 2 cm/year or a bone age of > 14 years for girls and > 16 years for boys) is reached. Blood glucose, thyroid function, HbA1c, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) should be monitored once a year. Monitoring insulin changes from baseline and surrogates of insulin sensitivity is essential. Reduced fetal growth followed by excessive postnatal catch-up in height, and particularly in weight, should be closely monitored. In both sexes, gonadal function should be monitored especially during puberty. Summary Children born SGA should be carefully followed by a multidisciplinary group

  13. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  14. Vocal overimitation in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Subiaul, Francys; Winters, Katherine; Krumpak, Kathryn; Core, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Overimitation--copying incorrect, idiosyncratic, or causally irrelevant actions--has been linked to our species' long history with artifacts whose functions are often opaque. It is an open question, however, whether children overimitate outside the artifact domain. We explored this question by presenting preschool-age children (3- to 5-year-olds, N=120) with an elicited imitation task that included high- and low-frequency disyllabic nouns (e.g., 'pizza) and nonwords (e.g., 'chizza), all of which had a stressed first syllable. However, during testing, half of the stimuli were incorrectly pronounced by stressing the second syllable (e.g., pi'zza). More than half of the children copied the model's incorrect pronunciation of high-frequency familiar words, consistent with overimitation. This pattern of response persisted even after children had themselves correctly named the familiar words prior to the start of testing, confirming that children purposefully altered the pronunciation of known words to match the incorrect pronunciations used by a model. These results demonstrate that overimitation is not restricted to the artifact domain and might extend to many different tasks and domains. PMID:26407825

  15. Differences by age groups in health care spending.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C R

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents differences by age in health care spending by type of expenditure and by source of funds through 1978. Use of health care services generally increases with age. The average health bill reached $2,026 for the aged in 1978, $764 for the intermediate age group, and $286 for the young. Biological, demographic, and policy factors determine each age group's share of health spending. Public funds financed over three-fifths of the health expenses of the aged, with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 58 percent. Most of the health expenses of the young age groups were paid by private sources. PMID:10309224

  16. Minimal Groups Increase Young Children's Motivation and Learning on Group-Relevant Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments ("N" = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the…

  17. How do groups work? Age differences in performance and the social outcomes of peer collaboration.

    PubMed

    Leman, Patrick J

    2015-05-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were awarded to the best performing individuals. Findings, both in terms of social outcomes and performance in the quiz, indicated that the 8-year olds viewed the benefits of group membership in terms of the opportunities to receive information from other members. The 13-year olds, in contrast, viewed group collaboration as a constructive process where success was connected with group cohesiveness.

  18. School-Age Follow-Up of Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Iyenger, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to examine differences in speech/language and written language skills between children with suspected childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and children with other speech-sound disorders at school age. Method: Ten children (7 males and 3 females) who were clinically diagnosed with CAS (CAS group) were…

  19. Evaluation of the Teaching of English to German Children of Pre-School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid-Schonbein, Gisela

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some reasons offered for the ease with which young children learn a second language. Children of kindergarten age can learn language in a playlike atmosphere in groups no larger than 10-12 children. Pronunciation is the outstanding skill, but comprehension and active speaking also show favorable results. (PJM)

  20. Some Immediate Effects of a Smoking Environment on Children of Elementary School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luquette, A. J.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of a cigarette smoking environment on children of elementary school age. Physical effects were looked for, as were differences between children from smoking homes and non-smoking homes, and male subjects and female subjects. A total of 103 children were divided into two groups, Group…

  1. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  2. Semantic Development in Spanish-English Bilingual Children: Effects of Age and Language Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Li; Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Fiestas, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study examines semantic development in 60 Spanish-English bilingual children, ages 7 years 3 months to 9 years 11 months, who differed orthogonally in age (younger, older) and language experience (HEE: higher English experience, HSE: higher Spanish experience). Children produced three associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents. Older children produced more semantic responses and code-switched more often from Spanish to English than younger children. Within each group, children demonstrated better performance in the more frequently used than the less used language. The HEE children outperformed the HSE children in English and the HSE children outperformed the HEE children in Spanish. These effects of age and language experience are consistent with predictions of the Revised Hierarchical Model of bilingual lexical organization. PMID:23163772

  3. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  4. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  5. 26 CFR 54.9815-2714T - Eligibility of children until at least age 26 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... coverage is provided under family health coverage for children of participants who have not attained age 26..., an employee of Z, and Individual E, D's child, are enrolled in family coverage under Z's group health... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eligibility of children until at least age...

  6. 26 CFR 54.9815-2714T - Eligibility of children until at least age 26 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in terms of a relationship between a child and the participant. Thus, for example, a plan or issuer... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eligibility of children until at least age 26... Eligibility of children until at least age 26 (temporary). (a) In general—(1) A group health plan, or a...

  7. Executive Functioning Skills in Preschool-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) emerge as early as the preschool years. Method: Two groups of children ages 3 to 6 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 24 preschoolers who had CIs prior to 36 months of age and 21 preschoolers…

  8. Linguistic Masking Release in School-Age Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, Lori J.; Buss, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed if 6- to 8-year-old children benefit from a language mismatch between target and masker speech for sentence recognition in a 2-talker masker. Method English sentence recognition was evaluated for English monolingual children (ages 6–8 years, n = 15) and adults (n = 15) in an English 2-talker and a Spanish 2-talker masker. A regression analysis with subject as a random variable was used to test the fixed effect of listener group and masker language and the interaction of these two effects. Results Thresholds were approximately 5 dB higher for children than for adults in both maskers. However, children and adults benefited to the same degree from a mismatch between the target and masker language with approximately 3 dB lower thresholds in the Spanish than the English masker. Conclusions Results suggest that children are able to take advantage of linguistic differences between English and Spanish speech maskers to the same degree as adults. Yet, overall worse performance for children may indicate general cognitive immaturity compared with adults, perhaps causing children to be less efficient when combining glimpses of degraded speech information into a meaningful sentence. PMID:26974870

  9. Cost Analysis of Direct versus Indirect and Individual versus Group Modes of Manual-Based Speech-and-Language Therapy for Primary School-Age Children with Primary Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Kirstin; Marshall, Marjorie; Boyle, James; McCartney, Elspeth; O'Hare, Anne; Forbes, John

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study is the first within trial cost analysis of direct versus indirect and individual versus group modes of speech-and-language therapy for children with primary language impairment. Aims: To compare the short-run resource consequences of the four interventions alongside the effects achieved measured by standardized scores on a…

  10. An Approach to the Management of Gonorrhea in the Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Alice Faye

    1981-01-01

    Gonorrhea is becoming more important to the pediatrician. Not only is the incidence of this disease greatest in the adolescent group, but it has become more frequent in young children as well. The author outlines an approach to managing gonococcal disease in the pediatric and adolescent age groups. PMID:7193742

  11. Preschool children's attention to environmental messages about groups: social categorization and the origins of intergroup bias.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Meagan M; Bigler, Rebecca S

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of adults' labeling and use of social groups on preschool children's intergroup attitudes. Children (N=87, aged 3-5) attending day care were given measures of classification skill and self-esteem and assigned to membership in a novel ("red" or "blue") social group. In experimental classrooms, teachers used the color groups to label children and organize the classroom. In control classrooms, teachers ignored the color groups. After 3 weeks, children completed multiple measures of intergroup attitudes. Results indicated that children in both types of classrooms developed ingroup-biased attitudes. As expected, children in experimental classrooms showed greater ingroup bias on some measures than children in control classrooms.

  12. Home drowning among preschool age Mexican children.

    PubMed Central

    Celis, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of drowning by different bodies of water in and near the home for children aged 1 to 4 years. SETTING: The Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico. METHODS: A population case-control study. Cases (n=33) were children 1 to 4 years old who drowned at their home; controls (n=200) were a random sample of the general population. RESULTS: The risk of drowning for children whose parents reported having a water well at home was almost seven times that of children in homes without a water well (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=6.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.2 to 20.5). Risk ratio estimates for other bodies of water were: swimming pools (OR=5.8, 95% CI=0.9 to 37.5), water barrel (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.0 to 5.6), underground cistern (OR=2.1, 95% CI=0.8 to 5.2), and a basin front (courtyard pool to store water) of 35 or more litres (OR=1.8, 95% CI=0.8 to 4.4). CONCLUSION: Drowning at home is frequent in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, but the causes are different from those reported in developed countries. Accordingly, the preventive strategies must also be different. Images PMID:9493619

  13. Development of executive functioning in school-age Tunisian children.

    PubMed

    Bellaj, Tarek; Salhi, Imen; Le Gall, Didier; Roy, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Research regarding executive functioning (EF) in children rarely focuses on populations in African or Middle-Eastern Arabic-speaking countries. The current study used a cross-sectional design to examine the developmental trajectories of school-age Tunisian children in three domains of executive control (inhibition of prepotent responses, cognitive flexibility, and working memory) as well as their mutual interactions and the effects of gender and parents' education level. Inhibitory processes, cognitive flexibility, and working memory were assessed using the Stroop test, a version of the Hayling test adapted for children, simple and alternating tasks of verbal fluency, and verbal and visuospatial span tasks (forward and backward spans). The study population included 120 7- to 12-year-old Tunisian children (60 girls, 60 boys) who were grouped and matched for age, gender, and parents' education level. The results revealed an overall effect of age on executive performance, whereas gender and parents' education level showed non-significant effects. In addition, executive indices were significantly associated with fluid intelligence level. Partial correlation analyses (controlled for age) found significant links between indices that assessed the same executive process, except for inhibitory processes; the temporal indices for inhibitory processes showed relative independence. The correlations between indices that assessed distinct executive processes were weaker (but significant). Overall, the results suggest that executive components in school-age Tunisian children operate according to relatively homogeneous developmental trajectories, marked by peaks of maturity that differ according to the assessed index. A transcultural approach to EF is discussed in terms of the unity and diversity of its components. PMID:26165251

  14. [A comparative study of the perceptual and motor performance at school age of preterm and full term children].

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Lívia de Castro; Catarina, Patrícia Wendling; Barbosa, Vanêssa Maziero; Mancini, Marisa Cota; Paixão, Maria Lúcia

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the perceptualmotor performance in school age children who were born preterm and full term. Two groups of children, ages 5 to 7, participated in this study. Group I had 35 children, from low-income families, born up to the 34 week of gestation and/or weight bellow 1500 g. Group II had 35 full-term children, matched by age, gender and socioeconomic status to the children in Group I. Children were tested on the Bender gestalt, the motor accuracy test and on balance and postural responses measures. The preterm group obtained significantly lower scores in the majority of the tests. These besides reinforcing the importance of the follow-up of preterm children up to school age, also indicate the need to stimulate the fine motor and postural control Devment, even among preterm children who do not show evidence of neurological impairment. PMID:12806505

  15. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Ghalebandi, Mirfarhad; Salehi, Mansour; Rasoulain, Maryam; Naserbakht, Morteza; Salarifar, Mohammad Hosien

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. Methods In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran). A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. Results Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. Conclusion A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances. PMID:22952526

  16. At What Age Should Children Engage in Agricultural Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jingzhen; O'Gara, Erin; Cheng, Gang; Kelly, Kevin M.; Ramirez, Marizen; Burmeister, Leon F.; Merchant, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We compared parents' perceived-as-appropriate ages with actual-performance ages for their children engaging in selected agricultural tasks or practices, and we examined the factors associated with age discrepancy. Methods: We analyzed data from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study collected among parents of children age 17 or younger.…

  17. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  18. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

  19. The effect of age on physical fitness of deaf elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Houwen, Suzanne

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to measure physical fitness of deaf Dutch elementary school children compared with hearing children and to investigate the influence of age on physical fitness. Deaf children were physically less fit than hearing children. Overall, physical fitness increased with age in deaf children, but no significant differences were found between the age groups of 9-10 years and 11-12 years on most of the Eurofit items. The difference in performance between deaf and hearing children, favoring the latter, increased with age in handgrip strength and the 20-m endurance shuttle run. More attention should be paid to developing and maintaining an adequate level of physical fitness in deaf children.

  20. The Effect of Social and Isolate Toys on the Social Interactions of Preschool-Aged Children in a Naturalistic Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallam, Michael; Rettig, Michael

    A total of 26 handicapped and nonhandicapped preschool children between 3 and 5 years of age were grouped into play groups of three or four children and observed playing in the groups over a 7-week period. Children were provided with toys that were identified as social, such as dolls or wooden building blocks, or isolate, such as puzzles and…

  1. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Worby, Colin J.; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic’s peak. We found children aged 11–12y, 13–14y and 8–10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak’s ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11–12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak’s ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8–10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8–14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation. PMID:26278132

  2. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak.

    PubMed

    Worby, Colin J; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-08-17

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic's peak. We found children aged 11-12y, 13-14y and 8-10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak's ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11-12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak's ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8-10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8-14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation.

  3. How do young children expect others to address resource inequalities between groups?

    PubMed

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-10-01

    Age-related changes in young children's expectations for others' resource allocation decisions were investigated. Children ages 3 to 6years (N=80) were introduced to an inequality of resources between two groups. Participants gave their expectations for (a) how a member of the group with more resources (advantaged group) and a member of the group with fewer resources (disadvantaged group) would evaluate the inequality (okay or not okay), (b) which group each of the two individuals would prefer (ingroup or outgroup), and (c) how each of the two individuals would allocate subsequent resources between the groups. Findings revealed children's differing expectations for how others would address resource inequalities based on group status. Children expected that if the disadvantaged group member evaluated the inequality negatively then he or she would reduce the disparity. But children expected that if the advantaged group member evaluated the inequality positively then he or she would increase the disparity. Furthermore, 5- and 6-year-olds, but not 3- and 4-year-olds, expected individuals to seek more for their ingroup if they preferred their ingroup over the outgroup. Different from previous research on children's own resource allocation decisions, these findings reveal the circumstances under which children expect others to perpetuate or attenuate resource inequalities between groups.

  4. A BEHAVIORAL APPROACH TO GROUP TREATMENT OF CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROSE, SHELDON D.

    A BEHAVIORAL APPROACH WAS USED TO TREAT SMALL GROUPS OF CHILDREN IN AN INNER CITY SETTING. THE GROUPS WERE ORGANIZED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE HARTWIG PROJECT OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD SERVICE ORGANIZATION OF DETROIT AND CONSISTED OF CHILDREN WITH SCHOOL ADOPTION PROBLEMS, DELINQUENT GANGS, AND CHILDREN FROM DISADVANTAGED SECTIONS OF THE COMMUNITY.…

  5. Children Associate Racial Groups with Wealth: Evidence from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.

    2012-01-01

    Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N = 84) in South Africa associate higher status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher…

  6. Appendicitis in the Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, Samuel B.; Nazem, Ahmad

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 35 patients aged 2 to 20 years who were seen at the District of Columbia General Hospital and Howard University Hospital over a three-year period (1984 to 1986) was performed. All patients were operated on with a preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A normal appendix was found in 17 percent of patients, of which the majority was adolescent girls. Of those patients with acute appendicitis, 41 percent had perforated appendices, and one half of these were judged to be complicated. At diagnosis or at reoperation, one half of the patients were maintained on single-antibiotic therapy, the other half were maintained on triple-antibiotic therapy. The average hospital stay was 26.6 days, with no significant difference between those patients on single- or triple-antibiotic coverage. The average hospital stay for patients with uncomplicated appendicitis was six days. PMID:3385787

  7. Middle-school-age outcomes in children with very low birthweight.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H G; Klein, N; Minich, N M; Hack, M

    2000-01-01

    Most previous studies of children with birthweight <750 g have focused on early childhood sequelae. To evaluate later outcomes, a regional sample of 60 <750-g birthweight children was compared at middle school age (M = 11 years) to 55 children with birthweight 750-1,499 g and 49 term controls. The groups were matched on age, gender, and demographic variables at the time of an early-school-age assessment (mean age 7 years). The <750-g birthweight group fared less well at middle school age than the term group on measures of cognitive function, achievement, behavior, and academic performance. In many instances, outcomes were less favorable for the <750-g children than for the 750 to 1,499-g group. Children in the <750-g group who were free of neurosensory disorders and global cognitive impairment performed more poorly on several tests than their term counterparts. Group differences in this subsample on tests of motor skills, math, and the ability to copy and recall a complex drawing remained significant even after controlling for IQ. Disparities between the <750-g and term groups increased with age for some measures. Despite favorable outcomes for many children in the <750-g group, this population is at risk for long-term developmental problems.

  8. Once failed, twice shy: How group-based competition influences risk preference in young children.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi; Wang, Jiajie; Lv, Xiaofeng; Li, Yansong

    2016-04-01

    Recent developmental research demonstrates that young children tend to be risk-seeking. However, very little is known about the extent to which such a capacity varies with children's group-based experience. Given that between-group competition is a central feature of human social life, this study aimed at examining the influence of group-based competition over risk preference in young children. In total, 234 children from 3 age groups (2-4-year-olds, 5-6-year-olds, and 8-9-year-olds) engaged in an intergroup competition manipulation, which was followed by a prosocial game assessing children's ingroup egalitarianism and a gambling task measuring children's risk preference. We found that children in the intergroup competition condition tended to be risk-averse compared with those who were in the nonintergroup competition condition. Furthermore, we found that an aversion to risk in the intergroup competition condition was driven by such an aversion observed in children from the losing group. In addition, we found a positive relationship between ingroup egalitarianism and risk preference in children from the winning group rather than those from the losing group. Together, our results contribute to the understanding of the effects of group-based experience on children's risk preference and may have important implications for understanding individuals' risky decisions.

  9. Once failed, twice shy: How group-based competition influences risk preference in young children.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi; Wang, Jiajie; Lv, Xiaofeng; Li, Yansong

    2016-04-01

    Recent developmental research demonstrates that young children tend to be risk-seeking. However, very little is known about the extent to which such a capacity varies with children's group-based experience. Given that between-group competition is a central feature of human social life, this study aimed at examining the influence of group-based competition over risk preference in young children. In total, 234 children from 3 age groups (2-4-year-olds, 5-6-year-olds, and 8-9-year-olds) engaged in an intergroup competition manipulation, which was followed by a prosocial game assessing children's ingroup egalitarianism and a gambling task measuring children's risk preference. We found that children in the intergroup competition condition tended to be risk-averse compared with those who were in the nonintergroup competition condition. Furthermore, we found that an aversion to risk in the intergroup competition condition was driven by such an aversion observed in children from the losing group. In addition, we found a positive relationship between ingroup egalitarianism and risk preference in children from the winning group rather than those from the losing group. Together, our results contribute to the understanding of the effects of group-based experience on children's risk preference and may have important implications for understanding individuals' risky decisions. PMID:26974207

  10. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  11. Invasive Group A Streptococcus Infection among Children, Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Mark R.; Anampiu, Kirimi; Morpeth, Susan C.; Nyongesa, Sammy; Mwarumba, Salim; Smeesters, Pierre R.; Efstratiou, Androulla; Karugutu, Rosylene; Mturi, Neema; Williams, Thomas N.; Scott, J. Anthony G.; Kariuki, Samuel; Dougan, Gordon; Berkley, James A.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the extent of group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in sub-Saharan Africa and the serotypes that cause disease, we analyzed surveillance data for 64,741 hospital admissions in Kilifi, Kenya, during 1998–2011. We evaluated incidence, clinical presentations, and emm types that cause invasive GAS infection. We detected 370 cases; of the 369 for which we had data, most were skin and soft tissue infections (70%), severe pneumonia (23%), and primary bacteremia (14%). Overall case-fatality risk was 12%. Incidence of invasive GAS infection was 0.6 cases/1,000 live births among neonates, 101/100,000 person-years among children <1 year of age, and 35/100,000 among children <5 years of age. Genome sequencing identified 88 emm types. GAS causes serious disease in children in rural Kenya, especially neonates, and the causative organisms have considerable genotypic diversity. Benefit from the most advanced GAS type–specific vaccines may be limited, and efforts must be directed to protect against disease in regions of high incidence. PMID:26811918

  12. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among School Age Palestinian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamis, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…

  13. Children of mentally ill parents—a pilot study of a group intervention program

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Hanna; Anding, Jana; Schrott, Bastian; Röhrle, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. Children of mentally ill parents are a vulnerable high risk group with overall impaired development and high rates of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009) and adapted it for groups. First results of this pilot study are presented. Method: This investigation evaluates a preventive group intervention for children of mentally ill parents. In a quasi-experimental design three groups are compared: an intervention group (Family Talk Intervention group: n = 28), a Wait Control group (n = 9), and a control group of healthy children (n = 40). Mean age of children was 10.41 years and parental disorders were mostly depressive/affective disorders (n = 30), but a small number also presented with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 7). Results: Children of mentally ill parents showed higher rates of internalizing/externalizing disorders before and after the intervention compared to children of parents with no disorders. Post intervention children's knowledge on mental disorders was significantly enhanced in the Family Talk Intervention group compared to the Wait Control group and the healthy control group. Parental ratings of externalizing symptoms in the children were reduced to normal levels after the intervention in the Family Talk Intervention group, but not in the Wait Control group. Discussion: This pilot study of a group intervention for children of mentally ill parents highlights the importance of psycho-education on parental mental disorders for children. Long-term effects of children's enhanced knowledge about parental psychopathology need to be explored in future studies. PMID:26539129

  14. Activity Group Therapy for Emotionally Disturbed Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plenk, Agnes M.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses the comprehensive services offered emotionally disturbed preschool children by a voluntary social agency (the Childrens Center in Salt Lake City, Utah), focusing on activity group therapy, the major therapeutic tool used there. (Author/DLS)

  15. The Family Hour Focus Groups: Children's Responses to Sexual Content on TV and Their Parents' Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser Foundation, Oakland, CA.

    With regard to sexual content, an argument is often made that sexual jokes, innuendoes, and behavior on television "go over kids' heads." To address this issue, focus groups were conducted with children between the ages of 8 and 13. Children viewed a tape of a selection of clips containing sexual content from programs aired in 1996 during the…

  16. Urinary Cortisol Circadian Rhythm in a Group of High-Functioning Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richdale, Amanda L.; Prior, Margot R.

    1992-01-01

    This study found no evidence for abnormal temporal placement of the basal urinary cortisol circadian rhythm in a group of 18 high-functioning children (ages 4-14) with autism. There was a tendency toward cortisol hypersecretion during the day, predominantly in autistic children who were integrated into the normal school system. (Author/JDD)

  17. Children's Preferences for Group Musical Activities in Child Care Centres: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a cross-cultural research study of children's preferences for group musical activities in child care centres. A total of 228 young children aged 4-5 years in seven child care centres in Hong Kong and in the Adelaide City of South Australia participated in the study. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected via a…

  18. Children's Inclusion of the Group in the Self: Evidence from a Self-Ingroup Confusion Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, Fabio; Bennett, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Three studies are reported that assess 5-, 7- and 10-year-old children's cognitive inclusion of the ingroup in the self. Each study investigated a different ingroup: gender, family, and age group. Children were shown sets of cards identifying particular trait adjectives and were asked to rate the extent to which the traits applied to the self, the…

  19. Goal-Orientated Group Intervention for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunford, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This study measures the effectiveness of a goal-orientated group intervention using concentrated practice schedules for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The study design is repeated measures. The sample comprises eight children with DCD, aged 7-11 years. Outcome measures are the Movement Assessment Battery for Children…

  20. The Nature-Nurture Controversy Revisited: Divorce and Gender as Factors in Children's Racial Group Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jeanne E.; Guidubaldi, John

    1997-01-01

    Examined divorce and gender as factors in racial differences in performance of elementary age children on Hahnemann Elementary School Behavior Rating Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test, Vineland Teachers Questionnaire, and an interview. Found more racial group differences within the divorced…

  1. Illegitimate Participation? A Group of Young Minority Ethnic Children's Experiences of Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore how a group of children, the majority of whom were of minority ethnic heritage, experienced starting nursery school in a setting where the majority of staff were of white indigenous heritage. The nursery is in a small town in the north-west of England, and the children were aged three and four. Observations were carried…

  2. Early psychological intervention in accidentally injured children ages 2–16: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Didier N.; Landolt, Markus A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Road traffic accidents (RTA) and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and burns. Methods Children assessed at risk for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were randomly assigned to either a control group offered treatment as usual or an intervention group. Primary outcomes were PTSD, behavioral problems, and depression symptoms. Baseline and blinded 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments were conducted. Results In pre-school children, no intervention effects were found. School-age children in the intervention group exhibited significantly fewer internalizing problems at 3-month follow-up relative to controls and a borderline significant time-by-group effect for PTSD intrusion symptoms was found (p=0.06). Conclusions This is the first study examining the efficacy of an indicated, early psychological intervention among both school-age and pre-school-age children. Because the intervention was ineffective for young children, no evidence-based practice can currently be suggested. Given that parents of pre-school children perceived the intervention as helpful, brief counseling of parents in terms of psychoeducation and training in coping skills still should be provided by clinicians, despite the current lack of evidence. To prevent trauma-related disorders in school-age children, the intervention might be used in a step-wise manner, where only children at risk for long-term psychological maladjustment are provided with psychological support. PMID:24987498

  3. Families with school-age children.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  4. [Construction of age group vegetation index and preliminary application].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhang-hua; Li, Cong-hui; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-yong; Gong, Cong-hong; Tang, Meng-ya

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper, one remote sensing index-age group vegetation index (AGVI) was put forward, and its feasibility was verified. Taking 518 groups of pine forest age group data collected in 13 counties (cities) of Sanming, Jiangle, Shaxian, Nanping, Huaan, Yunxiao, Nanping, Anxi, Putian, Changting, Jianyang, Ningde and Fuqing, Fujian Province and HJ-1 CCD multi-spectral image at the same time-phase as the basis, the spectrum differences of blue, green, red, near infrared and NDVI of each age group were analyzed, showing the characteristics of young forest>middle-aged forest>over-mature forest>mature forest>near mature forest at near infrared band and mature forest>near mature forest>over-mature forest>young forest>middle-aged forest at NDVI, thus the age group vegetation index (AGVI) was constructed; the index could increase the absolute and relative spectrum differences among age groups. For the pine forest AGVI, cluster analysis was conducted with K-mean method, showing that the division accuracy of pine forest age group was 80.45%, and the accurate rate was 90.41%. Therefore, the effectiveness of age group vegetation index constructed was confirmed.

  5. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  6. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings…

  7. Oral health of children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, A C; O'Connell, S M; O'Mullane, E; Hoey, H M C V

    2010-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children. PMID:21186752

  8. Minimal groups increase young children's motivation and learning on group-relevant tasks.

    PubMed

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments (N = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the "puzzles child" or children in a control condition. Experiment 2 showed that this boost in motivation occurred only when the group was associated with the task. In Experiment 3, children assigned to a minimal group associated with word learning learned more words than children assigned an analogous individual identity. The studies demonstrate that fostering shared motivations may be a powerful means by which to shape young children's academic outcomes. PMID:23075286

  9. Parents' Developmental Concerns and Age Variance at Diagnosis of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twyman, Kimberly A.; Maxim, Rolanda A.; Leet, Terry L.; Ultmann, Monica H.

