Science.gov

Sample records for age group included

  1. Out of sight, out of mind: including group quarters residents with household residents can change what we know about working-age people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, David; Honeycutt, Todd; Schechter, Bruce

    2012-02-01

    Information about residents of institutional and noninstitutional group quarters (GQ), particularly those with disabilities, has been limited by gaps in survey data, and statistics based on data that exclude some or all GQ residents are biased as estimates of total population statistics. We used the 2006 and 2007 American Community Survey (ACS) to identify the distribution of working-age populations with and without disabilities by major residence type and to assess the sensitivity of disability statistics to GQ residence. Our findings show that (1) of those with disabilities, about 1 in 13 males and 1 in 33 females live in GQ; (2) GQ rates are higher for individuals reporting mental, self-care, or go-outside-the-home disabilities than for those reporting sensory, physical, or employment disabilities; (3) younger males with disabilities are more likely to reside there, particularly at institutional GQ, reflecting their relatively high incarceration rate; (4) individuals with and without disabilities who are black, American Indian, were never married, or have less than a high school education have higher GQ residence rates; (5) 40% of male and 62% of female GQ residents have a disability; (6) adding GQ residents to household residents increases estimated disability prevalence for males by 6%, and the estimated difference between disability prevalence rates by gender nearly disappears; and (7) inclusion of the GQ population substantially lowers employment rate estimates for young males, blacks, and American Indians. PMID:22109082

  2. The age at which meat is first included in the diet affects the incidence of iron deficiency and ferropenic anaemia in a group of pre-school children from Madrid.

    PubMed

    Requejo, A M; Navia, B; Ortega, R M; López-Sobaler, A M; Quintas, E; Gaspar, M J; Osorio, O

    1999-03-01

    A study was made into the effect of the age at which meat was first included in the diet on a series of haematological parameters and biochemical indicators of iron status in 94 pre-school children (aged 2-6 years) from Madrid (Spain). Those children who first took meat during their eighth month of life or earlier (Group A) showed better iron status that did those who were introduced to meat later (Group B). Significant differences were found in hemoglobin levels (P < 0.01), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) (P < 0.05), serum ferritin (P < 0.05), transferrin levels (P < 0.05) and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) (P < 0.001). Some 13.8% of all subjects showed iron deficiency and 5.3% showed ferropenic anaemia. These latter subjects were the last to have meat included in their diets (9.3 +/- 1.2 months compared to 7.4 +/- 2.0 months in those without ferropenic anaemia) (P < 0.05). It would appear that the age at which meat is included in the diet has an important effect on iron status in pre-school children. Delaying its inclusion beyond the age of eight months seems to be associated with an impairment of later iron status.

  3. Age grouping to optimize augmentation success.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Robert W

    2010-05-01

    This article has described the different age groups that present for noninvasive injectable lip and perioral augmentation, as well as the breakdown of 3 subgroups that present within the 4 general age groups. With the fundamental understanding of these presenting groups and subgroups, the practicing augmenter will be able to better treatment plan and educate the patient on realistic and optimal aesthetic outcomes.

  4. 42 CFR 436.201 - Individuals included in optional groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... specified in the separate sections of this subpart: (1) Aged individuals (65 years of age or older); (2...) Individuals under age 21 (or, at State option), under age 20, 19, or 18) or reasonable classifications of these individuals; (5) Specified relatives under section 406(b)(1) of the Act who have in their care...

  5. 42 CFR 435.201 - Individuals included in optional groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Aged individuals (65 years of age of older); (2) Blind individuals (as defined in § 435.530); (3) Disabled individuals (as defined in § 435.541); (4) Individuals under age 21 (or, at State option, under age 20, 19, or 18) or reasonable classifications of these individuals; (5) Specified relatives...

  6. Speech Differences of Factory Worker Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    This article, which focuses on speech differences of age groups, is part of a larger study of occupational jargon, its characteristics and underlying features and the part it plays in reflecting the workers' knowledge of their jobs and their attitudes toward jobs in general. The project incorporated a case method of research in a china factory.…

  7. [The electrocardiogram in the paediatric age group].

    PubMed

    Sanches, M; Coelho, A; Oliveira, E; Lopes, A

    2014-09-01

    A properly interpreted electrocardiogram (ECG) provides important information and is an inexpensive and easy test to perform. It continues to be the method of choice for the diagnosis of arrhythmias. Although the principles of cardiac electrophysiology are the same, there are anatomical and physiological age-dependent changes which produce specific alterations in the paediatric ECG, and which may be misinterpreted as pathological. The intention of this article is to address in a systematic way the most relevant aspects of the paediatric ECG, to propose a possible reading scheme of the ECG and to review the electrocardiograph tracings most frequently found in the paediatric age group.

  8. [Lycopene intake by different aged women groups].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice. PMID:20839464

  9. Including Everyone in Research: The Burton Street Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell, Simon; Ashmore, Jackie; Wilson, Dorothy; Beart, Suzie; Brownley, Peter; Butcher, Adam; Clarke, Zara; Combes, Helen; Francis, Errol; Hayes, Stefan; Hemmingham, Ian; Hicks, Kerry; Ibraham, Amina; Kenyon, Elinor; Lee, Darren; McClimens, Alex; Collins, Michelle; Newton, John; Wilson, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    In our paper we talk about what it is like to be a group of people with and without learning disabilities researching together. We describe the process of starting and maintaining the research group and reflect on the obstacles that we have come across, and the rewards such research has brought us. Lastly we put forward some ideas about the role…

  10. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  11. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  12. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  13. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  14. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  15. Adult Age, Gender, and Race Group Differences in Images of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foos, Paul W.; Clark, M. Cherie; Terrell, Debra F.

    2006-01-01

    Younger and older African American and Caucasian American adults, who were matched by age ("M" age = 40.63 years), completed a survey on perceptions of aging and subjective age. The 2 groups did not differ in the age they considered someone to be old ("M" age = 74.5 years). However, when asked which age was the happiest age, African Americans…

  16. 75 FR 26794 - Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena Park, CA; Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC, and... 12, 2010, applicable to workers of Alticor, Inc., including Access Business Group International...

  17. 76 FR 45878 - Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway Corporation, Buena Park, CA; Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and..., Ada, MI; Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International LLC and Amway...

  18. 75 FR 32221 - Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International, LLC, and Amway Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Alticor, Inc., Including Access Business Group International, LLC, and..., applicable to workers of Alticor, Inc., including Access Business Group International, LLC and Amway... location of Alticor, Inc., including Access Business Group International, LLC and Amway Corporation....

  19. Bayesian Ages for Early-type Stars from Isochrones Including Rotation, and a Possible Old Age for the Hyades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Huang, Chelsea X.

    2015-07-01

    We combine recently computed models of stellar evolution using a new treatment of rotation with a Bayesian statistical framework to constrain the ages and other properties of early-type stars. We find good agreement for early-type stars and clusters with known young ages, including β Pictoris, the Pleiades, and the Ursa Majoris moving group. However, we derive a substantially older age for the Hyades open cluster (750 ± 100 Myr compared to 625 ± 50 Myr). This older age results from both the increase in main-sequence lifetime with stellar rotation and from the fact that rotating models near the main-sequence turnoff are more luminous, overlapping with slightly more massive (and shorter-lived) nonrotating ones. Our method uses a large grid of nonrotating models to interpolate between a much sparser rotating grid, and also includes a detailed calculation of synthetic magnitudes as a function of orientation. We provide a web interface at http://www.bayesianstellarparameters.info, where the results of our analysis may be downloaded for individual early-type (B-V≲ 0.25) Hipparcos stars. The web interface accepts user-supplied parameters for a Gaussian metallicity prior and returns posterior probability distributions on mass, age, and orientation.

  20. Differences by age groups in health care spending.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C R

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents differences by age in health care spending by type of expenditure and by source of funds through 1978. Use of health care services generally increases with age. The average health bill reached $2,026 for the aged in 1978, $764 for the intermediate age group, and $286 for the young. Biological, demographic, and policy factors determine each age group's share of health spending. Public funds financed over three-fifths of the health expenses of the aged, with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 58 percent. Most of the health expenses of the young age groups were paid by private sources. PMID:10309224

  1. Coupling of Temperament with Mental Illness in Four Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament. PMID:27154370

  2. Learning science in small multi-age groups: the role of age composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-06-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by pre-primary children aged 4-6. The second part included one primary class attended by students aged 6-8 in addition to the pre-primary classes. Students were involved in inquiry-based science activities. Two sources of data were used: Lesson recordings and children's assessments. The data from both sources were separately analyzed and the findings plotted. The resulting graphs indicate a linear relationship between the overall performance of the younger children in a class and the number of older ones participating in the groups in each class. It seems that the age composition of the groups can significantly affect the overall cognitive achievements of the younger children and preferentially determines the time within which this factor reaches its maximum value. The findings can be utilized in deciding the age composition of small groups in a class with the aim of facilitating the younger children's learning in science.

  3. Appendicitis in the Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, Samuel B.; Nazem, Ahmad

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 35 patients aged 2 to 20 years who were seen at the District of Columbia General Hospital and Howard University Hospital over a three-year period (1984 to 1986) was performed. All patients were operated on with a preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A normal appendix was found in 17 percent of patients, of which the majority was adolescent girls. Of those patients with acute appendicitis, 41 percent had perforated appendices, and one half of these were judged to be complicated. At diagnosis or at reoperation, one half of the patients were maintained on single-antibiotic therapy, the other half were maintained on triple-antibiotic therapy. The average hospital stay was 26.6 days, with no significant difference between those patients on single- or triple-antibiotic coverage. The average hospital stay for patients with uncomplicated appendicitis was six days. PMID:3385787

  4. [Construction of age group vegetation index and preliminary application].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhang-hua; Li, Cong-hui; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-yong; Gong, Cong-hong; Tang, Meng-ya

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper, one remote sensing index-age group vegetation index (AGVI) was put forward, and its feasibility was verified. Taking 518 groups of pine forest age group data collected in 13 counties (cities) of Sanming, Jiangle, Shaxian, Nanping, Huaan, Yunxiao, Nanping, Anxi, Putian, Changting, Jianyang, Ningde and Fuqing, Fujian Province and HJ-1 CCD multi-spectral image at the same time-phase as the basis, the spectrum differences of blue, green, red, near infrared and NDVI of each age group were analyzed, showing the characteristics of young forest>middle-aged forest>over-mature forest>mature forest>near mature forest at near infrared band and mature forest>near mature forest>over-mature forest>young forest>middle-aged forest at NDVI, thus the age group vegetation index (AGVI) was constructed; the index could increase the absolute and relative spectrum differences among age groups. For the pine forest AGVI, cluster analysis was conducted with K-mean method, showing that the division accuracy of pine forest age group was 80.45%, and the accurate rate was 90.41%. Therefore, the effectiveness of age group vegetation index constructed was confirmed.

  5. The Educational Needs of the 16-19 Age Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janne, Henri; Geminard, Lucien

    Reports for the Council of Europe were the basis for this study of the educational needs of the 16-19 age group. The first of four sections, on sociological aspects, contains five chapters: socio-cultural characteristics of the 16-19 age group; quantitative aspects of education; equality of educational opportunity; and an overview of the…

  6. School's Out! Group Day Care for the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth; Milich, Cynthia

    This report on group day care is designed to: (1) examine the kinds of group programs for school-age children which exist in Los Angeles County, (2) describe the conditions necessary for program operation, and (3) consider the issue of quality as it relates to community expansion of day care services for children of school age. The report is…

  7. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  8. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  9. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated.

  10. Language Assessment Methods for Three Age Groups of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Ann R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes results of a survey of licensed Midwestern school-based speech-language pathologists (N=326) regarding methods used to assess the language of children ages 3 to 5 years, 6 to 11 years, and 12 to 18 years. Striking similarities were found in methods used for each age group. The relationship of these methods to recommended…

  11. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  12. 76 FR 13666 - Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... subject worker group's identity. Additional information revealed that the correct identity of the subject... Group, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Guidant Group, and Teleworkers Located Throughout the... was published in the Federal Register on September 23, 2010 (75 FR 57981). The certification...

  13. 78 FR 61390 - Philips Lighting, Including Workers Whose Wages Were Paid Under Philips Lightolier, Genlyte Group...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Philips Lighting, Including Workers Whose Wages Were Paid Under Philips Lightolier, Genlyte Group, and Genlyte Thomas Group LLC, and Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adecco, Wilmington, Massachusetts;...

  14. 77 FR 57451 - Regulations Regarding the Application of Section 172(h) Including Consolidated Groups

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Regarding the Application of Section 172(h) Including Consolidated Groups; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal... Section 172(h) Including Consolidated Groups AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: This document contains proposed regulations under section...

  15. Scurvy in pediatric age group – A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009–2014) with search terms “scurvy” “vitamin C deficiency” “ascorbic acid deficiency” “scurvy and children” “scurvy and pediatric age group”. There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  16. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention.

  17. Minority carrier device comprising a passivating layer including a Group 13 element and a chalcogenide component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barron, Andrew R. (Inventor); Hepp, Aloysius F. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip P. (Inventor); MacInnes, Andrew N. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A minority carrier device includes at least one junction of at least two dissimilar materials, at least one of which is a semiconductor, and a passivating layer on at least one surface of the device. The passivating layer includes a Group 13 element and a chalcogenide component. Embodiments of the minority carrier device include, for example, laser diodes, light emitting diodes, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and solar cells.

  18. Maximum Bite Force Analysis in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Patricia; Vieira, Marilena; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF) is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI), using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo), and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil), on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups. PMID:25992105

  19. Leadership in Groups of School-Age Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Cynthia A.

    1994-01-01

    Examined correlates and predictors of leadership in school-age female groups. Subjects were fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade girls enrolled in 16 Girl Scout troops. Leadership and personal characteristics were measured. Found a consistent relationship between leadership status and a managerial leadership style. Long-term informal leadership was…

  20. Youth Assets and Delayed Coitarche across Developmental Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that assets are associated with youth abstinence, but whether these relationships are constant across developmental age groups has not been shown. Data for this study were obtained from two independent datasets collected across a 2-year period using in-person, in-home interviews of youth (52% female; 44% Caucasian,…

  1. Age of acquisition and imageability ratings for a large set of words, including verbs and function words.

    PubMed

    Bird, H; Franklin, S; Howard, D

    2001-02-01

    Age of acquisition and imageability ratings were collected for 2,645 words, including 892 verbs and 213 function words. Words that were ambiguous as to grammatical category were disambiguated: Verbs were shown in their infinitival form, and nouns (where appropriate) were preceded by the indefinite article (such as to crack and a crack). Subjects were speakers of British English selected from a wide age range, so that differences in the responses across age groups could be compared. Within the subset of early acquired noun/verb homonyms, the verb forms were rated as later acquired than the nouns, and the verb homonyms of high-imageability nouns were rated as significantly less imageable than their noun counterparts. A small number of words received significantly earlier or later age of acquisition ratings when the 20-40 years and 50-80 years age groups were compared. These tend to comprise words that have come to be used more frequently in recent years (either through technological advances or social change), or those that have fallen out of common usage. Regression analyses showed that although word length, familiarity, and concreteness make independent contributions to the age of acquisition measure, frequency and imageability are the most important predictors of rated age of acquisition.

  2. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  3. 77 FR 64768 - Regulations Regarding the Application of Section 172(h) Including Consolidated Groups; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 57452). The proposed regulation provides guidance regarding the treatment of corporate... (REG-140668-07), that was the subject of FR Doc. 2012-22838, is corrected as follows: 1. On page 57452...) Including Consolidated Groups; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury....

  4. 78 FR 1265 - Dana Holding Corporation; Power Technologies Group Division; Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Dana Holding Corporation; Power Technologies Group Division; Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower Milwaukee, WI; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration On August 8, 2012, the Department of...

  5. 40 CFR 35.4140 - What must be included in my group's work plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... work plan? 35.4140 Section 35.4140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND... Tag § 35.4140 What must be included in my group's work plan? (a) Your scope of work must clearly... community. (b) Your scope of work must also clearly explain your project's milestones and the schedule...

  6. 75 FR 71464 - Metlife Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... Workers From At&T Solutions, Chimes, Cognizant, Patni, Siemens, Xerox Clarks Summit, PA; Notice of Revised...,210) and MetLife, Technology, Operations, and Information Technology Groups, Clarks Summit... workers (TA-W-73,210) and the Clarks Summit, Pennsylvania facility, including on-site leased workers...

  7. A statistical model including age to predict passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles.

    PubMed

    Park, Jangwoon; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P; Hallman, Jason J

    2016-06-01

    Few statistical models of rear seat passenger posture have been published, and none has taken into account the effects of occupant age. This study developed new statistical models for predicting passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. Postures of 89 adults with a wide range of age and body size were measured in a laboratory mock-up in seven seat configurations. Posture-prediction models for female and male passengers were separately developed by stepwise regression using age, body dimensions, seat configurations and two-way interactions as potential predictors. Passenger posture was significantly associated with age and the effects of other two-way interaction variables depended on age. A set of posture-prediction models are presented for women and men, and the prediction results are compared with previously published models. This study is the first study of passenger posture to include a large cohort of older passengers and the first to report a significant effect of age for adults. The presented models can be used to position computational and physical human models for vehicle design and assessment. Practitioner Summary: The significant effects of age, body dimensions and seat configuration on rear seat passenger posture were identified. The models can be used to accurately position computational human models or crash test dummies for older passengers in known rear seat configurations.

  8. A statistical model including age to predict passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles.

    PubMed

    Park, Jangwoon; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P; Hallman, Jason J

    2016-06-01

    Few statistical models of rear seat passenger posture have been published, and none has taken into account the effects of occupant age. This study developed new statistical models for predicting passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. Postures of 89 adults with a wide range of age and body size were measured in a laboratory mock-up in seven seat configurations. Posture-prediction models for female and male passengers were separately developed by stepwise regression using age, body dimensions, seat configurations and two-way interactions as potential predictors. Passenger posture was significantly associated with age and the effects of other two-way interaction variables depended on age. A set of posture-prediction models are presented for women and men, and the prediction results are compared with previously published models. This study is the first study of passenger posture to include a large cohort of older passengers and the first to report a significant effect of age for adults. The presented models can be used to position computational and physical human models for vehicle design and assessment. Practitioner Summary: The significant effects of age, body dimensions and seat configuration on rear seat passenger posture were identified. The models can be used to accurately position computational human models or crash test dummies for older passengers in known rear seat configurations. PMID:26328769

  9. Polycomb group proteins in hematopoietic stem cell aging and malignancies.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Karin; de Haan, Gerald

    2011-07-01

    Protection of the transcriptional "stemness" network is important to maintain a healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compartment during the lifetime of the organism. Recent evidence shows that fundamental changes in the epigenetic status of HSCs might be one of the driving forces behind many age-related HSC changes and might pave the way for HSC malignant transformation and subsequent leukemia development, the incidence of which increases exponentially with age. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are key epigenetic regulators of HSC cellular fate decisions and are often found to be misregulated in human hematopoietic malignancies. In this review, we speculate that PcG proteins balance HSC aging against the risk of developing cancer, since a disturbance in PcG genes and proteins affects several important cellular processes such as cell fate decisions, senescence, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair.

  10. Minority group status and healthful aging: social structure still matters.

    PubMed

    Angel, Jacqueline L; Angel, Ronald J

    2006-07-01

    During the last 4 decades, a rapid increase has occurred in the number of survey-based and epidemiological studies of the health profiles of adults in general and of the causes of disparities between majority and minority Americans in particular. According to these studies, healthful aging consists of the absence of disease, or at least of the most serious preventable diseases and their consequences, and findings consistently reveal serious African American and Hispanic disadvantages in terms of healthful aging. We (1) briefly review conceptual and operational definitions of race and Hispanic ethnicity, (2) summarize how ethnicity-based differentials in health are related to social structures, and (3) emphasize the importance of attention to the economic, political, and institutional factors that perpetuate poverty and undermine healthful aging among certain groups.

  11. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  12. Age groups of antarctic krill, Euphausia superba dana, in the Prydz Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong; Sun, Song; Wang, Ke; Li, Chao-Iun

    2000-06-01

    Age groups of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba Dana) in the Prydz Bay region were studied by distribution mixture analysis based on length/frequency data collected by R/V Jidi during the 1989/1990 and 1990/1991 austral summer. Five age groups were determined, i.e. 1+, 2+, 3+, 4+, and 5+, or six age groups in all, if the 0+ larvae were included. The mean body length of 1+ to 5+ age groups was 25.70 mm, 40.47 mm, 45.52 mm, 50.52 mm and 54.52 mm respectively. Supposing the difference in body length between successive age groups is a reflection of the early growth, the maximum growth rate occurred during the period from 1+ juveniles to 2+ subadults (14.77 mm/a). From 2+ subadults to 3+ adults the growth rate dropped steeply (5.05 mm/a) because at this stage, increase of body length was substituted, to a great extent, by the growth of sexual products. From 3+ onwards the growth rate was maintained at a relatively low level and decreased slowly with age. The relative abundance of age groups 1+ and 2+, in our sample must be much lower than that in the real population owing to both the large mesh size we used and the distribution difference between juveniles and adults. If we left aside 1+ and 2+ age groups and just looked at the relative abundance of adults, we found that age group 3+ dominated the adult population and that the relative abundance decreased sharply with increasing age. If this situation is normal, one can expect an extremely high mortality rate in adults, 82.6% from 3+ to 4+ and 94.0% from 4+ to 5+. This is reasonably expectable for the Prydz Bay region.

  13. Should an obsessive-compulsive spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V?

    PubMed

    Phillips, Katharine A; Stein, Dan J; Rauch, Scott L; Hollander, Eric; Fallon, Brian A; Barsky, Arthur; Fineberg, Naomi; Mataix-Cols, David; Ferrão, Ygor Arzeno; Saxena, Sanjaya; Wilhelm, Sabine; Kelly, Megan M; Clark, Lee Anna; Pinto, Anthony; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Farrow, Joanne; Leckman, James

    2010-06-01

    The obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum has been discussed in the literature for two decades. Proponents of this concept propose that certain disorders characterized by repetitive thoughts and/or behaviors are related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and suggest that such disorders be grouped together in the same category (i.e. grouping, or "chapter") in DSM. This article addresses this topic and presents options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. The article builds upon and extends prior reviews of this topic that were prepared for and discussed at a DSM-V Research Planning Conference on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders held in 2006. Our preliminary recommendation is that an OC-spectrum grouping of disorders be included in DSM-V. Furthermore, we preliminarily recommend that consideration be given to including this group of disorders within a larger supraordinate category of "Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders." These preliminary recommendations must be evaluated in light of recommendations for, and constraints upon, the overall structure of DSM-V.

  14. Including the Group Quarters Population in the US Synthesized Population Database

    PubMed Central

    Chasteen, Bernadette M.; Wheaton, William D.; Cooley, Philip C.; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana; Wagener, Diane K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, RTI International researchers developed methods to generate synthesized population data on US households for the US Synthesized Population Database. These data are used in agent-based modeling, which simulates large-scale social networks to test how changes in the behaviors of individuals affect the overall network. Group quarters are residences where individuals live in close proximity and interact frequently. Although the Synthesized Population Database represents the population living in households, data for the nation’s group quarters residents are not easily quantified because of US Census Bureau reporting methods designed to protect individuals’ privacy. Including group quarters population data can be an important factor in agent-based modeling because the number of residents and the frequency of their interactions are variables that directly affect modeling results. Particularly with infectious disease modeling, the increased frequency of agent interaction may increase the probability of infectious disease transmission between individuals and the probability of disease outbreaks. This report reviews our methods to synthesize data on group quarters residents to match US Census Bureau data. Our goal in developing the Group Quarters Population Database was to enable its use with RTI’s US Synthesized Population Database in the Modeling of Infectious Diseases Agent Study. PMID:21841972

  15. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Rong-liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-jun; Wang, Yu-Long; Ji, Qing-hai

    2016-01-01

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were built to analyze the outcomes and risk factors. Increasing age gradient with a 10-year interval was associated with the trend of higher proportions for male gender, grade III/IV and summary stage of distant metastases. Both CSS and OS continued to worsen with increasing age, being poorest in in the oldest age group (≥71); multivariate analysis confirmed that CSS continued to fall with each age decade, significantly starting at 60 years (HR = 7.5, 95% 1.0–54.1, p = 0.047) compared to the young group (≤20). Similarly, multivariate analysis suggested that OS continued worsening with increasing age, but starting at 40 years (HR = 3.7, 95% 1.4–10.1, p = 0.009) compared to the young group. The current study suggests that an age exceeding 60 years itself represents an unfavorable prognostic factor and high risk for cancer-specific death in DTC. PMID:27272218

  16. Predicting age of ovarian failure after radiation to a field that includes the ovaries

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W. Hamish B. . E-mail: Hamish.Wallace@ed.ac.uk; Thomson, Angela B.; Saran, Frank; Kelsey, Tom W.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To predict the age at which ovarian failure is likely to develop after radiation to a field that includes the ovary in women treated for cancer. Methods and Materials: Modern computed tomography radiotherapy planning allows determination of the effective dose of radiation received by the ovaries. Together with our recent assessment of the radiosensitivity of the human oocyte, the effective surviving fraction of primordial oocytes can be determined and the age of ovarian failure, with 95% confidence limits, predicted for any given dose of radiotherapy. Results: The effective sterilizing dose (ESD: dose of fractionated radiotherapy [Gy] at which premature ovarian failure occurs immediately after treatment in 97.5% of patients) decreases with increasing age at treatment. ESD at birth is 20.3 Gy; at 10 years 18.4 Gy, at 20 years 16.5 Gy, and at 30 years 14.3 Gy. We have calculated 95% confidence limits for age at premature ovarian failure for estimated radiation doses to the ovary from 1 Gy to the ESD from birth to 50 years. Conclusions: We report the first model to reliably predict the age of ovarian failure after treatment with a known dose of radiotherapy. Clinical application of this model will enable physicians to counsel women on their reproductive potential following successful treatment.

  17. Early Precambrian crustal evolution in Eastern India: The ages of the Singhbhum granite and included remnants of older gneiss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorbath, Stephen; Taylor, Paul N.

    1988-01-01

    Geochronology of samples from the Indian Shield was discussed. New Sm-Nd data was given for the Singhbhum granite, which give model ages (T sub DM of 3.36 to 3.40 Ga, essentially equivalent to ages of included gneissic remnants of the older metamorphic group (OMG) (T sub DM = 3.35 to 3.41 Ga). Lead-lead and Rb-Sr ages of the granite and OMG range between 3.28 to 3.38 Ga. These results are considerably younger than the 3775 + or - 89 Ma Sm-Nd isochron of Basu et al., which Taylor and colleagues interpret as an artifact caused by regressing two suites of unrelated rock samples.

  18. Identification of Normal Blood Pressure in Different Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Chen, Yen-Lin; Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Pei, Dee; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The concept of using single criterion of normal blood pressure with systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < 90 mmHg for all ages is still disputable. The aim of the study is to identify the cutoff value of normotension in different age and sex groups. Totally, 127,922 (63,724 men and 64,198 women) were enrolled for the analysis. Finally, four fifths of them were randomly selected as the study group and the other one fifths as the validation group. Due the tight relationship with comorbidities from cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MetS) was used as a surrogate to replace the actual cardiovascular outcomes in the younger subjects. For SBP, MetS predicted by our equation had a sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 67% in males and 65%, 83% in females, respectively. At the same time, they are 61%, 73% in males and 73%, 86% in females for DBP, respectively. These sensitivity, specificity, odds ratio, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from our equations are all better than those derived from the criteria of 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg in both genders. By using the presence of MetS as the surrogate of CVD, the regression equations between SBP, DBP, and age were built in both genders. These new criteria are proved to have better sensitivity and specificity for MetS than either 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg. These simple equations should be used in clinical settings for early prevention of CVD. PMID:27057846

  19. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436

  20. Coenzyme Q10 treatment of cardiovascular disorders of ageing including heart failure, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Kun; Wang, Lin-Ping; Chen, Lei; Yao, Xiu-Ping; Yang, Kun-Qi; Gao, Ling-Gen; Zhou, Xian-Liang

    2015-10-23

    Advancing age is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. The aetiology of several cardiovascular disorders is thought to involve impaired mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) acts as both an antioxidant and as an electron acceptor at the level of the mitochondria. Furthermore, in cardiac patients, plasma CoQ10 has been found to be an independent predictor of mortality. Based on the fundamental role of CoQ10 in mitochondrial bioenergetics and its well-acknowledged antioxidant properties, several clinical trials evaluating CoQ10 have been undertaken in cardiovascular disorders of ageing including chronic heart failure, hypertension, and endothelial dysfunction. CoQ10 as a therapy appears to be safe and well tolerated.

  1. Diversity of Group I and II Clostridium botulinum Strains from France Including Recently Identified Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Mazuet, Christelle; Legeay, Christine; Sautereau, Jean; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Bouvet, Philippe; Popoff, Michel R.

    2016-01-01

    In France, human botulism is mainly food-borne intoxication, whereas infant botulism is rare. A total of 99 group I and II Clostridium botulinum strains including 59 type A (12 historical isolates [1947–1961], 43 from France [1986–2013], 3 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), 31 type B (3 historical, 23 recent isolates, 4 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), and 9 type E (5 historical, 3 isolates, and 1 collection strain) were investigated by botulinum locus gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing analysis. Historical C. botulinum A strains mainly belonged to subtype A1 and sequence type (ST) 1, whereas recent strains exhibited a wide genetic diversity: subtype A1 in orfX or ha locus, A1(B), A1(F), A2, A2b2, A5(B2′) A5(B3′), as well as the recently identified A7 and A8 subtypes, and were distributed into 25 STs. Clostridium botulinum A1(B) was the most frequent subtype from food-borne botulism and food. Group I C. botulinum type B in France were mainly subtype B2 (14 out of 20 historical and recent strains) and were divided into 19 STs. Food-borne botulism resulting from ham consumption during the recent period was due to group II C. botulinum B4. Type E botulism is rare in France, 5 historical and 1 recent strains were subtype E3. A subtype E12 was recently identified from an unusual ham contamination. Clostridium botulinum strains from human botulism in France showed a wide genetic diversity and seems to result not from a single evolutionary lineage but from multiple and independent genetic rearrangements. PMID:27189984

  2. Diversity of Group I and II Clostridium botulinum Strains from France Including Recently Identified Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Mazuet, Christelle; Legeay, Christine; Sautereau, Jean; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Bouvet, Philippe; Popoff, Michel R

    2016-01-01

    In France, human botulism is mainly food-borne intoxication, whereas infant botulism is rare. A total of 99 group I and II Clostridium botulinum strains including 59 type A (12 historical isolates [1947-1961], 43 from France [1986-2013], 3 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), 31 type B (3 historical, 23 recent isolates, 4 from other countries, and 1 collection strain), and 9 type E (5 historical, 3 isolates, and 1 collection strain) were investigated by botulinum locus gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing analysis. Historical C. botulinum A strains mainly belonged to subtype A1 and sequence type (ST) 1, whereas recent strains exhibited a wide genetic diversity: subtype A1 in orfX or ha locus, A1(B), A1(F), A2, A2b2, A5(B2') A5(B3'), as well as the recently identified A7 and A8 subtypes, and were distributed into 25 STs. Clostridium botulinum A1(B) was the most frequent subtype from food-borne botulism and food. Group I C. botulinum type B in France were mainly subtype B2 (14 out of 20 historical and recent strains) and were divided into 19 STs. Food-borne botulism resulting from ham consumption during the recent period was due to group II C. botulinum B4. Type E botulism is rare in France, 5 historical and 1 recent strains were subtype E3. A subtype E12 was recently identified from an unusual ham contamination. Clostridium botulinum strains from human botulism in France showed a wide genetic diversity and seems to result not from a single evolutionary lineage but from multiple and independent genetic rearrangements. PMID:27189984

  3. Bringing the Montessori Three-Year Multi-Age Group to the Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes the benefits of including the ninth grade within the 3-year multi-age group setting within a Montessori farm school. Notes how seventh, eighth, and ninth grades work together in one family cluster, allowing 15-year-olds to avoid the pecking order of the high school freshman year while developing personal leadership, confidence, and a…

  4. A Search for Impact Debris in the Pliocene Age Sirius Group, Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Ralph P.; Boyd, Hiram

    2003-01-01

    The Sirius Group is a mixed sequence of interbedded diamictite and mudstone of Pliocene age found at scattered locations along the length of the Transantarctic Mountains. Sirius Group rocks are usually considered tillites, but contain some very "un-tillite" elements. Within section and from site to site, Sirius Group rocks vary considerably in terms of texture and relative abundance of clast lithologies, recording a history that includes shifting influences of glacial, lacustrine, fluvial and wetland processes. The colorful heritage of the Sirius Group has generated a lot of interest due to its potential as a record of changes in the behavior of the East Antarctic icesheet during a climatologically interesting period.

  5. Population Biology of Intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Individuals in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  6. Population biology of intestinal enterococcus isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Tedim, Ana P; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  7. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  8. Metabolomic profiling reveals severe skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of metabolism in aged FBN rats.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Sean M; Dugle, Janis E; Kennedy, Adam D; McDunn, Jonathan E; Kline, William; Guo, Lining; Guttridge, Denis C; Pereira, Suzette L; Edens, Neile K

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles exhibit age-related adaptive and pathological remodeling. Several muscles in particular undergo progressive atrophy and degeneration beyond median lifespan. To better understand myocellular responses to aging, we used semi-quantitative global metabolomic profiling to characterize trends in metabolic changes between 15-month-old adult and 32-month-old aged Fischer 344 × Brown Norway (FBN) male rats. The FBN rat gastrocnemius muscle exhibits age-dependent atrophy, whereas the soleus muscle, up until 32 months, exhibits markedly fewer signs of atrophy. Both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were analyzed, as well as plasma and urine. Compared to adult gastrocnemius, aged gastrocnemius showed evidence of reduced glycolytic metabolism, including accumulation of glycolytic, glycogenolytic, and pentose phosphate pathway intermediates. Pyruvate was elevated with age, yet levels of citrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide were reduced, consistent with mitochondrial abnormalities. Indicative of muscle atrophy, 3-methylhistidine and free amino acids were elevated in aged gastrocnemius. The monounsaturated fatty acids oleate, cis-vaccenate, and palmitoleate also increased in aged gastrocnemius, suggesting altered lipid metabolism. Compared to gastrocnemius, aged soleus exhibited far fewer changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but did show reductions in several glycolytic intermediates, fumarate, malate, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Plasma biochemicals showing the largest age-related increases included glycocholate, heme, 1,5-anhydroglucitol, 1-palmitoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine, palmitoleate, and creatine. These changes suggest reduced insulin sensitivity in aged FBN rats. Altogether, these data highlight skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of glucose and lipid metabolism consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction in aged FBN rats. PMID:24652515

  9. 75 FR 69469 - Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration Organization, Including On...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 34174). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the certification for... Employment and Training Administration Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration..., applicable to workers of Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration...

  10. Osteoporosis knowledge, calcium intake, and weight-bearing physical activity in three age groups of women.

    PubMed

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women and compare knowledge to calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity (WBPA). In this cross-sectional study, knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA were assessed using probe interviews, a food frequency and an activity questionnaire, respectively. Seventy-five white women were separated into three groups: young (25-35 years), middle aged (36-46 years) and postmenopausal (50+ years). Concept maps were used to assess knowledge (concepts, integration and misconceptions). Calcium intakes from diet, supplements and fortified orange juice were estimated as were minutes of daily WBPA. Analysis of covariance was used to compare knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA by age group. Covariates included education, family history, physical problems making exercise difficult, and lactose intolerance. Chi square analysis was used to determine differences in these covariates across age groups. Correlations and regression analysis were used to determine relationships between knowledge and behaviors. Knowledge scores averaged 32-44 points (183 possible). Average calcium intake in all groups exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake's recommended Adequate Intake but 20-24% consumed less than 60% of the AI. Housework, walking at work, and standing at home and work accounted for 90% of WBPA. Knowledge about osteoporosis was limited and not associated with age, WBPA or calcium intake. Calcium intake and WBPA were not associated with age. Practitioners need to provide explicit information on osteoporosis and risk reducing behaviors to women of all ages. PMID:12238730

  11. Dynamics of telomere length in different age groups in a Latvian population.

    PubMed

    Zole, Egija; Pliss, Liana; Ranka, Renate; Krumina, Astrida; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2013-12-01

    The shortening of telomeres with ageing is a well-documented observation; however, the reported number of nucleotides in telomeres varies between different laboratories and studies. Such variability is likely caused by ethnic differences between the populations studied. Until now, there were no studies that investigated the variability of telomere length in a senescent Latvian population of the most common mitochondrial haplogroups, defined as H (45%), U (25%), Y chromosomal N1c (40%) and R1a1 (40%). Telomere length was determined in 121 individuals in different age groups, including a control group containing individuals of 20-40 years old and groups of individuals between 60-70 years old, 71-80 years old, 81-90 years old, and above 90 years old. Telomere length was determined using the Southern blot telomeric restriction fragment assay (TRF). Decreased telomere length with ageing was confirmed, but a comparison of centenarians and individuals between 60-90 years of age did not demonstrate a significant difference in telomere length. However, significant variability in telomere length was observed in the control group, indicating probable rapid telomere shortening in some individuals that could lead up to development of health status decline appearing with ageing. Telomere length measured in mononuclear blood cells (MNC) was compared with the telomere length measured in whole peripheral white blood cells (WBC) using TRF. Telomere length in MNC was longer than in WBC for the control group with individuals 20 to 40 years old; in contrast, for the group of individuals aged 65 to 85 years old, measured telomere length was shorter in MNC when compared to WBC.

  12. 77 FR 51064 - Dana Holding Corporation, Power Technologies Group Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... competitive articles) in 2011 and 2012, loss of business with a firm that employed a worker group eligible to... careful review of the application, I conclude that the claim is of sufficient weight to...

  13. Expression of groups I and II metabotropic glutamate receptors in the rat brain during aging.

    PubMed

    Simonyi, Agnes; Ngomba, Richard T; Storto, Marianna; Catania, Maria V; Miller, Laura A; Youngs, Brian; DiGiorgi-Gerevini, Valeria; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Sun, Grace Y

    2005-05-10

    Age-dependent changes in the expression of group I and II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors were studied by in situ hybridization, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Male Fisher 344 rats of three ages (3, 12 and 25 months) were tested. Age-related increases in mGlu1 receptor mRNA levels were found in several areas (thalamic nuclei, hippocampal CA3) with parallel increases in mGlu1a receptor protein expression. However, a slight decrease in mGlu1a receptor mRNA expression in individual Purkinje neurons and a decline in cerebellar mGlu1a receptor protein levels were detected in aged animals. In contrast, mGlu1b receptor mRNA levels increased in the cerebellar granule cell layer. Although mGlu5 receptor mRNA expression decreased in many regions, its protein expression remained unchanged during aging. Compared to the small changes in mGlu2 receptor mRNA levels, mGlu3 receptor mRNA levels showed substantial age differences. An increased mGlu2/3 receptor protein expression was found in the frontal cortex, thalamus, hippocampus and corpus callosum in aged animals. These results demonstrate region- and subtype-specific, including splice variant specific changes in the expression of mGlu receptors in the brain with increasing age. PMID:15862522

  14. GIS WORK GROUP: AN OVERVIEW (INCLUDES GIS-QA AND AUDITING GIS DATABASE SYSTEMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to promote cooperation in the implementation of GIS in regional offices, a GIS Regional Workgroup was established by the ten Regions in 1989. Since that time the GIS Work Group evolved and now consists of members from each of the ten EPA Regional Offices, the Office of A...

  15. 76 FR 4726 - Avaya Global Services, AOS Service Delivery, Worldwide Services Group, Including Workers Whose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ..., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Reported Through Diamondware, Ltd and Nortel... Avaya Global Services, AOS Service Delivery, including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages.... The notice was published in the Federal Register on November 8, 2010 (75 FR 68622). At the request...

  16. Behavioral Group Work in a Home for the Aged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsk, N.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Elderly people in institutions frequently become isolated and noncommunicative. By using behavioral measurements of group workers and group members, the authors have formulated ways of treatment that encourage members to participate more actively. (Author)

  17. 77 FR 29363 - Chicopee Inc., a Subsidiary of Polymer Group, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... Federal Register on February 16, 2010 (75 FR 7036). The workers are engaged in employment related to the... Employment and Training Administration Chicopee Inc., a Subsidiary of Polymer Group, Inc., Including On- Site... Chicopee, Inc., a subsidiary of Polymer Group, Inc., including on-site leased workers from...

  18. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Health Impact on Disproportionately Affected Populations, Including Minorities and Impoverished Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hitomi; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Further, disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV, further exacerbating these health consequences. This article reviews 36 U.S. studies on the physical (e.g., multiple injuries, disordered eating patterns), mental (e.g., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), and sexual and reproductive health conditions (e.g., HIV/STIs, unintended pregnancy) resulting from IPV victimization among ethnic minority (i.e., Black/African American, Hispanic/Latina, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American) women, some of whom are immigrants. Most studies either did not have a sufficient sample size of ethnic minority women or did not use adequate statistical techniques to examine differences among different racial/ethnic groups. Few studies focused on Native American/Alaska Native and immigrant ethnic minority women and many of the intra-ethnic group studies have confounded race/ethnicity with income and other social determinants of health. Nonetheless, of the available data, there is evidence of health inequities associated with both minority ethnicity and IPV. To appropriately respond to the health needs of these groups of women, it is necessary to consider social, cultural, structural, and political barriers (e.g., medical mistrust, historical racism and trauma, perceived discrimination, immigration status) to patient–provider communication and help-seeking behaviors related to IPV, which can influence health outcomes. This comprehensive approach will mitigate the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities related to IPV and associated health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:25551432

  19. Exploring the Effects of Including Students' Ideas and Concerns on Their Participation in Online Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2011-01-01

    As higher education institutions progressively deliver many more courses through online mode, student retention in courses and ensuring participation in tasks and activities are becoming more a concern to teachers and educational institutions. This pilot study--an action learning project--explored the effect of including students' identified…

  20. Reassessing the NTCTCS Staging Systems for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, Including Age at Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Donald S.A.; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Brierley, James D.; Ain, Kenneth B.; Cooper, David S.; Fein, Henry G.; Haugen, Bryan R.; Ladenson, Paul W.; Magner, James; Ross, Douglas S.; Skarulis, Monica C.; Steward, David L.; Xing, Mingzhao; Litofsky, Danielle R.; Maxon, Harry R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thyroid cancer is unique for having age as a staging variable. Recently, the commonly used age cut-point of 45 years has been questioned. Objective: This study assessed alternate staging systems on the outcome of overall survival, and compared these with current National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study (NTCTCS) staging systems for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. Methods: A total of 4721 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were assessed. Five potential alternate staging systems were generated at age cut-points in five-year increments from 35 to 70 years, and tested for model discrimination (Harrell's C-statistic) and calibration (R2). The best five models for papillary and follicular cancer were further tested with bootstrap resampling and significance testing for discrimination. Results: The best five alternate papillary cancer systems had age cut-points of 45–50 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. No significant difference in C-statistic was found between the best alternate and current NTCTCS systems (p = 0.200). The best five alternate follicular cancer systems had age cut-points of 50–55 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. All five best alternate staging systems performed better compared with the current system (p = 0.003–0.035). There was no significant difference in discrimination between the best alternate system (cut-point age 50 years) and the best system of cut-point age 45 years (p = 0.197). Conclusions: No alternate papillary cancer systems assessed were significantly better than the current system. New alternate staging systems for follicular cancer appear to be better than the current NTCTCS system, although they require external validation. PMID:26203804

  1. Solution Processable White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using New Blue Host Material Including Substituent Group.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehyun; Shin, Hwangyu; Park, Jongwook

    2016-02-01

    New host material of T-TATa isomer substituted t-butyl group was investigated in solution process WOLED device compared with 4-(10-(3',5'-diphenylbiphenyl-4-yl)anthracen-9-yl)-N,N-diphenylaniline [TATa]. A two-color WOLED of a co-host system using solution process method was demonstrated. The device configuration was ITO/PEDOT:PSS (40 nm)/emitting layer (50 nm)/TPBi (20 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/AI. The emitting layer consisted of TATa or T-TATa isomer, NPB, DPAVBi (blue dopant), and rubrene (yellow dopant). NPB was used as not only blue host but also helping hole carrier transport. The device using T-TATa compound as a co-host exhibited a luminance efficiency of 3.39 cd/A, which is about twice higher than TATa device of 1.58 cd/A at 10 mA/cm2. PMID:27433738

  2. Group Treatment of Sexually Abused Latency-Age Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Lisa Y.; Gutierrez-Kovner, Victoria M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a pilot group developed to address the traumagenic stigmatization, powerlessness, betrayal, and sexualization that characterize victims of sexual abuse. Treatment modules developed within this framework focused on: group cohesiveness, discussion of specific abuse experiences, coping strategies, sexuality, victimization prevention, and…

  3. The Pros and Cons of Mixed-Age Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodish, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Recently, numerous larger schools have tried to capture the potential advantages of a wide age range in their classrooms. The nongraded organizational system recognizes and plans for varied student abilities, provides for different rates of progress, and adjusts to individual emotional and social needs. Both advantages and disadvantages are…

  4. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  5. MULTI-AGE GROUPING--ENRICHING THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES OF CHILDREN OCCUR NATURALLY IN PLAY AND IN MANY SCHOOL ACTIVITIES, FOR EXAMPLE, STUDENT COUNCIL MEETINGS, CLUBS, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS. THESE ACTIVITIES DEMAND THE VARIETY OF AGES, TALENTS, INTERESTS, AND EXPERIENCES REPRESENTED BY THE WHOLE RANGE OF STUDENTS IN A SCHOOL. IT IS QUESTIONED WHETHER ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES WOULD NOT…

  6. Genitourinary disorders of old age: therapeutic considerations including counseling for sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Finkle, A L

    1978-10-01

    Genitourinary tissues undergo physical changes with advancing age, due partly to hormonal alterations. However, the greatest influence on continuing sexual function during aging is emotional and is directly related to the psychologic history of the individual patient. The interested professional can help his patient substantially by simply taking time to listen, a process which permits identification of any psychogenic basis for the sexual dysfunction. The entire approach and method of counseling presuppose that psychogenic impotence is the most common form of the problem. This preliminary effort can do no harm. Should it fail, the patient can be referred to other consultants who use more protracted or sophisticated modalities. With the elderly, the clinician can advise patients to share interpersonal warmth and to enjoy the satisfaction of body contact at any age at which this desire and capacity persist. To the aging person, the totality of sexual meaning is more significant than performance or technique. The sympathetic counselor who renders supportive reassurance to the patient usually can expect beneficial results. PMID:701694

  7. Genitourinary disorders of old age: therapeutic considerations including counseling for sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Finkle, A L

    1978-10-01

    Genitourinary tissues undergo physical changes with advancing age, due partly to hormonal alterations. However, the greatest influence on continuing sexual function during aging is emotional and is directly related to the psychologic history of the individual patient. The interested professional can help his patient substantially by simply taking time to listen, a process which permits identification of any psychogenic basis for the sexual dysfunction. The entire approach and method of counseling presuppose that psychogenic impotence is the most common form of the problem. This preliminary effort can do no harm. Should it fail, the patient can be referred to other consultants who use more protracted or sophisticated modalities. With the elderly, the clinician can advise patients to share interpersonal warmth and to enjoy the satisfaction of body contact at any age at which this desire and capacity persist. To the aging person, the totality of sexual meaning is more significant than performance or technique. The sympathetic counselor who renders supportive reassurance to the patient usually can expect beneficial results.

  8. The Ophiostoma clavatum species complex: a newly defined group in the Ophiostomatales including three novel taxa.

    PubMed

    Linnakoski, Riikka; Jankowiak, Robert; Villari, Caterina; Kirisits, Thomas; Solheim, Halvor; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Wingfield, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Two species of blue-stain fungi with similar morphologies, Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum and Ophiostoma clavatum, are associates of bark beetles infesting Pinus spp. in Europe. This has raised questions whether they represent distinct taxa. Absence of herbarium specimens and contaminated or mistakenly identified cultures of O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum have accentuated the uncertainty regarding their correct identification. The aim of this study was to reconsider the identity of European isolates reported as O. brunneo-ciliatum and O. clavatum by applying DNA-based identification methods, and to provide appropriate type specimens for them. Phylogenetic analyses of the ITS, βT, TEF-1α and CAL gene sequences revealed that the investigated isolates represent a complex of seven cryptic species. The study confirmed that ITS data is insufficient to delineate species in some Ophiostoma species clusters. Lectotypes and epitypes were designated for O. clavatum and O. brunneo-ciliatum, and three new species, Ophiostoma brunneolum, Ophiostoma macroclavatum and Ophiostoma pseudocatenulatum, are described in the newly defined O. clavatum-complex. The other two species included in the complex are Ophiostoma ainoae and Ophiostoma tapionis. The results suggest co-evolution of these fungi in association with specific bark beetles. The results also confirm the identity of the fungus associated with the pine bark beetle Ips acuminatus as O. clavatum, while O. brunneo-ciliatum appears to be mainly associated with another pine bark beetle, Ips sexdentatus. PMID:27142088

  9. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  10. Including different groups of genotyped females for genomic prediction in a Nordic Jersey population.

    PubMed

    Gao, H; Madsen, P; Nielsen, U S; Aamand, G P; Su, G; Byskov, K; Jensen, J

    2015-12-01

    Including genotyped females in a reference population (RP) is an obvious way to increase the RP in genomic selection, especially for dairy breeds of limited population size. However, the incorporation of these females must be conducted cautiously because of the potential preferential treatment of the genotyped cows and lower reliabilities of phenotypes compared with the proven pseudo-phenotypes of bulls. Breeding organizations in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden have implemented a female-genotyping project with the possibility of genotyping entire herds using the low-density (LD) chip. In the present study, 5 scenarios for building an RP were investigated in the Nordic Jersey population: (1) bulls only, (2) bulls with females from the LD project, (3) bulls with females from the LD project plus non-LD project females genotyped before their first calving, (4) bulls with females from the LD project plus non-LD project females genotyped after their first calving, and (5) bulls with all genotyped females. The genomically enhanced breeding value (GEBV) was predicted for 8 traits in the Nordic total merit index through a genomic BLUP model using deregressed proof (DRP) as the response variable in all scenarios. In addition, (daughter) yield deviation and raw phenotypic data were studied as response variables for comparison with the DRP, using stature as a model trait. The validation population was formed using a cut-off birth year of 2005 based on the genotyped Nordic Jersey bulls with DRP. The average increment in reliability of the GEBV across the 8 traits investigated was 1.9 to 4.5 percentage points compared with using only bulls in the RP (scenario 1). The addition of all the genotyped females to the RP resulted in the highest gain in reliability (scenario 5), followed by scenario 3, scenario 2, and scenario 4. All scenarios led to inflated GEBV because the regression coefficients are less than 1. However, scenario 2 and scenario 3 led to less bias of genomic predictions

  11. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  12. 75 FR 20389 - Chrysler Group LLC, Formerly Known as Chrysler LLC, Warren Office Building, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Employment and Training Administration Chrysler Group LLC, Formerly Known as Chrysler LLC, Warren Office Building, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Product Action International, LLC, Warren, Michigan... applicable to workers of Chrysler Group LLC, formerly known as Chrysler LLC, Warren Office Building,...

  13. Diversity, Group Identity, and Citizenship Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide immigration and quests for rights by minority groups have caused social scientists and educators to raise serious questions about liberal assimilationist conceptions of citizenship that historically have dominated citizenship education in nation-states. The author of this article challenges liberal assimilationist conceptions of…

  14. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  15. Age-Related Alterations of Plasma Lipid Peroxidation and Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Different Ethnic Groups of Gorgan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mansourian, Azad Reza; Veghari, Gholam Reza; Rabiee, Mohammad Reza

    Free radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of ageing. The free radical theory of ageing postulates that ageing is caused by free radical reactions. These highly reactive species can cause oxidative damage in the cell. The purposive of this study was to investigate the alteration in plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen healthy people. We measured plasma lipid peroxidation levels (lipid peroxidation expressed as malondialdehyde) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. Study include 350 (175 Fars and 175 Turkmen male) apparently healthy individuals. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were determined in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen consisting of healthy individuals between 26-60 years of age {26-30 (n = 30), 3-35 (n = 30), 36-40 (n = 30), 41-45 (n = 30), 46-50 (n = 25), 51-55 (n = 15) and 56-60 (n = 15)}, respectively. The data was analyzed by Student` t-test. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma lipid peroxidation levels in Fars and Turkmen people with 41-45 ages (group 4) and 36-40 ages (group 3) were significantly lower and higher than in the other age groups (Fars groups 1, 2 and 3, Turkmen groups 1, 2), respectively (p< 0.05). There were no significant relation between the age group 4 (Fars people) and the age groups 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). There were no significant relation between the age groups 3 (Turkmen people) and the age groups 4, 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). We found age-related differences in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and plasma lipid peroxidation levels. The results indicate that the balance between antioxidant and prooxidant factors in free radical metabolism shifts towards increased lipid peroxidation with advancing age in 2 ethnic groups. This situation maybe begin in Turkmen people earlier than Fars people. The ethnic origin, diet, heavy working and life style factors of the two populations may explain

  16. Shear-induced hemolysis: effects of blood chemistry (including aging in storage) and shearing surfaces.

    PubMed

    Offeman, R D; Williams, M C

    1976-01-01

    Rotating disks were used to hemolyze blood under low-stress laminar flow conditions. In the first sequence of tests, kinetic hemolysis curves (KHC) were obtained with polyethylene disks for three well-characterized bloods and repeated over a period of four weeks. Each blood had a KHC with different shape, which maintained its characteristics while aging. Correlations were sought between D6000 (percent of complete hemolysis, after 6000 sec of shear) and D0 (measured before shear) by two means of data analysis, in terms of blood chemistry. It was found that uric acid and very-low-density lipoprotein levels were most useful in predicting the characteristic D6000 vs. D0 relation for each blood, and that glucose levels correlated the rate of aging as measured by hemolysis. Other chemical factors are also displayed in terms of their influence on D0. The second series of tests consisted of comparing the KHC for four disk materials using a fourth blood, then repeating with a fifth blood. Hemolytic rankings of the materials were the same with these two blood, although the KHC shapes differed. The rankings were: polyvinyl chloride greater than Silastic approximately equal to polyethylene greater than polyether urethane, with PVC most hemolytic. In another sequence for examining materials effects, five different bloods were used to compare the hemolytic properties of Teflon, nylon, and polyethylene disks. Although the KHC for the three disks bore different relationships to each other with each different blood, extrapolation of data beyond 6000 sec suggests a ranking of Teflon greater than nylon greater than polyethylene.

