Science.gov

Sample records for age groups children

  1. Leadership Asymmetries in Mixed-Age Children's Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Doran C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Observed the decision-reaching and leadership behavior of children in same- amd mixed-age triads by coding their verbalizations in arriving at a consensus for their preference ranking of eight pictures. (HOD)

  2. Quality Care through Multi-Age Grouping of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Leo

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that multi-age grouping in early childhood settings can and does work. Addresses four main hurdles to successful implementation: (1) laws and regulations that act as barriers; (2) health concerns; (3) overcoming educational values that conflict with those of the age-grouped classroom; and (4) staff misunderstanding of multi-age grouping…

  3. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  4. The Effects of Multi-Age Grouping on Young Children and Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Melanie K.; Green, Virginia P.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review on the effects of multiage groupings (MAGs) in the primary grades supports their use and argues that children in MAGs perform as well academically as children in single-age groupings (SAGs) and develop better self-concept and school attitudes than children in SAGs. Expresses concerns over lack of training and support for…

  5. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  6. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  7. Duration of the immune response to MMR vaccine in children of two age-different groups.

    PubMed

    Li Volti, S; Giammanco-Bilancia, G; Grassi, M; Garozzo, R; Gluck, R; Giammanco, G

    1993-05-01

    A combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) was administered to both a group of children aged 10-12 months simultaneously with booster doses of compulsory diphtheria-tetanus toxoids and oral poliovirus vaccine and a group of children aged 15-24 months who had previously received booster doses of the compulsory vaccines. Apart from one subject belonging to the second group who was non responder and one from the same group who did not seroconvert against the mumps virus alone, 5 to 6 weeks after MMR vaccine administration we found protective levels of antibodies against measles, mumps and rubella viruses in all children. The follow up of both groups at 3 years did not reveal difference between the two groups. Protective levels of serum antibodies against measles and mumps were found in the two groups, although a significant decline of rubella antibodies was shown (p < 0.05). Since the immunogenicity of the vaccines in the two groups did not differ, we recommend that the scientific community reconsider the vaccination schedule until now recommended. In our opinion the MMR vaccine should be administered simultaneously with booster doses of diphtheria-tetanus toxoids and oral poliovirus vaccine at 10-12 months of age because this policy improves parents' compliance, markedly reduces community costs and simplifies routine immunization schedule. PMID:8405317

  8. Risk groups in children under six months of age using self-organizing maps.

    PubMed

    Schilithz, A O C; Kale, P L; Gama, S G N; Nobre, F F

    2014-06-01

    Fetal and infant growth tends to follow irregular patterns and, particularly in developing countries, these patterns are greatly influenced by unfavorable living conditions and interactions with complications during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify groups of children with different risk profiles for growth development. The study sample comprised 496 girls and 508 boys under six months of age from 27 pediatric primary health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were obtained through interviews with the mothers and by reviewing each child's health card. An unsupervised learning, know as a self-organizing map (SOM) and a K-means algorithm were used for cluster analysis to identify groups of children. Four groups of infants were identified. The first (139) consisted of infants born exclusively by cesarean delivery, and their mothers were exclusively multiparous; the highest prevalences of prematurity and low birthweight, a high prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and a low proportion of hospitalization were observed for this group. The second (247 infants) and the third (298 infants) groups had the best and worst perinatal and infant health indicators, respectively. The infants of the fourth group (318) were born heavier, had a low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding, and had a higher rate of hospitalization. Using a SOM, it was possible to identify children with common features, although no differences between groups were found with respect to the adequacy of postnatal weight. Pregnant women and children with characteristics similar to those of group 3 require early intervention and more attention in public policy. PMID:24725333

  9. [Current model of breakfast for different age groups: children, a adolescents and adults].

    PubMed

    Núñez, C; Cuadrado, C; Carbajal, A; Moreiras, O

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to assess the current breakfast model in different age groups: children between the ages of 6 and 12 years (n = 54); adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 years (n = 174); and adults, older than 18 years of age (n = 252). For this a questionnaire has been designed that follows the standards of that used for a similar study by our team in 1984 on a sample of 1350 individuals. The modified and amplified questionnaire included open and closed questions about: the omission of breakfast and its causes, foods that are a part of breakfast, the most frequent types and the variations, the role of the second breakfast, the number of fasting hours since dinner, the time spent of breakfast, and the subjective opinion regarding the importance or not of having breakfast. 98.95% answer yes to the question do you have breakfast, but only 9% eats a nutritionally correct breakfast, one defined as that breakfast that supplies 20% of the total energy and includes foods from at least four different groups. All the children included some form of milk product in their breakfast. The adolescents consumed the lowest proportion of cereals (19.4%) and the highest proportion of pastries (24.2%). The percentage of adults who drink coffee with milk (57%) and sugar (37.7%) is significantly higher than that it the other two groups. Bread (37.7%), pastries (28.3%) and cookies (26.1%) are the solid foods eaten most by the adults. The children spend the longest time on breakfast. 35.9% of the sample varies their breakfast, 43.1% never does, and 21% does so sometimes. The average time elapsed between dinner and breakfast is 10.5 +/- 1.2 hours. It is advisable to have a more nutritionally balanced breakfast, including different foods from at least four groups, and including a greater variety in the menus. PMID:9780752

  10. Effective Group Work for Elementary School-Age Children Whose Parents Are Divorcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia-Waack, Janice; Gerrity, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Parental divorce is the issue of most concern for elementary school children. This article describes interventions for children-of-divorce groups for elementary school children. Suggests guidelines related to goal setting; securing agency and parental consent; leadership planning; recruitment, screening, and selection of members; group member…

  11. Effectiveness of a School-Based Early Intervention CBT Group Programme for Children with Anxiety Aged 5-7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruocco, Sylvia; Gordon, Jocelynne; McLean, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Early manifestations of anxiety in childhood confer significant distress and life interference. This study reports on the first controlled trial of the "Get Lost Mr. Scary" programme, a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group intervention for children with anxiety aged 5-7 years. Participants were 134 children (65 males and 69 females) drawn…

  12. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children's Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Wiegand, Ryan E; Omedo, Martin; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization recommendations for the timing and target population for mass drug administration (MDA) for schistosomiasis are based on the prevalence of infection in school children within a given community. In a large study comparing MDA approaches for Schistosoma mansoni control, we evaluated whether prevalence of infection and egg burdens in 9- to 12-year-old students reflected infection levels in young children and adults in the same community. Cross-sectional surveys of preadolescents (9-12 years old) were compared with those of first year students (5-8 years old) in 225 villages and adults (20-55 years old) in 150 villages along the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Village schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity levels in preadolescents strongly correlated (P < 0.0001) with prevalence and infection intensity for other age groups in the community. Our findings suggest that S. mansoni prevalence and intensity among 9- to 12-year-olds are valid for community sampling purposes in mapping for MDAs. PMID:26416108

  13. Development of an Outreach Group for Children Ages Five through Thirteen Who Have Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Corinne

    This practicum took place at a spouse abuse shelter located in a county classified as urban in the southeast United States. It was found that once a family left the shelter, support groups were not available to help the children with feelings related to living in a home where domestic violence has occurred. Most of these children were already…