    2009-01-01

    Although early recognition of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important, the age of children at diagnosis is variable. Forty-five participants diagnosed with ASD were divided into groups based on age at diagnosis and compared on age when parents first became concerned about various aspects of their development. Results demonstrated no…

  10. Effects of Age and Ritalin Dosage on the Mother-Child Interactions of Hyperactive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Observed the mother-child interactions of three age groups of hyperactive children (N=54) during free play and task settings using two dose levels of Ritalin. Results indicated that the interactions of hyperactive boys with their mothers improve with age, and that Ritalin produces further improvements regardless of age examined. (LLL)

  11. Middle-School-Age Outcomes in Children with Very Low Birthweight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Minich, Nori M.; Hack, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    Compared outcomes of middle-school-age children born at very low (less than 750-g) or low birthweights (750 to 1,499-g) and full-term. Found that the very-low-weight group fared less well at school age than the low weight and term groups on cognitive functioning, achievement, behavior, and academic performance. Those without neurosensory disorders…

  12. The Educational Needs of the 16-19 Age Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janne, Henri; Geminard, Lucien

    Reports for the Council of Europe were the basis for this study of the educational needs of the 16-19 age group. The first of four sections, on sociological aspects, contains five chapters: socio-cultural characteristics of the 16-19 age group; quantitative aspects of education; equality of educational opportunity; and an overview of the…

  13. Helping Children Thrive at School: The Effectiveness of Nurture Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Tracey

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a nurture group pilot project that took place in three schools in Hampshire. Results suggested that children in the nurture groups made significant social and emotional gains after attending a group. These gains were recognised by the children themselves and their parents. They were also generalised into the classroom.…

  14. What Do Children Know about Their Futures: Do Children's Expectations Predict Outcomes in Middle Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallerod, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    Are children's statements about their futures related to outcomes in middle age? In 1966 almost 13,500 children ages 12-13 were asked whether they thought their futures would be worse, similar or better as compared to others of their own age. It was shown that children with low, and surprisingly high, expectations did suffer from increased…

  15. The Effects of Music and Group Stage on Group Leader and Member Behavior in Psychoeducational Groups for Children of Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cercone, Kristin; DeLucia-Waack, Janice

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music and group stage on group process and group leader and member behavior within 8-week psychoeducational groups for children of divorce. Audiotapes of group sessions were rated using the Interactional Process Analysis and the Group Sessions Ratings Scale. Both treatment groups were very similar in terms of…

  16. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  17. MULTI-AGE GROUPING--ENRICHING THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES OF CHILDREN OCCUR NATURALLY IN PLAY AND IN MANY SCHOOL ACTIVITIES, FOR EXAMPLE, STUDENT COUNCIL MEETINGS, CLUBS, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS. THESE ACTIVITIES DEMAND THE VARIETY OF AGES, TALENTS, INTERESTS, AND EXPERIENCES REPRESENTED BY THE WHOLE RANGE OF STUDENTS IN A SCHOOL. IT IS QUESTIONED WHETHER ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES WOULD NOT…

  18. Perilymph fistulas in children: experience of the Otologic Medical Group.

    PubMed

    House, J W; Rizer, F M

    1989-11-01

    We reviewed records of 86 consecutive fistula explorations over 12 years. Four cases were children under age 18. There were 35 fistulas, all in adults. Since this series, we have identified five more children with fistula explorations for a total of nine patients. Two had bilateral explorations. Presenting symptoms were hearing loss and dizziness. None of the children had a definite fistula. Of the nine patients, one patient had a significant improvement in hearing postoperatively, five had no change, and two had worse hearing. There was no follow-up in two patients or in the second ear of a bilateral case. We feel that a fistula should be considered in any case of progressive or fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss, especially in cases with a congenital inner ear deformity. In such cases, an exploration may be reasonable to rule out a fistula. Otherwise, we are hesitant to explore patients for fistulas regardless of whether they are children or adults. Sudden, progressive, and fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss, dizziness, and meningitis have been attributed to perilymph fistulas in both adults and children. The literature reports fistulas in all types of conditions. The incidence and degree of success of treatment have varied widely. When Goodhill first reported round window rupture as a cause of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), the Otologic Medical Group (OMG) began routine exploration of all cases of sudden SNHL for the presence of fistulas. After 50 consecutive cases were explored and no fistulas were found, we became selective in our exploration candidates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2610242

  19. Nutritional status survey of children with autism and typically developing children aged 4-6 years in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caihong; Xia, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Li, Nannan; Zhao, Dong; Wu, Lijie

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disability that may affect nutritional management of children with autism. This study aimed to compare the nutritional status of children with autism with that of typically developing children (aged 4-6 years) in China. Nutritional status was assessed by means of nutritional data, anthropometric data, biochemical assessment, physical examination for nutrient deficiencies and providing a questionnaire to parents. A total of fifty-three children with autism and fifty-three typically developing children were enrolled in this study. The parents were asked to complete the questionnaire regarding the eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms of their children. They were also asked to provide a 3 d food diary. Children with autism exhibited several abnormalities in terms of eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms. The levels of vitamins A and B6, Zn and Ca intakes were <80 % of the dietary reference intakes in both groups. In addition, the proportions of vitamin C and Ca intake deficiencies in the autism group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Serum Zn level was less than the normal reference range in both the groups. Serum Ca, vitamin A and folate levels in children with autism were significantly lower when compared with children without autism. According to the anthropometric data, the mean BMI, weight-for-height Z-score (Z WH) and BMI for age Z-score (Z BMIA) of children with autism were significantly higher than those of the typically developing children. Thus, nutritional inadequacies were observed in children with autism and typically developing children in China, which were, however, more pronounced among children with autism.

  20. A Comparison of Speech Synthesis Intelligibility with Listeners from Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirenda, Pat; Beukelman, David R.

    1987-01-01

    The study evaluated the intelligibility of three different types of speech synthesizers (Echo II+, Votrax Personal Speech System, and DECtalk) with children at two different age groups and adults. Results are reported in terms of their educational application with communication disordered persons. (Author/DB)

  1. The Influence of Group Size on Children's Competitive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Nicholson, Catherine; Waite, Angela; Roy, Rosanne; Simpson, Anna

    2001-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that children would compete more playing competitive games in tetrads than in dyads. Found that male target children competed more in tetrads than in dyads; female target children did not show different levels of competition based on group size. Based on a global measure of smiling, the emotional atmosphere was less positive in…

  2. Increasing the Athletic Group Play of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Catherine A.; Charlop, Marjorie H.

    2014-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across three children with autism and within child across activity was used to assess the effects of interventions designed to teach children with autism to play two common athletic group games, handball and 4-square. Treatment consisted of two phases. In Phase I, athletic skills training, the children participated in…

  3. Beyond the "Classic" Nurture Group Model: An Evaluation of Part-Time and Cross-Age Nurture Groups in a Scottish Local Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Karen; Lee, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This study begins to explore ways in which the principles underpinning the traditional "nurture group" model could be altered and age ranges extended while continuing to deliver the proven success of nurture groups in promoting children's social and emotional development. Part-time nurture groups were established in four different primary schools…

  4. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  5. Determinants of caregivers’ vaccination intention with respect to child age group: a cross-sectional survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Shin, Kyung-Ah; Park, Kisoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined how knowledge, risk perception, health beliefs and multidimensional health locus of control (HLC) were associated with caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their child, and how these associations varied across child age groups. Setting South Korea. Methods The cross-sectional survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview among 1017 nationally representative caregivers who had children aged 12 or younger. The outcome variable was caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their children. Results Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that risk perception was negatively associated with vaccination intention only among the age group 4–6 (β=−0.127, p<0.05). Perceived benefit was the only significant predictor of the outcome variables for all three age groups. In contrast, perceived barrier was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=−0.104, p<0.05). Internal HLC was positively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=0.151, p<0.001), while chance HLC was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 0–3 (β=−0.121, p<0.05). Conclusions This study identifies key vaccination intention determinants that are differentially associated with caregivers’ children's age groups. To improve vaccination rates, it suggests the need for strategies tailored to children's age. PMID:26408283

  6. Gender identity in a group of retarded children.

    PubMed

    Abelson, G; Paluszny, M

    1978-12-01

    The Michigan Gender Identity Test (MGIT) was administered to 52 retarded and 36 normal children to assess the acquisition of gender identity. This instrument required the ability to sort and categorize photographs of boys and girls wearing conventional clothing and with conventional hair-styles. As part of the test, each child was expected to recognize a self-photo and to be able to categorize it as a boy or a girl. In general, a significant correlation was found between MGIT performance and mental age for the retarded children. The performance of the normal children correlated significantly with both chronological age and mental age.

  7. Cognitive outcomes in school-age children born prematurely.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah Winders

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss findings in the literature regarding long-term developmental outcomes of infants born prematurely, to examine potential causes of individual differences in these outcomes, and to explore directions for future research. An extensive table summarizes recent (1996-2002) international studies of developmental outcomes among children of school age and older who were born with low birth weight, especially as the studies relate to cognitive development and academic performance. The discussion then examines how characteristics of the child and the environment may interact to produce individual differences in outcomes. Processes of attention regulation within the context of the psychosocial environment are examined as an important possible direction for future research. When designing and implementing interventions aimed at improving outcomes in this and other groups of children at risk for delays and deficits, it is important to consider how various factors affect development. PMID:12795506

  8. Children's Media Comprehension: The Relationship between Media Platform, Executive Functioning Abilities, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menkes, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Children's media comprehension was compared for material presented on television, computer, or touchscreen tablet. One hundred and thirty-two children were equally distributed across 12 groups defined by age (4- or 6-years-olds), gender, and the three media platforms. Executive functioning as measured by attentional control, cognitive…

  9. Age Effects in a Study Abroad Context: Children and Adults Studying Abroad and at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llanes, Angels; Munoz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of learning context and age on second language development by comparing the language gains, measured in terms of oral and written fluency, lexical and syntactic complexity, and accuracy, experienced by four groups of learners of English: children in a study abroad setting, children in their at-home school, adults in…

  10. Influence of the Others-Concept on Children's Group Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, David W.

    This paper summarizes and integrates the findings from three separate studies, all of which had as their major objective the investigation of differences in small group behavior between children who have relatively high others-concepts and children who have relatively low others-concepts, as measured by the Paired Hands Test. Group sessions of…

  11. Psychoeducational Assessment of Minority Group Children: A Casebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L.

    This volume presents an introduction and 14 case studies by various authors on psychoeducational procedures for assessing minority group children. Included are the following papers: (1) "Psychoeducational Assessment of Minority Group Children: Issues and Perspectives" (R. L. Jones); (2) "Dynamic Assessment: The Learning Potential Assessment…

  12. Who Joins Support Groups among Parents of Children with Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.; Salzer, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    This study identified factors associated with support group participation among families of children with autism. A survey was administered to 1005 caregivers of children with autism in Pennsylvania. Two-thirds of respondents (66.4%) had ever participated in an autism-specific support group. In adjusted analyses, demographic characteristics,…

  13. Temperament and Friendship in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.; Gower, Amy L.; Hohmann, Lisa M.; Gleason, Terry C.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of three components of temperament (activity level, impulsivity, and soothability) on children's friendships was investigated. Children (40 girls, 35 boys) aged 43 to 69 months responded to a sociometric interview and teachers provided temperament ratings. The probability of children choosing particular classmates as friends was…

  14. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  15. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  16. Measuring Children's Age Stereotyping Using a Modified Piagetian Conservation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong See, Sheree T.; Rasmussen, Carmen; Pertman, S. Quinn

    2012-01-01

    We examined five-year-old-children's age stereotyping using a modified Piagetian conservation task. Children were asked if two lines of objects were the "same" after one line had been made longer (transformed). A conversational account posits that children's answers reflect assumptions about the asker's motivation for the question (Schwarz, 1996).…

  17. The Role and Contribution of Nurture Groups in Secondary Schools: Perceptions of Children, Parents and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Jennifer; Thomas, Miles

    2011-01-01

    Many secondary schools are now establishing Nurture Groups, an intervention primarily designed for infant school-aged children. However, there is little research indicating that this intervention can be applied effectively to secondary settings. The main aim of this research was to explore how Nurture Groups are implemented into the secondary…

  18. [Evaluation of the attitudes of children living with seniors toward aging].

    PubMed

    Luchesi, Bruna Moretti; Dupas, Giselle; Pavarini, Sofia Cristina Iost

    2012-12-01

    With the aging of the population, it is important to identify how other age groups perceive the elderly. The objective of this quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study was to evaluate the attitude of children living with seniors toward aging. Interviews were conducted with 54 children, aged between seven and ten years old, living with elderly people. After sociodemographic data were collected, the Todaro Scale for the Assessment of Attitudes of Children Toward the Elderly was applied. It assesses the domains of persona, cognition, social interaction, and agency. Most children were nine years old, male and had lived with an elderly individual for at least five years. The results showed positive attitudes. The persona domain was associated with 'time living with a senior.' This study's results support health professionals in planning educational interventions, designed to maintain and improve the attitudes of children toward the elderly.

  19. What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

  20. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2012 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about school-age children and CCDBG. This…

  1. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  2. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  3. Hearing Levels of Children by Age and Sex: United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jean; Huber, Paul

    This report contains estimates of hearing levels for children 6 to 11 years of age in the United States as determined in the second cycle of the Health Examination Survey, conducted during 1963-1965. A probability sample (N=7,119) was selected to represent the 24 million children 6 to 11 years of age in the noninstitutional population. Hearing…

  4. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  5. Automated bone age assessment of older children using the radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, Han K.

    2008-03-01

    The Digital Hand Atlas in Assessment of Skeletal Development is a large-scale Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) project for automating the process of grading Skeletal Development of children from 0-18 years of age. It includes a complete collection of 1,400 normal hand X-rays of children between the ages of 0-18 years of age. Bone Age Assessment is used as an index of skeletal development for detection of growth pathologies that can be related to endocrine, malnutrition and other disease types. Previous work at the Image Processing and Informatics Lab (IPILab) allowed the bone age CAD algorithm to accurately assess bone age of children from 1 to 16 (male) or 14 (female) years of age using the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones. At the older ages (16(male) or 14(female) -19 years of age) the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones are fully developed and do not provide well-defined features for accurate bone age assessment. Therefore integration of the Radius Bone as a region of interest (ROI) is greatly needed and will significantly improve the ability to accurately assess the bone age of older children. Preliminary studies show that an integrated Bone Age CAD that utilizes the Phalanges, Carpal Bones and Radius forms a robust method for automatic bone age assessment throughout the entire age range (1-19 years of age).

  6. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  7. A Model for Group Treatment of Adults Molested as Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Shirley; McBride, Martha C.

    It has been estimated that 85% of all women seeking therapy are adults molested as children (AMACs). Group counseling with AMACs is recommended, with groups having homogeneity in terms of presenting problems and heterogeneity in group members' ability to deal with their sexual abuse. Groups should be closed, meet once or twice a week for 2-hour…

  8. Social Groups and Children's Intergroup Attitudes: Can School Norms Moderate the Effects of Social Group Norms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Lawson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of social group norms (inclusion vs. exclusion vs. exclusion-plus-relational aggression) and school norms (inclusion vs. no norm) on 7- and 10-year-old children's intergroup attitudes were examined. Children (n = 383) were randomly assigned to a group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, and to 1 of the school norm conditions. Findings…

  9. Psychopathological differences among three groups of school children affected by the war in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Sikić, N; Javornik, N; Stracenski, M; Bunjevac, T; Buljan-Flander, G

    1997-01-01

    The consequences of extreme violence such as war torture affect children in different ways and may immediately manifest at the physical and/or psychologic level, or may remain hidden and unrecognized for years. The victims are usually very reluctant to speak about their traumatic experiences, and try to deny the existence of psychological disturbances. They often seek help for somatic problems. Taking these physical complaints seriously helps to progressively reach the psychological effects of violence. Therefore, identification of such children should be directed to more complete evaluation of their symptomatology and functioning. This can be done by: a) individual evaluation to get enough information on the historical events, functioning and symptoms of these children; and b) standardized instruments which may allow the children to disclose more about their psychological experiences during the war. In this study rating scales and assessment instruments for children aged < 15, such as CPRS with General Scoring Sheet (Fish, 1985), were used to assess the broad spectrum of psychopathology in this age group. These questionnaires were used in a large group of school children (N = 1888), 989 girls and 899 boys aged 7-16 years. The sample was divided into 3 groups: 843 non-displaced, 377 displaced and 669 refugee children. Results of statistical analysis (arithmetical mean and standard deviation of discriminative variables transformed in Z-values with F-ratio) showed the three groups of children (non-displaced, displaced and refugees) to significantly differ in 13 out of 15 psychopathologic clusters. Discriminative cannonic analysis of the 3 groups of children (non displaced, displaced and refugees) also showed significant differences. The first discriminative function (80.24% of total variance) indicated depression, violence and antisocial behavior to be rare in non-displaced children, more pronounced in displaced, and most pronounced in refugee children. The second

  10. Randomized Comparative Trial of a Social Cognitive Skills Group for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Soorya, Latha V.; Weinger, Paige M.; Beck, Todd; Soffes, Sarah; Halpern, Danielle; Gorenstein, Michelle; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph; Wang, A. Ting

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the efficacy of a targeted social skills training group in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention, NETT (Nonverbal communication, Emotion recognition, and Theory of mind Training), is a 12-session cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) for verbal, school-aged children targeting ASD-specific social behavioral impairments. Method Sixty-nine children with ASD, 8 to 11 years of age with verbal IQs greater than 70, participated in a randomized comparative trial to examine the efficacy of NETT relative to a facilitated play group. Treatment outcomes included caregiver reports of social behavior and neuropsychological assessments of social cognition conducted by blinded raters. Outcomes were collected at baseline, endpoint, and three months posttreatment. Results Significant improvements were found on social behavior outcomes such as nonverbal communication, empathic responding, and social relations in the NETT condition relative to the active control at endpoint. Verbal IQ and age moderated the interaction effect on social behavior with higher verbal IQ and older age associated with improvements in the CBI condition. No significant improvements were found on social cognitive outcomes. No significant group differences were found at three-month follow-up conducted with approximately half the sample (n=34). Conclusion These data indicate that targeted CBI social skills groups such as NETT improve social communication deficits in verbal, school-aged children with ASD. The moderating effects of high verbal IQ suggest a need to consider participant and treatment characteristics associated with outcomes in future studies. PMID:25721186

  11. Congenital abnormalities and acute leukemia among children with Down syndrome: a Children's Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Linabery, Amy M; Blair, Cindy K; Gamis, Alan S; Olshan, Andrew F; Heerema, Nyla A; Ross, Julie A

    2008-10-01

    Children with Down syndrome, due to their heightened risk of leukemia and increased prevalence of congenital abnormalities, comprise a valuable population in which to study etiology. A Children's Oncology Group study investigated the causes of childhood leukemia in children with Down syndrome diagnosed at ages 0 to 19 years during the period 1997-2002. Telephone interviews were completed with mothers of 158 cases [n=97 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and n=61 acute myeloid leukemia (AML)] and 173 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed via unconditional logistic regression to evaluate the association between congenital abnormalities and acute leukemia overall, and ALL and AML analyzed separately. The results do not provide evidence for an association among the index children (OR(Combined), 0.74; 95% CI, 0.45-1.23; OR(ALL), 0.67; 95% CI, 0.38-1.20; OR(AML),1.03; 95% CI, 0.49-2.16) or their siblings (OR(Combined), 1.23; 95% CI, 0.71-2.13; OR(ALL), 1.12; 95% CI, 0.60-2.09; OR(AML), 1.60; 95% CI, 0.66-3.86), suggesting congenital malformations do not confer additional risk of leukemia beyond the risk attributable to trisomy 21 in this population.

  12. Children's intergroup helping: the role of empathy and peer group norms.

    PubMed

    Sierksma, Jellie; Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-10-01

    Two studies examined children's (8- to 13-year-olds) intergroup helping intentions. In Study 1, 856 children indicated their intention to help national in-group or out-group peers in a high need situation and in either a public or private context. Results showed that children's empathic tendencies predicted their intention to help and that the context as well as recipients' group membership had no effects. In Study 2, 388 children indicated their intention to help in-group and out-group peers in either a low need or high need situation. Results of Study 1 were replicated. In addition, in the low need situation and when helping was public, children intended to help out-group peers more than in-group peers, particularly when they perceived an accepting descriptive classroom norm about the out-group. When the need was relatively high, empathy appeared to outweigh children's group norm considerations. In all analyses, no age differences were found.

  13. Dental age assessment among Tunisian children using the Demirjian method

    PubMed Central

    Aissaoui, Abir; Salem, Nidhal Haj; Mougou, Meryam; Maatouk, Fethi; Chadly, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Since Demirjian system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the Demirjian's method for dental age assessment in Tunisian children. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study previously approved by the Research Ethics Local Committee of the University Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of Monastir (Tunisia). Panoramic radiographs of 280 healthy Tunisian children of age 2.8–16.5 years were examined with Demirjian method and scored by three trained observers. Statistical Analysis Used: Dental age was compared to chronological age by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Cohen's Kappa test was performed to calculate the intra- and inter-examiner agreements. Results: Underestimation was seen in children aged between 9 and 16 years and the range of accuracy varied from −0.02 to 3 years. The advancement in dental age as determined by Demirjian system when compared to chronological age ranged from 0.3 to 1.32 year for young males and from 0.26 to 1.37 year for young females (age ranged from 3 to 8 years). Conclusions: The standards provided by Demirjian for French-Canadian children may not be suitable for Tunisian children. Each population of children may need their own specific standard for an accurate estimation of chronological age. PMID:27051223

  14. Attained growth status of selected groups of Israeli children.

    PubMed

    Nichaman, M Z; Reshef, A

    1978-05-01

    Analyses of available growth data from different groups of Israeli children revealed wide differences in attained growth in groups of children whose parents immigrated from different countries. By means of analyses of variance, it was shown that these differences in growth are most likely due to differences in the socioeconomic level of the family, rather than being related to parental country of origin. The data also suggest that nutrition problems among Israeli children, although not very severe, reflect a moderate degree of maldistribution of available food resources in different socioeconomic and cultural subgroups. The data also support the applicability and usefulness of a reference population data base drawn from children in the United States, in evaluating the attained growth status of children in different population groups.

  15. Helping the In-Group Feels Better: Children's Judgments and Emotion Attributions in Response to Prosocial Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Drika; Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen

    2013-01-01

    Five- to 13-year-old European American children ("N" = 76) predicted characters' decisions, emotions, and obligations in prosocial moral dilemmas. Across age, children judged that characters would feel more positive emotions helping an unfamiliar child from the racial in-group versus out-group (African American), happier ignoring the needs of a…

  16. The frequency and etiology of anemia among children 6-16 years of age in the southeast region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Koç, A; Kösecik, M; Vural, H; Erel, O; Ataş, A; Tatli, M M

    2000-01-01

    The frequency and etiology of anemia were investigated in 2,913 children between six and 16 years of age in Sanliurfa, in the southeast region of Turkey. Anemia was found in 142 (7.8%) children in the 6-11 years of age group, and in 16 (1.5%) in the 12-16 years of age group; in total, in 158 (5.4%) children. Causes were iron deficiency in 93 (58.9%) children, beta-thalassemia heterozygosity in 10 (6.3%) children, chronic disease that causes anemia of inflammation in 30 (19.0%) children, and intestinal parasitic infections in 17 (10.8%) children. In eight (5.1%) children, the cause of anemia could not be determined. The study's results showed that iron deficiency anemia and chronic and parasitic disease are important problems in schoolchildren of Sanliurfa, while beta-thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies have less importance.

  17. Development of Joint Engagement in Young Deaf and Hearing Children: Effects of Chronological Age and Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Cejas, Ivette; Barker, David H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Niparko, John K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate joint engagement (JE) in age-matched children with and without hearing and its relationship to oral language skills. Method Participants were 180 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss prior to cochlear implant surgery, and 96 age-matched children with normal hearing; all parents were hearing. JE was evaluated in a 10-minute videotaped free play task with parents. Engagement states ranged from the lowest (unengaged) to the highest level (symbol-infused coordinated). Standardized language measures were administered. Results Multivariate analyses were conducted between the groups, stratified by chronological and language age. Children who were deaf (Deaf) spent less time in total symbol-infused JE than children with normal hearing (NH) across all ages. The majority of the Deaf group (83%) fell in the lowest language age group, in comparison to 35% of the NH group, and spent significantly less time in symbol-infused JE than hearing children. These delays were also observed in the Deaf group, who fell into the 18-36 month language age. No children in the Deaf group had achieved a language age of >36 months. Conclusions Young children with and without hearing had different developmental trajectories of JE, which were related to oral language skills. PMID:24845423

  18. Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income children.

    PubMed

    Slater, Jessica; Strait, Dana L; Skoe, Erika; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6-9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development. PMID:25409300

  19. Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income children.

    PubMed

    Slater, Jessica; Strait, Dana L; Skoe, Erika; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6-9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development.

  20. Longitudinal Effects of Group Music Instruction on Literacy Skills in Low-Income Children

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Jessica; Strait, Dana L.; Skoe, Erika; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6–9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development. PMID:25409300

  1. Supportive Peer Groups: A Behavior Management Program for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virden, Tim

    A supportive peer group management program for behaviorally disordered students is described. Children learn to confront one another about problems in a helpful, structured way. A generic problem list based on actual classroom experiences is composed of such elements as aggravation, hurting, lying, and disrespect for self and others. Children are…

  2. Socioeconomic determinants of iron-deficiency anemia among children aged 6 to 59 months in India.

    PubMed

    Bharati, Susmita; Pal, Manoranjan; Chakrabarty, Suman; Bharati, Premananda

    2015-03-01

    The extent of anemia and its socioeconomic determinants among the preschool children (6-59 months old) in India have been studied in this article. Relevant data are taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey. The initial analysis reveals some interesting features. The most affected children are in the age-group of 6 to 23 months. Beyond this age a decreasing trend is observed up to the age of 48 to 59 months. The highest and the lowest prevalence of anemia have been found to be in the central and the northeast zones, respectively. The vulnerable groups are the children of illiterate parents and those belonging to the poor families in the rural areas. Categorical logistic regression also confirms that status of literacy and wealth of parents have strong negative association with the status of anemia of the children.

  3. Reading and Coherent Motion Perception in School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassaliete, Evita; Lacis, Ivars; Fomins, Sergejs; Krumina, Gunta

    2015-01-01

    This study includes an evaluation, according to age, of the reading and global motion perception developmental trajectories of 2027 school age children in typical stages of development. Reading is assessed using the reading rate score test, for which all of the student participants, regardless of age, received the same passage of text of a medium…

  4. HEALTH OF CHILDREN OF SCHOOL AGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LESSER, ARTHUR

    A HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE STUDY OF SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAMS, THIS REPORT PRESENTS STATISTICS ON (1) THE NATION'S CHILD POPULATION, (2) CHILDREN IN LOW-INCOME FAMILIES, (3) ILLNESSES OF CHILDHOOD, (4) SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES, AND (5) TRENDS IN THE PROVISION OF HEALTH CARE FOR CHILDREN. THE REPORT EMPHASIZES THE GAPS IN CHILD HEALTH SUPERVISION…

  5. Intervention Strategies for School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Entremont, Denise Morel

    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a relatively new diagnostic label. As more physicians become familiar with the diagnosis of this syndrome, schools will begin to see children with the label FAS and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE). Children with FAS often do not pick up skills from their environment as easily as some of their peers. They often need to…

  6. Language Ability Groups in Bilingual Children: A Latent Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gray, Shelley; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Classifying children into two language ability groups, with and without language impairment, may underestimate the number of groups with distinct language ability patterns, or, alternatively, there may be only a single group characterized by a continuum of language performance. The purpose of the current study was to identify the number…

  7. Sports injuries in school-aged children. An epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Backx, F J; Erich, W B; Kemper, A B; Verbeek, A L

    1989-01-01

    In November 1982, epidemiologic data were collected in a unique, large scale, population-based survey on sports injuries in school-aged children living in Holland. A total of 7,468 pupils, aged 8 to 17, completed questionnaires covering a retrospective period of 6 weeks. Seven hundred ninety-one sports injuries were registered, amounting to an incidence of 10.6 sports injuries per 100 participants. In 31% of the cases, medical consultation was needed. Injuries incurred during the study period caused 36% of the children to miss one or more physical education classes and caused 6% to miss school for at least 1 day. Contusions and sprains were the most common lesions (77%). Three of four injuries involved the lower extremity, in particular the ankle. Sixty-two percent of all the injuries occurred in organized sports, 21% in physical education classes, and 17% in unsupervised sports activities. The highest injury rates were found in basketball and field hockey. In this study population, 15 and 16-year-old boys who had a high sports activity index and played team sports, particularly contact team sports, formed a high risk group.