  17. 76 FR 79221 - Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From QPS Employment Group...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on July 16, 2010 (75 FR 41526). At the request of the State... Employment and Training Administration Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers... Android Industries Belvidere, LLC, including on-site leased workers from QPS Employment Group and...

  18. Short-term memory development: differences in serial position curves between age groups and latent classes.

    PubMed

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2014-10-01

    In studies on the development of cognitive processes, children are often grouped based on their ages before analyzing the data. After the analysis, the differences between age groups are interpreted as developmental differences. We argue that this approach is problematic because the variance in cognitive performance within an age group is considered to be measurement error. However, if a part of this variance is systematic, it can provide very useful information about the cognitive processes used by some children of a certain age but not others. In the current study, we presented 210 children aged 5 to 12 years with serial order short-term memory tasks. First we analyze our data according to the approach using age groups, and then we apply latent class analysis to form latent classes of children based on their performance instead of their ages. We display the results of the age groups and the latent classes in terms of serial position curves, and we discuss the differences in results. Our findings show that there are considerable differences in performance between the age groups and the latent classes. We interpret our findings as indicating that the latent class analysis yielded a much more meaningful way of grouping children in terms of cognitive processes than the a priori grouping of children based on their ages.

  19. Clinical Implications for Muscle Strength Differences in Women of Different Age and Racial Groups: The WIN Study

    PubMed Central

    Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Ferro, Emerenciana; Morrow, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Reduction in muscle strength is strongly associated with functional decline in women, and women with lower quadriceps strength adjusted for body weight are more likely to develop knee osteoarthritis. Objective To compare body weight--adjusted strength among women of different age/racial groups. Study Design Cross-sectional study of muscle strength in 918 women aged 20--83 (M ± SD = 52 ± 13). Methods An orthopedic examination was conducted including measurement of handgrip and lower extremity strength (hip abductors/external rotators, knee flexors/extensors). Data were grouped into young (20--39 years, n = 139), middle (40--54 years, n = 300), and older (55+ years, n = 424) ages for white (n = 699) and African American (AA) (n = 164) women. Means and standard deviations for strength adjusted for body weight were calculated for each age and racial group and compared using 2-way multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results No significant age-by-race interaction (P = .092) but significant main effects for age and race (P < .001). Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in knee extensor and flexor strength between all age groups. For grip and hip external rotator strength, significant differences were found between the middle and older groups. Differences in hip abductor strength were found between the young and middle-aged groups. AA women had lower strength than white women in all muscle groups (P < .05) except hip external rotators. Conclusions Strength decreased with age in all muscle groups but magnitude of decrease varied by muscle. Strengthening programs should target different muscles, depending on a woman's age and race. PMID:21666779

  20. Performance trends in age group breaststroke swimmers in the FINA World Championships 1986-2014.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2016-10-31

    Performance trends in breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level in pool competitions are well investigated for elite swimmers, but not for age group swimmers. This study investigated trends in participation, performance and sex difference in performance in a total of 35,143 (16,160 women and 18,983 men) age group breaststroke swimmers aged 25-29 to 95-99 years competing in the FINA World Masters Championships between 1986 and 2014. Trends in participation were analysed using linear regression analyses and trends in performance were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses with sex, distance and calendar year as fixed variables. Women and men improved performance in all age groups. For age groups 25-29 to 85-89 years, men were faster than women. For age groups 90-94 to 95-99 years, men were not faster than women. Sex and distance showed a significant interaction for all distances in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years. In 50 m, women reduced the gap to men in age groups 40-44 to 70-74 years and in 100 m and 200 m, women reduced the gap in age groups 50-54 to 60-64 years. In summary, (i) women and men improved performance in all race distances and in all age groups, (ii) men were faster than women from 25 to 89 years, but not from 90 to 99 years, and (iii), women reduced the gap to men between ~40 and ~75 years, but not in younger (<40 years) or older (>75 years) age groups. Based on these findings for a time period of nearly 30 years, we may assume a further increase in participation and a further improvement in performance in the near future in age group breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level.

  1. Arsenic Exposure and Immunotoxicity: a Review Including the Possible Influence of Age and Sex.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Daniele; Gribaldo, Laura; Hartung, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that inorganic arsenic, a major environmental pollutant, exerts immunosuppressive effects in epidemiological, in vitro, and animal models. The mechanisms, however, remain unclear, and little is known about variation in susceptibilities due to age and sex. We performed a review of the experimental and epidemiologic evidence on the association of arsenic exposure and immune diseases. The majority of the studies described arsenic as a potent immunosuppressive compound, though others have reported an increase in allergy and autoimmune diseases, suggesting that arsenic may also act as an immune system stimulator, depending on the dose or timing of exposure. Limited information, due to either the high concentrations of arsenic used in in vitro studies or the use of non-human data for predicting human risks, is available from experimental studies. Moreover, although there is emerging evidence that health effects of arsenic manifest differently between men and women, we found limited information on sex differences on the immunotoxic effects of arsenic. In conclusion, preliminary data show that chronic early-life exposure to arsenic might impair immune responses, potentially leading to increased risk of infections and inflammatory-like diseases during childhood and in adulthood. Further investigation to evaluate effects of arsenic exposure on the developing immune system of both sexes, particularly in human cells and using concentrations relevant to human exposure, should be a research priority.

  2. Utility of Microbiological Profile of Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge in Rural Women of Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Results: Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Conclusion: Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae. PMID:25954668

  3. Comparison of electroretinographic responses between two different age groups of adult Dark Agouti rats

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lin; Lo, Amy Cheuk Yin; Lai, Jimmy Shiu Ming; Shih, Kendrick Co

    2015-01-01

    AIM To describe and compare the differences in electroretinographic responses between two different age groups of adult Dark Agouti (DA) rats and to better understand the effect of age on retinal histology and function. METHODS The electroretinographic responses of two different age groups of adult DA rats were compared. Animals were divided into younger adult DA rats 10-12wk (n=8) and older adult DA rats 17-19wk (n=8). Full field electroretinography (ERG) was recorded simultaneously from both eyes after dark adaption and light adaption and parameters including the positive scotopic threshold response (pSTR), negative scotopic threshold response (nSTR), scotopic a-wave, b-wave, photopic a-wave, b-wave and photopic negative response (PhNR) were compared between groups. RESULTS The older adult rats displayed lower stimulation thresholds of the STRs (pSTR and nSTR) and higher amplitudes of pSTR, scotopic a-wave and b-wave, photopic b-wave and PhNR amplitudes, with shorter implicit times. Photopic a-wave amplitudes were however higher in the younger adult rats. CONCLUSION In summary, for the rod system, photoreceptor, bipolar cell and RGC activity was enhanced in the older adult rats. For the cone system, RGC and bipolar cell activity was enhanced, while photoreceptor activity was depressed in the older adult rats. Such age-related selective modification of retinal cell function needs to be considered when conducting ophthalmic research in adult rats. PMID:26558198

  4. Patterns of Adverse Drug Reactions in Different Age Groups: Analysis of Spontaneous Reports by Community Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yun Mi; Shin, Wan Gyoon; Lee, Ju-Yeun; Choi, Soo An; Jo, Yun Hee; Youn, So Jung; Lee, Mo Se; Choi, Kwang Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) spontaneously reported by community pharmacists and to compare the ADRs by age. Methods ADRs reported to the Regional Pharmacovigilance Center of the Korean Pharmaceutical Association by community pharmacists from January 2013 to June 2014 were included. Causality was assessed using the WHO-Uppsala Monitoring Centre system. The patient population was classified into three age groups. We analyzed 31,398 (74.9%) ADRs from 9,705 patients, identified as having a causal relationship, from a total pool of 41,930 ADRs from 9,873 patients. Median patient age was 58.0 years; 66.9% were female. Results Gastrointestinal system (34.4%), nervous system (14.4%), and psychiatric (12.1%) disorders were the most frequent symptoms. Prevalent causative drugs were those for acid-related disorders (11.4%), anti-inflammatory products (10.5%), analgesics (7.2%), and antibacterials (7.1%). Comparisons by age revealed diarrhea and antibacterials to be most commonly associated with ADRs in children (p < 0.001), whereas dizziness was prevalent in the elderly (p < 0.001). Anaphylactic reaction was the most frequent serious event (19.7%), mainly associated with cephalosporins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Among 612 ADRs caused by nonprescription drugs, the leading symptoms and causative drugs were skin disorders (29.6%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (16.2%), respectively. Conclusions According to the community pharmacist reports, the leading clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with ADRs in outpatients differed among age groups. PMID:26172050

  5. Predicting mortality from burns: the need for age-group specific models.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandra L; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2014-09-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000 to 2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. "One size fits all" models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  6. Predicting Mortality from Burn Injuries: The need for age-group specific models

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sandra L.; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G.; Palmieri, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000-2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. “One size fits all” models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  7. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  8. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  9. [Psychophysiological characteristics of professional burnout syndrome in doctors of various specialties and different age groups].

    PubMed

    Parfenov, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    Based on clinical psychopathology, psycho-physiological and medical tests the risk factors of professional burnout among medical professionals of all ages were revealed and the assessment of their impact on the formation of adverse functional status of physicians under research was conducted. The role of psycho-physiological factors (neuro-psychological stability, coping strategies, psychological defense mechanisms, psychosemantic self-relation space, asthenic, obsessive-phobic, hypothymic, anancastic symptoms, the dynamic characteristics of the inhibitory processes, and emotional lability) in the formation of professional burnout among medical specialists of young, middle and elderly age was defined. Neurophysiological markers of professional burnout among medical specialists of young, middle and old age, which are characterized by lower levels of reserve capacity of the cerebral cortex of alpha-rhythm, the prevalence and strength of excitation and balance of beta-rhythm were examined. It was shown that clinical examination of medical specialists of different age groups with symptoms of professional burnout should include the clinical-psychopathological and psychophysiological examinations to determine the psychopathological and personal features, psychological and emotional states of the border areas, which help to identify reactive neurotic disorders and conduct its targeted correction.

  10. Benefits of gregarious feeding by aposematic caterpillars depend on group age structure.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stuart A; Stastny, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Gregarious feeding is a common feature of herbivorous insects and can range from beneficial (e.g. dilution of predation risk) to costly (e.g. competition). Group age structure should influence these costs and benefits, particularly when old and young larvae differ in their feeding mode or apparency to predators. We investigated the relative value of gregarious feeding by aposematic larvae of Uresiphita reversalis that we observed feeding in groups of mixed ages and variable densities on wild Lupinus diffusus. In a manipulative field experiment, the survivorship and growth of young larvae were enhanced in the presence of older conspecifics, but not in large groups of similarly aged larvae. Estimates of insect damage and induced plant responses suggest that mixed-age groups enhance plant quality for young larvae while avoiding competition. We conclude that benefits of gregariousness in this species are contingent on group age structure, a finding of significance for the ecology and evolution of gregariousness and other social behaviours.

  11. 76 FR 22729 - Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plant #1, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... December 18, 2008 (73 FR 77067). In order to avoid an overlap in worker group coverage, the Department is..., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Caravan Knight, Detroit, MI; Amended Certification Regarding... Knight, Detroit, Michigan. The workers are engaged in the production of automotive engines. The...

  12. 76 FR 19466 - Masco Builder Cabinet Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reserves Network, Reliable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Reserves Network, Reliable Staffing, and Third Dimension Waverly, OH; Masco Builder Cabinet Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reserves Network, Reliable Staffing, and Third Dimension Seal Township... in the Federal Register on December 11, 2009 (74 FR 65797). The notice was amended on December...

  13. 75 FR 76037 - HAVI Logistics, North America a Subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ..., Bloomingdale, Illinois. The Notice was published in the Federal Register on September 21, 2010 (75 FR 57516... Employment and Training Administration HAVI Logistics, North America a Subsidiary of HAVI Group, LP Including... Logistics, North America, Lisle, IL; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for...

  14. Constraining the age of the Mitu Group, South-East Peru: U-Pb ages of detrital and igneous zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitsma, Mariël.; Schaltegger, Urs; Spikings, Richard; Winkler, Wilfried; Carlotto, Victor

    2010-05-01

    Inverted extensional basins with continental deposits of the Mitu Group straddle the Eastern Cordillera of Peru. The present study investigates the Mitu Group of south-east Peru (13-16°S), which consists of continental clastic sedimentary rocks and interbedded basaltic to andesitic lavas. There is a paucity of geochemical and geochronological data from the Mitu Group, and the interpretation of its evolution is complicated by i) rapid changes in fault structure along-strike of the graben system, and ii) inversion during Andean orogenesis. Due to dominating coarse-grained clastics, the Mitu Group is devoid of fossils and its age is poorly bracketed to the Permo-Triassic, based on its stratigraphic relationships with the underlying Copacabana and overlying Pucará groups. The upper strata of the Copacabana Group have been constrained by palynology to the Artinskian, while marine fossils at the base of the Pucará Group indicate a Norian age. The Pucará Group is only present in northern Peru, whereas the Mitu Group has an erosional contact with overlying Cretaceous sandstones in the study area. Preliminary data suggest that the lower Mitu Group is middle Triassic, leaving a significant hiatus between the Copacabana and Mitu groups. Laser ablation ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating was utilized to characterize pre- and syn-rift detrital zircon assemblages in sandstones, as well as to date the syn-rift volcanic and plutonic activity. Detrital zircon U-Pb age histograms of medium grained sandstones in the pre-rift Ambo and Copacabana groups contain several age populations, which can be immediately linked to major events identified along the western Gondwanan margin, such as the Sunsas/Grenville (1 Ga) and Pampean (0.55 Ga) orogenies, as well as the Famatinian arc (0.45 Ga). The youngest zircon in the population assigns a maximum deposition age to the rock; these zircons are of late Mississippian age for the Ambo and latest Pennsylvanian for the Copacabana groups. The

  15. The Poincar group in a demisemidirect product with a non-associative algebra with representations that Include particles and quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeck, Franklin E.

    2008-11-18

    The quarks have always been a puzzle, as have the particles' mass and mass/spin relations as they seemed to have no coordinates in configuration space and/or momentum space. The solution to this seems to lie in the marriage of ordinary Poincare group representations with a non-associative algebra made through a demisemidirect product. Then, the work of G. Dixon applies; so, we may obtain all the relations between masses, mass and spin, and the attribution of position and momentum to quarks--this in spite of the old restriction that the Poincare group cannot be extended to a larger group by any means (including the (semi)direct product) to get even the mass relations. Finally, we will briefly discuss a possible connection between the phase space representations of the Poincare group and the phase space representations of the object we will obtain. This will take us into Leibniz (co)homology.

  16. Sternal Gland Scent-Marking Signals Sex, Age, Rank, and Group Identity in Captive Mandrills.

    PubMed

    Vaglio, Stefano; Minicozzi, Pamela; Romoli, Riccardo; Boscaro, Francesca; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Moneti, Gloriano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2016-02-01

    Mandrills are one of the few Old World primates to show scent-marking. We combined ethological and chemical approaches to improve our understanding of this behavior in 3 zoo-managed groups. We observed the olfactory behavior performed by adults and adolescents (N = 39) for 775h. We investigated the volatile components of sternal scent-marks using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared volatile profiles with traits of the signaler. Males marked more than females and within each sex the frequency of scent-marking was related to age and dominance status, but alpha males scent-marked most frequently and particularly in specific areas at the enclosure boundaries. We identified a total of 77 volatile components of sternal gland secretion, including compounds functioning as male sex pheromones in other mammals, in scent-marks spontaneously released on filter paper by 27 male and 18 female mandrills. We confirmed our previous findings that chemical profiles contain information including sex, male age and rank, and we also found that odor may encode information about group membership in mandrills. Our results support the hypotheses that scent-marking signals the status of the dominant male as well as playing territorial functions but also suggest that it is part of sociosexual communication. PMID:26708734

  17. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  18. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: a multivariable model including system level factors.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake.

  19. Variations of Weight of Prostate Gland in Different Age Groups of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Epsi, E Z; Khalil, M; Mannan, S; Azam, M S; Ahmed, Z; Farjan, S; Kabir, A; Ara, I; Ajmery, S; Zaman, U K; Amin, S

    2016-07-01

    Now a days, benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate are the most common disorders in men. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh to find out the difference in weight of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories - Group A (upto 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the prostate gland were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the prostate gland was 10.13gm in Group A, 17.27gm in Group B and 22.50gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that mean differences of weight of the prostate were highly significant among all age groups. The weight of prostate gland was found to increase with increased age. For statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using students unpaired 't' test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of prostate gland of Bangladeshi people. PMID:27612887

  20. Ileal perforation associated with dengue in the paediatric age group: an uncommon presentation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Gupta, Archika; Pandey, Anand; Kureel, Shiv Narain

    2016-01-01

    Acute abdomen in dengue, a common arboviral disease found in tropical and subtropical countries, is not uncommon and can occasionally present as acute surgical emergency requiring urgent surgical intervention. The spectrum of acute abdomen presenting as surgical emergency in dengue infection that raises suspicion of an abdominal catastrophe includes acute appendicitis, acute cholecystitis, appendicitis and, rarely, intestinal perforation. All cases of intestinal perforation including appendicular, gastric and jejunal perforation have been reported in adult patients during the course of dengue infection. However, intestinal perforation during the course of dengue infection in the paediatric age group has never been reported. We report two cases of ileal perforation in children occurring during the course of dengue infection. PMID:27485879

  1. Performance of four age groups of normal elderly on the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test.

    PubMed

    Mitrushina, M; Satz, P; Chervinsky, A; D'Elia, L

    1991-05-01

    This study explored effect of age on encoding, retention, and retrieval components of memory functioning in a sample of 156 healthy, elderly subjects between the ages of 57 and 85, partitioned into four age groups. Memory assessment was based on subjects' performance on the RAVLT, which consisted of five free-recall trials, recall after interference, and recognition trial. Significant group differences in recall were found on all five learning trials, whereas rates of learning, forgetting, and recognition did not differ for four age groups. In addition, primacy/recency effect was equally strong for all groups. Results suggest faulty retrieval mechanisms, whereas encoding and retention processes did not prove to be affected by aging.

  2. Dental computed tomographic imaging as age estimation: morphological analysis of the third molar of a group of Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Cantekin, Kenan; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmis

    2013-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is capable of providing accurate and measurable 3-dimensional images of the third molar. The aims of this study were to analyze the development of the mandibular third molar and its relation to chronological age and to create new reference data for a group of Turkish participants aged 9 to 25 years on the basis of cone-beam CT images. All data were obtained from the patients' records including medical, social, and dental anamnesis and cone-beam CT images of 752 patients. Linear regression analysis was performed to obtain regression formulas for dental age calculation with chronological age and to determine the coefficient of determination (r) for each sex. Statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between age and third-molar development for the males (r2 = 0.80) and the females (r2 = 0.78). Computed tomographic images are clinically useful for accurate and reliable estimation of dental ages of children and youth.

  3. [Comparative study of 2 groups of paranoid syndromes appearing at different ages].

    PubMed

    Gilliéron, E; Müller, C

    1976-01-01

    Clinical study of two groups of females beyond age of 65, institutionalized for delusional manifestations of schizophrenic nature and presenting also, at the time of examination, a pronounced paranoid state. In the first group: the manifestations had arisen before the age of 45. In the second group, after the age of 65. This study has demonstrated certain psychopathological characteristics suggesting the presence of personality problems definitely more profound in patients of the first group: autistic state, asthenia, thought disorder, incoherence and vagueness of delusional subjects, ordinarily much more unreal are characteristics of the first group in comparison to the second. This seems to bring evidence that these two paranoid states (paranoid schizophrenia in adult age and paranoid state in senility) are, at first sight, pathological entities based on personality problems of very different intensity.

  4. How do groups work? Age differences in performance and the social outcomes of peer collaboration.

    PubMed

    Leman, Patrick J

    2015-05-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were awarded to the best performing individuals. Findings, both in terms of social outcomes and performance in the quiz, indicated that the 8-year olds viewed the benefits of group membership in terms of the opportunities to receive information from other members. The 13-year olds, in contrast, viewed group collaboration as a constructive process where success was connected with group cohesiveness.

  5. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  6. A self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young moving groups in the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2015-11-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young ( ≲ 200 Myr), nearby ( ≲ 100 pc) moving groups in the solar neighbourhood based on homogeneous fitting of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones using the τ2 maximum-likelihood fitting statistic of Naylor & Jeffries in the MV, V - J colour-magnitude diagram. The final adopted ages for the groups are as follows: 149^{+51}_{-19} {Myr} for the AB Dor moving group, 24 ± 3 Myr for the β Pic moving group (BPMG), 45^{+11}_{-7} {Myr} for the Carina association, 42^{+6}_{-4} {Myr} for the Columba association, 11 ± 3 Myr for the η Cha cluster, 45 ± 4 Myr for the Tucana-Horologium moving group (Tuc-Hor), 10 ± 3 Myr for the TW Hya association and 22^{+4}_{-3} {Myr} for the 32 Ori group. At this stage we are uncomfortable assigning a final, unambiguous age to the Argus association as our membership list for the association appears to suffer from a high level of contamination, and therefore it remains unclear whether these stars represent a single population of coeval stars. Our isochronal ages for both the BPMG and Tuc-Hor are consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary (LDB) ages, which unlike isochronal ages, are relatively insensitive to the choice of low-mass evolutionary models. This consistency between the isochronal and LDB ages instils confidence that our self-consistent, absolute age scale for young, nearby moving groups is robust, and hence we suggest that these ages be adopted for future studies of these groups. Software implementing the methods described in this study is available from http://www.astro.ex.ac.uk/people/timn/tau-squared/.

  7. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  8. Disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (Crossbred) males in organized herd

    PubMed Central

    Panmei, Achun; Gupta, A. K.; Shivahre, P. R.; Bhakat, M.; Singh, K. Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to analyze the disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (KF) males in National Dairy Research Institute herd. Materials and Methods: Records on 1740 KF crossbred bulls born during the period 1997-2012 were collected with an objective to ascertain the effect of genetic and non-genetic (Period of birth and season of birth) factors on the disposal pattern of KF males. The percent of animals disposed from the herd due to mortality and culling was calculated by proportion using descriptive statistics. The data were subjected to Chi-square test to test the difference due to different factors. Results: Overall disposal rate for the different age groups of 0-1 m, 1-2 m, 2-3 m, 3-6 m, 6-18 m, 18 m-3 year and 3-5 year were calculated as 17.9, 16.3, 14.2, 25.8, 49.0, 37.6 and 51.65%, respectively. In the age groups, 3-6 m, 6-18 m and 3-5 year, effect of periods of birth were found to be statistically significant (p<0.01) for overall disposal rate. Across different seasons of birth, overall disposal rates differed significantly (p<0.01) in different age group except in 3-5 year age group. Differences in overall disposal rate due to genetic group were statistically significant (p<0.01) in 1-2 m, 2-3 m, 3-6 m, 6-18 m, 18-3 year and 3-5 year age groups. Conclusion: Overview of the results indicated that higher overall disposal rate in age group of 1 month was due to mortality while, in the age groups of >1 month, culling was the primary cause. PMID:27047071

  9. Dermatological disease in the older age group: a cross-sectional study in aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Maneka S; Vandal, Alain C; Jarrett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of dermatological disease in aged care facilities, and the relationship between cognitive or physical disability and significant disease. Setting 2 large aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand, each providing low and high level care. Participants All 161 residents of the facilities were invited to participate. The only exclusion criterion was inability to obtain consent from the individual or designated guardian. 88 participants were recruited—66 females (75%), 22 males (25%) with average age 87.1 years (SD 5.5 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary—presence of significant skin disease (defined as that which in the opinion of the investigators needed treatment or was identified as a patient concern) diagnosed clinically on full dermatological examination by a dermatologist or dermatology trainee. Secondary—functional and cognitive status (Rehabilitation Complexity Scale and Abbreviated Mental Test Score). Results 81.8% were found to have at least one significant condition. The most common disorders were onychomycosis 42 (47.7%), basal cell carcinoma 13 (14.8%), asteototic eczema 11 (12.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ 9 (10.2%). Other findings were invasive squamous cell carcinoma 7 (8%), bullous pemphigoid 2 (2.3%), melanoma 2 (2.3%), lichen sclerosus 2 (2.3%) and carcinoma of the breast 1 (1.1%). Inflammatory disease was more common in those with little physical disability compared with those with serious physical disability (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6, p=0.04). No significant association was found between skin disease and cognitive impairment. Conclusions A high rate of dermatological disease was found. Findings ranged from frequent but not life-threatening conditions (eg, onychomycosis), to those associated with a significant morbidity (eg, eczema, lichen sclerosus and bullous pemphigoid), to potentially life-threatening (eg, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and breast cancer

  10. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  11. The Age of the Ursa Major Moving Group from Interferometric Measurements of Its A-type Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jeremy; White, Russel J.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Schaefer, Gail; Baines, Ellyn K.; Ireland, Michael; Patience, Jenny; McAlister, Harold A.; Ten Brummelaar, Theo

    2015-01-01

    A set of six A-type stars in the nearby Ursa Major moving group have been observed and spatially resolved with the CHARA Array, using the Classic and/or CLIMB beam combiners. At least four of these stars are rapidly rotating (vsini ≥ 170 kms-1) and are expected to be oblate. These interferometric measurements and the stars' observed photometric energy distributions (PEDs) are used to construct oblate star models from which stellar properties (R(θ), T(θ), etc.) are determined. The results are compared with MESA stellar evolution models to determine mass and age. This analysis provides an independently determined mean age estimate for the Ursa Major moving group of 490 Myr with a standard deviation of 98 Myr, consistent with previous age estimates. This validated technique can be used to provide independent age estimates of field A-stars, including those that host directly imaged substellar companions (e.g. HR 8799, κ And).

  12. The NLP toxin family in Phytophthora sojae includes rapidly evolving groups that lack necrosis-inducing activity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Suomeng; Kong, Guanghui; Qutob, Dinah; Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Kang, Jixiong; Dai, Tingting; Wang, Hai; Gijzen, Mark; Wang, Yuanchao

    2012-07-01

    Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins (NLP) are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic plant pathogens and are considered to be important virulence factors. We identified, in total, 70 potential Phytophthora sojae NLP genes but 37 were designated as pseudogenes. Sequence alignment of the remaining 33 NLP delineated six groups. Three of these groups include proteins with an intact heptapeptide (Gly-His-Arg-His-Asp-Trp-Glu) motif, which is important for necrosis-inducing activity, whereas the motif is not conserved in the other groups. In total, 19 representative NLP genes were assessed for necrosis-inducing activity by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, only eight genes triggered cell death. The expression of the NLP genes in P. sojae was examined, distinguishing 20 expressed and 13 nonexpressed NLP genes. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicate that most NLP are highly expressed during cyst germination and infection stages. Amino acid substitution ratios (Ka/Ks) of 33 NLP sequences from four different P. sojae strains resulted in identification of positive selection sites in a distinct NLP group. Overall, our study indicates that expansion and pseudogenization of the P. sojae NLP family results from an ongoing birth-and-death process, and that varying patterns of expression, necrosis-inducing activity, and positive selection suggest that NLP have diversified in function.

  13. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Worby, Colin J.; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic’s peak. We found children aged 11–12y, 13–14y and 8–10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak’s ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11–12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak’s ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8–10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8–14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation. PMID:26278132

  14. An Examination of Group-Based Treatment Packages for Increasing Elementary-Aged Students' Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeny, John C.; Silber, Jennifer M.

    2006-01-01

    Reading fluency has been described as one of the essential ingredients for ensuring that students become successful readers. Unfortunately, a large number of elementary-aged students in this country do not fluently read age-appropriate material. Because of this, small-group interventions are practical and more time efficient than individualized…

  15. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive…

  16. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  17. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak.

    PubMed

    Worby, Colin J; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-08-17

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic's peak. We found children aged 11-12y, 13-14y and 8-10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak's ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11-12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak's ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8-10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8-14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation.

  18. Age Group Differences in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Functional Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.; Kim, Johnny S.

    2007-01-01

    This study used data from the 2000 interview wave of the Health and Retirement Study to examine age group differences in the likelihood of self-reported depressive symptomatology among a nationally representative sample of 3,035 adults age 55 years or older who had at least one activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily…

  19. The Effects of Music on Age Group Swimmers' Motivation and Practice Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckel, Bryan D.

    This study examined the effects of music on the motivation of 22 female and 5 male swimmers ages 10-13 years. These age-group swimmers practiced 2.0-2.5 hours per day and had six training sessions per week. Using observation logs, surveys, and open-ended questions, the study analyzed swimmers' perceptions of, and behavior when, listening to music…

  20. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  1. The associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Zoer, I; Ruitenburg, M M; Botje, D; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups. A questionnaire was sent to 2021 employees of a Dutch railway company. Six aspects of psychosocial workload (work pressure, mental workload, emotional workload, autonomy, social support from colleagues and social support from supervisors) and three mental health outcomes (work-related fatigue, stress and burnout) were assessed. Associations between the aspects of psychosocial workload (distributed into tertiles) and health complaints were analysed by logistic regression analysis in four age groups (22-35, 36-45, 46-55 and 56-66 years old). In all age groups, worse work pressure was a significant risk factor for having mental health complaints. Worse emotional load in the younger employees and lack of social support in older employees were associated with a higher risk of having mental health complaints. Age-specific preventive measures should be implemented on both individual and group levels. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: With an ageing workforce, understanding relationships between age and work-related health ailments is increasingly important. This study found that emotional workload in younger and lack of social support in older employees were associated with a higher risk of mental health complaints. Work pressure was a risk factor in all age groups.

  2. Nutritional deficiencies in the pediatric age group in a multicultural developed country, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Haimi, Motti; Lerner, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide. Diseases and morbid conditions have been described to result from nutritional deficiencies. It is essential to address nutrient deficiencies as these may lead to chronic long-term health problems such as rickets, iron deficiency anemia, goiter, obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, cancer and osteoporosis. In the present review we surveyed the extent and severity of nutritional deficiencies in Israel through a selective and comprehensive Medline review of previous reports and studies performed during the last 40 years. Israeli populations have multiple nutritional deficiencies, including iron, calcium, zinc, folic acid, and vitamins B12, C, D and E, spanning all age groups, several minorities, and specific regions. In Israel, some of the nutrients are mandatorily implemented and many of them are implemented voluntarily by local industries. We suggest ways to prevent and treat the nutritional deficiencies, as a step to promote food fortification in Israel. PMID:24868510

  3. Nutritional deficiencies in the pediatric age group in a multicultural developed country, Israel.

    PubMed

    Haimi, Motti; Lerner, Aaron

    2014-05-16

    Nutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide. Diseases and morbid conditions have been described to result from nutritional deficiencies. It is essential to address nutrient deficiencies as these may lead to chronic long-term health problems such as rickets, iron deficiency anemia, goiter, obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, cancer and osteoporosis. In the present review we surveyed the extent and severity of nutritional deficiencies in Israel through a selective and comprehensive Medline review of previous reports and studies performed during the last 40 years. Israeli populations have multiple nutritional deficiencies, including iron, calcium, zinc, folic acid, and vitamins B12, C, D and E, spanning all age groups, several minorities, and specific regions. In Israel, some of the nutrients are mandatorily implemented and many of them are implemented voluntarily by local industries. We suggest ways to prevent and treat the nutritional deficiencies, as a step to promote food fortification in Israel.

  4. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  5. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. Methods The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,323,758) were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Results Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Conclusions Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy. PMID:22784412

  6. Prevalence, Formation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of Interdisciplinary Student Aging Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine J.; Vandenberg, Edward V.; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and…

  7. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  8. An Approach to the Management of Gonorrhea in the Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Alice Faye

    1981-01-01

    Gonorrhea is becoming more important to the pediatrician. Not only is the incidence of this disease greatest in the adolescent group, but it has become more frequent in young children as well. The author outlines an approach to managing gonococcal disease in the pediatric and adolescent age groups. PMID:7193742

  9. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  10. Curriculum Construction for Non-formal Education for the Age-Group 15-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitra, Satyen

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the need for nonformal education curriculum development for illiterate Indians in the 15-25 age group. Certain characteristics of this group are noted and curriculum development is discussed in terms of definition, components, objectives, content, methods, and evaluation. (SH)

  11. Attitudes about Aging Well among a Diverse Group of Older Americans: Implications for Promoting Cognitive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Tseng, Winston; Wu, Bei; Beard, Renee L.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Ivey, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine perceptions about aging well in the context of cognitive health among a large and diverse group of older adults. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups were conducted with older adults living in the community ( N = 396; White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic). Participant descriptions …

  12. The Isochronal Age Scale of Young Moving Groups in the Solar Neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2016-01-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young (<~ 200 Myr), nearby (<~ 100 pc) moving groups, which is consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary ages for both the β Pic and Tucana-Horologium moving groups. This age scale was derived using a set of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones that incorporate an empirical colour-T eff relation and bolometric corrections based on the observed colours of Pleiades members, with theoretical corrections for the dependence on logg. Absolute ages for young, nearby groups are vital as these regions play a crucial role in our understanding of the early evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars, as well as providing ideal targets for direct imaging and other measurements of dusty debris discs, substellar objects and, of course, extrasolar planets.

  13. The Ages of A-Stars. I. Interferometric Observations and Age Estimates for Stars in the Ursa Major Moving Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jeremy; White, R. J.; Boyajian, T.; Schaefer, G.; Baines, E.; Ireland, M.; Patience, J.; ten Brummelaar, T.; McAlister, H.; Ridgway, S. T.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Farrington, C.; Goldfinger, P. J.

    2015-11-01

    We have observed and spatially resolved a set of seven A-type stars in the nearby Ursa Major moving group with the Classic, CLIMB, and PAVO beam combiners on the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy Array. At least four of these stars have large rotational velocities (v{sin}i ≳ 170 {km} {{{s}}}-1) and are expected to be oblate. These interferometric measurements, the stars’ observed photometric energy distributions, and v{sin}i values are used to computationally construct model oblate stars from which stellar properties (inclination, rotational velocity, and the radius and effective temperature as a function of latitude, etc.) are determined. The results are compared with MESA stellar evolution models to determine masses and ages. The value of this new technique is that it enables the estimation of the fundamental properties of rapidly rotating stars without the need to fully image the star. It can thus be applied to stars with sizes comparable to the interferometric resolution limit as opposed to those that are several times larger than the limit. Under the assumption of coevality, the spread in ages can be used as a test of both the prescription presented here and the MESA evolutionary code for rapidly rotating stars. With our validated technique, we combine these age estimates and determine the age of the moving group to be 414 ± 23 Myr, which is consistent with, but much more precise than previous estimates.

  14. Justice between age groups: an objection to the prudential lifespan approach.

    PubMed

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2013-01-01

    Societal aging raises challenging ethical questions regarding the just distribution of health care between young and old. This article considers a proposal for age-based rationing of health care, which is based on the prudential life span account of justice between age groups. While important objections have been raised against the prudential life span account, it continues to dominate scholarly debates. This article introduces a new objection, one that develops out of the well-established disability critique of social contract theories. I show the implications of this critique for the prudential life span account and for the special case of age-group justice. The result is that age-based rationing based on the prudential life span approach is not supported, and that the prudential life span approach itself is not the best way to think about allocating health care between age groups. I propose an alternative approach that avoids the disability objection, and consider its implications for specific proposals for age-based rationing of health care.

  15. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in Brazilian Samples of Different Age Groups: Findings from Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Brietzke, Elisa; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Kristensen, Christian Haag; Arteche, Adriane Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is internationally accepted as a key tool for the assessment of childhood abuse and neglect experiences. However, there are relative few psychometric studies available and some authors have proposed two different factor solutions. We examined the dimensional structure and internal consistency of the Brazilian version of the CTQ. A total of 1,925 participants from eight different clinical and non-clinical samples including adolescents, adults and elders were considered in this study. First, we performed Confirmatory Factor Analysis to investigate the goodness of fit of the two proposed competitive factor structure models for the CTQ. We also investigated the internal consistency of all factors. Second, multi-group analyses were used to investigate measurement invariance and population heterogeneity across age groups and sex. Our findings revealed that the alternative factor structure as opposed to the original factor structure was the most appropriate model within adolescents and adults Brazilian samples. We provide further evidence for the validity and reliability of the CTQ within the Brazilian samples and report that the alternative model showed an improvement in fit indexes and may be a better alternative over the original model. PMID:24475237

  16. Structural Validity of the Movement ABC-2 Test: Factor Structure Comparisons across Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Joerg; Henderson, Sheila E.; Sugden, David A.; Barnett, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Movement ABC test is one of the most widely used assessments in the field of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Improvements to the 2nd edition of the test (M-ABC-2) include an extension of the age range and reduction in the number of age bands as well as revision of tasks. The total test score provides a measure of motor…

  17. pH-dependent release of trace elements including platinum group elements (PGEs) from gasoline and diesel catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sucha, Veronika; Mihaljevic, Martin; Ettler, Vojtech; Strnad, Ladislav

    2014-05-01

    The release of trace metals and platinum group elements (PGEs) from automobile exhaust catalysts represents a remarkable source of higly dispersed environmental contamination. Especially, PGEs have shown increasing research interest due to their possible bioaccessibility. In our research, we focused on leaching behaviour of trace metals from gasoline and diesel automobile catalysts. While catalysts for gasoline engines contain a mixture of Pt-Pd-Rh or Pd-Rh, catalysts for diesel engines are composed only of Pt. We used dust from two crushed gasoline and two crushed diesel catalysts (new and aged). The dust of gasoline catalysts contains significant concentrations of Pt (700 mg.kg-1), Pd (11 000 mg.kg-1) and Rh (700 mg.kg-1). And the dust of diesel catalysts are composed of Pt (3 900 mg.kg-1) and they contains negligible amounts of Pd dan Rh (< 0.5 mg.kg-1, < 0.1 mg.kg-1, respectively). To evaluate leaching of trace metals from dust we used pH-stat leaching test according to the European standard CEN/TS 14997. The concentrations of cations: PGEs (Pt, Pd a Rh), K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, La and Ce were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), and anions: F-, Cl-, SO42- and NO3- by high-performance liquid chromatography. Although the dusts from catalysts were relatively stable to acid/base influence, the leaching of trace metals from catalysts showed a dependence on pH. Generally, the highest concentrations were released under acidic conditions. The leaching of PGEs was higher for Pt in diesel catalysts and for Pd and Rh in gasoline catalysts. The highest concentrations of Zn and Pb were observed in old catalysts. The rare earth metals were released more from gasoline catalysts. Catalysts particles represent health risk especially with respect to their PGEs contents.

  18. [CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RETINA IN CHRONIC STRESS IN LABORATORY RATS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS].

    PubMed

    Nesterova, A A; Yermilov, V V; Tiurenkov, I N; Smirnov, A V; Grigoriyeva, N V; Zagrebin, V L; Rogova, L N; Antoshkin, O N; Dovgalyov, A O

    2016-01-01

    The retina was studied in albino laboratory male rats of two age groups (12 and 24 months), 10 animals in each subjected to chronic combined stress. The stress was caused in animals by simultaneous exposure to pulsed light, loud sound, swinging and restriction of mobility for 7 days, 30 mm daily. The retina of intact rats of the corresponding age groups (n = 20) served as control. Enucleated eyes of stressed and control animals were processed with standard histological technique and stained with Nissl's method and hematoxylin-eosin. The retina of the stressed animals of both age groups showed the decrease in the number of cells and the disarrangement of its layers, most pronounced in the layers of photoreceptor neurons and ganglion cells. The comparative morphometric analysis demonstrated a reduction of the layer thickness and cell numerical density in the retina of stressed animals, both young (12 months) and old (24 months), as compared to that of control animals. PMID:27487662

  19. Effect of Age Group on Technical-Tactical Performance Profile of the Serve in Men's Volleyball.

    PubMed

    García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical-tactical performance profile of the serve for various age groups and categories of competition in men's volleyball. The sample comprised 13,262 serves performed by 986 players in 299 sets observed in various categories of competition (U-14, U-16, U-19, national senior, and international senior). An observational design was used. The variables studied were category of competition, type of execution, and serve performance. The results showed that for higher age groups (senior categories), there were significantly fewer jump serves and poorer serve performance, regardless of players' maturity and training development. The use of the jump serves increased the serve risk while attempting to hinder the organization of the opponent attack. This paper discusses the serve evolution and the implications on the training process at the different age groups in men's volleyball. PMID:27468992

  20. Luminous AGB Stars beyond the Local Group: Tracers of Intermediate-age Populations in the Cen A Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crnojević, D.; Rejkuba, M.; Grebel, E. K.; da Costa, G.; Jerjen, H.

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the resolved stellar content of three predominantly old and metal-poor early-type dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A group (at a distance of ˜4 Mpc). Our goal is to estimate the fraction of the intermediate-age populations (IAPs) and the period of most recent star formation from their luminous AGB stars. We combine optical HST/ACS and near-infrared VLT/ISAAC images to identify AGB star candidates. The first dataset provides high-resolution photometry while the second one permits us to disentangle the galaxies’ stellar content from the foreground contamination and to characterize the IAPs. The IAP fraction is found to be very low in the target galaxies (up to ˜15%). We compare the results to our own Local Group.

  1. Benchmark Calculations of Energetic Properties of Groups 4 and 6 Transition Metal Oxide Nanoclusters Including Comparison to Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zongtang; Both, Johan; Li, Shenggang; Yue, Shuwen; Aprà, Edoardo; Keçeli, Murat; Wagner, Albert F; Dixon, David A

    2016-08-01

    The heats of formation and the normalized clustering energies (NCEs) for the group 4 and group 6 transition metal oxide (TMO) trimers and tetramers have been calculated by the Feller-Peterson-Dixon (FPD) method. The heats of formation predicted by the FPD method do not differ much from those previously derived from the NCEs at the CCSD(T)/aT level except for the CrO3 nanoclusters. New and improved heats of formation for Cr3O9 and Cr4O12 were obtained using PW91 orbitals instead of Hartree-Fock (HF) orbitals. Diffuse functions are necessary to predict accurate heats of formation. The fluoride affinities (FAs) are calculated with the CCSD(T) method. The relative energies (REs) of different isomers, NCEs, electron affinities (EAs), and FAs of (MO2)n (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, n = 1-4) and (MO3)n (M = Cr, Mo, W, n = 1-3) clusters have been benchmarked with 55 exchange-correlation density functional theory (DFT) functionals including both pure and hybrid types. The absolute errors of the DFT results are mostly less than ±10 kcal/mol for the NCEs and the EAs and less than ±15 kcal/mol for the FAs. Hybrid functionals usually perform better than the pure functionals for the REs and NCEs. The performance of the two types of functionals in predicting EAs and FAs is comparable. The B1B95 and PBE1PBE functionals provide reliable energetic properties for most isomers. Long range corrected pure functionals usually give poor FAs. The standard deviation of the absolute error is always close to the mean errors, and the probability distributions of the DFT errors are often not Gaussian (normal). The breadth of the distribution of errors and the maximum probability are dependent on the energy property and the isomer. PMID:27384926

  2. Benchmark Calculations of Energetic Properties of Groups 4 and 6 Transition Metal Oxide Nanoclusters Including Comparison to Density Functional Theory.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zongtang; Both, Johan; Li, Shenggang; Yue, Shuwen; Aprà, Edoardo; Keçeli, Murat; Wagner, Albert F; Dixon, David A

    2016-08-01

    The heats of formation and the normalized clustering energies (NCEs) for the group 4 and group 6 transition metal oxide (TMO) trimers and tetramers have been calculated by the Feller-Peterson-Dixon (FPD) method. The heats of formation predicted by the FPD method do not differ much from those previously derived from the NCEs at the CCSD(T)/aT level except for the CrO3 nanoclusters. New and improved heats of formation for Cr3O9 and Cr4O12 were obtained using PW91 orbitals instead of Hartree-Fock (HF) orbitals. Diffuse functions are necessary to predict accurate heats of formation. The fluoride affinities (FAs) are calculated with the CCSD(T) method. The relative energies (REs) of different isomers, NCEs, electron affinities (EAs), and FAs of (MO2)n (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, n = 1-4) and (MO3)n (M = Cr, Mo, W, n = 1-3) clusters have been benchmarked with 55 exchange-correlation density functional theory (DFT) functionals including both pure and hybrid types. The absolute errors of the DFT results are mostly less than ±10 kcal/mol for the NCEs and the EAs and less than ±15 kcal/mol for the FAs. Hybrid functionals usually perform better than the pure functionals for the REs and NCEs. The performance of the two types of functionals in predicting EAs and FAs is comparable. The B1B95 and PBE1PBE functionals provide reliable energetic properties for most isomers. Long range corrected pure functionals usually give poor FAs. The standard deviation of the absolute error is always close to the mean errors, and the probability distributions of the DFT errors are often not Gaussian (normal). The breadth of the distribution of errors and the maximum probability are dependent on the energy property and the isomer.

  3. VSNL1 Co-Expression Networks in Aging Include Calcium Signaling, Synaptic Plasticity, and Alzheimer's Disease Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Wei; Chang, Lun-Ching; Tseng, George C; Kirkwood, Caitlin M; Sibille, Etienne L; Sweet, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    The visinin-like 1 (VSNL1) gene encodes visinin-like protein 1, a peripheral biomarker for Alzheimer disease (AD). Little is known, however, about normal VSNL1 expression in brain and the biologic networks in which it participates. Frontal cortex gray matter obtained from 209 subjects without neurodegenerative or psychiatric illness, ranging in age from 16 to 91, was processed on Affymetrix GeneChip 1.1 ST and Human SNP Array 6.0. VSNL1 expression was unaffected by age and sex, and not significantly associated with SNPs in cis or trans. VSNL1 was significantly co-expressed with genes in pathways for calcium signaling, AD, long-term potentiation, long-term depression, and trafficking of AMPA receptors. The association with AD was driven, in part, by correlation with amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression. These findings provide an unbiased link between VSNL1 and molecular mechanisms of AD, including pathways implicated in synaptic pathology in AD. Whether APP may drive increased VSNL1 expression, VSNL1 drives increased APP expression, or both are downstream of common pathogenic regulators will need to be evaluated in model systems. PMID:25806004

  4. Engaging Focus Group Methodology: The 4-H Middle School-Aged Youth Learning and Leading Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson

    2015-01-01

    With young people, discussing complex issues such as learning and leading in a focus group can be a challenge. To help prime youth for the discussion, we created a focus group approach that featured a fun, interactive activity. This article includes a description of the focus group activity, lessons learned, and suggestions for additional…

  5. 76 FR 2145 - Masco Builder Cabinet Group Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reserves Network, Jackson, OH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Reserves Network, Jackson, OH; Masco Builder Cabinet Group, Waverly, OH; Masco Builder Cabinet Group, Seal Township, OH; Masco Builder Cabinet Group, Seaman, OH; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply... Federal Register on December 11, 2009 (74 FR 65798). The Department has received information that...

  6. Detection of group D salmonellae including Salmonella Enteritidis in eggs by polymyxin-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Blais, Burton W; Martinez-Perez, Amalia

    2008-02-01

    A high-throughput, rapid method was devised for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg products. For each target organism, preenrichment in nutrient broth was followed by selective enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis soya peptone and tetrathionate brilliant green broths or by plating on modified semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis (MSRV) agar medium. The presence of Salmonella Enteritidis was determined by subjecting portions of the selective broth cultures or swarming growth on MSRV medium to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure using polymyxin immobilized in the wells of a microtiter plate as a high-affinity adsorbent for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens. Sample extracts were reacted with polymyxin-coated microwells, and captured LPS antigens were detected immunoenzymatically with a commercially available Salmonella factor O9-specific antibody. The polymyxin-ELISA was 100% sensitive and 100% specific for Salmonella strains bearing the O9 antigen. When the ELISA was combined with enrichment using either the selective broths or plating on MSRV medium, the system was an effective means for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in artificially inoculated egg products. The polymyxin-ELISA is a simple and inexpensive assay for group D salmonellae (including Salmonella Enteritidis) in a convenient 96-well microtiter plate format, making this system ideally suited for processing large numbers of samples.

  7. Detection of group D salmonellae including Salmonella Enteritidis in eggs by polymyxin-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Blais, Burton W; Martinez-Perez, Amalia

    2008-02-01

    A high-throughput, rapid method was devised for the detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg products. For each target organism, preenrichment in nutrient broth was followed by selective enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis soya peptone and tetrathionate brilliant green broths or by plating on modified semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis (MSRV) agar medium. The presence of Salmonella Enteritidis was determined by subjecting portions of the selective broth cultures or swarming growth on MSRV medium to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure using polymyxin immobilized in the wells of a microtiter plate as a high-affinity adsorbent for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens. Sample extracts were reacted with polymyxin-coated microwells, and captured LPS antigens were detected immunoenzymatically with a commercially available Salmonella factor O9-specific antibody. The polymyxin-ELISA was 100% sensitive and 100% specific for Salmonella strains bearing the O9 antigen. When the ELISA was combined with enrichment using either the selective broths or plating on MSRV medium, the system was an effective means for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in artificially inoculated egg products. The polymyxin-ELISA is a simple and inexpensive assay for group D salmonellae (including Salmonella Enteritidis) in a convenient 96-well microtiter plate format, making this system ideally suited for processing large numbers of samples. PMID:18326193

  8. Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marmontel, M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Kochman, H.I.; Humphrey, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Growth layers were observed in histological preparations of bones of known-age, known minimum-age, and tetracycline-marked free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), substantiating earlier preliminary findings of other studies. Detailed analysis of 17 new case histories showed that growth-layer group (GLG) counts in the periotic bone were consistent with known age, or time since tetracycline administration, but were less reliable in other bones. GLG counts were also made in periotic bones of 1,196 Florida manatees of unknown age found dead from 1974 through 1991. These counts were conducted in order to assess variability and to determine relationships among estimated age, size, sex, and degree of bone resorption. Resorption can interfere with accuracy of GLG counts. This effect does not occur until ages greater than about 15 yr and body lengths greater than 300 cm are attained. GLGs were also observed in periotic bones of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) but were not validated against known-age specimens. Use of GLG counts in the periotic bone is suitable for application to studies of population dynamics and other age-related aspects of manatee biology.

  9. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  10. An evaluation of selective feeding by three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beck, K.; Neves, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    A tri-algal diet was fed to three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris: ages 2-3 d, 50-53 d, and 3-6 years. Changes in the relative abundance of each algal species were determined in 5-h feeding trials from feeding chambers and by gut content analyses. All age-groups rejected Scenedesmus quadricauda and preferentially selected Nannochloropsis oculata and Selenastrum capricornutum, principally on the basis of size. Changes in the relative abundance of algae in feeding chambers did not differ significantly among age-groups. Observed differences in the ingested quantities of the similar-sized N. oculata and S. capricornutum were attributed to other particle-related characteristics. Results indicate that the rainbow mussel can be fed similar-sized algae at ali ages in captive propagation facilities. When developing a suitable algal diet for rearing juvenile mussels, one probably need not investigate different species at each stage of development if the algae used are in the 2.8-8.5-??m size range.

  11. Embryonic neurogenesis in Pseudopallene sp. (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida) includes two subsequent phases with similarities to different arthropod groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies on early neurogenesis have had considerable impact on the discussion of the phylogenetic relationships of arthropods, having revealed striking similarities and differences between the major lineages. In Hexapoda and crustaceans, neurogenesis involves the neuroblast, a type of neural stem cell. In each hemi-segment, a set of neuroblasts produces neural cells by repeated asymmetrical and interiorly directed divisions. In Euchelicerata and Myriapoda, neurogenesis lacks neural stem cells, featuring instead direct immigration of neural cell groups from fixed sites in the neuroectoderm. Accordingly, neural stem cells were hitherto assumed to be an evolutionary novelty of the Tetraconata (Hexapoda + crustaceans). To further test this hypothesis, we investigated neurogenesis in Pycnogonida, or sea spiders, a group of marine arthropods with close affinities to euchelicerates. Results We studied neurogenesis during embryonic development of Pseudopallene sp. (Callipallenidae), using fluorescent histochemical staining and immunolabelling. Embryonic neurogenesis has two phases. The first phase shows notable similarities to euchelicerates and myriapods. These include i) the lack of morphologically different cell types in the neuroectoderm; ii) the formation of transiently identifiable, stereotypically arranged cell internalization sites; iii) immigration of predominantly post-mitotic ganglion cells; and iv) restriction of tangentially oriented cell proliferation to the apical cell layer. However, in the second phase, the formation of a central invagination in each hemi-neuromere is accompanied by the differentiation of apical neural stem cells. The latter grow in size, show high mitotic activity and an asymmetrical division mode. A marked increase of ganglion cell numbers follows their differentiation. Directly basal to the neural stem cells, an additional type of intermediate neural precursor is found. Conclusions Embryonic neurogenesis of Pseudopallene

  12. Outcome Differences Across Age Groups. Data Notes. Volume 3, Number 2, March/April 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clery, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Using data from Achieving the Dream: Community College Count, this issue examines the differing developmental needs and enrollment and persistence patterns of Achieving the Dream students across different age groups. The data show older students in Achieving the Dream colleges tended to achieve higher grades and perform better academically than…

  13. Metabolic Effects of Chronic Heavy Physical Training on Male Age Group Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, Garret P.; And Others

    This study attempts to appraise the effectiveness of chronic heavy exercise on 13 male swimmers from 10 to 17 years of age. The experimental group trained six days a week, often with more than one workout per day. During this period, the principles of interval training were employed in conjunction with high-intensity swimming. At the completion of…

  14. [Detection of influenza B virus antibodies in different age groups using hemagglutination inhibition tests].

    PubMed

    Sonuvar, S; Kocabeyoğlu, O; Emekdaş

    1991-01-01

    Antibody levels against influenza B virus were investigated by using hemagglutination-inhibition (HA-I) tests in 402 sera obtained from different age groups. Hemagglutination antigens were obtained by production of influenza B virus (B/Singapur/LLC 6201) in trypsinized Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell cultured and they were used in tests. In 355 out of 402 sera (88.3%) antibodies against influenza B virus were detected at titers varying between 1/20 and 1/1280. However in 47 sera (11.7%) no antibodies were detected at 1/20 titer. High titers of antibody (1/640-1/1280) were not detected in none of the sera obtained from an age group between 1 and 14. However high titer antibodies were detected in 15.6% of the sera from an age group between 26 and 35, in the 17.3% of the sera from a group above 50 years of age. Our findings suggest that the increase in the rates of seropositivity against influenza B virus depends on getting older and, that the infections by this virus may be widely seen in our country.