  14. Effect of occupation-based groups on self-concept of children aged 5-8: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Scurlock, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this pilot study was to ascertain the effectiveness of an occupation-based after-school program for improving self-concept in children, ages five through eight. Fifty-four randomly selected children ages five through eight from two schools (one being the control group) with similar socioeconomic status along the Ohio River were involved in this research study. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PCSA; Harter & Pike, 1984) was administered to all participants (N = 54), four subtests were analyzed: cognitive competence, social competence with peers, physical competence in sports, and maternal acceptance. The experimental group (n = 25) attended occupation-based groups two times a week after school. The control group (n = 29) did not participate in an after-school program. Data from pre-test and post-test were analyzed using a t-test. Findings demonstrated that the experimental group improved their self-concept scores when compared to the control group in the areas of peer acceptance and cognitive competence. This would offer tentative evidence that an after-school program directed by occupational therapists that is designed to improve self-concept may be successful. PMID:25338266

  15. Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy with Family Involvement for Middle-School-Age Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jacqueline L.; Thienemann, Margo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Middle-school-aged children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are poised in development between the dependency of elementary school-aged children and growing independence of adolescence. OCD patients of this age group may differ from older ones in the quality of symptoms and level of insight. We report the results of a…

  16. BMI Group-Related Differences in Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Preschool-Age Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…

  17. Acute Respiratory Infections among Under-Five Age Group Children at Urban Slums of Gulbarga City: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Pattankar, Jayashree; Puttahonnappa, Suresh Kuralayanapalya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Among all illness, Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) account for 30-60% of paediatric outpatient attendance and 20-30% of hospital admissions. Aim To study the morbidity pattern of ARI among under-five-age group children and to assess the determinants. Materials and Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted for a one year period, comprising a cumulative sample of 400 children from 3 urban slums of Gulbarga city. History of nasal discharge, cough, fever, sore throat, breathing difficulty, any discharge from ear alone or in combination, was used in the recognition of an ARI episode. Respiratory rate >60/minute (<2 month infants), >50(2-11 months) and >40(1-5 years) in a child with cough, cold or fever singly or in combination was considered the criteria for recognition of pneumonia. Results Out of the 400 surveyed, ARI was detected among 109 children giving an incidence of 27.25%. Among these, Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) was found among 19.25% and Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) among 8%. ARI was observed among 38.04% of infants, 37.84% of 2-3-year-old children, 36.87% of boys, 40.43% of children born to illiterate father’s, 35.77% of SES class IV & 40.79% of SES class V, and 41.89% of children with family history of respiratory illness. All these data were found to be statistically significant. High rates of ARI were also observed among 41.36% of children living in households with firewood fuel usage, 35.04% of children with pets in the household, 34.82% of children with delayed milestones, 53.85% of children with grade IV and 66.67% of children with grade V malnutrition. More episodes occurred during winter months of the year (Oct – Jan). During the follow-up phase of study done on a cohort of 112 children for a period of one year, an attack rate of 3.27 episodes/child/year was observed. Conclusion Community education programs should focus on addressing specific issues viz. identification of respiratory illness

  18. Antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy urban children of two age groups in relation to their antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Literak, Ivan; Petro, Radim; Dolejska, Monika; Gruberova, Erika; Dobiasova, Hana; Petr, Jan; Cizek, Alois

    2011-06-01

    The study was performed in the Czech Republic during 2007 to 2009. Of Escherichia coli isolates from 275 children aged 6 weeks, 36% (n = 177) were resistant to 1 to 7 antibiotics. Of isolates from 253 children aged 6 to 17 years, 24% (n = 205) were resistant to 1 to 5 antibiotics. There was no significant difference in the prevalences of antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates between these groups of children, even though the consumptions of antibiotics were quite different. PMID:21464246

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance in Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Healthy Urban Children of Two Age Groups in Relation to Their Antibiotic Therapy▿

    PubMed Central

    Literak, Ivan; Petro, Radim; Dolejska, Monika; Gruberova, Erika; Dobiasova, Hana; Petr, Jan; Cizek, Alois

    2011-01-01

    The study was performed in the Czech Republic during 2007 to 2009. Of Escherichia coli isolates from 275 children aged 6 weeks, 36% (n = 177) were resistant to 1 to 7 antibiotics. Of isolates from 253 children aged 6 to 17 years, 24% (n = 205) were resistant to 1 to 5 antibiotics. There was no significant difference in the prevalences of antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates between these groups of children, even though the consumptions of antibiotics were quite different. PMID:21464246

  20. Improving the Effects of Group Working in Classrooms with Young School-Aged Children: Facilitating Attainment, Interaction and Classroom Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutnick, Peter; Ota, Cathy; Berdondini, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    Within primary school classrooms children are often seated in groups but research shows that pupils do not collaborate or learn effectively within these groups. This study is focused on children 5-7 years old. Using a quasi-experimental design, children in experimental classes undertook relational activities to improve the effectiveness of group…

  1. Association of Obesity with Hypertension Amongst School-Age Children Belonging to Lower Income Group and Middle Income Group in National Capital Territory of Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Supreet; Sachdev, HPS; Dwivedi, S N; Lakshmi, R; Kapil, Umesh; Sareen, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hypertension is one of the most common diseases world-wide and the prevalence in school-aged children appears to be increasing perhaps as a result of increased prevalence of obesity. Thus, the present study was planned to establish an association between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with hypertension amongst school children in the age group of 5-16 years belonging to lower income group (LIG) and middle income group (MIG) in National Capital Territory of Delhi. Subjects and Methods: Population proportionate to size methodology was adopted to select 30 clusters/schools in each LIG and MIG category. About 170 children from each school were selected randomly with the help of random number tables. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height and WC and blood pressure measurements were taken by using the standard methodology. Results and Interpretation: t0 he prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 3.8 and 4.4% with high WC and BMI are more likely to have hypertension. Subjects and Methods: Population proportionate to size methodology was adopted to select 30 clusters/schools in each LIG and MIG category. About 170 children from each school were selected randomly with the help of random number tables. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height and WC and blood pressure measurements were taken by using the standard methodology. Results and Interpretation: t0 he prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 3.8 and 4.4% with high WC and BMI are more likely to have hypertension. PMID:24019604

  2. DSM-IV-defined anxiety disorder symptoms in a middle-childhood-aged group of Malaysian children using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Atefeh; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif; Udin, Amirmudin; Haghdoost, AliAkbar

    2016-03-01

    Introduction Pediatric anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorders in the middle-childhood age group. The purpose of this study is to assess anxiety disorder symptoms, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), in a large community sample of low socioeconomic level rural children and to investigate some of the psychometric properties (internal consistency, construct and convergent validity and items rated as often or always experienced) of the Malay version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale - Child version (SCAS-C). Method Six hundred children aged 9-11 and 424 of their parents completely answered the child or parent versions of the SCAS. Results Results indicated that the internal reliability of subscales were moderate to adequate. Significant correlations between child and parent reports supported the measure's concurrent validity. Additionally, anxiety levels in this Malaysian sample were lower than among South-African children and higher than among their Western peers. There were both similarities and differences between symptom items reported as often or always experienced by Malaysian students and by children from other cultures. Confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence of the existence of five inter-correlated factors for anxiety disorders based on SCAS-C. Conclusion Although some of the instrument's psychometric properties deviated from those observed in some other countries, it nevertheless appears to be useful for assessing childhood anxiety symptoms in this country. PMID:27007941