  8. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    PubMed Central

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  9. Hospital Admission Patterns in Children with CAH: Admission Rates and Adrenal Crises Decline with Age

    PubMed Central

    Rushworth, R. Louise; Falhammar, Henrik; Munns, Craig F.; Maguire, Ann M.; Torpy, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine patterns of hospitalisation for acute medical conditions in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Design. A retrospective study of hospitalisation using administrative data. Setting. All hospitals in NSW, Australia. Patients. All patients admitted with CAH and a random sample of admissions in patients aged 0 to 18 years without adrenal insufficiency (AI). Main Outcome Measures. Admissions and comorbidities by age and sex. Results. Of 573 admissions for medical problems in CAH children, 286 (49.9%) were in males, and 236 (41.2%) had a principal diagnosis of CAH or had an adrenal crisis (AC). 37 (6.5%) ACs were recorded. An infection was found in 43.5% (n = 249) of the CAH patient admissions and 51.7% (n = 1613) of the non-AI group, p < 0.001. Children aged up to one year had the highest number of admissions (n = 149) and six ACs (four in males). There were 21 ACs recorded for children aged 1–5 years. Older CAH children had fewer admissions and fewer ACs. No in-hospital deaths were recorded. Conclusions. Admission for medical problems in CAH children declines with age. An AC was recorded in 6.5% of the admissions, with the majority of ACs occurring in the 1 to 5 years age group and there were no deaths. PMID:26880914

  10. Dental age assessment validity of radiographic methods on Serbian children population.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Ksenija; Zelic, Ksenija; Milenkovic, Petar; Nedeljkovic, Nenad; Djuric, Marija

    2013-09-10

    In order to establish reliable age estimation method based on dental development, various correlations between chronological age and real growth were tested. Demirjian's scheme was mostly used, but lately the Willems' method has been found to be more reliable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Demirjian's and Willems' methods for dental age estimation in Serbian children population. The study sample encompassed panoramic radiographs of 686 children (322 boys and 364 girls) with age range from 4 to 15 years. The dental age was assed using Demirjian's and Willems' maturity scores. Statistical analysis was performed to test the accuracy of investigated methods by comparing the mean chronological and mean estimated age in total sample, as well as in each group comprising individuals within one-year-age-interval. Both methods showed discrepancy between obtained and chronological age. The Demirjian's method overestimated age with a mean accuracy of 0.45 in boys and 0.42 in girls, while Willems' method showed lower discrepancy (0.12 and 0.16 in boys and girls, respectively). Overall, both methods were unsatisfactory in some age groups, however, Willems' method provided more accurate age estimation in majority of categories. In summary, our results suggest that Willem's method was more accurate for estimating dental age in contemporary Serbian children population. PMID:23835078

  11. A Model for the Treatment of College Age Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Diane; Winterowd, Carrie

    A session by session cognitive behavioral approach to group treatment for college age children of alcoholics was presented. Four groups ranging in size from four to eight persons participated in these semester-long sessions offered during one academic year through the counseling center at a major midwestern university. The treatment was comprised…

  12. Working memory in children: tracing age differences and special educational needs to parameters of a formal model.

    PubMed

    Göthe, Katrin; Esser, Günther; Gendt, Anja; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2012-03-01

    Parameters of a formal working-memory model were estimated for verbal and spatial memory updating of children. The model proposes interference though feature overwriting and through confusion of whole elements as the primary cause of working-memory capacity limits. We tested 2 age groups each containing 1 group of normal intelligence and 1 deficit group. For young children the deficit was developmental dyslexia; for older children it was a general learning difficulty. The interference model predicts less interference through overwriting but more through confusion of whole elements for the dyslexic children than for their age-matched controls. Older children exhibited less interference through confusion of whole elements and a higher processing rate than young children, but general learning difficulty was associated with slower processing than in the age-matched control group. Furthermore, the difference between verbal and spatial updating mapped onto several meaningful dissociations of model parameters.

  13. Analysis of a support group for children of parents with mental illnesses: managing stressful situations.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, Brenda M; McKeever, Patricia; Seeman, Mary; Boydell, Katherine M

    2014-09-01

    We report an ethnographic analysis of a psycho-education and peer-support program for school-aged children of parents with mental illnesses. We conducted a critical discourse analysis of the program manual and observed group interactions to understand whether children shared program goals predetermined by adults, and how, or if, the intervention was responsive to their needs. Children were expected to learn mental illness information because "knowledge is power," and to express difficult feelings about being a child of a mentally ill parent that was risky. Participants used humor to manage group expectations, revealing how they made sense of their parents' problems, as well as their own. Suggestions are made for determining good mental health literacy based on children's preferences for explaining circumstances in ways they find relevant, and for supporting children's competencies to manage relationships that are important to them.

  14. Screening for developmental delay among children aged 1-4 years: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rachel; Kenny, Meghan; Bennett, Teresa; Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Sherifali, Diana; Raina, Parminder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Existing guidelines on screening children less than 5 years of age for developmental delay vary. In this systematic review, we synthesized the literature on the effectiveness and harms of screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and PsychINFO for relevant articles published to June 16, 2015. We identified studies that included children aged 1-4 years who were not at high risk of developmental delay, screened in a primary care setting. Randomized trials and controlled cohort studies were considered for benefits (cognitive, academic and functional outcomes); no restrictions on study design were imposed for the review of harms. Results: Two studies were included. One used the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II for screening and reported significantly more referrals to early intervention in the intervention groups than in the control group (relative risk [RR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.54, in the intervention group with office support and RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.30-2.25, in the intervention group without office support). The time to referral was 70% shorter in the intervention group with office support (rate ratio 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.48) and 64% shorter in the intervention group without office support (rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.59), compared with the control group. The other study used the VroegTijdige Onderkenning Ontwikkelingsstoornissen Language Screening instrument to screen children aged 15 months at enrolment for language delay. It reported no differences between groups in academic performance outcomes at age 8 years. Interpretation: The evidence on screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years is inconclusive. Further research with longer-term outcomes is needed to inform decisions about screening and screening intervals. PMID:27226967

  15. Motor skills in children aged 7-10 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Whyatt, Caroline P; Craig, Cathy M

    2012-09-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as indicated by a significant general motor impairment in the group with autism. However, sub-analysis of the M-ABC2 revealed that there were only 2 out of 8 subcomponent skills which showed universal significant specific deficits for the autism group; i.e. catching a ball and static balance. These results suggest that motor skill deficits associated with autism may not be pervasive but more apparent in activities demanding complex, interceptive actions or core balance ability.

  16. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention.

  17. Effects of Age on Adaptive Behavior Levels and Academic Skill Levels in Autistic and Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ando, Haruhiko; And Others

    1980-01-01

    It was found that the levels of toilet training, eating skills, participation in group activities, and self-control in the autistic children improved significantly with age. The skills of number concepts in the autistic children also improved with age. (Author)

  18. Housework, children, and women's wages across racial-ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Heather Macpherson

    2014-07-01

    Motherhood affects women's household labor and paid employment, but little previous research has explored the extent to which hours of housework may explain per child wage penalties or differences in such penalties across racial-ethnic groups. In this paper, I use longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data to examine how variations in household labor affect the motherhood penalty for White, Black, and Hispanic women. In doing so, I first assess how children affect hours of household labor across these groups and then explore the extent to which this household labor mediates the relationship between children and wages for these women. I find that household labor explains a portion of the motherhood penalty for White women, who experience the most dramatic increases in household labor with additional children. Black and Hispanic women experience slight increases in housework with additional children, but neither children nor housework affects their already low wages.

  19. Group administration of the children's attributional style interview.

    PubMed

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Malecki, Christine Kerres

    2007-01-01

    Research testing the reformulated theory of learned helplessness has been limited by the psychometric properties of instruments used to measure children's attributional style. Thus, the goal of this investigation was to modify a relatively new measure of attributional style that has demonstrated strong psychometric properties with young children and test its psychometric properties in a group administration with a sample of 238 fifth- and sixth-grade children. Results revealed strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability, significant correlations with another measure of attributional style, depressive symptoms, optimism, learned helplessness, and a factor structure that was consistent with theory. Overall, these results provide initial support for the use of a modified paper-and-pencil version of the Children's Attributional Style Interview in a group-administered format for children as young as fifth and sixth grade. PMID:17658990

  20. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751

  1. Soft tissue thickness values for black and coloured South African children aged 6-13 years.

    PubMed

    Briers, N; Briers, T M; Becker, P J; Steyn, M

    2015-07-01

    In children, craniofacial changes due to facial growth complicate facial approximations and require specific knowledge of soft tissue thicknesses (STT). The lack of South African juvenile STT standards of particular age groups, sex and ancestry is problematic. According to forensic artists in the South African Police Service the use of African-American values to reconstruct faces of Black South African children yields poor results. In order to perform a facial approximation that presents a true reflection of the child in question, information regarding differences in facial soft tissue at different ages, sexes and ancestry groups is needed. The aims of this study were to provide data on STT of South African Black and Coloured children and to assess differences in STT with respect to age, sex and ancestry. STT was measured using cephalograms of South African children (n=388), aged 6-13 years. After digitizing the images, STT measurements were taken at ten mid-facial landmarks from each image using the iTEM measuring program. STT comparisons between groups per age, sex and ancestry were statistically analyzed. The results showed that STT differences at lower face landmarks are more pronounced in age groups per ancestry as opposed to differences per age and sex. Generally, an increase in STT was seen between 6-10 year old groups and 11-13 year old groups, regardless of ancestry and sex, at the midphiltrum, labiale inferius, pogonion, and beneath chin landmarks. This research created a reference dataset for STT of South African children of Black and Coloured ancestry per age and sex that will be useful for facial reconstruction/approximation of juvenile remains.

  2. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John P.

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  3. Sustained attention and unintentional injury among preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Bennett Murphy, L; Caroline, E; Rose, C L

    2001-06-01

    This study examined vigilance in preschool-aged children and explored the relationship between vigilance and unintentional injury. There were 28 participating children, aged 4 and 5 years, who completed a computerized vigilance task for two 5-min sessions. The task generated measures of correct detections, false alarms, reaction time, and the signal detection indices of d' and c. Primary caregivers completed daily injury phone journals for a 4-week period. Results indicated that age and signal probability affected vigilance. Older children made more correct detections, had greater perceptual sensitivity, and performed in patterns similar to adults. Performance was enhanced in the high signal probability condition. In addition, vigilance indicators of perceptual sensitivity and response bias were predictive of injury, while age was not. Specifically, children with lower perceptual sensitivity scores, and who were less responsive to the vigilance task, experienced more unintentional injuries over the course of the study.

  4. The applicability of Willems' method for age estimation in southern Turkish children: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Onat Altan, Halenur; Altan, Ahmet; Bilgiç, Fundagül; Akıncı Sözer, Özlem; Damlar, İbrahim

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the applicability and accuracy of Willems' method for assessing southern Turkish children and to analyze the practicability of this method in different age groups for both genders. Panoramic radiographs of 756 children (378 females, 378 males) aged between 5 and 14.99 years were examined by one observer. This retrospective study involved a contemporary southern Turkish population. The chronological ages of the subjects were divided into 10 groups. These 10 groups consisted of children of the following ages 5 and 14.99. Relationships between continuous variables were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The paired t-test was used to compare all data according to gender and age groups. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant for all statistical data. According to the results, a very high correlation was found for both girls (r(2) = 0.946) and for boys (r(2) = 0.940). Dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA) were consistent for girls in the four age groups (5-5.99, 6-6.99, 12-12.99, and 14-14.99) and for boys in the three age groups (5-5.99,13-13.99, 14-14.99). The maturity score of Willems' Belgian samples of the DA was applicable to seven groups of the southern Turkish children. The present study reports that Willems' method is more accurate for girls than for boys. PMID:26698388

  5. The prevalence of asthma in children of elementary school age in western New York.

    PubMed

    Lwebuga-Mukasa, J S; Dunn-Georgiou, E

    2000-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of caregiver-reported asthma in children 4 to 13 years old in metropolitan western New York State, surveys were conducted during 1997-1999 in the Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Iroquois, and Gowanda school systems. Questionnaires (3,889) were sent to the homes of elementary school children in nine schools in western New York. The caregivers were asked to complete a 13-item questionnaire for the child. Of the questionnaires, 60.5% (2,353/3,889) were completed. Of all children, 18% had physician-diagnosed asthma. Of children diagnosed with asthma, 86% were taking medication. Symptoms were consistent with suspected undiagnosed asthma for 13% of the children. Buffalo had the highest rate of diagnosed asthma (20%) for the age group. Gowanda had a prevalence of 18%, Iroquois 16%, and Niagara Falls 15%. Variations were observed in asthma prevalence rates among different racial/ethnic groups. In general, boys had a significantly (P = .001) increased odds of being asthmatic compared with girls. Overall, African-Americans and Hispanic/Latino children had significantly (P = .012 and P = .005, respectively) higher asthma prevalence rates, two to five times those of their Caucasian peers. In Gowanda, the prevalence of diagnosed asthma among Native American children was 23%, compared to 15% among Caucasian children. Of diagnosed Native American children, 71% were female. In Gowanda, a significant association (P = .007) of asthma among children in split-grade classes was observed compared to nonsplit grades. Of Native American children in split grades, 60% were diagnosed asthmatics. These observations reveal a high prevalence of asthma in the age group of 4 to 13 year olds in western New York. Local variations in potential triggers of asthma need to be considered when advising asthmatics. The results suggest that some grades have a disproportionate amount of children with asthma. The implications of asthma for children's early education need to be examined

  6. Thai and American Fathers' Involvement with Preschool-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulananda, Oracha; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using the Paternal Involvement in Childcare Index, examined father involvement in caregiving and the socialization of preschool-age children in 40 Thai and 24 American families. American fathers were more likely than Thai fathers to be involved in child care and the socialization of their children. (MDM)

  7. Rational-Emotive Assessment of School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on assessment of emotions and irrational beliefs in Rational-Emotive Therapy with school-aged children. Argues that, for children to understand and agree to process of disputing irrational beliefs, practitioner first assesses individual child's emotional vocabulary, his/her understanding of relationship between disturbed emotion and…

  8. Attitudes Toward Animals: Age-Related Development Among Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellert, Stephen R.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews a study's findings on children's (N=267) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward animals and natural habitats. Research results indicate that existence of three stages in the development of children's perceptions of animals. Major differences in age, sex, ethnicity and urban/rural residence were also noted. (ML)

  9. Self-Control in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these…

  10. Executive Function in Very Preterm Children at Early School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke S. H.; Smidts, Diana P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether very preterm ([less than or equal to] 30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50 children (27 boys and 23 girls) born very…

  11. Sentence Completion to Assess Children's Views about Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Michael J.; Pruski, Linda A.; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Lee, Shuko; Plaetke, Rosemarie

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Sentence completion exercises require students to give open-ended responses to prompts. The first purpose of this article is to describe the method of sentence completion to assess middle-school children's attitudes and beliefs about aging. The second purpose is to describe the patterns of characteristics that children associate with…

  12. Maximum Bite Force Analysis in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Patricia; Vieira, Marilena; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF) is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI), using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo), and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil), on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups. PMID:25992105

  13. Leadership in Groups of School-Age Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Cynthia A.

    1994-01-01

    Examined correlates and predictors of leadership in school-age female groups. Subjects were fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade girls enrolled in 16 Girl Scout troops. Leadership and personal characteristics were measured. Found a consistent relationship between leadership status and a managerial leadership style. Long-term informal leadership was…

  14. Youth Assets and Delayed Coitarche across Developmental Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that assets are associated with youth abstinence, but whether these relationships are constant across developmental age groups has not been shown. Data for this study were obtained from two independent datasets collected across a 2-year period using in-person, in-home interviews of youth (52% female; 44% Caucasian,…

  15. Electrocortical Dynamics Reflect Age-Related Differences in Movement Kinematics among Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kagerer, Florian A.; Momen, Bahram; Hatfield, Bradley D.; Clark, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging and behavioral studies demonstrated structural and functional changes in the motor system across childhood. However, it is unclear what functionally relevant electrocortical processes underlie developmental differences in motor planning and control during multijoint, goal-directed movements. The current study characterized age-related differences in electrocortical processes during the performance of discrete aiming movements in children and adults. Electroencephalography and movement kinematics were recorded from 3 groups of participants (n = 15 each): young children (mean 6.7 years), older children (mean 10.2 years), and adults (mean 22.1 years). Age-related differences were evident in the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. First, young children exhibited less movement-related activity in task-relevant motor areas compared with adults (movement-related cortical potentials). Second, young children exhibited greater activation (less alpha power) of the frontal areas and less activation of the parietal areas as compared with the other groups. At the behavioral level, young children made slower and jerkier movements, with less consistent directional planning compared with older children and adults. Significant correlations were also found between EEG and movement kinematic measures. Taken together, the results of this study provide evidence that age-related differences in the quality of motor planning and performance are reflected in the differences in electrocortical dynamics among children and adults. PMID:20805237

  16. Growth status of small for gestational age Indian children from two socioeconomic strata

    PubMed Central

    Khadilkar, Vaman V.; Mandlik, Rubina M.; Palande, Sonal A.; Pandit, Deepa S.; Chawla, Meghna; Nadar, Ruchi; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Kadam, Sandeep S.; Khadilkar, Anuradha A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess growth and factors associated with growth in children born small for gestational age (SGA) from two socioeconomic strata in comparison to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Methods: Retrospective study conducted at two hospitals in Pune, 0.5–5 years, 618 children: 189-SGA from upper socioeconomic strata (USS), 217-SGA from lower socioeconomic strata (LSS), and 212 appropriate for gestational age healthy controls were randomly selected. Birth and maternal history, socioeconomic status, length/height, and weight of children were recorded. Anthropometric data were converted to Z scores (height for age Z-score [HAZ], weight for age Z-score [WAZ]) using WHO AnthroPlus software. Results: The HAZ and WAZ of the SGA group were significantly lower as compared to the controls and that of the LSS SGAs were lower than USS SGAs (P < 0.05). Thirty two percent children were stunted (HAZ <−2.0) in USS and 49% in LSS (P < 0.05). Twenty nine percent children in the USS SGA group were stunted at 2 years and 17% at 5 years. In the LSS SGA group, 54% children were stunted at 2 years and 46% at 5 years. Generalized linear model revealed normal vaginal delivery (β = 0.625) and mother's age (β =0.072) were positively associated and high SES (β = −0.830), absence of major illness (β = −1.01), higher birth weight (β = −1.34) were negatively associated for risk of stunting (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Children born SGA showed poor growth as compared to controls. Special attention to growth is necessary in children from LSS, very low birth weight babies, and those with major illnesses during early years of life. PMID:27366721

  17. Evaluation of the feasibility of international growth standards for school-aged children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy E; Garza, Cutberto; de Onis, Mercedes

    2006-12-01

    Development of an international growth standard for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of school-aged children and adolescents has been motivated by two contemporaneous events: the global surge in childhood obesity and the release of a new international growth standard for infants and preschool children by the World Health Organization (WHO). If a prescriptive approach analogous to that taken by WHO for younger children is to be adopted for school-aged children and adolescents, several issues would have to be addressed regarding the universality of growth potential across populations and how to define optimal growth in children and adolescents. A working group concluded that subpopulations exhibit similar patterns of growth when exposed to similar external conditioners of growth. However, on the basis of available data, it cannot be ruled out that some of the observed differences in linear growth across ethnic groups reflect true differences in genetic potential rather than environmental influences. Therefore, the sampling frame for the development of an international growth standard for children and adolescents would have to include multiethnic sampling strategies designed to capture the variation in human growth patterns. A single international growth standard for school-aged children and adolescents could be developed with careful consideration of the population and individual selection criteria, study design, sample size, measurements, and statistical modeling of primary growth and secondary ancillary data. The working group agreed that existing growth references for school-aged children and adolescents have shortcomings, particularly for assessing obesity, and that appropriate growth standards for these age groups should be developed for clinical and public health applications.

  18. Children's Subjective Identification with Social Groups: A Group-Reference Effect Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Mark; Sani, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    A study is reported that seeks to examine 5-, 7-, and 10-year-old children's internalization of in-groups within the self-concept. Methodologically, the study draws upon the self-reference effect, extending it to the group-level identity. In particular, it was found that participants' encoding of information with reference to in-groups (family,…

  19. Peer Group Norms and Accountability Moderate the Effect of School Norms on Children's Intergroup Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Luke; Rutland, Adam; Nesdale, Drew

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the interactive effects of school norms, peer norms, and accountability on children's intergroup attitudes. Participants (n = 229) aged 5-11 years, in a between-subjects design, were randomly assigned to a peer group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, learned their school either had an inclusion norm or not, and were…

  20. An Open Trial Investigation of a Transdiagnostic Group Treatment for Children with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilek, Emily L.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes associated with a transdiagnostic emotion-focused group protocol for the treatment of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms in youth. Twenty-two children (ages 7 to 12; M = 9.79) with a principal anxiety disorder and varying levels of comorbid depressive symptoms were…

  1. Parental Beliefs about Young Children's Socialization across US Ethnic Groups: Coexistence of Independence and Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Chen, Wan-Chen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Liang, Angel S.; Contreras, Helen; Zanger, Dinorah; Robinson, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    This study compared dimensions of independence and interdependence in parents' beliefs about daily child-rearing practices across four ethnic groups. Two questionnaires were completed by 310 parents of preschool-age children, and three belief constructs were identified. "Conformity" was least valued by European Americans. "Autonomy" was equally…

  2. Effectiveness of a Universal, Interdependent Group Contingency Program on Children's Academic Achievement: A Countywide Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Robert; Osborne, Karen J.; Dean, Emily L.

    2015-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a universal prevention program designed to increase academic engagement and to decrease disruptive behavior in elementary school-age children. Teachers and other school personnel use interdependent group contingencies to improve students' behavior in the classroom. Previous research indicates the GBG is efficacious…

  3. Social Orders and Interactions among Children in Age-Mixed Classes in Primary Schools--New Perspectives from a Synthesis of Ethnographic Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huf, Christina; Raggl, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The article synthesises data from two ethnographic projects, which both explore interactions of children in age-mixed groups in primary schools. It illuminates critical perspectives on social orders and children's interactions in age-mixed classes by showing how pupils in age-mixed groups become involved in power relations and how the teacher's…

  4. Peer Groups, Social Identity, and Children's Bullying Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Amanda L.; Nesdale, Drew

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on social identity theory, this study explored the impact of the peer group on childhood bullying. Participants were 351 students, aged 8 to 13 years. Involvement in bullying, friendship group membership, norms of particular groups, and intra-group positions (prototypical vs. peripheral) were determined using peer reports. Results revealed…

  5. An evaluation of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist for children under age 5.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jonathan D; Huete, John M; Fodstad, Jill C; Chin, Michelle D; Kurtz, Patricia F

    2013-04-01

    Severe problem behaviors such as self-injury and aggression are frequently observed in young children under age 5 with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Although early identification of problem behavior is critical to effective intervention, there are few standardized measures available that identify severe problem behavior in this population. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C; Aman & Singh, 1994) is a rating scale that measures the severity of a range of problem behaviors commonly observed in individuals with IDD. While it has been used with children under 5, investigations into the fit of the ABC-C for this population are sparse. The purpose of the present study was to report on ABC-C scores in a sample of 97 children under age 5 with problem behavior. Analyses included evaluating differences in scores between age groups, comparing sample norms to established norms for older children, and conducting a confirmatory factor analysis. Results indicated differences in mean scores based on age with younger children generally scoring higher on some subscales of the ABC-C. Furthermore, the original 5-factor structure of the ABC-C was not fully supported. In general, the ABC-C may over- or underestimate behavior problems in younger children; therefore more extensive investigation into the utility of the ABC-C for children under age 5 is warranted.

  6. Effects of early intervention and the moderating effects of brain activity on institutionalized children's social skills at age 8.

    PubMed

    Almas, Alisa N; Degnan, Kathryn A; Radulescu, Anca; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A

    2012-10-16

    The present study examined the social skills of previously institutionalized, 8-y-old Romanian children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project and the influence of attachment security and brain electrical activity (alpha power) on these skills. Participants included children randomized to an intervention involving foster care [Foster Care Group (FCG)], children randomized to remain in institutions [Care As Usual Group (CAUG)], and never-institutionalized children living with their families in the Bucharest community [Never-Institutionalized Group (NIG)]. A continuous rating of children's attachment security to their primary caregiver was assessed at 42 mo of age. When children were 8 y old, teachers rated their social skills, and the children's resting electroencephalogram alpha power was recorded. Teachers rated social skills of FCG children who were placed into foster care before 20 mo of age as no different from NIG children, and both of these groups were higher than CAUG children and FCG children placed after 20 mo. Electroencephalogram alpha power at age 8 significantly moderated the relations between attachment security and social skills. These findings characterize institutionalized children's social skills in middle childhood within the context of a randomized intervention while highlighting the roles of both relational and biological factors in these developmental trajectories.

  7. [Age-dependent characteristics of nutritional status and resting metabolism in overweight and obese children].

    PubMed

    Pavlovskaia, E V; Strokova, T V; Surkov, A G; Bogdanov, A R; Borodina, G V; Kutyreva, E N; Sentsova, T B

    2014-01-01

    The age-dependent nutritional status and resting metabolism in overweight and obese children have been examined. The study included 625 children of 2.5-17 years old. Patients were divided into three groups: 1st--2.5-7 years old (n = 49), 2nd--8-12 years old (n = 204), 3rd--13-17 years old (n = 372). The diagnosis of overweight and obesity was based on CDC criteria: children with 85-94 BMI percentile according to age and gender had overweight, BMI 295 percentile--obesity. Anthropometry, bioelectric impedance analysis and indirect respiratory calorimetry were performed; lipid and carbohydrate parameters were measured. The fat mass percentages in children of studed groups were 41.3 ± 1.9, 39.8 ± 0.7 and 42.3 ± 0.4%, the mean percent of fat mass excess--163.6 ± 26.2, 113.7 ± 8.3 and 134.9 ± 8.2% respectively, p > 0.05. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in children increased with age: lipid metabolism disorders were revealed in 28.6, 49.0 u 53.2% children of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd groups respectively. The mean HDL level in the 1st and 2nd groups was significantly higher, and triglycerides--lower than in the 3rd group. The correlation of HDL level and breastfeeding duration (r1 = 0.94, p < 0.05) was found in the 1st group of children. Increased insulin level was revealed in 38.8% children in the 1st group (mean 12.8 ± 1.4 μIU/ml), 62.2% children in the 2nd group (21.1 ± 0.7 μIU/ml) and 64.8% children in the 3rd group (25.1 ± 0.9 μIU/ml); increased HOMA--in 36.7% (4.32 ± 0.6), 62.2% (4.65 ± 0.17) and 59.1% (5.56 ± 0.21) respectively. The negative correlation of insulin and HOMA level with breastfeeding duration (r1 = -0.38 and -0.37, respectively, p < 0.05) was found in the 1st group of children. Prevalence of hyperuricemia increased from 13% in the 1st group to 21.1% in the 2nd and 44.1% in the 3rd group. Prevalence and degree of resting metabolism changes increased with age and had tendency to the shift of proportion of energy-intensive substrates (fats and

  8. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach

    PubMed Central

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-01-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity. PMID:23610606

  9. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach.

    PubMed

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-04-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity. PMID:23610606

  10. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach.

    PubMed

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-04-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity.

  11. Age-specific risk factors for lead absorption in children

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, S.D.; Yankel, A.J.; von Lindern, I.H.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of blood lead levels to environmental and individual characteristics is analyzed in a large sample of children residing near a lead smelting complex, with particular emphasis on the identification of age-related risk factors. Exceptional variation in both blood leads and its determinants within the study region facilitated the simultaneous detection of several significant risk factors for each year of age from 1 to 9 y. The strongest predictor of blood lead at all ages was air lead, but the secondary risk factors were age dependent. Household dustiness was significantly related to blood lead in young children, especially those under 2 y of age; soil lead may be an important source of ingested lead for children between 2 and 7 y. Other significant effects included that of pica at about 2 y of age, a slight effect of the occupational category of the fathers of 5- to 8-y-old children, and a tendency for 8- and 9-y-old boys to have higher blood leads than girls of the same age. Lead concentration in household paint was not a significant risk factor. These results suggest that a multifactorial approach to the prevention of excessive lead absorption by children is required.

  12. The Development of Associate Learning in School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Brian T.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Snyder, Peter J.; Thomas, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda C.; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes. PMID:25014755

  13. Helicobacter Pylori Infection in a Group of Egyptian Children With Upper Gastro-Intestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    El-Mazary, Abdel-Azeem M.; Elfoly, Mostafa A.; Ahmed, Magdy F.; Abdel-Hamed, Waleed M.; Hassan, Zmzm M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a life threatening condition in children. Common sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children include mucosal lesions and variceal hemorrhage. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative spiral-shaped bacterium that is found in the gastric mucous layer or adherent to the epithelial lining of the stomach. It causes more than 90% of duodenal ulcers and up to 70-80% of gastric ulcers. The relationship between H. pylori infection and upper GIT bleeding in children is still un-clear. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of H. pylori infection in children presented with upper GIT bleeding and correlation between H. pylori infection and endoscopic findings of the cause of bleeding. Methods The study included 70 children presented with upper GIT bleeding indicated for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy admitted in pediatric department, Minia University Hospital, Egypt during the period from February 2010 to December 2012. Thirty healthy children were included as a control group with age and sex matched. After medical history taking and physical examination all children were exposed for laboratory investigations (CBC, prothrombin time and concentration, liver function tests, hepatitis viral markers, blood urea and serum creatinine and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test). Upper endoscopy was done for patients only. Patients were classified into variceal and non variceal groups according to upper endoscopy. Results Helico-pylori infection was significantly higher in children with non-variceal bleeding than controls (P = 0.02) and children with variceal bleeding (P = 0.03) with no significant difference between children with variceal bleeding and controls (P = 0.9). Both weights and BMIs centile were significantly lower in variceal and non-variceal groups than controls (P = 0.01 & 0.001 and 0.01 & 0.001 respectively). AST, ALT and direct bilirubin levels were significantly higher in variceal group than

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR COMPETENCE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IS WEAKER IN THE 15-16 YR. ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP THAN IN YOUNGER AGE GROUPS (4-5 YR. AND 11-12 YR.).