  15. A Comparison of Speech Synthesis Intelligibility with Listeners from Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirenda, Pat; Beukelman, David R.

    1987-01-01

    The study evaluated the intelligibility of three different types of speech synthesizers (Echo II+, Votrax Personal Speech System, and DECtalk) with children at two different age groups and adults. Results are reported in terms of their educational application with communication disordered persons. (Author/DB)

  16. Locus of Control and Other Psycho-Social Parameters in Successful American Age-Group Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Edmund J., Jr.; Straub, William F.

    Psycho-social factors in successful age-group swimmers were explored in this study. The subjects were 50 female and 39 male participants in the 1975 Amateur Athletic Union National Junior Olympics who were asked to answer a set of questions from an open-ended questionnaire. The results support a picture of young persons who invest a great deal of…

  17. Age, sources, and provenances of protoliths of metasedimentary rocks of the Dzheltulak group, Dzheltulak suture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikoslavinskii, S. D.; Kotov, A. B.; Kovach, V. P.; Tolmacheva, E. V.; Larin, A. M.; Sorokin, A. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Wang, K. L.; Salnikova, E. B.

    2016-06-01

    The results of Sm-Nb isotopic-geochemical studies of metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of the Dzheltulak Group of the central part of the Dzheltulak suture, as well as geochronological U-Th-Pb (LA ICP MS) studies of detrital zircons from metasedimentary rocks, which are considered as Paleoproterozoic in current stratigraphic schemes, are presented. The age of the youngest zircons is 170-190 Ma, whereas the age of the last stage of regional metamorphism is 140-150 Ma. Thus, the Dzheltulak Group hosts metasedimentary rocks, the age of the protolith of which ranges from 140-150 to 170-190 Ma. The detrital zircons derived from intrusive and metamorphic rocks of the Selenga-Stanovoi and Dzhugdzhur-Stanovoi superterranes.

  18. The age rank of the nearest pre-main-sequence groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Warrick A.; Lyo, A.-Ran; Bessell, M. S.

    2009-11-01

    We address the age rank of the nearest pre-main-sequence (PMS) associations, using low-resolution spectrophotometry to measure gravity-sensitive indices in these stars. We compare spectral index-colour sequences for the PMS populations and rank them according to the strength of their gravity-sensitive features. The age rank using the gravity method is in general agreement with the ranking of these groups suggested by colour-magnitude (CM) diagram placement. Several of the groups have a kinematic origin in the Oph-Sco-Cen OB association. For three of them, their age rank is also in agreement with epochs resulting from a formation scenario for the OB association.

  19. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751

  20. 77 FR 47624 - Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Tall Bear Group, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  1. 78 FR 28833 - Lighthouse Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lighthouse Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Lighthouse Energy Group, LLC's application for market-based...

  2. 77 FR 36529 - Apple Group LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Apple Group LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Apple Group LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  3. 75 FR 55614 - Dell Products LP-Parmer North One Including On-Site Leased Workers From Belcan Services Group...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... From Belcan Services Group, Hawkins Associates, Inc., Integrated Human Capital, Magrabbit, Manpower..., Inc., Integrated Human Capital, MagRabbit, Manpower, and Spherion Corporation, Round Rock, Texas (TA-W... Belcan Services Group, Hawkins Associates, Inc., Integrated Human Capital, MagRabbit, Manpower,...

  4. 77 FR 67399 - Trim Systems Operating Corp., a Subsidiary of Commercial Vehicle Group, Inc., Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Employment and Training Administration Trim Systems Operating Corp., a Subsidiary of Commercial Vehicle Group... of Trim Systems Operating Corp., a subsidiary of Commercial Vehicle Group, Inc., Statesville, North..., who were adversely affected by a shift in production to a foreign country. The amended...

  5. [Measles outbreak in the adult age group: evaluation of 28 cases].

    PubMed

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Akın, Hicran; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Kalkan, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the age group affected from measles has widened and the disease has become more common among adolescents and young adults. The number of measles case reports have increased in our country, particularly from 2010-2011, and measles outbreaks occurred in various regions in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographical and epidemiological characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, and complications of adult patients with measles who were affected during the outbreak. A total of 28 patients (25 male, 3 female; age range: 19-39 years, median age: 24) who were hospitalized and followed-up in our clinic between January 2013 and June 2013, were evaluated. In the serum sample of the index case, measles-specific IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA, and measles virus RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then genotyping was performed to detect the epidemiological relationship. In all of the other cases, measles IgM and IgG antibodies were screened by ELISA. The most common symptoms on admission included high fever (n= 28, 100%), malaise (n= 25, 89%), sore throat (n= 25, 89%), headache (n= 20, 71%) and cough (n= 18, 64%). At physical examination, rash (n= 28, 100%), lymphadenopathy (n= 11, 39%) and conjunctivitis (n= 10, 36%) were in the foreground, and Koplik spots were detected in five (18%) cases. The most common laboratory findings were; increased level of C-reactive protein (n= 15, 54%), leukopenia (n= 12, 43%) and increased serum levels of aminotransferases (n= 12, 43%), and thrombocytopenia was detected in five (18%) patients. One or more complications (secondary bacterial pneumonia in 5, diarrhea in 4, hepatitis in 3 and otitis in 2 cases) developed in the eight (29%) patients. Measles RT-PCR and IgM tests yielded positive results for the index case, and the isolate was identified as D8 strain by genotyping. Measles lgM antibodies were also positive in all of the other cases. The hospitalization period was

  6. [Measles outbreak in the adult age group: evaluation of 28 cases].

    PubMed

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Akın, Hicran; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Kalkan, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the age group affected from measles has widened and the disease has become more common among adolescents and young adults. The number of measles case reports have increased in our country, particularly from 2010-2011, and measles outbreaks occurred in various regions in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographical and epidemiological characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, and complications of adult patients with measles who were affected during the outbreak. A total of 28 patients (25 male, 3 female; age range: 19-39 years, median age: 24) who were hospitalized and followed-up in our clinic between January 2013 and June 2013, were evaluated. In the serum sample of the index case, measles-specific IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA, and measles virus RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then genotyping was performed to detect the epidemiological relationship. In all of the other cases, measles IgM and IgG antibodies were screened by ELISA. The most common symptoms on admission included high fever (n= 28, 100%), malaise (n= 25, 89%), sore throat (n= 25, 89%), headache (n= 20, 71%) and cough (n= 18, 64%). At physical examination, rash (n= 28, 100%), lymphadenopathy (n= 11, 39%) and conjunctivitis (n= 10, 36%) were in the foreground, and Koplik spots were detected in five (18%) cases. The most common laboratory findings were; increased level of C-reactive protein (n= 15, 54%), leukopenia (n= 12, 43%) and increased serum levels of aminotransferases (n= 12, 43%), and thrombocytopenia was detected in five (18%) patients. One or more complications (secondary bacterial pneumonia in 5, diarrhea in 4, hepatitis in 3 and otitis in 2 cases) developed in the eight (29%) patients. Measles RT-PCR and IgM tests yielded positive results for the index case, and the isolate was identified as D8 strain by genotyping. Measles lgM antibodies were also positive in all of the other cases. The hospitalization period was

  7. Capturing heterogeneous group differences using mixture-of-experts: Application to a study of aging.

    PubMed

    Eavani, Harini; Hsieh, Meng Kang; An, Yang; Erus, Guray; Beason-Held, Lori; Resnick, Susan; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-01-15

    In MRI studies, linear multi-variate methods are often employed to identify regions or connections that are affected due to disease or normal aging. Such linear models inherently assume that there is a single, homogeneous abnormality pattern that is present in all affected individuals. While kernel-based methods can implicitly model a non-linear effect, and therefore the heterogeneity in the affected group, extracting and interpreting information about affected regions is difficult. In this paper, we present a method that explicitly models and captures heterogeneous patterns of change in the affected group relative to a reference group of controls. For this purpose, we use the Mixture-of-Experts (MOE) framework, which combines unsupervised modeling of mixtures of distributions with supervised learning of classifiers. MOE approximates the non-linear boundary between the two groups with a piece-wise linear boundary, thus allowing discovery of multiple patterns of group differences. In the case of patient/control comparisons, each such pattern aims to capture a different dimension of a disease, and hence to identify patient subgroups. We validated our model using multiple simulation scenarios and performance measures. We applied this method to resting state functional MRI data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, to investigate heterogeneous effects of aging on brain function in cognitively normal older adults (>85years) relative to a reference group of normal young to middle-aged adults (<60years). We found strong evidence for the presence of two subgroups of older adults, with similar age distributions in each subgroup, but different connectivity patterns associated with aging. While both older subgroups showed reduced functional connectivity in the Default Mode Network (DMN), increases in functional connectivity within the pre-frontal cortex as well as the bilateral insula were observed only for one of the two subgroups. Interestingly, the subgroup

  8. The ghost of social environments past: dominance relationships include current interactions and experience carried over from previous groups.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Colby J; Salali, Gul Deniz; Jackson, Andrew L

    2011-12-23

    Dominance hierarchies pervade animal societies. Within a static social environment, in which group size and composition are unchanged, an individual's hierarchy rank results from intrinsic (e.g. body size) and extrinsic (e.g. previous experiences) factors. Little is known, however, about how dominance relationships are formed and maintained when group size and composition are dynamic. Using a fusion-fission protocol, we fused groups of previously isolated shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) into larger groups, and then restored groups to their original size and composition. Pre-fusion hierarchies formed independently of individuals' sizes, and were maintained within a static group via winner/loser effects. Post-fusion hierarchies differed from pre-fusion ones; losing fights during fusion led to a decline in an individual's rank between pre- and post-fusion conditions, while spending time being aggressive during fusion led to an improvement in rank. In post-fusion tanks, larger individuals achieved better ranks than smaller individuals. In conclusion, dominance hierarchies in crabs represent a complex combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, in which experiences from previous groups can carry over to affect current competitive interactions.

  9. 20 CFR 404.1039 - Employers (including partnerships) and employees who are both members of certain religious groups...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Exemption from Social Security by Reason of... division of the sect and for that reason are conscientiously opposed to receiving benefits from any...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1039 - Employers (including partnerships) and employees who are both members of certain religious groups...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Exemption from Social Security by Reason of... division of the sect and for that reason are conscientiously opposed to receiving benefits from any...

  11. Summary of the working group 3: Electron beams from electromagnetic structures, including dielectric and laser-driven structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuensch, Walter; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2016-09-01

    In this lively working group a diverse set of topics was discussed, spanning from novel methods in RF-cavity production via investigations of high-gradient breakdown and upcoming accelerator test facilities to new acceleration concepts. Because the talks were not divided into topics a broad range of expertise was always present during all presentations in seminar room "Sala Bonaparte 2". While the topics covered were broadly distributed, the report on the demonstration of high-gradient dielectric wakefield acceleration by the UCLA group was certainly considered as a highlight of this working group.

  12. Coronary, aortic and cerebral atherosclerosis in swine of 3 age-groups: implications*

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, H. L.; Luginbühl, H.; Pivnik, L.

    1970-01-01

    Coronary, aortic and intercranial atherosclerosis has been compared in swine maintained under the following conditions: (1) adequate food and housing but animals held in test social situations for 1 year; postmortem examination at ages of 13 to 15 months; (2) food and management designed for high productivity; postmortem examination at ages of 6 to 9 years; (3) an outdoor system of husbandry and a cooked garbage diet; postmortem examination at ages of 8 to 14 years. Extramural coronary, aortic and intracranial atherosclerosis was most advanced in swine that were fed garbage. Cerebral infarction (cerebromalacia) also was most advanced in these swine but developed in swine of the younger groups in which it was associated with atherosclerosis of small intracranial extracerebral arteries rather than with stenosis of the larger intracranial extracerebral arteries as in the oldest swine. The lesions of atherosclerosis in swine of these 3 age-groups form a continuous series and are morphologically identical with corresponding stages of atherosclerosis of man. It is concluded that swine can replace non-human primates as subjects for studies of atherosclerotic vascular disease, and that experimental designs must allow for age and behaviour patterns of the species. ImagesFIG. 4-7FIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:5310139

  13. Physical fitness profile of professional Italian firefighters: differences among age groups.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Cignitti, Lamberto; Cortis, Cristina; Capranica, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Firefighters perform many tasks which require a high level of fitness and their personal safety may be compromised by the physiological aging process. The aim of the study was to evaluate strength (bench-press), power (countermovement jump), sprint (20 m) and endurance (with and without Self Contained Breathing Apparatus - S.C.B.A.) of 161 Italian firefighters recruits in relation to age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr; 31-35 yr; 36-40 yr; 41-42 yr). Descriptive statistics and an ANOVA were calculated to provide the physical fitness profile for each parameter and to assess differences (p < 0.05) among age groups. Anthropometric values showed an age-effect for height and BMI, while performances values showed statistical differences for strength, power, sprint tests and endurance test with S.C.B.A. Wearing the S.C.B.A., 14% of all recruits failed to complete the endurance test. We propose that the firefighters should participate in an assessment of work capacity and specific fitness programs aimed to maintain an optimal fitness level for all ages.

  14. Determinants of dental care utilization for diverse ethnic and age groups.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P L; Andersen, R M

    1997-05-01

    Dental services utilization in the past 12 months was compared across population-based samples of African-American, Navajo, Lakota, Hispanic, and White adults participating in the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II) at USA research locations. Bivariate results revealed that ethnic minority groups in both age cohorts reported significantly fewer dental visits in the past 12 months compared with White adults. When dentate status was controlled for, age cohort differences were not significant in Baltimore (African-American and White) and San Antonio (Hispanic and White) research locations. In contrast, older Native Americans (65-74 years) reported visiting the dentist significantly less often compared with their middle-aged (35-44 years) counterparts. Multivariate results indicated that generalizable variables were associated with dental contact in every ICS-II USA ethnic group (i.e., dentate, usual source of dental care, oral pain). Among the diverse ethnic groups, other determinants presented a varied pattern of risk factors for underutilizing dental care. Information on ethnic-specific risk factors can be used to design culturally appropriate and acceptable oral health promotion programs. Generalizable risk factors across ethnic groups inform oral health policy-makers about changing national priorities for promoting oral health. PMID:9549991

  15. Using Korotkoff Sounds to Detect the Degree of Vascular Compliance in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The principle behind the generation of the Korotkoff sounds is the turbulence of blood flowing through a partially occluded area in the artery. With increasing age, the vascular wall compliance is expected to decrease, which is due to the thickening of the vessel wall, due to which the amplitude of the transmitted Korotkoff sounds is decreased. There is also an accompanying rise in the systolic B.P. and pulse pressure. Aim To record and compare the amplitudes of the intermediate Korotkoff sounds and the blood pressures in individuals of the two age groups, and calculate the pulse pressure and determine whether they vary in relation to the amplitude of the intermediate Korotkoff sounds recorded. Materials and Methods The cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 young subjects (15-25 years) and 50 older subjects (50-70 years). The mid arm circumference was measured using a tape. A phonoarteriogram was placed over the left brachial artery and the sphygmomanometer cuff was tied 2cm above the cubital fossa of the left arm. The blood pressure was recorded using the Lab Tutor software. The Korotkoff sounds picked up and transmitted by the phonoarteriogram are represented as distinct lines on the graphical recording. Statistical Analysis Independent samples t-test to look for significant mean amplitude differences and for correlating mean amplitude and pulse pressure. Null hypothesis rejected at p<0.05. Data analysed using the SPSS software version 20.0 (SPSS Inc.). Results There was a significant difference in the mean amplitudes of Korotkoff sounds among the different age groups (p=0.001) and subject categories (p=0.043 among males, p=0.037 among females). A significant difference in pulse pressures was also seen among different age groups and subject categories. The decrease in the amplitudes of Korotkoff sounds in the older age group accompanies the increase in pulse pressures seen in this group and the same was seen among the different age groups within

  16. Correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and chronological age in a group of Iranian females

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients. PMID:26604958

  17. Changes in the constraints of semantic and syntactic congruity on memory across three age groups.

    PubMed

    Toyota, H

    2001-06-01

    20 college undergraduates, 25 sixth-grade, and 31 second-grade students studied targets embedded in three types of sentence contexts and then performed free recall and cued recall tests. Although there were no differences in performance of free recall among sentence types within each age group, the differences in cued recall among sentence types were observed. For sixth graders and undergraduates, both semantically congruous/syntactically congruous sentences and semantically incongruous/syntactically congruous sentences led to a better cued recall of targets than semantically incongruous/syntactically incongruous sentences. Second graders performed better in a cued recall of targets in semantically congruous/syntactically congruous sentences than for the other two sentence types. The results were interpreted as indicating changes across age groups in constraints of semantic and syntactic congruity on the spreading activation of targets in memory. PMID:11453195

  18. Are vocabulary tests measurement invariant between age groups? An item response analysis of three popular tests.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mark C; Berry, Jane M; Freeman, Sara P

    2014-12-01

    Relatively high vocabulary scores of older adults are generally interpreted as evidence that older adults possess more of a common ability than younger adults. Yet, this interpretation rests on empirical assumptions about the uniformity of item-response functions between groups. In this article, we test item response models of differential responding against datasets containing younger-, middle-aged-, and older-adult responses to three popular vocabulary tests (the Shipley, Ekstrom, and WAIS-R) to determine whether members of different age groups who achieve the same scores have the same probability of responding in the same categories (e.g., correct vs. incorrect) under the same conditions. Contrary to the null hypothesis of measurement invariance, datasets for all three tests exhibit substantial differential responding. Members of different age groups who achieve the same overall scores exhibit differing response probabilities in relation to the same items (differential item functioning) and appear to approach the tests in qualitatively different ways that generalize across items. Specifically, younger adults are more likely than older adults to leave items unanswered for partial credit on the Ekstrom, and to produce 2-point definitions on the WAIS-R. Yet, older adults score higher than younger adults, consistent with most reports of vocabulary outcomes in the cognitive aging literature. In light of these findings, the most generalizable conclusion to be drawn from the cognitive aging literature on vocabulary tests is simply that older adults tend to score higher than younger adults, and not that older adults possess more of a common ability.

  19. The Challenges of Implementing Group Work in Primary School Classrooms and Including Pupils with Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, Ed; Blatchford, Peter; Webster, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Findings from two studies are discussed in relation to the experiences and challenges faced by teachers trying to implement effective group work in schools and classrooms and to reflect on the lessons learnt about how to involve pupils with special educational needs (SEN). The first study reports on UK primary school teachers' experiences of…

  20. 75 FR 3250 - The Boeing Company Commercial Aircraft Group, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Comforce...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Group, Portland, Oregon. The notices were published in the Federal Register December 11, 2009 (74 FR... Workers From Comforce Corporation, Adecco, Multax, Inconen, CTS, Hi-Tec, Woods, Ciber, Kelly Services... On-Site Leased Workers From Comforce Corporation, Adecco, Multax, Inconen, CTS, Hi-Tec, Woods,...

  1. Aging pathways for organophosphate-inhibited human butyrylcholinesterase, including novel pathways for isomalathion, resolved by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, He; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Nachon, Florian; Froment, Marie-Thérèse; Masson, Patrick; Lockridge, Oksana

    2007-11-01

    Some organophosphorus compounds are toxic because they inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by phosphylation of the active site serine, forming a stable conjugate: Ser-O-P(O)-(Y)-(XR) (where X can be O, N, or S and Y can be methyl, OR, or SR). The inhibited enzyme can undergo an aging process, during which the X-R moiety is dealkylated by breaking either the P-X or the X-R bond depending on the specific compound, leading to a nonreactivatable enzyme. Aging mechanisms have been studied primarily using AChE. However, some recent studies have indicated that organophosphate-inhibited butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) may age through an alternative pathway. Our work utilized matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to study the aging mechanism of human BChE inhibited by dichlorvos, echothiophate, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), isomalathion, soman, sarin, cyclohexyl sarin, VX, and VR. Inhibited BChE was aged in the presence of H2O18 to allow incorporation of (18)O, if cleavage was at the P-X bond. Tryptic-peptide organophosphate conjugates were identified through peptide mass mapping. Our results showed no aging of VX- and VR-treated BChE at 25 degrees C, pH 7.0. However, BChE inhibited by dichlorvos, echothiophate, DFP, soman, sarin, and cyclohexyl sarin aged exclusively through O-C bond cleavage, i.e., the classical X-R scission pathway. In contrast, isomalathion aged through both X-R and P-X pathways; the main aged product resulted from P-S bond cleavage and a minor product resulted from O-C and/or S-C bond cleavage. PMID:17698511

  2. 77 FR 12081 - Comscope, Inc., Catawba Facility, A Subsidiary of the Carlyle Group Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 66329). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the certification for... Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staffmasters, Including On- Site Workers from Cable Transport, Inc... Carolina. The workers are engaged in activities related to the production of coaxial cable and...

  3. 75 FR 38127 - Visteon Systems, LLC North Penn Plant Electronics Products Group Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 2136). The certification was amended on December 29, 2008 to correct the impact date to read December 6, 2008. The notice was published in the Federal Register on January 6, 2009 (74 FR 469... Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ryder Integrated Logistics and Including On-Site Workers From...

  4. Age and group residence but not maternal dominance affect dominance rank in young domestic horses.

    PubMed

    Komárková, M; Bartošová, J; Dubcová, J

    2014-11-01

    We present a study focused on those factors influencing dominance position in young horses, with emphasis on the role of the mother. Horses, as other group-living polygynous mammals, form stable linear dominance hierarchies based on agonistic interactions. Higher dominance positions are believed to be connected, in both sexes, to better condition and higher reproductive success. Many variables play a role in forming the dominant-submissive relationships between horses; however, the maternal effect on the dominance position of the offspring still remains unclear, as do the possible mechanisms of transference ("inheritance"). We hypothesized that the maternal dominance position, plus differences in suckling parameters or maternal style, may be responsible for later outcome of the offspring's dominance position, characterized by 2 variables: index of fighting success (CB); and rate of winning encounters (RW). Our study animals were 8 groups of Kladruby horses, loose-housed lactating mares with foals (n = 66 mare-foal pairs); and subsequently 4 groups of the same foals at 3 yr of age. Our results revealed the impact of age on the dominance position of the young horses (P < 0.001 for CB, and P < 0.01 for RW), and residence in the group (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively); not the maternal dominance position. Older foals reached higher dominance positions, independent of the dominance position, age, or experience of the mother; therefore, we did not find support for direct inheritance of maternal rank. Nevertheless, the foals born to the same mare in 2 consecutive seasons (n = 16 mares) revealed fair repeatability in the dominance position they obtained at 3 yr of age (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.46). This suggests an important constant effect of the mother on the social success of her progeny; however, we did not find a significant effect of any of the tested variables describing maternal characteristics or maternal care. Dominance position depended

  5. Age and group residence but not maternal dominance affect dominance rank in young domestic horses.

    PubMed

    Komárková, M; Bartošová, J; Dubcová, J

    2014-11-01

    We present a study focused on those factors influencing dominance position in young horses, with emphasis on the role of the mother. Horses, as other group-living polygynous mammals, form stable linear dominance hierarchies based on agonistic interactions. Higher dominance positions are believed to be connected, in both sexes, to better condition and higher reproductive success. Many variables play a role in forming the dominant-submissive relationships between horses; however, the maternal effect on the dominance position of the offspring still remains unclear, as do the possible mechanisms of transference ("inheritance"). We hypothesized that the maternal dominance position, plus differences in suckling parameters or maternal style, may be responsible for later outcome of the offspring's dominance position, characterized by 2 variables: index of fighting success (CB); and rate of winning encounters (RW). Our study animals were 8 groups of Kladruby horses, loose-housed lactating mares with foals (n = 66 mare-foal pairs); and subsequently 4 groups of the same foals at 3 yr of age. Our results revealed the impact of age on the dominance position of the young horses (P < 0.001 for CB, and P < 0.01 for RW), and residence in the group (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively); not the maternal dominance position. Older foals reached higher dominance positions, independent of the dominance position, age, or experience of the mother; therefore, we did not find support for direct inheritance of maternal rank. Nevertheless, the foals born to the same mare in 2 consecutive seasons (n = 16 mares) revealed fair repeatability in the dominance position they obtained at 3 yr of age (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.46). This suggests an important constant effect of the mother on the social success of her progeny; however, we did not find a significant effect of any of the tested variables describing maternal characteristics or maternal care. Dominance position depended

  6. Morphological study of extrauterine length of the fallopian tube at different age group in Bangladeshi people.

    PubMed

    Ara, Z G; Islam, M S; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Zaman, U K; Rahman, M M; Sen, S

    2010-01-01

    This cross sectional descriptive study was done to see the length of the right & left fallopian tube in Bangladeshi female and to increase the knowledge regarding variational anatomy in our country. Sixty post mortem specimens containing uterus, uterine tube, ureter and surrounding structures were collected by non random or purposive sampling technique from cadavers of different age groups and fixed in 10% formol saline solution. This study was carried out in the department of Anatomy of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from July 2006 to June 2007. Gross and fine dissection was carried out to study the length of fallopian tube (right & left). In this study our findings were compared with those of the standard text books. Maximum length of fallopian tube was found in middle age group (B = 13 to 45 years). It is about 9.19 cm in right side and 8.82 cm in left side. It is also important to note that more kinking was observed in middle age group. PMID:20046169

  7. Abortion index and mortality of offspring among women of different age, caste and population groups of north Indian Muslims.

    PubMed

    Ara, Gulshan; Siddique, Yasir Hasan; Beg, Tanveer; Afzal, Mohammad

    2008-05-01

    The Muslims of Aligarh city are predominantly Sunnis, although there are also a considerable number of Shias. Among the Sunnis, approximately a quarter belong to Syed, Sheikh, Moghal and Pathan groups, and three-quarters belong to various lower biradaris. In the present study, 304 women attending the Primary Health Centre of the J. N. Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Uttar Pradesh, were surveyed and the following recorded among Muslim women of high-rank (Ashraf) and low-rank (Ajlaf) castes: incidence of marriage, age of the mother at the time of marriage, present age of the mother, abortions, still births, pre-reproductive mortality and overall mortality. The Ashraf are comprised of the Sheikh, Syed and Pathan, whereas the Ajlafs have Qureshi, Saifi and Ansari biradaris. Maternal age was scored as above and below 45 years in each biradari. Significant effects of maternal age were seen on mortality of offspring, whereas populations did not show consistent differences, except when Ashrafs and Ajlafs were considered separately. The results show higher mortality and abortions for various groups. This may be due to various biological and socio-cultural factors, including hidden inbreeding in the remote past.

  8. Predictors of health practices within age-sex groups: National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences, 1979.

    PubMed Central

    Rakowski, W

    1988-01-01

    Health promotion-disease prevention programs share with health behavior research the common objective of identifying population subgroups toward whom services can be targeted. For this report, six age-sex groups were examined to determine similarities and differences in the predictors of eight health practice indices. Data were from the 1979 National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences. Results showed very little similarity of predictors across the three age cohorts (20-34, 35-49, 50-64), between men and women, and among the six age-sex groups. No predictor achieved significance consistently for several health practices in any of the six groups, although years of education made the best showing. The lack of overlap among predictors helps to explain why health promotion messages and recruitment strategies may not appeal to as diverse an audience as initially intended. Possible explanations for the absence of similar predictors include differences in the nature of the various practices themselves, absence of data on intentions behind a person's behavior, and the "over-determined" character of an individual person's behavior. PMID:3136496

  9. Validation of wet mount microscopy against Trichomonas culture among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Banneheke, H; Fernandopulle, R; Gunasekara, U; Barua, A; Fernando, N; Wickremasinghe, R

    2015-06-01

    Wet mount microscopy is the most commonly used diagnostic method for trichomoniasis in clinical diagnostic services all over the world including Sri Lanka due to its availability, simplicity and is relatively inexpensive. However, Trichomonas culture and PCR are the gold standard tests. Unfortunately, neither the culture nor PCR is available for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis in Sri Lanka. Thus, it is important to validate the wet mount microscopy as it is the only available diagnostic test and has not been validated to date in Sri Lanka. The objective was to evaluate the validity and reliability of wet mount microscopy against gold standard Trichomonas culture among clinic based population of reproductive age group women in Western province, Sri Lanka. Women attending hospital and institutional based clinics were enrolled. They were interviewed and high vaginal swabs were taken for laboratory diagnosis by culture and wet mount microscopy. There were 601 participants in the age group of 15-45 years. Wet mount microscopy showed 68% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive (PPV) and 98% negative predictive values (NPV) (P=0.001, kappa=0.803) respectively against the gold standard culture. The area under the ROC curve was 0.840. Sensitivity of wet mount microscopy is low. However it has high validity and reliability as a specific diagnostic test for trichomoniasis. If it is to be used among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka, a culture method could be adopted as a second test to confirm the negative wet mount for symptomatic patients.

  10. Aging and physical mobility in group-housed Old World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shively, Carol A; Willard, Stephanie L; Register, Thomas C; Bennett, Allyson J; Pierre, Peter J; Laudenslager, Mark L; Kitzman, Dalane W; Childers, Martin K; Grange, Robert W; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2012-10-01

    While indices of physical mobility such as gait speed are significant predictors of future morbidity/mortality in the elderly, mechanisms of these relationships are not understood. Relevant animal models of aging and physical mobility are needed to study these relationships. The goal of this study was to develop measures of physical mobility including activity levels and gait speed in Old World monkeys which vary with age in adults. Locomotor behaviors of 21 old ([Formula: see text] = 20 yoa) and 24 young ([Formula: see text] = 9 yoa) socially housed adult females of three species were recorded using focal sample and ad libitum behavior observation methods. Self-motivated walking speed was 17% slower in older than younger adults. Likewise, young adults climbed more frequently than older adults. Leaping and jumping were more common, on average, in young adults, but this difference did not reach significance. Overall activity levels did not vary significantly by age, and there were no significant age by species interactions in any of these behaviors. Of all the behaviors evaluated, walking speed measured in a simple and inexpensive manner appeared most sensitive to age and has the added feature of being least affected by differences in housing characteristics. Thus, walking speed may be a useful indicator of decline in physical mobility in nonhuman primate models of aging.

  11. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  12. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  13. Age class differences in the feeding behavior of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscataia) in the forested and nonvegetated enclosure groups.

    PubMed

    Jaman, M Firoj; Huffman, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Age class differences in feeding behavior of primates are affected by many factors, including feeding competition, foraging skills, habitat type, food abundance and distribution, body mass, and food types. Two captive groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), one housed in a forested enclosure and the other in a nonvegetated enclosure, were studied to examine the effect of environmental enrichment on age class differences in feeding behavior. Although there was no significant age class difference in time spent feeding on provisioned foods in either enclosure, the feeding rate (intake of unit food/minute) of adults consuming provisioned monkey chow was significantly higher than that of immatures in both enclosures, and was faster for both age groups in the nonvegetated than in the forested enclosure. Overall, feeding time was greatly extended for individuals of both age classes in the forested enclosure compared with their counterparts in the nonvegetated enclosure. Immatures in the forested enclosure utilized a significantly greater number of plant species and food items, exploiting many food items available among the terminal branches, and spent significantly more time feeding than adults. Perhaps constrained by larger body size, adults fed more often on the ground or middle height of the trees, likely reducing competition over plant food resources between adults and immatures. The natural vegetation played an important role in extending feeding time and segregating substrate use during feeding by adults and immatures. This study revealed the benefits concerning environmental enrichment of a naturally forested enclosure, which provides captive primates the opportunity to exhibit age class and species-typical feeding behaviors of importance for their dietary maintenance and general health.

  14. Beyond the "Classic" Nurture Group Model: An Evaluation of Part-Time and Cross-Age Nurture Groups in a Scottish Local Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Karen; Lee, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This study begins to explore ways in which the principles underpinning the traditional "nurture group" model could be altered and age ranges extended while continuing to deliver the proven success of nurture groups in promoting children's social and emotional development. Part-time nurture groups were established in four different primary schools…

  15. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores. PMID:25540495

  16. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  17. 76 FR 27366 - Chrysler Group, LLC, Power Train Division, Mack Avenue Engine Plants #1 And #2, Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on April 22, 2011 (76 FR 22731). The notice was amended on..., 2011 (76 FR 22729). At the request of a company official, the Department reviewed the certification for... And 2, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Caravan Knight, Detroit, MI; Amended...

  18. Schwannoma of Upper Lip: Report of a Rare Case in a Rare Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Hajong, Debobratta; Naku, Narang; Sharma, Girish; Boruah, Manash

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma is a benign, encapsulated perineural tumour originating from the schwann cells of the neural sheath of peripheral motor and sensory nerves. It may develop at any age but is extremely rare in paediatric age group. The tumour is frequently located on the head and neck region, the tongue being the most common site followed by the palate, floor of mouth, buccal mucosa, lips and jaws. Schwannomas rarely occur in the lip area and it is exceedingly rare in the upper lip. The lesion is usually solitary but can be multiple when associated with neurofibromatosis. The diagnosis is usually confirmed after biopsy and anti-S100 protein immuno-histochemical staining is usually used to identify the tumour. In the present study the patient was a 14-year-old young girl with the schwannoma on the upper lip which is probably the third such case in a paediatric age group being reported and was excised without any recurrence at 2 year after excision. PMID:27656503

  19. Schwannoma of Upper Lip: Report of a Rare Case in a Rare Age Group.

    PubMed

    Hajong, Ranendra; Hajong, Debobratta; Naku, Narang; Sharma, Girish; Boruah, Manash

    2016-08-01

    Schwannoma is a benign, encapsulated perineural tumour originating from the schwann cells of the neural sheath of peripheral motor and sensory nerves. It may develop at any age but is extremely rare in paediatric age group. The tumour is frequently located on the head and neck region, the tongue being the most common site followed by the palate, floor of mouth, buccal mucosa, lips and jaws. Schwannomas rarely occur in the lip area and it is exceedingly rare in the upper lip. The lesion is usually solitary but can be multiple when associated with neurofibromatosis. The diagnosis is usually confirmed after biopsy and anti-S100 protein immuno-histochemical staining is usually used to identify the tumour. In the present study the patient was a 14-year-old young girl with the schwannoma on the upper lip which is probably the third such case in a paediatric age group being reported and was excised without any recurrence at 2 year after excision. PMID:27656503

  20. Early adulthood: an overlooked age group in national sodium reduction initiatives in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Jounghee; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Jong-Wook; Byun, Jae-Eon; Kang, Baeg-Won; Choi, Bo Youl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES South Korean's sodium consumption level is more than twice the upper limit level suggested by the WHO. Steep increases in the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Korea necessitate more effective sodium reduction programs. This study was conducted in order to compare sodium intake-related eating behaviors and key psychosocial factors according to age group and gender. SUBJECTS/METHODS Using an online survey, a total of 1,564 adults (20-59 years old) considered to be geographically representative of South Korea were recruited and surveyed. The major outcomes were perceived behaviors, knowledge, intentions, and self-efficacy related to sodium intake. RESULTS The results show that perceived behavior and level of self-efficacy related to low sodium consumption differed by age and gender. Female participants showed better behavior and intention towards low sodium intake than male counterparts. Young participants in their 20s showed the lowest intention to change their current sodium intake as well as lowest self-efficacy measures. CONCLUSIONS Future sodium reduction interventions should be developed with tailored messages targeting different age and gender groups. Specifically, interventions can be planned and implemented at the college level or for workers in their early career to increase their intention and self-efficacy as a means of preventing future health complications associated with high sodium intake. PMID:25489413

  1. [Comparative characteristics of antioxidant status in women with diabetes type 2 of different age groups].

    PubMed

    Ishonina, O G; Mikashinovich, Z I; Olempieva, E V; Kovalenko, T D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic processes in women with diabetes mellitus type 2 of different age groups. It is established that hyperglycemia in aged women is characterized by the development of pronounced oxidative stress, which is the result of changes in the primary structure of protein molecules due to non enzymatic glycosylation of amino acid residues in the active sites. It is known that observed depletion of reduced glutathione pool is associated with high risk of genotoxicity, because it correlates with activation of mitochondrial, chromatin dysfunction and fragmentation of the DNA. In addition, hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids formation leads to necrosis and apoptosis. It can be assumed that the diabetes mellitus type 2 triggers processes of apoptosis, which leads to the activation of aging programs and increase the mortality of patients. Obviously, the change in the concentration of thiol antioxidants, as well as the change in concentration of LPO molecular products may be one of the criteria for evaluation of aging and the efficiency of the treatment of patients.

  2. Risk groups in children under six months of age using self-organizing maps.

    PubMed

    Schilithz, A O C; Kale, P L; Gama, S G N; Nobre, F F

    2014-06-01

    Fetal and infant growth tends to follow irregular patterns and, particularly in developing countries, these patterns are greatly influenced by unfavorable living conditions and interactions with complications during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify groups of children with different risk profiles for growth development. The study sample comprised 496 girls and 508 boys under six months of age from 27 pediatric primary health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were obtained through interviews with the mothers and by reviewing each child's health card. An unsupervised learning, know as a self-organizing map (SOM) and a K-means algorithm were used for cluster analysis to identify groups of children. Four groups of infants were identified. The first (139) consisted of infants born exclusively by cesarean delivery, and their mothers were exclusively multiparous; the highest prevalences of prematurity and low birthweight, a high prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and a low proportion of hospitalization were observed for this group. The second (247 infants) and the third (298 infants) groups had the best and worst perinatal and infant health indicators, respectively. The infants of the fourth group (318) were born heavier, had a low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding, and had a higher rate of hospitalization. Using a SOM, it was possible to identify children with common features, although no differences between groups were found with respect to the adequacy of postnatal weight. Pregnant women and children with characteristics similar to those of group 3 require early intervention and more attention in public policy. PMID:24725333

  3. Cortisol Responses to a Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents: Variations by Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; McQuillan, Mollie T.; Mirous, Heather J.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N = 191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of 5 adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  4. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children's Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Wiegand, Ryan E; Omedo, Martin; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization recommendations for the timing and target population for mass drug administration (MDA) for schistosomiasis are based on the prevalence of infection in school children within a given community. In a large study comparing MDA approaches for Schistosoma mansoni control, we evaluated whether prevalence of infection and egg burdens in 9- to 12-year-old students reflected infection levels in young children and adults in the same community. Cross-sectional surveys of preadolescents (9-12 years old) were compared with those of first year students (5-8 years old) in 225 villages and adults (20-55 years old) in 150 villages along the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Village schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity levels in preadolescents strongly correlated (P < 0.0001) with prevalence and infection intensity for other age groups in the community. Our findings suggest that S. mansoni prevalence and intensity among 9- to 12-year-olds are valid for community sampling purposes in mapping for MDAs.

  5. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children's Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Wiegand, Ryan E; Omedo, Martin; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization recommendations for the timing and target population for mass drug administration (MDA) for schistosomiasis are based on the prevalence of infection in school children within a given community. In a large study comparing MDA approaches for Schistosoma mansoni control, we evaluated whether prevalence of infection and egg burdens in 9- to 12-year-old students reflected infection levels in young children and adults in the same community. Cross-sectional surveys of preadolescents (9-12 years old) were compared with those of first year students (5-8 years old) in 225 villages and adults (20-55 years old) in 150 villages along the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Village schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity levels in preadolescents strongly correlated (P < 0.0001) with prevalence and infection intensity for other age groups in the community. Our findings suggest that S. mansoni prevalence and intensity among 9- to 12-year-olds are valid for community sampling purposes in mapping for MDAs. PMID:26416108

  6. On the age of the Onverwacht Group, Swaziland sequence, South Africa. [radioactive dating of stratified igneous rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, B.-M.; Shih, C.-Y.

    1974-01-01

    Some rocks of the Onverwacht Group, South Africa, have been analyzed for Rb and Sr concentrations and Sr isotopic composition. These rocks include volcanic rocks, layered ultramafic differentiates and cherty sediments. Whole rock data indicate that the Rb-Sr isotopic systems in many samples were open and yield no reasonable isochron relationships. However, the data of mineral separates from a basaltic komatiite define a good isochron of 3.50 (plus or minus .2) b.y. with an initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of 0.70048 plus or minus 5. The orthodox interpretation of this age is the time of the low grade metamorphism. It is reasonable to assume that the age of 3.50 b.y. might also represent the time of initial Onverwacht volcanism and deposition. The initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio obtained above is important to an understanding of the Sr isotopic composition of the Archean upper mantle.

  7. Spectrum of Aortic Valve Abnormalities Associated with Aortic Dilation Across Age Groups in Turner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Laura J.; Baba, Ridhwan Y.; Arai, Andrew E.; Bandettini, W. Patricia; Rosing, Douglas R.; Bakalov, Vladimir; Sachdev, Vandana; Bondy, Carolyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital aortic valve fusion is associated with aortic dilation, aneurysm and rupture in girls and women with Turner syndrome (TS). Our objective was to characterize aortic valve structure in subjects with TS, and determine the prevalence of aortic dilation and valve dysfunction associated with different types of aortic valves. Methods and Results The aortic valve and thoracic aorta were characterized by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in 208 subjects with TS in an IRB-approved natural history study. Echocardiography was used to measure peak velocities across the aortic valve, and the degree of aortic regurgitation. Four distinct valve morphologies were identified: tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) 64%(n=133), partially fused aortic valve (PF) 12%(n=25), bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) 23%(n=47), and unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) 1%(n=3). Age and body surface area (BSA) were similar in the 4 valve morphology groups. There was a significant trend, independent of age, towards larger BSA-indexed ascending aortic diameters (AADi) with increasing valve fusion. AADi were (mean +/− SD) 16.9 +/− 3.3 mm/m2, 18.3 +/− 3.3 mm/m2, and 19.8 +/− 3.9 mm/m2 (p<0.0001) for TAV, PF and BAV+UAV respectively. PF, BAV, and UAV were significantly associated with mild aortic regurgitation and elevated peak velocities across the aortic valve. Conclusions Aortic valve abnormalities in TS occur with a spectrum of severity, and are associated with aortic root dilation across age groups. Partial fusion of the aortic valve, traditionally regarded as an acquired valve problem, had an equal age distribution and was associated with an increased AADi. PMID:24084490

  8. Age Differences and Changes of Coping Behavior in Three Age Groups: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Rott, Christoph; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With increasing age, older adults are more likely to be challenged by an increasing number of physical, functional and social losses. As a result, coping with losses becomes a central theme in very late life. This study investigated age differences and age changes in active behavioral, active cognitive and avoidance coping and related coping to…

  9. Improved survival of children with advanced neuroblastoma treated by intensified therapy including myeloablative chemotherapy with stem cell transplantation: a retrospective analysis from the Tohoku Neuroblastoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, M; Watanabe, A; Kikuta, A; Takano, T; Ito, E; Shimizu, T; Tsuchiya, S; Iinuma, K; Konno, T; Ohi, R; Hayashi, Y

    2001-10-01

    In the hospitals of the Tohoku Neuroblastoma Study Group (TNBSG), treatment for children with advanced neuroblastoma (NB) was intensified in the mid-1990's with the introduction of myeloablative therapy (MT) with stem cell transplantation (SCT) including the use of autologous peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In this report, we examined whether the intensified therapy improved the outcome of children with advanced NB (age> 12 months) who were diagnosed between 1991 and 1997. Patients were 36 children (23 boys and 13 girls) with an average age of 3.4 years (range; 1 to 14 years). Six of them had stage III disease, and the other 30 had stage IV. They were treated initially with induction chemotherapy, surgery, and post-operative chemoradiotherapy, after which 17 of them continued further chemotherapy and the other 19 received MT/SCT (18 with PBSCT and 1 with BMT). Progression-free survival (PFS) rate at seven years from diagnosis was 43.5% for all patients, 66.7% for stage III patients and 38.2% for stage IV patients. The difference between stage III and IV patients was not significant. Among the 30 patients with stage IV disease, PFS at seven years was significantly higher in the 19 patients who received MT/SCT (55.6%) than in the 11 patients who did not receive it (12.5%). There was no difference in clinical and biological risk factors between these two groups, except for the proportion of patients with favorable response to initial therapy (36% and 80% for patients without and with MT/SCT, respectively). Furthermore, the proportion of patients with N-myc amplification was significantly higher in patients with progressive disease (PD) after MT/SCT than in those in CR after MT/SCT. The results of this retrospective study of children with advanced NB suggest that therapy intensification involving MT/SCT might result in lengthened survival time for patients with stage IV disease, and that post-transplant PD remains a risk for

  10. Health practice correlates in three adult age groups: results from two community surveys.

    PubMed

    Rakowski, W; Lefebvre, R C; Assaf, A R; Lasater, T M; Carleton, R A

    1990-01-01

    Independently done surveys of a target population can make an important contribution to knowledge about the determinants of personal health behavior by highlighting variables that consistently emerge as significant predictors. This investigation examined the correlates of four health practice and knowledge indices related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in two baseline community surveys of the Pawtucket Heart Health Program (N = 2,413; N = 2,808). An additional dimension was the use of three adult age groups (18-29, 30-49, 50-64) in conducting the analyses. Results of both surveys showed that sex was the strongest correlate of the four indices--knowledge of CVD, encouraging health practice changes in others, dietary intake, and exercise. The four indices related to CVD were also associated with years of education, primary language, and whether or not a recent cholesterol measurement had been obtained, although these relationships were not as consistent as the results for sex. Overall, about half of each survey's significant associations were also found in the other survey (survey 1, 30 of 62; survey 2, 30 of 56). Consistency of significant results between surveys was best for the group ages 30-49. In either survey, it was rare for an association between a predictor and behavioral index to appear in each of the three age groups. This study supports the importance of the subjects' sex in research on personal health practices, suggests the potential for independence even among health-related indices pertinent to a single type of illness, and emphasizes the usefulness of utilizing independent samples to identify important correlates of health behavior. PMID:2120725

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR COMPETENCE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IS WEAKER IN THE 15-16 YR. ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP THAN IN YOUNGER AGE GROUPS (4-5 YR. AND 11-12 YR.).

    PubMed

    Haga, Monika; Gísladóttír, Thórdís; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2015-12-01

    Developing motor competence and physical fitness can affect the maintenance of a sufficient level of physical activity in children and adolescents. This study assesses the relationship between motor competence and physical fitness from childhood through early adolescence. A cross-sectional sample of 194 participants from 4 to 16 years old were divided into three groups; 4-6 yr. (n=42, M age=5.2, SD 0.6), 11-12 yr. (n=58, M age=12.4, SD=0.3), and 15-16 yr. (n=94, M age=15.9, SD=0.4). To assess motor competence, each child completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). To measure physical fitness, three tasks (strength, speed, and endurance) were selected from the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF). To analyze the significance of the difference between the correlation coefficient in the three age groups (samples) (4-6, 11-12, and 15-16 yr.), Fischer r-to-z transformation was used. The correlation (Pearson's) between motor competence and physical fitness in the age groups was statistically higher for the youngest age groups (4-6 and 11-12 yr.) and the adolescent group (age 15-16). The differences between the two youngest age groups were not statistically significant. The results demonstrate that the correlation between motor competence and physical fitness decreases with age. PMID:26595203

  12. Determinants of caregivers’ vaccination intention with respect to child age group: a cross-sectional survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Shin, Kyung-Ah; Park, Kisoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined how knowledge, risk perception, health beliefs and multidimensional health locus of control (HLC) were associated with caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their child, and how these associations varied across child age groups. Setting South Korea. Methods The cross-sectional survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview among 1017 nationally representative caregivers who had children aged 12 or younger. The outcome variable was caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their children. Results Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that risk perception was negatively associated with vaccination intention only among the age group 4–6 (β=−0.127, p<0.05). Perceived benefit was the only significant predictor of the outcome variables for all three age groups. In contrast, perceived barrier was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=−0.104, p<0.05). Internal HLC was positively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=0.151, p<0.001), while chance HLC was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 0–3 (β=−0.121, p<0.05). Conclusions This study identifies key vaccination intention determinants that are differentially associated with caregivers’ children's age groups. To improve vaccination rates, it suggests the need for strategies tailored to children's age. PMID:26408283

  13. Integrated Analysis and Visualization of Group Differences in Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity: Applications in Typical Ageing and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Langen, Carolyn D; White, Tonya; Ikram, M Arfan; Vernooij, Meike W; Niessen, Wiro J

    2015-01-01

    Structural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uni- and bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of significantly different connections comparing multiple metrics are presented. On the global level, "bi-modal comparison plots" show the distribution of uni- and bi-modal group differences and the relationship between structure and function. Differences between brain lobes are visualized using "worm plots". Group differences in connections are examined with an existing visualization, the "connectogram". These visualizations were evaluated in two proof-of-concept studies: (1) middle-aged versus elderly subjects; and (2) patients with schizophrenia versus controls. Each included two measures derived from diffusion weighted images and two from functional magnetic resonance images. The structural measures were minimum cost path between two anatomical regions according to the "Statistical Analysis of Minimum cost path based Structural Connectivity" method and the average fractional anisotropy along the fiber. The functional measures were Pearson's correlation and partial correlation of mean regional time series. The relationship between structure and function was similar in both studies. Uni-modal group differences varied greatly between connectivity types. Group differences were identified in both studies globally, within brain lobes and between regions. In the aging study, minimum cost path was highly effective in identifying group differences on all levels; fractional anisotropy and mean correlation showed smaller differences on the brain lobe and regional levels. In the schizophrenia study, minimum cost path and fractional anisotropy showed differences on the global level and within brain lobes; mean correlation showed small differences on the lobe level. Only fractional anisotropy

  14. Integrated Analysis and Visualization of Group Differences in Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity: Applications in Typical Ageing and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Langen, Carolyn D; White, Tonya; Ikram, M Arfan; Vernooij, Meike W; Niessen, Wiro J

    2015-01-01

    Structural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uni- and bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of significantly different connections comparing multiple metrics are presented. On the global level, "bi-modal comparison plots" show the distribution of uni- and bi-modal group differences and the relationship between structure and function. Differences between brain lobes are visualized using "worm plots". Group differences in connections are examined with an existing visualization, the "connectogram". These visualizations were evaluated in two proof-of-concept studies: (1) middle-aged versus elderly subjects; and (2) patients with schizophrenia versus controls. Each included two measures derived from diffusion weighted images and two from functional magnetic resonance images. The structural measures were minimum cost path between two anatomical regions according to the "Statistical Analysis of Minimum cost path based Structural Connectivity" method and the average fractional anisotropy along the fiber. The functional measures were Pearson's correlation and partial correlation of mean regional time series. The relationship between structure and function was similar in both studies. Uni-modal group differences varied greatly between connectivity types. Group differences were identified in both studies globally, within brain lobes and between regions. In the aging study, minimum cost path was highly effective in identifying group differences on all levels; fractional anisotropy and mean correlation showed smaller differences on the brain lobe and regional levels. In the schizophrenia study, minimum cost path and fractional anisotropy showed differences on the global level and within brain lobes; mean correlation showed small differences on the lobe level. Only fractional anisotropy

  15. Integrated Analysis and Visualization of Group Differences in Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity: Applications in Typical Ageing and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Langen, Carolyn D.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Vernooij, Meike W.

    2015-01-01

    Structural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uni- and bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of significantly different connections comparing multiple metrics are presented. On the global level, “bi-modal comparison plots” show the distribution of uni- and bi-modal group differences and the relationship between structure and function. Differences between brain lobes are visualized using “worm plots”. Group differences in connections are examined with an existing visualization, the “connectogram”. These visualizations were evaluated in two proof-of-concept studies: (1) middle-aged versus elderly subjects; and (2) patients with schizophrenia versus controls. Each included two measures derived from diffusion weighted images and two from functional magnetic resonance images. The structural measures were minimum cost path between two anatomical regions according to the “Statistical Analysis of Minimum cost path based Structural Connectivity” method and the average fractional anisotropy along the fiber. The functional measures were Pearson’s correlation and partial correlation of mean regional time series. The relationship between structure and function was similar in both studies. Uni-modal group differences varied greatly between connectivity types. Group differences were identified in both studies globally, within brain lobes and between regions. In the aging study, minimum cost path was highly effective in identifying group differences on all levels; fractional anisotropy and mean correlation showed smaller differences on the brain lobe and regional levels. In the schizophrenia study, minimum cost path and fractional anisotropy showed differences on the global level and within brain lobes; mean correlation showed small differences on the lobe level. Only

  16. Perceptions of mental workload in Dutch university employees of different ages: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As academic workload seems to be increasing, many studies examined factors that contribute to the mental workload of academics. Age-related differences in work motives and intellectual ability may lead to differences in experienced workload and in the way employees experience work features. This study aims to obtain a better understanding of age differences in sources of mental workload. 33 academics from one faculty discussed causes of workload during focus group interviews, stratified by age. Findings Among our participants, the influence of ageing seems most evident in employees’ actions and reactions, while the causes of workload mentioned seemed largely similar. These individual reactions to workload may also be driven by differences in tenure. Most positively assessed work characteristics were: interaction with colleagues and students and autonomy. Aspects most often indicated as increasing the workload, were organisational aspects as obstacles for ‘getting the best out of people’ and the feeling that overtime seems unavoidable. Many employees indicated to feel stretched between the ‘greediness’ of the organisation and their own high working standards, and many fear to be assigned even less time for research if they do not meet the rigorous output criteria. Moreover, despite great efforts on their part, promotion opportunities seem limited. A more pronounced role for the supervisor seems appreciated by employees of all ages, although the specific interpretation varied between individuals and career stages. Conclusions To preserve good working conditions and quality of work, it seems important to scrutinize the output requirements and tenure-based needs for employee supervision. PMID:23506458

  17. Immigrant Differences in School-Age Children's Verbal Trajectories: A Look at Four Racial/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Tama; Xue, Yange; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    This study explored inter- and intraindividual immigrant group differences in children's English verbal ability over ages 6-16 in 4 racial/ethnic groups--White Americans, Black Americans, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans (N=2,136). Although all children's mean verbal scores increased with age, immigrant children (except for Black Americans)…

  18. Tracking 10-year competitive winning performance of judo athletes across age groups.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Takito, Monica Y; Mazzei, Leandro; Miarka, Bianca; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-08-01

    Little information is available concerning early specialization and competitive success in judo across the early training years. Thus, the present objective was to verify the stability of individual competitive performance of a state-level championship for judo athletes who had been previously successful. For this, 406 athletes from six age groups (9 to 20+ years old) of each sex were followed for 10 years. Using recorded data from the São Paulo State Judo Federation beginning in 1999, the scores and standings for these judo players were analyzed. The proportion of medal winners during this period was not constant, differing from the grand mean in all groups of both 204 males and 202 females. At the end of this period, only 7% of the male and 5% of the female athletes had maintained their competitive levels. Successful competitive performance in early judo competition was not associated with success later in adulthood. PMID:21987915

  19. Tracking 10-year competitive winning performance of judo athletes across age groups.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Takito, Monica Y; Mazzei, Leandro; Miarka, Bianca; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-08-01

    Little information is available concerning early specialization and competitive success in judo across the early training years. Thus, the present objective was to verify the stability of individual competitive performance of a state-level championship for judo athletes who had been previously successful. For this, 406 athletes from six age groups (9 to 20+ years old) of each sex were followed for 10 years. Using recorded data from the São Paulo State Judo Federation beginning in 1999, the scores and standings for these judo players were analyzed. The proportion of medal winners during this period was not constant, differing from the grand mean in all groups of both 204 males and 202 females. At the end of this period, only 7% of the male and 5% of the female athletes had maintained their competitive levels. Successful competitive performance in early judo competition was not associated with success later in adulthood.