  3. Comparison of anxiety levels associated with noise in the dental clinic among children of age group 6-15 years.

    PubMed

    Muppa, Radhika; Bhupatiraju, Prameela; Duddu, Mahesh; Penumatsa, Narendra Varma; Dandempally, Arthi; Panthula, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Fear or anxiety due to noise produced in the dental clinic is rated third among the reasons to avoid dental visits. The aim of the present study was to determine anxiety levels associated with noise in a dental clinic. The study was done using a survey questionnaire containing 10 questions and was divided into two parts. The first part included demographic information such as name, age, gender, and school; the second half included questions regarding patient's feelings toward noise in the dental clinic and its possible link to dental anxiety. Two-hundred and fifty children and adolescents of age group 6-15 years participated in the study. Results of the study showed that 50% of females, 29% males avoided a visit to the dentist because of anxiety and fear, 38% subjects of age group 6-11 years reported that sound of the drill makes them uncomfortable, followed by having to wait in the reception area. Gender gap was also observed with more females feeling annoyed than males on the 1-10 annoyance level scale. More than 60% felt "annoyed" to "extremely annoyed" by noise in the dental clinic. 45% of subjects preferred watching television to cope with such noise. This study concludes that the noise produced in dental clinic is anxiety provoking and significantly contributes to avoidance of dental treatment and the best way opted by the majority of subjects to overcome this anxiety was audiovisual distraction method. PMID:23689302

  4. Focus Groups with Working Parents of School-Aged Children: What's Needed to Improve Family Meals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Rydell, Sarah; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Garwick, Ann; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Dudovitz, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To conduct focus groups to identify parents' perceptions of barriers to family meals and elucidate ideas to guide the development of interventions to overcome barriers. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 27 working parents in urban community settings. Results: Parents reported enjoying the sharing/bonding…

  5. Mixed Age Groups in Swedish Nursery School and Compulsory School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundell, Knut

    Before 1970, no mixed-age groups existed in Swedish nursery schools. By 1991, 43 percent of children enrolled in nursery school were in mixed-age groups of ages 1 to 6 years, and 37 percent were in groups of children ages 3 to 6 years. Mixed-age groups are assumed to have advantages, including positive influences on learning and social…

  6. Children's Views on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Ronald; Newman, Sally

    One hundred-seventy elementary school children in Western Pennsylvania were involved in a pilot study to examine young children's views on aging and the elderly. Approximately half of these children were involved in the Senior Citizen School Volunteer Program which provided consistent classroom contact with a senior citizen resource person. The…

  7. Does the Age and Familiarity of the Informant Group Influence the Tendency of 3- and 4-year-old Children to Conform?

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Nicola; Stevenson, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The authors' aim was to explore whether the age and the familiarity of the individuals comprising a group majority influenced the tendency of 3- and 4-year-old children to conform. Participants were presented with 2 variants of a novel task in which they were required to judge which of 3 line-drawn tigers had the greatest number of stripes. The participants made their judgments in 2 contexts, first after viewing 5 informants perform the task incorrectly, and second without viewing the responses of other individuals. The informants comprised a group of familiar children, a group of unfamiliar children, a group of familiar adults, or a group of unfamiliar adults. The results showed that the children displayed selective conformity with respect to informant age, readily adopting the incorrect response when it was indicated by an adult majority, but failing to do so when the same incorrect response was indicated by a majority of children. In contrast the familiarity of the individuals comprising the majority had little influence on the tendency of children to conform. These results suggest that children are not blanket conformists, rather they respond selectively depending on characteristics of the individuals comprising the group majority. PMID:27341477

  8. Association of body mass index and waist circumference with hypertension among school children in the age group of 5-16 years belonging to lower income group and middle income group in National Capital Territory of Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Kapil, Umesh; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh; Sareen, Neha; Kaur, Supreet

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Hypertension is one of the most common diseases world-wide and the prevalence in school-aged children appears to be increasing perhaps as a result of increased prevalence of obesity. Thus, the present study was planned to establish an association between body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with hypertension amongst school children in the age group of 5-16 years belonging to lower income group (LIG) and middle income group (MIG) in National Capital Territory of Delhi. Materials and Methods: Population proportionate to size methodology was adopted to select 30 clusters/schools in each LIG and MIG category. About 170 children from each school were selected randomly with the help of random number tables. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height and WC and blood pressure measurements were taken by using standard methodology. Results: The prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (SBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 2.8% and 4.1% respectively. Similarly, the prevalence of high diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in LIG and MIG school population was 2.7% and 4.2%, respectively. Statistical positive correlation was observed between BMI and WC with SBP and DBP. Thus, it can be inferred that children with high WC and BMI are more likely to have hypertension. PMID:24251210

  9. Assessing Minority Group Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beeman N., Ed.

    Contents of this book include the following collection of articles: "Assessing Minority Group Children: Challenges for School Psychologists," Thomas Oakland; "The NEA Testing Moratorium," Boyd Bosma; "Cultural Myopia: The Need for a Corrective Lens," Martin H. Gerry; "Assumptions Underlying Psychological Testing," T. Ernest Newland;…

  10. Group Intervention to Promote Social Skills in School-Age Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Reconsidering Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Kathleen; De Los Reyes, Andres; Cicchetti, Domenic; Scahill, Lawrence; Klin, Ami

    2009-01-01

    A consistent result in the evaluation of group-delivered intervention to promote social reciprocity in children with PDDs is that outcome data are inconclusive. Lack of robust evidence of efficacy confounds understanding of these interventions and their value to the field. It is conceivable that the construct of impaired social reciprocity in PDD…

  11. How Do Children Share Information in Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gummerum, Michaela; Leman, Patrick J.; Hollins, Tara S.

    2014-01-01

    Group decision making should be particularly beneficial when group members share unique information, because then a group can make a better decision than each group member alone. This study examined how elementary-school children share unique information during group decision making. Seventy-nine groups of 3 same-sex and same-age 7- and 9-year-old…

  12. Quantification and Correlation of Oral Candida with Caries Index Among Different Age Groups of School Children: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, BV; Reginald, BA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is the most common infectious disease affecting humans and is the predominant cause of tooth loss in children. Although Candida's role in dental caries has been studied extensively, limited homogenous studies have been conducted and none have been found, that associate Candida with dental caries, while correlating it to different age groups. Aim: The study aimed to quantify oral Candida in school children and correlate candidal carriage to the caries index and further analyze an age association. Subjects and Methods: Decayed-Filled teeth/Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth (dft/DMFT) index scores of 150 subjects were evaluated, and concentrated oral rinse samples were collected from each participant for mycologic investigation. Based on the age and caries activity, the participants were categorized into three groups consisting of 50 each such as Group-I (caries active participants of 6–12 years age), Group-II (caries active participants in 13–18 years age), and Group-III (caries-free participants in 6–18 years age); CHROMagar™ was used as a primary culture medium for candidal growth. The data was statistically analyzed using Unpaired t-test, Chi-square test and Spearman's rank order. Results: The results demonstrated that as age increases, the dft/DMFT scores as well as the candidal growth decreased. In addition, the oral candidal carriage levels were found to be low in caries-free group (Group-III) when compared to the study groups. Conclusion: The presence of Candida was directly related to the caries status and inversely proportional to the age. PMID:27213089