    PubMed

    Haga, Monika; Gísladóttír, Thórdís; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2015-12-01

    Developing motor competence and physical fitness can affect the maintenance of a sufficient level of physical activity in children and adolescents. This study assesses the relationship between motor competence and physical fitness from childhood through early adolescence. A cross-sectional sample of 194 participants from 4 to 16 years old were divided into three groups; 4-6 yr. (n=42, M age=5.2, SD 0.6), 11-12 yr. (n=58, M age=12.4, SD=0.3), and 15-16 yr. (n=94, M age=15.9, SD=0.4). To assess motor competence, each child completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). To measure physical fitness, three tasks (strength, speed, and endurance) were selected from the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF). To analyze the significance of the difference between the correlation coefficient in the three age groups (samples) (4-6, 11-12, and 15-16 yr.), Fischer r-to-z transformation was used. The correlation (Pearson's) between motor competence and physical fitness in the age groups was statistically higher for the youngest age groups (4-6 and 11-12 yr.) and the adolescent group (age 15-16). The differences between the two youngest age groups were not statistically significant. The results demonstrate that the correlation between motor competence and physical fitness decreases with age. PMID:26595203

  15. Children and Youth Grow and Develop in Group Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Henry W.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that child caregivers in group settings are pivotal in providing charges with attention and interpersonal dependence provided to children in familial settings. Explains why group caregivers must understand child development, and how program planners might take development into account. Discusses child and adolescent developmental stages…

  16. Obesity status trajectory groups among elementary school children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about patterns in the transition from healthy weight to overweight or obesity during the elementary school years. This study examined whether there were distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectory groups among elementary school children, and predictors of trajectory group membership. T...

  17. Short-Term Group Treatment for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Alvin; McCormack, WIlliam A.

    1992-01-01

    Adult children of alcoholics (n=24) were tested on measures of loneliness, anxiety, hostility, depression, and interpersonal dependency before and after participation in short-term group therapy. Highly significant test score changes supported effectiveness of individual therapy in short-term groups. (Author/NB)

  18. Coupling of Temperament with Mental Illness in Four Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament. PMID:27154370

  19. Consequences of ‘minimal’ group affiliations in children

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, Yarrow; Baron, Andrew Scott; Carey, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments (total N = 140) tested the hypothesis that 5-year-old children’s membership in randomly assigned ‘minimal’ groups would be sufficient to induce intergroup bias. Children were randomly assigned to groups and engaged in tasks involving judgments of unfamiliar ingroup or outgroup children. Despite an absence of information regarding the relative status of groups or any competitive context, ingroup preferences were observed on explicit and implicit measures of attitude and resource allocation (Experiment 1), behavioral attribution, and expectations of reciprocity, with preferences persisting when groups were not described via a noun label (Experiment 2). In addition, children systematically distorted incoming information by preferentially encoding positive information about ingroup members (Experiment 3). Implications for the developmental origins of intergroup bias are discussed. PMID:21413937

  20. Aggression in children with autism spectrum disorders and a clinic-referred comparison group.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive and the Aggression subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist were rated for 414 children with autism spectrum disorder (autistic disorder, 69%; pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 24%; Asperger's disorder, 7%) and 243 clinic-referred children without autism spectrum disorder, aged 1-21 years (mean age about 7 years). Participants were not selected for aggressive behavior. Relative to the comparison group, children with autism spectrum disorder were reported to have less aggression and were more likely to be rated as reactive rather than proactive. Among all subjects, sex was not associated with aggression; higher IQ/adaptive behavior and older age were associated with more sophisticated types of aggression, while lower scores on IQ, adaptive behavior, and communication measures were associated with more physical aggression. The interaction between demographic variables and diagnosis was significant only for age: younger but not older children with autism spectrum disorder showed less aggression than clinic-referred controls.

  1. Bipolar Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Patricia M.; Pacheco, Mary Rae

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the individual components of bipolar disorder in children and the behaviors that can escalate as a result of misdiagnosis and treatment. The brain/behavior relationship in bipolar disorders can be affected by genetics, developmental failure, or environmental influences, which can cause an onset of dramatic mood swings and…

  2. Experiential Environmental Education for Primary Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Heather

    Environmental education is defined as a cross-curricular theme in the national curriculum (NC) of England and Wales. Environmental education may be experiential in and outside the classroom; outside, the environment may act as a stimulus for creative writing, investigative fieldwork, or sensory activities. Young children learn best by doing.…

  3. Resistance Training for Elementary School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langford, George A.; McCurdy, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    It is essential for physical education teachers to utilize a foundation of physiological principles to design and monitor appropriate, safe, and effective exercise for their students. Adult training programs are not appropriate for children. Teachers should consider individual levels of maturation, motor skill ability, and affective needs when…

  4. Children Bicyclists: Should a Minimum Age be Required?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Barbara City Dept. of Public Works, CA. Div. of Transportation.

    This paper reports on a Santa Barbara, California study to determine the need for establishing a minimum age for bicyclists using the public roadways, examining the proposition that children below a certain age are developmentally unable to perform safely in traffic. Data on the disproportionate incidence of accident involvement among young…

  5. Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parent Information Pregnancy Infants (Ages 0-3) Diseases & Conditions Safety in the Home & ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Information For... Media Policy Makers Infants & Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children Recommend on Facebook ...

  6. Age-Related Benefits of Digital Noise Reduction for Short-Term Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the rate of word learning for children with hearing loss (HL) in quiet and in noise compared to normal-hearing (NH) peers. The effects of digital noise reduction (DNR) were examined for children with HL. Method: Forty-one children with NH and 26 children with HL were grouped by age (8-9 years and 11-12 years). The children…

  7. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    PubMed

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were severe cerebral injuries, neurosensory disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (< 1 SD) at 6 years. The presence of learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school. PMID:27445952

  8. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    PubMed

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were severe cerebral injuries, neurosensory disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (< 1 SD) at 6 years. The presence of learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school.

  9. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age

    PubMed Central

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L.; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001–2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were severe cerebral injuries, neurosensory disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (< 1 SD) at 6 years. The presence of learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9–10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school. PMID:27445952

  10. Preschool-aged children recognize ambivalence: emerging identification of concurrent conflicting desires.

    PubMed

    Rostad, Kristin; Pexman, Penny M

    2015-01-01

    We examined the ability of preschool-aged children to identify conflicting, or ambivalent, desire states (e.g., "I want to go to the birthday party because there will be cake, but I also don't want to go because I'm having fun playing at home"). Participants were 4- and 5-year-old children, and a group of undergraduate students (n = 20 in each age group). They were presented with 14 scenarios involving both "single desire" and "dual desire" states, including both approach (i.e., "want") and avoidance (i.e., "not want") desires. Our primary interest was children's ability to identify concurrent conflicting "dual desire" states, and this ability was found in most of the 5-year-old age group tested and in about half of the 4-year-old age group. As such, these results provide evidence that children can identify ambivalence at earlier ages than previously reported. In addition, results showed that the challenge in recognizing ambivalence is the presence of desires of opposite valence directed at the same target. PMID:25914671

  11. Resting-State Oscillatory Activity in Children Born Small for Gestational Age: An MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Boersma, Maria; de Bie, Henrica M. A.; Oostrom, Kim J.; van Dijk, Bob W.; Hillebrand, Arjan; van Wijk, Bernadette C. M.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriëtte A.; Stam, Cornelis J.

    2013-01-01

    Growth restriction in utero during a period that is critical for normal growth of the brain, has previously been associated with deviations in cognitive abilities and brain anatomical and functional changes. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 4- to 7-year-old children to test if children born small for gestational age (SGA) show deviations in resting-state brain oscillatory activity. Children born SGA with postnatally spontaneous catch-up growth [SGA+; six boys, seven girls; mean age 6.3 year (SD = 0.9)] and children born appropriate for gestational age [AGA; seven boys, three girls; mean age 6.0 year (SD = 1.2)] participated in a resting-state MEG study. We calculated absolute and relative power spectra and used non-parametric statistics to test for group differences. SGA+ and AGA born children showed no significant differences in absolute and relative power except for reduced absolute gamma band power in SGA children. At the time of MEG investigation, SGA+ children showed significantly lower head circumference (HC) and a trend toward lower IQ, however there was no association of HC or IQ with absolute or relative power. Except for reduced absolute gamma band power, our findings suggest normal brain activity patterns at school age in a group of children born SGA in which spontaneous catch-up growth of bodily length after birth occurred. Although previous findings suggest that being born SGA alters brain oscillatory activity early in neonatal life, we show that these neonatal alterations do not persist at early school age when spontaneous postnatal catch-up growth occurs after birth. PMID:24068993

  12. Risk and Resilience in Preterm Children at Age 6

    PubMed Central

    Poehlmann, Julie; Gerstein, Emily D.; Burnson, Cynthia; Weymouth, Lindsay; Bolt, Daniel M.; Maleck, Sarah; Schwichtenberg, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for experiencing significant deleterious developmental outcomes throughout their childhood and adolescence. However, individual variation and resilience are hallmarks of the preterm population. The present study examined pathways to resilience across multiple domains (e.g. social activities, peer relations, ADHD symptomology, externalizing and internalizing behavior, sleep quality) as children born preterm reached school age. The study also examined early child and family predictors of resilience. Using a prospective longitudinal design, 173 infants born preterm and without significant neurological complications were assessed at 5 timepoints: NICU discharge, 9 months, 16 months, 24 months, and 6 years. Three pathways of adaptation emerged at 6 years: children who were resilient, those who remained at-risk, and children who exhibited significant difficulties. Resilient children were less likely to have experienced negative parenting at 9 and 16 months, more likely to delay gratification at 24 months, and more likely to experience neonatal health complications than non-resilient children. PMID:25196017

  13. Development of in-group favoritism in children's third-party punishment of selfishness.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jillian J; McAuliffe, Katherine; Warneken, Felix

    2014-09-01

    When enforcing norms for cooperative behavior, human adults sometimes exhibit in-group bias. For example, third-party observers punish selfish behaviors committed by out-group members more harshly than similar behaviors committed by in-group members. Although evidence suggests that children begin to systematically punish selfish behavior around the age of 6 y, the development of in-group bias in their punishment remains unknown. Do children start off enforcing fairness norms impartially, or is norm enforcement biased from its emergence? How does bias change over development? Here, we created novel social groups in the laboratory and gave 6- and 8-year-olds the opportunity to engage in costly third-party punishment of selfish sharing behavior. We found that by age 6, punishment was already biased: Selfish resource allocations received more punishment when they were proposed by out-group members and when they disadvantaged in-group members. We also found that although costly punishment increased between ages 6 and 8, bias in punishment partially decreased. Although 8-y-olds also punished selfish out-group members more harshly, they were equally likely to punish on behalf of disadvantaged in-group and out-group members, perhaps reflecting efforts to enforce norms impartially. Taken together, our results suggest that norm enforcement is biased from its emergence, but that this bias can be partially overcome through developmental change.

  14. Polycomb group proteins in hematopoietic stem cell aging and malignancies.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Karin; de Haan, Gerald

    2011-07-01

    Protection of the transcriptional "stemness" network is important to maintain a healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compartment during the lifetime of the organism. Recent evidence shows that fundamental changes in the epigenetic status of HSCs might be one of the driving forces behind many age-related HSC changes and might pave the way for HSC malignant transformation and subsequent leukemia development, the incidence of which increases exponentially with age. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are key epigenetic regulators of HSC cellular fate decisions and are often found to be misregulated in human hematopoietic malignancies. In this review, we speculate that PcG proteins balance HSC aging against the risk of developing cancer, since a disturbance in PcG genes and proteins affects several important cellular processes such as cell fate decisions, senescence, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair.

  15. Minority group status and healthful aging: social structure still matters.

    PubMed

    Angel, Jacqueline L; Angel, Ronald J

    2006-07-01

    During the last 4 decades, a rapid increase has occurred in the number of survey-based and epidemiological studies of the health profiles of adults in general and of the causes of disparities between majority and minority Americans in particular. According to these studies, healthful aging consists of the absence of disease, or at least of the most serious preventable diseases and their consequences, and findings consistently reveal serious African American and Hispanic disadvantages in terms of healthful aging. We (1) briefly review conceptual and operational definitions of race and Hispanic ethnicity, (2) summarize how ethnicity-based differentials in health are related to social structures, and (3) emphasize the importance of attention to the economic, political, and institutional factors that perpetuate poverty and undermine healthful aging among certain groups.

  16. Relationship between growth of facial morphology and chronologic age in preschool children with obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Shigeto; Ueda, Koichiro; Shinohara, Mitsuyo; Mano, Mikiko; Kanegae, Haruhide; Namaki, Shunsuke

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between facial morphology using cephalometry and chronologic age in preschool children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Materials and Methods From a group of lateral cephalometric radiographs taken of 35 children with OSA for diagnostic purposes, 15 were selected for the present investigation based on head position. The subjects consisted of preschool children with both OSA and primary dentition, all of them with a lowest documented SpO2 <90% and a lowest 0 group included 15 preschool children with primary dentition and without enlarged tonsils or adenoids. Results The present findings reveal that, compared to the controls, OSA children had a narrower pharyngeal airway space related to OSA. In addition, we found that, although there were direct correlations between heights, nasal floor and corpus length, with chronologic age in the controls, there was no significant correlation between height, nasal floor length or corpus length with age in the OSA children. Conclusion Obstructive sleep apnea in children may be associated with growth disturbances of the nasal floor and corpus length. PMID:25756027

  17. Play Opportunities for School-Age Children, 6 to 14 Years of Age. Advisory Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    Suggestions for the planning and design of playgrounds to meet the needs of children between 6 to 14 years of age living in medium- and high-density residential areas are offered in this document. The first and second chapters briefly focus on the child's right to play and present an overview of the developmental characteristics of children at…

  18. Theory of mind and specific language impairment in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Spanoudis, George

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationship between aspects of language development and Theory of Mind (ToM) in children with language impairments suggests that children with language impairment show a delay in ToM development. This study aimed to examine the relationships of the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills with ToM in school-age children. Twenty children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) aged 9-12 years and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA) and one for language ability (LA) (aged 8-10 years) were compared on a set of language tasks tapping syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills and on an advanced test of ToM. Results showed that children with SLI performed poorly on the ToM task compared to the CA matches. Also, analysis showed that language skills and ToM are related and that syntactic and pragmatic abilities contributed significantly to the prediction of ToM performance in the SLI group. It is concluded that the syntax/pragmatic aspects of the language impact on ToM understanding in children with SLI.

  19. Reducing Children's Aggressive and Oppositional Behaviors in the Schools: Preliminary Results on the Effectiveness of a Social-Cognitive Group Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Vincken, Manon; Eijkelenboom, Anneke

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a social-cognitive group intervention program for children with oppositional and aggressive behaviors. Forty-two children aged between 9 and 12 years who clearly displayed behavior problems at school were treated with this program. A cross-over design was used in which one group of children first received…

  20. 42 CFR 435.118 - Infants and children under age 19.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Infants and children under age 19. 435.118 Section... Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.118 Infants and children under age... to children under age 19 whose household income is at or below the income standard established by...

  1. 42 CFR 435.118 - Infants and children under age 19.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Infants and children under age 19. 435.118 Section..., Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.118 Infants and children under age 19. (a) Basis. This...); and 1931(b) and (d) of the Act. (b) Scope. The agency must provide Medicaid to children under age...

  2. 42 CFR 435.118 - Infants and children under age 19.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Infants and children under age 19. 435.118 Section..., Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.118 Infants and children under age 19. (a) Basis. This...); and 1931(b) and (d) of the Act. (b) Scope. The agency must provide Medicaid to children under age...

  3. Authoritarian parenting in individualist and collectivist groups: Associations with maternal emotion and cognition and children's self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Rudy, Duane; Grusec, Joan E

    2006-03-01

    Mothers and children between the ages of 7 and 12, from individualist (Western European) and collectivist (Egyptian, Iranian, Indian, and Pakistani) backgrounds, completed assessments of children's self-esteem, maternal authoritarianism, and mothers' thoughts and feelings about their children. Collectivist mothers endorsed authoritarian parenting more than did individualist mothers but did not feel or think more negatively about their children, and collectivist children were not lower in self-esteem. Within both groups, maternal negative affect and cognition were associated with lower self-esteem in children. However, maternal authoritarianism was associated with maternal negative emotion and cognition only in the individualist group. The results suggest that maternal negative thoughts and feelings, associated with authoritarianism in individualist but not collectivist groups, may be more detrimental to children's self-esteem than is authoritarianism in and of itself.

  4. DRAWING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DELAY AGED 2-5 YEARS.

    PubMed

    Morović, Maja Lang; Matijević, Valentina; Divljaković, Kristina; Kraljević, Marija; Dimić, Zdenka

    2015-06-01

    In typically developing children, drawing development occurs in stages from uncontrolled strokes to complex drawing. In this study, we examined drawing development in children with neurodevelopmental delay (NDD). In order to do so, we observed the influence of age, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and gender on the development of drawing skills. The sample consisted of 52 children with NDD, aged 2 years and 6 months to 5 years. All children were hospitalized for multidisciplinary team monitoring and developmental support. The evaluation of drawing development was administered by giving each child a blank A4 paper and the instruction to draw anything they wanted. All of the drawings were scored satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Descriptive statistics was employed on all relevant data to show results in frequencies and percentages. In order to determine differences between groups, the χ2-test was administered. The results showed greatest difference in drawing in children aged from 3 years to 3 years and 11 months. Children with lower IVH had better drawing scores than children with higher IVH levels. According to gender dissimilarities, a difference was found showing girls to have better drawing skills than boys. All study results pointed to the importance of early rehabilitation and continuous structured work with children with NDD. PMID:26415307

  5. Cultural responses to pain in UK children of primary school age: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Azize, Pary M; Endacott, Ruth; Cattani, Allegra; Humphreys, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Pain-measurement tools are often criticized for not addressing the influence of culture and ethnicity on pain. This study examined how children who speak English as a primary or additional language discuss pain. Two methods were used in six focus group interviews with 34 children aged 4-7 years: (i) use of drawings from the Pediatric Pain Inventory to capture the language used by children to describe pain; and (ii) observation of the children's placing of pain drawings on red/amber/green paper to denote perceived severity of pain. The findings demonstrated that children with English as an additional language used less elaborate language when talking about pain, but tended to talk about the pictures prior to deciding where they should be placed. For these children, there was a positive significant relationship between language, age, and length of stay in the UK. The children's placement of pain drawings varied according to language background, sex, and age. The findings emphasize the need for sufficient time to assess pain adequately in children who do not speak English as a first language.

  6. Age-related differences in brain electrical activity during extended continuous face recognition in younger children, older children and adults.

    PubMed

    Van Strien, Jan W; Glimmerveen, Johanna C; Franken, Ingmar H A; Martens, Vanessa E G; de Bruin, Eveline A

    2011-09-01

    To examine the development of recognition memory in primary-school children, 36 healthy younger children (8-9 years old) and 36 healthy older children (11-12 years old) participated in an ERP study with an extended continuous face recognition task (Study 1). Each face of a series of 30 faces was shown randomly six times interspersed with distracter faces. The children were required to make old vs. new decisions. Older children responded faster than younger children, but younger children exhibited a steeper decrease in latencies across the five repetitions. Older children exhibited better accuracy for new faces, but there were no age differences in recognition accuracy for repeated faces. For the N2, N400 and late positive complex (LPC), we analyzed the old/new effects (repetition 1 vs. new presentation) and the extended repetition effects (repetitions 1 through 5). Compared to older children, younger children exhibited larger frontocentral N2 and N400 old/new effects. For extended face repetitions, negativity of the N2 and N400 decreased in a linear fashion in both age groups. For the LPC, an ERP component thought to reflect recollection, no significant old/new or extended repetition effects were found. Employing the same face recognition paradigm in 20 adults (Study 2), we found a significant N400 old/new effect at lateral frontal sites and a significant LPC repetition effect at parietal sites, with LPC amplitudes increasing linearly with the number of repetitions. This study clearly demonstrates differential developmental courses for the N400 and LPC pertaining to recognition memory for faces. It is concluded that face recognition in children is mediated by early and probably more automatic than conscious recognition processes. In adults, the LPC extended repetition effect indicates that adult face recognition memory is related to a conscious and graded recollection process rather than to an automatic recognition process.

  7. Phonological skills of children with specific expressive language impairment (SLI-E): outcome at age 3.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J; Rescorla, L; Giroux, J; Stevens, L

    1998-04-01

    Naturalistic speech samples of 29 3-year-olds diagnosed with specific expressive language delay (SU-E) were compared to those produced by 19 age-matched normally developing peers in order to determine their improvement in phonological skills since age 2, when Rescorla and Ratner (1996) studied them. Specifically, the groups were compared with regard to vocalization rate, verbalizations, fully intelligible utterances, phonetic inventories, percentages of consonants correct (PCC), phonological processes, and mean length of utterance (MLU). Results revealed that there was no significant difference between the groups in their numbers of vocalizations (as there had been at age 2), although there continued to be differences in their phonetic inventories, PCC scores, and overall intelligibility. These findings suggest that at age 2 the children with SU-E were not only less phonologically skilled but less talkative, whereas by age 3 they were equally vocal. Analysis of the phonetic inventories of the children demonstrated that for most consonants, the SLI-E group followed the some pattern of development as the comparison children, but more of the normally developing group had productive control of each consonant, consistent with findings of Rescorla and Ratner. There continued to be differences in intelligibility as measured by rates of verbalization (those utterances with at least one intelligible word) and fully intelligible utterances. Using these measures, we found that approximately half the SU-E children had caught up with their normally developing peers in terms of articulation, whereas half of them continued to be significantly delayed. Finally, although some of the late-bloomer group had caught up to the comparison children in language skills, as measured by MLU, many had not, suggesting that there was a tendency for the children to catch up in some articulation skills before catching up in language abilities. PMID:9570589

  8. Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR): Preliminary Evidence from an Open Trial in Children's Residential Group Homes in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pat-Horenczyk, R.; Shi, C. Sim Wei; Schramm-Yavin, S.; Bar-Halpern, M.; Tan, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR) program is a theory-based group intervention for enhancing resilience in children, with a focus on strengthening emotion regulation. The BEAR is a 6-session protocol for children aged 7-12 who have been subject to traumatic life events. Objective: This paper presents the guiding…

  9. Using Matched Groups to Explore Child Behavior Problems and Maternal Well-Being in Children with down Syndrome and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Gemma M.; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie; Hill, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Mothers of children with Down syndrome, autism, and mixed etiology intellectual disabilities, matched on child age, gender, and communication skills (n = 19 in each group) completed measures of their child's adaptive and problem behaviors, their own parenting stress, and positive perceptions of their child. Children with autism were rated as…

  10. "Friends in Need": Designing and Implementing a Psychoeducational Group for School Children from Drug-Involved Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dore, Martha M.; Nelson-Zlupko, Lani; Kaufman, Eda

    1999-01-01

    Discusses design and use of a model curriculum for latency-aged children in schools located in communities where drug use is pervasive. Results show that children affected by family drug use have workable strategies and skills for coping with aversive environments. Responsiveness of group participants to structure, predictability, and affirmation…

  11. Accuracy of methods of age estimation in predicting dental age of preadolescents in South Indian children.

    PubMed

    Balla, Sudheer B; Venkat Baghirath, P; Hari Vinay, B; Vijay Kumar, J; Babu, D B Gandhi

    2016-10-01

    Age estimation in forensic context is of prime importance for criminal, civil and administrative laws. The objective of this study is to test the accuracy of 3 methods of age estimation in South Indian children (preadolescents) aged between 7 and 15 years. It is a retrospective study of orthopantamograms (OPGs) of 150 children among which 79 were boys and 71 were girls. Cameriere's, Willems and Acharya's age estimation methods were used to predict chronological age. Paired t-test was used to compare all data and relationships between continuous variables were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The Cameriere's method Underestimated the real age by -0.62 years in boys and -0.54 years in girls. Both Willems and Acharya's methods overestimated age in both sexes by 0.41, 0.18 years and 0.41, 0.47 years respectively.

  12. Accuracy of methods of age estimation in predicting dental age of preadolescents in South Indian children.

    PubMed

    Balla, Sudheer B; Venkat Baghirath, P; Hari Vinay, B; Vijay Kumar, J; Babu, D B Gandhi

    2016-10-01

    Age estimation in forensic context is of prime importance for criminal, civil and administrative laws. The objective of this study is to test the accuracy of 3 methods of age estimation in South Indian children (preadolescents) aged between 7 and 15 years. It is a retrospective study of orthopantamograms (OPGs) of 150 children among which 79 were boys and 71 were girls. Cameriere's, Willems and Acharya's age estimation methods were used to predict chronological age. Paired t-test was used to compare all data and relationships between continuous variables were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The Cameriere's method Underestimated the real age by -0.62 years in boys and -0.54 years in girls. Both Willems and Acharya's methods overestimated age in both sexes by 0.41, 0.18 years and 0.41, 0.47 years respectively. PMID:27428567

  13. Global-Local Precedence in the Perception of Facial Age and Emotional Expression by Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas F.

    2005-01-01

    Global information processing and perception of facial age and emotional expression was studied in children with autism, language disorders, mental retardation, and a clinical control group. Children were given a global-local task and asked to recognize age and emotion in human and canine faces. Children with autism made fewer global responses and…

  14. Neonatal cranial ultrasound versus MRI and neurodevelopmental outcome at school age in children born preterm

    PubMed Central

    Rademaker, K; Uiterwaal, C; Beek, F; van Haastert, I C; Lieftink, A; Groenendaal, F; Grobbee, D; de Vries, L S

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the correlation between neonatal cranial ultrasound and school age magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurodevelopmental outcome. Methods: In a prospective 2 year cohort study, 221 children (gestational age ⩽32 weeks and/or birth weight ⩽1500 g) participated at a median age of 8.1 years (inclusion percentage 78%). Conventional MRI, IQ (subtests of the WISC), and motor performance (Movement Assessment Battery for Children) at school age were primary outcome measurements. Results: Overall, there was poor correspondence between ultrasound group classifications and MRI group classifications, except for the severe group (over 70% agreement). There was only a 1% chance of the children with a normal cranial ultrasound having a major lesion on MRI. Mean IQ (standard deviation) was significantly lower in children with major ultrasound or MRI lesions, but was also lower in children with minor lesions on MRI compared to children with a normal MRI (91±16, 100±13, 104±13 for major lesions, minor lesions, and normal MRI, respectively). Median total impairment score (TIS) was significantly higher in children with major lesions on ultrasound or MRI as well as in children with minor lesions on MRI (TIS 4.0 and 6.25 for normal and minor lesions on MRI, respectively; p<0.0001). Conclusions: A normal neonatal cranial ultrasound excluded a severe lesion on MRI in 99% of cases. MRI correlated more strongly with mean IQ and median TIS than ultrasound. Subtle white matter lesions are better detected with MRI which could explain the stronger correlation of MRI with IQ and motor performance. PMID:15956095

  15. Comparing Mental Health of School-Age Children with and without Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    SHAMSAEI, Farshid; CHERAGHI, Fatemeh; ZAMANI, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Objective Mental health problems frequently occur in children with epilepsy but the diagnosis is frequently missed and therapeutic opportunities are often lost. The aim of this study was to compare mental health statues between school-aged children with epilepsy and the healthy group. Materials & Methods In this case, control study, 120 children aged 6 to 12 years with idiopathic epilepsy and 240 healthy control groups were followed up. Children with epilepsy were enrolled from Iranian Epilepsy Association in 2014. The parent version of Child Symptom Inventory-4 questionnaire was used. Mean comparisons were performed using Student’s t test while effect sizes were estimated by Cohen’s d coefficient. The Chi-Square test was used to assess the difference between frequency distribution of demographic variables in both groups. The significance level was considered less than 0.05. Results There were statistically significant differences between children with epilepsy and control group as for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, major depression, separation anxiety, social phobia, motor and vocal tics and oppositional defiant disorder. Conclusion The carefully evaluating and prospectively following the psychopathology symptom of children with epilepsy are critical for early identification, prevention and treatment. PMID:27375754

  16. Behavior management for preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Williford, Amanda P; Shelton, Terri L

    2014-10-01

    This article summarizes behavior management strategies for preschool children who are at high risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder that have found to be effective in improving child behavior. Both parent and teacher training programs are reviewed, as these have been backed by substantial research evidence. In addition, multimodal treatments that include some combination of parent training, teacher training, and social skills training are also reviewed. Interventions emphasize the need for a strong adult-child relationship combined with proactive behavior management strategies to improve child behavior. PMID:25220082

  17. Nonverbal Visual Short-Term Memory as a Function of Age and Dimensionality in Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Lee

    Evaluated with two age groups (mean age 8.1 years or 10.6 years) totaling 22 learning disabled children was whether there is an age related increase in recognition for visual nonverbal short term memory (STM) and the effects on STM of stimulus dimensionality, primacy, recency, and second choice responses. A serial recognition task was used to…

  18. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf.