  20. Fast mode decision algorithm in MPEG-2 to H.264/AVC transcoding including group of picture structure conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kangjun; Jeon, Gwanggil; Jeong, Jechang

    2009-05-01

    The H.264/AVC baseline profile is used in many applications, including digital multimedia broadcasting, Internet protocol television, and storage devices, while the MPEG-2 main profile is widely used in applications, such as high-definition television and digital versatile disks. The MPEG-2 main profile supports B pictures for bidirectional motion prediction. Therefore, transcoding the MPEG-2 main profile to the H.264/AVC baseline is necessary for universal multimedia access. In the cascaded pixel domain transcoder architecture, the calculation of the rate distortion cost as part of the mode decision process in the H.264/AVC encoder requires extremely complex computations. To reduce the complexity inherent in the implementation of a real-time transcoder, we propose a fast mode decision algorithm based on complexity information from the reference region that is used for motion compensation. In this study, an adaptive mode decision process was used based on the modes assigned to the reference regions. Simulation results indicated that a significant reduction in complexity was achieved without significant degradation of video quality.

  1. What it Takes to Successfully Implement Technology for Aging in Place: Focus Groups With Stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Eveline JM; Luijkx, Katrien G; Vrijhoef, Hubertus JM

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in empowering older adults to age in place by deploying various types of technology (ie, eHealth, ambient assisted living technology, smart home technology, and gerontechnology). However, initiatives aimed at implementing these technologies are complicated by the fact that multiple stakeholder groups are involved. Goals and motives of stakeholders may not always be transparent or aligned, yet research on convergent and divergent positions of stakeholders is scarce. Objective To provide insight into the positions of stakeholder groups involved in the implementation of technology for aging in place by answering the following questions: What kind of technology do stakeholders see as relevant? What do stakeholders aim to achieve by implementing technology? What is needed to achieve successful implementations? Methods Mono-disciplinary focus groups were conducted with participants (n=29) representing five groups of stakeholders: older adults (6/29, 21%), care professionals (7/29, 24%), managers within home care or social work organizations (5/29, 17%), technology designers and suppliers (6/29, 21%), and policy makers (5/29, 17%). Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Stakeholders considered 26 different types of technologies to be relevant for enabling independent living. Only 6 out of 26 (23%) types of technology were mentioned by all stakeholder groups. Care professionals mentioned fewer different types of technology than other groups. All stakeholder groups felt that the implementation of technology for aging in place can be considered a success when (1) older adults’ needs and wishes are prioritized during development and deployment of the technology, (2) the technology is accepted by older adults, (3) the technology provides benefits to older adults, and (4) favorable prerequisites for the use of technology by older adults exist. While stakeholders seemed to have identical aims, several underlying

  2. The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Dai, K

    1991-03-01

    Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

  3. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  4. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-06-04

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively.

  5. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  6. Fresh frozen plasma in the pediatric age group and in congenital coagulation factor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Muntean, Wolfgang

    2002-10-31

    Generally, the rules of good practice in transfusion medicine apply also to the pediatric age group. However, the frequency of specific diseases that might necessitate the administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) differs from that in adults. Physiologic differences to the later age exist in the neonatal period and in young infants, especially with respect to the hemostatic system, that must be recognized when considering administration of FFP. The plasma levels of many procoagulant factors and important anticoagulants are lower in neonates than in other age groups. Despite these findings, healthy neonates show no easy bruising, no increased bleeding during surgery, and excellent wound healing. The same discrepancy obtains between in vitro and clinical findings with primary hemostasis in neonates. The good primary hemostasis in neonates despite poor in vitro platelet function seems to be due mainly to a very high von Willebrand factor and the presence of more high-multimeric subunits of von Willebrand factor than later in life. We must assume that these particular plasma levels of procoagulant and anticoagulant proteins are essential for the correct function of neonatal hemostasis. Evidence that the hemostatic system of neonates works best with physiologic concentrations of procoagulants and anticoagulants can also be inferred from studies where the administration of clotting factor concentrates gave poor results.Since healthy neonates and young infants have excellent hemostasis, there is absolutely no indication to 'correct' these values to adult's norms prior to invasive procedures by administering FFP. Indications for FFP, met more frequently in the pediatric age group than later in life, are exchange transfusion and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Indications applying equally to adults are other extracorporeal life support systems, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hepatic coagulopathy, and 'complex unclear coagulopathies'. In congenital clotting

  7. Resveratrol Enhances Neuroplastic Changes, Including Hippocampal Neurogenesis, and Memory in Balb/C Mice at Six Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Pérez, Mario; Tellez-Ballesteros, Ruth Ivonne; Ortiz-López, Leonardo; Ichwan, Muhammad; Vega-Rivera, Nelly Maritza; Castro-García, Mario; Gómez-Sánchez, Ariadna; Kempermann, Gerd; Ramirez-Rodriguez, Gerardo Bernabe

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (RVTL) is a flavonoid found in red wine and has been publicized heavily as an anti-aging compound. Indeed, basic research confirms that although there is much hype in the promotion of RVTL, flavonoids such as RVTL have a wide range of biological effects. We here investigated the effects of RVTL treatment on hippocampal plasticity and memory performance in female Balb/C mice, a strain with low baseline levels of adult neurogenesis. Two weeks of treatment with RVTL (40 mg/kg) induced the production of new neurons in vivo by increasing cell survival and possibly precursor cell proliferation. In addition, RVTL decreased the number of apoptotic cells. The number of doublecortin (DCX)-expressing intermediate cells was increased. RVTL stimulated neuronal differentiation in vitro without effects on proliferation. In the dentate gyrus, RVTL promoted the formation and maturation of spines on granule cell dendrites. RVTL also improved performance in the step down passive avoidance test. The RVTL-treated mice showed increase in the levels of two key signaling proteins, phospho-Akt and phospho-PKC, suggesting the involvement of these signaling pathways. Our results support the vision that flavonoids such as resveratrol deserve further examination as plasticity-inducing compounds in the context of successful cognitive aging. PMID:26695764

  8. Revised stratigraphy of Area 123, Koobi Fora, Kenya, and new age estimates of its fossil mammals, including hominins.

    PubMed

    Gathogo, Patrick N; Brown, Francis H

    2006-11-01

    Recent geologic study shows that all hominins and nearly all other published mammalian fossils from Paleontological Collection Area 123, Koobi Fora, Kenya, derive from levels between the KBS Tuff (1.87+/-0.02 Ma) and the Lower Ileret Tuff (1.53+/-0.01 Ma). More specifically, the fossils derive from 53 m of section below the Lower Ileret Tuff, an interval in which beds vary markedly laterally, especially those units containing molluscs and algal stromatolites. The upper Burgi Member (approximately 2.00-1.87 Ma) crops out only in the southwestern part of Area 123. Adjacent Area 110 contains larger exposures of the member, and there the KBS Tuff is preserved as an airfall ash in lacustrine deposits and also as a fluvially redeposited ash. We observed no mammalian fossils in situ in this member in Area 123, but surface specimens have been documented in some monographic treatments. Fossil hominins from Area 123 were attributed to strata above the KBS Tuff in the 1970s, but later they were assigned to strata below the KBS Tuff (now called the upper Burgi Member). This study definitively places the Area 123 hominins in the KBS Member. Most of these hominins are between 1.60 and 1.65 myr in age, but the youngest may date to only 1.53 Ma, and the oldest, to 1.75 Ma. All are 0.15-0.30 myr younger than previously estimated. The new age estimates, in conjunction with published taxonomic attributions of fossils, suggest that at least two species of Homo coexisted in the region along with A. boisei until at least 1.65 Ma. Comparison of crania KNM-ER 1813 and KNM-ER 1470, which were believed to be of comparable age, is at the focus of the debate over whether Homo habilis sensu lato is in fact composed of two species: Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis. These two crania are separated in time by approximately 0.25 myr, and therefore, arguments for their conspecificity no longer need to confront the issue of unusually high contemporaneous variation within a single species. PMID

  9. Quantifying the impact of expanded age group campaigns for polio eradication.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bradley G; Behrend, Matthew R; Klein, Daniel J; Upfill-Brown, Alexander M; Eckhoff, Philip A; Hu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    A priority of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) 2013-2018 strategic plan is to evaluate the potential impact on polio eradication resulting from expanding one or more Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs) to children beyond age five-years in polio endemic countries. It has been hypothesized that such expanded age group (EAG) campaigns could accelerate polio eradication by eliminating immunity gaps in older children that may have resulted from past periods of low vaccination coverage. Using an individual-based mathematical model, we quantified the impact of EAG campaigns in terms of probability of elimination, reduction in polio transmission and age stratified immunity levels. The model was specifically calibrated to seroprevalence data from a polio-endemic region: Zaria, Nigeria. We compared the impact of EAG campaigns, which depend only on age, to more targeted interventions which focus on reaching missed populations. We found that EAG campaigns would not significantly improve prospects for polio eradication; the probability of elimination increased by 8% (from 24% at baseline to 32%) when expanding three annual SIAs to 5-14 year old children and by 18% when expanding all six annual SIAs. In contrast, expanding only two of the annual SIAs to target hard-to-reach populations at modest vaccination coverage-representing less than one tenth of additional vaccinations required for the six SIA EAG scenario-increased the probability of elimination by 55%. Implementation of EAG campaigns in polio endemic regions would not improve prospects for eradication. In endemic areas, vaccination campaigns which do not target missed populations will not benefit polio eradication efforts.

  10. Hydroacoustic separation of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Stetter S.L.; Rudstam, L. G.; Stritzel, Thomson J.L.; Parrish, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Separate assessment of young-of-year (YOY) and yearling-and-older (YAO) fish is desirable from both ecological and management perspectives. Acoustic assessments provide information on fish population size structure in the target strength (TS) distribution, but interpretation of TS distributions must be done carefully, as single age groups can produce multiple TS modes. We assessed the ability of in situ TS distributions to identify Lake Champlain rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in June, July, and September of 2001 using mobile and stationary surveys, knowledge of vertical distribution preferences, and predicted TS from trawl catches. YAO rainbow smelt (93-179 mm total length) had wide TS distributions between -60 and -35 dB in all 3 months with two modes at approximately -50 and -40 dB. Most stationary survey single-fish tracks attributed to YAO had targets in both TS modes and a wide TS range often over 15 dB. Between June and September, YOY rainbow smelt TS increased, but single-fish tracks were unimodal, and the TS range was smaller (6 dB). Overlap in TS attributed to YOY and YAO increased from no overlap in June (YOY TS -76 to -61 dB, 15-25 mm) to moderate overlap in July (-76 to -50 dB, 25-63 mm) to considerable overlap in September (-68 to -45 dB, 33-80 mm). In June and July, the TS distribution changed abruptly at the thermocline, indicating almost complete separation of the two groups. A more gradual TS transition was evident in September, indicating substantial overlap between YOY and YAO. Separate estimates can be obtained in September by decomposing TS overlap into components attributed to YOY and YAO rainbow smelt. However, this decomposition introduces additional uncertainty and an assessment in July or possibly August is preferable to obtain separate abundance estimates of YOY and YAO. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Increase in participation but decrease in performance in age group mountain marathoners in the 'Jungfrau Marathon': a Swiss phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Zingg, Matthias A; Rüst, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    Participation and performance trends for age group marathoners have been investigated for large city marathons such as the 'New York City Marathon' but not for mountain marathons. This study investigated participation and trends in performance and sex difference in the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' held in Switzerland from 2000 to 2014 using single and mixed effects regression analyses. Results were compared to a city marathon (Lausanne Marathon) also held in Switzerland during the same period. Sex difference was calculated using the equation ([race time in women] - [race time in men]/[race time in men] × 100). Changes in sex differences across calendar years and were investigated using linear regression models. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', participation in all female and male age groups increased with exception of women in age groups 18-24 and men in age groups 30-34, 40-44 and 60-64 years where participation remained unchanged. In 'Lausanne Marathon', participation increased in women in age groups 30-34 to 40-44 years. In men, participation increased in age groups 25-29 to 44-44 years and 50-54 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon' runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 to 70-74 years. In 'Lausanne Marathon', runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 and 30-34 to 65-69 years, but not for 25-29, 70-74 and 75-79 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', sex difference increased in age groups 25-29 (from 4 to 10 %) and 60-64 years (from 3 to 8 %) but decreased in age group 40-44 years (from 12 to 6 %). In 'Lausanne Marathon', the sex difference showed no changes. In summary, participation increased in most female and male age groups but performance decreased in most age groups for both the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' and the city marathon 'Lausanne Marathon'. The sex differences were lower in the 'Jungfrau Marathon' (~6-7 %) compared to the 'Lausanne Marathon' where the sex difference was ~10-12 % from age groups 18-24 to 55

  12. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    DOE PAGES

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for twomore » interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. Lastly, the co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.« less

  13. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Z B; Luan, J H; Miller, M K; Yu, C Y; Liu, C T

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  14. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  15. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications. PMID:26892834

  16. Swimming Training Assessment: The Critical Velocity and the 400-m Test for Age-Group Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Zacca, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Ricardo Jorge P; Pyne, David B; Castro, Flávio Antônio de S

    2016-05-01

    To verify the metabolic responses of oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentrations [La], and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) when swimming at an intensity corresponding to the critical velocity (CV) assessed by a 4-parameter model (CV4par), and to check the reliability when using only a single 400-m maximal front crawl bout (T400) for CV4par assessment in age-group swimmers. Ten age-group swimmers (14-16 years old) performed 50-, 100-, 200-, 400- (T400), 800-, and 1,500-m maximal front crawl bouts to calculate CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured immediately after bouts. Swimmers then performed 3 × 10-minute front crawl (45 seconds rest) at CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured after 10 minutes of rest (Rest), warm-up (Pre), each 10-minute repetition, and at the end of the test (Post). CV4par was 1.33 ± 0.08 m·s. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were similar between first 10-minute and Post time points in the 3 × 10-minute protocol. CV4par was equivalent to 92 ± 2% of the mean swimming speed of T400 (v400) for these swimmers. CV4par calculated through a single T400 (92%v400) showed excellent agreement (r = 0.30; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.05 m·s, p = 0.39), low coefficient of variation (2%), and root mean square error of 0.02 ± 0.01 m·s when plotted against CV4par assessed through a 4-parameter model. These results generated the equation CV4par = 0.92 × v400. A single T400 can be used reliably to estimate the CV4par typically derived with 6 efforts in age-group swimmers.

  17. The Feasibility of a Group Bender-Gestalt Test for Preschool and Primary School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Denis P.

    1975-01-01

    Study devised and tested a method for group administration of the Bender-Gestalt Test that would be feasible for screening large groups of beginning school-age children. Results indicate that the group method of presentation can yield results as valid and reliable as the traditional individual method of administration. (Author)

  18. A comparison of participation and performance in age-group finishers competing in and qualifying for Ironman Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Michael; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Background Athletes intending to compete in Ironman Hawaii need to qualify in an age-group based qualification system. We compared participation and top ten performances of athletes in various age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Methods Finishes in Ironman Hawaii and in its qualifier races in 2010 were analyzed in terms of performance, age, and sex. Athletes were categorized into age groups from 18–24 to 75–79 years and split and race times were determined for the top ten athletes in each age group. Results A higher proportion of athletes aged 25–49 years finished in the qualifier races than in Ironman Hawaii. In athletes aged 18–24 and 50–79 years, the percentage of finishes was higher in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. For women, the fastest race times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for those aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 25–29 (P<0.05), and 60–64 (P<0.05) years. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for 18–24, 25–29, 40–44, 50–54, and 60–64 years (P<0.05) in age groups. For men, finishers aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 40–44 (P<0.001), 50–54 (P<0.01), 55–59 (P<0.001), 60–64 (P<0.01), and 65–69 (P<0.001) years were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for those aged 18–24 and those aged 40 years and older (P<0.05). Conclusion There are differences in terms of participation and performance for athletes in different age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Triathletes aged 25–49 years and men generally were underrepresented in Ironman Hawaii compared with in its Ironman qualifier races. These athletes may have had less chance to qualify for Ironman Hawaii than female athletes or younger (<25

  19. [Health Care Insurance in France: its impact on income distribution between age and social groups].

    PubMed

    Fourcade, N; Duval, J; Lardellier, R

    2013-08-01

    Our study, based on microsimulation models, evaluates the redistributive impact of health care insurance in France on income distribution between age and social groups. This work sheds light on the debate concerning the respective role of the public health care insurance (PHI) and the private supplemental health care insurance (SHI) in France. The analysis points out that the PHI enables the lowest-income households and the pensioners a better access to health care than they would have had under a complete private SHI. Due to the progressivity of taxes, low-income households contribute less to the PHI and get higher benefits because of a weaker health. Pensioners have low contributions to public health care finance but the highest health care expenditures.

  20. [Peculiarities of cardiovascular system pathology depending on psychological profile in patients of senior age groups].

    PubMed

    Prokhorenko, I O

    2013-01-01

    Interrelations between peculiarities of psychological profile of patients of senior age groups (according to Cattel), level of stress hormones in blood and background pathology of cardiovascular system were studied. Levels of catecholamine and corticosteroids in dynamics, rate of magnesium in erythrocytes and calcium in plaques of coronary arteries as well as fats, Holter ECG, daily profiles of blood pressure, vasomotor function of endothelium and microcirculation were analysed. It is established that stress hormones indirectly determine original form of stress reaction depending on patients' psychological profile. This contributes to the development of one or another form of cardiovascular system pathology. Excessive alcohol intake also promotes progression of cardiovascular system pathology. Depression, being a reflection of disbalance of stress hormones levels, can be used as a marker of unfavourable course of cardiovascular pathology.

  1. Elevated fracture of skull in pediatric age group: A series of five patients with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jayendra; Prakash, Anand; Harsh, Viraat; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Elevated fractures of skull in pediatric age group are rarely reported in the literature. In view of rarity, we present a series of five cases of elevated skull fracture in pediatric age group. Over a period of 1-year, we operated on five such cases. In this article, we have discussed the mode, mechanism and extent of injury, its clinico-radiological findings, course of the disease, and the management outcome. Four out of five cases improved after surgery and did not suffer any complications. Early recognition and appropriate management of compound elevated fracture in pediatric age group comes with good outcome and prevents unwanted morbidity and mortality. PMID:26889296

  2. An analysis of the rollover backstroke turn by age-group swimmers.

    PubMed

    Blanksby, Brian; Skender, Simon; Elliott, Bruce; McElroy, Keith; Landers, Grant

    2004-01-01

    Kinetic (3-D force plate), kinematic (videography) and temporal characteristics of backstroke turns by 20 male and 16 female swimmers were recorded to identify and describe key elements of backstroke turning performance. Data were recorded during a 50 m maximum effort swim in a 25 metre pool. A Pearson product moment correlation matrix revealed that the 5 m RTT was significantly correlated with anthropometric measures of height, mass, trochanteric height and age; kinetic measures of horizontal impulse and peak force; and kinematic measures of wall contact time and peak velocity. The stepwise multiple regression equation to predict 5 m RTT was: 19.6-0.75 trochanteric height-1.8 wall exit velocity-0.03 peak vertical force. Four key factors were identified from a principle components factor analysis--anthropometry and force, post-turn velocity, force preparation and rotational skills. Implications from the findings were that age-group backstrokers should 'hit the wall hard' with relatively extended legs to reduce swim distance and push-off deceleration; use minimal wall contact time, and maximise forces to develop high horizontal velocities in a streamlined position. PMID:15079984

  3. The dental health of a group of adults approaching retirement age in Hertfordshire, England.

    PubMed

    Clouting, D W

    1989-12-01

    A socio-dental investigation involving a clinical examination and structured interview was carried out during 1986 on a sample of 83 people aged between 55 and 64 years in Hertfordshire. The sample was not representative of the population; subjects were employed on the staff of two retailing chains. The main purpose of the study was to estimate likely future needs of older people in such a sample. The clinical examination showed a proportion of individuals with natural and heavily restored teeth. Most subjects had one or more exposed non-carious root surfaces. The periodontal condition of the sample was favourable. Problems could occur in the future as this group ages if their currently favourable dental health deteriorates and root surfaces become carious in large numbers or the periodontal condition worsens. Conservative treatment, if required in the future, especially for housebound people, may be a problem unless domiciliary services are planned to this end. A preventive approach may help to limit operative requirements. PMID:2696575

  4. Hormonal monitoring of age at sexual maturation in female Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii) in their family groups.

    PubMed

    Dettling, A; Pryce, C R

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether or not sexual maturation is attained in the family group in captive-born Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) and if so, at what age and body weight. To monitor ovarian activity in 14 female Goeldi's monkeys, urinary content of pregnanediol-3alpha-glucuronide (PdG) was determined using radioimmunoassay. Urinary samples were collected between the ages of 6 and 70 weeks. Subjects became sexually mature while still housed in their family groups, at a median age of 57 weeks (48-< 70 weeks). Median body weight at the age of sexual maturity was 473 g (N=10; 420-543 g). This corresponded to 90% of the median non-pregnant body weight of breeding females in our colony (526 g, N=8). Therefore, Goeldi's monkey is similar to Leontopithecus but different from Cebuella, Callithrix, and Saguinus, in terms of daughters ovulating in the family group and at a relatively young age.

  5. Age constraints for Paleoproterozoic glaciation in the Lake Superior Region: Detrital zircon and hydrothermal xenotime ages for the Chocolay Group, Marquette Range Supergroup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallini, D.A.; Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    A geochronological study of the Chocolay Group at the base of the Paleoproterozoic Marquette Range Supergroup in Michigan, Lake Superior Region, is attempted for the first time, Age data from detrital zircon grains and hydrothermal xenotime from the basal glaciogenic formation, the Enchantment Lake Formation, and the stratigraphically higher Sturgeon Quartzite and its equivalent, the Sunday Quartzite, provide maximum and minimum age constraints for the Chocolay Group. The youngest detrital zircon population in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2317 ?? 6 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2306 ?? 9 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2647 ?? 5 Ma. The oldest hydrothermal xenotime age in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2133 ?? 11 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2115 ?? 5 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2207 ?? 5 Ma. The radiometric age data in this study implies the depositional age of the Chocolay Group is constrained to ???2.3-2.2 Ga, which proves its correlation with part of the Huronian Supergroup in the Lake Huron Region, Ontario, and reveals the unconformity that separates the Chocolay Group from the overlying Menominee Group is up to 325 million years in duration. The source(s) of the ??? 2.3 Ga detrital zircon populations in the Enchantment Lake Formation and Sturgeon Quartzite remains an enigma because no known rock units of this age are known in the Michigan area. It is speculated that once widespread volcano-sedimentary cover sequences in Michigan were removed or concealed prior to Chocolay Group deposition. The hydrothermal xenotime ages probably reflect basinal hydrothermal fluid flow associated with the period of extension involving rifting and major dyke formation, that affected the North American provinces between 2.2 and 2.1 Ga. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  6. Predictability and Reliability of Different Anterio-Posterior Skeletal Discrepancy Indicators in Different Age Groups - A Cephalometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rana; Gupta, Abhishek; Joshi, Rishi; Tiwari, Anil; Sen, Priyank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The lateral cephalometric skeletal discrepancy indicators play a major role in diagnosing and preparing a case for orthognathic surgeries and the dentofacial corrections. Aim The study was aimed to check the reliability and the predictability of different anterio-posterior skeletal discrepancy indicators in different age groups and to derive the most reliable indicator for the orthodontic diagnosis. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 100 subjects including 29 adolescent (15 males and 14 females) and 71 adult (41 males and 30 females) subjects with the mean age of 19.05 ± 5.78 years. All the subjects had Angle’s Class I molar relationship. The lateral cephalograms of the sample were taken under the standard setting and hand tracing of the cephalometric radiographs using a sharp 4H pencil were made on acetate tracing paper. The anterio-posterior cephalometric indicators like β-angle, Wits appraisal (mm), Sella- Nasion plane to Point A and Point B distance (SN-AB mm) and Maxillo-Mandibular plane angle bisector to Point A and Point B distance (MM-AB mm) were measured. Intra-examiner reliability of tracings was evaluated using Intra Class Correlation (ICC) test. Mann Whitney U-test was applied for comparison of parameters between different malocclusion groups. Concurrent validity of various parameters was calculated using Cohen’s kappa. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The comparison of intra-examiner reliability of tracings in Angle’s Class I adolescent group showed, MM-AB to have an almost perfect agreement followed by Wits. Intra-examiner reliability of tracings in Angle’s Class I adult group showed moderate agreement for Wits and MM-AB showed almost perfect agreement and all the parameters showed statistically significant ICC. Comparison of parameters between adolescent and adult, Angle’s Class I malocclusion group showed significant difference between adolescent and

  7. Fatigue and mood correlates of sleep length in three age-social groups: School children, students, and employees.

    PubMed

    Oginska, Halszka; Pokorski, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to trace the consequences of insufficient sleep, in terms of chronic sleep reduction rather than acute sleep deprivation, on fatigue, mood, cognitive performance self-estimations, and daytime sleepiness in different age-social groups. The age group of the subjects reflects their social situation and their working time organization: adolescents (n = 191) obeyed the strict school schedules with starting times often before 08:00 h; university students (n = 115) had more flexible timetables; young employees (n = 126) were engaged in regular morning schedules or irregular daytime hours or day and night shifts. A questionnaire study determined the declared need of sleep, self-reported sleep length, chronic fatigue (using a scale comprised of eight fatigue symptoms and four mood and three cognitive items), and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale). The declared need for sleep decreased in subsequent age groups from 9 h 23 min in school children to 8 h 22 min in university students and to 7 h 37 min in young employees. Consequently, the discrepancy between preferred and real sleep length (sleep deficit) was the largest in adolescents: 106 min. Females showed a greater need of sleep than males (p = .025) and significantly more fatigue, mood, and cognitive problems; they also exhibited higher level of daytime sleepiness (p < .000). The sleep index (reported sleep length related to requirements) correlated significantly with all health issues in women (p < .000), while only with fatigue symptoms in men (p = .013). Actual sleep length was unrelated to mood and fatigue issues; the declared individual need of sleep and sleep index showed significant associations, especially in the group of adolescents. The most frequent complaints of adolescents included tiredness on awakening (46%), nervousness, and general weakness; university students reported excessive drowsiness (50%), tension, and nervousness; employees suffered mostly from negative moods

  8. The Effect of Reminiscence Group Work on Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem and Mood of Ageing People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Puyenbroeck, Joris; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the effects of reminiscence group work on the subjective well-being of ageing people with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The content of the successive group work sessions was manipulated as follows: a control-phase with three "current topics" sessions, an experimental phase with six "reminiscence" sessions and…

  9. Does whom you work with matter? Effects of referent group gender and age composition on managers' compensation.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, Cheri; Atwater, Leanne E

    2003-08-01

    Much research has examined gender and age effects on compensation, concluding that a wage gap exists favoring men and negative stereotypes against older workers persist. Although the effect of an employee's gender or age has been widely studied, little work has examined the impact of the demographic characteristics of a focal employee's immediate referent groups (e.g., subordinates, peers, or supervisors) on pay. The effect of the gender and age composition of a focal manager's subordinates, peers, and supervisor on the manager's compensation levels was investigated in a sample of 2,178 managers across a wide range of organizations and functional areas. After controlling for a number of human capital variables, results indicated that not only does a wage gap favoring men exist, but also managerial pay is lower when managers' referent groups are largely female, when subordinates are outside the prime age group, and when peers and supervisors are younger. PMID:12940411

  10. Standards of Fair Play in Same- and Mixed-Age Groups of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, William G.

    The present study investigated the hypothesis that children do not use the same standards of fair play in mixed-age situations as in same-age situations. It was further hypothesized that in mixed-age encounters, younger children would use cues associated with older children (i.e., physical size) as a basis for reward deservingness. Older children,…

  11. A taxonomic revision of the Cymindis (Pinacodera) limbata species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini), including description of a new species from Florida, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Hunting, Wesley M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Cymindis (Pinacodera) limbata species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini) is a precinctive New World taxon with ranges extended from portions of temperate southeastern Canada and the U.S.A. through the montane regions of Mexico, south to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The group is distinguishable from all other members of the subgenus Pinacodera by males possessing a distinctive sclerite (endophallic plate) at the apex of the endophallus. In the past, a lack of material and misunderstandings of range of variation within species have contributed to confusion about how many species there really are. This revision of the limbata species group includes a classification, a key to groups within the subgenus Pinacodera and species within the limbata group, descriptions of species, re-rankings and new synonymies. In total 10 taxa are treated, with 6 new synonyms proposed, 1 new combination introduced and 1 new species described: Cymindis (Pinacodera) rufostigma (type locality: Archbold Biological Station, Highlands County, Florida, U.S.A.). Each taxon is characterized in terms of structural features of adults, habitat, geographical distribution, and chorological affinities. Available ecological information and treatments of variation are included. PMID:23653501

  12. Blood pressure categories and long-term risk of cardiovascular disease according to age group in Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Akira; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2012-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) categories defined by systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) are commonly used. However, the BP category-specific risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been thoroughly investigated in different age groups. The aim of this study was to assess long-term CVD risk and its impact according to BP categories and age group. Pooling individual data from 10 cohorts, we studied 67 309 Japanese individuals (40-89 years old) who were free of CVD at baseline: we categorized them as belonging to three age groups: 'middle-aged' (40-64 years), 'elderly' (65-74 years) and 'very elderly' (75-89 years). BP was classified according to the 2009 Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Cox models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for CVD deaths. We observed 1944 CVD deaths over a mean follow-up of 10.2 years. In all age groups, the overall relationship between BP category and CVD risk was positive, with a greater strength observed for younger age groups. We observed a trend of increased risk from SBP/DBP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg in the very elderly, and a significant increase from SBP/DBP ≥ 120/80 mm Hg in the other age groups. The population attributable fractions (PAFs) of CVD death in reference to the SBP/DBP<120/80 mm Hg category ranged from 23.4% in the very elderly to 60.3% in the middle-aged. We found an overall graded increase in CVD risk with higher BP category in the very elderly. The PAFs suggest that keeping BP levels low is an important strategy for primary CVD prevention, even in an elderly population.

  13. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Lymphocytes from Different Age Groups of Bolivian Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis)

    PubMed Central

    Nehete, Pramod N.; Hanley, Patrick W.; Nehete, Bharti P.; Yang, Guojun; Ruiz, Julio C.; Williams, Lawrence; Abee, Christian R.; Sastry, K. Jagannadha

    2013-01-01

    Due to many physiological and genetic characteristic similarities to humans, squirrel monkeys provide an ideal animal model specifically for studying malaria, and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease). While squirrel monkeys three years and older are generally considered adult subjects suitable for use in medical research studies, little is known about the functional properties of lymphocytes in relation to the age of these animals, which could significantly impact the quality and quantity of innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we investigated differences in the phenotype and function of lymphocytes subsets of young (3–4 years), adult (8–10 years) and aged (16–19 years) squirrel monkeys. In general, animals in all three age groups exhibited comparable numbers of different lymphocyte subsets except for CD20+ B cells that were significantly lower in aged relative to young animals and T cells subsets expressing both CD4 and CD8 (double positive) were significantly higher in aged relative to young animals. With increasing age, phenotypic differences in central and effector memory T cells subsets were observed, that were more pronounced for the CD8+ T cells. Despite equal proportions of CD3+ T cells among the three age groups, responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to T cell mitogens PHA and Con A showed lower IFN-γ producing cells in the aged group than that in the young group. Furthermore, aged animals showed significantly higher plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-12. These findings suggest that while the squirrel monkeys in general share phenotypic and functional similarities of lymphocyte subsets with humans in relation to age, specific differences exist in immune function of lymphocytes between young and old animals that could potentially impact experimental outcomes for which the measurement of immunologic endpoints are critical. PMID:24282512

  14. Impact of extreme temperatures on daily mortality in Madrid (Spain) among the 45-64 age-group.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio

    2006-07-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between extreme temperatures and mortality among persons aged 45-64 years. Daily mortality in Madrid was analysed by sex and cause, from January 1986 to December 1997. Quantitative analyses were performed using generalised additive models, with other covariables, such as influenza, air pollution and seasonality, included as controls. Our results showed that impact on mortality was limited for temperatures ranging from the 5th to the 95th percentiles, and increased sharply thereafter. During the summer period, the effect of heat was detected solely among males in the target age group, with an attributable risk (AR) of 13.3% for circulatory causes. Similarly, NO(2) concentrations registered the main statistically significant associations in females, with an AR of 15% when circulatory causes were considered. During winter, the impact of cold was exclusively observed among females having an AR of 7.7%. The magnitude of the AR indicates that the impact of extreme temperature is by no means negligible.

  15. Accuracy of Cameriere, Haavikko, and Willems radiographic methods on age estimation on Bosnian-Herzegovian children age groups 6-13.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Cameriere, Roberto; Nakaš, Enita; Galić, Elizabeta; Selimović, Edin; Brkić, Hrvoje

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the accuracy of the Cameriere European formula (Cameriere), adopted Haavikko method from 1974 (Haavikko), and revisited Demirjian method by Willems (Willems) for age estimation on orthopantomograms (OPGs) of Bosnian-Herzegovian (BH) children age groups 6-13 years. The accuracy was determined as difference between estimated dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA) and the absolute accuracy (absolute difference) was assessed by analyzing OPGs of 591 girls and 498 boys. The Cameriere method overestimated the mean age by 0.09 year for girls and underestimated by -0.02 year for boys. The Haavikko method underestimated the mean age by -0.29 year for girls and -0.09 year for boys. The Willems method overestimated the mean age by 0.24 year in girls and by 0.42 year in boys. The absolute accuracies were 0.53 year for girls and 0.55 year for boys for Cameriere method; for Haavikko method, 0.59 year for girls and 0.62 year for boys; and for Willems method 0.69 year for girls and 0.67 year for boys. In conclusion, Cameriere method is the most accurate for estimating the age of BH children age groups 6-13 years using OPGs, following adopted Haavikko method and Willems method.

  16. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity.

    PubMed

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  17. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  18. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    PubMed

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening. PMID:26134040

  19. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    PubMed

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening.

  20. Associations of gender and age groups on the knowledge and use of drug information resources by American pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Manuel J.; Clauson, Kevin A.; Gershman, Jennifer; Polen, Hyla H.

    Objective To explore knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists and identify patterns influenced by gender and age-group classification. Methods A survey questionnaire was mailed nationwide to 1,000 practitioners working in community (n = 500) and hospital (n = 500) settings who answer drug information questions as part of their expected job responsibilities. Responses pertaining to drug information resource use and knowledge of different types of drug-related queries, resource media preferences, and perceived adequacy of resources maintained in the pharmacy were analyzed by gender and age group. The t statistic was used to test for significant differences of means and percentages between genders and between age groups. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize other findings. Results Gender and age group classification influenced patterns of knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists. They also affected pharmacists’ perceptions of the most common types of questions prompting them to consult a drug information reference, as well as the resources consulted. Micromedex, exclusively available in electronic format, was the most commonly consulted resource overall by pharmacists. Lexi-Comp Online was the leading choice by women, preferred over Micromedex, but was not one of the top two resources selected by men. Conclusions This study successfully identified the influence of gender and age-group classification in assessing drug information resource knowledge and use of general and specific types of drug-related queries. PMID:24155853

  1. Absolute age constraints on the age and tectonics of the Middle and Late Proterozoic Pahrump Group, southern Death Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Calzia, J.P. ); Troxel, B.W.

    1993-04-01

    The Pahrump Group unconformably overlies 1.35 Ga granite, is unconformably overlain by the Late Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite, and is divided into the Crystal Spring Formation, the Beck Spring Dolomite, and the Kingston Peak Formation. Contacts between these formations are gradational through several meters of interbedded clastic and carbonate rocks. Lithologic data, sedimentary structures, and fossil assemblages suggest that the Pahrump Group, from middle Crystal Spring to lower Kingston Peak time, was deposited in an intratidal to supratidal environment. Diamictite, volcanic ash, and mono lithologic megabreccia suggest that the middle and the upper members of the Kingston Peak Formation were deposited in a higher energy sedimentary and tectonic environment. Dikes and sills of 1.08 Ga diabase intrude the gneiss and all members of the Crystal Spring Formation; erosional clasts of diabase first appear in the middle Kingston Peak Formation. The diabase sills are up to 450 m thick and have caused at least 20 percent inflation of the Crystal Spring, Beck Spring, and lower Kingston Peak formations. If these sedimentary rocks were deposited at or above wave base, evidence of intraplate rifting or gross stratigraphic inflation is not recorded in the Pahrump stratigraphy until middle and upper Kingston Peak time. Therefore, the stratigraphic and petrologic data suggest that the diabase was emplaced in the Crystal Spring Formation during post-lower but pre-middle Kingston Peak time. The Beck Spring Dolomite and the lower Kingston Peak Formation are older than 1.08 Ga; the contact between the lower and the middle Kingston Peak Formation is a regional disconformity that marks significant changes in the depositional and the tectonic environments of the Pahrump Group at about 1.08 Ga.

  2. Bilateral deep neck space infection in the paediatric age group: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Songu, M; Demiray, U; Adibelli, Z H; Adibelli, H

    2011-06-01

    Deep neck space infections can occur at any age but require more intimate management in the paediatric age group because of their rapidly progressive nature. Concurrent abscess in distinct neck spaces has rarely been reported in healthy children. Herewith, a rare case of bilateral neck abscess is reported in a 16-month-old female and the clinical presentation and management are discussed with a review of the literature.

  3. A Note on Sex Differences in Mental Rotation in Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Eid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A large number of studies have reported average performance differences in favor of males in mental rotation tasks. However, it is still unclear to what extent the magnitude of the sex differences varies across age, and whether the differences increase with age. In this study, we reanalyzed data from a cross-sectional investigation of N = 1624…

  4. Pharyngeal Pressure Generation during Tongue-Hold Swallows across Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Macrae, Phoebe; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effects of the tongue-hold swallowing maneuver on pharyngeal pressure generation in healthy young and elderly research volunteers. Method: Sixty-eight healthy research volunteers (young, n = 34, mean age = 26.8 years, SD = 5.5; elderly, n = 34, mean age = 72.6 years, SD = 4.8; sex equally represented) performed 5…

  5. Genetic determination of telomere size in humans: A twin study of three age groups

    SciTech Connect

    Slagboom, P.E.; Droog, S.; Boomsma, D.I.

    1994-11-01

    Reduction of telomere length has been postulated to be a casual factor in cellular aging. Human telomeres terminate in tandemly arranged repeat arrays consisting of the (TTAGGG) motif. The length of these arrays in cells from human mitotic tissues is inversely related to the age of the donor, indicating telomere reduction with age. In addition to telemore length differences between different age cohorts, considerable variation is present among individuals of the same age. To investigate whether this variation can be ascribed to genetic influences, we have measured the size of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) in HaeIII-digested genomic DNA from 123 human MZ and DZ twin pairs 2-95 years of age. The average rate of telomere shortening was 31 bp/year, which is similar to that observed by others. Statistical analysis in 115 pairs 2-63 years of age indicates a 78% heritability for mean TRF length in this age cohort. The individual differences in mean TRF length in blood, therefore, seem to a large extent to be genetically determined. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. [Quantity and quality of the aged population in Japan: the use of life tables for the assessment of group vitality].

    PubMed

    Soda, T

    1980-01-01

    Due to the gradual increase in standard of living and the development of health and welfare services, man has succeeded in decreasing the death rate for all age groups with the consequent prolongation of the lifespan as a whole. On the other hand, however, the quantitative accumulation of the elderly is causing serious anxiety among all groups of people. Thus, concern about care for the aged is very high. The author is not quite so pessimistic but it is expected that there will be a qualitative improvement in the productive activities of the elderly along with an increased lifespan. Though there is not yet sufficient data to confirm improvement in the physical and mental activities of this segment of Japanese population, there are life table functions related to life expectancy, increase of mortality rate, etc. as qualitative indicators of survival or productive ability for the aged. In Japan prior to World War 2, people between 15-60 were usually regarded as the productive age population. Life expectancy of males at age 60 was 12.6 years in the 6th life tables compiled for 1935-6. The same phenomenon of prolongation of the productive age period was also recognized in connection with other values. If the borderline age dividing productive and nonproductive elderly populations will move toward a higher age in the future, the proportion of nonproductive elderly as a percentage of the total as well as of the productive population will decrease markedly as compared to when the elderly borderline is fixed at the same age. It is advised that new ways be found to allocate the expanded labor force found among this group for providing some necessary services and functions. (author's modified)

  7. Few differences in diet and health behaviors and perceptions were observed in adult urban Native American Indians by tribal association, gender, and age grouping.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tina L; Morse, Kristin L; Giraud, David W; Driskell, Judy A

    2008-12-01

    Diet and health behaviors and perceptions of adult urban Native American Indians in a large Midwestern city were evaluated for differences by tribal association, gender, and age grouping. The hypothesis was that human behavior is influenced by tribal association, gender, and age grouping in the subject population. The subjects included 33 men and 32 women, with 26 being Sioux; 22 Omaha; and 17 a combination of other tribes. The descriptive survey included two interviewer-administered 24-hour recalls. The majority of subjects were overweight or obese. Significant differences (P< .05) were observed in vitamin A and calcium intakes by tribal association. Men reported consuming significantly more (P< .05) kilocalories, vitamin C, and sodium. Over half the subjects consumed more than the recommended 20% to 35% kcal from fat, >or=10% kcal from saturated fat, and >or=300 mg cholesterol/d. Less than Estimated Average Requirements for vitamin A, vitamin C, and iron were consumed by 31%, 59%, and 6%, respectively; 79% consumed less than Adequate Intakes for calcium. Ninety-two percent consumed more than the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for sodium. Few differences were observed in the kilocalorie, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and sodium intakes of these Native American Indians by tribal association, gender, or age grouping. Significant differences in percentages consuming alcohol were observed by gender (P< .05) and by age grouping (P< .01). A significant difference (P< .01) was observed by gender regarding the subjects' perceptions of their being alcoholics. Overall, few differences were observed in diet and health behaviors and perceptions of adult urban Native American Indians by tribal association, gender, and age grouping. PMID:19083496

  8. Difference in adult food group intake by sex and age groups comparing Brazil and United States nationwide surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International comparisons of dietary intake are an important source of information to better understand food habits and their relationship to nutrition related diseases. The objective of this study is to compare food intake of Brazilian adults with American adults identifying possible dietary factors associated with the increase in obesity in Brazil. Methods This research used cross-national analyses between the United States and Brazil, including 5,420 adults in the 2007–2008 What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 26,390 adults in the 2008–2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey, Individual Food Intake. Dietary data were collected through 24 h recalls in the U.S. and through food records in Brazil. Foods and beverages were combined into 25 food categories. Food intake means and percentage of energy contribution by food categories to the population’s total energy intake were compared between the countries. Results Higher frequencies of intake were reported in the United States compared to Brazil for the majority of food categories except for meat, rice and rice dishes; beans and legumes; spreads; and coffee and tea. In either country, young adults (20-39 yrs) had greater reports of meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes; pizza and pasta; and soft drinks compared to older adults (60 + yrs). Meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes (13%), breads (11%), sweets and confections (8%), pizza and pasta (7%), and dairy products (6%) were the top five food category sources of energy intake among American adults. The top five food categories in Brazil were rice and rice dishes (13%), meat (11%), beans and legumes (10%), breads (10%), and coffee and tea (6%). Thus, traditional plant-based foods such as rice and beans were important contributors in the Brazilian diet. Conclusion Although young adults had higher reports of high-calorie and nutrient-poor foods than older adults in both countries, Brazilian young adults did not

  9. Evolutionary tree design: An exploratory study of the influence of linear versus branching format on visitors' interpretation and understanding across age groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Teresa Elise

    This exploratory study sought to investigate the influence of tree graphic design---specifically linear versus branching depictions of taxa---on visitors in three different age groups (aged 11-13, 14-18, adults) interpretation and understanding using a multiple-case study strategy. The findings from this research indicate that linear and branched depictions elicit qualitatively different narratives and explanations about the relationships between the taxa in all age groups. Branched tree graphics support scientifically appropriate explanations of evolutionary relationships, i.e. that taxa are related via shared or common ancestry; while linear representations reinforce intuitive interpretations of ancestor-descendant or anagenic relationships. Furthermore, differences in the language used for linear and branched trees suggests that there is a spectrum within an analogy of developmental change that is thought to serve as a transitional concept between intuitive and scientific understanding--with 'evolved from' for branched depictions of taxa representing a shift towards an interpretation of shared ancestry rather than an individual transformation from one thing into another. In addition, branched graphics appear to support the correct reading and interpretation of shared or common ancestry in tree diagrams. Mixed reasoning was common and overall reasoning patterns were broadly similar among participants in all age groups, however, older youth (aged 14 to 18) and adults often provided more detail in their explanations and sometimes included references to evolutionary ideas such as variation, inheritance and selection.

  10. Age group estimation in free-ranging African elephants based on acoustic cues of low-frequency rumbles

    PubMed Central

    Stoeger, Angela S.; Zeppelzauer, Matthias; Baotic, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Animal vocal signals are increasingly used to monitor wildlife populations and to obtain estimates of species occurrence and abundance. In the future, acoustic monitoring should function not only to detect animals, but also to extract detailed information about populations by discriminating sexes, age groups, social or kin groups, and potentially individuals. Here we show that it is possible to estimate age groups of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) based on acoustic parameters extracted from rumbles recorded under field conditions in a National Park in South Africa. Statistical models reached up to 70 % correct classification to four age groups (infants, calves, juveniles, adults) and 95 % correct classification when categorising into two groups (infants/calves lumped into one group versus adults). The models revealed that parameters representing absolute frequency values have the most discriminative power. Comparable classification results were obtained by fully automated classification of rumbles by high-dimensional features that represent the entire spectral envelope, such as MFCC (75 % correct classification) and GFCC (74 % correct classification). The reported results and methods provide the scientific foundation for a future system that could potentially automatically estimate the demography of an acoustically monitored elephant group or population. PMID:25821348

  11. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1-5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6-11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12-17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18-59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1-5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6-11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12-17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  12. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W.; Crout, Richard J.; Weyant, Robert J.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1–5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6–11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12–17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18–59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1–5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6–11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12–17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  13. The Economic and Epidemiological Impact of Focusing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention on Specific Age Groups and Regions in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Since its launch in 2010, the Tanzania National Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) Program has focused efforts on males ages 10–34 in 11 priority regions. Implementers have noted that over 70% of VMMC clients are between the ages of 10 and 19, raising questions about whether additional efforts would be required to recruit men age 20 and above. This analysis uses mathematical modeling to examine the economic and epidemiological consequences of scaling up VMMC among specific age groups and priority regions in Tanzania. Methods and Findings Analyses were conducted using the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), a compartmental model implemented in Microsoft Excel 2010. The model was populated with population, mortality, and HIV incidence and prevalence projections from external sources, including outputs from Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM). A separate DMPPT 2.0 model was created for each of the 11 priority regions. Tanzania can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising males ages 20–34. This strategy would also require the fewest VMMCs for each HIV infection averted. Circumcising men ages 10–24 will have the greatest impact on HIV incidence over a 15-year period. The most cost-effective approach (lowest cost per HIV infection averted) targets men ages 15–34. The model shows the VMMC program is cost saving in all 11 priority regions. VMMC program cost-effectiveness varies across regions due to differences in projected HIV incidence, with the most cost-effective programs in Njombe and Iringa. Conclusions The DMPPT 2.0 results reinforce Tanzania’s current VMMC strategy, providing newfound confidence in investing in circumcising adolescents. Tanzanian policy makers and program implementers will continue to focus scale-up of VMMC on men ages 10–34 years, seeking to maximize program impact and cost-effectiveness while acknowledging trends in demand among the younger and older age groups

  14. Global, regional and national consumption of major food groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Andrews, Kathryn G; Engell, Rebecca E; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify global intakes of key foods related to non-communicable diseases in adults by region (n=21), country (n=187), age and sex, in 1990 and 2010. Design We searched and obtained individual-level intake data in 16 age/sex groups worldwide from 266 surveys across 113 countries. We combined these data with food balance sheets available in all nations and years. A hierarchical Bayesian model estimated mean food intake and associated uncertainty for each age-sex-country-year stratum, accounting for differences in intakes versus availability, survey methods and representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. Setting/population Global adult population, by age, sex, country and time. Results In 2010, global fruit intake was 81.3 g/day (95% uncertainty interval 78.9–83.7), with country-specific intakes ranging from 19.2–325.1 g/day; in only 2 countries (representing 0.4% of the world's population), mean intakes met recommended targets of ≥300 g/day. Country-specific vegetable intake ranged from 34.6–493.1 g/day (global mean=208.8 g/day); corresponding values for nuts/seeds were 0.2–152.7 g/day (8.9 g/day); for whole grains, 1.3–334.3 g/day (38.4 g/day); for seafood, 6.0–87.6 g/day (27.9 g/day); for red meats, 3.0–124.2 g/day (41.8 g/day); and for processed meats, 2.5–66.1 g/day (13.7 g/day). Mean national intakes met recommended targets in countries representing 0.4% of the global population for vegetables (≥400 g/day); 9.6% for nuts/seeds (≥4 (28.35 g) servings/week); 7.6% for whole grains (≥2.5 (50 g) servings/day); 4.4% for seafood (≥3.5 (100 g) servings/week); 20.3% for red meats (≤1 (100 g) serving/week); and 38.5% for processed meats (≤1 (50 g) serving/week). Intakes of healthful foods were generally higher and of less healthful foods generally lower at older ages. Intakes were generally similar by sex. Vegetable, seafood and processed meat intakes were stable over

  15. Calibrating the Lower Cretaceous Time Scale with U-Pb Zircon Ages from the Great Valley Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimokawa, A.; Coleman, D. S.; Bralower, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    U-Pb dating of zircons from the Great Valley Group in northern California provides an opportunity to improve the resolution and reliability of the Early Cretaceous Time Scale and enhance its global range and applicability. Well established calcareous nannofossil and macrofossil biostratigraphy, enabled by good preservation, allows for the Great Valley Group to be anchored within the global Geologic Time Scale. Interlayered bentonites contain zircon, which when analyzed via U-Pb ID-TIMS can yield high precision ages. Our understanding of Early Cretaceous events - such as the Cretaceous Normal Polarity Super-Chron and oceanic anoxic events - will be improved by a refined time scale, particularly since the Early Cretaceous is one of the periods most lacking in high-precision radiometric points in the entire Mesozoic. Prior to this study, no U-Pb zircon analyses from the Great Valley Group involved the thermal annealing-chemical abrasion technique. Here, two new TA-CA ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon ages from the McCarty Creek section of the Great Valley Group are presented. The first bentonite is lower Valanginian, from an interval that cannot be biostratigraphically distinguished between NK-3 (Calcicalathina oblongata) and NK-4 (Cruciellipsis cuvillieri) nannofossil biozones, and four concordant dates yield an age of 137.22±0.098Ma. This age corroborates the GTS2008 lower Valanginian boundary age of 140.2Ma, and calls into question previously published Great Valley Group late Berriasian ages: 136.9±0.3Ma for a bentonite from the Stony Creek section, and 137.1±0.6Ma for a bentonite from the Grindstone Creek section. These ages appear to be too young, perhaps as a result of lead loss - the effects of which can be vastly minimized by chemical abrasion. Very preliminary results of re-dating the same aforementioned Grindstone Creek horizon yield an older age of 138.4Ma. The second bentonite is lower Aptian (Chiastozygus litterarius (NK-6) biozone) and three concordant dates yield

  16. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among High-Risk Age Groups in South Korea, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ju; Cha, Go-Woon; Ju, Young Ran; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Jeong, Young Eui

    2016-01-01

    After an extensive vaccination policy, Japanese encephalitis (JE) was nearly eliminated since the mid-1980s in South Korea. Vaccination in children shifted the affected age of JE patients from children to adults. However, an abrupt increase in JE cases occurred in 2010, and this trend has continued. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the JE virus (JEV) among high-risk age groups (≥40 years) in South Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to JEV in 945 subjects within four age groups (30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years) in 10 provinces. Of the 945 enrolled subjects, 927 (98.1%) exhibited antibodies against JEV. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies according to sex, age, or occupation. However, there were significant differences in the plaque reduction rate according to age and occupation; oldest age group had a higher reduction rate, and subjects who were employed in agriculture or forestry also had a higher value than the other occupations. We also found that three provinces (Gangwon, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam) had a relatively lower plaque reduction rate than the other locations. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were conducted to determine recent viral infections and 12 (1.3%) subjects were found to have been recently infected by the virus [corrected]. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicated that the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies has been maintained at very high levels among adult age groups owing to vaccination or natural infections, or both. In the future, serosurveillance should be conducted periodically using more representative samples to better understand the population-level immunity to JE in South Korea.