  13. Acute lower respiratory tract infection due to respiratory syncytial virus in a group of Egyptian children under 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and aim Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) in infants and young children. This study was conducted to describe the epidemiology of ALRTI associated with RSV among children ≤ 5 years old in Egypt. Patients and Methods We enrolled 427 children ≤ 5 years old diagnosed with ALRTI attending the outpatient clinic or Emergency Department (ED) of Children Hospital, Cairo University during a one- year period. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from the patients, kept on ice and processed within 2 hours of collection. Immunoflourescent assay (IFA) for RSV was performed. Results 91 cases (21.3%) had viral etiology with RSV antigens detected in 70 cases (16.4%). The RSV positive cases were significantly younger than other non-RSV cases (mean age 8.2 months versus 14.2 months, p <0.001). RSV cases had significantly higher respiratory rate in the age group between 2-11 months (mean 58.4 versus 52.7/minute, p < 0.001) and no significant difference in the mean respiratory rate in the age group between 12-59 months. More RSV cases required supplemental oxygen (46% versus 23.5%, p < 0.001) with higher rate of hospitalization (37.1% versus 11.2%, p < 0.001) than the non-RSV cases. 97% of RSV cases occurred in winter season (p < 0.001). Conclusion RSV is the most common viral etiology of ALRTI in children below 5 years of age, especially in young infants below 6 months of age. It is more prevalent in winter and tends to cause severe infection. PMID:21466713

  14. Grouping of children's helping behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kalliopuska, M

    1992-12-01

    215 school children aged 9 to 12 yr. were grouped according to their helping behaviour. The following variables were measured: helping, empathy, altruism, morality, attribution of responsibility, cognitive readiness to help, willingness to help, social desirability, and abstract thinking. In a factor analysis age and sex were included. Five factors were extracted and interpreted: empathetic helping, socially desirable helping, cognitive helping, intentionality, and rational helping. According to grouping analysis these five factors were weighted differently, and three groups were identified, (1) real helpers with high empathy, altruism, morality, and cognitive readiness to help, (2) normative helpers, motivated by social desirability or cognitive factors with poor empathy level, and (3) cognitively premature, rational helpers with poor empathy and with weak social desirability. PMID:1454918

  15. Distribution of Candida albicans in the oral cavity of children aged 3-5 years of Uygur and Han nationality and their genotype in caries-active groups.

    PubMed

    Wu, N; Lin, J; Wu, L; Zhao, J

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the distribution of Candida albicans in the oral cavity of 3-5-year-old children of Uygur and Han nationalities as well as their genotypes in caries-active groups in the Urumqi municipality. CHROMagar Candida was separately cultivated, and we identified 359 Uygur and Han children aged 3-5 years. We randomly selected 20 Han children and 20 Uygur children for this study. We chose a bacterial strain for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 25S rDNA genotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) genotyping. The rate of caries-active in Han children was higher than that in Uygur children, with values of 39.6 and 24.3%, respectively. The detection rate of C. albicans was closely correlated to the caries filling index classification (X(2) = 31.037, P = 0.000, r = 0.421; X(2) = 80.454, P = 0.000, r = 0.497). PCR of 25S rDNA from 40 strains of Han and Uygur children revealed 3 genotypes, while RAPD analysis revealed 5 genotypes. The distribution of 25S rDNA genotyping of Han children from PCR differed from that of Uygur children (X(2) = 7.697, P = 0.021), both of which were mainly the A type. RAPD genotyping of both Han and Uygur children showed similar results (X(2) = 1.573, P = 0.814). There were differences in the distributions of C. albicans in children of different nationalities. C. albicans is a key factor causing caries. The PCR 25S rDNA genotyping method is simple and sensitive, while the RAPD genotyping method is reliable and comprehensive. PMID:25730012

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF OBJECT CATEGORIZATION IN YOUNG CHILDREN: HIERARCHICAL INCLUSIVENESS, AGE, PERCEPTUAL ATTRIBUTE, AND GROUP VERSUS INDIVIDUAL ANALYSES

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Arterberry, Martha E.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple levels of category inclusiveness in 4 object domains (animals, vehicles, fruit, and furniture) were examined using a sequential touching procedure and assessed in both individual and group analyses in 80 12-, 18-, 24-, and 30-month-olds. The roles of stimulus discriminability and child motor development, fatigue, and actions were also investigated. More inclusive levels of categorization systematically emerged before less inclusive levels, and a consistent advantage for categorizing high versus low perceptual contrasts was found. Group and individual analyses generally converged, but individual analyses added information about child categorization over group analyses. The development of object categorization in young children is discussed in light of efficiency of processing and similarity/differentiation theories. PMID:20210495

  17. Children in an ageing society.

    PubMed

    Hall, D M

    1999-11-20

    This paper explores the implications of demographic aging for children and pediatric practice in the Western society. It focuses on the social class differences in childbearing patterns, specific issues related to disability, and distribution of resources between age groups. Women in the Western world are now having children at an older age than at any time in the past 50 years. Voluntary childlessness or deliberate delay in childbearing is common among highly educated women. This changing pattern in childbearing may increase and polarize health and wealth inequalities. With advancements in neonatal and pediatric care which prolong life expectancy and survival of disabled children, it is projected that there will be an increasing number of very old parents caring for severely disabled offspring. Meanwhile, there are also many children who are carrying considerable burdens of caring for their disabled parents. The community burden of disability will continue to rise. The needs of the elderly population may drain resources from child health services. Despite this demographic pattern, care for the children is still important. Health care authorities must not become contented with the existing pediatric care services just because demographic changes require that the nation should invest more in care of the older population. PMID:10567149

  18. Children rectify inequalities for disadvantaged groups.

    PubMed

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-08-01

    Children's decisions regarding the allocation of societal resources in the context of preexisting inequalities were investigated. African American and European American children ages 5 to 6 years (n = 91) and 10 to 11 years (n = 94) judged the acceptability of a medical resource inequality on the basis of race, allocated medical supplies, evaluated different resource allocation strategies, and completed a measure of status awareness based on race. With age, children were increasingly aware of wealth status disparities between African Americans and European Americans, and judged a medical resource inequality between groups more negatively. Further, with age, children rectified the resource inequality over perpetuating it, but only when African American children were disadvantaged. With age, children also referenced rights when reasoning about their judgments concerning the disadvantaged African American group. When European American children were disadvantaged, children did not systematically allocate more resources to one group over another. The results are discussed in terms of social inequalities, disadvantaged status, moral judgments, and intergroup attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27455190

  19. Red blood cell complement receptor one level varies with Knops blood group, α+thalassaemia and age among Kenyan children