    PubMed

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and severity of injury, and functional outcomes. Seventy percent of the children sustained a TBI from a fall. We also found that playing golf was associated with 40% of the TBIs, with three (30%) children being unrestrained passengers in a moving golf cart and another one (10%) was struck by a golf club. Injury awareness could have benefited or prevented most injuries, and school nurses are in the best position to provide preventative practice education. In golf-centric communities, prevention of golf-related injuries should include education within the schools.

  19. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf.

    PubMed

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and severity of injury, and functional outcomes. Seventy percent of the children sustained a TBI from a fall. We also found that playing golf was associated with 40% of the TBIs, with three (30%) children being unrestrained passengers in a moving golf cart and another one (10%) was struck by a golf club. Injury awareness could have benefited or prevented most injuries, and school nurses are in the best position to provide preventative practice education. In golf-centric communities, prevention of golf-related injuries should include education within the schools. PMID:25899097

  20. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    PubMed Central

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0–15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and severity of injury, and functional outcomes. Seventy percent of the children sustained a TBI from a fall. We also found that playing golf was associated with 40% of the TBIs, with three (30%) children being unrestrained passengers in a moving golf cart and another one (10%) was struck by a golf club. Injury awareness could have benefited or prevented most injuries, and school nurses are in the best position to provide preventative practice education. In golf-centric communities, prevention of golf-related injuries should include education within the schools. PMID:25899097

  1. Dental age estimation in Egyptian children, comparison between two methods.

    PubMed

    El-Bakary, Amal A; Hammad, Shaza M; Mohammed, Fatma

    2010-10-01

    The need to estimate age of living individuals is becoming increasingly more important in both forensic science and clinical dentistry. The study of the morphological parameters of teeth on dental radiographs of adult humans is more reliable than most other methods for age estimation. Willems and Cameriere methods are newly presented methods. The aim of this work was to evaluate the applicability of using these methods for Egyptian children. Digitalized panoramas taken from 286 Egyptian children (134 boys, 152 girls) with age range from 5 to 16 years were analyzed. The seven left permanent mandibular teeth were evaluated using the two methods. The results of this research showed that dental age estimated by both methods was significantly correlated to real age. However, Willems method was slightly more accurate (98.62%) compared to Cameriere method (98.02%). Therefore, both methods can be recommended for practical application in clinical dentistry and forensic procedures on the Egyptian population.

  2. A Multicenter Retrospective Case Study of Anaphylaxis Triggers by Age in Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So-Yeon; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Min, Taek Ki; Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Pyun, Bok Yang; Kwon, Ji-Won; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Yu, Jinho; Hong, Soo-Jong; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung-Won; Song, Tae Won; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Hyung Young; Jeon, You Hoon; Lee, Yong Ju; Lee, Hae Ran; Kim, Hye-Young; Ahn, Youngmin; Yum, Hye Yung; Suh, Dong In; Kim, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jin-Tack; Kim, Jeong Hee; Park, Yong Mean

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although anaphylaxis is recognized as an important, life-threatening condition, data are limited regarding its triggers in different age groups. We aimed to identify anaphylaxis triggers by age in Korean children. Methods We performed a retrospective review of medical records for children diagnosed with anaphylaxis between 2009 and 2013 in 23 secondary or tertiary hospitals in South Korea. Results A total of 991 cases (mean age=5.89±5.24) were reported, with 63.9% involving patients younger than 6 years of age and 66% involving male children. Food was the most common anaphylaxis trigger (74.7%), followed by drugs and radiocontrast media (10.7%), idiopathic factors (9.2%), and exercise (3.6%). The most common food allergen was milk (28.4%), followed by egg white (13.6%), walnut (8.0%), wheat (7.2%), buckwheat (6.5%), and peanut (6.2%). Milk and seafood were the most common anaphylaxis triggers in young and older children, respectively. Drug-triggered anaphylaxis was observed more frequently with increasing age, with antibiotics (34.9%) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (17.9%) being the most common causes. Conclusions The most common anaphylaxis trigger in Korean children was food. Data on these triggers show that their relative frequency may vary by age. PMID:27582405

  3. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  4. Childhood Depression in School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Sandra M.

    At any one time, between 2 percent and 17 percent of the school-age population in the United States experiences moderate to severe depression. Too often, depression goes unrecognized, damaging self-esteem, ruining academic achievement, and disrupting families. This paper discusses childhood depression and treatment. Following an introduction…

  5. Age-Related Maturation of Wave V Latency of Auditory Brainstem Response in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bist, Sampan Singh; Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Auditory brainstem response (ABR) is a noninvasive measurement of a stimulus-locked, synchronous electrical event. ABR provides information concerning the functional integrity of brainstem nuclei. Age is a key factor in the interpretation of ABR peak latency among different age groups. Progressively with time it follows a "maturation pattern" during which latencies decrease. Wave V is very prominent and reliable for detection of threshold in children. The present study was performed to see the effect of age related auditory maturation on ABR wave V latency in children. Subjects and Methods The study involved 80 subjects ranging in age from birth to 12 years. The subjects were divided equally into eight age groups. ABR were elicited by an acoustic click stimuli, brainstem responses collected through electrode and recorded at the same time. Latency of wave V was acknowledged. Results Wave V latency decreased rapidly in early childhood, became slower after 3 years of age and completely matured by 12 years of age. There was no significant difference in latency of wave V between the ears with age. Conclusions There is a distinct maturation pattern of wave V latency in ABR for both ears. ABR is a reliable test to assess the functional maturation of wave V in children.

  6. Age-Related Maturation of Wave V Latency of Auditory Brainstem Response in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bist, Sampan Singh; Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Auditory brainstem response (ABR) is a noninvasive measurement of a stimulus-locked, synchronous electrical event. ABR provides information concerning the functional integrity of brainstem nuclei. Age is a key factor in the interpretation of ABR peak latency among different age groups. Progressively with time it follows a "maturation pattern" during which latencies decrease. Wave V is very prominent and reliable for detection of threshold in children. The present study was performed to see the effect of age related auditory maturation on ABR wave V latency in children. Subjects and Methods The study involved 80 subjects ranging in age from birth to 12 years. The subjects were divided equally into eight age groups. ABR were elicited by an acoustic click stimuli, brainstem responses collected through electrode and recorded at the same time. Latency of wave V was acknowledged. Results Wave V latency decreased rapidly in early childhood, became slower after 3 years of age and completely matured by 12 years of age. There was no significant difference in latency of wave V between the ears with age. Conclusions There is a distinct maturation pattern of wave V latency in ABR for both ears. ABR is a reliable test to assess the functional maturation of wave V in children. PMID:27626083

  7. Promoting Positive Attitudes of Kindergarten-Age Children toward People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favazza, Paddy C.; Odom, Samuel L.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the effects of contact, books, and discussions on attitudes of kindergarten-age children (N=46) toward people with disabilities. At posttest, significant gains in acceptance were found only in a high-contact group who participated in a program designed to promote acceptance through storytime at school and home, structured play,…

  8. Sleep, Neurobehavioral Functioning, and Behavior Problems in School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeh, Avi; Gruber, Reut; Raviv Amiram

    2002-01-01

    Examined associations between sleep and neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) in second-, fourth-, and sixth-graders. Found significant correlations between sleep- quality measures and NBF measures, particularly for the younger age group. Children with fragmented sleep were characterized by lower performance on NBF measures, particularly those…

  9. Utterance Complexity and Stuttering on Function Words in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richels, Corrin; Buhr, Anthony; Conture, Edward; Ntourou, Katerina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the relation between utterance complexity and utterance position and the tendency to stutter on function words in preschool-age children who stutter (CWS). Two separate studies involving two different groups of participants (Study 1, n = 30; Study 2, n = 30) were conducted. Participants were…

  10. Cooperative and Competitive Behavior of Retarded and Non-Retarded Children at Two Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Millard C.; Connor, Catherine

    Cooperative and competitive interaction (interpersonal relationship) between pairs of retarded and nonretarded children of ages 6 to 7 and 11 to 12 were assessed in a situation involving a marble pull apparatus in which competitive interaction was nonadaptive in terms of reward attainment. The retarded group was significantly more cooperative than…

  11. Efficacy of Attention Regulation in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method: Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and…

  12. Children with Differing Developmental Trajectories of Prelinguistic Communication Skills: Language and Working Memory at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Määttä, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors examine the developmental continuity from prelinguistic communication to kindergarten age in language and working memory capacity. Method: Following work outlining 6 groups of children with different trajectories of early communication development (ECD; Määttä, Laakso, Tolvanen, Ahonen, & Aro, 2012), the…

  13. Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

  14. A Revision of the Halstead Category Test for Children Aged 9 to 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Doreen L.; Spreen, Otfried

    1973-01-01

    The analyses of data obtained from bain damaged and normal children of 9 to 11 and 12 to 15 years indicate that the IHCT is a better discriminator between brain damaged and normal Ss in the older age group. A shortened version of the IHCT produced for this study showed the same results. (JC)

  15. The Effect of Group Play Therapy on Social-Emotional Skills in Pre-School Children

    PubMed Central

    Chinekesh, Ahdieh; Kamalian, Mehrnoush; Eltemasi, Masoumeh; Chinekesh, Shirin; Alavi, Manijeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood is important and critical period in human life. The foundation of ego is shaped in childhood. Play therapy is one of the successful strategies to help children with inner conflicts problems. This method of psychotherapy is base on the normal learning processes of children, provides solutions to relieve feelings of stress, and expands self-expression. Group play therapy can enhance the self-awareness, self- regulation, social communication, empathy and adoptability in children. Methods: Present study investigated the effects of play therapy on relational and emotional skills of pre-school children. For this purpose, the total numbers of 372 pre-school children were randomly selected, and divided into two equal groups (case and control). In next step, the BUSSE-SR methodology was used for evaluation and comparison of self-awareness, self-regulation, social interaction, empathy, adoptability, and control groups. Pre-test were performed for both groups and case group was involved in-group play therapy. According to the results of post-test, correlation of variables between case-control groups was examined by multivariate analysis of covariance. Results: Frequency of boys and girls in our sample were 51.3 and 48.7 percent, respectively. The mean age of children was 5.1±0.6 year. According to the results of present study, play therapy significantly enhanced the social-emotional skills (P< 0.001). Our findings are consistent with the results of previous studies in other nations with different environmental and cultural properties. In conclusion, it seems that play therapy can be used in pre-school centers to help children learn problem-solving skills and communicate with others. PMID:24576376

  16. The influence of nutritional status on age misstatement for young children in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, R; Edmonston, B; Hye, A

    1991-01-01

    The influence of nutritional status on age misstatement in 1981 among 679 children aged 22-59 months in Companyganj, Bangladesh, is examined. The age limits were established to represent the most vulnerable age group; age information 22 months was unavailable. Calibrated scales were used for measurement. Weight was measured within 100 g, and height and arm circumference within .1 cm. Age error was calculated as actual age minus reported age. Weight for age (WA) and height for age (HA) were also calculated for actual and reported age. The Polish standard was used to calculate arm circumference for age (ACA). This rural area revealed findings different from those previously reported for the Matlab area. Systematic and random error was higher in Companyganj. Interviewer bias needs to be investigated as 1 possible explanation for the differences. There was a difference of 4.1 months between the best and worst interviewer. Although child's sex and mother's age were associated with age error in the Matlab study, child's sex was found to be insignificant. The Matlab study included children 0-14 years, which may explain the difference. The nutritional status of children influenced different interviewers, and literate and illiterate mothers report ages differently. The reasons given are the varying expectations of both the interviewers and the mothers of normal growth patterns by age. A malnourished child might be underestimated and a well-nourished child overestimated. The illiterate mother may be influenced by the opinions of the interviewer or not know the child's actual birth date, and then understate the age. The results are that there was age overreporting for each age group. The standard deviation of the age error reveals random error. The standard error increases with age. The systematic error and random error are significantly higher than in comparable Matlab data. In the analysis of nutritional status, mother's education, and interviewer, nutritional status was

  17. Age-related changes of muscle and plasma amino acids in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Hammarqvist, Folke; Angsten, Gertrud; Meurling, Staffan; Andersson, Kerstin; Wernerman, Jan

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to explore if changes in muscle and plasma amino acid concentrations developed during growth and differed from levels seen in adults. The gradient and concentrations of free amino acids in muscle and plasma were investigated in relation to age in metabolic healthy children. Plasma and specimens from the abdominal muscle were obtained during elective surgery. The children were grouped into three groups (group 1: < 1 year, n = 8; group 2: 1-4 years, n = 13 and group 3: 5-15 years, n = 15). A reference group of healthy adults (21-38 years, n = 22) was included in their comparisons and reflected specific differences between children and adults. In muscle the concentrations of 8 out of 19 amino acids analysed increased with age, namely taurine, aspartate, threonine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, histidine, as well as the total sums of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), basic amino acids (BAA) and total sum of amino acids (P < 0.05). In plasma the concentrations of threonine, glutamine, valine, cysteine, methionine, leucine, lysine, tryptophane, arginine, BCAA, BAA and the essential amino acids correlated with age (P < 0.05). These results indicate that there is an age dependency of the amino acid pattern in skeletal muscle and plasma during growth.

  18. [Development of parent groups in inpatient psychotherapy of children].

    PubMed

    Sonnenburg, M

    1994-01-01

    Through its setting, group psychotherapy with parents is particularly suited to supporting the parents of children in inpatient therapy in their own therapeutic process. The conception of such groups, which must take into consideration the difficult psychological situation of the parents involved, is integrated in three goals: The care of the relationship between parents and the clinic, supporting the parents' self-esteem, and encouraging their participation in the group process. The author asserts that the method known as interactional therapy is best suited for meeting these goals. Methodological building blocks are offered, and the group process is described utilizing case examples. PMID:8066031

  19. Physical activity in Dublin children aged 7–9 years

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, J; Gormley, J; Bell, C

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate the amount of regular activity and time spent in sedentary occupations in children aged 7–9 years. Sex differences in levels of activity and time and facilities for physical education at school were also examined. Methods—A 10% sample of Dublin National Schools were selected. Parents of children in second class were surveyed. The questionnaire used was a modification of the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Teachers of second class were questioned about the time and facilities for physical education in schools. Results—Some 39% of children were participating in hard exercise for at least 20 minutes three or more times a week, with fewer girls (28%) than boys (53%) contributing to this result. A further 57% of children were engaging in at least 20 minutes of light exercise three or more times a week, with no sex differences. Estimated energy expenditure in regular activity was higher in boys than girls. Most (78%) of the children were spending one to three hours a day sedentary in front of a screen. Conclusions—This study provides comprehensive data on physical activity levels in Dublin schoolchildren aged 7–9 years. The amount of inactivity is of concern. Even at this young age, boys are reported to participate in more physical activity than girls. Key Words: physical activity; exercise; children PMID:11477025

  20. Association between Age and Severity to Leptospirosis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Guerrier, Gilles; Hie, Pauline; Gourinat, Ann-Claire; Huguon, Emilie; Polfrit, Yann; Goarant, Cyrille; D'Ortenzio, Eric; Missotte, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Background In endemic areas, leptospirosis is more common and more severe in adults compared with children. Reasons to explain this discrepancy remain unclear and limited data focusing on adolescents are available. The objective of the study was to describe disease spectrum and outcome differences in children and adolescents admitted for leptospirosis in a large at-risk population. Methods Clinical and laboratory data were obtained on hospitalized cases in New Caledonia from 2006 to 2012. Results Data of 60 patients <18 years of age (25 children under 14 and 35 adolescents aged 14 to 17) with confirmed leptospirosis were analyzed. Compared with children, adolescents presented more often with classic features of Weil disease (p = 0.02), combining hepatic and renal involvement with or without pulmonary participation. Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions were observed more often among adolescents (p<0.01). The overall case fatality rate was low (1 adolescent versus 0 children). Conclusion Severe leptospirosis in adolescents may be more likely to show adults' characteristics compared with children. Further studies are required to explore age-dependant host factors, including puberty-related physiological changes. PMID:24086780

  1. Weight Patterns in Children With Higher Risk ALL: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group (COG) for CCG 1961

    PubMed Central

    Withycombe, Janice S.; Post-White, Janice E.; Meza, Jane L.; Hawks, Ria G.; Smith, Lynette M.; Sacks, Nancy; Seibel, Nita L.

    2011-01-01

    Background This retrospective analysis defined and described patterns and predictors of weight change during treatment in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) with high-risk features who received treatment on Children's Cancer Group protocol CCG 1961. Procedure Patients (1,638) were enrolled in CCG 1961 from November 1996 to May 2002. Weight was measured as BMI percent (%), specific for age and gender, and defined as 100 × ln(BMI/median BMI). Results By the end of treatment, 23% of children were obese (BMI ≥ 95%), compared with 14% at diagnosis. Children who received post-induction intensified therapy (arms C, D, SER with Doxorubicin or Idarubicin) had higher gastrointestinal toxicities and lower BMI% from consolidation through interim maintenance 1. BMI% then increased for all arms between delayed intensification and maintenance 1 or 2. Children who were of Black or Hispanic race, obese at diagnosis, or who had grade 3 or 4 pancreatitis/glucose toxicities during induction had higher BMI% throughout treatment. Children were more likely to be obese at the end of the study if they were aged 5–9 years at diagnosis or female gender. Cranial radiation was not a predictor of obesity. Conclusions Successful treatment of higher risk childhood ALL was associated with obesity, independent of cranial irradiation. The beginning of maintenance therapy may be the best time to intervene with nutritional and behavioral interventions, particularly for children who are obese or aged 5–9 years at diagnosis, female, Black or Hispanic, or those with metabolic toxicities during induction. PMID:19688832

  2. Evaluation of Obesity in School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    To prevent obesity in middle age, early precautions and interventions are required during childhood. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the degree of overweight in children. Body mass index (BMI) is widely used worldwide in adults, but not in children. Because standard BMI, which is calculated using the average height and weight for age, changes widely during growth, a constant cut-off point cannot be set for children. An international unified method defining childhood obesity has not been established. In many countries, BMI-for-age percentile (BMI%) value or Z (standard deviation) score is used, whereas in Japan, the percentage of overweight (POW), which is the modified weight-for-height method, is used. We compared BMI% values with POW values obtained using the anthropometric data of elementary and junior high school students based on the Japanese school survey conducted in 2000 and found that the values for the degree of overweight were significantly different between the two methods. It became clear that tall students were easily defined as being overweight, whereas short students tended to be evaluated as being underweight when using BMI%. POW method seemed to be more appropriate than BMI% for school-age children. Abdominal obesity, excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is highly associated with obesity-related complications. Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as an appropriate guide to VAT accumulation. The cut-off value of WC defining excess VAT is 80 cm at the umbilical level in Japanese school-age children. It is not easy to decide the obesity criteria and optimum WC in school-age children. Childhood obesity should be discussed more internationally.

  3. Age of Diagnosis Influences Serologic Responses in Children with Crohn Disease: A Possible Clue to Etiology?

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, James; Kugathasan, Subra; Dubinsky, Marla; Mei, Ling; Crandall, Wallace; LeLeiko, Neal; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Rosh, Joel; Evans, Jonathan; Mack, David; Otley, Anthony; Pfefferkorn, Marian; Bahar, Ron; Vasiliauskas, Eric; Wahbeh, Ghassan; Silber, Gary; Quiros, J. Antonio; Wrobel, Iwona; Nebel, Justin; Landers, Carol; Picornell, Yoanna; Targan, Stephan; Lerer, Trudy; Hyams, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Crohn disease (CD) is often associated with antibodies to microbial antigens. Differences in immune response may offer clues to the pathogenesis of the disease. AIM To examine the influence of age at diagnosis on serologic response in children with CD. METHODS Data were drawn from 3 North American multicenter pediatric IBD research consortia. At or shortly after diagnosis, pANCA, ASCA IgA, ASCA IgG, anti-ompC and anti-CBir1 were assayed. Results were compared as a function of age at CD diagnosis (0–7 years vs 8–15 years). RESULTS 705 children (79 <8 yr of age at diagnosis, 626 ≥8yr) were studied. Small bowel CD was less frequent in the younger group (48.7% vs 72.6%; p<0.0001) while colonic involvement was comparable (91.0% vs 86.5%). ASCA IgA and IgG were seen in <20% of those 0–7 yr compared to nearly 40% of those 8–15 yr (p<0.001), while anti-CBir1 was more frequent in the younger children (66% vs 54%, p<0.05). Anti-CBir1 detected a significant number of children in both age groups who otherwise were serologically negative. Both age at diagnosis and site of CD involvement were independently associated with expression of ASCA and anti-CBir1. CONCLUSIONS Compared to children 8–15 yr of age at diagnosis, those 0–7 yr are more likely to express anti-CBir1 but only half as likely to express ASCA. These age-associated differences in antimicrobial seropositivity suggest that there may be different, and as yet unrecognized, genetic, immunologic and/or microbial factors leading to CD in the youngest children. PMID:19107777

  4. Effects of Age, Walking Speed, and Body Composition on Pedometer Accuracy in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, J. Scott; Schofield, Grant; Duncan, Elizabeth K.; Hinckson, Erica A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of age group, walking speed, and body composition on the accuracy of pedometer-determined step counts in children. Eighty-five participants (43 boys, 42 girls), ages 5-7 and 9-11 years, walked on a treadmill for two-minute bouts at speeds of 42, 66, and 90 m[middle dot]min[superscript -1]…

  5. Group Supervision: Supporting Practitioners in Their Work with Children and Families in Children's Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soni, Anita

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how group supervision can be used to support the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) of those working with children and families in early years provision in England. It is based on research conducted in 2008 with a cluster of four Children's Centres in the West Midlands in England, UK. The research evaluated group…

  6. ArtBreak: A Creative Group Counseling Program for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziff, Katherine; Pierce, Lori; Johanson, Susan; King, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the pilot of a school-based creative group-counseling program for children called ArtBreak, a choice-based studio art experience based on the restorative possibilities of art making delineated in the expressive therapies continuum (ETC; Kagin & Lusebrink, 1978). The ETC features a developmental hierarchy in relation to how…

  7. FINAL REPORT: NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY FOCUS GROUPS - FOLLOW-UP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work assignment was to add to our knowledge of the issues that will affect

    recruitment and retention of pregnant women into the National Children's Study by conducting 14 focus

    groups comprised of pregnant women, couples, and parents of young chi...

  8. Tests as a Form of Rejection of Minority Group Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Anita

    The author claims that the dignity and self-esteem of minority group children in particular are effectively destroyed in schools. Racial and ethnic prejudices create the vicious cycle of low expectations -- low achievement -- lower expectations. Abilities are further undermined by the emphasis in schools on verbal skills and reading as opposed to…

  9. Group Counseling With Emotionally Disturbed School Children in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Peter

    The application of group counseling to emotionally disturbed school children in Chinese culture was examined. Two junior high schools located in Tao-Yuan Province were randomly selected with two eighth-grade classes randomly selected from each school. Ten emotionally disturbed students were chosen from each class and randomly assigned to two…

  10. Small Group Intervention for Children with Attention Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houck, Gail; King, Mary Catherine; Tomlinson, Bill; Vrabel, Ann; Wecks, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Two practice improvement projects that provided small group experiences for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior addressed: communication, friendship, self-control, and social problem solving. One provided activities for elementary students with ADHD (treated with medication only). Another provided…

  11. Japanese children's numerical competencies: age- and schooling-related influences on the development of number concepts and addition skills.

    PubMed

    Naito, M; Miura, H

    2001-03-01

    Using a cutoff design (J. Bisanz, F. J. Morrison, & M. Dunn, 1995) to separate school-related influences from those that are age related, the study investigated the development of number concepts and addition skills in Japanese children. Three groups of kindergarten and 1st grade children who differed in age and/or school experiences completed tasks on their numerical competencies 1 and 6 months after school entrance. Children's use of addition strategies, rather than their solution accuracy, changed primarily as a function of schooling, not age. Children's Base 10 number concepts improved with the amount of schooling, as well as with other social and age-related factors. Results suggest that schooling is an important determinant in developing Japanese-speaking children's numerical competencies, which were not explained solely by their language characteristics or by age-related factors. PMID:11269390

  12. Identification of Normal Blood Pressure in Different Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Chen, Yen-Lin; Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Pei, Dee; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The concept of using single criterion of normal blood pressure with systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < 90 mmHg for all ages is still disputable. The aim of the study is to identify the cutoff value of normotension in different age and sex groups. Totally, 127,922 (63,724 men and 64,198 women) were enrolled for the analysis. Finally, four fifths of them were randomly selected as the study group and the other one fifths as the validation group. Due the tight relationship with comorbidities from cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MetS) was used as a surrogate to replace the actual cardiovascular outcomes in the younger subjects. For SBP, MetS predicted by our equation had a sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 67% in males and 65%, 83% in females, respectively. At the same time, they are 61%, 73% in males and 73%, 86% in females for DBP, respectively. These sensitivity, specificity, odds ratio, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from our equations are all better than those derived from the criteria of 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg in both genders. By using the presence of MetS as the surrogate of CVD, the regression equations between SBP, DBP, and age were built in both genders. These new criteria are proved to have better sensitivity and specificity for MetS than either 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg. These simple equations should be used in clinical settings for early prevention of CVD. PMID:27057846

  13. [Effectiveness of an intervention in schools to increase vaccination coverage in children aged 6].

    PubMed

    Domenech Bonilla, M Encarna; Biosca Páimes, Mireia; Bobadilla Machín, Innocència M; Galindo Agorreta, Rosario; Guillén Mesalles, Mònica V

    2011-01-01

    The management of the vaccination program is part of nursing competences. The main goal of this program is to vaccinate the whole population. There are some age groups in which vaccination coverage is represented by very low rates. Several methods can be used in order to increase such coverage and each professional shall use them according to the work environment. This article presents a simple and effective intervention applicable in any rural area--and probably in any environment--through schools, where all children regularly go. This program has been very useful for us to increase the vaccination coverage of children aged 6.

  14. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  15. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-06-04

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively.

  16. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  17. Children with cerebral palsy and periventricular white matter injury: does gestational age affect functional outcome?

    PubMed

    Harvey, Adrienne R; Randall, Melinda; Reid, Susan M; Lee, Katherine J; Imms, Christine; Rodda, Jillian; Eldridge, Beverley; Orsini, Francesca; Reddihough, Dinah

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to determine differences in functional profiles and movement disorder patterns in children aged 4-12 years with cerebral palsy (CP) and periventricular white matter injury (PWMI) born >34 weeks gestation compared with those born earlier. Eligible children born between 1999 and 2006 were recruited through the Victorian CP register. Functional profiles were determined using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Abilities Classification System (MACS), Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), Functional Mobility Scale (FMS) and Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF). Movement disorder and topography were classified using the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe (SCPE) classification. 49 children born >34 weeks (65% males, mean age 8 y 9 mo [standard deviation (SD) 2 y 2 mo]) and 60 children born ≤ 34 weeks (62% males, mean age 8 y 2 mo [SD 2 y 2 mo]) were recruited. There was evidence of differences between the groups for the GMFCS (p=0.003), FMS 5, 50 and 500 (p=0.003, 0.002 and 0.012), MACS (p=0.04) and CFCS (p=0.035), with a greater number of children born ≤ 34 weeks more severely impaired compared with children born later. Children with CP and PWMI born >34 weeks gestation had milder limitations in gross motor function, mobility, manual ability and communication compared with those born earlier.