  17. The Effects of Dinner-to-Bed Time and Post-Dinner Walk on Gastric Cancer Across Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Le; Zhang, Xi; Lu, Jun; Dai, Jia-Xi; Lin, Ren-Qin; Tian, Fang-Xi; Liang, Bing; Guo, Yi-Nan; Luo, Hui-Yu; Li, Ni; Fang, Dong-Ping; Zhao, Ruo-Hua; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastric cancer (GC) remains a major killer throughout the world. Despite the dramatic decrease in GC over the last century, its etiology has not yet been well characterized. This study investigated the possible independent and combined effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk on the risk for GC across different age groups. A population-based, case–control study was conducted in southeast China, including 452 patients with GC and 465 age-, race-, and gender-matched controls. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics, dinner-to-bed time, post-dinner walk, and other behavioral factors. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of the dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk as well as their joint effect on the risk for GC across different age groups. Individuals with dinner-to-bed time <3 hours were more prone to have GC (P < 0.001), and the shorter the dinner-to-bed time was, the higher was the risk for GC (Ptrend < 0.001). Post-dinner nonwalk was associated with a 2.9-fold increased risk for GC compared with post-dinner walk (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.942, 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs] = 2.072–4.179). The interaction effect of dinner-to-bed time and post-dinner walk on GC risk was detected (AOR = 1.862, 95% CIs = 1.584–3.885, synergy index [SI] = 2.654, 95% CIs = 2.27–3.912). Participants with dinner-to-bed time <3 hours who did not walk after dinner were 7.4 times likely to suffer from GC (AOR = 7.401, 95% CIs = 4.523–13.16) than those with dinner-to-bed time ≥4 hours who took such walk. The risk of GC due to dinner-to-bed time <3 hours, post-dinner nonwalk and their interaction was positively correlated with age. The strongest risk was observed among people ≥70 years old, but the effects were not significant for people ≤55 years old. Dinner-to-bed time <3 hours and post-dinner nonwalk are

  18. Does the Great Valley Group contain Jurassic strata? Reevaluation of the age and early evolution of a classic forearc basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Surpless, K.D.; Graham, S.A.; Covault, J.A.; Wooden, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of Cretaceous detrital zircon in Upper Jurassic strata of the Great Valley Group may require revision of the lower Great Valley Group chronostratigraphy, with significant implications for the Late Jurassic-Cretaceous evolution of the continental margin. Samples (n = 7) collected from 100 km along strike in the purported Tithonian strata of the Great Valley Group contain 20 Cretaceous detrital zircon grains, based on sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe age determinations. These results suggest that Great Valley Group deposition was largely Cretaceous, creating a discrepancy between biostratigraphy based on Buchia zones and chronostratigraphy based on radiometric age dates. These results extend the duration of the Great Valley Group basal unconformity, providing temporal separation between Great Valley forearc deposition and creation of the Coast Range Ophiolite. If Great Valley forearc deposition began in Cretaceous time, then sediment by passed the developing forearc in the Late Jurassic, or the Franciscan subduction system did not fully develop until Cretaceous time. In addition to these constraints on the timing of deposition, pre-Mesozoic detrital zircon age signatures indicate that the Great Valley Group was linked to North America from its inception. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  19. The yo-yo intermittent recovery test in junior basketball players according to performance level and age group.

    PubMed

    Vernillo, Gianluca; Silvestri, Adriano; La Torre, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) ability to discriminate between elite, subelite junior basketball players, and a group of nonathletic healthy male athletes at 3 different age groups (U-14 to U-17). In a cross-sectional design, 119 age-matched participants spread over 3 groups, elite (n = 46), subelite (n = 42) junior basketball players, and nonathletic healthy male athletes (n = 31), were evaluated over a 5-week period. The participants undertook 2 familiarization trials of the Yo-Yo test performance and 3 test sessions on an indoor basketball court. When controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, the results showed that elite athletes had a significantly higher Yo-Yo performance compared with the subelite athletes (1,271 ± 385 vs. 861 ± 428 m; p < 0.0017; effect size [ES] 1.0 ± 0.35) and the nonathletic group (1,271 ± 385 vs. 738 ± 345 m; p < 0.0017; ES 1.45 ± 0.38). No statistical differences (p > 0.0017; ES from 0.02 to 0.39) were noted between participants' performance levels across age groups. Typical between-performance levels and -age groups differences in the Yo-Yo IR1 were observed. However, when controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, this study demonstrates that the Yo-Yo test is accurate only to discriminate elite junior basketball players but cannot be used to differentiate the basketball-specific aerobic performance for age.

  20. The yo-yo intermittent recovery test in junior basketball players according to performance level and age group.

    PubMed

    Vernillo, Gianluca; Silvestri, Adriano; La Torre, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) ability to discriminate between elite, subelite junior basketball players, and a group of nonathletic healthy male athletes at 3 different age groups (U-14 to U-17). In a cross-sectional design, 119 age-matched participants spread over 3 groups, elite (n = 46), subelite (n = 42) junior basketball players, and nonathletic healthy male athletes (n = 31), were evaluated over a 5-week period. The participants undertook 2 familiarization trials of the Yo-Yo test performance and 3 test sessions on an indoor basketball court. When controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, the results showed that elite athletes had a significantly higher Yo-Yo performance compared with the subelite athletes (1,271 ± 385 vs. 861 ± 428 m; p < 0.0017; effect size [ES] 1.0 ± 0.35) and the nonathletic group (1,271 ± 385 vs. 738 ± 345 m; p < 0.0017; ES 1.45 ± 0.38). No statistical differences (p > 0.0017; ES from 0.02 to 0.39) were noted between participants' performance levels across age groups. Typical between-performance levels and -age groups differences in the Yo-Yo IR1 were observed. However, when controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, this study demonstrates that the Yo-Yo test is accurate only to discriminate elite junior basketball players but cannot be used to differentiate the basketball-specific aerobic performance for age. PMID:22076093

  1. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Katharine; Thambinayagam, Ananthy; Pillay, Yogan; Loykissoonlal, Dayanund; Bonnecwe, Collen; Barron, Peter; Kiwango, Eva; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15–49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa’s efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC. Methods and Findings The study team populated the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0) with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM), as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20–34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15–24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15–29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15–34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program’s cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections. Conclusion The VMMC program’s impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15–34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25–34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them

  2. Lithofacies, Age, and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group in the Skimo Creek Area, Central Brooks Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Whalen, Michael T.; Harris, Anita G.

    2008-01-01

    The Lisburne Group, a mainly Carboniferous carbonate succession that is widely distributed across northern Alaska, contains notable amounts of oil and gas at Prudhoe Bay. Detailed studies of the Lisburne in the Skimo Creek area, central Brooks Range, delineate its lithofacies, age, conodont biofacies, depositional environments, and sequence stratigraphy and provide new data on its hydrocarbon source-rock and reservoir potential, as well as its thermal history, in this area. We have studied the Lisburne Group in two thrust sheets of the Endicott Mountains allochthon, herein called the Skimo and Tiglukpuk thrust sheets. The southern, Skimo Creek section, which is >900 m thick, is composed largely of even-bedded to nodular lime mudstone and wackestone intercalated with intervals of thin- to thick-bedded bioclastic packstone and grainstone. Some parts of the section are partially to completely dolomitized and (or) replaced by chert. A distinctive, 30-m-thick zone of black, organic-rich shale, lime mudstone, and phosphorite is exposed 170 m below the top of the Lisburne. The uppermost 40 m of section is also distinctive and made up of dark shale, lime mudstone, spiculite, and glauconitic grainstone. The northern, Tiglukpuk Creek section, which is similar to the Skimo Creek section but only ~760 m thick, includes more packstone and grainstone and less organic-rich shale. Analyses of conodonts and foraminifers indicate that both sections range in age from late Early Mississippian (Osagean) through Early Pennsylvanian (early Morrowan) and document a hiatus of at least 15 m.y. at the contact between the Lisburne and the overlying Siksikpuk Formation. No evidence of subaerial exposure was observed along this contact, which may represent a submarine erosional surface. Lithofacies and biofacies imply that the Lisburne Group in the study area was deposited mainly in midramp to outer-ramp settings. Deepest water strata are mud rich and formed below storm or fair-weather wave

  3. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of 19 games…

  4. Perceptions of Retirement Affect Career Commitment: The Mediating Role of Retirement System Satisfaction for Two Teacher Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Justin L.; Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated a sample of California elementary, intermediate, and high school employed teachers (N = 247) to assess the effects of retirement perceptions on career commitment among teachers who are in different age groupings. Using path analysis, the influence of five retirement perceptions variables was examined: concerns about…

  5. An Investigation of the Usability of the Stylus Pen for Various Age Groups on Personal Digital Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Xiangshi; Zhou, Xiaolei

    2011-01-01

    Many handheld devices with stylus pens are available in the market; however, there have been few studies which examine the effects of the size of the stylus pen on user performance and subjective preferences for handheld device interfaces for various age groups. Two experiments (pen-length experiment and pen-tip width/pen-width experiment) were…

  6. Effectiveness of a School-Based Early Intervention CBT Group Programme for Children with Anxiety Aged 5-7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruocco, Sylvia; Gordon, Jocelynne; McLean, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Early manifestations of anxiety in childhood confer significant distress and life interference. This study reports on the first controlled trial of the "Get Lost Mr. Scary" programme, a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group intervention for children with anxiety aged 5-7 years. Participants were 134 children (65 males and 69 females) drawn…

  7. Gender Differences in Physical Health and Psychosocial Well Being among Four Age-Groups of Elderly People in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, Sara; Bernstein, Judith H.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the well-established gender differences in physical and psychosocial well being in adulthood persist throughout different age groups of elderly persons, in order to support one of two opposing hypotheses: the convergence and divergence hypotheses. Data were collected by structured…

  8. Differences on Six Horn Abilities for 14 Age Groups between 15-16 and 75-94 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Six abilities derived from the fluid and crystallized intelligence theory of J. L. Horn were studied with 1,193 individuals in age groups between 15 and 94 years. Results supported Horn's classification of crystallized and quantitative as maintained abilities and of fluid and broad visualization as vulnerable abilities. (SLD)

  9. Structuring Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Comparing Scripting by Assigning Roles with Regulation by Cross-Age Peer Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The present study focuses on comparing the impact of role assignment and cross-age peer tutors on students' level of knowledge construction in 15 asynchronous discussion groups of nine students each in a first-year university course (N=135). Content analysis was applied to analyse the level of knowledge construction in students' online postings.…

  10. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  11. EVALUATION OF TERMINAL VERTEBRAL PLATE ON CERVICAL SPINE AT DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH INTERVERTEBRAL DISC THICKNESS

    PubMed Central

    Luiz Vieira, Juliano Silveira; da Silva Herrero, Carlos Fernando Pereira; Porto, Maximiliano Aguiar; Nogueira Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Garcia, Sérgio Britto; Zambelli Ramalho, Leandra Náira; Aparecido Defino, Helton Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate, by means of histomorphometry, terminal vertebral plate thickness, intervertebral disc thickness and its correlation on different age groups, seeking to identify its correlation. Methods: C4-C5 and C5-C6 cervical segments removed from human cadavers of both genders were assessed and divided into five groups of 10-year age intervals, from 21 years old. TVP and intervertebral disc thickness evaluation was made by means of histomorphometry of histological slides stained with hematoxylin and eosyn. Lower C4 TVP, upper C5 TVP, and upper C6 TVP de were compared between each other and to the interposed intervertebral disc thickness between relevant TVP. Results: The thickness of terminal vertebral plates adjacent to the same ID did not show statistic differences. However, the comparison of upper and lower vertebral plates thickness on the same cervical vertebra (C5), showed statistical difference on all age groups studied. We found a statistical correlation coefficient above 80% between terminal vertebral plate and adjacent intervertebral disc, with a proportional thickness reduction of both structures on the different cervical levels studied, and also on the different age groups assessed. Conclusion: Terminal vertebral plate shows a morphologic correlation with the intervertebral disc next to it, and does not show correlation with the terminal vertebral plate on the same vertebra. PMID:26998448

  12. Planning and Decision Making about the Future Care of Older Group Home Residents and Transition to Residential Aged Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, C.; Bowers, B.; Webber, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Planning for future care after the death of parental caregivers and adapting disability support systems to achieve the best possible quality of life for people with intellectual disability as they age have been important issues for more than two decades. This study examined perceptions held by family members, group home staff and…

  13. The Age of the Antrim Lava Group, Northern Ireland, and its correlation to the North Atlantic Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganerød, M.; McKenna, C.; Smethurst, M.; Prestvik, T.; Rousse, S.; Torsvik, T.; Hendriks, B.

    2008-12-01

    Modern radiometric dating techniques enable reliable dating of flood basalt provinces and in doing so, lead to a deeper understanding of eruption dynamics. Reliable ages have been published for much of the pre-drift lava succession of the North Atlantic Igneous Province. However, chronology of emplacement of the extensive Antrim Lava Group (ALG) in Northern Ireland was until now, poorly constrained. The ALG consists in stratigraphic order of the lower basalt Fm (LBF), interbasaltic Fm (IB) with the Tardree rhyolite, and upper basalt Formation (UBF). A study by Thompson (1985), using the 40Ar/39Ar method, left the age of the LBF inconclusive, but a reliable date of 61 ± 0.6 Ma was obtained for the Tardree rhyolite (IB), and 58.3 +/- 1.1 Ma for the UBF. The date of 61 +/- 0.6 Ma for the Tardree rhyolite corresponds well with a recent U-Pb date of 60.9 +/- 0.5 Ma (Gould, 2004) of detrital zircons from a laterite layer underlying the Causeway Tholeiites (IB) in the north, zircons that may have Tardree as a source. However, Gamble et al. (1999) reported a younger date of 58.4 +/- 0.7 Ma using the U-Pb SHRIMP method for the Tardree rhyolite, so a discrepancy exists between different investigations to obtain the age of emplacement of these rhyolites. The magnetic polarity of the ALG has been reinvestigated by us and shown to be of reverse polarity. Based on the reverse magnetic polarity and the close spatial relationship with other trap sub-provinces in the British Tertiary Igneous Province, the literature has placed ALG to C26r on the geomagnetic polarity timescale. We have dated the principal lava formation in the ALG using the 40Ar/39Ar method. We obtained a weighted mean age (3 samples) of 61.4 +/- 0.5 for the LBF and 60.5 +/- 0.5 (1s, including the error on J) for the Tardree rhyolite (IB). These dates overlap at the 95% confidence level using a conservative 1% error on the J-value, but are separate using a less conservative approach. We obtained a date of 57

  14. batman Interacts with polycomb and trithorax group genes and encodes a BTB/POZ protein that is included in a complex containing GAGA factor.

    PubMed

    Faucheux, M; Roignant, J-Y; Netter, S; Charollais, J; Antoniewski, C; Théodore, L

    2003-02-01

    Polycomb and trithorax group genes maintain the appropriate repressed or activated state of homeotic gene expression throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We have previously identified the batman gene as a Polycomb group candidate since its function is necessary for the repression of Sex combs reduced. However, our present genetic analysis indicates functions of batman in both activation and repression of homeotic genes. The 127-amino-acid Batman protein is almost reduced to a BTB/POZ domain, an evolutionary conserved protein-protein interaction domain found in a large protein family. We show that this domain is involved in the interaction between Batman and the DNA binding GAGA factor encoded by the Trithorax-like gene. The GAGA factor and Batman codistribute on polytene chromosomes, coimmunoprecipitate from nuclear embryonic and larval extracts, and interact in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Batman, together with the GAGA factor, binds to MHS-70, a 70-bp fragment of the bithoraxoid Polycomb response element. This binding, like that of the GAGA factor, requires the presence of d(GA)n sequences. Together, our results suggest that batman belongs to a subset of the Polycomb/trithorax group of genes that includes Trithorax-like, whose products are involved in both activation and repression of homeotic genes.

  15. Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services Among American Indians by Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Roh, Soonhee; Brown-Rice, Kathleen A; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Yee-Melichar, Darlene; Talbot, Elizabeth P

    2015-11-01

    This study examined determinants of attitudes toward mental health services with a sample of American Indian younger-old-adults (aged 50-64, n = 158) and American Indian older-old adults (aged 65 and older, n = 69). Adapting Andersen's behavioral model of healthcare utilization, predisposing factors, mental health needs, and enabling factors were considered as potential predictors. Female and those with higher levels of social support tend to report more positive attitudes toward mental health services. Culture-influenced personal belief was associated with negative attitudes toward mental health services among American Indian younger-old -adults. Age and higher chronic medical conditions were significantly related to negative attitudes toward mental health services. Health insurance was positively associated with positive attitudes toward mental health services in the American Indian older-old adults. Findings indicate that practitioners should engage how culture, social support, and chronic conditions influence the response to mental health needs when working with older American Indians. PMID:25862435

  16. The Autobiographical Group: A Tool for the Reconstruction of Past Life Experience with the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, Luis; Feixas, Guillem

    1993-01-01

    Used guided autobiography to foster reconstruction of past life experiences among 12 older adults in Barcelona, Spain. Found a significant and gradual change in the construing system of those participants in autobiographical group as compared to control group of 10 older adults. Distance of elements self-ideal/self and self-ideal/others…

  17. Age Difference and Face-Saving in an Inter-Generational Problem-Based Learning Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    This study used grounded theory methodology to investigate whether learning in a problem-based learning (PBL) group was influenced by student demographic diversity. Data comprised observations, in the form of video footage, of one first-year PBL group carried out over the period of an academic year, along with student interviews. Using the…

  18. Focus Groups with Working Parents of School-Aged Children: What's Needed to Improve Family Meals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Rydell, Sarah; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Garwick, Ann; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Dudovitz, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To conduct focus groups to identify parents' perceptions of barriers to family meals and elucidate ideas to guide the development of interventions to overcome barriers. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 27 working parents in urban community settings. Results: Parents reported enjoying the sharing/bonding…

  19. Effective Group Work for Elementary School-Age Children Whose Parents Are Divorcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia-Waack, Janice; Gerrity, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Parental divorce is the issue of most concern for elementary school children. This article describes interventions for children-of-divorce groups for elementary school children. Suggests guidelines related to goal setting; securing agency and parental consent; leadership planning; recruitment, screening, and selection of members; group member…

  20. Lipid domains in intact fiber-cell plasma membranes isolated from cortical and nuclear regions of human eye lenses of donors from different age groups.

    PubMed

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2015-03-01

    The results reported here clearly document changes in the properties and the organization of fiber-cell membrane lipids that occur with age, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of lens membranes of clear lenses from donors of age groups from 0 to 20, 21 to 40, and 61 to 80 years. The physical properties, including profiles of the alkyl chain order, fluidity, hydrophobicity, and oxygen transport parameter, were investigated using EPR spin-labeling methods, which also provide an opportunity to discriminate coexisting lipid domains and to evaluate the relative amounts of lipids in these domains. Fiber-cell membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments: bulk lipid domain, which appears minimally affected by membrane proteins, and two domains that appear due to the presence of membrane proteins, namely boundary and trapped lipid domains. In nuclear membranes the amount of boundary and trapped phospholipids as well as the amount of cholesterol in trapped lipid domains increased with the donors' age and was greater than that in cortical membranes. The difference between the amounts of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins in nuclear and cortical membranes increased with the donors' age. It was also shown that cholesterol was to a large degree excluded from trapped lipid domains in cortical membranes. It is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes was greater than that of cortical membranes for all age groups. The amount of lipids in domains of low oxygen permeability, mainly in trapped lipid domains, were greater in nuclear than cortical membranes and increased with the age of donors. These results indicate that the nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes were less permeable to oxygen than cortical membranes and become less permeable to oxygen with age. In clear lenses, age-related changes in the lens lipid and protein composition and organization appear to occur in ways that increase fiber

  1. Lipid Domains in Intact Fiber-Cell Plasma Membranes Isolated from Cortical and Nuclear Regions of Human Eye Lenses of Donors from Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O’Brien, William J.; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2015-01-01

    The results reported here clearly document changes in the properties and the organization of fiber-cell membrane lipids that occur with age, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of lens membranes of clear lenses from donors of age groups from 0 to 20, 21 to 40, and 61 to 80 years. The physical properties, including profiles of the alkyl chain order, fluidity, hydrophobicity, and oxygen transport parameter, were investigated using EPR spin-labeling methods, which also provide an opportunity to discriminate coexisting lipid domains and to evaluate the relative amounts of lipids in these domains. Fiber-cell membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments: bulk lipid domain, which appears minimally affected by membrane proteins, and two domains that appear due to the presence of membrane proteins, namely boundary and trapped lipid domains. In nuclear membranes the amount of boundary and trapped phospholipids as well as the amount of cholesterol in trapped lipid domains increased with the donors’ age and was greater than that in cortical membranes. The difference between the amounts of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins in nuclear and cortical membranes increased with the donors’ age. It was also shown that cholesterol was to a large degree excluded from trapped lipid domains in cortical membranes. It is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes was greater than that of cortical membranes for all age groups. The amount of lipids in domains of low oxygen permeability, mainly in trapped lipid domains, were greater in nuclear than cortical membranes and increased with the age of donors. These results indicate that the nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes were less permeable to oxygen than cortical membranes and become less permeable to oxygen with age. In clear lenses, age-related changes in the lens lipid and protein composition and organization appear to occur in ways that increase fiber

  2. Causes of dysphagia among different age groups: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Roden, Dylan F; Altman, Kenneth W

    2013-12-01

    Dysphagia is a common problem that has the potential to result in severe complications such as malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. Based on the complexity of swallowing, there may be many different causes. This article presents a systematic literature review to assess different comorbid disease associations with dysphagia based on age. The causes of dysphagia are different depending on age, affecting between 1.7% and 11.3% of the general population. Dysphagia can be a symptom representing disorders pertinent to any specialty of medicine. This review can be used to aid in the diagnosis of patients presenting with the complaint of dysphagia.

  3. Alteration of functional state of peripheral blood erythrocytes in women of different age groups at dislipidemia conditions.

    PubMed

    Ratiani, L; Intskirveli, N; Ormotsadze, G; Sanikidze, T

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was identification of statistically reliable correlations and the cause-effect relationships between viability of red blood cells and dislipidema parametres and/or metabolic disorders, induced by age related alterations of estrogen content, in women of different ages (reproductive, menopausal) On the basis of the analysis of research results we can conclude that in the different age groups of women with atherosclerosis-induced cardiovascular diseases revealed estrogen-related dependence between Tg-s and HDL content, functional status of phereperial blood erytrotcites and severity of dislipidemia. The aterogenic index Tg/HD proved to be sensitive marker of dislipidemia in reproductive aging women, but does't reflect disorders of lipid metabolism in postmenosal women. It was proved the existence of reliable corelation between red blood cells dysfunction indicator, spherulation quality, and atherogenic index Tg/HDL highlights; however, the correlation coefficient is 2 times higher in the reproductive age as in menopause. Spherulation quality of red blood cells at low HDL content showd fast growth rate in reproductive-aged women, and was unsensetive to HDL content in postmenopasal women. It was concluded that age-related lack of estrogens in postmenopausal women indirectly contributes to decrease protection of red blood cells against oxidative damage, reduces their deformabelity and disturbances the rheological properties. So, Spherulation quality of red blood cells may be used as a diagnostic marker of severity of atherosclerosis.

  4. Relationship of the intake of different food groups by pregnant mothers with the birth weight and gestational age: Need for public and individual educational programs

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Zahra; Mansourian, Marjan; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the intake of different food groups by pregnant mothers and neonatal low birth weight and premature births. Materials and Methods: In this cohort, the target population was 225 pregnant women, randomly selected from different geographical areas of the city of Isfahan, Iran (from April to September, 2012). The main variables in the study were weight and gestational age of the neonates and the type and amount of different food groups used by the mothers. All nutritional variables were compared according to different groups of infants (normal, premature, and low birth weight). In the multivariate analysis, multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to identify those different food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) variables independently associated with the newborn's weight and gestational age, adjusted by maternal consumption of calcium supplementation, folic acid, and omega-3, during pregnancy. Results: A total of 214 (47.7% boys) infants with complete information were included. They had a mean gestational age of 38.72 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean birth weight was 3.11 ± 0.384 kg. The percentages of premature and low birth weight (LBW) infants were 7 and 5%, respectively. At multiple logistic regression controlling for potentially confounding factors that were significantly associated with prematurity and LBW at univariate analysis (maternal consumption of calcium supplementation, folic acid, and omega-3, during pregnancy), type of nutritional groups containing dairy products, proteins, fish, and shrimp group, as well as fruits and vegetables, had a significant positive association with increasing the gestational age (P < 0.05). The group that consumed proteins, fish, and shrimp, as well as fruits and vegetables had a significant positive association with the newborn's weight (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated the importance of proper nutrition on reducing the rates of LBW and

  5. Stratified at Seven: In-Class Ability Grouping and the Relative Age Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    There is an established body of evidence indicating that a pupil's relative age within their school year cohort is associated with academic attainment throughout compulsory education. In England, autumn-born pupils consistently attain at higher levels than summer-born pupils. Analysis here investigates a possible channel of this relative age…

  6. Act Smart. HIV/AIDS Education Curriculum for Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.

    This Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education curriculum was developed for boys and girls, ages 6 to 17 years. It is a supplement to a similar program, "SMART Moves," aimed at prevention of drug abuse and premature sexual activity. The Act SMART prevention team should consist of a staff facilitator…

  7. The Evolution of a Therapeutic Group Approach to School-Age Pregnant Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braen, Bernard B.

    This report evaluates the Young Mothers' Educational Development Program sponsored by the State University of New York, for pregnant girls between the ages of 16 and 21. The program provided needed services in the areas of obstetrics, pediatrics, education, social work, nursing, and psychology. The girls were Black, Caucasian, and Indian.…

  8. Invariance of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model Across Gender and Age Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the likelihood of a TAME (extended technology acceptance model), in which the interrelationships among computer self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, intention to use and self-reported use of computer-mediated technology were tested. In addition, the gender- and age-invariant of its causal structure were evaluated. The…

  9. Body Build Stereotypes and Self-Identification in Three Age Groups of Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, David; Hinsdale, Gary

    1978-01-01

    Body build stereotypes of average-weight and heavy females, ages 6, 15, and 19, were studied through adjective checklists and drawings of endomorphs, ectomorphs, and mesomorphs. Mesomorph drawings were favored and the endomorphs least liked. But heavy subjects rejected for themselves behavioral stereotypes previously applied to the endomorph…

  10. Creating Composite Age Groups to Smooth Percentile Rank Distributions of Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Francesca; Olson, Amy; Bansal, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    Individually administered tests are often normed on small samples, a process that may result in irregularities within and across various age or grade distributions. Test users often smooth distributions guided by Thurstone assumptions (normality and linearity) to result in norms that adhere to assumptions made about how the data should look. Test…

  11. Characteristics of Talented Dancers and Age Group Differences: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Imogen J.; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.; Redding, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the characteristics of talented dancers in relation to age. Physical (handgrip muscular strength, leg muscular power, hamstring flexibility and external hip rotation), psychological (passion, self-esteem and anxiety) and social (the motivational climate) characteristics were assessed in 334 students enrolled…

  12. The Hierarchical Factor Model of ADHD: Invariant across Age and National Groupings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Sorge, Geoff B.; Flora, David B.; Chen, Wai; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Thompson, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary; Asherson, Philip; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factor structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of 1,373 children and adolescents with ADHD and their 1,772 unselected siblings recruited from different countries across a large age range. Hierarchical and correlated factor analytic models were compared separately in the ADHD and…

  13. [Nutritional intakes in a group of infants aged six to fourteen months].

    PubMed

    Nasraoui, A; Hamdaoui, M; Achour, A; Nagati, K

    1999-03-01

    Infant feeding poses many challenges, such as the rapid growth of the child and the immature nature of his or her body¿s systems. Foods that are poorly suited to such immaturity can lead to functional problems and even sometimes-serious allergies. Infant nutritional intake is also influenced by environmental, socioeconomic, and cultural factors. Of these factors, the eating habits of Tunisians, with a tendency to overconsume cereal- and sugar-based products, is of particular concern. The authors examined the nutritional intakes of 342 healthy infants aged 6-14 months from the Tunis region. The 180 boys and 162 girls were recruited in 5 primary health centers in Tunis, as well as from several suburbs. These centers were chosen at random from among the region¿s 144 centers. Energy intakes are close to those recommended for infants aged 8-14 months, yet low for those aged 6-8 months. Protein supply is about 2.5 g/kg weight/day. Lipids consumed cover more than 35% of the energy supply for infants aged 6-8 and 12-14 months. Glucidic consumption is slightly higher for babies aged 8-12 months who have an energy supply covered sometimes by more than 60% of glucid. With regard to key vitamin and mineral supplies, there are deficits in vitamins C and D, as well as in calcium. There is a good supply of iron. The observed disequilibria in nutritional intake are not alarming, but parents need to be aware of them in order to reduce the risks of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. PMID:10392033

  14. Effect of occupation-based groups on self-concept of children aged 5-8: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Scurlock, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this pilot study was to ascertain the effectiveness of an occupation-based after-school program for improving self-concept in children, ages five through eight. Fifty-four randomly selected children ages five through eight from two schools (one being the control group) with similar socioeconomic status along the Ohio River were involved in this research study. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PCSA; Harter & Pike, 1984) was administered to all participants (N = 54), four subtests were analyzed: cognitive competence, social competence with peers, physical competence in sports, and maternal acceptance. The experimental group (n = 25) attended occupation-based groups two times a week after school. The control group (n = 29) did not participate in an after-school program. Data from pre-test and post-test were analyzed using a t-test. Findings demonstrated that the experimental group improved their self-concept scores when compared to the control group in the areas of peer acceptance and cognitive competence. This would offer tentative evidence that an after-school program directed by occupational therapists that is designed to improve self-concept may be successful. PMID:25338266

  15. Analysis of Arbovirus Isolates from Australia Identifies Novel Bunyaviruses Including a Mapputta Group Virus from Western Australia That Links Gan Gan and Maprik Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Vishal; Diviney, Sinead M.; Certoma, Andrea; Wang, Jianning; Johansen, Cheryl A.; Chowdhary, Rashmi; Mackenzie, John S.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2016-01-01

    The Mapputta group comprises antigenically related viruses indigenous to Australia and Papua New Guinea that are included in the family Bunyaviridae but not currently assigned to a specific genus. We determined and analyzed the genome sequences of five Australian viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during routine arbovirus surveillance in Western Australia (K10441, SW27571, K13190, and K42904) and New South Wales (12005). Based on matching sequences of all three genome segments to prototype MRM3630 of Trubanaman virus (TRUV), NB6057 of Gan Gan virus (GGV), and MK7532 of Maprik virus (MPKV), isolates K13190 and SW27571 were identified as TRUV, 12005 as GGV, and K42904 as a Mapputta group virus from Western Australia linking GGV and MPKV. The results confirmed serum neutralization data that had linked SW27571 to TRUV. The fifth virus, K10441 from Willare, was most closely related to Batai orthobunyavirus, presumably representing an Australian variant of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis also confirmed the close relationship of our TRUV and GGV isolates to two other recently described Australian viruses, Murrumbidgee virus and Salt Ash virus, respectively. Our findings indicate that TRUV has a wide circulation throughout the Australian continent, demonstrating for the first time its presence in Western Australia. Similarly, the presence of a virus related to GGV, which had been linked to human disease and previously known only from the Australian southeast, was demonstrated in Western Australia. Finally, a Batai virus isolate was identified in Western Australia. The expanding availability of genomic sequence for novel Australian bunyavirus variants supports the identification of suitably conserved or diverse primer-binding target regions to establish group-wide as well as virus-specific nucleic acid tests in support of specific diagnostic and surveillance efforts throughout Australasia. PMID:27764175

  16. A Qualitative Analysis of a "Bora-Brook Rearrangement": The Ambident Reactivity of Boryl-Substituted Alkoxide Including the Carbon-to-Oxygen Migration of a Boryl Group.

    PubMed

    Kisu, Haruki; Sakaino, Hirotoshi; Ito, Fumihiro; Yamashita, Makoto; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2016-03-16

    A bora-Brook rearrangement, i.e., the migration of boryl group from a carbon to an oxygen atom in an isolated α-boryl-substituted alkoxide, was examined, and decisive factors for the acceleration of this reaction are disclosed. In this rearrangement, the boryl-substituted alkoxide exhibited ambiphilic reactivity toward electrophiles to afford two types of products, which are electrophiles bound either at the oxygen or at the carbon atom. Using polar solvents, a saturated backbone of the boron-containing heterocycle, or larger alkali metal cations resulted in a significantly increased reaction rate of base-catalyzed isomerization of α-borylbenzyl alcohol including the bora-Brook rearrangement. PMID:26907676

  17. Archean Age Fossils from Northwestern Australia (Approximately 3.3 to 3.5 GA, Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Penny A. Morris

    1999-01-01

    Archean aged rocks from the Pilbara Block area of western Australia (Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation, -3.3-3.5 Ga) contain microfossils that are composed of various sizes of spheres and filaments. The first descriptions of these microfossils were published in the late 1970's (Dunlop, 1978; Dunlop, et. al., 1978). The authenticity of the microfossils is well established. The small size of the microfossils prevents isotope dating, at least with the present technology. Microbiologists, however, have established guidelines to determine the authenticity of the Archean aged organic remains (Schopf, Walter, 1992).

  18. Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the silver springs group, Central Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, L.; Katz, B.G.; Toth, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched ??15N and ??18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (<0.5mg/L). Multiple age-tracer data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).

  19. Quality of Life in Patients of Different Age Groups before and after Coronary Artery By-Pass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovic-Markovic, Snežana; Peric, Dejan; Rasic, Dragisa; Novakovic, Tatjana; Dejanovic, Bogdan; Borzanovic, Milorad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study evaluates the changes in quality of life (QOL) six months after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) related to the patients’ age. Methods: The total of 243 consecutive patients completed the Nottingham Health Profile Questionnaire part 1 before and six months after CABG. Postoperative questionnaire was completed by 226 patients. Patients were divided into four examined groups (<50, 50–59, 60–69 and ≥70 years), according to their age. Results: Six months after CABG, the quality of life in different sections has been significantly improved in most patients.The analysis of the relation between the age and the changes in QOL of patients six months after CABG showed a significant correlation among the patients’ age and the improvement of QOL in the sections of physical mobility (r = 0.18, p = 0.008), social isolation (r = 0.17, p = 0.01) and energy ( r = 0.21, p = 0.002). The most prominent improvement was found in older patients. The age was not an independent predictor of QOL deterioration after CABG. Conclusions: The most noticeable improvement of QOL six months after CABG was found in older patients. Age is not the independent predictor of deterioration of QOL after CABG. PMID:26328597

  20. A Comparative Study of the Perceived Stress of Springboard Diving by Age and Sex Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, R. Gary

    Three measures--physiological, behavioral, and phenomenological in nature--were used to register inexperienced springboard divers' perceptions of stress when faced with the execution of a forward dive from three standard heights; pool deck, one-meter and three-meter springboards. Forty-eight subjects were divided into four groups representing…

  1. Development of an Outreach Group for Children Ages Five through Thirteen Who Have Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Corinne

    This practicum took place at a spouse abuse shelter located in a county classified as urban in the southeast United States. It was found that once a family left the shelter, support groups were not available to help the children with feelings related to living in a home where domestic violence has occurred. Most of these children were already…

  2. Fears and Related Anxieties across Three Age Groups of Mexican American and White Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared levels and types of fears and anxieties in a sample of Mexican American children and adolescents with disabilities to a group of White children and adolescents with similar disabilities. Students (N = 238), parents, and teachers completed the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (T. H. Ollendick, 1983) and the Revised…

  3. Generic Tobacco Use among Four Ethnic Groups in a School Age Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Moor, Carl; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared generic tobacco use among Hispanic, White, Black, and Asian youths (N=4,980) in grades 4, 7, 10, and 12. Found prevalence of regular use was highest among Whites, followed by Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Marijuana, alcohol, and other drug use explained approximately 40 percent of variance in tobacco use in each ethnic group. Other…

  4. Bill Gates' Great-Great-Granddaughter's Honeymoon: An Astronomy Activity for Several Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    When students finish a unit or course on the planets these days, they are often overwhelmed with facts, comparisons, and images. A good culminating activity, to help them organize their thinking (and review), is to have them divide into small groups (travel agencies) and come up with their top ten solar system "tourist sights" for future space…

  5. Perceived exercise barriers and their associations with regular exercise across three age groups of rural women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing-Juin; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Lee, Bih-O; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to explore the differences in perceived exercise barriers across three age groups of Taiwanese rural women (30-50, 51-70, and >70 years old) and to examine the associations between perceived exercise barriers and regular exercise behavior. A total of 227 women completed the Self-Reported Exercise Behavior and the Perceived Exercise Barrier Scale. Women older than 70 reported higher physical and psychological barriers and lower administrative barriers than did the younger group. Women who did not exercise regularly tended to have a higher perception of exercise barriers.

  6. Prevalence and intensity of dentition defects and secondary deformations in the population of 15-40 age group.

    PubMed

    Kraveishvili, S; Shonia, N; Sakvarelidze, Z; Sakvarelidze, N

    2014-01-01

    Partial secondary adentia together with caries and parodont diseases is among the most widespread diseases of dentofacial system, correlated, in addition, to the number of lost teeth, with the age. Result in speech and chewing functions' disorders, change of face shape, esthetic and psychosocial inferiority, pathologies of digestive and other systems, formation of the chronic infection areas, changes of reactivity etc,. Improvement of the methods of prevention and treatment of the above diseases is one of the most significant problems in the dentistry. Effectiveness of dental assistance organization and planning is based on the epidemiological studies. In Georgia, epidemiological studies were conducted in the populations of various age groups in previous years though, according to our data, no studies of dentition defects and deformations were conducted in the recent decades. Goal of our research was study of prevalence and severity of dentition defects and deformations, regarding sizes of existing defects, their localization, causes and types of deformation in different age groups, for development of specialized dentistry assistance plans and prevention programs. We have studied 147 patients of ages between 15 and 40 years. We have developed special questionnaire. Researches showed that in the studied age group (15-40), 62% (96 patients), i.e. more than half of studied 147 patients had secondary adentia. Most of them had the defects in the buccal teeth area. 112 of studied 147 patients required orthopedic treatment but only 18 (16%) of them have visited the clinic for this purpose while 94 (83.9%) of them were unaware about need of prothetic assistance. Regarding significance of the mentioned problem, the obtained results show the need of timely orthopedic intervention for the purpose of prevention of further complications. As a result, a specialized dental assistance plan and prevention measures' program has been developed to prevent further complications.

  7. A Novel Physiology-Based Mathematical Model to Estimate Red Blood Cell Lifespan in Different Human Age Groups.

    PubMed

    An, Guohua; Widness, John A; Mock, Donald M; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurement of red blood cell (RBC) survival in humans has improved from the original accurate but limited differential agglutination technique to the current reliable, safe, and accurate biotin method. Despite this, all of these methods are time consuming and require blood sampling over several months to determine the RBC lifespan. For situations in which RBC survival information must be obtained quickly, these methods are not suitable. With the exception of adults and infants, RBC survival has not been extensively investigated in other age groups. To address this need, we developed a novel, physiology-based mathematical model that quickly estimates RBC lifespan in healthy individuals at any age. The model is based on the assumption that the total number of RBC recirculations during the lifespan of each RBC (denoted by N max) is relatively constant for all age groups. The model was initially validated using the data from our prior infant and adult biotin-labeled red blood cell studies and then extended to the other age groups. The model generated the following estimated RBC lifespans in 2-year-old, 5-year-old, 8-year-old, and 10-year-old children: 62, 74, 82, and 86 days, respectively. We speculate that this model has useful clinical applications. For example, HbA1c testing is not reliable in identifying children with diabetes because HbA1c is directly affected by RBC lifespan. Because our model can estimate RBC lifespan in children at any age, corrections to HbA1c values based on the model-generated RBC lifespan could improve diabetes diagnosis as well as therapy in children.

  8. Changes across age groups in self-choice elaboration and incidental memory.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Hiroshi; Tatsumi, Tomoko

    2003-04-01

    This study investigated differences in the self-choice elaboration and an experimenter-provided elaboration on incidental memory of 7- to 12-yr.-olds. In a self-choice elaboration condition 34 second and 25 sixth graders were asked to choose one of the two sentence frames into which each target could fit more congruously, whereas in an experimenter-provided elaboration they were asked to judge the congruity of each target to each frame. In free recall, sixth graders recalled targets in bizarre sentence frames better than second graders for self-choice elaboration condition. An age difference was not found for the experimenter-provided elaboration. In cued recall self-choice elaboration led to better performance of sixth graders for recalling targets than an experimenter-provided elaboration in both bizarre and common sentence frames. However, the different types of elaboration did not alter the recall of second graders. These results were interpreted as showing that the effectiveness of a self-choice elaboration depends on the subjects' age and the type of sentence. PMID:12776835

  9. BMI, Overweight Status and Obesity Adjusted by Various Factors in All Age Groups in the Population of a City in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ataíde Lima, Raquel Patrícia; de Carvalho Pereira, Danielle; Cristhine Pordeus Luna, Rafaella; Rodrigues Gonçalves, Maria da Conceição; Teixeira de Lima, Roberto; Batista Filho, Malaquias; Gouveia Filizola, Rosália; de Moraes, Ronei Marcos; Rios Asciutti, Luiza Sonia; de Carvalho Costa, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In Brazil, demographic, socioeconomic and epidemiological changes over time have led to a transition in nutritional standards, resulting in a gradual reduction of malnutrition and an increased prevalence of overweight and obese individuals, similar to the situation in developed countries in previous decades. This study assessed the body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of an overweight status and obesity, adjusted for various factors, in a population in northeastern Brazil including all age groups. Methods: This is a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study using single sampling procedure composed of levels. Given the heterogeneity of the variable “income” and the relationship between income, prevalence of diseases and nutrition, a stratified sampling on blocks in the first level was used. In this, city districts were classified by income into 10 strata, according to information obtained from IBGE. A systematic sampling was applied on randomly selected blocks in order to choose the residences that would be part of the sample (second level), including 1165 participants from all age groups. Results and Discussion: The prevalence of an overweight status or obesity was adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle variables. When the Chi-square test was applied, a relationship was observed between the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity and the age group, gender, educational level and income of the participants. Regarding lifestyle parameters, only smoking was associated with the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity, in both adults and in the total sample. The results for the following groups were significant (p < 0.05): the age group from 20 to 59 years, when the individual presented an educational level greater than or equal to high school; and the age group ≥ 60 years, when the individual was female. It is noteworthy that educational level and being female were significant in adjusting for the total

  10. Visceral adipose tissue influences on coronary artery calcification at young and middle-age groups using computed tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Abazid, Rami M.; Kattea, M. Obadah; Sayed, Sawsan; Saqqah, Hanaa; Qintar, Mohammed; Smettei, Osama A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of excessive visceral adipose tissue (VAT) on subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and coronary artery calcifications (CAC) in young and middle-age groups using multislice computed tomography. Methods: This study is a single center, cross-sectional study. Eligible patients (n = 159), who under the age of 61 years, with chest pain and mild to moderate probability to have coronary artery disease (CAD) were enrolled. Coronary calcium score and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) were measured at the level of the left main coronary artery while VAT was measured at the level of the iliac crest. Results: The average age was (48 ± 8 years). The mean VAT was (38 ± 21 cm2) with no significant difference between men and women (38 ± 22 vs. 37 ± 19 P = 0.8) respectively. Student's t-test analysis showed significantly higher VAT in patients with detectable CAC than patients with no CAC (48 ± 24 vs. 33 ± 18 P = 0.00002), respectively. Univariate regression analysis showed that VAT and EAT, are strong predictor for CAC (hazard ratio [HR] 1.034, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.016–1.052]. P <0.001 and [HR] 1.344, 95% CI: [1.129–1.601] P = 0.001), respectively. Conclusion: Excessive VAT is significantly associated with positive CAC. VAT can strongly predict subclinical CAD in individuals at young and middle-age groups. PMID:26229760

  11. Fission track ages of detrital zircons from sandstones of the Umpqua Group and Tyee Formation, Oregon coast range

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, J.A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Brandon, M.T. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    Detrital zircons from Paleogene sandstones of the Umpqua Group (UG) and the Tyee Fm (TF) yield contrasting FT age patterns which distinguish these two units and cast new light on their regional extent, correlation and provenance. In the Roseburg (Rg) area of the southern Oregon Coast Range, where most widely exposed, the UG consists of continental and marine clastic beds which overlie submarine lavas of the Coast Range Basalt. K-Ar And Ar-Ar dating of the basement basalts shows a younging trend from about 62 Ma at Rg at the south to 56 Ma at Siletz River and 53 Ma at Tillamook to the north. Detrital zircons from the Rg area are characterized by old FT ages. Of 192 grains dated, 90% are older than 90 Ma; the median age is 129 Ma. A diorite cobble from an UG conglomerate gave a zircon FT age of 105 Ma. These ages point to a source in the Jurassic plutons in the Klamath Mountains nearby to the south. The authors have determined FT cooling ages of 110 and 120 Ma for zircons from the Mt. Ashland and Grants Pass plutons. Continental and shallow marine clastic strata of the TF overly the UG beds west of Rg. The UG is not widely exposed north of Rg where it thins and pinches out above the Coast Range Basalt and is overlain by a northern turbidite facies of the TF. Three TF sandstones from the latitude of Rg and three others from west and south of Corvallis yielded distinctive and identical zircon FT age patterns characterized by young ages. Of 335 zircons dated, 80% are younger than 90 Ma; the median age is 61 Ma. This maximum age is very close to that of the overlying Tillamook and Fisher Fms. The flood of detrital zircons with young FT ages in the TF marks the abrupt change from a nearby Klamath source for the UG beds to a distant, easterly TF source in a recently uplifted plutonic-metamorphic terrane.

  12. Arthroplasty Utilization in the United States is Predicted by Age-Specific Population Groups.

    PubMed

    Bashinskaya, Bronislava; Zimmerman, Ryan M; Walcott, Brian P; Antoci, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common indication for hip and knee arthroplasty. An accurate assessment of current trends in healthcare utilization as they relate to arthroplasty may predict the needs of a growing elderly population in the United States. First, incidence data was queried from the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1993 to 2009. Patients undergoing total knee and hip arthroplasty were identified. Then, the United States Census Bureau was queried for population data from the same study period as well as to provide future projections. Arthroplasty followed linear regression models with the population group >64 years in both hip and knee groups. Projections for procedure incidence in the year 2050 based on these models were calculated to be 1,859,553 cases (hip) and 4,174,554 cases (knee). The need for hip and knee arthroplasty is expected to grow significantly in the upcoming years, given population growth predictions.

  13. Presence of the dinosaur Scelidosaurus indicates Jurassic age for the Kayenta Formation (Glen Canyon Group, northern Arizona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padian, Kevin

    1989-05-01

    The Glen Canyon Group (Moenave, Wingate, Kayenta and Navajo Formations) of northern Arizona represents an extensive outcrop of early Mesozoic age terrestrial sediments. The age of these formations has long been disputed because independent stratigraphic data from marine tie-ins, paleobotanical and palynological evidence, and radiometric calibrations have been scanty or absent. The fauna of the Kayenta Formation in particular has been problematic because it has appeared to contain both typical Late Triassic and Early Jurassic taxa Here I report that the principal evidence for Late Triassic taxa, dermal scutes previously assigned to an aetosaur, in fact belongs to the thyreophoran ornithischian dinosaur Scelidosaurus, previously known only as a washed-in form found in marine sediments in the Early Jurassic of England. The presence of this dinosaur represents the first vertebrate biostratigraphic tie-in of the Glen Canyon Group horizons with reliably dated marine deposits in Europe. Together with revised systematic assessments of other vertebrates and independent evidence from fossil pollen, it supports an Early Jurassic age for the Kayenta Formation and most or all of the Glen Canyon Group.

  14. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in pediatric age group: Assessment of effectiveness and complications

    PubMed Central

    Ozden, Ender; Mercimek, Mehmet Necmettin

    2016-01-01

    Management of kidney stone disease in pediatric population is a challenging condition in urology practice. While the incidence of kidney stone is increasing in those group, technological innovations have conrtibuted to the development of minimally invasive treatment of urinary stone disease such as mini-percutenous nephrolitotomy (mini-PCNL), micro-PCNL, ultra mini-PCNL. In this review we tried to evaluate the effect of new teratment techniques on pediatric kidney stones. PMID:26788467

  15. Inequality of Experience of Dental Caries between Different Ethnic Groups of Brazilians Aged 15 to 19 Years

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Methods Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Results Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24–1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02–3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Conclusions Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education

  16. Expression of ERα and PR in Various Morphological Patterns of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding-Endometrial causes in Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pallavi; Chaurasia, Amrita; Dhingra, Vishal; Misra, Vatsala

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) is most common gynaecological problem but its management is not well defined. So FIGO/PALMCOEIN classification was developed to provide clear management options as treatment is different in PALM and AUB-E group. FIGO/PALM-COEIN classification and immunohistochemistry with ERα and PR expression in AUB-E group will be helpful in management of these patients, thus preventing surgical interventions. Aim To study histomorphological classification according to FIGO/PALM-COEIN classification in patients presenting with AUB into PALM and AUB-E group. To study the receptor expression of ERα and PR in AUB-E group. Materials and Methods This cross sectional study was performed in patients presenting with AUB in reproductive age group (15-45 years). Six hundred endometrial specimens were stained with H&E for histolomorphological examination and classified as per FIGO/PALM-COEIN classification of AUB in non-gravid women in reproductive age group. Fifty endometrial biopsies were of pregnancy and pregnancy related complications and were excluded from study. A total of 550 samples were evaluated in present study. IHC for quantification of ERα and PR expression was carried out in AUB-E (100) cases and control group endometrium (20) cases due to technical constraints. Statistical Analysis Unpaired student t-test was performed. p-value ≤ 0.05 was taken as critical level of significance. Results Endometrial (58.19%) (AUB-E) causes were most common cause of AUB. Most common morphology was AUB-E (Proliferative endometrium), AUB-L (Leiomyoma) and AUB-E (Secretory endometrium) respectively. Statistically significant expression of ERα and PR was found in AUB-E endometrium as compared to control group endometrium. In Non secretory/Proliferative endometrium AUB-E group. Proliferative endometrium and hyperplasia without atypia had significant expression of ERα and PR in glands and stroma when compared with proliferative phase control group

  17. Cephalometric effects of face mask/expansion therapy in Class III children: a comparison of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Kapust, A J; Sinclair, P M; Turley, P K

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue effects of face mask/expansion therapy and to examine the effect of age on treatment response. Pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric radiographs from 63 subjects (4 to 13 years) who had a Class III malocclusion were analyzed. Serial cephalometric tracings of 32 subjects with Class I occlusion made at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 years were used as controls. Landmarks were digitized on each tracing and treatment effects were measured by using cranial base and maxillary superimposition techniques. Annual rate differences were compared with t tests for the combined treated group (N = 63) and between stratified treated groups (4 to 7 years N = 15, 7 to 10 years N = 32, 10 to 14 years N = 16). The treated group (N = 63) demonstrated significant (p < 0.001) hard and soft tissue changes that resulted from treatment. Skeletal change was primarily a result of anterior and vertical movement of the maxillae. Mandibular position was directed in a downward and backward vector. Orthodontic changes contributed to the correction, and soft tissue effects resulted in a more convex profile. Minimal significant differences were observed between age groups when comparing angular and linear measurements alone. However, when analyzing the algebraic sum of treatment effects (Johnston analysis), significantly (p < 0.01) greater differences were observed in apical base change (ABCH) and total molar correction (6/6) in the younger age groups. This study demonstrates that face mask/expansion therapy produces dentofacial changes that combine to improve the Class III malocclusion. Although early treatment may be most effective, face mask therapy can provide a viable option for older children as well.

  18. The Spatio-temporal Distribution of Japanese Encephalitis Cases in Different Age Groups in Mainland China, 2004 – 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huanyu; Song, Miao; Li, Minghua; Fu, Shihong; Lv, Zhi; He, Ying; Lei, Wenwen; Wang, Bin; Lu, Xiaoqing; Liang, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis (JE) is very prevalent in China, but the incidence of JE among children has been greatly reduced by extensive promotion of vaccinations. The incidence of JE among adults, however, has increased in some parts of China. Methods/Principal Findings Data on JE in mainland China, in terms of incidence, gender, and age, were collected between 2004 and 2014. We conducted spatial and temporal analyses on data from different age groups. Generally, children aged 0–15 years still represent the major population of JE cases in China, despite the gradual decrease in incidence over years. However, the incidence of JE among adults in several provinces is notably higher than the national average, especially during the epidemic waves in 2006, 2009, and 2013. The JE cases in the 0–15-year-old group are distributed mainly in the area south of the Yangtze River, with peak incidence occurring from July to September. In the adult group, especially for those over 40 years old, the JE cases are concentrated mainly in the area north of the Yangtze River. JE incidence in the adult group in September and October is significantly greater compared to the other groups. Further analysis using Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) reveals that the distribution of adult JE cases in the six provinces north of the Yangtze River, between north 30–35° latitude and east 110–130° longitude, is a hotspot for adult JE cases. Conclusions/Significance The rate of JE case increase for adults is much greater than for children and has become a public health issue. Therefore, studies on the necessity and feasibility of vaccinating adults who live in JE-endemic areas, but have never been vaccinated for JE, should become a new focus of JE prevention in the future. PMID:27050414

  19. Pancreatoblastoma an Unusual Occurrence of a Tumour in Paediatric Age Group: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Halder, Pankaj; Mukhopadhyay, Bedabrata; Das, Chhanda; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatoblastoma, is rare exocrine malignant tumour of childhood. We are reporting a case of three-year-old child presented to our hospital suffering from vague abdominal pain for further examination and treatment. Clinical examination revealed only a palpable abdominal mass. CT Scan revealed a huge complex space occupying lesion 9.1x8.8x9.2cm with large central cystic degeneration and lobulated enhancing peripheral solid components with foci of calcification, seem to arise from body and tail regions of pancreas. Surgery was done and mass was removed. By histopathology and immunohistochemistry it was diagnosed as pancreatoblastoma. The prognosis is very good in paediatric age, lacking evidence of metastatic disease at first presentation. Therefore early diagnosis is needed for specific treatment. The case is being reported because of its rarity. PMID:27134883

  20. [Vertebral trabecular bone in various age groups and in osteoporosis-- morphometry and bone matrix biochemistry].

    PubMed

    Diebold, J; Bätge, B; Stein, H; Müller, P K; Löhrs, U

    1990-01-01

    Vertebral trabecular bone was analysed by morphometry and bone matrix biochemistry. Trabecular bone volume (TBV) and mean trabecular plate thickness (MTPT) decreased with age. TBV was significantly correlated with MTPT and mean trabecular plate density (MTPD). The individual structure of trabecular bone could be described by both MTPT and MTPD together, but changes of these parameters, that were pathognomonic for osteopenia, were not found. By measuring TBV 3 cases of severe osteopenia were identified (TBV less than 2s of controls); 2 of them showed matrix abnormalities so far not described. In one case (a 67 year old woman without risk factors for osteoporosis) an abnormal high content of type III collagen was found, in the other case (a 44 year old woman with acromegaly) bone matrix analysis atypically revealed a significant fraction of type II collagen. Further studies will be needed to assess the pathogenetic or diagnostic importance of these new findings.