    PubMed Central

    Opi, D H; Uyoga, S; Orori, E N; Williams, T N; Rowe, J A

    2016-01-01

    Both the invasion of red blood cells (RBCs) by Plasmodium falciparum parasites and the sequestration of parasite-infected RBCs in the microvasculature are mediated in part by complement receptor one (CR1). RBC surface CR1 level can vary between individuals by more than 20-fold and may be associated with the risk of severe malaria. The factors that influence RBC CR1 level variation are poorly understood, particularly in African populations. We studied 3535 child residents of a malaria-endemic region of coastal Kenya and report, for the first time, that the CR1 Knops blood group alleles Sl2 and McCb, and homozygous HbSS are positively associated with RBC CR1 level. Sickle cell trait and ABO blood group did not influence RBC CR1 level. We also confirm the previous observation that α+thalassaemia is associated with reduced RBC CR1 level, possibly due to small RBC volume, and that age-related changes in RBC CR1 expression occur throughout childhood. RBC CR1 level in malaria-endemic African populations is a complex phenotype influenced by multiple factors that should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future studies on CR1 and malaria susceptibility. PMID:26844958

  20. School's Out! Group Day Care for the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth; Milich, Cynthia

    This report on group day care is designed to: (1) examine the kinds of group programs for school-age children which exist in Los Angeles County, (2) describe the conditions necessary for program operation, and (3) consider the issue of quality as it relates to community expansion of day care services for children of school age. The report is…

  1. Effects of Group Norms on Children's Intentions to Bully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    A minimal group study examined the effect of peer group norms on children's direct and indirect bullying intentions. Prior to an inter-group drawing competition, children (N = 85) aged seven and nine years were assigned to a group that had a norm of out-group dislike or out-group liking. Results indicated that, regardless of group norms, the…

  2. Group Counseling for Navy Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchum, Nancy Taylor

    1991-01-01

    Conducted six-session group counseling program for Navy children (n=22) enrolled in public schools whose fathers were on deployment. Pretest and posttest scores on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory suggest that participation in the group counseling unit positively affected self-esteem of Navy children whose fathers were on deployment. Found…

  3. The relationship between dental age, bone age and chronological age in underweight children

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Krishnan, Ramesh; Patil, Kavitha; Munoli, Karishma; Karthik, Sandhya

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: The knowledge of bone age and dental age is of great importance for pediatrician and pediatric dentist. It is essential for a pediatric dentist to formulate treatment plan and it is a source of complementary information for pediatrician. There are few studies, which showed the relationship between dental age, bone age and chronological age in underweight children. Therefore, objective of this study was to determine and compare dental age, bone age and chronological age in underweight children. Materials and Methods: 100 underweight children between the age group of 18-14 years were selected. Chronological age was assessed by recording date of birth. Dental age assessment was done using orthopantamogram following the method described by Demirjian. Bone age assessment was carried out using hand wrist radiograph following Bjork, Grave and Brown′s method. Results: Dental age and Bone age was delayed compared to chronological age in both sexes. The correlation between chronological age, dental age and bone age were all positive in males. Interpretation and Conclusion: The data supports the concept that dental age and bone age delay is a significant feature in underweight children. It is important to consider dental age and bone age as variables for diagnosing underweight children. To support our findings further a well-designed, controlled as well as longitudinal studies with a larger sample size is required. PMID:23946582

  4. Comparative Study of Probiotic Ice Cream and Probiotic Drink on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Levels in 6-12 Years Age Group Children

    PubMed Central

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Reddy, K M Parveen; Kumar, N H Praveen; Nara, Asha; Ashwin, Devasya; Buddiga, Vinutna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most common health problems in the world. Probiotics are one the various preventive methods to reduce dental caries. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of probiotic ice cream and drink on salivary Streptococcus mutans levels in children of 6-12 years age group. Materials and Methods: A three phase study was carried out in children (n = 50) of 6-12 years age with zero decayed missing filled teeth (dmft)/DMFT. They were randomly divided into two equal groups. Saliva samples were collected before the consumptions of probiotic ice cream and probiotic drink. Colony count obtained was recorded as baseline data. For both groups probiotic ice cream and drink was given randomly for 7 days and a washout period of 90 days were given and then the saliva samples were collected and colony counting was done. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s paired t-test and multiple comparisons by Tukey’s honest significant difference test which showed, there is a significant reduction in salivary S. mutans level in both groups after 7 days period. However, after washout period only probiotic ice cream showed reduction whereas drink did not. Also, there was no significant difference between probiotic ice cream and drink. Conclusion: Probiotic organisms definitely have a role in reducing the salivary S. mutans level and ice cream would be a better choice than drink. However, the prolonged use of the agents and their effects on caries is still to be determined. PMID:26435616

  5. Neisseria meningitidis Group A IgG1 and IgG2 Subclass Immune Response in African Children Aged 12–23 Months Following Meningococcal Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Holme, Daniel; Findlow, Helen; Sow, Samba O.; Idoko, Olubukola T.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Carlone, George; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Borrow, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Background. A group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT, was licensed in 2010 and was previously studied in a phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate its safety and immunogenicity in African children 12–23 months of age. Methods. Subjects received either PsA-TT; meningococcal group A, C, W, Y polysaccharide vaccine (PsACWY); or Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (Hib-TT). Forty weeks following primary vaccination, the 3 groups were further randomized to receive either PsA-TT, one-fifth dose of PsACWY, or Hib-TT. Group A–specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass response was characterized using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. The predominant IgG subclass response, regardless of vaccine, was IgG1. One month following primary vaccination, the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of IgG1 and IgG2 in the PsA-TT group were 21.73 µg/mL and 6.27 µg/mL, whereas in the PsACWY group the mean GMCs were 2.01 µg/mL and 0.97 µg/mL, respectively (P < .0001). Group A–specific IgG1 and IgG2 GMCs remained greater in the PsA-TT group than in the PsACWY group 40 weeks following primary vaccination (P < .0001). One week following revaccination, those given 2 doses of PsA-TT had the greatest IgG1 and IgG2 GMCs of 125.23 µg/mL and 36.12 µg/mL, respectively (P = .0008), and demonstrated a significant increase in IgG1:IgG2 mean ratio, indicative of the T-cell–dependent response associated with conjugate vaccines. Conclusions. Vaccination of African children aged 12–24 months with either PsA-TT or PsACWY elicited a predominantly IgG1 response. The IgG1:IgG2 mean ratio decreased following successive vaccination with PsACWY, indicating a shift toward IgG2, suggestive of the T-cell–independent immune response commonly associated with polysaccharide antigens. Clinical Trials Registration. SRCTN78147026. PMID:26553689

  6. Children's Group Nous: Understanding and Applying Peer Exclusion Within and Between Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Pelletier, Joseph; Ferrell, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    In Study 1, 167 English children aged 6-8 or 9-11 evaluated peer English or French soccer fans that were loyal or partially disloyal. In Study 2, 149 children aged 5-11 made judgments about generic inclusion norms between and within competitive groups. In both studies, children's understanding of intergroup inclusion/exclusion norms (group nous)…

  7. A School-Based Group Intervention to Strengthen Personal and Social Competencies in Latency-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMar, James

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a primary preventive intervention that prevents future chemical dependency in children (N=57). Results indicate substantial increases in internal locus of control, frustration tolerance, and assertive social skills, along with decreases in acting-out behavior. Findings suggest that school social workers can provide effective…

  8. Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

  9. 75 FR 27141 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing Dependent Coverage of Children to Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ45 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing... Labor and the Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health... health plans and health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan under...