  18. A Feasibility Study of Wearable Activity Monitors for Pre-Adolescent School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Van Loan, Marta; German, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Understanding physical activity is key in the fight against childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using certain wearable devices to measure physical activity among children. Methods A qualitative study was conducted with 25 children aged 7 to 10 years to assess acceptability and compliance of wearable activity devices in this age group. During March through August 2012, children participated in a 4-week study of 3 accelerometer models and a heart rate monitor. Children were asked to use a different device each week for 7 consecutive days. Children and their parents completed structured interviews after using each device; they also completed a final exit interview. Results The wrist-worn Polar Active was the device most preferred by children and was associated with the highest level of compliance. Devices that are comfortable to wear, fit properly, have engaging features, and are waterproof increase feasibility and are associated with higher levels of compliance. Conclusion The wrist-worn device was the most feasible for measuring physical activity among children aged 7 to 10 years. These findings will inform researchers in selecting tools for measuring children’s physical activity. PMID:24854236

  19. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  20. Preschool-aged children recognize ambivalence: emerging identification of concurrent conflicting desires

    PubMed Central

    Rostad, Kristin; Pexman, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the ability of preschool-aged children to identify conflicting, or ambivalent, desire states (e.g., “I want to go to the birthday party because there will be cake, but I also don’t want to go because I’m having fun playing at home”). Participants were 4- and 5-year-old children, and a group of undergraduate students (n = 20 in each age group). They were presented with 14 scenarios involving both “single desire” and “dual desire” states, including both approach (i.e., “want”) and avoidance (i.e., “not want”) desires. Our primary interest was children’s ability to identify concurrent conflicting “dual desire” states, and this ability was found in most of the 5-year-old age group tested and in about half of the 4-year-old age group. As such, these results provide evidence that children can identify ambivalence at earlier ages than previously reported. In addition, results showed that the challenge in recognizing ambivalence is the presence of desires of opposite valence directed at the same target. PMID:25914671

  1. Neuropsychological Impairment in School-Aged Children Born to Mothers With Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Lourdes; Matute, Esmeralda; Ramírez-Dueñas, María de Lourdes; Zarabozo, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children born to mothers with gestational diabetes show delays in their neuropsychological development. Several key neuropsychological characteristics of 32 children aged 7 to 9 years born to mothers with gestational diabetes were examined by comparing their performance on cognitive tasks to that of 28 children aged 8 to 10 years whose mothers had glucose levels within normal limits during pregnancy. The gestational diabetes group showed low performance on graphic, spatial, and bimanual skills and a higher presence of soft neurologic signs. Lower scores for general intellectual level and the working memory index were also evident. Our results suggest that gestational diabetes is associated with mild cognitive impairment. PMID:25814475

  2. Motor coordination, empathy, and social behaviour in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Ariane; Piek, Jan P; Dyck, Murray J

    2005-07-01

    Children with motor coordination problems are known to have emotional difficulties and poor social skills. The current study investigated whether children with poor motor ability have poor emotion recognition skills, and whether these could be linked to problems in social behaviour. It was hypothesized that difficulties in empathic ability might be related to the poor visuo-spatial processing ability identified in children with developmental coordination disorder (as defined by the American Psychiatric Association). The relationship between motor coordination, emotion recognition, and social behaviour was examined in a sample of 234 children (113 males, 121 females; mean age 9y 7mo, [SD 1y 8mo] age range 6y 8mo to 12y 11mo). From this sample two groups of 39 children each (17 females, 22 males), one group with motor difficulties (mean age 9y 11mo [SD 2y], range 6y 11mo to 12y 11mo) and the other of control children (mean age 10y [SD ly 11mo], range 6y 11mo to 12y 11mo), matched for age and sex, were compared using a set of six emotion recognition scales that measured both verbal and perceptual aspects of empathic ability. Children with motor difficulties were found to perform more poorly on scales measuring the ability to recognize static and changing facial expressions of emotion. This difference remained even when visuo-spatial processing was controlled. When controlling for emotion recognition and visuo-spatial organization, a child's motor ability remained a significant predictor of social behaviour.

  3. Gross Motor Coincidence Timing by Children with Learning Difficulties and Children Matched on Mean Chronological and Mental Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacklin, Susan M.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the learning of a gross motor coincidence timing task by children with learning difficulties, compared with that by children of average intelligence of an equivalent chronological age and mental age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  4. Ability profiles in children with autism: influence of age and IQ.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L

    2003-03-01

    To understand the effect of IQ and age on ability in children with autism, psychological data were analyzed for 164 3- to 15-year-olds with autism (IQs 14-143). As age increased, so did IQ, which probably reflects both an actual increase in IQ over time and the likelihood that brighter children are diagnosed later. Early in life, 67 percent had normal motor and delayed speech milestones. Verbal IQ continued to lag behind non-verbal IQ during the preschool years. By school age, the gap between verbal and non-verbal IQs had closed. Visual reasoning exceeded graphomotor scores for all children, and surpassed IQ for most. Graphomotor scores were significantly below IQ for both high-IQ groups. For school-age children with low IQs, math, spelling, and writing scores were consistent with IQ and reading was above IQ. School-age children with high IQs had average reading, math, and spelling scores and a weakness in writing.

  5. Factors associated with medication adherence in school-aged children with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alistair W.; Foster, Juliet M.; Mitchell, Edwin A.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Harrison, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Adherence to preventive asthma treatment is poor, particularly in children, yet the factors associated with adherence in this age group are not well understood. Adherence was monitored electronically over 6 months in school-aged children who attended a regional emergency department in New Zealand for an asthma exacerbation and were prescribed twice-daily inhaled corticosteroids. Participants completed questionnaires including assessment of family demographics, asthma responsibility and learning style. Multivariable analysis of factors associated with adherence was conducted. 101 children (mean (range) age 8.9 (6–15) years, 51% male) participated. Median (interquartile range) preventer adherence was 30% (17–48%) of prescribed. Four explanatory factors were identified: female sex (+12% adherence), Asian ethnicity (+19% adherence), living in a smaller household (−3.0% adherence per person in the household), and younger age at diagnosis (+2.7% for every younger year of diagnosis) (all p<0.02). In school-aged children attending the emergency department for asthma, males and non-Asian ethnic groups were at high risk for poor inhaled corticosteroid adherence and may benefit most from intervention. Four factors explained a small proportion of adherence behaviour indicating the difficulty in identifying adherence barriers. Further research is recommended in other similar populations. PMID:27730181

  6. Age-Related Changes in Children's Associations of Economic Resources and Race.

    PubMed

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in children's associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5-6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10-11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African-American (n = 93), European-American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian-American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African-American and European-American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children's associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African-American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European-American targets. Finally, children associated African-American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European-American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants' own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children's associations of economic resources and race. PMID:27378981

  7. Adults' Detection of Deception in Children: Effect of Coaching and Age for Children's True and Fabricated Reports of Injuries.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kelly L; Bakhtiar, Aishah; Mulrooney, Brent; Raynor, Graham; Dodd, Elyse; Peterson, Carole

    2015-01-01

    A total of 1,074 undergraduates judged the truthfulness of children's interviews (from verbatim transcripts) about experiencing injuries serious enough to require hospital emergency room treatment. Ninety-six children (three age groups: 5-7, 8-10, and 11-14 years, 50% girls) were interviewed. At each age, 16 children told truthful accounts of actual injury experiences and 16 fabricated their reports, with half of each group coached by parents for the previous 4 days. Lies by 5- to 7-year-olds, whether coached or not, were detected at above-chance levels. In contrast, 8- to 10-year-olds' accounts that were coached, whether true or not, were more likely to be believed. For 11- to 14-year-olds, adults were less likely to accurately judge lies if they were coached. The believability of children aged 8 or above who were coached to lie is particularly disturbing in light of the finding that participants were more confident in the accuracy of their veracity decisions when judging coached reports. PMID:26549017

  8. A study of language development and affecting factors in children aged 5 to 27 months.

    PubMed

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a study to assess the factors that affect language development in infants and toddlers using data obtained during developmental screening. Our study group consisted of 505 children-244 (48.3%) boys and 261 (51.7%) girls, aged 5 to 27 months. The children were divided into four age groups: group 1, which we designated as the "6 months" group (age range: 5 to 7 mo); group 2, designated as the "12 months" group (11 to 13 mo); group 3, designated as the "18 months" group (17 to 19 mo); and group 4, designated as the "24 months" group (23 to 27 mo). In addition to demographic data, we compiled data using the Denver II Developmental Screening Test, as well as neurologic examination findings and medical histories. At 6 months, the social item "Works for toy out of reach" was positively related to all language development items. Two gross motor development items-"Pull to sit, no head lag" and "Lifts chest with arm support"-were related to the "Turns to sound" and "Turns to voice" items, respectively. Overall, children whose mothers had higher education levels and who were living in higher socioeconomic areas showed significantly greater language development, as did boys, specifically. At 12 months, higher maternal ages, some gross motor development items, and some social items were related to better language development, and children living in higher socioeconomic areas had a significantly increased ability to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item. At 18 months, the ability of girls to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item increased, and children who passed the "4 words other than mama/dada" item did not pass the "Throws ball" gross motor item. At 24 months, children whose mothers were older had better "Combines 2 words" and "Speech half intelligible" items, girls had better "Comprehends prepositions (such as under/above)" skills, and boys had better "Shows 4 parts of doll" skills. We conclude that language items appear to change together with

  9. Relationships between Narrative Language Samples and Norm-Referenced Test Scores in Language Assessments of School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Scott, Cheryl M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Both narrative language samples and norm-referenced language tests can be important components of language assessment for school-age children. The present study explored the relationship between these 2 tools within a group of children referred for language assessment. Method: The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical records from…

  10. How Elementary-Age Children Read Polysyllabic Polymorphemic Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Devin M.

    2015-01-01

    Developing readers of English appear to favor phonograms over grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs) to read unknown words. For polysyllabic polymorphemic (PSPM) words, the morphophonemic nature of English means elementary-age children may focus on roots and affixes. Does developing readers' PSPM word reading accuracy relate to the morphological…

  11. The Impact of Parental Death on Middle Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Miriam S.; Moss, Sidney Z.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the impact of the loss of a parent on middle-aged children. A lifelong process of anticipatory orphanhood is suggested as helping to prepare for the impact of a parent's death. Reaction involves the dialectic between the persistence and breaking of the bond and between finitude and personal growth. (JAC)

  12. Loneliness and Support in Children Aged 9 to 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, A.; Strobel, M. G.

    This study examined loneliness, social support, and help-seeking behavior in children, ages 9 to 13. Participating were 330 fourth to sixth graders from middle and low income families from the Montreal, Canada region, who completed two questionnaires measuring feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction and help-seeking. Independent…

  13. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  14. Related Services for School-Aged Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Davis, Judy; Littlejohn, William R.

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue provides an overview of related services for school aged children with disabilities as required by federal law, especially the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. It identifies the personnel associated with delivering various services including audiology, occupational…

  15. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2009 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Lim, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…

  16. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2010 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Firgens, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality for low-income families. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about infants and toddlers…

  17. Hearing-Impaired Children under Age 6: 1977 and 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildroth, Arthur

    1986-01-01

    A review of annual survey data revealed that hearing impaired children under age 6 reported in 1984, when compared to those reported in 1977, tended to be younger; had higher percentages of heredity, meningitis, and prematurity as causes of hearing loss; and were more likely to have additional handicaps. (CL)

  18. School Readiness of Moderately Preterm Children at Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perricone, Giovanna; Morales, M. Regina; Anzalone, Germana

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the preschool readiness of moderately preterm children and, in particular, the likely presence of learning disabilities at preschool age. Its theoretical model detects linguistic comprehension and expression; memory-related metacognition and cognition skills; orientation and motor coordination skills; premathematics and…

  19. 573 Prevalence of Allergen Sensitization in Children with Atopy Suspicion between Six Months and Five Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Marinovic, Maria Angelica; Rojas, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Background Classically we have been taught that the skin prick test (SPT) must be performed over 4 years of age mainly because of the lack of sensibility the test has on younger children, now a days the utility of the SPT in younger children with atopic history is controversial and it would help make an early diagnosis. The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence of allergen sensitization in children between 0 and 5 years of age that have atopic history. We also describe the sensitization percentages to the most relevant allergens according to age group. Methods SPT performed between January 2006 and July 2010 at the Respiratory and Allergy Department of Clínica Santa Maria to children with atopic story were analyzed. A standard base of 21 allergens from LETI laboratory was used. Results Seven hundred and fifty two children with SPT were studied; they were divided into 2 groups. Group A corresponding to children between 6 and 24 months of age, group B corresponding to children between 25 months and 5 years of age. In group A 76 SPT and group B 676 SPT were performed. The total number of SPT positive to 1 or more allergens was 46.4%. (Group A: 6.4%, group B 40%). The most prevalent allergens according to age were: group A: grass 16%, egg 16%, cat dander 10% and house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinsus and farinae) 10%. Group B: grass 15%, house dust mite 13.6%, fungal allergens (Aspergillus an Alternaria) 11.4%, trees 9% and cat dander 6.6%. Conclusions A high sensitization percentage to grass and egg is seen under 24 months of age. Egg sensitization diminishes significantly over 2 years of age, on the other hand house dust mite and fungal sensitization increases with age which could be explained by a longer exposure time in genetically predisposed children. Forty-six percent of the children are sensitized to 1 or more allergens which make us question the classical indication that SPT will be done over 4 years of age. When high suspicion of

  20. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Miglioli, Teresa Cristina; Fonseca, Vania Matos; Gomes, Saint Clair; da Silva, Katia Silveira; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Batista, Malaquias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs. METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels). Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels), age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF) and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables. RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73) and height/age (-0.99) of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82), prenatal appointments (-0.43), geographical area of the residence (-0.41), and household income per capita (-0.42). Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44) showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48) was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72) and retinol serum levels (-0.40) of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43). CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A

  1. Cosleeping and sleep behavior in Italian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, Flavia; Giannotti, Flavia; Sebastiani, Teresa; Vagnoni, Cristina

    2004-02-01

    The prevalence and predictors of cosleeping were investigated in 901 healthy school-aged children. Parent reports on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire and Child Behavior Checklist were used to assess children's sleep and behavioral problems. Regular, long-lasting cosleeping was present in 5% of our sample. Cosleepers rated higher on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire total score and Bedtime Resistance, Sleep Anxiety, Nightwakings, and Parasomnias subscales than solitary sleepers. No significant behavioral problems were found in cosleepers. Regression results showed that low socioeconomic status, one parent who is a shiftworker, one-parent families, one parent who coslept as a child, prolonged breastfeeding, and previous and current sleep problems significantly predicted cosleeping. The high incidence of parents reporting having coslept as a child also suggested a lifestyle choice. Thus, cosleeping seems to reflect a parent's way to cope with sleep problems, and the long persistence of this practice may be related to the lifestyle of families.

  2. Social Information Processing in Elementary-School Aged Children with ADHD: Medication Effects and Comparisons with Typical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.

    2009-01-01

    Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo…

  3. Play and video effects on mood and procedure behaviors in school-aged children visiting the pediatrician.

    PubMed

    Burns-Nader, Sherwood; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Thoma, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    This study examines how different types of activities, including medical play, typical play, and videos, affect the mood and behaviors of children visiting a pediatric office. Seventy-two school-aged children visiting a pediatrician's office were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: medical play, medical information video, typical play, and nonmedical information video control. Children completed a mood self-report measure and their behaviors were recorded during triage by nurses. The medical information video improved the school-aged children's mood. Children in the medical information video displayed less difficult behaviors during procedures than the medical play group. The findings suggest that providing information about medical equipment through a video of a child engaging in medical play may benefit children visiting the pediatrician.

  4. National Growth Charts for United Arab Emirates Children With Down Syndrome From Birth to 15 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    H Aburawi, Elhadi; Nagelkerke, Nicolas; Deeb, Asma; Abdulla, Shahrban; Abdulrazzaq, Yousef M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Specific centile growth charts for children with Down syndrome (DS) have been produced in many countries and are known to differ from those of normal children. Since growth assessment depends on the growth pattern characteristic for these conditions, disorder-specific charts are desirable for various ethnic groups. Aims To provide cross-sectional weight, height, and head circumference (HC) references for healthy United Arab Emirates (UAE) children with DS. Methods A retrospective and cross-sectional growth study of Emirati children with DS, aged 0 to 18 years old, was conducted. Height, weight, and HC were measured in each child. Cole’s LMS statistical method was applied to estimate age-specific percentiles, and measurements were compared to UAE reference values for normal children. Results Incidence of DS in the UAE population is 1 in 374 live births (267 in 10 000 live births). We analyzed 1263 growth examinations of 182 children with DS born between 1994 and 2012. The male-to-female ratio was 1.6:1. Height, weight, and HC centile charts were constructed for ages 0 to 13 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in DS children aged 10 to 13 years of age was 32% and 19%, respectively. The DS children were significantly shorter and heavier than normal children in the UAE. Conclusions Weight, height, and HC growth charts were created for children with DS. These can be used as a reference standard for the UAE children with DS. Overweight and obesity are quite common in DS children ≥10 years of age, as DS children tend to be shorter and heavier than non-DS children. PMID:25196167

  5. Sleep problems of school-aged children: a complementary view.

    PubMed

    Paavonen, E J; Aronen, E T; Moilanen, I; Piha, J; Räsänen, E; Tamminen, T; Almqvist, F

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this population-based multicentre study was to evaluate the prevalence rates of sleep problems among 8-9-y-old children. The sample consisted of 5813 Finnish children, making up 10% of the age cohort. Both parents and children provided information. Disturbed sleep was reported by 21.7% of parents. Most of the problems were mild; only 0.3% were serious. Dyssomnias were frequent: 11.1% had difficulties with sleep onset, 7.1% with night waking and 2.3% with waking too early. Multiple sleep problems were present in 9.1% of the children. 17.8% of children reported disturbed sleep, 12.7% had problems many nights and 5.1% every night. In 32.0% of cases, either the parent or the child reported disturbed sleep; 7.4% of these reports came from both the parent and the child, 14.1% from the parent only and 10.3% from the child only. The correspondence between informants was poor (kappa = 0.224). Sleeping problems were associated with somatic and psychiatric problems. It is concluded that by restricting questioning to parents only, one-third of all potential cases of sleep problems may go unnoticed. In order to increase the sensitivity of screening children's sleep problems, both parents and children should provide information in epidemiological settings as well as in clinical work. PMID:10709895

  6. Bilateral deep neck space infection in the paediatric age group: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Songu, M; Demiray, U; Adibelli, Z H; Adibelli, H

    2011-06-01

    Deep neck space infections can occur at any age but require more intimate management in the paediatric age group because of their rapidly progressive nature. Concurrent abscess in distinct neck spaces has rarely been reported in healthy children. Herewith, a rare case of bilateral neck abscess is reported in a 16-month-old female and the clinical presentation and management are discussed with a review of the literature.

  7. An evaluation of a short questionnaire for parents about their school-aged children's global maturity level.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Jan-Olov; Nordberg, Lillemor; Fried, Ingegärd; Edbom, Tobias; Ekman, Sophie; Rydelius, Per Anders

    2002-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate a questionnaire for parents concerning their school-aged children's global maturity level. Immature children (n = 29) as reported by their parents were compared to a control group (n = 68). Immaturity was linked to a reduced general knowledge, a childish body appearance, problems with the fine motor function and problems with peers. The index group also had on average a lower test result in total score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and more commission errors in the Continuous Performance Test, both test results indicating a lower mental age.

  8. Disentangling chronological age from age of onset in children and adolescents with obsessive--compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Geller, D A; Biederman, J; Faraone, S V; Bellordre, C A; Kim, G S; Hagermoser, L; Cradock, K; Frazier, J; Coffey, B J

    2001-06-01

    Although paediatric obsessive--compulsive disorder (OCD) is increasingly recognized as a putative developmental subtype of the disorder, it remains uncertain as to whether additional subtyping by age at onset in childhood or adolescence is warranted. Subjects included children and adolescents meeting DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria for OCD referred to a specialized OCD clinic. All youth were systematically evaluated with structured diagnostic interviews and clinical assessment by an OCD expert. Irrespective of current age, an earlier age at onset predicted increased risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, simple phobia, agoraphobia and multiple anxiety disorders. In contrast, mood and psychotic disorders were associated with chronological age and were more prevalent in older subjects. Tourette's disorder showed associations with both chronological age and age at onset. Chronological age and age at onset predicted different patterns of comorbidity and dysfunction in children and adolescents with OCD. Considering the heterogeneity of OCD, age at onset may help identify meaningful developmental subtypes of the disorder beyond chronological age.

  9. Speech Disruptions in the Sentence Formulation of School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Miller, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Many school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI)produce sentences that appear to conform to the adult grammar. It may be premature to conclude from this, however, that their language formulation ability is age appropriate. Aims In this study, we sought to determine whether a more subtle measure of language use, speech disruptions during sentence formulation, might serve to distinguish children with SLI from their typically-developing (TD) peers at an age when grammatical accuracy was high. We analyzed the rate of speech disruptions in simple sentence production in school-age children with SLI and TD age-matched peers. We predicted that (1) the SLI group would exhibit more speech disruptions than the TD group as a result of reduced language proficiency even when grammatical accuracy was high and, (2) the SLI group would demonstrate greater reductions in disruption frequency as compared to the TD group when given sentences that model the target syntactic structures. Methods & Procedures Twenty-eight children (17 SLI, 11 TD, M = 8;10 years) with no history of stuttering were presented with a series of picture pairs. The examiner described the first picture using a simple sentence and asked the child to repeat the sentence; the child then described the second picture. There were two priming conditions: Matching Syntax condition (paired pictures requiring the same syntactic structure) and Different Syntax condition (paired pictures requiring different syntactic structures). All testing was audio-recorded and speech disruptions (repetitions, revisions, fillers, long silent pauses) were transcribed and tabulated for each target response. The data were analyzed in an analysis of variance (ANOVA). Outcomes & Results T he SLI group demonstrated a significantly greater number of speech disruptions when compared to the TD group. There was no effect for priming. Conclusions & Implications School-age children with SLI appear to have difficulty with

  10. Quantified outdoor micro-activity data for children aged 7-12-years old.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Luik, Catherine E; Canales, Robert A; Leckie, James O

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of aggregate exposure and risk requires detailed information regarding dermal contact and mouthing activity. We analyzed micro-level activity time series (MLATS) of children aged 7-12 years to quantify these contact behaviors and evaluate differences by age and gender. In all, 18 children, aged 7-12 years, were videotaped while playing outdoors. Video footage was transcribed via Virtual Timing Device (VTD) software. We calculated the hand and mouth contact frequency, hourly duration and median duration of contact with 16 object categories. Median mouthing frequencies were 12.6 events/h and 2.6 events/h for hands and non-dietary objects, respectively. Median hourly mouthing duration was 0.4 min/h and 0.1 min/h with hands and objects. Median mouthing contact duration was 1 s and 1.5 s with hands and objects, respectively. The median object contact frequency for both the hands combined was 537.3 events/h with an hourly contact duration of 81.8 min/h and a median contact duration of 3 s. There were no significant differences in the mouthing activity between genders or age groups. Female children had longer and more frequent hand contacts with several surface types. Age was negatively correlated with hand contacts of floor and wood surfaces. Contact frequencies in this study are higher than current regulatory recommendations for this age group. PMID:21989500

  11. [Differences in doll play of four-year old children of different ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Petrowski, Katja; Joraschky, Peter; Juen, Florian; Benecke, Cord; Cierpka, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    In its psychological development, the child learns social-emotional competences in order to be able to cope with conflicts. Since ethnic diversity increases due to globalization, the influence of the ethnic background on the social competence children development must be investigated furthermore. The present study examines the differences of the social-emotional competences of children of various ethnic groups. To track the social-emotional competence in play, 84 Asian-American, Latin-American and African-American kindergarteners (age = 4) were tested with the Mac Arthur Story Stem Battery and the attachment representation using the Attachment Doll Play manual. There were significant differences in the avoidance of conflict, empathic and moral themes in problem-solving among the ethnic groups. Furthermore, according to ethnic background the children significantly differed in the dimensions of attachment representation, freezing/blocking, constriction and controlling. Since ethnically specific social competence, attachment dimensions and their inter-correlation were found, the children started Kindergarten with differing qualifications. There are indications that the differences in attachment accentuations in children call for ethnic differences in social competence and interpretations of social situations in adults and children. PMID:19485097

  12. [Differences in doll play of four-year old children of different ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Petrowski, Katja; Joraschky, Peter; Juen, Florian; Benecke, Cord; Cierpka, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    In its psychological development, the child learns social-emotional competences in order to be able to cope with conflicts. Since ethnic diversity increases due to globalization, the influence of the ethnic background on the social competence children development must be investigated furthermore. The present study examines the differences of the social-emotional competences of children of various ethnic groups. To track the social-emotional competence in play, 84 Asian-American, Latin-American and African-American kindergarteners (age = 4) were tested with the Mac Arthur Story Stem Battery and the attachment representation using the Attachment Doll Play manual. There were significant differences in the avoidance of conflict, empathic and moral themes in problem-solving among the ethnic groups. Furthermore, according to ethnic background the children significantly differed in the dimensions of attachment representation, freezing/blocking, constriction and controlling. Since ethnically specific social competence, attachment dimensions and their inter-correlation were found, the children started Kindergarten with differing qualifications. There are indications that the differences in attachment accentuations in children call for ethnic differences in social competence and interpretations of social situations in adults and children.