  1. Internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: findings in the pediatric age group

    SciTech Connect

    Katzberg, R.W.; Tallents, R.H.; Hayakawa, K.; Miller, T.L.; Goske, M.J.; Wood, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    Findings in 31 pediatric patients with pain and dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are reported. The average age was 14 years and the average duration of symptoms was 21.4 months. Internal derangements were found in 29 patients (94%) and degenerative arthritis in 13 (42%). In 12 patients (39%), the problem could be traced to an injury to the jaw. Secondary condylar hypoplasia was associated with the meniscal abnormality in 3 patients (10%). Further awareness of internal derangements of the TMJ in the pediatric population should permit greater recognition of their etiology. It is important that threatment be initiated as soon as possible, not only to minimize the development of osseous disease in young adults but also to prevent facial growth deformities.

  2. [Typing of group A streptococci isolated from urban population of different social status and age].

    PubMed

    Riapis, L A; Briko, N I; Dmitrieva, N F; Eshchina, A S; Pronskiĭ, A V; Filatov, N N; Ivanenko, A V; Salova, N Ia; Sizykh, E V; Pavlovskiĭ, S S; Skorkina, Iu A; Trofimov, D Iu; Kirillov, M Iu; Sobolev, V I

    2007-01-01

    Pulse-electrophoresis, sequencing of emm genes coding protein M and PCR analysis of speA, speB, and speC genes were used for characterization of group A streptococci (GAS) isolated in different years in Moscow and Tuapse mostly from children and military staff. It has been shown that epidemic process of streptococcal infection caused by GAS in Moscow is based on circulation of many independent clones of Streptococcus pyogenes. Obtained data on complex typing of S. pyogenes would be useful for study of molecular epidemiology of diseases caused by GAS and improvement of epidemiologic surveillance.

  3. Job-loss and morbidity in a group of employees nearing retirement age.

    PubMed

    Beale, N; Nethercott, S

    1986-06-01

    As part of a study of the morbidity of a group of workers made redundant from a meat products factory, the health of employees nearing retirement has been investigated. Consultations, episodes of illness and referrals to and attendances at hospital outpatient departments were recorded annually as the indices of morbidity. With the threat of redundancy a significant increase in morbidity was noted for the male employees but not for the female employees. It is suggested that these men adapt less easily to redundancy than the women.

  4. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine in smoking cessation treatment including nicotine patch and cognitive-behavioral group therapy.

    PubMed

    Saules, Karen K; Schuh, Leslie M; Arfken, Cynthia L; Reed, Karen; Kilbey, M Marlyne; Schuster, Charles R

    2004-01-01

    Smoking cessation attempts are often complicated by dysphoria/depression, weight gain, craving, and other nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Fluoxetine's antidepressant and anorectant properties, along with its capacity to attenuate compulsive behavior, suggest that this medication might facilitate smoking cessation treatment. We examined the effect of fluoxetine on smoking cessation in the context of a program that included group cognitive-behavioral therapy (six weeks) and transdermal nicotine patch(ten weeks). In a double-blind randomized trial of fluoxetine for smoking cessation, 150 daily smokers were assigned to placebo (n=48), 20 mg (n=51), or 40 mg fluoxetine (n=51). Fluoxetine did not significantly improve smoking cessation rates, either for those with or without major depressive disorder(MDD)histories or elevated current depression. Our results suggest that fluoxetine may moderate withdrawal symptoms, even if that was not manifested in improved smoking cessation rates. Our results, however, clearly favor the use of fluoxetine if weight gain is a major clinical obstacle to smoking cessation.

  5. The Racial, Cultural and Social Makeup of Hispanics as a potential Profile Risk for Intensifying the Need for Including this Ethnic Group in Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    López-Candales, Angel; Aponte Rodríguez, Jaime; Harris, David

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension not only is the most frequently listed cause of death worldwide; but also a well-recognized major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Based on the latest published statistics published by the American Heart Association, hypertension is very prevalent and found in one of every 3 US adults. Furthermore, data from NHANES 2007 to 2010 claims that almost 6% of US adults have undiagnosed hypertension. Despite this staggering statistic, previous US guidelines for the prevention, detection, and treatment of hypertension (The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure 7 [JNC 7]), released in 2003, stated that; "unfortunately, sufficient numbers of Mexican Americans and other Hispanic Americans... have not been included in most of the major clinical trials to allow reaching strong conclusions about their responses to individual antihypertensive therapies." However, the recently published JNC 8 offers no comment regarding recommendations or guideline treatment suggestions on Hispanics. The purpose of this article not only is to raise awareness of the lack of epidemiological data and treatment options regarding high blood pressure in the US Hispanic population; but also to make a case of the racial, cultural and social makeup of this ethnic group that places them at risk of cardiovascular complications related to hypertension.

  6. The Racial, Cultural and Social Makeup of Hispanics as a potential Profile Risk for Intensifying the Need for Including this Ethnic Group in Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    López-Candales, Angel; Aponte Rodríguez, Jaime; Harris, David

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension not only is the most frequently listed cause of death worldwide; but also a well-recognized major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Based on the latest published statistics published by the American Heart Association, hypertension is very prevalent and found in one of every 3 US adults. Furthermore, data from NHANES 2007 to 2010 claims that almost 6% of US adults have undiagnosed hypertension. Despite this staggering statistic, previous US guidelines for the prevention, detection, and treatment of hypertension (The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure 7 [JNC 7]), released in 2003, stated that; "unfortunately, sufficient numbers of Mexican Americans and other Hispanic Americans... have not been included in most of the major clinical trials to allow reaching strong conclusions about their responses to individual antihypertensive therapies." However, the recently published JNC 8 offers no comment regarding recommendations or guideline treatment suggestions on Hispanics. The purpose of this article not only is to raise awareness of the lack of epidemiological data and treatment options regarding high blood pressure in the US Hispanic population; but also to make a case of the racial, cultural and social makeup of this ethnic group that places them at risk of cardiovascular complications related to hypertension. PMID:26742191

  7. "Are vocabulary tests measurement invariant between age groups? An item response analysis of three popular tests": Correction to Fox, Berry, and Freeman (2014).

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Reports an error in "Are vocabulary tests measurement invariant between age groups? An item response analysis of three popular tests" by Mark C. Fox, Jane M. Berry and Sara P. Freeman (, 2014[Dec], Vol 29[4], 925-938). In the article, unneeded zeros were inadvertently included at the beginnings of some numbers in Tables 1-4. In addition, the right column in Table 4 includes three unnecessary zeros after asterisks. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record .) Relatively high vocabulary scores of older adults are generally interpreted as evidence that older adults possess more of a common ability than younger adults. Yet, this interpretation rests on empirical assumptions about the uniformity of item-response functions between groups. In this article, we test item response models of differential responding against datasets containing younger-, middle-aged-, and older-adult responses to three popular vocabulary tests (the Shipley, Ekstrom, and WAIS-R) to determine whether members of different age groups who achieve the same scores have the same probability of responding in the same categories (e.g., correct vs. incorrect) under the same conditions. Contrary to the null hypothesis of measurement invariance, datasets for all three tests exhibit substantial differential responding. Members of different age groups who achieve the same overall scores exhibit differing response probabilities in relation to the same items (differential item functioning) and appear to approach the tests in qualitatively different ways that generalize across items. Specifically, younger adults are more likely than older adults to leave items unanswered for partial credit on the Ekstrom, and to produce 2-point definitions on the WAIS-R. Yet, older adults score higher than younger adults, consistent with most reports of vocabulary outcomes in the cognitive aging literature. In light of these findings, the most generalizable conclusion to be drawn from the cognitive aging

  8. 78 FR 52984 - Stone Age Interiors, Inc.; d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Employment and Training Administration Stone Age Interiors, Inc.; d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite... former workers of Stone Age Interiors, Inc., d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite, Colorado Springs... investigation, I determine that workers of Stone Age Interiors, Inc., d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and...

  9. Motion Analysis of Match Play in New Zealand U13 to U15 Age-Group Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Atan, Siti A; Foskett, Andrew; Ali, Ajmol

    2016-09-01

    Atan, SA, Foskett, A, and Ali, A. Motion analysis of match play in New Zealand U13 to U15 age-group soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2416-2423, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate motion analysis in 85 players (U13-U15 years) from Auckland's Metropolitan League during 2 competitive soccer matches. Five-Hz global positioning system (with interpolated 10-Hz output) units were used to measure total distance (absolute and relative) and time spent in standing, walking, low-intensity running, medium-intensity running, high-intensity running, and sprinting. Speed thresholds for each match activity were determined through mean 10-m flying sprint peak speed for each age group. Under 15 years (U15, 6600 ± 1480 m) covered more absolute distance because of longer playing time than under 14 years (U14, 5385 ± 1296 m, p = 0.001) and under 13 years (U13, 4516 ± 702.6 m, p = 0.001). However, there were no differences in relative distances covered (U15, 94.5 ± 11.2 m·min, U14, 96.1 ± 11.9 m·min, U15, 97.3 ± 17.6 m·min, p = 0.685). Maximum speed attained during the match was faster for U15 (26.5 ± 1.68 km·h) than U14 (25.4 ± 1.93 km·h, p = 0.022) and U13 (23.5 ± 1.74 km·h, p = 0.001); there were no differences in average distance per sprint, with all age groups covering ∼16 m per sprint (p = 0.603). The current findings provide useful information for developing specific training programs for young soccer players and a framework for developing age-specific soccer simulation protocols. PMID:26808854

  10. Comparisons of the galaxy age, stellar velocity dispersion and K-band luminosity distributions between grouped galaxies and isolated ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ping; Deng, Xin-Fa

    2016-02-01

    In two volume-limited Main galaxy samples of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10), we compare the age, stellar velocity dispersion and K-band luminosity distributions of grouped galaxies with those of isolated galaxies, to explore the environmental dependence of these properties of galaxies. It is found that grouped galaxies have preferentially larger stellar velocity dispersions and are preferentially older than isolated galaxies. We also note apparent difference of K-band luminosity distribution at both extremes of density in the luminous volume-limited Main galaxy sample: grouped galaxies are preferentially more luminous than isolated galaxies, while this difference in the faint volume-limited Main galaxy sample is very small.

  11. A clinic-based study of refractive errors, strabismus, and amblyopia in pediatric age-group

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tamimi, Elham R.; Shakeel, Ayisha; Yassin, Sanaa A.; Ali, Syed I.; Khan, Umar A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this cross-sectional observational study was to determine the distribution and patterns of refractive errors, strabismus, and amblyopia in children seen at a pediatric eye care. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a Private Hospital in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from March to July 2013. During this period, a total of 1350 children, aged 1–15 years were seen at this Center's Pediatric Ophthalmology Unit. All the children underwent complete ophthalmic examination with cycloplegic refraction. Results: Refractive errors accounted for 44.4% of the cases, the predominant refractive error being hypermetropia which represented 83%. Strabismus and amblyopia were present in 38% and 9.1% of children, respectively. Conclusions: In this clinic-based study, the focus was on the frequency of refractive errors, strabismus, and amblyopia which were considerably high. Hypermetropia was the predominant refractive error in contrast to other studies in which myopia was more common. This could be attributed to the criteria for sample selection since it was clinic-based rather than a population-based study. However, it is important to promote public education on the significance of early detection of refractive errors, and have periodic screening in schools. PMID:26392796

  12. Development of gender- and age group-specific equations for estimating body weight from anthropometric measurement in Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Pruenglampoo, Sakda; Trakulhoon, Vibul; Ungpinitpong, Winai; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2012-01-01

    Background Many medical procedures routinely use body weight as a parameter for calculation. However, these measurements are not always available. In addition, the commonly used visual estimation has had high error rates. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a predictive equation for body weight using body circumferences. Methods A prospective study was performed in healthy volunteers. Body weight, height, and eight circumferential level parameters including neck, arm, chest, waist, umbilical level, hip, thigh, and calf were recorded. Linear regression equations were developed in a modeling sample group divided by sex and age (younger <60 years and older ≥60 years). Original regression equations were modified to simple equations by coefficients and intercepts adjustment. These equations were tested in an independent validation sample. Results A total of 2000 volunteers were included in this study. These were randomly separated into two groups (1000 in each modeling and validation group). Equations using height and one covariate circumference were developed. After the covariate selection processes, covariate circumference of chest, waist, umbilical level, and hip were selected for single covariate equations (Sco). To reduce the body somatotype difference, the combination covariate circumferences were created by summation between the chest and one torso circumference of waist, umbilical level, or hip and used in the equation development as a combination covariate equation (Cco). Of these equations, Cco had significantly higher 10% threshold error tolerance compared with Sco (mean percentage error tolerance of Cco versus Sco [95% confidence interval; 95% CI]: 76.9 [74.2–79.6] versus 70.3 [68.4–72.3]; P < 0.01, respectively). Although simple covariate equations had more evidence errors than the original covariate equations, there was comparable error tolerance between the types of equations (original versus simple: 74.5 [71.9–77.1] versus 71.7 [69.2

  13. A new turtle from the Upper Cretaceous Bauru Group of Brazil, updated phylogeny and implications for age of the Santo Anastácio Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegazzo, Mirian Costa; Bertini, Reinaldo José; Manzini, Flávio Fernando

    2015-03-01

    A new Podocnemidinura specimen from the Upper Cretaceous Bauru Group (Paraná Basin) of southeastern Brazil was described. The Bauru Group provided an important portrait of the Brazilian Mesozoic terrestrial biota, which boasts a vertebrate fauna formed from fishes, frogs, lacertilians, crocodyliforms, dinosaurs and mammals; records of palynomorphs; and invertebrate fauna consisted of gastropods, bivalves, ostracods and conchostracans. Nevertheless, the age of these continental deposits is not precisely estimated, which prevents global correlations, and its fauna is argued to be endemic. The new specimen described is the first turtle from the Santo Anastácio Formation, and its morphological comparison with other South American forms provided a significant advancement in the understanding of the age of this unit (Late Cretaceous). This study permitted a revision of the turtle taxa of the Bauru Group. As a result, some taxa were considered synonym, including the new Santo Anastácio form. The specimen is still unnamed due to the absence of skull characters that preclude its accurate positioning within the Bauru Group skull-based taxa. In addition, the phylogenetic affinities of this taxon were analyzed into Podocnemidinura clade.

  14. Host age, social group, and habitat type influence the gut microbiota of wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Genevieve; Malone, Matthew; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; White, Bryan; Nelson, Karen E; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Knight, Rob; Leigh, Steven R; Amato, Katherine R

    2016-08-01

    The gut microbiota contributes to host health by maintaining homeostasis, increasing digestive efficiency, and facilitating the development of the immune system. The composition of the gut microbiota can change dramatically within and between individuals of a species as a result of diet, age, or habitat. Therefore, understanding the factors determining gut microbiota diversity and composition can contribute to our knowledge of host ecology as well as to conservation efforts. Here we use high-throughput sequencing to describe variation in the gut microbiota of the endangered ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR) in southwestern Madagascar. Specifically, we measured the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota in relation to social group, age, sex, tooth wear and loss, and habitat disturbance. While we found no significant variation in the diversity of the ring-tailed lemur gut microbiota in response to any variable tested, the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota was influenced by social group, age, and habitat disturbance. However, effect sizes were small and appear to be driven by the presence or absence of relatively low abundance taxa. These results suggest that habitat disturbance may not impact the lemur gut microbiota as strongly as it impacts the gut microbiota of other primate species, highlighting the importance of distinct host ecological and physiological factors on host-gut microbe relationships. Am. J. Primatol. 78:883-892, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Host age, social group, and habitat type influence the gut microbiota of wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Genevieve; Malone, Matthew; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; White, Bryan; Nelson, Karen E; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Knight, Rob; Leigh, Steven R; Amato, Katherine R

    2016-08-01

    The gut microbiota contributes to host health by maintaining homeostasis, increasing digestive efficiency, and facilitating the development of the immune system. The composition of the gut microbiota can change dramatically within and between individuals of a species as a result of diet, age, or habitat. Therefore, understanding the factors determining gut microbiota diversity and composition can contribute to our knowledge of host ecology as well as to conservation efforts. Here we use high-throughput sequencing to describe variation in the gut microbiota of the endangered ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR) in southwestern Madagascar. Specifically, we measured the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota in relation to social group, age, sex, tooth wear and loss, and habitat disturbance. While we found no significant variation in the diversity of the ring-tailed lemur gut microbiota in response to any variable tested, the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota was influenced by social group, age, and habitat disturbance. However, effect sizes were small and appear to be driven by the presence or absence of relatively low abundance taxa. These results suggest that habitat disturbance may not impact the lemur gut microbiota as strongly as it impacts the gut microbiota of other primate species, highlighting the importance of distinct host ecological and physiological factors on host-gut microbe relationships. Am. J. Primatol. 78:883-892, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27177345

  16. The moderating role of age-group identification and perceived threat on stereotype threat among older adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sonia K; Chasteen, Alison L

    2009-01-01

    Although research has shown that older adults are negatively affected by aging stereotypes, relatively few studies have attempted to identify those older adults who may be especially susceptible to these effects. The current research takes steps toward identifying older adults most susceptible to the effects of stereotype threat and investigates the consequence of stereotype threat on the well-being of older adults. Older adults were tested on their recall of a prose passage under normal or stereotype threatening conditions. Memory decrements for those in the threat condition were moderated by perceived stereotype threat such that greater decrements were seen for those who reported greater perceived threat. A similar pattern was observed for negative emotion, such that those in the threat condition who reported higher perceptions of threat experienced a greater decrease in positive emotions. Age group identification also proved to be an important factor, with the strongly identified performing worse than the weakly identified. As well, high age-group identification buffered some of the negative affective consequences associated with stereotype threat, which is consistent with some models of coping with stigma.

  17. Muscle torque and its relation to technique, tactics, sports level and age group in judo contestants.

    PubMed

    Lech, Grzegorz; Chwała, Wiesław; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Sterkowicz, Stanisław

    2015-03-29

    The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of maximal muscle torques at individual stages of development of athletes and to determine the relationship between muscle torques, fighting methods and the level of sports performance. The activity of 25 judo contestants during judo combats and the effectiveness of actions were evaluated. Maximum muscle torques in flexors/extensors of the body trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints were measured. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05; for multiple comparisons the Mann-Whitney U test, p≤0.016, was used. Intergroup differences in relative torques in five muscle groups studied (elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, knee flexors, knee extensors, hip flexors) were not significant. In cadets, relative maximum muscle torques in hip extensors correlated with the activity index (Spearman's r=0.756). In juniors, maximum relative torques in elbow flexors and knee flexors correlated with the activity index (r=0.73 and r=0.76, respectively). The effectiveness of actions correlated with relative maximum torque in elbow extensors (r=0.67). In seniors, the relative maximum muscle torque in shoulder flexors correlated with the activity index during the second part of the combat (r=0.821). PMID:25964820

  18. Muscle Torque and its Relation to Technique, Tactics, Sports Level and Age Group in Judo Contestants

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Grzegorz; Chwała, Wiesław; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Sterkowicz, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of maximal muscle torques at individual stages of development of athletes and to determine the relationship between muscle torques, fighting methods and the level of sports performance. The activity of 25 judo contestants during judo combats and the effectiveness of actions were evaluated. Maximum muscle torques in flexors/extensors of the body trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints were measured. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05; for multiple comparisons the Mann-Whitney U test, p≤0.016, was used. Intergroup differences in relative torques in five muscle groups studied (elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, knee flexors, knee extensors, hip flexors) were not significant. In cadets, relative maximum muscle torques in hip extensors correlated with the activity index (Spearman’s r=0.756). In juniors, maximum relative torques in elbow flexors and knee flexors correlated with the activity index (r=0.73 and r=0.76, respectively). The effectiveness of actions correlated with relative maximum torque in elbow extensors (r=0.67). In seniors, the relative maximum muscle torque in shoulder flexors correlated with the activity index during the second part of the combat (r=0.821). PMID:25964820

  19. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Acute Pelvic Pain in the Reproductive Age Group.

    PubMed

    Bhosale, Priyadarshani R; Javitt, Marcia C; Atri, Mostafa; Harris, Robert D; Kang, Stella K; Meyer, Benjamin J; Pandharipande, Pari V; Reinhold, Caroline; Salazar, Gloria M; Shipp, Thomas D; Simpson, Lynn; Sussman, Betsy L; Uyeda, Jennifer; Wall, Darci J; Zelop, Carolyn M; Glanc, Phyllis

    2016-06-01

    Acute pelvic pain in premenopausal women frequently poses a diagnostic dilemma. These patients may exhibit nonspecific signs and symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and leukocytosis. The cause of pelvic pain includes a myriad of diagnostic possibilities such as obstetric, gynecologic, urologic, gastrointestinal, and vascular etiologies. The choice of the imaging modality is usually determined by a suspected clinical differential diagnosis. Thus the patient should undergo careful evaluation and the suspected differential diagnosis should be narrowed before an optimal imaging modality is chosen. Transvaginal and transabdominal pelvic sonography is the modality of choice, to assess for pelvic pain, when an obstetric or gynecologic etiology is suspected and computed tomography is often more useful when gastrointestinal or genitourinary pathology is thought to be more likely. Magnetic resonance imaging, when available in the acute setting, is favored over computed tomography for assessing pregnant patients for nongynecologic etiologies owing to its lack of ionizing radiation.The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria® are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:26588104

  20. Fluidizing effects of centrophenoxine in vitro on brain and liver membranes from different age groups of mice.

    PubMed

    Wood, W G; Gorka, C; Armbrecht, H J; Williamson, L S; Strong, R

    1986-12-01

    This study examined the effects of different concentrations of centrophenoxine on physical properties of synaptic plasma membranes and liver microsomes using electron spin resonance procedures. Membranes of different age groups of mice were labeled with the 5-doxyl stearic acid spin-label and membrane fluidity determined in the presence and absence of different concentrations of centrophenoxine. Centrophenoxine had a direct effect on membranes as shown by a significant increase in membrane fluidity. This effect was greatest in liver microsomes as compared to synaptic plasma membranes. Age differences were not observed in centrophenoxine-induced fluidization. Effects of centrophenoxine in vivo may be due in part to the drug acting directly on the physical properties of the membrane lipid environment.

  1. Quantifying swallowing function for healthy adults in different age groups using acoustic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Man-Yin

    Dysphagia is a medical condition that can lead to devastating complications including weight loss, aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, and malnutrition; hence, timely identification is essential. Current dysphagia evaluation tools are either invasive, time consuming, or highly dependent on the experience of an individual clinician. The present study aims to develop a non-invasive, quantitative screening tool for dysphagia identification by capturing acoustic data from swallowing and mastication. The first part of this study explores the feasibility of using acoustic data to quantify swallowing and mastication. This study then further identifies mastication and swallowing trends in a neurotypical adult population. An acoustic capture protocol for dysphagia screening is proposed. Finally, the relationship among speaking, lingual and mastication rates are explored. Results and future directions are discussed.

  2. Benefits of Group Living Include Increased Feeding Efficiency and Lower Mass Loss during Desiccation in the Social and Inbreeding Spider Stegodyphus dumicola.

    PubMed

    Vanthournout, Bram; Greve, Michelle; Bruun, Anne; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Overgaard, Johannes; Bilde, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment, and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments.

  3. Benefits of Group Living Include Increased Feeding Efficiency and Lower Mass Loss during Desiccation in the Social and Inbreeding Spider Stegodyphus dumicola

    PubMed Central

    Vanthournout, Bram; Greve, Michelle; Bruun, Anne; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Overgaard, Johannes; Bilde, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment, and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments. PMID:26869936

  4. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs--occurrence and management associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjaer, Rikke B; Enemark, Heidi L; Vigre, Håkan

    2006-10-10

    To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy and sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows, 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg/calves 1-12 months. The faecal samples were purified and the number of (oo)cysts quantified. The study revealed an age-specific herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 16, 31 and 100% for sows, piglets and weaners, respectively, and of 14, 96 and 84% for cows, young calves and older calves, respectively. For Giardia the age-specific herd prevalence was 18, 22 and 84% for the sows, piglets and weaners, while for cattle herds the prevalence was 60, 82 and 100% for cows, young calves and older calves, correspondingly. The (oo)cyst excretion levels varied considerably both within and between herds for all age groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf pen between introduction of calves for both parasites had a protective effect in young calves. For weaners, use of straw in the pen and high pressure cleaning between batches of weaners had a preventive effect against higher Cryptosporidium oocyst excretion levels.

  5. A Clinico-Etiological Study of Dermatoses in Pediatric Age Group in Tertiary Health Care Center in South Gujarat Region

    PubMed Central

    Jawade, Sugat A; Chugh, Vishal S; Gohil, Sneha K; Mistry, Amit S; Umrigar, Dipak D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dermatologic conditions have different presentation and management in pediatric age group from that in adult; this to be studied separately for statistical and population based analysis. Objective: To study the pattern of various dermatoses in infants and children in tertiary health care center in South Gujarat region. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study; various dermatoses were studied in pediatric patients up to 14 years of age attending the Dermatology OPD of New Civil Hospital, Surat, Gujarat over a period of 12 months from June 2009 to June 2010. All patients were divided into four different study groups: <1 month (neonates), 1 month to 1 year, >1 to 6 years and 7 to 14 years. Results: There were 596 boys and 425 girls in total 1021 study populations. Majority of the skin conditions in neonates were erythema toxicum neonatorum (12.97%), scabies (9.92%), mongolian spot (9.16%), and seborrheic dermatitis (7.63%). In > 1 month to 14 years age group of children among infectious disorder, children were found to be affected most by scabies (24.49%), impetigo (5.96%), pyoderma (5.62%), molluscum contagiosum (5.39%), tinea capitis (4.49%), leprosy (2.02%), and viral warts (1.35%) while among non-infectious disorders, they were affected by atopic dermatitis (4.27%), pityriasis alba (4.16%), seborrheic dermatitis (3.60%), pityriasis rosea (3.15%), others (3.01%), phrynoderma (2.70%), lichen planus (2.58%), contact dermatitis (1.57%) and ichthyosis (1.45%). Conclusion: There is a need to emphasize on training the management of common pediatric dermatoses to dermatologists, general practitioners and pediatricians for early treatment. PMID:26677296

  6. Group-based and personalized care in an age of genomic and evidence-based medicine: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Maglo, Koffi N

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the philosophical and moral foundations of group-based and individualized therapy in connection with population care equality. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently modified its public health policy by seeking to enhance the efficacy and equality of care through the approval of group-specific prescriptions and doses for some drugs. In the age of genomics, when individualization of care increasingly has become a major concern, investigating the relationship between population health, stratified medicine, and personalized therapy can improve our understanding of the ethical and biomedical implications of genomic medicine. I suggest that the need to optimize population health through population substructure-sensitive research and the need to individualize care through genetically targeted therapies are not necessarily incompatible. Accordingly, the article reconceptualizes a unified goal for modern scientific medicine in terms of individualized equal care.

  7. Group-based and personalized care in an age of genomic and evidence-based medicine: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Maglo, Koffi N

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the philosophical and moral foundations of group-based and individualized therapy in connection with population care equality. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently modified its public health policy by seeking to enhance the efficacy and equality of care through the approval of group-specific prescriptions and doses for some drugs. In the age of genomics, when individualization of care increasingly has become a major concern, investigating the relationship between population health, stratified medicine, and personalized therapy can improve our understanding of the ethical and biomedical implications of genomic medicine. I suggest that the need to optimize population health through population substructure-sensitive research and the need to individualize care through genetically targeted therapies are not necessarily incompatible. Accordingly, the article reconceptualizes a unified goal for modern scientific medicine in terms of individualized equal care. PMID:22643722

  8. The occurrence and fission-track ages of late neogene and quaternary volcanic sediments, Siwalik group, Northern Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.D.; Zeitler, P.; Naeser, C.W.; Johnson, N.M.; Summers, D.M.; Frost, C.D.; Opdyke, N.D.; Tahirkheli, R.A.K.

    1982-01-01

    Volcanic sediments, now mostly bentonites and bentonitic mudstones, occur throughout the Late Neogene and Quaternary Siwalik Group of northern Pakistan. A number of these deposits have been dated by the fission-track method, utilizing zircon phenocrysts from these deposits, and provide the chronometric constraints upon which a paleomagnetic stratigraphy is developed for the Siwalik Group. Notable in the occurrence of these altered tuff horizons is an apparent mode in their stratigraphic development from approximately 3.0 to 1.5 m.y. B.P. which coincides with the period of activity of the Dacht-e-Nawar volcanic complex of east-central Afghanistan. Fission-track ages of certain tuffs for critical areas of northern Pakistan are reported herein. ?? 1982.

  9. Correlating Estrogen Levels and Cognitive Functions in Regularly Menstruating Females of Reproductive Age Group and Post Menopausal Women of North India

    PubMed Central

    Khattar, Deepti; Sodhi, Candy; Parmod, John; Dutta, Abhilasha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To correlate serum estrogen levels with cognitive functions calculated objectively as per Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the females in reproductive age group and those attaining menopause. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. 150 subjects (100 postmenopausal females and 50 regularly menstruating females of the reproductive age group) were included. The cognitive functions of all the females and serum estrogen levels (i.e Estradiol E2) were assessed. Results: The E2 levels in normal menstruating females were found to be higher (mean = 188.062 pg/ml) as compared to the menopausal females and the difference in E2 levels was found to be significant (p < 0.001). However, the difference in serum estrogen levels of subjects in the two menopausal groups was insignificant. MMSE, showed that scores of normal menstruating females were higher (mean score = 29.92) as compared to post menopausal females for 1-5 years (mean score = 26.72) and post menopausal females for last 6-10 years (mean score = 26.30). Conclusion: We observed that the cognition functions declined in post menopausal women, whereas the scores were higher in the women of reproductive age group, meaning thereby, that it is the serum estrogen level that is bringing about this difference. Another finding was that the decline in cognition following menopause was not progressive. Therefore, this correlation would open up the gates for the use of estrogen therapy for various neuropsychological disorders pertaining to cognition in the postmenopausal females. PMID:26177471

  10. 78 FR 37586 - Stone Age Interiors, Inc., D/B/A Colorado Springs Marble and Granite, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Determination was published in the Federal Register on May 15, 2013 (78 FR 28628-28630). Workers at the subject... Employment and Training Administration Stone Age Interiors, Inc., D/B/A Colorado Springs Marble and Granite... former workers of Stone Age Interiors, Inc., d/b/a Colorado Springs Marble and Granite, Colorado...

  11. Preparation of Trainers of Volunteer Parent Service Providers (Including Parents) for Vermont's School-Age Learners with Severe Developmental Disabilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaver-Reid, Mary Ellen; And Others

    The report describes Volunteers for Families (VFF), a 3-year project to develop a statewide (Vermont) network of trained volunteers to advocate for and to provide and coordinate services to, families of school-age learners (ages 3-21) with severe developmental disabilities. A three-phase process for establishing a VFF program is outlined,…

  12. Increased participation and improved performance in age group backstroke master swimmers from 25-29 to 100-104 years at the FINA World Masters Championships from 1986 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Unterweger, Chiara M; Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2016-01-01

    Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated for different sport disciplines, but not for master swimmers. The knowledge on this topic is still missing for a particular stroke such as backstroke. Changes in participation and performance of male and female age group backstroke swimmers (≥25 years) competing in 50, 100 and 200 m pool swimming at the FINA World Masters Championships held between 1986 and 2014 were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses. The overall participation was n = 26,217 including n = 13,708 women and n = 12,509 men. In 50 m, female (age groups 85-89 years; p = 0.002) and male participation (age groups 55-59; p = 0.030 and 80-84 years; p = 0.002) increased, while female participation decreased in age groups 55-59 (p = 0.010) and 60-64 years (p = 0.050). In 100 and 200 m, participation increased in age groups 45-49, 50-54, 65-69, 70-74, 80-84 years. Swimmers in age groups 25-29 to 95-99 years improved performance over all distances. Women were slower than men in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years, but not in age groups 85-89 to 95-99 years over all distances. In 50 m and 100 m, the sex difference decreased in age groups 40-44 (p = 0.007 and p = 0.005), 45-49 (p = 0.017 and p = 0.034), 50-54 (p = 0.002 and p = 0.040), to 55-59 years (p = 0.002 and p = 0.004). In 200 m, the sex difference decreased in age groups 40-44 (p = 0.044) and 90-94 (p = 0.011), but increased in age group 25-29 years (p = 0.006). In summary, in age group backstroke swimmers, (1) participation increased or remained unchanged (except women in age groups 55-59 and 60-64 years in 50 m), (2) swimming performance improved in all age groups from 25-29 to 95-99 years over all distances, (3) men were faster than women in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years (except age groups 85-89 to 95-99 years) over time and all distances. PMID:27330911

  13. A comparison of time-motion and technical-tactical variables between age groups of female judo matches.

    PubMed

    Miarka, Bianca; Cury, Rubiana; Julianetti, Ricardo; Battazza, Rafael; Julio, Ursula Ferreira; Calmet, Michel; Franchini, Emerson

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify differences between age groups of female judo matches in time-motion and technical-tactical analysis. The sample was composed of pre-cadet (13-14 years, n = 148), cadet (15-16 years, n = 228), junior (17-19 years, n = 104) and senior (>20 years, n = 237) groups. The time-motion indicators consisted of total combat time, standing combat time, displacement without contact, gripping time, total time of techniques, groundwork combat time and pause time, per match and by each combat/pause cycle. Technical and tactical variables were also collected. The one-way analysis of variance and a post hoc test were conducted, P ≤ 0.05. Cadets, with a median of 7 (2, 12), had a number of combat/pause cycles different from junior, with 3 (1, 8.5). Regarding time-motion per match and per cycle, senior had longer total combat time, standing combat time and gripping time than other groups. Senior presented lower frequency of leg techniques than pre-cadet, cadet and junior. Time-motion and technical-tactical variables effects in female judo athletes emphasise the difference between seniors and other groups.

  14. Data on the distribution of cancer incidence and death across age and sex groups visualized using multilevel spie charts.

    PubMed

    Feitelson, Dror G

    2016-04-01

    Cancer incidence and death statistics are typically recorded for multiple age and sex brackets, leading to large data tables which are difficult to digest. Effective visualizations of this data would allow practitioners, policy makers, and the general public to comprehend the data more readily and act on it appropriately. We introduce multilevel spie charts to create a combined visualization of cancer incidence and death statistics. Spie charts combine multiple pie charts, where the base pie chart (representing the general population) is used to set the angles of slices, and the superimposed ones use variable radii to portray the cancer data. Spie charts of cancer incidence and death statistics from Israel for 2009-2011 are used as an illustration. These charts clearly show various patterns of how cancer incidence and death distribute across age and sex groups, illustrating (1) absolute numbers and (2) rates per 100,000 population for different age and sex brackets. In addition, drawing separate charts for different cancer types illustrates relative mortality, both (3) across cancer types and (4) mortality relative to incidence. Naturally, this graphical depiction can be used for other diseases as well.

  15. The Steens Basalt of the Oregon Plateau: A geomagnetic polarity reversal and the age of the Columbia River basalt group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, Nicholas A.

    The Steens Basalt of the Oregon Plateau covers about 53,000 km2 of southeastern Oregon and northwestern Nevada. Three localities where volcanic sections contain transitional lavas of the Steens reversal have been studied. At Steens Mountain, previous studies showed a complex reversal path consisting of 30 transitional directional groups. At the three new localities, forty-five new transitional directional groups are discovered, show an increase in the complexity of the reversal path, and reinforce the clumping of some directions. Fifteen 40Ar/39Ar ages were determined from lavas on or near the Oregon Plateau. The lavas are shown to have erupted before, after, or during the Steens reversal in the R0, N 0, or N1 of the CRBG. Using a Bayesian statistical analysis of the mean age of the Steens reversal lavas and three other ages at the Catlow section, the best and preferred age of the Steens reversal is 16.73 +0.13/-0.08 Ma (95% confidence). Correlation of this age to a sea floor spreading time scale allows the floating magnetostratigraphy of the CRBG to be placed into the geomagnetic polarity time scale and shows that the R0 corresponds to the C5Cr chron with the Steens reversal at the top of the C5Cr chron. Twenty six paleomagnetic poles from Steens Mountain are combined with 108 non-transitional poles found in this thesis to give a clockwise rotation of the Oregon Plateau of 11.4° +/- 5.6° with respect to the younger CRBG flows to the north and 14.5° +/- 4.6° with respect to cratonic North America. Using secular variation considerations, eruption rates can be calculated at two of the sections which contain the Steens reversal: 85--120 m/ka at Catlow and 130--195 m/ka at Poker Jim South. Similarly, durations of eruptions have been determined at the four sections that do not contain the Steens reversal: ˜2.5 ka for 260 m at the Pueblo Mountains, 0.5 to 1.5 ka for 190 m at Summit Springs, 1--3 ka for 170 m at North Mickey, and ˜3 ka for 160 m at Guano Rim.

  16. Modeling dengue fever risk based on socioeconomic parameters, nationality and age groups: GIS and remote sensing based case study.

    PubMed

    Khormi, Hassan M; Kumar, Lalit

    2011-10-15

    Dengue fever (DF) and its impacts are growing environmental, economic, and health concerns in Saudi Arabia. In this study, we have attempted to model areas with humans at risk of dengue fever prevalence, depending on the spatial relationship between dengue fever cases and different socioeconomic parameters. We have developed new methods to verify the quality of neighborhoods from high resolution satellite images based on several factors such as density of houses in each neighborhood in each district, width of streets, and roof area of houses. In the absence of detailed neighborhood quality information being available for each district, we felt this factor would best approximate the reality on the ground at local scales. Socioeconomic parameters, such as population numbers, population density, and neighborhood quality were analyzed using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to create a prediction model identifying levels of risk of dengue and to describe the association between DF cases and the related socio-economic factors. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize dengue fever victims among Saudis and non-Saudis in various age groups. The results show that there was a strong positive association between dengue fever cases and socioeconomic factors (R²=0.80). The prevalence among Saudis was higher compared to non-Saudis in 2006 and 2007, while the prevalence among non-Saudis was higher in 2008, 2009 and 2010. For age groups, DF was more prevalent in adults between the ages of 16 and 60, accounting for approximately 74% of all reported cases in 2006, 67% in 2007, 81% in 2008, 87% in 2009, and 81% in 2010.

  17. Expression of tfx and sensitivity to the rhizobial peptide antibiotic trifolitoxin in a taxonomically distinct group of alpha-proteobacteria including the animal pathogen Brucella abortus.

    PubMed Central

    Triplett, E W; Breil, B T; Splitter, G A

    1994-01-01

    Three phylogenetically distinct groups within the alpha-proteobacteria which differ in trifolitoxin sensitivity are described. Trifolitoxin sensitivity was found in strains of Agrobacterium, Brucella, Mycoplana, Ochrobactrum, Phyllobacterium, Rhodobacter, Rhodopseudomonas, Rhodospirillum, and Rhizobium. Strains of Agrobacterium, Brucella, Phyllobacterium, Rhizobium, and Rhodospirillum were capable of producing trifolitoxin upon conjugal transfer of tfxABCDEFG. PMID:7527627

  18. Descriptive study of the differences in the level of the conus medullaris in four different age groups.

    PubMed

    Van Schoor, Albert-Neels; Bosman, Marius C; Bosenberg, Adrian T

    2015-07-01

    In performing neuraxial procedures, knowledge of the location of the conus medullaris in patients of all ages is important. The aim of this study was to determine the location of conus medullaris in a sample of newborn/infant cadavers and sagittal MRIs of children, adolescents, and young adults. The subjects of both the samples were subdivided into four developmental stages. No statistical difference was seen between the three older age groups (P > 0.05). A significant difference was evident when the newborn/infant stage was compared with the other, older stages (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). In the newborn/infant group the spinal cord terminated most frequently at the level of L2/L3 (16%). In the childhood stage, the spinal cord terminated at the levels of T12/L1 and the lower third of L1 (21%). In the adolescent population, it was most often found at the level of the middle third of L1 and L1/L2 (19%). Finally, in the young adult group, the spinal cord terminated at the level of L1/L2 (25%). This study confirmed the different level of spinal cord termination between newborns/infants less than one-year-old and subjects older than one year. In this sample the conus medullaris was not found caudal to the L3 vertebral body, which is more cranial than the prescribed level of needle insertion recommended for lumbar neuraxial procedures. It is recommended that the exact level of spinal cord termination should be determined prior to attempting lumbar neuraxial procedures in newborns or infants.

  19. Age and gender diversity as determinants of performance and health in a public organization: the role of task complexity and group size.

    PubMed

    Wegge, Jürgen; Roth, Carla; Neubach, Barbara; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut; Kanfer, Ruth

    2008-11-01

    The influence of age and gender composition on group performance and self-reported health disorders was examined with data from 4,538 federal tax employees working in 222 natural work unit groups. As hypothesized, age diversity correlated positively with performance only in groups solving complex decision-making tasks, and this finding was replicated when analyzing performance data collected 1 year later. Age diversity was also positively correlated with health disorders--but only in groups working on routine decision-making tasks. Gender composition also had a significant effect on group performance, such that groups with a high proportion of female employees performed worse and reported more health disorders than did gender-diverse teams. As expected, effects of gender composition were most pronounced in large groups. Effects of age diversity were found when controlling for gender diversity and vice versa. Thus, age and gender diversity seem to play a unique role in performance and well-being. The moderating role of task complexity for both effects of age diversity and the moderating role of group size for both effects of gender diversity further suggest that the impact of these 2 variables depends on different group processes (e.g., knowledge exchange, variation in gender salience).

  20. Group epitope mapping considering relaxation of the ligand (GEM-CRL): including longitudinal relaxation rates in the analysis of saturation transfer difference (STD) experiments.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Sebastian; Patel, Mitul K; Errey, James C; Davis, Benjamin G; Jones, Jonathan A; Claridge, Timothy D W

    2010-03-01

    In the application of saturation transfer difference (STD) experiments to the study of protein-ligand interactions, the relaxation of the ligand is one of the major influences on the experimentally observed STD factors, making interpretation of these difficult when attempting to define a group epitope map (GEM). In this paper, we describe a simplification of the relaxation matrix that may be applied under specified experimental conditions, which results in a simplified equation reflecting the directly transferred magnetisation rate from the protein onto the ligand, defined as the summation over the whole protein of the protein-ligand cross-relaxation multiplied by with the fractional saturation of the protein protons. In this, the relaxation of the ligand is accounted for implicitly by inclusion of the experimentally determined longitudinal relaxation rates. The conditions under which this "group epitope mapping considering relaxation of the ligand" (GEM-CRL) can be applied were tested on a theoretical model system, which demonstrated only minor deviations from that predicted by the full relaxation matrix calculations (CORCEMA-ST) [7]. Furthermore, CORCEMA-ST calculations of two protein-saccharide complexes (Jacalin and TreR) with known crystal structures were performed and compared with experimental GEM-CRL data. It could be shown that the GEM-CRL methodology is superior to the classical group epitope mapping approach currently used for defining ligand-protein proximities. GEM-CRL is also useful for the interpretation of CORCEMA-ST results, because the transferred magnetisation rate provides an additional parameter for the comparison between measured and calculated values. The independence of this parameter from the above mentioned factors can thereby enhance the value of CORCEMA-ST calculations.

  1. Novel family GH3 β-glucosidases or β-xylosidases of unknown function found in various animal groups, including birds and reptiles.

    PubMed

    Gabriško, Marek; Janeček, Štefan

    2015-05-18

    Proteins from the glycoside hydrolase family 3 (GH3) are important bacterial, fungal and plant enzymes involved in cell wall remodeling, energy metabolism and pathogen defense but no animal GH3 proteins have been reported so far. In presented work we use the in silico approach to describe putative GH3 proteins of animals. Based on tertiary structure modeling, domain organization and transcriptomics data analysis, presence of catalytic and substrate binding residues and evolutionary relationship inference, we assume that there is a monophyletic group of GH3 enzymes (probably β-xylosidases) found in various animal taxa with possible role in development.

  2. Evidence-based recommendations for optimal dietary protein intake in older people: a position paper from the PROT-AGE Study Group.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jürgen; Biolo, Gianni; Cederholm, Tommy; Cesari, Matteo; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J; Morley, John E; Phillips, Stuart; Sieber, Cornel; Stehle, Peter; Teta, Daniel; Visvanathan, Renuka; Volpi, Elena; Boirie, Yves

    2013-08-01

    New evidence shows that older adults need more dietary protein than do younger adults to support good health, promote recovery from illness, and maintain functionality. Older people need to make up for age-related changes in protein metabolism, such as high splanchnic extraction and declining anabolic responses to ingested protein. They also need more protein to offset inflammatory and catabolic conditions associated with chronic and acute diseases that occur commonly with aging. With the goal of developing updated, evidence-based recommendations for optimal protein intake by older people, the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS), in cooperation with other scientific organizations, appointed an international study group to review dietary protein needs with aging (PROT-AGE Study Group). To help older people (>65 years) maintain and regain lean body mass and function, the PROT-AGE study group recommends average daily intake at least in the range of 1.0 to 1.2 g protein per kilogram of body weight per day. Both endurance- and resistance-type exercises are recommended at individualized levels that are safe and tolerated, and higher protein intake (ie, ≥ 1.2 g/kg body weight/d) is advised for those who are exercising and otherwise active. Most older adults who have acute or chronic diseases need even more dietary protein (ie, 1.2-1.5 g/kg body weight/d). Older people with severe kidney disease (ie, estimated GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), but who are not on dialysis, are an exception to this rule; these individuals may need to limit protein intake. Protein quality, timing of ingestion, and intake of other nutritional supplements may be relevant, but evidence is not yet sufficient to support specific recommendations. Older people are vulnerable to losses in physical function capacity, and such losses predict loss of independence, falls, and even mortality. Thus, future studies aimed at pinpointing optimal protein intake in specific populations of older people

  3. Age-group differences in speech identification despite matched audiometrically normal hearing: contributions from auditory temporal processing and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Füllgrabe, Christian; Moore, Brian C. J.; Stone, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss with increasing age adversely affects the ability to understand speech, an effect that results partly from reduced audibility. The aims of this study were to establish whether aging reduces speech intelligibility for listeners with normal audiograms, and, if so, to assess the relative contributions of auditory temporal and cognitive processing. Twenty-one older normal-hearing (ONH; 60–79 years) participants with bilateral audiometric thresholds ≤ 20 dB HL at 0.125–6 kHz were matched to nine young (YNH; 18–27 years) participants in terms of mean audiograms, years of education, and performance IQ. Measures included: (1) identification of consonants in quiet and in noise that was unmodulated or modulated at 5 or 80 Hz; (2) identification of sentences in quiet and in co-located or spatially separated two-talker babble; (3) detection of modulation of the temporal envelope (TE) at frequencies 5–180 Hz; (4) monaural and binaural sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS); (5) various cognitive tests. Speech identification was worse for ONH than YNH participants in all types of background. This deficit was not reflected in self-ratings of hearing ability. Modulation masking release (the improvement in speech identification obtained by amplitude modulating a noise background) and spatial masking release (the benefit obtained from spatially separating masker and target speech) were not affected by age. Sensitivity to TE and TFS was lower for ONH than YNH participants, and was correlated positively with speech-in-noise (SiN) identification. Many cognitive abilities were lower for ONH than YNH participants, and generally were correlated positively with SiN identification scores. The best predictors of the intelligibility of SiN were composite measures of cognition and TFS sensitivity. These results suggest that declines in speech perception in older persons are partly caused by cognitive and perceptual changes separate from age-related changes in

  4. Flow cytometric analysis of the Rh1 (Rho, D) antigen activity on red cells: various Rh blood group phenotypes including Du variants.

    PubMed

    Ota, M; Hasekura, H; Fukushima, H; Yonemura, I

    1989-04-01

    Rh1 (Rho, D) antigen activity has been analyzed by the use of the indirect immunofluorescence flow cytometry (FCM), and the Rh blood group genotypes were able to be successfully determined from the intensity of fluorescence detected in flow cytometry using the anti-D IgG that was fractionated in a Protein A Sepharose CL-4B column as the primary antibody. The relative amount of the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) bound to the D (R1R1, CDe/CDe), the high grade Du (R2r',cDE/Cde), the low grade Du (K1r, CDue/cde), and the d (rr, cde/cde) red cells was estimated from the mean fluorescent intensity. The FITC-binding activity of the high grade Du and low grade Du was 83% and 21% that of D. The antigen-antibody complex density profile was analyzed by using the FITC-conjugated protein-A in place of the second antibody. Compared with the found results using anti-human globulin as the second antibody, this method was less sensitive but it still was able to demonstrate the different degrees of fluorescence according to the Rh genotypes. The present FCM method is both simple and useful for (1) measuring the relative amount of antigens, (2) for detecting the dosage effect and (3) for deferminins the blood group genotypes.

  5. Flow cytometric analysis of the Rh1 (Rho, D) antigen activity on red cells: various Rh blood group phenotypes including Du variants.

    PubMed

    Ota, M; Hasekura, H; Fukushima, H; Yonemura, I

    1989-04-01

    Rh1 (Rho, D) antigen activity has been analyzed by the use of the indirect immunofluorescence flow cytometry (FCM), and the Rh blood group genotypes were able to be successfully determined from the intensity of fluorescence detected in flow cytometry using the anti-D IgG that was fractionated in a Protein A Sepharose CL-4B column as the primary antibody. The relative amount of the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) bound to the D (R1R1, CDe/CDe), the high grade Du (R2r',cDE/Cde), the low grade Du (K1r, CDue/cde), and the d (rr, cde/cde) red cells was estimated from the mean fluorescent intensity. The FITC-binding activity of the high grade Du and low grade Du was 83% and 21% that of D. The antigen-antibody complex density profile was analyzed by using the FITC-conjugated protein-A in place of the second antibody. Compared with the found results using anti-human globulin as the second antibody, this method was less sensitive but it still was able to demonstrate the different degrees of fluorescence according to the Rh genotypes. The present FCM method is both simple and useful for (1) measuring the relative amount of antigens, (2) for detecting the dosage effect and (3) for deferminins the blood group genotypes. PMID:2509769

  6. Differential occurrence of chromosome inversion polymorphisms among Muller's elements in three species of the tripunctata group of Drosophila, including a species with fast chromosomal evolution.

    PubMed

    Brianti, Mitsue T; Ananina, Galina; Klaczko, Louis B

    2013-01-01

    Detailed chromosome maps with reliable homologies among chromosomes of different species are the first step to study the evolution of the genetic architecture in any set of species. Here, we present detailed photo maps of the polytene chromosomes of three closely related species of the tripunctata group (subgenus Drosophila): Drosophila mediopunctata, D. roehrae, and D. unipunctata. We identified Muller's elements in each species, using FISH, establishing reliable chromosome homologies among species and D. melanogaster. The simultaneous analysis of chromosome inversions revealed a distribution pattern for the inversion polymorphisms among Muller's elements in the three species. Element E is the most polymorphic, with many inversions in each species. Element C follows; while the least polymorphic elements are B and D. While interesting, it remains to be determined how general this pattern is among species of the tripunctata group. Despite previous studies showing that D. mediopunctata and D. unipunctata are phylogenetically closer to each other than to D. roehrae, D. unipunctata shows rare karyotypic changes. It has two chromosome fusions: an additional heterochromatic chromosome pair and a pericentric inversion in the X chromosome. This especial conformation suggests a fast chromosomal evolution that deserves further study.

  7. Do Evidence-Based Group Parenting Programs for High-Risk or Maltreating Parents Include Content about Psychological Maltreatment?: A Program Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amy; Schniederman, Mel; Brassard, Marla R.; Donnelly, Lauren J.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological maltreatment (PM) is a widespread form of child maltreatment, both in high-risk and maltreating parents, yet there are no intervention programs that target it directly. In this study, the content of parenting programs for high-risk and maltreating parents was assessed to determine whether the program manuals include content on PM.…

  8. Crystal structures of human group-VIIA phospholipase A2 inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agents exhibit non-aged complexes.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Uttamkumar; Kirby, Stephen D; Srinivasan, Prabhavathi; Cerasoli, Douglas M; Bahnson, Brian J

    2009-08-15

    The enzyme group-VIIA phospholipase A2 (gVIIA-PLA2) is bound to lipoproteins in human blood and hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of phospholipid substrates with a short sn-2 chain. The enzyme belongs to a serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes, which react with organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. OPs ultimately exert their toxicity by inhibiting human acetycholinesterase at nerve synapses, but may additionally have detrimental effects through inhibition of other serine hydrolases. We have solved the crystal structures of gVIIA-PLA2 following inhibition with the OPs diisopropylfluorophosphate, sarin, soman and tabun. The sarin and soman complexes displayed a racemic mix of P(R) and P(S) stereoisomers at the P-chiral center. The tabun complex displayed only the P(R) stereoisomer in the crystal. In all cases, the crystal structures contained intact OP adducts that had not aged. Aging refers to a secondary process OP complexes can go through, which dealkylates the nerve agent adduct and results in a form that is highly resistant to either spontaneous or oxime-mediated reactivation. Non-aged OP complexes of the enzyme were corroborated by trypsin digest and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of OP-enzyme complexes. The lack of stereoselectivity of sarin reaction was confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a chiral column to separate and quantitate the unbound stereoisomers of sarin following incubation with enzyme. The structural details and characterization of nascent reactivity of several toxic nerve agents is discussed with a long-term goal of developing gVIIA-PLA2 as a catalytic bioscavenger of OP nerve agents. PMID:19394314

  9. [Anthropometric-nutritional status of a Spanish middle-class juvenile population. Study by age and sex groups].

    PubMed

    Gargallo Fernández, M A; de la Cruz Iglesias, A I; Garrudo Benito, D; de Cos Blanco, A I

    1993-01-01

    To make an initial approach to the current nutritional situation of the Spanish infant population, we carried out an anthropometric study of the children from 6 to 15 years of age in two schools in Fuenlabrada (Madrid) in a middle to lower class social environment. A total of 1,026 children were studied, to determine weight, height, tricipital fold and arm circumference. These parameters were used to calculate the weight/height ratio (w/h) and the muscular circumference of the arm. All these parameters were tabulated in percentile terms for comparison. The sample was divided into groups according to sex and to age (under 9, 9 to 12 and over 12). We found an overall w/h ratio of 108.8 +/- 17.4, more than the theoretical 100% (p < 0.001); 20.6% of the children over 120%. The Tricipital Fold (TFp) percentile was 62.5 +/- 27, with no differences according to age or sex. The percentile for arm muscular circumference (AMCp) was 48.8 +/- 27 for girls and 41.6 +/- 28 for boys (p < 0.001). Finally, we found a positive and significant correlation (p < 0.05) between w/h and AMCp (r = 0.51) and between w/h and TFp (r = 0.57). We conclude that the population studied is significantly overweight, confirming previous studies. Girls showed better nutritional parameters than the boys, apparently less nutritionally affected by the middle to low social environment. Finally, the w/h ratio, as an isolated parameter, is a good overall index of the nutritional state of children.