  10. Adult Children and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

  11. A comparative study of two mouthrinses on plaque and gingivitis in school children in the age group of 13-16 years in Bangalore city.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, K; Veeresha, K L; Hiremath, S S

    2007-01-01

    Research and clinical evidence indicate that most forms of plaque associated periodontal disease start as inflammatory lesions of the gingiva which if left untreated, may progress and eventually involve and compromise the entire periodontal attachment apparatus of the affected teeth. A study was conducted to assess the effect of a mouthrinse containing chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride on plaque accumulation and gingivitis in comparison with a chlorhexidine mouthrinse alone in a group of school children aged 13-16 years in Bangalore city. This combination along with the well established effect of fluoride in the prevention of caries presents an important contribution to dental public health. The results suggest that the chlorhexidine-sodium fluoride mouthrinse potentially possesses a significant effect on inhibition of plaque accumulation and gingivitis. This combination along with the well-established effect of fluoride in the prevention of caries, presents an important contribution to dental public health. PMID:17951928

  12. Group Aquatic Aerobic Exercise for Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Haley, Stephen M.; O'Neill, Margaret E.

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness and safety of a group aquatic aerobic exercise program on cardiorespiratory endurance for children with disabilities was examined using an A-B study design. Sixteen children (11 males, five females) age range 6 to 11 years (mean age 9y 7mo [SD 1y 4mo]) participated in this twice-per-week program lasting 14 weeks. The children's …

  13. Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder before or after the Age of 6 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsdottir, Sigridur Loa; Saemundsen, Evald; Antonsdottir, Ingibjorg Sif; Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Olason, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This study compared children with early and late diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). All children in four consecutive birth cohorts in Iceland diagnosed with ASD were divided into two groups based on their age at initial ASD diagnosis: 58 children were diagnosed before age 6 (group 1) and 41 children after age 6 (group 2). Children in…

  14. Factors influencing the caries experience of a group of children at the ages of 11-12 and 15-16 years: results from an ongoing epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Dummer, P M; Oliver, S J; Hicks, R; Kingdon, A; Kingdon, R; Addy, M; Shaw, W C

    1990-02-01

    An analysis of factors influencing the caries experience of adolescents in South Wales is presented. Approximately 1000 children were assessed for caries status and oral cleanliness in 1980 when aged 11-12 years and again in 1984 when aged 15-16 years. In addition, on both occasions, the children completed detailed questionnaires on dental health-related topics. When aged 11-12 years, the observed mean DMFT, DMFS and DFS scores of the children were 4.0, 6.7 and 5.5 respectively. The corresponding scores at age 15-16 years were 6.5, 11.8 and 10.2. A preliminary analysis using conventional multiple regression techniques revealed that a number of factors had a significant influence on the caries experience of the children. The significance of the factors depended on the sex of the population subgroup, the age of the children and the particular caries index studied. However, at both ages the factors of most significance were the number of erupted teeth, total mean plaque score and the reported amount of money spent on sweets per week. A further evaluation using analysis of covariance with the number of erupted teeth and surfaces as the covariates confirmed the significant influence of the total mean plaque score and amount of money spent on sweets. In addition, both analyses indicated that toothbrushing frequency and social class had a significant influence on the caries experience of boys. PMID:2312888

  15. How do children share information in groups?

    PubMed

    Gummerum, Michaela; Leman, Patrick J; Hollins, Tara S

    2014-08-01

    Group decision making should be particularly beneficial when group members share unique information, because then a group can make a better decision than each group member alone. This study examined how elementary-school children share unique information during group decision making. Seventy-nine groups of 3 same-sex and same-age 7- and 9-year-old children (N = 237) had to decide which 1 of 2 hypothetical candidates should play the lead role in a school musical. When information was unshared, group members had to exchange their uniquely held information to identify the best candidate. Only a minority of groups picked the best candidate when information was unshared. Yet, groups of 7-year-old children were better at identifying the best candidate and were less likely to focus on the discussion of shared information than groups of 9-year-olds. These findings are interpreted with reference to processes underlying information sharing in groups, namely collective information sampling, preference-consistent evaluation, and collaborative inhibition/intersubjectivity. PMID:24911565

  16. Group comparisons: imaging the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    D’Esposito, Mark

    2008-01-01

    With the recent growth of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), scientists across a range of disciplines are comparing neural activity between groups of interest, such as healthy controls and clinical patients, children and young adults and younger and older adults. In this edition of Tools of the Trade, we will discuss why great caution must be taken when making group comparisons in studies using fMRI. Although many methodological contributions have been made in recent years, the suggestions for overcoming common issues are too often overlooked. This review focuses primarily on neuroimaging studies of healthy aging, but many of the issues raised apply to other group designs as well. PMID:18846241

  17. [Young children, toddlers and school age children].

    PubMed

    Heller-Rouassant, Solange; Flores-Quijano, María Eugenia

    2016-09-01

    Cow´s milk represents a very important source of proteins of high biological value and calcium in the child´s diet. The aim of this article is to review the available evidences of its role in nutrition of young children and school age children. Its main benefits are related with effects in linear growth, bone health and oral health, as protein source in early severe malnutrition, and it does not appears to influence metabolic syndrome risk and autism. High protein content in cow´s milk and increased protein consumption by children during the complementary feeding period is associated to the risk of developing a high body mass index and obesity in school-age children; therefore, milk consumption should be mildly restricted during the second year of life and to 480-720 ml/day during the first years of life. Its relationship with some diseases has not been confirmed, and milk consumption is associated with iron deficiency. The use of low-fat cow's milk instead of regular milk in young children remains controversial and its introduction is not advised before 2 to 4 years of age. PMID:27603883

  18. Age and Family Control Influences on Children's Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Alan M.

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that (1) age and family control did not influence children's television viewing levels; (2) age influenced program preferences of children; (3) cartoon preferences related negatively to family control for the youngest groups; and (4) comedy and children's program preferences and television realism related positively to family control for…

  19. Age Banding and Its Impact on Children and Their Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Claire; Maynard, Sally

    2012-01-01

    The study described here investigates the thoughts and opinions of young readers related to age banding on children's books. Emphasizing the views of children themselves, rather than adults such as parents, librarians, teachers and authors, the research involved a series of three focus groups involving children aged 11-13 years. The discussions…

  20. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  1. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  2. Assessment of selenium and mercury in biological samples of normal and night blindness children of age groups (3-7) and (8-12) years.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Kazi, Atif; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Arain, Salma Aslam; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Khan, Naeemullah; Arain, Mariam Shazadi; Ali, Jamshed

    2015-03-01

    The causes of night blindness in children are multifactorial and particular consideration has been given to childhood nutritional deficiency, which is the most common problem found in underdeveloped countries. Such deficiency can result in physiological and pathological processes that in turn influence biological sample composition. This study was designed to compare the levels of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in scalp hair, blood, and urine of night blindness children age ranged (3-7) and (8-12) years of both genders, comparing them to sex- and age-matched controls. A microwave-assisted wet acid digestion procedure was developed as a sample pretreatment for the determination of Se and Hg in biological samples of night blindness children. The proposed method was validated by using conventional wet digestion and certified reference samples of hair, blood, and urine. The Se and Hg in biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, prior to microwave acid digestion, respectively. The concentration of Se was decreased in scalp hair and blood samples of male and female night blindness children while Hg was higher in all biological samples as compared to referent subjects. The Se concentration was inversely associated with the risk of night blindness in both genders. These results add to an increasing body of evidence that Se is a protecting element for night blindness. These data present guidance to clinicians and other professional investigating deficiency of essential micronutrients in biological samples (scalp hair and blood) of night blindness children. PMID:25655123

  3. [Evaluation of integrative group therapy with children].