  13. Effects of the Peer Group on the Development of Social Functioning and Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Study in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin; Chang, Lei; Liu, Hongyun; He, Yunfeng

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined, in a sample of Chinese children (initial mean ages = 9.5 and 12.7 years, N = 505), how the peer group contributed to social functioning and academic achievement and their associations. Data on informal peer groups, social functioning, and academic achievement were collected from multiple sources. Multilevel…

  14. Two Year Study of the Effect of Group Therapy on Teacher Perceived Classroom Behavior of Hyperactive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Harold; And Others

    A 2-year study was done on the effect of group therapy on the teacher-perceived classroom behavior of 82 hyperactive minority boys (ages 10-16 years) in a day school for disruptive children. By the end of the study, there were a minimum of four behaviors which indicated that the group therapy was accomplishing a statistically significant change in…

  15. Fatty acid composition of diets of early school-age children and its health implications

    PubMed Central

    Kostecka, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the amount and type of fat consumed by early school-age children per day. Dietary fat intake as a percentage of the total calorie intake was also estimated. Methods: The study was conducted in Lublin, the largest city in south-east Poland, between January 2014 and April 2014, on 702 randomly selected children, i.e. 3% of the total population of early school-age children in the research area. The parents were asked to provide information about the type and amount of food consumed by their children daily. A standard food frequency questionnaire was used. Results: Dietary levels of saturated fat were elevated in the analyzed populations and were the source of 13.33% of daily calorie intake. In the studied population, the ratio of saturated to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids was determined at 3.25: 2.95: 1. Dietary intake of α-linolenic acid (ALA) reached 1.057 ± 0.55 g (0.63% of daily calorie intake) on average, and dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA) was determined at 3.86 ± 2.51 g (2.31% of daily calorie intake). Conclusions: The average total calorie intake of children aged 6-11 years was 1445.66 calories per day. Average fat intake was 29.64 % of the total calorie intake. The highest intake of SFAs was found in the youngest age group of 6- to 8-year-olds. The type of food consumed by children affected the amount and type of dietary fat in all age groups. PMID:26870117

  16. Number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years.

    PubMed

    Dos, Santos Flávia Heloisa; Da Silva, Paulo Adilson; Ribeiro, Fabiana Silva; Dias, Ana Luiza Ribeiro Pereira; Frigério, Michele Cândida; Dellatolas, Georges; von Aster, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Numerical cognition is based on two components - number processing and calculation. Its development is influenced by biological, cognitive, educational, and cultural factors. The objectives of the present study were to: i) assess number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years from public schools using the Zareki-R (Battery of neuropsychological tests for number processing and calculation in children, Revised; von Aster & Dellatolas, 2006) in order to obtain normative data for Portuguese speakers; ii) identify how environment, age, and gender influences the development of these mathematical skills; iii) investigate the construct validity of the Zareki-R by the contrast with the Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The sample included 172 children, both genders, divided in two groups: urban (N = 119) and rural (N = 53) assessed by the Zareki-R. Rural children presented lower scores in one aspect of number processing; children aged 7-8 years demonstrated an inferior global score than older; boys presented a superior performance in both number processing and calculation. Construct validity of Zareki-R was demonstrated by high to moderate correlations with Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The Zareki-R therefore is a suitable instrument to assess the development of mathematical skills, which is influenced by factors such as environment, age, and gender. PMID:22774425

  17. Mouthing activity data for children aged 7 to 35 months in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Ming-Chien; Özkaynak, Halûk; Beamer, Paloma; Dang, Winston; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Young children's mouthing activities thought to be among the most important exposure pathways. Unfortunately, mouthing activity studies have only been conducted in a few countries. In the current study, we used videotaping and computer-based translating method to obtain mouthing activity data for 66 children aged 7-35 months in Taiwan. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies were 8.91 and 11.39 contacts/h, respectively. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth hourly contact durations were 0.34 and 0.46 min/h, respectively. The indoor object-to-mouth activities were significantly and negatively correlated with age. Children aged 12 to <24 months in the current study had lower indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies than children of same age group in the United States. We also found that indoor mouthing duration with pacifier was significantly and negatively correlated with indoor mouthing duration with other non-dietary objects. The results of the current study indicate that the mouthing behaviors may be different between different countries or populations with different ethnic or lifestyle characteristics. We conclude that using hand-to-mouth frequency values from the current literature may not be most reliable for estimating non-dietary exposures of young children living in Taiwan or even in other similar Asian countries. PMID:25027450

  18. Levels of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds among children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-10-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 20 urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, and race/ethnicity among children aged 6-11 years. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was positively associated with the levels of selected metabolites of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, cyanide, and propylene oxide in a dose-response manner. Levels of the selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, toluene, and xylene decreased with increase in age. Levels of 1-bromopropane decreased with number of rooms in the house but the reverse was true for 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide. Levels of most of the 20 metabolites did not vary with gender. Non-Hispanic white children had higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-L-cysteine (DHBMA), N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC), and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) than non-Hispanic black children. Non-Hispanic white children had statistically significantly higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA), trans, trans-Muconic acid (MU), and N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC) than non-Hispanic Asian children but statistically significantly lower levels of N-Acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (BPMA) than non-Hispanic Asian children. Non-Hispanic Asian children had the lowest levels of 13 of the 20 metabolites among four major racial/ethnic groups but highest levels for three metabolites. For selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile-vinyl chloride-ethylene oxide, benzene, 1,3-butadien, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylbenzene-styrene, and toluene, children had statistically significantly higher levels than nonsmoking adults. These results demonstrate how vulnerable children are to being exposed to harmful chemicals like VOCs in their own homes. PMID:26257031

  19. Levels of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds among children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-10-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 20 urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, and race/ethnicity among children aged 6-11 years. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was positively associated with the levels of selected metabolites of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, cyanide, and propylene oxide in a dose-response manner. Levels of the selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, toluene, and xylene decreased with increase in age. Levels of 1-bromopropane decreased with number of rooms in the house but the reverse was true for 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide. Levels of most of the 20 metabolites did not vary with gender. Non-Hispanic white children had higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-L-cysteine (DHBMA), N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC), and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) than non-Hispanic black children. Non-Hispanic white children had statistically significantly higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA), trans, trans-Muconic acid (MU), and N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC) than non-Hispanic Asian children but statistically significantly lower levels of N-Acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (BPMA) than non-Hispanic Asian children. Non-Hispanic Asian children had the lowest levels of 13 of the 20 metabolites among four major racial/ethnic groups but highest levels for three metabolites. For selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile-vinyl chloride-ethylene oxide, benzene, 1,3-butadien, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylbenzene-styrene, and toluene, children had statistically significantly higher levels than nonsmoking adults. These results demonstrate how vulnerable children are to being exposed to harmful chemicals like VOCs in their own homes.

  20. Phonology matters: a comprehensive investigation of reading and spelling skills of school-age children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungjun; Lombardino, Linda J; Ritter, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    The investigators measured 7 literacy skills in a group of 21 school-age children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MSNH group), and compared the scores to those of 2 age-matched groups: children with dyslexia (DYS group) and, as a control, typically developing hearing children (CA group). The MSNH group performed consistently below the CA group but better than the DYS group, an indication that differences in the groups' phonological processing profiles might be an important discriminating feature. Interestingly, the MSNH group showed a selective impairment in word reading accuracy only, whereas their reading rate was relatively unaffected. Children with MSNH who show weak phonological awareness skills seem to compensate by relying on orthographic recognition associated with rapid naming ability. To determine which children with MSNH are at high risk for depressed reading achievement, testing across a widerange of literacy skills should be considered.

  1. Reliability and Validity of the Acanthosis Nigricans Screening Tool for Use in Elementary School-Age Children by School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Leslie K.; Hall, Lynne M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of an acanthosis nigricans (AN) screening tool for use in elementary school-age children of different ethnic groups. Cross-sectional data were collected via observation of 288, 5- to 12-year-old school-age children. Three nurse clinicians used a 0-4 grade AN screening tool to rate…

  2. Distinct Visual Evoked Potential Morphological Patterns for Apparent Motion Processing in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Measures of visual cortical development in children demonstrate high variability and inconsistency throughout the literature. This is partly due to the specificity of the visual system in processing certain features. It may then be advantageous to activate multiple cortical pathways in order to observe maturation of coinciding networks. Visual stimuli eliciting the percept of apparent motion and shape change is designed to simultaneously activate both dorsal and ventral visual streams. However, research has shown that such stimuli also elicit variable visual evoked potential (VEP) morphology in children. The aim of this study was to describe developmental changes in VEPs, including morphological patterns, and underlying visual cortical generators, elicited by apparent motion and shape change in school-aged children. Forty-one typically developing children underwent high-density EEG recordings in response to a continuously morphing, radially modulated, circle-star grating. VEPs were then compared across the age groups of 5–7, 8–10, and 11–15 years according to latency and amplitude. Current density reconstructions (CDR) were performed on VEP data in order to observe activated cortical regions. It was found that two distinct VEP morphological patterns occurred in each age group. However, there were no major developmental differences between the age groups according to each pattern. CDR further demonstrated consistent visual generators across age and pattern. These results describe two novel VEP morphological patterns in typically developing children, but with similar underlying cortical sources. The importance of these morphological patterns is discussed in terms of future studies and the investigation of a relationship to visual cognitive performance. PMID:27445738

  3. Distinct Visual Evoked Potential Morphological Patterns for Apparent Motion Processing in School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Measures of visual cortical development in children demonstrate high variability and inconsistency throughout the literature. This is partly due to the specificity of the visual system in processing certain features. It may then be advantageous to activate multiple cortical pathways in order to observe maturation of coinciding networks. Visual stimuli eliciting the percept of apparent motion and shape change is designed to simultaneously activate both dorsal and ventral visual streams. However, research has shown that such stimuli also elicit variable visual evoked potential (VEP) morphology in children. The aim of this study was to describe developmental changes in VEPs, including morphological patterns, and underlying visual cortical generators, elicited by apparent motion and shape change in school-aged children. Forty-one typically developing children underwent high-density EEG recordings in response to a continuously morphing, radially modulated, circle-star grating. VEPs were then compared across the age groups of 5-7, 8-10, and 11-15 years according to latency and amplitude. Current density reconstructions (CDR) were performed on VEP data in order to observe activated cortical regions. It was found that two distinct VEP morphological patterns occurred in each age group. However, there were no major developmental differences between the age groups according to each pattern. CDR further demonstrated consistent visual generators across age and pattern. These results describe two novel VEP morphological patterns in typically developing children, but with similar underlying cortical sources. The importance of these morphological patterns is discussed in terms of future studies and the investigation of a relationship to visual cognitive performance. PMID:27445738

  4. Quantifying the impact of expanded age group campaigns for polio eradication.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bradley G; Behrend, Matthew R; Klein, Daniel J; Upfill-Brown, Alexander M; Eckhoff, Philip A; Hu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    A priority of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) 2013-2018 strategic plan is to evaluate the potential impact on polio eradication resulting from expanding one or more Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs) to children beyond age five-years in polio endemic countries. It has been hypothesized that such expanded age group (EAG) campaigns could accelerate polio eradication by eliminating immunity gaps in older children that may have resulted from past periods of low vaccination coverage. Using an individual-based mathematical model, we quantified the impact of EAG campaigns in terms of probability of elimination, reduction in polio transmission and age stratified immunity levels. The model was specifically calibrated to seroprevalence data from a polio-endemic region: Zaria, Nigeria. We compared the impact of EAG campaigns, which depend only on age, to more targeted interventions which focus on reaching missed populations. We found that EAG campaigns would not significantly improve prospects for polio eradication; the probability of elimination increased by 8% (from 24% at baseline to 32%) when expanding three annual SIAs to 5-14 year old children and by 18% when expanding all six annual SIAs. In contrast, expanding only two of the annual SIAs to target hard-to-reach populations at modest vaccination coverage-representing less than one tenth of additional vaccinations required for the six SIA EAG scenario-increased the probability of elimination by 55%. Implementation of EAG campaigns in polio endemic regions would not improve prospects for eradication. In endemic areas, vaccination campaigns which do not target missed populations will not benefit polio eradication efforts.

  5. "Snacks are not food". Low-income, urban mothers' perceptions of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J O; Wright, G; Herman, A N; Malhotra, K; Serrano, E L; Foster, G D; Whitaker, R C

    2015-01-01

    Snacking has become more frequent among US preschool-aged children in recent decades and represents a significant proportion of daily energy intake. Social influences on snacking among children, however, are not well understood. This qualitative research described low-income, urban mothers' perceptions of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children using data from 7 focus groups with 32 participants. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative method to identify themes. Mothers described snacks as involving less preparation, balance, and sustenance than meals (Theme 1). Mothers also made reference to some snacks as not being "real food" (Theme 2). At the same time, snacks had significant hedonic value as reflected in mothers' enjoyment of those foods (Theme 3), the effectiveness of snacks to manage children's behavior (Theme 4), and the variety of restrictions that mothers placed on children's access to snacks, such as locking cabinets, offering small servings, and reducing the number of snacks in sight (Theme 5). Two overarching themes highlighted distinctions mothers made in feeding children snacks vs. meals as well as the powerful hedonic appeal of snacks for both mother and child. These observations suggest that low-income, urban mothers of preschool-aged children may perceive snacks as serving a more important role in managing children's behavior than in providing nutrition. Child feeding interventions should address non-food related ways of managing children's behavior as well as encouraging caregivers to see snacks as structured opportunities for nutrition and connecting with their children.

  6. Noise increment detection in children 1 to 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Berg, K M; Boswell, A E

    2000-05-01

    Studies using burst comparison procedures to examine age-related changes in intensity discrimination have reported that the ability to discriminate differences in intensity does not reach maturity until late childhood. In the present study, developmental changes in intensity discrimination were examined in 1- to 3-year-old children, using an increment detection paradigm. Children and adults detected increments in a continuous standard presented at three levels ranging from 35 to 55 dB SPL. Adults were also tested at lower levels of the standard in order to permit age comparisons at equivalent sensation levels. Standard stimuli were two-octave bands of noise centered at either 400 or 4000 Hz, and increments were 200 msec in duration. Discrimination performance improved significantly with both age and level of the standard. For all age groups, performance was significantly better for high- than for low-frequency stimuli, but frequency-dependent differences in increment thresholds did not vary reliably with age. Age differences were largest at low levels of the standard. At the highest level (approximately 30 dB nHL), children's difference limens for both low- and high-frequency noise bands were adultlike by 3 years of age. These results suggest that the developmental time course of increment detection is more rapid than that previously reported in burst comparison studies.

  7. Peer victimization among school-aged children with chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Sentenac, Mariane; Arnaud, Catherine; Gavin, Aoife; Molcho, Michal; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    Peer victimization is a common problem among school-aged children, and those with chronic conditions are at an increased risk. A systematic review of the literature was carried out to explore the increased risk of peer victimization among children with chronic conditions compared with others, considering a variety of chronic conditions; and to assess intervention programs designed to reduce negative attitudes or peer victimization at school toward children with chronic conditions. Various data sources were used (PubMed, ERIC, PsycINFO, Web of Science), and 59 studies published between 1991 and 2011 and mainly carried out in North American and European countries were included in the review. A higher level of peer victimization among children with chronic conditions was shown for each type of condition explored in this review (psychiatric diagnoses, learning difficulties, physical and motor impairments, chronic illnesses, and overweight). Despite a substantial number of studies having shown a significant association between chronic conditions and peer victimization, intervention studies aiming to reduce bullying among these children were rarely evaluated. The findings of this review suggest a growing need to develop and implement specific interventions targeted at reducing peer victimization among children with chronic conditions.

  8. Sensory evaluation of a novel vegetable in school age children.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Helen; Palfreyman, Zoe; Morizet, David

    2016-05-01

    A behavioural sensory task was undertaken to further understanding into whether children's sensory evaluation of a new vegetable is associated with tasting and food neophobia scores. A sample of ninety-five children, aged 7-11 years, was recruited from a primary school in inner city Birmingham, UK. They were asked to rate the sight, smell and feel of a familiar vegetable (carrot) and an unfamiliar vegetable (celeriac) in a randomised order to control for order effects. They were then asked to try the each vegetable, and rate its taste. It was found that children rated the sensory characteristics of the familiar vegetable more positively than the novel vegetable across all sensory domains (p < 0.05). Refusing to try the novel vegetable was associated with food neophobia scores and olfactory ratings. The ratings of the taste of the novel vegetable were associated with olfactory and tactile ratings. In addition there was a clear developmental shift in the sample with younger children being more likely to rate the novel vegetable as 'looking strange' and older children rating the novel vegetable as 'smelling strange'. This research strengthens the idea that sensory information is important in children deciding to try, and their hedonic evaluation of the taste of a new vegetable. PMID:26809143

  9. Direction of single obstacle circumvention in middle-aged children.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Amy L; Van Ruymbeke, Nicole; Bryden, Pamela J; Cinelli, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    When required to walk around a stationary object, adults use the location of the goal to set up their locomotor axis and obstacles presented along the locomotor axis will repel the individual towards the side that affords more space [1]. Research has yet to examine whether children can identify the locomotor axis and choose their paths accordingly. Therefore, the current study examined the factors that influence the direction in which children choose to deviate around a single obstacle and whether the presence or absence of a goal influences path selection and trajectory. Ten children (age: 7.1 years±0.8) walked along a 9 m path and avoided a single obstacle that was located in one of three locations (midline, 15 cm to the right or 15 cm to the left). On half the trials, an end-goal was visible from the start of the path while the other half of the trials had no visible goal. The results demonstrate that: (1) children are able to perceive and move towards more open space but are more variable when the end-goal is not visible; (2) children are capable of maintaining an elliptical-shaped protective envelope when avoiding a single obstacle regardless of whether or not the locomotor axis is established; and (3) although children are capable of choosing paths that afford the most space, the manner in which they arrive at their goal is not driven by factors similar to adults. PMID:24679592

  10. Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among school-age children.

    PubMed

    Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight. PMID:27090341

  11. Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among school-age children.

    PubMed

    Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight.

  12. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  13. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  14. School-aged children can benefit from audiovisual semantic congruency during memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2016-05-01

    Although we live in a multisensory world, children's memory has been usually studied concentrating on only one sensory modality at a time. In this study, we investigated how audiovisual encoding affects recognition memory. Children (n = 114) from three age groups (8, 10 and 12 years) memorized auditory or visual stimuli presented with a semantically congruent, incongruent or non-semantic stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent recognition memory performance was better for auditory or visual stimuli initially presented together with a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than for stimuli accompanied by a non-semantic stimulus in the other modality. This congruency effect was observed for pictures presented with sounds, for sounds presented with pictures, for spoken words presented with pictures and for written words presented with spoken words. The present results show that semantically congruent multisensory experiences during encoding can improve memory performance in school-aged children. PMID:26048162

  15. Prognostic Predictors for Ambulation in Thai Children With Cerebral Palsy Aged 2 to 18 Years.

    PubMed

    Keeratisiroj, Orawan; Thawinchai, Nuanlaor; Siritaratiwat, Wantana; Buntragulpoontawee, Montana

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine prognostic predictors for ambulation among Thai children with cerebral palsy and identify their ambulatory status. A retrospective cohort study was performed at 6 special schools or hospitals for children with physical disabilities. The prognostic predictors for ambulation were analyzed by multivariable ordinal continuation ratio logistic regression. The 533 participants aged 2 to 18 years were divided into 3 groups: 186 with independent ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS I-II]), 71 with assisted ambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System III), and 276 with nonambulation (Gross Motor Function Classification System IV-V). The significant positive predictors for ambulation were type of cerebral palsy (spastic diplegia, spastic hemiplegia, dyskinesia, ataxia, hypotonia, and mixed type), sitting independently at age 2 years, and eating independently. These predictors were used to develop clinical scoring for predicting the future ability to walk among Thai children with cerebral palsy.

  16. Enterobius vermicularis infection among children aged 1-8 years in a rural area in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norhayati, M; Hayati, M I; Oothuman, P; Azizi, O; Fatmah, M S; Ismail, G; Minudin, Y M

    1994-09-01

    The infection rate and relationship of enterobiasis with socio-economic status were determined in children aged 1-8 years, living in a rural area in Malaysia. Of the 178 subjects 40.4% were infected with Enterobius vermicularis. The distribution of enterobiasis among these children were analyzed in relation to age groups and sex. The rate of infection was significantly higher in older children (5-7 years). The association of enterobiasis with other factors studied such as number of persons per house, household income per months and mother's employment status were not significant. The sensitivity of three successive days anal swabs compared to a single swab was found to be statistically significant.

  17. Sleep and Daytime Functioning: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Three Preschool-Age Comparison Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Thomas; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Tang, Karen; Goodlin-Jones, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sleep, sleepiness, and daytime performance in 68 children with autism, 57 children with intellectual disability (ID), and 69 typically developing preschool children. Children in the autism and ID groups had poorer daytime performance and behaviors than the typically developing children. Children in the ID group also were…

  18. Preschool children favor copying a successful individual over an unsuccessful group.

    PubMed

    Wilks, Matti; Collier-Baker, Emma; Nielsen, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The human aptitude for imitation and social learning underpins our advanced cultural practices. While social learning is a valuable evolutionary survival strategy, blind copying does not necessarily facilitate survival. Copying from the majority allows individuals to make rapid judgments on the value of a trait, based on its frequency. This is known as the majority bias: an individual's tendency to copy the behavior elicited by the largest number of individuals in a population. An alternative approach is to follow those who are the most proficient. While there is evidence that children do show both processes, no study has directly pitted them against each other. To do this, in the current experiment 36 children aged between 4 and 5 years watched live actors demonstrate, as a group or individually, how to open novel puzzle boxes. Children exhibited a bias to the majority when group and individual methods were successful, but favored the individual if the group method was unsuccessful. Affiliating children with the unsuccessful majority group did not impact on this pattern. PMID:25529854

  19. Linguistic skills in relation to neurological findings at 8 years of age in children born preterm.

    PubMed

    Yliherva, A; Olsén, P; Järvelin, M R

    2001-01-01

    The linguistic skills of 8-year-old children born preterm (n = 42) with birthweight < 1750 grams from a 1-year birth cohort for 1985-86 in northern Finland were studied with three different language tests, namely the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), the Token Test for Children (TTC) and the Morphological Test (MT) for Finnish children. Full-term control children (n = 42) with birthweight > or = 2500 grams from the same birth cohort were matched individually with their preterm pairs for age, sex, twinship, mother's education, place of residence, birth order and family type. The preterm children's language abilities were studied in relation to their neurological status and to the periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) findings of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The preterm children with minor neurodevelopmental dysfunctions (MND) scored worst and differed significantly from their matched controls in TTC. They also differed significantly from other preterm subgroups, namely healthy preterm and preterm children with cerebral palsy (CP), in verbal comprehension measured by TTC. PVL findings were not associated with performance in the language ability tests. A closer and regular follow-up of language development in the MND-disabled group among the low-birthweight preterm children is recommended.

  20. Lipreading in School-Age Children: The Roles of Age, Hearing Status, and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Hale, Sandra; Spehar, Brent; Myerson, Joel; Sommers, Mitchell S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study addressed three research questions: Does lipreading improve between the ages of 7 and 14 years? Does hearing loss affect the development of lipreading? How do individual differences in lipreading relate to other abilities? Method: Forty children with normal hearing (NH) and 24 with hearing loss (HL) were tested using 4…

  1. Comparison of Two Oral Reading Feedback Strategies in Improving Reading Comprehension of School-Age Children with Low Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Linda K.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the effects of two oral reading feedback strategies in improving the reading comprehension of eight school-age children with low reading ability. Participants were assigned to one of two intervention groups matched on age, grade, gender, and general reading performance. Intervention 1 (I1) used traditional decoding-based…

  2. Caregiver's Country of Birth Is a Significant Determinant of Accurate Perception of Preschool-Age Children's Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Ruby; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Camejo, Stephanie; Englebert, Nicole; Delamater, Alan M.; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: One in four preschool-age children in the United States are currently overweight or obese. Previous studies have shown that caregivers of this age group often have difficulty accurately recognizing their child's weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with accurate/inaccurate perception of child body…

  3. Neuromagnetic imaging of movement-related cortical oscillations in children and adults: age predicts post-movement beta rebound.

    PubMed

    Gaetz, W; Macdonald, M; Cheyne, D; Snead, O C

    2010-06-01

    We measured visually-cued motor responses in two developmentally separate groups of children and compared these responses to a group of adults. We hypothesized that if post-movement beta rebound (PMBR) depends on developmentally sensitive processes, PMBR will be greatest in adults and progressively decrease in children performing a basic motor task as a function of age. Twenty children (10 young children 4-6 years; 10 adolescent children 11-13 years) and 10 adults all had MEG recorded during separate recordings of right and left index finger movements. Beta band (15-30 Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) of bi-lateral sensorimotor areas was observed to increase significantly from both contralateral and ipsilateral MI with age. Movement-related gamma synchrony (60-90 Hz) was also observed from contralateral MI for each age group. However, PMBR was significantly reduced in the 4-6 year group and, while more prominent, remained significantly diminished in the adolescent (11-13 year) age group as compared to adults. PMBR measures were weak or absent in the youngest children tested and appear maximally from bilateral MI in adults. Thus PMBR may reflect an age-dependent inhibitory process of the primary motor cortex which comes on-line with normal development. Previous studies have shown PMBR may be observed from MI following a variety of movement-related tasks in adult participants - however, the origin and purpose of the PMBR is unclear. The current study shows that the expected PMBR from MI observed from adults is increasingly diminished in adolescent and young children respectively. A reduction in PMBR from children may reflect reduced motor cortical inhibition. Relatively less motor inhibition may facilitate neuronal plasticity and promote motor learning in children. PMID:20116434

  4. Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: behavioral science.

    PubMed

    Noll, Robert B; Patel, Sunita K; Embry, Leanne; Hardy, Kristina K; Pelletier, Wendy; Annett, Robert D; Patenaude, Andrea; Lown, E Anne; Sands, Stephen A; Barakat, Lamia P

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral science has long played a central role in pediatric oncology clinical service and research. Early work focused on symptom relief related to side effects of chemotherapy and pain management related to invasive medical procedures. As survival rates improved, the focused has shifted to examination of the psychosocial impact, during and after treatment, of pediatric cancer and its treatment on children and their families. The success of the clinical trials networks related to survivorship highlights an even more critical role in numerous domains of psychosocial research and care. Within the cooperative group setting, the field of behavioral science includes psychologists, social workers, physicians, nurses, and parent advisors. The research agenda of this group of experts needs to focus on utilization of psychometrically robust measures to evaluate the impact of treatment on children with cancer and their families during and after treatment ends. Over the next 5 years, the field of behavioral science will need to develop and implement initiatives to expand use of standardized neurocognitive and behavior batteries; increase assessment of neurocognition using technology; early identification of at-risk children/families; establish standards for evidence-based psychosocial care; and leverage linkages with the broader behavioral health pediatric oncology community to translate empirically supported research clinical trials care to practice.

  5. Comparison of remifentanil versus regional anaesthesia in children anaesthetised with isoflurane/nitrous oxide. International Remifentanil Paediatric Anaesthesia Study group.

    PubMed

    Prys-Roberts, C; Lerman, J; Murat, I; Taivainen, T; Lopez, T; Lejus, C; Spahr-Schopfer, I; Splinter, W; Kirkham, A J

    2000-09-01

    We compared the efficacy and safety of a remifentanil (0.25 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)-based balanced anaesthetic technique with a bupivacaine-based regional anaesthetic technique in an open label, multicentre study in 271 ASA physical status 1 or 2 children aged 1-12 years. Subjects requiring major intra-abdominal, urological or orthopaedic surgery were randomly allocated to receive either intravenous remifentanil (group R; n = 185) or epidural bupivacaine (group B; n = 86) with isoflurane/nitrous oxide for their anaesthesia. The majority of children in both groups (85% in group R, 78% in group B) showed no defined response to skin incision, and although the mean increase in systolic blood pressure (+11 mm Hg) was significantly greater in group R than in group B, this change did not represent a serious haemodynamic disturbance. More children in group R (31%) required interventions to treat hypotension and/or bradycardia than those in group B (12%), but these were easily managed by administration of fluids or anticholinergic drugs. Adverse events, mainly nausea and/or vomiting, occurred in 45% of group R and 42% of group B (NS). The adverse event profile of remifentanil in this study was typical of a potent mu-opioid receptor agonist. Remifentanil was as effective as epidural or caudal block in providing analgesia and suppressing physiological responses to surgical stimuli in children aged between 1 and 12 years undergoing major abdominal, urological, or orthopaedic surgery under isoflurane/nitrous oxide anaesthesia.

  6. Comparison of remifentanil versus regional anaesthesia in children anaesthetised with isoflurane/nitrous oxide. International Remifentanil Paediatric Anaesthesia Study group.

    PubMed

    Prys-Roberts, C; Lerman, J; Murat, I; Taivainen, T; Lopez, T; Lejus, C; Spahr-Schopfer, I; Splinter, W; Kirkham, A J

    2000-09-01

    We compared the efficacy and safety of a remifentanil (0.25 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)-based balanced anaesthetic technique with a bupivacaine-based regional anaesthetic technique in an open label, multicentre study in 271 ASA physical status 1 or 2 children aged 1-12 years. Subjects requiring major intra-abdominal, urological or orthopaedic surgery were randomly allocated to receive either intravenous remifentanil (group R; n = 185) or epidural bupivacaine (group B; n = 86) with isoflurane/nitrous oxide for their anaesthesia. The majority of children in both groups (85% in group R, 78% in group B) showed no defined response to skin incision, and although the mean increase in systolic blood pressure (+11 mm Hg) was significantly greater in group R than in group B, this change did not represent a serious haemodynamic disturbance. More children in group R (31%) required interventions to treat hypotension and/or bradycardia than those in group B (12%), but these were easily managed by administration of fluids or anticholinergic drugs. Adverse events, mainly nausea and/or vomiting, occurred in 45% of group R and 42% of group B (NS). The adverse event profile of remifentanil in this study was typical of a potent mu-opioid receptor agonist. Remifentanil was as effective as epidural or caudal block in providing analgesia and suppressing physiological responses to surgical stimuli in children aged between 1 and 12 years undergoing major abdominal, urological, or orthopaedic surgery under isoflurane/nitrous oxide anaesthesia. PMID:10947750

  7. The Effect of Performing Preoperative Preparation Program on School Age Children's Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Vaezzadeh, Nazanin; Douki, Zahra Esmaeeli; Hadipour, Abbas; Osia, Soheil; Shahmohammadi, Soheila; Sadeghi, Roghieh

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine effects of performing preoperative preparation program on children's anxiety. Methods This study was performed in Amirkola Pediatrics Hospital, Mazandaran. A randomized controlled trail was performed on 122 children (7–12 years of age) admitted for elective surgery during 15 months. The researcher randomly assigned eligible participants in to the experimental and control groups, after pre-test baseline measurement had been taken. Analyzing was performed through independent t-test and χ2 test. P<0.005 was considered statistically significant. The experimental group received therapeutic play and the control group received routine preoperative information preparation. Findings The mean and standard deviation of the state anxiety scores of children in experimental and control groups before intervention were 35.52±6.99 and 34.98±6.78, after intervention 31.44±5.87 and 38.31±7.44 respectively. The state anxiety score was lower significantly in the experimental group prior to preoperative surgery than in the control group (P=0.000). Conclusion Performing preoperative program with using therapeutic play intervention is effective for preparing children before surgery and decreases their anxiety. PMID:23056832

  8. Executive Functioning in Preschool-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol, Cocaine, and Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Noland, Julia S.; Singer, Lynn T.; Arendt, Robert E.; Minnes, Sonia; Short, Elizabeth J.; Bearer, Cynthia F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Reports from clinical and experimental (animal) research converge on the suggestion that prenatal exposure to alcohol, cocaine, or marijuana undermines executive functioning (EF) and its neurological underpinnings. However, large, adequately controlled, prospective studies of alcohol and marijuana effects on EF have reported conflicting findings, and there have been no such studies of cocaine exposure. Methods EF was investigated in a cohort (n = 316) of 4-year-old children the majority of whose mothers had used varying combinations of cocaine, alcohol, and marijuana during pregnancy. With use of postpartum maternal report and biological assay, children were assigned to overlapping prenatal cocaine-exposed, alcohol-exposed, and marijuana-exposed groups and to complementary control groups. The postnatal environmental assessment included measures of maternal intellectual and psychosocial functioning, current drug or alcohol use, and home environment. Results The children in the alcohol-exposed group had worse tapping-inhibition performance than children in the non–alcohol-exposed group, and this effect persisted when potential confounding environmental variables, other drug variables, and concurrent verbal intelligence were controlled for. Conclusions Prenatal alcohol is predictive of decreased EF in early childhood that could not be attributed to environmental factors. The results are discussed in terms of the age and overall high-risk status of the children. PMID:12711927

  9. Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Lee S. . E-mail: lfriedman@tspri.org; Lukyanova, Elena M.; Kundiev, Yuri I.; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava A.; Chislovska, Nataliya V.; Mucha, Amy; Zvinchuk, Alexander V.; Oliynyk, Irene; Hryhorczuk, Daniel

    2006-09-15

    No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (>=0.25{mu}g/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21{mu}g/L (range=0.11-0.42{mu}g/L; SD=0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21{mu}g/L; P=0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P=0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P=0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR=14.16; P<0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR=8.50; P=0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR=5.67; P=0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries.