  10. The Non-carcinogenic Risk of Cadmium in Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Jafarzadeh, Saeedeh; Moradi, Bigard; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The presence of heavy metals such as cadmium in drinking water resources can be dangerous for human because of toxicity and biological accumulation. The consumption of water which contains Cd in high concentration can lead to Bone and Kidney diseases. Material and Methods: In this present study, the researcher collected 432 samples of bottled water in the popular marks in summer and winter from the surface of Bandar Abbas. The cadmium concentration was measured by atomic absorption Spectrophotometer in model DR2800 through the Dithizone method. CDI, R and HQ which are caused by Cd for adult men, women and children, have been calculated and evaluated through the equations of EPA and WHO. Results: Mean of 1.73±0.19 µg/l (M±SE) is lower than the standard of WHO and EPA. However, 33.2% of all the samples have concentrations more than the standard limit of WHO, and the concentrations of 22.4% of the samples are more than EPA’s standard. The CDI for different age groups is as following manner; Children>adult women>adult men. The CDI in children is more than twice as much as in the CDI for adult men and women. The mean of HQ order for different age groups is children>adult men>adult women. Since HQ of adult men (34E-5), adult women (31E-5) and children (84E-5), is lower than 1. Conclusion: It can be said that the population of Bandar Abbas is in a safe area regarding the HQ of the bottled water’s cadmium. PMID:25872158

  11. Reevaluating the age of the Walden Creek Group and the kinematic evolution of the western Blue Ridge, southern Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thigpen, J. Ryan; Hatcher, Robert D.; Kah, Linda C.; Repetski, John E.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated synthesis of existing datasets (detailed geologic mapping, geochronologic, paleontologic, geophysical) with new paleontologic and geochemical investigations of rocks previously interpreted as part of the Neoproterozoic Walden Creek Group in southeastern Tennessee suggest a necessary reevaluation of the kinematics and structural architecture of the Blue Ridge Foothills. The western Blue Ridge of Tennessee, North Carolina, and Georgia is composed of numerous northwest-directed early and late Paleozoic thrust sheets, which record pronounced variation in stratigraphic/structural architecture and timing of metamorphism. The detailed spatial, temporal, and kinematic relationships of these rocks have remained controversial. Two fault blocks that are structurally isolated between the Great Smoky and Miller Cove-Greenbrier thrust sheets, here designated the Maggies Mill and Citico thrust sheets, contain Late Ordovician-Devonian conodonts and stable isotope chemostratigraphic signatures consistent with a mid-Paleozoic age. Geochemical and paleontological analyses of Walden Creek Group rocks northwest and southeast of these two thrust sheets, however, are more consistent with a Late Neoproterozoic (550–545 Ma) depositional age. Consequently, the structural juxtaposition of mid-Paleozoic rocks within a demonstrably Neoproterozoic-Cambrian succession between the Great Smoky and Miller Cove-Greenbrier thrust sheets suggests that a simple foreland-propagating thrust sequence model is not applicable in the Blue Ridge Foothills. We propose that these younger rocks were deposited landward of the Ocoee Supergroup, and were subsequently plucked from the Great Smoky fault footwall as a horse, and breached through the Great Smoky thrust sheet during Alleghanian emplacement of that structure.

  12. The Polycomb Group Protein Pcgf1 Is Dispensable in Zebrafish but Involved in Early Growth and Aging.

    PubMed

    Dupret, Barbara; Völkel, Pamela; Le Bourhis, Xuefen; Angrand, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb Repressive Complex (PRC) 1 regulates the control of gene expression programs via chromatin structure reorganization. Through mutual exclusion, different PCGF members generate a variety of PRC1 complexes with potentially distinct cellular functions. In this context, the molecular function of each of the PCGF family members remains elusive. The study of PCGF family member expression in zebrafish development and during caudal fin regeneration reveals that the zebrafish pcgf genes are subjected to different regulations and that all PRC1 complexes in terms of Pcgf subunit composition are not always present in the same tissues. To unveil the function of Pcgf1 in zebrafish, a mutant line was generated using the TALEN technology. Mutant pcgf1-/- fish are viable and fertile, but the growth rate at early developmental stages is reduced in absence of pcgf1 gene function and a significant number of pcgf1-/- fish show signs of premature aging. This first vertebrate model lacking Pcgf1 function shows that this Polycomb Group protein is involved in cell proliferation during early embryogenesis and establishes a link between epigenetics and aging. PMID:27442247

  13. The Polycomb Group Protein Pcgf1 Is Dispensable in Zebrafish but Involved in Early Growth and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Le Bourhis, Xuefen; Angrand, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb Repressive Complex (PRC) 1 regulates the control of gene expression programs via chromatin structure reorganization. Through mutual exclusion, different PCGF members generate a variety of PRC1 complexes with potentially distinct cellular functions. In this context, the molecular function of each of the PCGF family members remains elusive. The study of PCGF family member expression in zebrafish development and during caudal fin regeneration reveals that the zebrafish pcgf genes are subjected to different regulations and that all PRC1 complexes in terms of Pcgf subunit composition are not always present in the same tissues. To unveil the function of Pcgf1 in zebrafish, a mutant line was generated using the TALEN technology. Mutant pcgf1-/- fish are viable and fertile, but the growth rate at early developmental stages is reduced in absence of pcgf1 gene function and a significant number of pcgf1-/- fish show signs of premature aging. This first vertebrate model lacking Pcgf1 function shows that this Polycomb Group protein is involved in cell proliferation during early embryogenesis and establishes a link between epigenetics and aging. PMID:27442247

  14. Fibrin network pattern changes of platelet-rich fibrin in young versus old age group of individuals: A cell block cytology study

    PubMed Central

    Yajamanya, Shravanthi Raghav; Chatterjee, Anirban; Babu, Chaitanya Nischay; Karunanithi, Deepika

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate variations in fibrin network patterns of the platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in different age groups. Materials and Methods: Ninety-five patients were divided into three age groups: Group 1: (20–39 years); Group 2: (40–59 years); and Group 3: (60 years and above). PRF was prepared from blood samples of all patients and were subjected to cell block cytology method of histological analysis and slides were prepared to histologically assess the age-related changes in (i) fibrin network patterns in terms of density and (ii) entrapment of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) within fibrin meshwork. Results: Two types of fibrin network pattern arrangements noticed: Dense and loose types in three age groups. However, there was a noticeable decrease in the dense type of fibrin network with progressing age and increase in the loose type of fibrin arrangement. Furthermore, variation in a number of platelets and WBCs entrapped within fibrin network in relation to age was noticed. Conclusion: From the current study it can be concluded that age can be considered as one of the influencing factors on quality of PRF in terms of fibrin network patterns and hence, platelet and WBCs entrapment within these fibrin networks. PMID:27143826

  15. Barriers and Motivators to Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Uptake among Different Age Groups of Men in Zimbabwe: Results from a Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Hatzold, Karin; Mavhu, Webster; Jasi, Phineas; Chatora, Kumbirai; Cowan, Frances M.; Taruberekera, Noah; Mugurungi, Owen; Ahanda, Kim; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background We conducted quantitative and qualitative studies to explore barriers and motivating factors to VMMC for HIV prevention, and to assess utilization of existing VMMC communication channels. Methods and Findings A population-based survey was conducted with 2350 respondents aged 15–49. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis between circumcision and selected demographics. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of male circumcision uptake compared to intention to circumcise. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with men purposively selected to represent a range of ethnicities. 68% and 53% of female/male respondents, respectively, had heard about VMMC for HIV prevention, mostly through the radio (71%). Among male respondents, 11.3% reported being circumcised and 49% reported willingness to undergo VMMC. Factors which men reported motivated them to undergo VMMC included HIV/STI prevention (44%), improved hygiene (26%), enhanced sexual performance (6%) and cervical cancer prevention for partner (6%). Factors that deterred men from undergoing VMMC included fear of pain (40%), not believing that they were at risk of HIV (18%), lack of partner support (6%). Additionally, there were differences in motivators and barriers by age. FGDs suggested additional barriers including fear of HIV testing, partner refusal, reluctance to abstain from sex and myths and misconceptions. Conclusions VMMC demand-creation messages need to be specifically tailored for different ages and should emphasize non-HIV prevention benefits, such as improved hygiene and sexual appeal, and need to address men's fear of pain. Promoting VMMC among women is crucial as they appear to have considerable influence over men's decision to get circumcised. PMID:24802746

  16. Alarm signals of the great gerbil: Acoustic variation by predator context, sex, age, individual, and family group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Jan A.; McCowan, Brenda; Collins, Kellie C.; Hooper, Stacie L.; Rogovin, Konstantin

    2005-10-01

    The great gerbil, Rhombomys opinus, is a highly social rodent that usually lives in family groups consisting of related females, their offspring, and an adult male. The gerbils emit alarm vocalizations in the presence of diverse predators with different hunting tactics. Alarm calls were recorded in response to three predators, a monitor lizard, hunting dog, and human, to determine whether the most common call type, the rhythmic call, is functionally referential with regard to type of predator. Results show variation in the alarm calls of both adults and subadults with the type of predator. Discriminant function analysis classified an average of 70% of calls to predator type. Call variation, however, was not limited to the predator context, because signal structure also differed by sex, age, individual callers, and family groups. These variations illustrate the flexibility of the rhythmic alarm call of the great gerbil and how it might have multiple functions and communicate in multiple contexts. Three alarm calls, variation in the rhythmic call, and vibrational signals generated from foot-drumming provide the gerbils with a varied and multi-channel acoustic repertoire.

  17. Isotopic ages for alkaline igneous rocks, including a 26 Ma ignimbrite, from the Peshawar plain of northern Pakistan and their tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Irshad; Khan, Shuhab; Lapen, Thomas; Burke, Kevin; Jehan, Noor

    2013-01-01

    New isotopic ages on zircons from rocks of the Peshawar Plain Alkaline Igneous Province (PPAIP) reveal for the first time the occurrence of ignimbritic Cenozoic (Oligocene) volcanism in the Himalaya at 26.7 ± 0.8 Ma. Other new ages confirm that PPAIP rift-related igneous activity was Permian and lasted from ˜290 Ma to ˜250 Ma. Although PPAIP rocks are petrologically and geochemically typical of rifts and have been suggested to be linked to rifting on the Pangea continental margin at the initiation of the Neotethys Ocean, there are no documented rift-related structures mapped in Permian rocks of the Peshawar Plain. We suggest that Permian rift-related structures have been dismembered and/or reactivated during shortening associated with India-Asia collision. Shortening in the area between the Main Mantle Thrust (MMT) and the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) may be indicative of the subsurface northern extension of the Salt Range evaporites. Late Cenozoic sedimentary rocks of the Peshawar Plain deposited during and after Himalayan thrusting occupy a piggy-back basin on top of the thrust belt. Those sedimentary rocks have buried surviving evidence of Permian rift-related structures. Igneous rocks of the PPAIP have been both metamorphosed and deformed during the Himalayan collision and Cenozoic igneous activity, apart from the newly recognized Gohati volcanism, has involved only the intrusion of small cross-cutting granitic bodies concentrated in areas such as Malakand that are close to the MMT. Measurements on Chingalai Gneiss zircons have confirmed the occurrence of 816 ± 70 Ma aged rocks in the Precambrian basement of the Peshawar Plain that are comparable in age to rocks in the Malani igneous province of the Rajasthan platform ˜1000 km to the south.

  18. To be or not to be...included in an event file: integration and retrieval of distractors in stimulus-response episodes is influenced by perceptual grouping.

    PubMed

    Frings, Christian; Rothermund, Klaus

    2011-09-01

    The binding of stimulus and response features into stimulus-response (S-R) episodes or "event files" is a basic process for the efficient control of behavior. However, relevant information is usually accompanied by information that is irrelevant for the selection of action. Recent studies showed that even irrelevant information is bound into event files. In this study, we investigated the boundary conditions of distractor-response binding and subsequent distractor-based response retrieval processes. In particular, we tested whether the inclusion of distractor information into S-R episodes is modulated by whether the distractor and target stimulus are perceived as belonging to the same object or as belonging to different objects. We argue that distracting information is only bound into S-R episodes if it is perceived as belonging to the same object as the relevant information, whereas no binding occurs when the distracting information is perceived as belonging to a separate object. In 6 experiments, we found evidence for the modulation of distractor-response bindings according to perceptual grouping principles.

  19. Immunocytochemical localization of water-soluble glycoproteins, including group 1 allergen, in pollen of ryegrass, Lolium perenne, using ferritin-labelled antibody.

    PubMed

    Vithanage, H I; Howlett, B J; Jobson, S; Knox, R B

    1982-11-01

    The cellular sites of the glycoproteins Group 1 allergen (glycoprotein 1) and Antigen A (glycoprotein 2) in mature ryegrass pollen have been investigated by immunoelectron microscopy. Radioimmunoassays confirm previous findings of cross-reactivity between the purified glycoprotein antigens at the high immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations used for localization. Freeze-drying of anthers followed by anhydrous processing has been employed because of the water solubility and mobility of the glycoproteins. A double-embedding technique has been developed. This involves, first, embedding anthers in the water-soluble plastic resin JB-4, sectioning and incubating in ferritin-labelled antisera by the indirect method. The sections are then embedded in Spurr's resin for ultra-thin sectioning. Both glycoproteins are found in the following sites: (1) exine and intine wall layers; (2) pollen cytoplasm; (3) the orbicules and anther loculus; and (4) the anther cuticle. In the exine arcades and surface and in the anther loculus, the ferritin label is bound to pollenkitt. The finding that the glycoproteins are in similar sites is predictable in view of the cross-specificity of the antisera. The extent of antibody penetration of the plastic sections has been examined; labelling is confined to cut grains and absent from intact grains.

  20. The Predictive Value of Job Demands and Resources on the Meaning of Work and Organisational Commitment across Different Age Groups in the Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthun, Kirsti Sarheim; Innstrand, Siw Tone

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the predictive value of job demands and resources on the meaning of work and organisational commitment across three age groups; young workers (<30 years), a middle age group of workers (30-49 years) and older workers (>50 years). Data were collected from a survey conducted among university employees (N = 3,066).…

  1. BMI Group-Related Differences in Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Preschool-Age Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…

  2. Structure and Properties of Ti-19.7Nb-5.8Ta Shape Memory Alloy Subjected to Thermomechanical Processing Including Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinskiy, S.; Brailovski, Vladimir; Prokoshkin, S.; Pushin, V.; Inaekyan, K.; Sheremetyev, V.; Petrzhik, M.; Filonov, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this work, the ternary Ti-19.7Nb-5.8Ta (at.%) alloy for biomedical applications was studied. The ingot was manufactured by vacuum arc melting with a consumable electrode and then subjected to hot forging. Specimens were cut from the ingot and processed by cold rolling with e = 0.37 of logarithmic thickness reduction and post-deformation annealing (PDA) between 400 and 750 °C (1 h). Selected samples were subjected to aging at 300 °C (10 min to 3 h). The influence of the thermomechanical processing on the alloy's structure, phase composition, and mechanical and functional properties was studied. It was shown that thermomechanical processing leads to the formation of a nanosubgrained structure (polygonized with subgrains below 100 nm) in the 500-600 °C PDA range, which transforms to a recrystallized structure of β-phase when PDA temperature increases. Simultaneously, the phase composition and the β → α″ transformation kinetics vary. It was found that after conventional cold rolling and PDA, Ti-Nb-Ta alloy manifests superelastic and shape memory behaviors. During aging at 300 °C (1 h), an important quantity of randomly scattered equiaxed ω-precipitates forms, which results in improved superelastic cyclic properties. On the other hand, aging at 300 °C (3 h) changes the ω-precipitates' particle morphology from equiaxed to elongated and leads to their coarsening, which negatively affects the superelastic and shape memory functional properties of Ti-Nb-Ta alloy.

  3. Geologic ages and accumulation rates of basalt-flow groups and sedimentary interbeds in selected wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.R.; Liszewski, M.J.; Cecil, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    Geologic ages and accumulation rates, estimated from regressions, were used to evaluate measured ages and interpreted stratigraphic and structural relations of basalt and sediment in the unsaturated zone and the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in eastern Idaho. Geologic ages and accumulation rates were estimated from standard linear regressions of 21 mean potassium-argon (K-Ar) ages, selected mean paleomagnetic ages, and cumulative depths of a composite stratigraphic section composed of complete intervals of basalt and sediment that were deposited in areas of past maximum subsidence. Accumulation rates also were estimated from regressions of stratigraphic intervals in three wells in and adjacent to an area of interpreted uplift at and near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and the Test Reactor Area (TRA) to allow a comparison of rates in areas of past uplift and subsidence. Estimated geologic ages range from about 200 thousand to 1.8 million years before present and are reasonable approximations for the interval of basalt and sediment above the effective base of the aquifer, based on reported uncertainties of corresponding measured ages. Estimated ages between 200 and 800 thousand years are within the range of reported uncertainties for all 15 K-Ar ages used in regressions and two out of three -argon ({sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar) ages of duplicate argon samples. Two sets of estimated ages between 800 thousand and 1.8 million years are within the range of reported uncertainties for all seven K-Ar ages used in regressions, which include one shared age of about 800 thousand years. Two sets of ages were estimated for this interval because K-Ar ages make up two populations that agree with previous and revised ages of three paleomagnetic subchrons. The youngest set of ages is consistent with a K-Ar age from the effective base of the aquifer that agrees with previous ages of the Olduvai Normal-Polarity Subchron.

  4. Populus GT43 family members group into distinct sets required for primary and secondary wall xylan biosynthesis and include useful promoters for wood modification.

    PubMed

    Ratke, Christine; Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Balasubramanian, Vimal K; Naumann, Marcel; Duncranz, Mathilda Lönnäs; Derba-Maceluch, Marta; Gorzsás, András; Endo, Satoshi; Ezcurra, Ines; Mellerowicz, Ewa J

    2015-01-01

    The plant GT43 protein family includes xylosyltransferases that are known to be required for xylan backbone biosynthesis, but have incompletely understood specificities. RT-qPCR and histochemical (GUS) analyses of expression patterns of GT43 members in hybrid aspen, reported here, revealed that three clades of the family have markedly differing specificity towards secondary wall-forming cells (wood and extraxylary fibres). Intriguingly, GT43A and B genes (corresponding to the Arabidopsis IRX9 clade) showed higher specificity for secondary-walled cells than GT43C and D genes (IRX14 clade), although both IRX9 and IRX14 are required for xylosyltransferase activity. The remaining genes, GT43E, F and G (IRX9-L clade), showed broad expression patterns. Transient transactivation analyses of GT43A and B reporters demonstrated that they are activated by PtxtMYB021 and PNAC085 (master secondary wall switches), mediated in PtxtMYB021 activation by an AC element. The high observed secondary cell wall specificity of GT43B expression prompted tests of the efficiency of its promoter (pGT43B), relative to the CaMV 35S (35S) promoter, for overexpressing a xylan acetyl esterase (CE5) or downregulating REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION (RWA) family genes and thus engineering wood acetylation. CE5 expression was weaker when driven by pGT43B, but it reduced wood acetyl content substantially more efficiently than the 35S promoter. RNAi silencing of the RWA family, which was ineffective using 35S, was achieved when using GT43B promoter. These results show the utility of the GT43B promoter for genetically engineering properties of wood and fibres.

  5. Skin aging and photoaging alter fatty acids composition, including 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid, in the epidermis of human skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ju; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Jin, Xing-Ji; Oh, Jang-Hee; Kim, Ji Eun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the alterations of major fatty acid components in epidermis by natural aging and photoaging processes, and by acute ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in human skin. Interestingly, we found that 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid (ETA), which is one of the omega-3 polyunsaturated acids, was significantly increased in photoaged human epidermis in vivo and also in the acutely UV-irradiated human skin in vivo, while it was significantly decreased in intrinsically aged human epidermis. The increased ETA content in the epidermis of photoaged human skin and acute UV-irradiated human skin is associated with enhanced expression of human elongase 1 and calcium-independent phosphodiesterase A(2). We demonstrated that ETA inhibited matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression after UV-irradiation, and that inhibition of ETA synthesis using EPTC and NA-TCA, which are elongase inhibitors, increased MMP-1 expression. Therefore, our results suggest that the UV increases the ETA levels, which may have a photoprotective effect in the human skin.

  6. 1.99 Ga mafic dykes of the Lewisian Gneiss Complex of Scotland: An upper age limit for the Palaeoproterozoic Loch Maree Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Thomas; Prave, Tony; Spencer, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Mafic dyke swarms are often used as geochronological markers, as they are widespread and emplaced over short timespans. The ca. 2.4 Ga Scourie dyke swarm is one such example that has played a key role in understanding the complex tectonic and metamorphic history of the Lewisian Gneiss Complex of Scotland (LGC), part of the North Atlantic Craton (NAC). The LGC consists of Archean and Palaeoproterozoic terranes that experienced polyphase deformation prior to their assembly at ca. 1.8 Ga. Zircons separated from a doleritic dyke from the Gairloch terrane have yielded a concordant U-Th-Pb age (1,989 +4.3 / -0.99 Ma) using the ID-TIMS method. The doleritic dyke is emplaced in Lewisian gneiss that experienced both granulite and amphibolite-facies metamorphism. Partial recrystallisation and amphibolitisation of the dyke demonstrate that it pre-dates the most recent (Laxfordian) amphibolite-facies metamorphic event. The age obtained from the dyke overlaps the U-Pb age of a previously dated olivine gabbro dyke from the Assynt terrane (1,992 Ma). These combined ages provide strong corroborating evidence for a ca. 2.0 Ga mafic dyke swarm event, distinct from the older ca. 2.4 Ga Scourie dyke event known from elsewhere in the LGC. The existence of a ca. 2.0 Ga mafic dyke swarm provides an upper age limit for the Loch Maree Group (LMG), a Palaeoproterozoic succession of metasediment and metavolcanic rocks that overlie the LGC and which are not cross-cut by the Scourie dykes. This study proposes that a period of crustal extension took place in the region at ca. 2.0 Ga. Later, subduction may have resulted in the accretion of the LMG and the adjacent Ard Gneiss, which has previously been regarded as a magmatic arc. The ca. 1.9 Ga age of the earliest stage of the Laxfordian metamorphic event, which affected the LMG, could therefore mark the onset of collision. This sequence of events can be correlated with other coeval areas of the NAC, including the Nagssugtoqidian mobile belt of

  7. Biology of the silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis (Carcharhinidae) in the eastern Indian Ocean, including an approach to estimating age when timing of parturition is not well defined.

    PubMed

    Hall, N G; Bartron, C; White, W T; Dharmadi; Potter, I C

    2012-04-01

    Biological data were recorded for 1265 silky sharks Carcharhinus falciformis collected from fish landing sites in eastern Indonesia. These represented catches taken in most calendar months by gillnetting and longlining in the eastern Indian Ocean and contained individuals ranging from embryos to fully mature adults. The growth zones in centra, which were shown to form annually, were counted in the vertebrae in a sub-sample of 200 fish for ageing purposes. The embryo lengths in the 5 months for which there were such data, and the presence of neonates in virtually all months, however, indicated that birth occurs throughout the year and thus there was no well-defined birth date for ageing individual fish. The approximate birth date of each individual was thus estimated from a combination of the total length (L(T) ) at capture and backcalculated L(T) at the formation of the birth zone and at the first and last growth zones in the vertebral centra, together with the period that had elapsed between the formation of those last two growth zones. The number of eggs or embryos in uteri ranged from two to 14, with a mean of 7·2. The estimated mean L(T) at birth of females (811 mm, range: 799-823 mm) and males (812 mm, range: 794-830 mm), derived from the backcalculations corresponding to the birth zones in the centra, were not significantly different (P > 0·05). The L(T) ranges in the catches of post-natal females (570-2592 mm) and males (553-2289 mm) taken by gillnetting were wider than those of the females (1177-2623 mm) and males (1184-2409 mm) taken by longlining. The oldest female and male were 19 and 20 years-old, respectively. The von Bertalanffy growth curves for the two sexes did not differ significantly. The growth coefficient, k, and the asymptotic length, L(T∞). were 0·066 year⁻¹ and 2994 mm for the curve fitted to the combined data for females and males. The lengths L(T50) and ages A(50) at which C. falciformis attained maturity were 2156 mm and 15 years

  8. Biology of the silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis (Carcharhinidae) in the eastern Indian Ocean, including an approach to estimating age when timing of parturition is not well defined.

    PubMed

    Hall, N G; Bartron, C; White, W T; Dharmadi; Potter, I C

    2012-04-01

    Biological data were recorded for 1265 silky sharks Carcharhinus falciformis collected from fish landing sites in eastern Indonesia. These represented catches taken in most calendar months by gillnetting and longlining in the eastern Indian Ocean and contained individuals ranging from embryos to fully mature adults. The growth zones in centra, which were shown to form annually, were counted in the vertebrae in a sub-sample of 200 fish for ageing purposes. The embryo lengths in the 5 months for which there were such data, and the presence of neonates in virtually all months, however, indicated that birth occurs throughout the year and thus there was no well-defined birth date for ageing individual fish. The approximate birth date of each individual was thus estimated from a combination of the total length (L(T) ) at capture and backcalculated L(T) at the formation of the birth zone and at the first and last growth zones in the vertebral centra, together with the period that had elapsed between the formation of those last two growth zones. The number of eggs or embryos in uteri ranged from two to 14, with a mean of 7·2. The estimated mean L(T) at birth of females (811 mm, range: 799-823 mm) and males (812 mm, range: 794-830 mm), derived from the backcalculations corresponding to the birth zones in the centra, were not significantly different (P > 0·05). The L(T) ranges in the catches of post-natal females (570-2592 mm) and males (553-2289 mm) taken by gillnetting were wider than those of the females (1177-2623 mm) and males (1184-2409 mm) taken by longlining. The oldest female and male were 19 and 20 years-old, respectively. The von Bertalanffy growth curves for the two sexes did not differ significantly. The growth coefficient, k, and the asymptotic length, L(T∞). were 0·066 year⁻¹ and 2994 mm for the curve fitted to the combined data for females and males. The lengths L(T50) and ages A(50) at which C. falciformis attained maturity were 2156 mm and 15 years

  9. Synchrotron-induced X-ray fluorescence from rat bone and lumber vertebra of different age groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Donepudi V.; Swapna, Medasani; Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio; Akatsuka, Tako; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Takeda, Tohoru; Tromba, Giuliana; Gigante, Giovanni E.

    2009-02-01

    The fluorescence spectra from rat bones of different age groups (8, 56 and 78 weeks) and lumber vertebra were measured with 8, 10 and 12 keV synchrotron X-rays. We have utilized the new hard X-ray micro-spectroscopy beamline facility, X27A, available at NSLS with a primary beam spot size of the order of ˜10 μm. With this spatial resolution and high flux throughput, X-ray fluorescent intensities for Ca and other trace elements were measured using a liquid-nitrogen-cooled 13-element energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector. Regarding the lumber vertebra, we acquired the fluorescence spectra from the left, right and middle portions and calcium accumulation was evaluated and compared with the other samples. We have identified the major trace elements of Ca, Ni, Fe and Zn and minor trace elements of Ti, Cr and Mn in the sample. The percentage of scattered radiation and trace element contributions from these samples were highlighted at different energies.

  10. [Influence of beta-endorphin on the proliferative and phagocytic activity of peripheral blood cells from males and females in different age groups].

    PubMed

    Geĭn, S V; Gileva, S G

    2013-01-01

    It was revealed that beta-endorphin modulation of lymphocyte proliferative activity in male donors was predominantly observed under younger age groups of 20-29 and 30-39 years, while with age it gradually decreased and disappeared as such in group of donors under 50-60 years. Meanwhile, females demonstrated prolonged modulating effect of peptide on the proliferation. In female group under 50-59 years the peptide was found to render marked promoting effect on the spontaneous proliferation in concentrations of 10(-7), 10(-8), and 10(-10) M that was induced by suboptimal PHA concentration of 10(-10) M, whereas women in the range of 30-39 years showed that beta-endorphin suppressed the PHA-induced proliferative response. Male donors in age group of 20-29 years demonstrated beta-endorphin-stimulated and in age group of 50-59 years beta-endorphin-suppressed uptake capacity of neutrophils. In female donors from all age groups the effect of beta-endorphin on neutrophil phagocyte activity was not observed. PMID:23885558

  11. Designing exercise clinical trials for older adults with cancer: Recommendations from 2015 Cancer and Aging Research Group NCI U13 Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Kilari, Deepak; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Mohile, Supriya Gupta; Alibhai, Shabbir M.H.; Presley, Carolyn J.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Klepin, Heidi D.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Jatoi, Amina; Harrison, Robert; Won, Elizabeth; Mustian, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment can lead to a myriad of adverse events and negatively impact quality of life of older cancer patients and survivors. Unmet physical activity needs vary across the cancer continuum and remain an important yet understudied area of research in this population. Exercise interventions have been shown to be effective in treating both the physical and psychological declines associated with cancer and its treatment, with a potential to improve cancer-related outcomes. Despite the current evidence, exercise is clearly underutilized due to several barriers and knowledge gaps in existing trials that include appropriate population identification, design, and outcome measures selection. The benefits of regular exercise in both the primary and secondary prevention of chronic conditions are well established in the non-cancer population. In older cancer patients and survivors, further research is needed before exercise gains widespread acceptance. The Cancer and Aging Research Group convened experts in exercise, aging and cancer to evaluate current scientific evidence and knowledge gaps in geriatric exercise oncology. This report summarizes these findings and provides future research directions. PMID:27197916

  12. Age at First Drink, Drinking, Binge Drinking and DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder among Hispanic National Groups in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A.; Vaeth, Patrice A. C.; Reingle, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper examines age at first drink and adult drinking, binge drinking and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) among U.S. Hispanic national groups. Methods Respondents come from two independent studies. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey used a multistage cluster sample design to interview 5,224 individuals 18 years of age and older selected from the household population in: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston and Los Angeles. Respondents in the border area (N=1,307) constituted a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on U.S. counties that border Mexico. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents' homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. Results U.S. born Hispanics begin drinking at a younger age than those who are foreign born, independent of national group. Among foreign born Hispanics, age of arrival in the U.S. is not associated with age at first drink. Results support the hypothesis that a younger age at first drink is associated with a higher mean volume of drinking, a higher probability of bingeing and a higher probability of DSM-5 AUD. But the results do not show a clear pattern by which a particular national group would consistently show no associations or stronger associations between age at first drink and the alcohol-related outcomes under consideration. Conclusions An earlier age at first drinking is positively associated with heavier drinking patterns among U.S. Hispanics. However, as in other areas of alcohol epidemiology, here too there is considerable variation in age at first drink and drinking across Hispanic national groups. PMID:24689445

  13. The dietary intake of a group of vegetarian children aged 7-11 years compared with matched omnivores.

    PubMed

    Nathan, I; Hackett, A F; Kirby, S

    1996-04-01

    There is a lack of information concerning the diet of vegetarian children. The present study compared the dietary intake of fifty vegetarian children, aged 7-11 years, with fifty matched omnivores. Three 3 d food records were completed by each child at intervals of 6 months. The day after completing the record each child was interviewed to clarify food items and assess portion sizes. Food records were analysed using Microdiet (University of Salford). Finger-prick cholesterol and haemoglobin measurements were taken from a subsample of the group. Only one child's family was a member of the Vegetarian Society and almost one-third of vegetarian children had omnivorous parents (seventeen of fifty subjects). The energy intake (MJ) of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the omnivores, 7.6 (SD 1.05) and 8.0 (SD 1.36) respectively; there were no significant differences in Fe or fat intakes. For the vegetarians polyunsaturated:saturated fat ratio (P:S 0.7 (SD 0.04)) and NSP intake (13.8 (SD 0.7) g/d) were significantly higher than those of the omnivores (P:S 0.5 (SD 0.02), NSP 10.3 (SD 0.4) g/d). There was no significant difference in cholesterol measurements (mmol/l) between the two groups: vegetarian 3.5 (SD 0.12), omnivores 3.7 (SD 0.15). The haemoglobin level (g/l) of the vegetarians (11.8 (SD 0.2)) was significantly below that of the omnivores (12.4 (SD 0.2)); 47.5% of the vegetarian children fell below the third percentile of the Dallman reference curves (Dallman & Siimes, 1979). The intake of the vegetarians more closely resembled current recommendations (Department of Health, 1991), although they need to be as aware as omnivores of the need to reduce fat intake. The haemoglobin levels of vegetarian children suggest that they need dietary advice to ensure optimal absorption of Fe.

  14. Safety of a probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia according to a variety of health indices in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Songisepp, E; Hütt, P; Rätsep, M; Shkut, E; Kõljalg, S; Truusalu, K; Stsepetova, J; Smidt, I; Kolk, H; Zagura, M; Mikelsaar, M

    2012-10-01

    Safety of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strain Tensia (DSM 21380) was tested in vitro, in semihard Edam-type cheese, in an animal model and after consumption of the probiotic cheese in double-blind randomized placebo-controlled human intervention studies with different age groups. The susceptibility of L. plantarum Tensia to 8 antibiotics, and the presence of tetracycline (tet M, S, O, K, L) genes and class 1 integron was assessed by applying epsilometer-test and PCR-based methods. Production of biogenic amines by the probiotic strain in decarboxylation medium containing 1% of l-histidine, l-glutamine, l-ornithine, l-arginine, or l-lysine and in cheese was tested by gas chromatography. The biosafety of L. plantarum Tensia was evaluated on National Institutes of Health-line mice fed cheese containing Tensia at a concentration of 9.6 log cfu/g for 30 consecutive days. In human intervention trials in adults and the elderly, the effects of different doses of Edam-type cheese and the probiotic bacterium on BW, gut functionality indices, and host metabolism were evaluated. The strain L. plantarum Tensia was susceptible to all tested antibiotics and did not possess the tetracycline resistance-determining genes tet(L), tet(S) and tet(O), nor did it contain the integron (Int1) gene. However, the strain was tet(K) and tet(M) positive. Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia did not produce potentially harmful biogenic amines, such as histamine or cadaverine. The amount of tyramine produced in the cheese environment during ripening and after 15 wk of storage was below the clinically significant content. In the animal model, no translocation of the administered strain or other microbes into the blood or organs of mice was detected. No harmful effect was observed on body mass index, inflammatory markers, or serum lipidograms during human intervention trials with different age groups at a daily dose of 10.3 or 8.17 log cfu/serving for 3 wk. No negative effect on gastrointestinal

  15. Knockdown of prodynorphin gene prevents cognitive decline, reduces anxiety, and rescues loss of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor function in aging.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Caroline; Tse, Yiu Chung; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Chabot, Jean-Guy; Herzog, Herbert; Schwarzer, Christoph; Wong, Tak Pan; Quirion, Rémi

    2013-07-31

    Expression of dynorphin, an endogenous opioid peptide, increases with age and has been associated with memory impairments in rats. In human, prodynorphin (Pdyn) gene polymorphisms might be linked to cognitive function in the elderly. Moreover, elevated dynorphin levels have been reported in postmortem samples from Alzheimer's disease patients. However, the cellular and molecular processes affected by higher dynorphin levels during aging remain unknown. Using Pdyn(-/-) mice, we observed significant changes in the function and expression of Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR). Compared with age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates, we found increased expression of mGluR1α and mGluR5 in the hippocampus and cortex of old, but not young, Pdyn(-/-) mice. Increased Group 1 mGluR expression in aged Pdyn(-/-) mice was associated with enhanced mGluR-mediated long-term depression, a form of synaptic plasticity. Notably, whereas aged WT mice developed spatial and recognition memory deficits, aged Pdyn(-/-) mice performed similarly as young mice. Pharmacological treatments with 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide, a positive modulator of mGlu5 receptors, or norbinaltorphimine, an antagonist for dynorphin-targeted κ-opioid receptor, rescued memory in old WT mice. Conversely, mGlu5 receptor antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride impaired spatial memory of old Pdyn(-/-) mice. Intact cognition in aged Pdyn(-/-) mice paralleled with increased expression of Group 1 mGluR-related genes Homer 1a and Arc. Finally, aged Pdyn(-/-) mice displayed less anxiety-related behaviors than age-matched WT mice. Together, our results suggest that elevated Pdyn expression during normal aging reduces mGluR expression and signaling, which in turn impairs cognitive functions and increases anxiety.

  16. [Determination of the frequency of human bocavirus and other respiratory viruses among 0-2 years age group children diagnosed as acute bronchiolitis].

    PubMed

    Uyar, Mustafa; Kuyucu, Necdet; Tezcan, Seda; Aslan, Gönül; Tasdelen, Bahar

    2014-04-01

    Acute bronchiolitis, mostly seen in infants and younger children, is a lower respiratory tract infection frequently caused by viral agents. We aimed to determine the frequency of a broad panel of respiratory viruses including human bocavirus (HBoV) and to assess the clinical characteristics of acute bronchiolitis in a group of children under 24 months of age. A total of 62 children (45 male, 17 female; age range: 0-2 years) with the initial diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis and 33 healthy children (21 male, 12 female; age range: 0-2 years) as control group who were admitted to the Pediatrics Department of Mersin University Hospital, southern Turkey, from January to July 2010 were included in the study. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from the study groups and the detection of respiratory viruses [respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A & B; rhinovirus (RV); human metapneumovirus (hMPV) A & B; influenza virus type A [H1N1, H3N2, H1N1v], B & C; parainfluenza virus (PIV) type 1, 2, 3 & 4A/B; adenovirus (AdV); HBoV; coronavirus (CoV 229E); enterovirus (EV)], were performed by using a commercial system namely CLART®Pneumovir (Clinical Array Technology, Genomica, Spain) based on the principle of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) and DNA microarray. Demographic features, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients, treatment protocols and the relationship between the length of hospitalization and the viral agents determined were also evaluated. Of the 62 samples collected from bronchiolitis cases, at least one virus was detected in 52 (83.9%) and viral co-infections were detected in 31 (50%) of them. Including the co-infections, RSV was the most commonly identified virus (n= 21; 33.9%), followed by influenza A [H1N1] (n= 18; 29%), RV (n= 18; 29%), hMPV (n= 13; 21%), PIV (n= 10; 16.1%), AdV (n= 5; 8%), HBoV (n= 3; 4.8%) and EV (n= 1; 1.6%). Of the 33 samples from healthy children, at least one virus was detected in 21 (63.6%) and viral co-infections were

  17. Audio-visual speechreading in a group of hearing aid users. The effects of onset age, handicap age, and degree of hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Tillberg, I; Rönnberg, J; Svärd, I; Ahlner, B

    1996-01-01

    Speechreading ability was investigated among hearing aid users with different time of onset and different degree of hearing loss. Audio-visual and visual-only performance were assessed. One group of subjects had been hearing-impaired for a large part of their lives, and the impairments appeared early in life. The other group of subjects had been impaired for a fewer number of years, and the impairments appeared later in life. Differences between the groups were obtained. There was no significant difference on the audio-visual test between the groups in spite of the fact that the early onset group scored very poorly auditorily. However, the early-onset group performed significantly better on the visual test. It was concluded that the visual information constituted the dominant coding strategy for the early onset group. An interpretation chiefly in terms of early onset may be the most appropriate, since dB loss variations as such are not related to speechreading skill.

  18. Immunogenicity and safety of a pentavalent acellular pertussis combined vaccine including diphtheria, tetanus, inactivated poliovirus and conjugated Haemophilus Influenzae type b polysaccharide for primary vaccination at 2, 3, 4 or 3, 4, 5 months of age in infants in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong Cheng; Li, Feng Xiang; Li, Yan Ping; Hou, Qi Ming; Li, Chang Gui; Li, Ya Nan; Chen, Fu Sheng; Hu, Xue Zhong; Su, Wen Bin; Zhang, Shu Min; Fang, Han Hua; Ye, Qiang; Zeng, Tian De; Liu, Tao Xuan; Li, Xiu Bi; Huang, Yun Neng; Deng, Man Ling; Zhang, Yan Ping; Ortiz, Esteban

    2011-02-24

    The aim was to demonstrate the immunogenicity and safety of a DTaP-IPV//PRP-T combined vaccine (Pentaxim(®)) compared to individual vaccines in infants in the People's Republic of China. Infants (N=792) were randomly assigned to receive DTaP-IPV//PRP-T at 2, 3 and 4 months of age (Group A) or 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group B), or DTaP (Wuhan Institute of Biological Products), PRP-T (Act-Hib(®)) and IPV (Imovax(®) Polio) at 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group C). Antibody titers were measured pre- and 1 month after the third vaccination; non-inferiority analyses were performed for seroprotection/seroconversion (SP/SC) rates. Safety was assessed 1 month after the primary series. SP/SC rates for the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine were high and non-inferior to the controls. Reactogenicity was low for each group and no hypotonic hyporesponsive episode or seizure was reported. In conclusion, the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine was highly immunogenic, non-inferior to the commercially available control vaccines and had a good safety profile for both primary administration schedules.

  19. Zircon U-Pb age constraints on the Paleoproterozoic sedimentary basement of the Ediacaran Porongos Group, Sul-Riograndense Shield, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertille, Juliana; Hartmann, Léo Afraneo; Philipp, Ruy Paulo

    2015-11-01

    Thick quartzites record significant information on cratonic environments during long geological periods. The capacity to resist weathering and deformation turn the quartzite covers especially useful in the provenance studies of Precambrian basins. Provenance of 194 detrital zircon grains from two samples of thick quartzite cover on the Paleoproterozoic Encantadas Complex displays mostly Paleoproterozoic (95%) and minor Archean (5%) sources. The results indicate that sediments were derived from the La Plata Craton with the maximum depositional age at 2.03 Ga possibly up to 1.7 Ga. In comparison, the adjacent Porongos Group has provenance data of 61 detrital zircon grains indicating mostly Mesoproterozoic (69%), subordinately Paleoproterozoic (26%) and minor Archean ages (5%). Considering previous published data, the Porongos Group is Ediacaran in age and probably chronocorrelated with sedimentary basins from the Tandilia Belt (Argentina). Therefore, the quartzite cover and the Porongos Group require distinct evolution in time and in tectonic environment.

  20. RAPP, a systematic e-assessment of postoperative recovery in patients undergoing day surgery: study protocol for a mixed-methods study design including a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, K; Odencrants, S; Hagberg, L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Day surgery is a well-established practice in many European countries, but only limited information is available regarding postoperative recovery at home though there is a current lack of a standard procedure regarding postoperative follow-up. Furthermore, there is also a need for improvement of modern technology in assessing patient-related outcomes such as mobile applications. This article describes the Recovery Assessment by Phone Points (RAPP) study protocol, a mixed-methods study to evaluate if a systematic e-assessment follow-up in patients undergoing day surgery is cost-effective and improves postoperative recovery, health and quality of life. Methods and analysis This study has a mixed-methods study design that includes a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies. 1000 patients >17 years of age who are undergoing day surgery will be randomly assigned to either e-assessed postoperative recovery follow-up daily in 14 days measured via smartphone app including the Swedish web-version of Quality of Recovery (SwQoR) or to standard care (ie, no follow-up). The primary aim is cost-effectiveness. Secondary aims are (A) to explore whether a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery has a positive effect on postoperative recovery, health-related quality of life (QoL) and overall health; (B) to determine whether differences in postoperative recovery have an association with patient characteristic, type of surgery and anaesthesia; (C) to determine whether differences in health literacy have a substantial and distinct effect on postoperative recovery, health and QoL; and (D) to describe day surgery patient and staff experiences with a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery. The primary aim will be measured at 2 weeks postoperatively and secondary outcomes (A–C) at 1 and 2 weeks and (D) at 1 and 4 months. Trial registration number NCT02492191; Pre

  1. Within-trait heterogeneity in age group differences in personality domains and facets: implications for the development and coherence of personality traits.

    PubMed

    Mõttus, René; Realo, Anu; Allik, Jüri; Esko, Tõnu; Metspalu, Andres; Johnson, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated differences in the Five-Factor Model (FFM) domains and facets across adulthood. The main questions were whether personality scales reflected coherent units of trait development and thereby coherent personality traits more generally. These questions were addressed by testing if the components of the trait scales (items for facet scales and facets for domain scales) showed consistent age group differences. For this, measurement invariance (MI) framework was used. In a sample of 2,711 Estonians who had completed the NEO Personality Inventory 3 (NEO PI-3), more than half of the facet scales and one domain scale did not meet the criterion for weak MI (factor loading equality) across 12 age groups spanning ages from 18 to 91 years. Furthermore, none of the facet and domain scales met the criterion for strong MI (intercept equality), suggesting that items of the same facets and facets of the same domains varied in age group differences. When items were residualized for their respective facets, 46% of them had significant (p < 0.0002) residual age-correlations. When facets were residualized for their domain scores, a majority had significant (p < 0.002) residual age-correlations. For each domain, a series of latent factors were specified using random quarters of their items: scores of such latent factors varied notably (within domains) in correlations with age. We argue that manifestations of aetiologically coherent traits should show similar age group differences. Given this, the FFM domains and facets as embodied in the NEO PI-3 do not reflect aetiologically coherent traits.

  2. A Multidisciplinary Model of Health Promotion Incorporating Spirituality into a Successful Aging Intervention with African American and White Elderly Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Michael W.; Bellis, Jeffrey M.; Bishop, Phillip; Harper, Mary; Allman, Richard M.; Moore, Cynthia; Thompson, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Faculty from academic, medical, state, and religious institutions presented workshops at a community and faith-based conference attended by seniors. Lifestyle changes and forms of spirituality were affirmed using a model of successful aging. Model has the potential to help unify the religious community around promoting successful aging. African…

  3. The relative age effect in the German Football TID Programme: biases in motor performance diagnostics and effects on single motor abilities and skills in groups of selected players.

    PubMed

    Votteler, Andreas; Höner, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the disturbing effects of relative age on the talent identification process in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. The bias in the selection rate was examined via the extent of relative age effects. The bias in motor performance diagnostics was analysed by comparing the motor performance of selected players with normal motor development. The mechanisms underlying the relative age biases in motor performance were examined by modelling the direct and indirect effects of relative age on single motor performance tests for sprint, running agility, dribbling and ball passing and control. Data from 10,130 selected football players from the U12 to U15 age groups were collected in autumn 2010. The birth distribution differed significantly from the reference population with approximately 61% of the players born in the first half of the year. The selection probability was approximately two times higher for players born in the first quarter of the year than for players born in the last quarter. Revised motor performance diagnostics showed better results on average for relatively younger players. Path analysis revealed significant direct and indirect relative age effects for physiologically demanding tests and almost no effects for technically demanding tests. Large sample sizes allowed high resolution in relative age with additional informational content and multivariate modelling of the complex relationships among relative age, physical development and motor performance. The results are discussed on how relative age affects the effectiveness and fairness of talent identification and development processes.

  4. Comparison of the effects of extreme temperatures on daily mortality in Madrid (Spain), by age group: The need for a cold wave prevention plan.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J; Carmona, R; Mirón, I J; Ortiz, C; Linares, C

    2015-11-01

    A number of studies have shown that there is a time trend towards a reduction in the effects of heat on mortality. In the case of cold, however, there is practically no research of this type and so there is no clearly defined time trend of the impact of cold on mortality. Furthermore, no other specific studies have yet analysed the time trend of the impact of both thermal extremes by age group. We analysed data on daily mortality due to natural causes (ICD-10: A00-R99) in the city of Madrid across the period 2001-2009 and calculated the impact of extreme temperatures on mortality using Poisson regression models for specific age groups. The groups of age selected coinciding with the pre-existing age-groups analyzed in previous papers. For heat waves the groups of age used were: <10 years, 10-17 years, 18-44 years, 45-64 years, 65-74 years and over-75 years. For cold waves the groups of age used were: <1 year; 1-5 years, 6-17 years, 18-44 years, 45-64 years, 65-74 years and over-75 years. <1, 1-17, 18-44, 45-66, 65-74 and over-75 years. We controlled for confounding variables, such as air pollution, noise, influenza, pollen, pressure and relative humidity, trend of the series, as well as seasonalities and autoregressive components of the series. The results of these models were compared to those obtained for the same city during the period 1986-1997 and published in different studies. Our results show a lightly reduction in the effects of heat, especially in the over-45-year age group. In the case of cold, the behaviour pattern was the opposite, with an increase in its effect. Heat adaptation and socio-economic and public-health prevention and action measures may be behind this amelioration in the effects of heat, whereas the absence of such actions in respect of low temperatures may account for the increase in the effects of cold on mortality. From a public health point of view, the implementation of cold wave prevention plans covering all age groups is thus called

  5. Acute Respiratory Infections among Under-Five Age Group Children at Urban Slums of Gulbarga City: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Pattankar, Jayashree; Puttahonnappa, Suresh Kuralayanapalya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Among all illness, Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) account for 30-60% of paediatric outpatient attendance and 20-30% of hospital admissions. Aim To study the morbidity pattern of ARI among under-five-age group children and to assess the determinants. Materials and Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted for a one year period, comprising a cumulative sample of 400 children from 3 urban slums of Gulbarga city. History of nasal discharge, cough, fever, sore throat, breathing difficulty, any discharge from ear alone or in combination, was used in the recognition of an ARI episode. Respiratory rate >60/minute (<2 month infants), >50(2-11 months) and >40(1-5 years) in a child with cough, cold or fever singly or in combination was considered the criteria for recognition of pneumonia. Results Out of the 400 surveyed, ARI was detected among 109 children giving an incidence of 27.25%. Among these, Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) was found among 19.25% and Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) among 8%. ARI was observed among 38.04% of infants, 37.84% of 2-3-year-old children, 36.87% of boys, 40.43% of children born to illiterate father’s, 35.77% of SES class IV & 40.79% of SES class V, and 41.89% of children with family history of respiratory illness. All these data were found to be statistically significant. High rates of ARI were also observed among 41.36% of children living in households with firewood fuel usage, 35.04% of children with pets in the household, 34.82% of children with delayed milestones, 53.85% of children with grade IV and 66.67% of children with grade V malnutrition. More episodes occurred during winter months of the year (Oct – Jan). During the follow-up phase of study done on a cohort of 112 children for a period of one year, an attack rate of 3.27 episodes/child/year was observed. Conclusion Community education programs should focus on addressing specific issues viz. identification of respiratory illness

  6. Girls arrested for murder: an empirical analysis of 32 years of U.S. data by offender age groups.

    PubMed

    Heide, Kathleen M; Sellers, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) have used small samples and have concentrated on adolescent male offenders. As a result, little is known about the population of female juveniles arrested for murder. This study utilized the Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) database to investigate age differences between younger (aged 6-12 years) and older (aged 13-17 years) females arrested for murder in the United States from 1976 to 2007. As predicted, six variables used to test seven hypotheses with respect to younger and older female JHOs in single victim incidents were significant (victim age, victim gender, victim offender relationship, murder weapon, offender count, and homicide circumstance). Regression analysis revealed that younger girls were seven times more likely than older girls to kill children aged 0-12 years. Girls aged 6-12 years were five times more likely than their teen counterparts to be involved in conflict-related homicides as opposed to crime-related homicides. Although approximately the same percentages of younger and older girls killed infants under the age of 1, the victims were significantly different for the two offender age groups. This article concludes with a discussion of our findings and directions for future research.

  7. Student Self-Reports of Metacognitive Activity in Physical Education Classes. Age-Group Differences and the Effect of Goal Orientations and Perceived Motivational Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodosiou, Argiris; Mantis, Konstantinos; Papaioannou, Athanasios

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined age-group differences in students' self-reports of metacognitive activity in physical education settings. Five hundred and ten students of public elementary, junior and senior high school provided self-reports concerning the metacognitive processes they use during physical education lessons, their goal orientations and…

  8. The Analysis of Certain Differences in Motor Skills of Sedentary Male Children in the 9-14 Age Group Based on the Biological Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayraktar, Isik; Yaman, Nigar; Zorba, Erdal; Yaman, Metin; Günay, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study consists of the analysis of certain differences in motor skills of male children who are sedentary and in the age group of 9-14, in relation to the biological maturity. 522 sedentary male children from various parts of Turkey participated in this study. Body height and body weight measurements were taken from the participants…

  9. A study of the prevalence of thalassemia and its correlation with liver function test in different age and sex group in the Chittagong district of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Palit, Sarmi; Bhuiyan, Robiul H.; Aklima, Jannatul; Emran, Talha B.; Dash, Raju

    2012-01-01

    Thalassemia is the name of a group of genetic, inherited disorders of the blood. More specifically, it is a disorder of the hemoglobin molecule inside the red blood cells. According to World health Organization (WHO), there are about 3% beta-thalassemia carrier and about 4% Hb E/beta-thalassemia carrier in Bangladesh. Our objective is to identify the prevalence of beta-thalassemia in our adolescent populations and to review risk factors that would most easily identify a subset of adolescent patients at greatest risk for the development of beta-thalassemia. We also made a study of clinical profile of 53 thalassemic patients, observing the relationship between the patients with their verity ages and sex. The cases are taken on the basis of their age (2-30 years), beta-thalassemia major, clinical jaundice with history of chronic blood transfusion. The cases excluded those who had jaundice due to viral hepatitis or hepatitis due to heavy metal poisoning (Arsenic) and those with spleenectomy. Liver function test has been evaluated in 53 patients. That were recorded with some relevant demographical data such as age, sex, blood group where median age was of 16 years and mean (±SD) age 15.4151 ± 7.90918. Among them were 21 (39.6%) female and 32 (60.4%) male. With an average 15.1% (8 in no.) beta-thalassemia, 7.5% (4 in no.) beta-thalassemia major and 77.4% (41 in no.) E-beta-thalassemia cases have been found in the study. Mean (±SD) TSB in total 53 subjects with age group 2-10 years and 21-30 years is significant. The study revealed that in thalassemic patients when the age is more, the disease progresses with their complication. Hepatic complication is mainly due to being hepatocellular in nature than that of obstructive one. PMID:24826050

  10. Behavioral Autonomy Age Expectations among Mexican-Origin Mother-Daughter Dyads: An Examination of Within-Group Variability

    PubMed Central

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Brown, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in behavioral autonomy age expectations between Mexican-origin mothers and their adolescent daughters (N = 319 dyads); variability in behavioral autonomy age expectations as a function of nativity and maternal educational attainment also was examined. Findings indicated significant differences between mothers and daughters such that mothers reported later expectations for the timing of behavioral autonomy than did daughters. Follow-up analyses indicated that findings appeared to be driven by maternal nativity, with dyads comprised of Mexico-born mothers reporting the latest age expectations for behavioral autonomy when compared with dyads comprised of U.S.-born mothers. Findings underscore the need to examine normative development among Latino adolescents and their families with a specific focus on how sociocultural characteristics can contribute to within-family differences. PMID:22093152

  11. Sleep and Daytime Functioning: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Three Preschool-Age Comparison Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Thomas; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Tang, Karen; Goodlin-Jones, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sleep, sleepiness, and daytime performance in 68 children with autism, 57 children with intellectual disability (ID), and 69 typically developing preschool children. Children in the autism and ID groups had poorer daytime performance and behaviors than the typically developing children. Children in the ID group also were…

  12. 75 FR 27141 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing Dependent Coverage of Children to Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ45 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing... Labor and the Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health... health plans and health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan under...