    PubMed

    Hain, C; Többen, B; Schulz, W

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study consists in the investigation of the effectiveness of an Integrative Group Therapy involving children from a social focus area. The research has been made on a group therapy covering a total of 22 therapeutic sessions with six "marginalised children" aged seven to nine attending the second class of a primary school. The children suffered from considerable concentration and attention problems affecting their achievements at school. The dominating symptom with three of these children has been aggressiveness, with two of them it has been social withdrawal and insecurity and one child suffered from psychosomatic complaints. The success of the treatment was determined by different target areas (symptomatic features, adaptive function, individual therapeutic goals, assessment of the treatment), having been assessed by different persons of reference (parents, teachers, therapists). According to the results the effectiveness of the Integrative Group Therapy with children has to be regarded unsatisfactory. The average effect size (averaged over all the scales of CBCL and TRF) amounts to 0.32. Considering only those scales where there have been peculiarities at the preliminary measuring, the average effect size amounts to 0.39. According to the individual case evaluation the treatment may be considered successful with one child, yet with another child a definite negative development has been noticed, and with four of the children no or slightly positive changes have been registered. The Integrative Group Therapy seems to be inapplicable to children with aggressive problems. In conclusion the results will be discussed and proposals for an improvement of the treatment are being made. PMID:11471423

  4. I won't tell: Young children show loyalty to their group by keeping group secrets.

    PubMed

    Misch, Antonia; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda

    2016-02-01

    Group loyalty is highly valued. However, little is known about young children's loyal behavior. This study tested whether 4- and 5-year-olds (N=96) remain loyal to their group even when betraying it would be materially advantageous. Children and four puppets were allocated to novel groups. Two of these puppets (either in-group or out-group members) then told children a group secret and urged them not to disclose the secret. Another puppet (not assigned to either group) then bribed children with stickers to tell the secret. Across ages, children were significantly less likely to reveal the secret in the in-group condition than in the out-group condition. Thus, even young children are willing to pay a cost to be loyal to their group. PMID:26513328

  5. Sentence comprehension in post-institutionalized school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, post-institutionalized (PI) children. We compared the performance of these PI children to an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. We hypothesized that PI children would perform below clinical threshold on tasks of sentence comprehension and that poor sentence comprehension would be associated with poor performance in working memory. Method Twenty-three PI children and 36 comparison children were administered sentence comprehension and spatial memory tasks from standardized assessments. Results Some oral sentence comprehension skills and the spatial working memory skills were weaker in the school-aged PI children than in the age-matched comparison children. A mediational analysis demonstrated that poor spatial working memory performance partially explains the sentence comprehension differences between the two groups. Conclusion These findings provide valuable information to better plan early intervention and special education for PI children. PMID:22199198

  6. Estimating age in black South African children.

    PubMed

    Uys, A; Fabris-Rotelli, I; Bernitz, H

    2014-03-01

    Forensic dentists are frequently required to determine the age at death of unidentified skeletons, or to age live individuals who have no record/documentation of their chronological age. In order to be of the greatest value, the method used should have the lowest possible standard deviation and be validated for the individual's specific population group. The method most frequently used in Forensic Dentistry for the estimation of age in children, was described by Demirjian et al. The maturity standards determined were based on samples of French Canadian origin and it has been recommended by several authors that correction factors be incorporated when applying this method to different population groups. The current research was carried out on a sample of 838 black South African children. A new model for age estimation in the said population was developed, to accurately determine the chronological age from dental development. A sample of 604 black South African children was used to test the validity of the method described by Demirjian. PMID:24974518

  7. Children's Social Behavior in Relationship to Participation in Mixed-Age or Same-Age Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Diane E.; Kinsey, Susan

    Research on the social and cognitive effects of grouping children in mixed-age versus same-age classrooms is gaining interest among practitioners and researchers. This investigation used a teacher rating scale to assess children's prosocial, aggressive, and friendship behaviors in mixed- and same-age classrooms. Confounding variables such as the…

  8. [High risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. Preliminary report after introducing a new version of New York (1997) protocol adjusted to the age of the patients. Report of the Polish Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group].

    PubMed

    Skoczen, S; Klus, K; Armata, J; Kowalczyk, J; Wisniewska-Slusarz, H; Kolecki, P; Derwich, K; Matysiak, M; Krauze, A; Rokicka-Milewska, R; Pawelec, K; Boguslawska-Jaworska, J; Juszczak, K; Pisarek, J; Sońta-Jakimczyk, D; Tomaszewska, R; Łuszczynska, A; Wysocki, M; Styczyński, J

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents the experience of the Polish Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group in the treatment of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children using a new version of the New York (1997-1999). Protocol with treatment intensity adjusted according to the age of the patients. From April 1997 to December 1999 a group of 49 children with leukocytosis ranging from 50 900/mm3 to 580 000/mm3 (median 122 000/mm3) and 6 children with leukocytosis below 50 000/mm3 and poor response to steroids were treated with this protocol. Children below 10 years (43 patients) were treated according to the previous protocol, children above 10 years (12 patients) were treated with intensified protocol (high doses of ARA-C in consolidation and intermediate doses of Mtx in maintenance). Induction was identical for all patients. Complete remission was achieved in 92.6% patients. There were 2 relapses. Six children died - 3 without remission, 2 due to a relapse, 1 due to treatment complications. The current opinions concerning classification of HRG-ALL and treatment possibilities in this group of children are discussed. PMID:12021459

  9. Sentence Comprehension in Postinstitutionalized School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized (PI) children. The authors compared the performance of these PI children with that of an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. They hypothesized that PI…

  10. A Psychoeducational Group for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Nancy E.; Walker, Margaret E.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a campus-based psychoeducational support group for adult children of alcoholics. Outlines group goals; identifies recruitment procedures; and describes and evaluates sessions. Asserts that this successful group format could be easily adapted to other setting and age groups. (Author/ABB)

  11. Relative Weights of the Backpacks of Elementary-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Benjamin P.; Bryant, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school…

  12. The Special Value of Children's Age-Mixed Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, the normal social play of children involves kids of various ages. Our human and great-ape ancestors most likely lived in small groups with low birth rates, which made play with others of nearly the same age rare. Consequently, the evolutionary functions of children's social play are best understood by examining…

  13. Children's group nous: understanding and applying peer exclusion within and between groups.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Pelletier, Joseph; Ferrell, Jennifer M