  10. [Suicide attempts in children under 12 years of age].

    PubMed

    Stordeur, C; Acquaviva, E; Galdon, L; Mercier, J-C; Titomanlio, L; Delorme, R

    2015-03-01

    Suicide attempts (SA) in children are often considered rare and poorly studied. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical characteristics of SA in children under 12 years of age. A retrospective assessment was conducted in 30 consecutive SAs reported in children under 12 years of age admitted to the emergency department at the Robert-Debré University Hospital (Paris, France) from 2007 to 2010 and the Regional University Hospital (Besançon, France) from 2000 to 2008. All suicide attempters were directly assessed at the somatic and psychiatric level. Patients were 8-11 years old (mean, 10.2±0.8). The sex ratio was 0.9 boys for 1 girl. The leading SA methods were poisoning by medication (53.3%), hanging or strangulation (23.3%), jumping from a height (16.7%), poisoning by chemicals (3.3%), and lesions inflicted by sharp objects (3.3%). In addition, SAs were characterized by high lethality (43.7%) contrasting with their low to moderate suicidal intentionality (43.8% and 56.2%, respectively). In conclusion, we reported that SA in children differs from those of adolescents by their greater lethality related to the methods used, but contrasting with the low intentionality mentioned by these patients.

  11. The Eraser Challenge Among School-age Children.

    PubMed

    Deklotz, Cynthia M C; Krakowski, Andrew C

    2013-12-01

    Skin-related, self-destructive behaviors are being increasingly reported among school-age children. Often disguised as innocuous "challenges," these disturbing actions may have the potential for serious and permanent sequelae. Interest and subsequent participation in these behaviors may also be spread "virally," facilitated by social networking sites that allow participants-regardless of age-to share photographs or videos of the activities in question. Consequently, parents and health care providers must learn to recognize signs and symptoms of these disturbing behaviors and make concerted efforts to protect this uniquely vulnerable population of pediatric patients.

  12. Age-related carbon dioxide reactivity in children after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Maa, Tensing; Yeates, Keith Owen; Moore-Clingenpeel, Melissa; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to assess carbon dioxide reactivity (CO2R) in children following traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS This prospective observational study enrolled children younger than 18 years old following moderate and severe TBI. Thirty-eight mechanically ventilated children had daily CO2R testing performed by measuring changes in their bilateral middle cerebral artery flow velocities using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) after a transient increase in minute ventilation. The cohort was divided into 3 age groups: younger than 2 years (n = 12); 2 to 5 years old (n = 9); and older than 5 years (n = 17). RESULTS Children younger than 2 years old had a lower mean CO2R over time. The 2-5-year-old age group had higher mean CO2R than younger patients (p = 0.01), and the highest CO2R values compared with either of the other age groups (vs > 5 years old, p = 0.046; vs < 2 years old, p = 0.002). Having a lower minimum CO2R had a statistically significant negative effect on outcome at discharge (p = 0.0413). Impaired CO2R beyond Postinjury Day 4 trended toward having an effect on outcome at discharge (p = 0.0855). CONCLUSIONS Abnormal CO2R is prevalent in children following TBI, and the degree of impairment varies by age. No clinical or laboratory parameters were identified as risk factors for impaired CO2R. Lower minimum CO2R values are associated with worse outcome at discharge.

  13. Optimizing Population Screening of Bullying in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Trinh, Vi; McDougall, Patricia; Duku, Eric; Cunningham, Lesley; Cunningham, Charles; Hymel, Shelley; Short, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    A two-part screening procedure was used to assess school-age children's experience with bullying. In the first part 16,799 students (8,195 girls, 8,604 boys) in grades 4 to 12 were provided with a definition of bullying and then asked about their experiences using two general questions from the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (1996). In the…

  14. Speaking Rate Characteristics of Elementary-School-Aged Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Kenneth J.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Mazzocchi, Elizabeth M.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare articulation and speech rates of school-aged children who do and do not stutter across sentence priming, structured conversation, and narration tasks and to determine factors that predict children's speech and articulation rates. Method: 34 children who stutter (CWS) and 34 age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter…

  15. Working Memory in Early-School-Age Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…

  16. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years 1

    PubMed Central

    de Moura, Louise Amália; Dias, Iohanna Maria Guimarães; Pereira, Lilian Varanda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30) as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0%) of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%), with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4). Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007) and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016). Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety. PMID:27305179

  17. Assessment of handgrip strength in preschool children aged 3 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Delgado, G; Cadenas-Sanchez, C; Mora-Gonzalez, J; Martinez-Tellez, B; Chillón, P; Löf, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R

    2015-11-01

    We investigated whether there is an optimal grip span for determining the maximum handgrip strength in preschool children and if it is influenced by gender, age, or hand size. A total of 292 preschool children (3-5 years; 59.2% boys) carried out the handgrip strength test with different grip spans (4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0 cm). The hand size was also measured. We also determined the reliability of the optimal grip span in another group of children (n = 56, 57% boys) who did the test twice, with a 3-hour difference between tests. The results showed that 4.0 cm is the optimal grip span to determine the maximum handgrip strength in preschool children. This result applied to both genders, all age groups, and hand sizes. Paired t-tests showed no significant differences between test and retest. These findings may guide clinicians and researchers in selecting the optimal grip span when measuring handgrip strength in preschool children.Level IV.

  18. Parents' and children's perceptions of active video games: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jull, Andrew; Meagher-Lundberg, Patricia; Widdowson, Deborah

    2010-06-01

    Energy expenditure studies have shown that playing Active Video Games (AVGs) is positively associated with increases in heart rate and oxygen consumption. It is proposed that playing AVGs may be a useful means of addressing inactivity and obesity in children. This study explored children's and parents' perceptions of AVGs and the likely facilitators and barriers to sustained use of AVGs. Data were gathered using focus group interviews: seven with children, four with adults. Both children and parents reported that AVGs offered a way to increase activity and improve fitness. Barriers to sustained engagement, according to parents, were the cost of AVGs and lack of space in the home to play the games. According to children, the likelihood of long-term engagement with AVGs depended on game content and child age, with AVGs being seen as more appropriate for younger children than teenagers. It would appear that there is potential for AVGs to reduce inactivity in young people. However, barriers to widespread, sustainable adoption would need to be addressed if this potential is to be realized.

  19. [Dutch Preventive Youth Health Care Service guideline on children born too early and/or too small for gestational age].

    PubMed

    van der Pal, Sylvia M; Heerdink, Nen; Kamphuis, Mascha; Pols, Margreet A

    2014-01-01

    In children who are born prematurely or whose birth weight is too low for gestational age (small for gestational age (SGA)) intensive care and follow up are desirable.However, obstacles include the shared care of children born very preterm (< 32 weeks of gestation) by paediatricians, general practitioners, youth health care service (and other professionals) and the identification of possible late onset health problems in children born late preterm (32-37 weeks of gestation). This guideline is multidisciplinary and evidence based and is relevant to all professionals involved in the care of this group of children. The main recommendations are: (a) timely and complete transfer of information after discharge from hospital; (b) structured exchange of information in aftercare; (c) assigning a case manager to each child; (d) monitoring growth and development by adjusting age for preterm birth, and (e) using special growth charts for children born preterm to evaluate growth and development.

  20. Development of kinesthetic-motor and auditory-motor representations in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Kagerer, Florian A; Clark, Jane E

    2015-07-01

    In two experiments using a center-out task, we investigated kinesthetic-motor and auditory-motor integrations in 5- to 12-year-old children and young adults. In experiment 1, participants moved a pen on a digitizing tablet from a starting position to one of three targets (visuo-motor condition), and then to one of four targets without visual feedback of the movement. In both conditions, we found that with increasing age, the children moved faster and straighter, and became less variable in their feedforward control. Higher control demands for movements toward the contralateral side were reflected in longer movement times and decreased spatial accuracy across all age groups. When feedforward control relies predominantly on kinesthesia, 7- to 10-year-old children were more variable, indicating difficulties in switching between feedforward and feedback control efficiently during that age. An inverse age progression was found for directional endpoint error; larger errors increasing with age likely reflect stronger functional lateralization for the dominant hand. In experiment 2, the same visuo-motor condition was followed by an auditory-motor condition in which participants had to move to acoustic targets (either white band or one-third octave noise). Since in the latter directional cues come exclusively from transcallosally mediated interaural time differences, we hypothesized that auditory-motor representations would show age effects. The results did not show a clear age effect, suggesting that corpus callosum functionality is sufficient in children to allow them to form accurate auditory-motor maps already at a young age.

  1. Mouthing activity data for children aged 7 to 35 months old in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Ming-Chien; Özkaynak, Halûk; Beamer, Paloma; Dang, Winston; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Young children’s mouthing activities thought to be among the most important exposure pathways. Unfortunately, mouthing activity studies have only been conducted in a few countries. In the current study, we used videotaping and computer-based translating method to obtain mouthing activity data for 66 children aged 7 to 35 months old in Taiwan. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies were 8.91 and 11.39 contacts h−1, respectively. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth hourly contact durations were 0.34 and 0.46 min h−1, respectively. The indoor object-to-mouth activities were significantly and negatively correlated with age. Children aged 12 to <24 months in the current study had lower indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies than children of same age group in the United States. We also found that indoor mouthing duration with pacifier was significantly and negatively correlated with indoor mouthing duration with other non-dietary objects. The results of the current study indicate that the mouthing behaviors might be different between different countries or populations with different ethnic or lifestyle characteristics. We conclude that using hand-to-mouth frequency values from the current literature may not be most reliable for estimating non-dietary exposures of young children living in Taiwan or even in other similar Asian countries. PMID:25027450

  2. Activity Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children at Risk for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Senso, Meghan M.; Trost, Stewart G.; Crain, A. Lauren; Seburg, Elisabeth M.; Anderson, Julie D.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the prevalence of obesity in young children highlights the importance of early interventions to promote physical activity (PA), there are limited data on activity patterns in this age group. The purpose of this study is to describe activity patterns in preschool-aged children and explore differences by weight status. Methods Analyses use baseline data from Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids- Preschool, a pilot obesity prevention trial of preschool-aged children overweight or at risk for overweight. A modified parent-reported version of the previous-day PA recall was used to summarize types of activity. Accelerometry was used to summarize daily and hourly activity patterns. Results “Playing with toys” accounted for the largest proportion of a child’s previous day, followed by “meals and snacks”, and “chores”. Accelerometry-measured daily time spent in sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was 412, 247, and 69 minutes, respectively. Percent of hourly time spent in MVPA ranged from 3% to 13%, peaking in the late morning and evening hours. There were no statistically significant MVPA differences by weight status. Conclusions This study extends our understanding of activity types, amounts, and patterns in preschool-age children and warrants further exploration of differences in physical activity patterns by weight status. PMID:25133750

  3. A developmental study of the own-age face recognition bias in children.

    PubMed

    Hills, Peter J

    2012-03-01

    The own-age bias is one in which people recognize faces of people their own age more accurately than faces of other ages (e.g., Anastasi & Rhodes, 2005, 2006) and appears to be, at least, partially based on experience (Harrison & Hole, 2009). Indeed, Hills and Lewis (2011a) have shown that 8-year-old faces are more accurately recognized by 8-year-old children than by 6- or 11-year-old children, suggesting the own-age bias develops rapidly. The present study explores the own-age bias in a developmental study in participants aged 6-10 years. Ninety participants (divided into 3 groups of 30 on the basis of their age at the first time of testing) undertook a standard old/new recognition paradigm in which their recognition accuracy was measured for 8- and 20-year-old faces. Results showed that when the participants were 8 years old, they recognized 8-year-old faces more accurately than when they were 7 or 9 years old. This effect was found to be based on mechanisms that differ from simple developmental improvement. This is the first study to show the development of the own-age bias in face recognition using a longitudinal design. These results show that the face recognition system is updated on the basis of recent experience and/or motivation to process faces, creating recognition biases.

  4. 36 CFR 1280.6 - Can children under the age of 14 use NARA facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Conduct on NARA Property? General Information on Using Nara Facilities § 1280.6 Can children under the age of 14 use NARA facilities? Children under the age of 14 will be admitted to NARA facilities only if... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can children under the age...

  5. [Age-Related Features of EEG Coherence in Children and Adolescents Living in the European North of Russia].

    PubMed

    Soroko, S I; Nagornova, Zh V; Rozhkov, V P; Shemyakina, N V

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents data on the formation of spatial synchronization of brain potentials in 91 children aged 7-18 years living in European North of Russia. We estimated coherence values for 19 derivations (pair 171) in five EEG frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha-1, alpha-2 and beta). We described age-related changes, gender differences and topical specific features of the formation of coherence in the left and right hemispheres, and in inter- and intrahemispheric synchronization. We carried out computer assessment of the differences in EEG coherence between three age groups of children in order to determine criteria for identification of children with retarded formation of spatial organization of local EEG processes. Age-related changes in the structure of EEG patterns observed in the study reflect the processes of morphofunctional brain development in children and adolescents at different stages of postnatal ontogenesis under severe conditions of northern climate.

  6. Age Estimation Based on Children's Voice: A Fuzzy-Based Decision Fusion Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Hua-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Automatic estimation of a speaker's age is a challenging research topic in the area of speech analysis. In this paper, a novel approach to estimate a speaker's age is presented. The method features a “divide and conquer” strategy wherein the speech data are divided into six groups based on the vowel classes. There are two reasons behind this strategy. First, reduction in the complicated distribution of the processing data improves the classifier's learning performance. Second, different vowel classes contain complementary information for age estimation. Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients are computed for each group and single layer feed-forward neural networks based on self-adaptive extreme learning machine are applied to the features to make a primary decision. Subsequently, fuzzy data fusion is employed to provide an overall decision by aggregating the classifier's outputs. The results are then compared with a number of state-of-the-art age estimation methods. Experiments conducted based on six age groups including children aged between 7 and 12 years revealed that fuzzy fusion of the classifier's outputs resulted in considerable improvement of up to 53.33% in age estimation accuracy. Moreover, the fuzzy fusion of decisions aggregated the complementary information of a speaker's age from various speech sources. PMID:25006595

  7. A Study of Concept Development and Communication Abilities in Children Aged Five Through Eight Using Leaf Morphology as the Vehicle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, James Pittard

    Ninety-six children, divided by age (five, six, seven, and eight years) and sex into equal groups, were administered tests of discrimination between leaves, association of leaves with pictures of leaves, sorting leaves into generic groups, and communication of concepts of leaf structure. No sex differences or interactions were found, but there was…

  8. Evaluation of a Short-term, Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Primary Age Children with Anger-Related Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Rachel L.; Treadwell, Susanne; Dosani, Sima; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the school-based short-term, cognitive-behavioral group anger management programme, "Learning How to Deal with our Angry Feelings" (Southampton Psychology Service, 2003). Thirteen groups of children aged 7- to 11-years-old were randomly allocated to two different cohorts: One cohort ("n"?=?35) first received the intervention…

  9. Preparing Books for Children from Birth to Age Six: The Approach of Appropriateness for the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çer, Ekran

    2016-01-01

    Children's books must primarily be appropriate for children so that they could be a significant stimulus in children's lives. In other words, it is essential that the concepts child reality, literary criteria and artist sensitivity be reflected in books in order to create children's books. From birth to age 6, the fact that children's books are…

  10. Effects of a self-esteem intervention program on school-age children.

    PubMed

    Dalgas-Pelish, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Self-esteem is essential for school-aged children's optimum health. High self-esteem is linked to increased school performance, improved health, and productive behavior. This study reports on the effects of a four-lesson self-esteem enhancement program for six groups of 5th and 6th grade children (N=98). The interactive lessons dealt with an overview of self-esteem, media influences, hiding emotions, and changes in self-esteem. Using a pre-test/ post-test design, Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to measure self-esteem. The self-esteem subscales dealing with general and social areas were found to significantly increase over time (p<.05). Girls had more significant changes than boys in the general subscale score and the total self-esteem score. Mean scores showed that children who had friends had more significant changes than those who did not have friends. Children with lower socioeconomic status had lower scores at both the pre and post testing with significance in the general and social subscales. No significance was found related to racial group, family make-up, or the number of household chores or activities. This study supports the effectiveness of a self-esteem enhancement program for girls, those children with friends, and those in lower socioeconomic status. Future research is needed to understand what contributes to the self-esteem of children who report that they do not have friends.

  11. Rehabilitation of socially withdrawn preschool children through mixed-age and same-age socialization.

    PubMed

    Furman, W; Rahe, D F; Hartup, W W

    1979-12-01

    24 socially withdrawn preschool children were located through classroom observations and assigned to 3 conditions: (a) socialization with a younger child during 10 play sessions, (b) socialization with an age mate during a similar series of sessions, and (c) no treatment. The socialization sessions, particularly those with a younger partner, were found to increase the sociability of the withdrawn children in their classrooms. Significant increases occurred mainly in the rate with which positive social reinforcement was emitted. Generally, the results support a leadership deficit theory of social isolation. Possible mechanisms responsible for the observed changes are discussed.

  12. Effects of Age and Attention on Auditory Global-Local Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Foster, Nicholas E V; Ouimet, Tia; Tryfon, Ana; Doyle-Thomas, Krissy; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Hyde, Krista L

    2016-04-01

    In vision, typically-developing (TD) individuals perceive "global" (whole) before "local" (detailed) features, whereas individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit a local bias. However, auditory global-local distinctions are less clear in ASD, particularly in terms of age and attention effects. To these aims, here ASD and TD children judged local and global pitch structure in nine-tone melodies. Both groups showed a similar global precedence effect, but ASD children were less sensitive to global interference than TD children at younger ages. There was no effect of attention task. These findings provide novel evidence of developmental differences in auditory perception and may help to refine sensory phenotypes in ASD.

  13. Views of parents, teachers and children on health promotion in kindergarten--first results from formative focus groups and observations.

    PubMed

    Sansolios, Sanne; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to capture the views of children, parents and teachers on the topic of physical activity in kindergarten through observation and focus group interviews. The study was conducted in the kindergartens from the sampling group in the Danish part of PERISCOPE. 1(st) methodology: Children interviewed inside by the researcher on preferable movements and settings and then observed outside during their playtime. 2(nd) methodology: Children asked to draw themselves playing their most preferred physical activity. Parents and kindergarten teachers interviewed in two different groups, using an identical guide. Children are skilled in taking advantage of the space and facilities available for physical activity; girls need more support than boys to initiate physical activity; children are happy with the facilities and the toys available in the kindergarten. Teachers feel an increasing pressure to take more responsibility and initiatives for the children's health habits. Parents state that if more physical activity is initiated in the kindergarten, it could make children request domestic activity. Physical activity and movement concept are too abstract for children of this age to talk about: they quickly lose their focus and concentration. The new methodology of videotaping gives the researcher the chance to interpret facial expressions to capture movement, talk and actions, and to make a distinction among children, as they tend to interrupt each other. However, this method contains a weakness, if used alone, by the fact that the shooting is only a reflection of what the video camera has recorded.

  14. Dental computed tomographic imaging as age estimation: morphological analysis of the third molar of a group of Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Cantekin, Kenan; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmis

    2013-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is capable of providing accurate and measurable 3-dimensional images of the third molar. The aims of this study were to analyze the development of the mandibular third molar and its relation to chronological age and to create new reference data for a group of Turkish participants aged 9 to 25 years on the basis of cone-beam CT images. All data were obtained from the patients' records including medical, social, and dental anamnesis and cone-beam CT images of 752 patients. Linear regression analysis was performed to obtain regression formulas for dental age calculation with chronological age and to determine the coefficient of determination (r) for each sex. Statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between age and third-molar development for the males (r2 = 0.80) and the females (r2 = 0.78). Computed tomographic images are clinically useful for accurate and reliable estimation of dental ages of children and youth.

  15. Age-related differences in outcome and severity of DIC in children with septic shock and purpura.

    PubMed

    Hazelzet, J A; Risseeuw-Appel, I M; Kornelisse, R F; Hop, W C; Dekker, I; Joosten, K F; de Groot, R; Hack, C E

    1996-12-01

    We studied the influence of age on mortality and severity of clotting abnormalities in 79 children (median age: 3.1 years) with meningococcal sepsis. Parameters of coagulation and fibrinolysis and plasma levels of cytokines were prospectively measured on admission. The mortality rate was 27%. The age of survivors was significantly different from that of non-survivors (p = 0.013). With the exception of FVII, vWF and t-PA, parameters of coagulation and fibrinolysis, as well as plasma cytokine levels were related to outcome. Patients were divided in two groups: younger and older than median age. The mortality in children < or = 3.1 years was 40% versus 13% in children > 3.1 years (p = 0.006). In contrast to cytokine levels, which were not different between the two age groups, fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V, VII, VIII, vWF, protein C, antithrombin, FDP, and the ratio PA1-1/t-PA were related to age, indicating a more severe coagulopathy in children < or = 3.1 years despite a similar degree of inflammatory response. A relative deficiency of coagulation factors due to an immature state of the clotting system, as well as an inadequate fibrinolytic response, both related to age may have caused this more severe coagulative response in younger children, and may have contributed to the higher mortality rate.

  16. Academic performance and intelligence scores of primary school-aged children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Ezenwosu, Osita; Emodi, Ifeoma; Ikefuna, Anthony; Chukwu, Barth

    2013-11-01

    Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are faced with complications which may interfere with their educational activities including academic performance. Reports on their academic performance are mainly from developed countries and the results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the academic performance of primary school-aged children with SCA in Nigeria and compare findings with a group of controls. Ninety children with SCA aged 5-11 years were consecutively recruited at the SCA clinic of UNTH Enugu and their age- and sex-matched normal classmates were enrolled as controls. Academic performance of the children with SCA was studied using the overall scores achieved in the three term examinations in the preceding academic year (2009/2010), while their intelligence quotient (IQ) was determined using the Draw-A-Person Test. The findings were compared with that of 90 controls. The mean overall academic score of the children with SCA of 62.71 ± 19.43% was similar to 67.47 ± 16.42% in the controls (P = .077). However, a significantly higher number of children with SCA (32.2% vs. 16.7% of the controls; P = .015) scored below 50%, thus, had poor performance. The mean IQ of the subjects (91.41 ±16.61%) was similar to that of the controls (95.56 ±17.31%, P = .103). However, more SCA patients had lower IQ scores than controls though not statistically significant (P = 0.083). The overall academic performance of children with SCA, therefore, compares favorably with that of controls although there is a higher prevalence of poor performance among them.

  17. The Association of Urbanicity with Cognitive Development at Five Years of Age in Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, Marion; Flamant, Cyril; Gascoin, Géraldine; Rouger, Valérie; Florin, Agnès; Guimard, Philippe; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of urbanicity, defined as living in an urban area, with cognitive development at five years of age in preterm children who were free of any disabilities or neurodevelopmental delays. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting French regional Loire Infant Follow-up Team (LIFT) network. Participants Included in the study were 1738 surviving infants born between March 2003 and December 2008 before 35 weeks of gestational age. At two years of age, the children were free of any disabilities and neurodevelopmental delays and were living in the Pays de la Loire region from their birth to five years of age. Main Outcome Measures The cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated with the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). The urbanicity of the residence for each child was classified into three groups: urban, quasi-rural, and rural area. Results Quantile regression approaches were used to identify a significant association between urbanicity and the GSA score at five years of age (adjusting for child and family characteristics). We found that the negative impact of urbanicity on the GSA score was more important for the lower quantile of the GSA scores. Conclusions Urbanicity was significantly associated with cognitive neurodevelopment at five years of age in preterm children born before 35 weeks of gestation. Complementary results additionally suggest that this relation could be mediated at the residence level by a high socioeconomic deprivation level. If these results are confirmed, more personalized follow-ups could be developed for preterm children. Further studies are needed to finely identify the contextual characteristics of urbanicity that underlie this association. PMID:26161862

  18. The effect of age-at-testing on verbal memory among children following severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Silberg, Tamar; Ahonniska-Assa, Jaana; Levav, Miriam; Eliyahu, Roni; Peleg-Pilowsky, Tamar; Brezner, Amichai; Vakil, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Memory deficits are a common sequelae following childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI), which often have serious implications on age-related academic skills. The current study examined verbal memory performance using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) in a pediatric TBI sample. Verbal memory abilities as well as the effect of age at-testing on performance were examined. A sample of 67 children following severe TBI (age average = 12.3 ± 2.74) and 67 matched controls were evaluated using the RAVLT. Age effect at assessment was examined using two age groups: above and below 12 years of age during evaluation. Differences between groups were examined via the 9 RAVLT learning trials and the 7 composite scores conducted out of them. Children following TBI recalled significantly less words than controls on all RAVLT trials and had significantly lower scores on all composite scores. However, all of these scores fell within the low average range. Further analysis revealed significantly lower than average performance among the older children (above 12 years), while scores of the younger children following TBI fell within average limits. To conclude, verbal memory deficits among children following severe TBI demonstrate an age-at-testing effect with more prominent problems occurring above 12 years at the time of evaluation. Yet, age-appropriate performance among children below 12 years of age may not accurately describe memory abilities at younger ages following TBI. It is therefore recommended that clinicians address child's age at testing and avoid using a single test as an indicator of verbal memory functioning post TBI.

  19. Causes of Death in Children Aged < 15 Years in the Inner Mongolia Region of China, 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Du, Maolin; Hao, Zhihui; Zhang, Hairong; Zhang, Qing; Hao, Wenli; Xi, Lei; Sun, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to identify the causes of death in children <15 years of age in Inner Mongolia and to examine the age-specific causes of death. Study data from 2008–2012 were obtained from the Death Registry System that is maintained by the Inner Mongolia Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The mortality rate (per 100,000) for children <15 years of age was calculated and stratified by age in different years. We computed the proportion of age-specific causes of death for children <15 years that occurred between 2008 and 2012 across eight monitoring points in Inner Mongolia. We used a log-linear model to analyze the year and age effects on childhood mortality. From 2008-2012, the standardized mortality of children <15 years of age was 42.78/100,000. The mortality rate was not significantly different from 2008 to 2012 (p>0.05); the mortality rate was the highest in the <1-year age group (p<0.05); and the mortality rate of the <1-year age group was higher in 2012 compared to that in 2009 (p<0.05), 2010 (p<0.05), and 2011 (p<0.05). In children aged 1-14 years, the leading cause of death was injuries, among which transport accident injuries were the most prevalent. To reduce the childhood mortality rate in Inner Mongolia, China, we should focus on the prevention of perinatal deaths in infants <1 year of age and on the prevention of transport accident injuries among older children (1-14 years). PMID:27157187

  20. The Impact of Gestalt Group Psychotherapy on Parents' Perceptions of Children Identified as Problematic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Linda F.

    Gestalt therapy respects parents' perceptions of their children and does not attempt to train parents to become therapists for their children. To examine the impact of Gestalt group psychotherapy on parents' perceptions of children identified as problematic, an experimental group of 10 parents participated in 10 2-hour Gestalt sessions. A group of…