  13. Heterogeneity in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lowsky, David J.; Olshansky, S. Jay; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For a surprisingly large segment of the older population, chronological age is not a relevant marker for understanding, measuring, or experiencing healthy aging. Using the 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2004 Health and Retirement Study to examine the proportion of Americans exhibiting five markers of health and the variation in health-related quality of life across each of eight age groups, we find that a significant proportion of older Americans is healthy within every age group beginning at age 51, including among those aged 85+. For example, 48% of those aged 51–54 and 28% of those aged 85+ have excellent or very good self-reported health status; similarly, 89% of those aged 51–54 and 56% of those aged 85+ report no health-based limitations in work or housework. Also, health-related quality of life ranges widely within every age group, yet there is only a comparatively small variation in median quality of life across age groups, suggesting that older Americans today may be experiencing substantially different age-health trajectories than their predecessors. Patterns are similar for medical expenditures. Several policy implications are explored. PMID:24249734

  14. Stage IV and age over 45 years are the only prognostic factors of the International Prognostic Score for the outcome of advanced Hodgkin lymphoma in the Spanish Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group series.

    PubMed

    Guisado-Vasco, Pablo; Arranz-Saez, Reyes; Canales, Miguel; Cánovas, Araceli; Garcia-Laraña, José; García-Sanz, Ramón; Lopez, Andrés; López, José Luis; Llanos, Marta; Moraleda, José Maria; Rodriguez, José; Rayón, Consuelo; Sabin, Pilar; Salar, Antonio; Marín-Niebla, Ana; Morente, Manuel; Sánchez-Godoy, Pedro; Tomás, José Francisco; Muriel, Alfonso; Abraira, Victor; Piris, Miguel A; Garcia, Juán F; Montalban, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    The International Prognostic Score (IPS) is the most widely used system to date for identifying risk groups for the outcome of patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma, although important limitations have been recognized. We analyzed the value of the IPS in a series of 311 patients with advanced classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) (Ann Arbor stage III, IV or stage II with B symptoms and/or bulky masses) treated with first-line chemotherapy including adriamycin (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine [ABVD] or equivalent variants). In univariate and multivariate analyses, stage IV disease and age ≥ 45 years were the only factors with independent predictive significance for overall survival (OS) (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). Stage IV was still significant for freedom from progression (FFP) (p = 0.001) and age ≥ 45 years was borderline significant (p = 0.058). IPS separates prognostic groups, as in the original publication, but this is mainly due to the high statistical significance of stage IV and age ≥ 45 years. Moreover, the combination of these two factors enables a simpler system to be constructed that separates groups with different FFP and OS. In conclusion, in our series, stage IV and age ≥ 45 years are the key prognostic factors for the outcome of advanced cHL.

  15. Cross-Age Peer Tutors in Asynchronous Discussion Groups: A Study of the Evolution in Tutor Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, Marijke; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This study explores cross-age peers' tutoring behavior to support freshmen collaborating online. The study fits in with the need to inquire into the process of peer facilitation in CSCL-environments and focuses on types of peer support and on the evolution over time. The study was conducted with 19 pairs of fourth-year students, each tutoring one…

  16. The Moderating Role of Age-Group Identification and Perceived Threat on Stereotype Threat among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sonia K.; Chasteen, Alison L.

    2009-01-01

    Although research has shown that older adults are negatively affected by aging stereotypes, relatively few studies have attempted to identify those older adults who may be especially susceptible to these effects. The current research takes steps toward identifying older adults most susceptible to the effects of stereotype threat and investigates…

  17. Observing the What and When of Language Production for Different Age Groups by Monitoring Speakers' Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Zenzi M.; Spieler, Daniel H.

    2006-01-01

    Research on adult age differences in language production has traditionally focused on either the production of single words or the properties of language samples. Older adults are more prone to word retrieval failures than are younger adults (e.g., Burke, MacKay, Worthley, & Wade, 1991). Older adults also tend to produce fewer ideas per utterance…

  18. Modifying Inappropriate Behavior of Emotionally Disturbed Students Ages 6 to 10 by Using Self-Monitoring and Group Monitoring Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Carol

    This practicum was designed to reduce the frequency of disruption occurring in a class of emotionally disturbed students, aged 6-10. Objectives were to have the students remain on task and attentive to teacher instruction during 80 percent of a morning classroom session and to reduce the need for crisis intervention outside the classroom. Three…

  19. Cross-Age Peer Tutors in Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Studying the Impact of Tutors Labelling Their Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smet, M.; Van Keer, H.; Valcke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Cross-age tutors were randomly assigned to one of the three tutor training conditions distinguished for the current study: (1) the labelling experimental condition, characterized by requirements to label their tutor interventions, based on the e-moderating model of Salmon; (2) the non-labelling experimental condition, focusing on tutor's acting…

  20. Polypropylene vs silicone Ahmed valve with adjunctive mitomycin C in paediatric age group: a prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    El Sayed, Y; Awadein, A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the results of silicone and polypropylene Ahmed glaucoma valves (AGV) implanted during the first 10 years of life. Methods A prospective study was performed on 50 eyes of 33 patients with paediatric glaucoma. Eyes were matched to either polypropylene or silicone AGV. In eyes with bilateral glaucoma, one eye was implanted with polypropylene and the other eye was implanted with silicone AGV. Results Fifty eyes of 33 children were reviewed. Twenty five eyes received a polypropylene valve, and 25 eyes received a silicone valve. Eyes implanted with silicone valves achieved a significantly lower intraocular pressure (IOP) compared with the polypropylene group at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. The average survival time was significantly longer (P=0.001 by the log-rank test) for the silicone group than for the polypropylene group and the cumulative probability of survival by the log-rank test at the end of the second year was 80% (SE: 8.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 64–96%) in the silicone group and 56% (SE: 9.8, 95% CI: 40–90%) in the polypropylene group. The difference in the number of postoperative interventions and complications between both groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion Silicone AGVs can achieve better IOP control, and longer survival with less antiglaucoma drops compared with polypropylene valves in children younger than 10 years. PMID:23579403

  1. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Pertussis Toxin among Different Age Groups in Thailand after 37 Years of Universal Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Wanlapakorn, Nasamon; Ngaovithunvong, Varisara; Thongmee, Thanunrat; Vichaiwattana, Preeyaporn; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Poovorawan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high coverage of prophylactic vaccine against Bordetella pertussis infection in many countries for more than three decades, pertussis remains a common vaccine-preventable disease. Infections have been detected more commonly in countries using acellular pertussis vaccine in their Expanded Program of Immunization. Thailand implemented a routine infant immunization program with whole-cell pertussis vaccine in 1977, and since 1992, the national vaccine policy has offered a five-dose whole-cell pertussis vaccine for children given at the ages of 2, 4, 6, 18, and 48 months. This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of antibodies to pertussis toxin among healthy people across all ages to determine the level of whole-cell vaccine-induced immunity in the population, and to identify which age group should be targeted for a booster dose. The lowest seronegative rate and highest geometric mean concentrations were found in the 0–10 years age group, corresponding to their recent pertussis vaccination. The proportion of people with undetectable IgG level was prominent, starting after 11 years of age onwards. Now that a reduced-dose pertussis vaccine with fewer adverse effects is available, a booster dose during adolescence should be considered in order to reduce the incidence of pertussis disease. Further studies exploring how long the reduced-dose pertussis vaccine can provide protective immunity against pertussis disease when administered to adults and adolescents should also be performed. PMID:26837004

  2. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Pertussis Toxin among Different Age Groups in Thailand after 37 Years of Universal Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wanlapakorn, Nasamon; Ngaovithunvong, Varisara; Thongmee, Thanunrat; Vichaiwattana, Preeyaporn; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Poovorawan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high coverage of prophylactic vaccine against Bordetella pertussis infection in many countries for more than three decades, pertussis remains a common vaccine-preventable disease. Infections have been detected more commonly in countries using acellular pertussis vaccine in their Expanded Program of Immunization. Thailand implemented a routine infant immunization program with whole-cell pertussis vaccine in 1977, and since 1992, the national vaccine policy has offered a five-dose whole-cell pertussis vaccine for children given at the ages of 2, 4, 6, 18, and 48 months. This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of antibodies to pertussis toxin among healthy people across all ages to determine the level of whole-cell vaccine-induced immunity in the population, and to identify which age group should be targeted for a booster dose. The lowest seronegative rate and highest geometric mean concentrations were found in the 0-10 years age group, corresponding to their recent pertussis vaccination. The proportion of people with undetectable IgG level was prominent, starting after 11 years of age onwards. Now that a reduced-dose pertussis vaccine with fewer adverse effects is available, a booster dose during adolescence should be considered in order to reduce the incidence of pertussis disease. Further studies exploring how long the reduced-dose pertussis vaccine can provide protective immunity against pertussis disease when administered to adults and adolescents should also be performed. PMID:26837004

  3. Histological and immunohistochemical study of estrogen and progesterone receptors in normal human breast tissue in adult age groups vulnerable to malignancy.

    PubMed

    Goyal, R; Gupta, T; Gupta, R; Aggarwal, A; Sahni, D; Singh, G

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of receptor status has become standard procedure for assessing breast cancer patients. Estrogen causes epithelial proliferation in breast tissue via the estrogen receptor (ER). The progesterone receptor (PR) is also regulated by the estrogen gene. Analyzing ER and PR together gives information regarding the likely response of carcinoma patients to hormonal therapy. The aim of the present study was to record the expression patterns of ER and PR in normal mammary tissue in different age groups to provide reference data to facilitate histological diagnosis. Breast tissues from the upper outer quadrant of each side of 27 adult female cadavers were examined after H & E staining. ER and PR were identified and examined by immunohistochemistry. The percentage area occupied by parenchyma relative to stromal tissue was calculated in different age groups and was about 4:6, 3.5:6.5, 3:7, 2:8, and 1.5:8.5 in the 3rd, 4th and 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th, and 10th decades of life, respectively. Both ER and PR were present in all age groups and the numbers of both receptors were maximal during the 4th decade. The distribution and staining patterns for both ER and PR were recorded in different age groups. The contiguous pattern of ER, which is considered pathognomonic of breast carcinoma, was not seen except in one case in the 6th decade. Moderately stained ER and PR receptor sites predominated throughout. The study of normal breast tissue of similar age might provide comparisons that will help histopathologists to make clinical diagnoses from breast biopsies. Clin. Anat. 29:729-737, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27038435

  4. Does the Age and Familiarity of the Informant Group Influence the Tendency of 3- and 4-year-old Children to Conform?

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Nicola; Stevenson, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The authors' aim was to explore whether the age and the familiarity of the individuals comprising a group majority influenced the tendency of 3- and 4-year-old children to conform. Participants were presented with 2 variants of a novel task in which they were required to judge which of 3 line-drawn tigers had the greatest number of stripes. The participants made their judgments in 2 contexts, first after viewing 5 informants perform the task incorrectly, and second without viewing the responses of other individuals. The informants comprised a group of familiar children, a group of unfamiliar children, a group of familiar adults, or a group of unfamiliar adults. The results showed that the children displayed selective conformity with respect to informant age, readily adopting the incorrect response when it was indicated by an adult majority, but failing to do so when the same incorrect response was indicated by a majority of children. In contrast the familiarity of the individuals comprising the majority had little influence on the tendency of children to conform. These results suggest that children are not blanket conformists, rather they respond selectively depending on characteristics of the individuals comprising the group majority. PMID:27341477

  5. Feasibility and benefits of group-based exercise in residential aged care adults: a pilot study for the GrACE programme

    PubMed Central

    Henwood, Timothy; Climstein, Mike; Keogh, Justin William Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the feasibility and benefits of a group resistance training exercise programme for improving muscle function in institutionalised older adults. A feasibility and acceptability study was designed for a residential aged care (RAC) facility, based on the Gold Coast, Australia. Thirty-seven adults, mean age 86.8 ± 6.1 years (30 females) living in a RAC facility. Participants were allocated into an exercise (n = 20) or control (n = 17) group. The exercise group, the Group Aged Care Exercise (GrACE) programme, performed 12 weeks of twice weekly resistance exercises. Feasibility was measured via recruitment rate, measurement (physiological and surveys) completion rate, loss-to-follow-up, exercise session adherence, adverse events, and ratings of burden and acceptability. Muscle function was assessed using gait speed, sit-to-stand and handgrip strength assessments. All intervention participants completed pre- and post-assessments, and the exercise intervention, with 85% (n = 17) of the group attending ≥ 18 of the 24 sessions and 15% (n = 3) attending all sessions. Acceptability was 100% with exercise participants, and staff who had been involved with the programme strongly agreed that the participants “Benefited from the programme.” There were no adverse events reported by any participants during the exercise sessions. When compared to the control group, the exercise group experienced significant improvements in gait speed (F(4.078) = 8.265, p = 0.007), sit to stand performance (F(3.24) = 11.033, p = 0.002) and handgrip strength (F(3.697) = 26.359, p < 0.001). Resistance training via the GrACE programme is feasible, safe and significantly improves gait speed, sit-to-stand performance and handgrip strength in RAC adults. PMID:27231652

  6. Feasibility and benefits of group-based exercise in residential aged care adults: a pilot study for the GrACE programme.

    PubMed

    Fien, Samantha; Henwood, Timothy; Climstein, Mike; Keogh, Justin William Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the feasibility and benefits of a group resistance training exercise programme for improving muscle function in institutionalised older adults. A feasibility and acceptability study was designed for a residential aged care (RAC) facility, based on the Gold Coast, Australia. Thirty-seven adults, mean age 86.8 ± 6.1 years (30 females) living in a RAC facility. Participants were allocated into an exercise (n = 20) or control (n = 17) group. The exercise group, the Group Aged Care Exercise (GrACE) programme, performed 12 weeks of twice weekly resistance exercises. Feasibility was measured via recruitment rate, measurement (physiological and surveys) completion rate, loss-to-follow-up, exercise session adherence, adverse events, and ratings of burden and acceptability. Muscle function was assessed using gait speed, sit-to-stand and handgrip strength assessments. All intervention participants completed pre- and post-assessments, and the exercise intervention, with 85% (n = 17) of the group attending ≥ 18 of the 24 sessions and 15% (n = 3) attending all sessions. Acceptability was 100% with exercise participants, and staff who had been involved with the programme strongly agreed that the participants "Benefited from the programme." There were no adverse events reported by any participants during the exercise sessions. When compared to the control group, the exercise group experienced significant improvements in gait speed (F(4.078) = 8.265, p = 0.007), sit to stand performance (F(3.24) = 11.033, p = 0.002) and handgrip strength (F(3.697) = 26.359, p < 0.001). Resistance training via the GrACE programme is feasible, safe and significantly improves gait speed, sit-to-stand performance and handgrip strength in RAC adults. PMID:27231652

  7. [Postvaccinal immunity and immunological aspects of Haemophilus influenzae carrier state in children of different age groups after the administration of "Act-HIB" vaccine].

    PubMed

    Gorbunov, S G; Bondarenko, V M; Demina, A A; Spirikhina, L V; Iastrebova, N E; Vaneeva, N P; Orlova, E V; Tamazian, G V; Zakharova, N I

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with H. influenzae (different serotypes) carrier state and immune response before and after the administration of the vaccine "Act-HIB" to children of different age groups. Children aged up to 1 year and over 1 year have been found to differ in the dynamics of carrier state and in the concentration of antibodies of different classes to the antigens of this infective agent, which makes it necessary to carry out their early immunization with a view to ensure their protection from H. influenzae infection.

  8. An attitudinal survey of euthanasia in Windward Oahu. A cross-sectional pilot study of four age groups.

    PubMed

    Littlejohn, T; Burrows-Johnson, J

    1996-12-01

    Exploring the attitudes of 185 respondents toward euthanasia, this 1990 cross-sectional pilot study utilized 12 survey questions addressing participants' demographic profiles and 18 focusing on: abortion; capital punishment; euthanasia; sterilization; and suicide. Cross-tabulation of structural, behavioral and attitudinal variables revealed age and education were the key factors in this study's finding that the greater a person's life experience, the more favorable one's attitude toward euthanasia.

  9. Comparison on three classification techniques for sex estimation from the bone length of Asian children below 19 years old: an analysis using different group of ages.

    PubMed

    Darmawan, M F; Yusuf, Suhaila M; Kadir, M R Abdul; Haron, H

    2015-02-01

    Sex estimation is used in forensic anthropology to assist the identification of individual remains. However, the estimation techniques tend to be unique and applicable only to a certain population. This paper analyzed sex estimation on living individual child below 19 years old using the length of 19 bones of left hand applied for three classification techniques, which were Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) multilayer perceptron. These techniques were carried out on X-ray images of the left hand taken from an Asian population data set. All the 19 bones of the left hand were measured using Free Image software, and all the techniques were performed using MATLAB. The group of age "16-19" years old and "7-9" years old were the groups that could be used for sex estimation with as their average of accuracy percentage was above 80%. ANN model was the best classification technique with the highest average of accuracy percentage in the two groups of age compared to other classification techniques. The results show that each classification technique has the best accuracy percentage on each different group of age. PMID:25540897

  10. [FEATURES OF CONSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUNG MALES AGED OF 17-20 YEARS, NATIVES OF THE BAIKAL REGION WITH REGARD TO THEIR FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Kolokoltsev, M M

    2016-01-01

    The study of somatotypes of the constitution is an important point in planning of the improvements of measures among the population in various regions of Russia. The purpose of the work was to reveal features of age dynamics of somatotypes of the constitution in students of youthful age of the Baikal Region by means of somatotyping according to scheme by Nikityuk B. A. and Kozlova A.I (1990) with taking into account their functional group of health. There were examined 1286 Slavic young males, natives of the Irkutsk region, aged of 17-20 years, from them, according to data of the medical examination 996 were referred to the 1st (main) and 290--to the 2nd (preparatory) functional group of health for physical exercises. There were established significant differences in somatotypes of the constitution in young men of the 1st and 2nd functional groups of health. In both functional groups there is noted a significant amount of young males with transitional somatotypes that testifies to incompleteness of growth processes of their organism. The obtained results of a somatotyping are used in the educational process for a training individualization on physical culture of students of IRGTU, and also in construction of independent physical--improving programs.

  11. [FEATURES OF CONSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUNG MALES AGED OF 17-20 YEARS, NATIVES OF THE BAIKAL REGION WITH REGARD TO THEIR FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Kolokoltsev, M M

    2016-01-01

    The study of somatotypes of the constitution is an important point in planning of the improvements of measures among the population in various regions of Russia. The purpose of the work was to reveal features of age dynamics of somatotypes of the constitution in students of youthful age of the Baikal Region by means of somatotyping according to scheme by Nikityuk B. A. and Kozlova A.I (1990) with taking into account their functional group of health. There were examined 1286 Slavic young males, natives of the Irkutsk region, aged of 17-20 years, from them, according to data of the medical examination 996 were referred to the 1st (main) and 290--to the 2nd (preparatory) functional group of health for physical exercises. There were established significant differences in somatotypes of the constitution in young men of the 1st and 2nd functional groups of health. In both functional groups there is noted a significant amount of young males with transitional somatotypes that testifies to incompleteness of growth processes of their organism. The obtained results of a somatotyping are used in the educational process for a training individualization on physical culture of students of IRGTU, and also in construction of independent physical--improving programs. PMID:27430074

  12. The total number of Leydig and Sertoli cells in the testes of men across various age groups - a stereological study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Peter M; Seierøe, Karina; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the total number of Sertoli and Leydig cells in testes from male subjects across the human lifespan, using an optimized stereological method for cell-counting. In comparison with many other organs, estimation of the total cell numbers in the testes is particularly sensitive to methodological problems. Therefore, using the optical fractionator technique and a sampling design specifically optimized for human testes, we estimated the total number of Sertoli and Leydig cells in the testes from 26 post mortem male subjects ranging in age from 16 to 80 years. The mean unilateral total number of Sertoli cells was 407 × 10(6) [range: 86 × 10(6) to 665 × 10(6) , coefficient of variation (CV) = 0.33], and the mean unilateral total number of Leydig cells was 99 × 10(6) (range: 47 × 10(6) to 245 × 10(6) , CV = 0.48). There was a significant decline in the number of Sertoli cells with age; no such decline was found for Leydig cells. Quantitative stereological analysis of post mortem tissue may help understand the influence of age or disease on the number of human testicular cells.

  13. Immunoglobulin class specific antibodies to M. leprae in leprosy patients, including the indeterminate group and healthy contacts as a step in the development of methods for sero-diagnosis of leprosy.

    PubMed Central

    Melsom, R; Harboe, M; Myrvang, B; Godal, T; Belehu, A

    1982-01-01

    IgA, IgM and IgG anti-M. leprae antibody activity was quantitated by solid phase radioimmunoassay in groups of untreated leprosy patients throughout the spectrum, in lepromatous leprosy patients treated for more than 10 years, in an indeterminate leprosy group, and in a non-leprosy control group. IgA, IgM and IgG anti-M. leprae antibody activity increased from the group of healthy individuals exposed to M. leprae but without clinical signs of leprosy to tuberculoid (BT and BT/TT) and further to lepromatous (BL to LL) leprosy. There was a considerable overlap in IgA antibody activity, while the overlap between controls and tuberculoid and lepromatous leprosy was less than 20% in the IgM and IgG assays. After more than 10 years of treatment, the IgG anti-M. leprae activity had decreased markedly, whereas there was less effect in the IgA assay and no significant change in the IgM assay. In contrast to earlier findings, the group of 'strictly indeterminate leprosy' showed signs of an active humoral immune response against M. leprae. The IgM anti-M. leprae activity was higher in indeterminate leprosy than in the control group with virtually no overlap. IgA anti-M. leprae was higher in indeterminate leprosy, but with considerable overlap with the controls. No difference between these two groups was found in the IgG assay. The results are discussed in relation to the value of the various immunoglobulin specific anti-M. leprae assays for different purposes, including development of techniques for sero-diagnosis of leprosy. PMID:7042137

  14. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Abdali, Khadijeh; Jahed, Leila; Amooee, Sedigheh; Zarshenas, Mahnaz; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Bekhradi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01). Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis.

  15. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Abdali, Khadijeh; Jahed, Leila; Amooee, Sedigheh; Zarshenas, Mahnaz; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Bekhradi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01). Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis. PMID:26266260

  16. Group Intervention to Promote Social Skills in School-Age Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Reconsidering Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Kathleen; De Los Reyes, Andres; Cicchetti, Domenic; Scahill, Lawrence; Klin, Ami

    2009-01-01

    A consistent result in the evaluation of group-delivered intervention to promote social reciprocity in children with PDDs is that outcome data are inconclusive. Lack of robust evidence of efficacy confounds understanding of these interventions and their value to the field. It is conceivable that the construct of impaired social reciprocity in PDD…

  17. The Effects of Age Composition of 12-Step Groups on Adolescent 12-Step Participation and Substance Use Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John F.; Myers, Mark G.; Brown, Sandra A.; Myers, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Youth substance use disorder treatment programs frequently advocate integration into 12-Step fellowships to help prevent relapse. However, the effects of the predominantly adult composition of 12-step groups on adolescent involvement and substance use outcome remain unstudied. Greater knowledge could enhance the specificity of treatment…

  18. The Development of Object Categorization in Young Children: Hierarchical Inclusiveness, Age, Perceptual Attribute, and Group versus Individual Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Arterberry, Martha E.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple levels of category inclusiveness in 4 object domains (animals, vehicles, fruit, and furniture) were examined using a sequential touching procedure and assessed in both individual and group analyses in eighty 12-, 18-, 24-, and 30-month-olds. The roles of stimulus discriminability and child motor development, fatigue, and actions were also…

  19. Internet Postings Linked to Student Highlight Interest in "Hate Groups": Experts Say Recruitment Efforts Targeting School-Age Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    In an Internet forum run by the Libertarian National Socialist Green Party, an organization espousing neo-Nazi views, Jeff Weise made his comments about the group in the year leading up to his deadly armed assault at Red Lake High School in Minnesota. The forum lists 34 postings written by the 16-year-old Native American youth. The commentary Mr.…

  20. Task Group 7B: Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Biological Aging: The Roles of Nature, Nurture and Chance in the Maintenance of Human Healthspan

    SciTech Connect

    Weier, Heinz-Ulrich; Arya, Suresh; Grant, Christine; Miller, Linda; Ono, Santa Jeremy; Patil, Chris; Shay, Jerry; Topol, Eric; Torry, Michael; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Tse, Iris; Lin, Su-Ju; Miller, Richard

    2007-11-14

    The degree to which an individual organism maintains healthspan and lifespan is a function of complex interactions between genetic inheritance ('nature'), environment, including cultural inheritance (nurture) and stochastic events ('luck' or 'chance'). This task group will focus upon the role of chance because it is so poorly understood and because it appears to be of major importance in the determination of individual variations in healthspan and lifespan within species. The major factor determining variations in healthspan and lifespan between species is genetic inheritance. Broader aspects of cellular and molecular mechanisms of biological aging will also be considered, given their importance for understanding the cellular and molecular basis of successful aging. The task force will consider the cellular and molecular basis for nature, nurture and chance in healthspan and life span determination. On the basis of comparisons between identical and non-identical twins, geneticists have estimated that genes control no more than about a quarter of the inter-individual differences in lifespan (Herskind 1996). Twin studies of very old individuals, however, show substantially greater genetic contributions to Healthspan (McClearn 2004; Reed 2003). The environment clearly plays an important role in the length and the quality of life. Tobacco smoke, for example has the potential to impact upon multiple body systems in ways that appear to accelerate the rates at which those systems age (Bernhard 2007). To document the role of chance events on aging, one must rigorously control both the genetic composition of an organism and its environment. This has been done to a remarkable degree in a species of nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans (Vanfleteren 1998). The results confirm hundreds of previous studies with a wide range of species, especially those with inbred rodents housed under apparently identical but less well controlled environments. One observes wide variations in

  1. Using a telephone support group for HIV-positive persons aged 50+ to increase social support and health-related knowledge.

    PubMed

    Nokes, Kathleen M; Chew, Lee; Altman, Carolyn

    2003-07-01

    Middle-aged and older persons living with HIV/AIDS have unique needs arising from the physical, mental, and social changes associated not only with normal aging but also related to living with a chronic illness. To address these needs, two 10-week telephone psychoeducational support groups were offered for HIV-infected persons aged 50 or older. Each group was cofacilitated by a registered nurse and a social worker; each session was 50-60 minutes every Friday; approximately 1-5 clients participated with an average number of 3 clients and there was no charge to the participants. The issues addressed in the group were: (1) staying healthy; (2) symptom management; (3) understanding other chronic illnesses; (4) understanding diagnostic tests; (5) strategies for effective interactions with the health care provider; (6) optimizing HIV/AIDS medication use; (7) understanding new developments in HIV treatment; (8) coping with losses; and (9) finding commonalities. There were unique challenges. Boundaries of respect were more difficult to maintain in a teleconference, as opposed to an in-person group. Nonverbal cues were impossible to interpret and therefore greater sensitivity was required to gauge the impact of borderline, less controlled group members, especially in relationship to other group members who may tend to be less assertive. One group member withdrew because his hearing was impaired and the telephone modality was just too challenging. It has been found that middle-aged and older adults living with HIV/AIDS with greater depression identify a need for information and support. It is crucial to share concrete information, identify symptoms clearly, and explore the use of effective and ineffective medications and treatments. The psychosocial concerns are very real and encouraging group members to open up to one another to create a cohesive community of sharing is equally important. Although the use of teleconference technology makes this more difficult, the attempt

  2. Relation Between Serum Total Cholesterol Level and Cardiovascular Disease Stratified by Sex and Age Group: A Pooled Analysis of 65 594 Individuals From 10 Cohort Studies in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nagasawa, Sin-ya; Okamura, Tomonori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Yamada, Michiko; Watanabe, Makoto; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2012-01-01

    Background The relation between serum total cholesterol (TC) and cardiovascular disease in women and in the elderly is unclear, especially in Asian populations. Methods and Results We examined this relation in the largest-scale pooled analysis of the Japanese population, the Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan (EPOCH-JAPAN) study. A total of 65 594 participants who were 40 to 89 years of age and did not have a past history of cardiovascular disease were examined. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for death from total stroke, cerebral infarction, intracranial cerebral hemorrhage, or coronary heart disease. The mean follow-up period was 10.1 years, with the number of deaths from total stroke, cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and coronary heart disease being 875, 457, 212, and 374, respectively. The participants were divided into 2 age groups: middle-aged (40 to 69 years; mean age 55 years) and elderly (70 to 89 years; mean age 75 years). In men, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for coronary heart disease in the highest TC category (≥6.21 mmol/L) compared with the lowest category (<4.14 mmol/L) were 2.52 (95% confidence interval: 1.15–5.07) in middle-aged participants and 2.77 (1.09–7.03) in elderly participants. In women, the hazard ratios of the highest TC category (≥6.72 mmol/L) compared with the lowest category (<4.66 mmol/L) were 3.20 (1.44–7.09) in middle-aged participants and 1.02 (0.42–2.49) in elderly participants. TC levels were not associated with cerebral infarction in any age or sex group and were associated negatively with total stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. Conclusion High serum TC levels are associated with coronary heart disease in middle-aged Japanese men and women, but evidence in elderly Japanese individuals is still limited. PMID:23316288

  3. Nicotinamide, NAD(P)(H), and Methyl-Group Homeostasis Evolved and Became a Determinant of Ageing Diseases: Hypotheses and Lessons from Pellagra

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Adrian C.; Hill, Lisa J.; Ramsden, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Compartmentalized redox faults are common to ageing diseases. Dietary constituents are catabolized to NAD(H) donating electrons producing proton-based bioenergy in coevolved, cross-species and cross-organ networks. Nicotinamide and NAD deficiency from poor diet or high expenditure causes pellagra, an ageing and dementing disorder with lost robustness to infection and stress. Nicotinamide and stress induce Nicotinamide-N-methyltransferase (NNMT) improving choline retention but consume methyl groups. High NNMT activity is linked to Parkinson's, cancers, and diseases of affluence. Optimising nicotinamide and choline/methyl group availability is important for brain development and increased during our evolution raising metabolic and methylome ceilings through dietary/metabolic symbiotic means but strict energy constraints remain and life-history tradeoffs are the rule. An optimal energy, NAD and methyl group supply, avoiding hypo and hyper-vitaminoses nicotinamide and choline, is important to healthy ageing and avoids utilising double-edged symbionts or uncontrolled autophagy or reversions to fermentation reactions in inflammatory and cancerous tissue that all redistribute NAD(P)(H), but incur high allostatic costs. PMID:22536229

  4. Effects of gestation and birth weight on the growth and development of very low birthweight small for gestational age infants: a matched group comparison

    PubMed Central

    Gutbrod, T.; Wolke, D.; Soehne, B.; Ohrt, B.; Riegel, K.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate the effects of small for gestational age (SGA) in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants on growth and development until the fifth year of life.
METHODS—VLBW (< 1500 g) infants, selected from a prospective study, were classified as SGA (n = 115) on the basis of birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age and were compared with two groups of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants matched according to birth weight (AGA-BW; n = 115) or gestation at birth (AGA-GA; n = 115). Prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors were recorded, and duration and intensity of treatment were computed from daily assessments. Body weight, length, and head circumference were measured at birth, five and 20 months (corrected for prematurity), and at 56 months. General development was assessed at five and 20 months with the Griffiths scale of babies abilities, and cognitive development at 56 months with the Columbia mental maturity scales, a vocabulary (AWST) and language comprehension test (LSVTA).
RESULTS—Significant group differences were found in complications (pregnancy, birth, and neonatal), parity, and multiple birth rate. The AGA-GA group showed most satisfactory growth up to 56 months, with both the AGA-BW and SGA groups lagging behind. The AGA-GA group also scored significantly more highly on all developmental and cognitive tests than the other groups. Developmental test results were similar for the SGA and AGA-BW groups at five and 20 months, but AGA-BW infants (lowest gestation) had lower scores on performance intelligence quotient and language comprehension at 56 months than the SGA group. When prenatal and neonatal complications, parity, and multiple birth were accounted for, group differences in growth remained, but differences in cognitive outcome disappeared after five months.
CONCLUSIONS—Being underweight and with a short gestation (SGA and VLBW) leads to poor weight gain and head growth in infancy but does not

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation and linguistic validation of age-group-specific haemophilia patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for patients and parents.

    PubMed

    von Mackensen, S; Campos, I G; Acquadro, C; Strandberg-Larsen, M

    2013-03-01

    Currently, haemophilia care aims to provide the best possible quality of life for individuals living with this chronic disease. Many factors are known to influence treatment adherence, including treatment satisfaction. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and treatment satisfaction are, therefore, important outcomes in clinical trials and clinical practice. As individuals' perception of their well-being often differs from that of their physician, it is recommended that self-report instruments are used to assess patient-reported outcomes (PROs). The way that the impact of haemophilia is perceived by the patient and their family can be different, so it is important to assess how parents perceive the impact on their children. A series of PRO instruments have been developed, adapted to different age groups and parents of patients with haemophilia. To allow the instruments to be used internationally, culturally adapted and linguistically validated translations have been developed; some instruments have been translated into 61 languages. Here, we report the process used for cultural adaptation of the Haemo-QoL, Haem-A-QoL and Hemo-Sat into 28 languages. Equivalent concepts for 22 items that were difficult to adapt culturally for particular languages were identified and classed as semantic/conceptual (17 items), cultural (three items), idiomatic (one item), and grammatical (one item) problems. This has resulted in linguistically validated versions of these instruments, which can be used to assess HRQoL and treatment satisfaction in clinical trials and clinical practice. They will provide new insights into areas of haemophilia that remain poorly understood today. PMID:23167873

  6. Effect of the group II metabotropic glutamate agonist, 2R,4R-APDC, varies with age, layer, and visual experience in the visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Beaver, C J; Ji, Q; Daw, N W

    1999-07-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR 2/3) are distributed differentially across the layers of cat visual cortex, and this distribution varies with age. At 3-4 wk, mGluR 2/3 receptor immunoreactivity is present in all layers. By 6-8 wk of age, it is still present in extragranular layers (2, 3, 5, and 6) but has disappeared from layer 4, and dark-rearing postpones the disappearance of Group II receptors from layer 4. We examined the physiological effects of Group II activation, to see if these effects varied similarly. The responses of single neurons in cat primary visual cortex were recorded to visual stimulation, then the effect of iontophoresis of 2R,4R-4 aminopyrrolidine-2, 4-decarboxylate (2R,4R-APDC), a Group II specific agonist, was observed in animals between 3 wk and adulthood. The effect of 2R, 4R-APDC was generally suppressive, reducing both the visual response and spontaneous activity of single neurons. The developmental changes were in agreement with the immunohistochemical results: 2R, 4R-APDC had effects on cells in all layers in animals of 3-4 wk but not in layer 4 of animals >6 wk old. Moreover, the effect of 2R, 4R-APDC was reduced in the cortex of older animals (>22 wk). Dark-rearing animals to 47-54 days maintained the effects of 2R, 4R-APDC in layer 4. The disappearance of Group II mGluRs from layer 4 between 3 and 6 wk of age is correlated with the segregation of ocular dominance columns in that layer, raising the possibility that mGluRs 2/3 are involved in this process. PMID:10400937

  7. Discriminatory power of game-related statistics in 14-15 year age group male volleyball, according to set.

    PubMed

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Dávila-Romero, Carlos; Saavedra, Jose M

    2013-02-01

    This study compared volleyball game-related statistics by outcome (winners and losers of sets) and set number (total, initial, and last) to identify characteristics that discriminated game performance. Game-related statistics from 314 sets (44 matches) played by teams of male 14- to 15-year-olds in a regional volleyball championship were analysed (2011). Differences between contexts (winning or losing teams) and "set number" (total, initial, and last) were assessed. A discriminant analysis was then performed according to outcome (winners and losers of sets) and "set number" (total, initial, and last). The results showed differences (winning or losing sets) in several variables of Complexes I (attack point and error reception) and II (serve and aces). Game-related statistics which discriminate performance in the sets index the serve, positive reception, and attack point. The predictors of performance at these ages when players are still learning could help coaches plan their training. PMID:23829141

  8. [Features of the lipid profile of indigenous and non-indigenous population of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) of the senior age groups with coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Arkhipova, N S; Popova, E K; Grigor'eva, L V; Ar'ev, A L

    2010-01-01

    351 patients of the senior age groups (elderly, senile age and long-livers) of indigenous and nonindigenous population with coronary heart disease were investigated. Atherogenous and antiath-erogenous levels of blood lipids in representatives of non-indigenous population were authentically higher in comparison with indigenous one. Body weight index in long-livers is authentically more low 23.34 +/- 2.05 (p < 0.001), and levels of high density lipoproteins, as well as low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins, triacylglycerol in relation to elderly and to persons of senile age are higher. Women demonstrated authentically higher body weight index--26.63 +/- 3.96 (p < 0.05), higher level of cholesterol--5.32 +/- 1.07 mmol/I (p < 0.001), low density lipoproteins--3.76 +/- 1.04 mmol/l (p < 0.001), high density lipoproteins--0.98 +/- 0.33 mmol/l (p < 0.05), and also very low density lipoproteins, triacylglycerol, atherogenic index are higher. Ethnic, gender, age distinctions, levels of blood lipids at patients with coronary heart disease of elderly and senile age, and also the long-livers living in various regions of Sakha Republic (Yakutia) are revealed.

  9. Pretreatment cytogenetics add to other prognostic factors predicting complete remission and long-term outcome in patients 60 years of age or older with acute myeloid leukemia: results from Cancer and Leukemia Group B 8461

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Sherif S.; Archer, Kellie J.; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Ruppert, Amy S.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Vardiman, James W.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Baer, Maria R.; Qumsiyeh, Mazin B.; Koduru, Prasad R.; Ning, Yi; Mayer, Robert J.; Stone, Richard M.; Larson, Richard A.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the relative prognostic significance of cytogenetics in 635 adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients 60 years of age or older treated on front-line protocols. Classification trees and tree-structured survival analysis (TSSA) were used to identify important cytogenetic groups, and their prognostic significance was then assessed in multivariable analysis (MVA). Overall, 48.5% achieved complete remission (CR); 6.6% survived at 5 years. Complex karyotypes with at least 3 abnormalities (complex ≥ 3) and a group including “rare aberrations” predicted lower CR rates (25% and 30%) versus other patients (56%). Compared with complex ≥ 3, the odds of CR were significantly higher for noncomplex karyotypes without rare aberrations on MVA. Cytogenetically, complex ≥ 5 predicted inferior disease-free survival on TSSA, remaining significant on MVA together with white blood cell count (WBC), sex, and age. For survival, complex ≥ 5, rare aberrations, and core-binding factor (CBF) abnormalities were prognostic (P < .001), with 5-year survivals of 0%, 0%, and 19.4%, respectively, and 7.5% for remaining patients. Together with WBC, marrow blasts, sex, and age, the cytogenetic groups remained significant on MVA. In conclusion, pretreatment cytogenetics adds to other prognostic factors in older AML patients. Patients with complex ≥ 5 appear to benefit minimally from current treatment and are better suited for investigational therapy or supportive care. (Blood. 2006;108:63-73) PMID:16522815

  10. [Metabolic consequences of long-term antihypertensive treatment with co-dergocrine mesylate/nifedipine in high age groups].

    PubMed

    Ritter, M M; Richter, W O; Schwandt, P

    1992-03-01

    Possible metabolic changes during chronic treatment is of specific importance for the development of antihypertensive drugs. The impact of a combination treatment with co-dergocrine mesilate/nifedipine (Pontuc; CAS 8067-24-1 resp. CAS 21829-25-4) on the lipid metabolism as well as hematological and biochemical values was evaluated in a group of hypertensive patients. HDL-cholesterol remained unchanged, whereas total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol slightly decreased, apoprotein AI increased and apoprotein B decreased. In conclusion the results of this study indicate that co-dergocrine mesilate/nifedipine has no negative impact on the lipid metabolism in patients with essential hypertension.

  11. Zircon U-Pb Ages from an Ultra-High Temperature Metapelite, Rauer Group, East Antarctica: Implications for Overprints by Grenvillian and Pan-African Events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Yanbin; Tong, Laixi; Liu, Dunyi

    2007-01-01

    SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircon from an ultra-high temperature (UHT, ~1000 °C) granulite-facies metapelite from the Rauer Group, Mather Peninsula, east Antarctica, has yielded evidence for two episodes of metamorphic zircon growth, at ~1.00 Ga and ~530 Ma, and two episodes of magmatism in the source region for the protolith sediment, at ~2.53 and ~2.65 Ga, were identified from the zircon cores. Successive zircon growth at ~1.00 Ga and ~530 Ma records a sequence of distinct, widely spaced high-temperature metamorphic and/or anatectic events related to Grenvillian and Pan-African orogenesis. This study presents the first robust geochronological evidence for the timing of UHT metamorphism of the Rauer Group, supporting arguments that the peak UHT metamorphic event occurred at ~1.00 Ga and was overprinted by a separate high-grade event at ~530 Ma. The new age data indicate that the UHT granulites of the Rauer Group experienced a complex, multi-stage tectonothermal history, which cannot simply be explained via a single Pan-African (~500 Ma) high-grade tectonic event. This is critical in understanding the role of the eastern Prydz Bay region during the assembly of the east Gondwana supercontinent, and the newly recognized inherited Archaean ages (~2.53 and ~2.65 Ga) suggest a close tectonic relationship between the Rauer Group and the adjacent Archaean of the Vestfold Hills

  12. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and redox status in a short-term low-dosed multivitamin and mineral supplementation study in two human age groups.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Eugene; Beekhof, Piet; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Luksiene, Dalia; Baceviciene, Migle

    2015-10-01

    A 60-day intervention study was conducted in which the participants took a low dose of a multivitamin and mineral supplement. The study consists of a final number of 66 volunteers (30 males and 36 females), divided into two age groups of 30-35 and 60-65 years. For 30 days they took a multivitamin and mineral supplement with 1× the recommended daily intake (RDI) followed by another 30 days with 2× the RDI. The aim of the study was to monitor oxidative stress and redox status of both young and old age groups. In serum, the expected increase of the water-soluble vitamins folate and vitamin B12 was observed with a concomitant decrease in homocysteine. Serum biomarkers of oxidative stress, the reactive oxygen metabolites, of the antioxidant status, the biological antioxidant potential did not change. However, the total thiol levels in serum, biomarker of the redox status, decreased significant, only in both groups of elderly after 60 days. In erythrocytes, there was a change in the glutathione metabolism as observed by an increase in glutathione reductase and to a lower extend in glutathione peroxidase, indicating an increase in oxidative stress in all groups. It is concluded that a low-dosed multivitamin and -mineral supplementation have different effects on the redox status in young versus old. It remained to explain why a low dose of a multivitamin and -mineral supplement cause increased oxidative stress.

  13. Prediction of Emotional Understanding and Emotion Regulation Skills of 4-5 Age Group Children with Parent-Child Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli, Esra

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to examine whether personal attributes, family characteristics of the child and parent-child relations predict children's emotional understanding and emotion regulation skills. The study was conducted with relational screening model, one of the screening models. Study sample included 423 children between the…

  14. Absolute vs. Weight-Related Maximum Oxygen Uptake in Firefighters: Fitness Evaluation with and without Protective Clothing and Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus among Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Guidetti, Laura; Cignitti, Lamberto; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    During fire emergencies, firefighters wear personal protective devices (PC) and a self-contained breathing apparatus (S.C.B.A.) to be protected from injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of aerobic level in 197 firefighters (age: 34±7 yr; BMI: 24.4±2.3 kg.m-2), evaluated by a Queen’s College Step field Test (QCST), performed with and without fire protective garments, and to analyze the differences among age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr, 31-35 yr, 36-40 yr and >40 yr). Variance analysis was applied to assess differences (p < 0.05) between tests and age groups observed in absolute and weight-related values, while a correlation was examined between QCST with and without PC+S.C.B.A. The results have shown that a 13% of firefighters failed to complete the test with PC+S.C.B.A. and significant differences between QCST performed with and without PC+S.C.B.A. in absolute (F(1,169) = 42.6, p < 0.0001) and weight-related (F(1,169) = 339.9, p < 0.0001) terms. A better correlation has been found in L•min-1 (r=0.67) than in ml•kg-1•min-1 (r=0.54). Moreover, we found significant differences among age groups both in absolute and weight-related values. The assessment of maximum oxygen uptake of firefighters in absolute term can be a useful tool to evaluate the firefighters' cardiovascular strain. PMID:25764201

  15. Absolute vs. weight-related maximum oxygen uptake in firefighters: fitness evaluation with and without protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus among age group.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Guidetti, Laura; Cignitti, Lamberto; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    During fire emergencies, firefighters wear personal protective devices (PC) and a self-contained breathing apparatus (S.C.B.A.) to be protected from injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of aerobic level in 197 firefighters (age: 34±7 yr; BMI: 24.4±2.3 kg.m-2), evaluated by a Queen's College Step field Test (QCST), performed with and without fire protective garments, and to analyze the differences among age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr, 31-35 yr, 36-40 yr and >40 yr). Variance analysis was applied to assess differences (p < 0.05) between tests and age groups observed in absolute and weight-related values, while a correlation was examined between QCST with and without PC+S.C.B.A. The results have shown that a 13% of firefighters failed to complete the test with PC+S.C.B.A. and significant differences between QCST performed with and without PC+S.C.B.A. in absolute (F(1,169) = 42.6, p < 0.0001) and weight-related (F(1,169) = 339.9, p < 0.0001) terms. A better correlation has been found in L•min-1 (r=0.67) than in ml•kg-1•min-1 (r=0.54). Moreover, we found significant differences among age groups both in absolute and weight-related values. The assessment of maximum oxygen uptake of firefighters in absolute term can be a useful tool to evaluate the firefighters' cardiovascular strain. PMID:25764201

  16. Prevalence of overweight and obese school children aged between 7 to 16 years amongst the major 3 ethnic groups in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kasmini, K; Idris, M N; Fatimah, A; Hanafiah, S; Iran, H; Asmah Bee, M N

    1997-09-01

    6239 children aged 7 to 16 years, attending 22 primary and secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were screened using a self report questionnaire, with their heights and weights measured using a digital electronic SECA beam balance. The selection was done by a two staged stratified random sampling from a total of 226 schools in Kuala Lumpur. The racial distribution was 56.7% Malays, 33.8% Chinese and 8.1% Indians; 3.6% (n:222) of the children were identified as obese and 6% (n:373) identified as overweight. The definitions of obese and overweight were computed using growth charts of the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) from the median of the reference population. There were no significant differences amongst the 3 major ethnic groups in the obese group. The differences were significant in the overweight group with the Indians most overweight, followed by the Chinese and the Malays.

  17. Crystal Structures of Brain Group-VIII Phospholipase A2 in Non-aged Complexes with the Organophosphorus Nerve Agents Soman and Sarin†‡

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Todd M.; Samanta, Uttamkumar; Kirby, Stephen D.; Cerasoli, Douglas M.; Bahnson, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    Insecticide and nerve agent organophosphorus compounds are potent inhibitors of the serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes. Nerve agents, such as sarin, soman, tabun and VX exert their toxicity by inhibiting human acetycholinesterase at nerve synapses. Following the initial phosphonylation of the active site serine, the enzyme may reactivate spontaneously or through reaction with an appropriate nucleophilic oxime. Alternatively, the enzyme-nerve agent complex can undergo a secondary process, called “aging”, which dealkylates the nerve agent adduct and results in a product that is highly resistant to reactivation by any known means. Here we report the structures of paraoxon, soman and sarin complexes of group-VIII phospholipase A2 from bovine brain. In each case, the crystal structures indicate a non-aged adduct; a stereoselective preference for binding of the PSCS isomer of soman and the PS isomer of sarin was also noted. The stability of the non-aged complexes was corroborated by trypsin digest and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, which indicates non-aged complexes are formed with diisopropylfluorophosphate, soman and sarin. The PS stereoselectivity for reaction with sarin was confirmed by reaction of racemic sarin, followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a chiral column to separate and quantitate each stereoisomer. The PS stereoisomers of soman and sarin are known to be the more toxic stereoisomers, as they react preferentially to inhibit human acetylcholinesterase. The results obtained for non-aged complexes of group-VIII phospholipase A2 are compared to those obtained for other serine hydrolases and discussed to partly explain determinants of OP aging. Furthermore, structural insights can now be exploited to engineer variant versions of this enzyme with enhanced nerve agent binding and hydrolysis functions. PMID:19271773

  18. A data-driven mathematical model of CA-MRSA transmission among age groups: evaluating the effect of control interventions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Panchanathan, Sarada; Chowell, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Community associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in the US. We developed an age-structured compartmental model to study the spread of CA-MRSA at the population level and assess the effect of control intervention strategies. We used Monte-Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) techniques to parameterize our model using monthly time series data on SSTIs incidence in children (≤ 19 years) during January 2004 -December 2006 in Maricopa County, Arizona. Our model-based forecast for the period January 2007-December 2008 also provided a good fit to data. We also carried out an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis on the control reproduction number, Rc which we estimated at 1.3 (95% CI [1.2,1.4]) based on the model fit to data. Using our calibrated model, we evaluated the effect of typical intervention strategies namely reducing the contact rate of infected individuals owing to awareness of infection and decolonization strategies targeting symptomatic infected individuals on both [Formula: see text] and the long-term disease dynamics. We also evaluated the impact of hypothetical decolonization strategies targeting asymptomatic colonized individuals. We found that strategies focused on infected individuals were not capable of achieving disease control when implemented alone or in combination. In contrast, our results suggest that decolonization strategies targeting the pediatric population colonized with CA-MRSA have the potential of achieving disease elimination.

  19. Dietary Echium Oil Increases Long-Chain n–3 PUFAs, Including Docosapentaenoic Acid, in Blood Fractions and Alters Biochemical Markers for Cardiovascular Disease Independently of Age, Sex, and Metabolic Syndrome12

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnt, Katrin; Fuhrmann, Claudia; Köhler, Melanie; Kiehntopf, Michael; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with echium oil (EO) containing stearidonic acid (SDA) is a plant-based strategy to improve long-chain (LC) n–3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status in humans. We investigated the effect of EO on LC n–3 PUFA accumulation in blood and biochemical markers with respect to age, sex, and metabolic syndrome. This double-blind, parallel-arm, randomized controlled study started with a 2-wk run-in period, during which participants (n = 80) were administered 17 g/d run-in oil. Normal-weight individuals from 2 age groups (20–35 and 49–69 y) were allotted to EO or fish oil (FO; control) groups. During the 8-wk intervention, participants were administered either 17 g/d EO (2 g SDA; n = 59) or FO [1.9 g eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); n = 19]. Overweight individuals with metabolic syndrome (n = 19) were recruited for EO treatment only. During the 10-wk study, the participants followed a dietary n–3 PUFA restriction, e.g., no fish. After the 8-wk EO treatment, increases in the LC n–3 metabolites EPA (168% and 79%) and docosapentaenoic acid [DPA (68% and 39%)] were observed, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) decreased (−5% and −23%) in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively. Compared with FO, the efficacy of EO to increase EPA and DPA in blood was significantly lower (∼25% and ∼50%, respectively). A higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with lower relative and net increases in EPA and DPA. Compared with baseline, EO significantly reduced serum cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL, and triglyceride (TG), but also HDL cholesterol, regardless of age and BMI. In the FO group, only TG decreased. Overall, daily intake of 15–20 g EO increased EPA and DPA in blood but had no influence on DHA. EO lowered cardiovascular risk markers, e.g., serum TG, which is particularly relevant for individuals with metabolic syndrome. Natural EO could be a noteworthy source of n–3 PUFA in human nutrition. This trial

  20. High alcohol consumption in middle aged adults is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socioeconomic group. Results from the GAZEL cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sabia, Séverine; Guéguen, Alice; Berr, Claudine; Berkman, Lisa; Ankri, Joël; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of alcohol consumption over 10 years with cognitive performance in different socioeconomic groups. Design Prospective cohort study, the French GAZEL study. Setting France. Participants Employees of France’s national electricity and gas company. Measurements Alcohol intake was assessed annually, beginning in 1992, using questions on frequency and quantity of alcoholic beverages consumed in a week; used to define mean consumption and trajectory of alcohol intake over 10 years. Cognitive performance among participants aged ≥55 years (N=4073) was assessed in 2002–2004 using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a measure of psychomotor speed, attention and reasoning. Occupational position at age 35 and education were used as the markers of socioeconomic position. Findings All analyses were stratified by socioeconomic position. In the low occupational group, participants consuming a mean of more than 21 drinks per week had 2.1 points lower (95% CI: −3.9, −0.3) DSST score compared to those consuming 4–14 drinks per week. In participants with primary school education, the corresponding difference was 3.6 points (95% CI: −7.1,−0.0). No association between alcohol consumption and cognitive performance was observed in the intermediate and high socioeconomic groups, defined using either occupation or education. Analysis of trajectories of alcohol consumption showed that in the low socioeconomic groups large increase or decrease in alcohol consumption was associated with lower cognitive scores compared to stable consumption. Conclusions Our results suggest that high alcohol consumption is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socioeconomic group, possibly due to greater cognitive reserve in the higher socioeconomic groups. PMID:20840170