    2009-01-01

    In Study 1, 167 English children aged 6-8 or 9-11 evaluated peer English or French soccer fans that were loyal or partially disloyal. In Study 2, 149 children aged 5-11 made judgments about generic inclusion norms between and within competitive groups. In both studies, children's understanding of intergroup inclusion/exclusion norms (group nous) was predicted by theory of social mind (a social perspective taking measure) but not multiple classification skill. In Study 2, the number of groups children belonged to (an index of peer group experience) also predicted group nous. Supporting the developmental subjective group dynamics model (D. Abrams, A. Rutland, & L. Cameron, 2003), children's experience and perspective taking help them make sense of inter- and intragroup inclusion and exclusion. PMID:19236403

  14. The Study of Association between Mother Weight Efficacy Life-style with Feeding Practices, Food Groups Intake and Body Mass Index in Children Aged 3-6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Paknahad, Zamzam; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Doaei, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nutrition in childhood has a significant role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother's life-style has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child, child's diet and body mass index (BMI). This study paper aimed to investigate the association between mother's weight efficacy life-style (WEL) with feeding practices and diet in children aged 3-6 years. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, which was carried out in 18 Primary Schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child's demographics. Aspects of mother's WEL and mother's control practices were assessed using WEL questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. Child's dietary intake was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The role of mother's weight efficacy in predicting child's feeding practices and child's diet was assessed using the linear regression. Statistical significance for all P values was set at 0.003. Results: The results were showed that mother's weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices and child's dietary intake. The mothers with similar WEL applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety (β = 1.860), environmental control (β = 0.437), child involvement (β = 0.203) and less emotion regulation using foods (β = −0.213) and their children eat fewer snacks (β = −0.318) (PV= 0.003). Conclusions: The result of this study showed that maternal life-style was associated with feeding practices and child's intake. There was no significant relation between the maternal self-efficacy and child BMI. PMID:24554988

  15. Comparison on three classification techniques for sex estimation from the bone length of Asian children below 19 years old: an analysis using different group of ages.

    PubMed

    Darmawan, M F; Yusuf, Suhaila M; Kadir, M R Abdul; Haron, H

    2015-02-01

    Sex estimation is used in forensic anthropology to assist the identification of individual remains. However, the estimation techniques tend to be unique and applicable only to a certain population. This paper analyzed sex estimation on living individual child below 19 years old using the length of 19 bones of left hand applied for three classification techniques, which were Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) multilayer perceptron. These techniques were carried out on X-ray images of the left hand taken from an Asian population data set. All the 19 bones of the left hand were measured using Free Image software, and all the techniques were performed using MATLAB. The group of age "16-19" years old and "7-9" years old were the groups that could be used for sex estimation with as their average of accuracy percentage was above 80%. ANN model was the best classification technique with the highest average of accuracy percentage in the two groups of age compared to other classification techniques. The results show that each classification technique has the best accuracy percentage on each different group of age. PMID:25540897

  16. Group Play Interventions for Children: Strategies for Teaching Prosocial Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Group play interventions are used to meet a broad range of developmental needs in children from various backgrounds. This book is for mental health practitioners working with children aged 5 through 12 to help them learn important social skills and self-control strategies such as making friends, asking for and offering help, controlling hands and…

  17. Children's Implicit and Explicit Ethnic Group Attitudes, Ethnic Group Identification, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stephanie C.; Leman, Patrick J.; Barrett, Martyn

    2007-01-01

    An increasing amount of research explores how children distinguish different aspects of ethnic group attitudes. However, little work has focused on how these aspects tie in with other social and psychological processes. In the present study, 112 black and white children aged 5-, 7- and 9-years completed tests of implicit and explicit ethnic group…

  18. RETRIEVAL FROM LIMBO, THE INTERMEDIARY GROUP TREATMENT OF INACCESSIBLE CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GANTER, GRACE; AND OTHERS

    A CLINIC PROGRAM WAS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN INTERMEDIARY GROUP TREATMENT WITH THE ADVANTAGES OF RESIDENTIAL CARE WHILE THEY REMAINED AT HOME. OF THE 47 SUBJECTS SELECTED (27 AGED 6 TO 9, 20 AGED 9 TO 13), 25 HAD BEEN RECOMMENDED, AND NINE CONSIDERED, FOR RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT. ALL WERE JUDGED INACCESSIBLE BY THE CLINIC…

  19. Understanding Children's Behavior in Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper emphasizes the need for early childhood teachers to value themselves more highly in order to better their work with young children. The goal of working with children must be to build their self-esteem so they like themselves as human beings. The document (1) reviews research findings that will help teachers make insightful caregiving…

  20. Group Music Training and Children's Prosocial Skills

    PubMed Central

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Corrigall, Kathleen A.; Dys, Sebastian P.; Malti, Tina

    2015-01-01

    We investigated if group music training in childhood is associated with prosocial skills. Children in 3rd or 4th grade who attended 10 months of music lessons taught in groups were compared to a control group of children matched for socio-economic status. All children were administered tests of prosocial skills near the beginning and end of the 10-month period. Compared to the control group, children in the music group had larger increases in sympathy and prosocial behavior, but this effect was limited to children who had poor prosocial skills before the lessons began. The effect was evident even when the lessons were compulsory, which minimized the role of self-selection. The results suggest that group music training facilitates the development of prosocial skills. PMID:26506414

  1. Group Music Training and Children's Prosocial Skills.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Corrigall, Kathleen A; Dys, Sebastian P; Malti, Tina

    2015-01-01

    We investigated if group music training in childhood is associated with prosocial skills. Children in 3rd or 4th grade who attended 10 months of music lessons taught in groups were compared to a control group of children matched for socio-economic status. All children were administered tests of prosocial skills near the beginning and end of the 10-month period. Compared to the control group, children in the music group had larger increases in sympathy and prosocial behavior, but this effect was limited to children who had poor prosocial skills before the lessons began. The effect was evident even when the lessons were compulsory, which minimized the role of self-selection. The results suggest that group music training facilitates the development of prosocial skills. PMID:26506414

  2. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  3. [Alcoholism in school-age children].

    PubMed

    Jasinsky, M

    1975-11-01

    Curiosity motivated consumption of illegal drugs by young people decreased during the last 5 years. At the same time the problem of school-children abusing alcohol increased. This has to be seen against the background of more general epidemiological data of alcohol consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany: --between 1961 and 1974 the expenditure for alcoholic beverages more than doubled; --according to serious estimations there are between 700,000 and 1 million of alcoholics in this country (from these about 8-10% being minors); --the average age of inmates of clinics for alcoholics dropped considerably during the last decade. Main findings of a follow-up survey conducted (size of sample: about 10,000 school-children in Hamburg, age 13-20, representative of a total of 110,000) are: --more than 25% of the above mentioned 110,000 school-children showed a rather excessive drinking behaviour (i.e. having been drunk 1-5 or more than 5 times during a period of 2 months prior to the interviews); --positive correlations were found to exist between excessive drinking habits and certain psycho-social variables (i.e. broken home, suicide-attempts, excessive consumption of alcohol by the parents, etc.); --the subgroup of those school-children who were users of illegal drugs: about 60% of them belong also to the category of "excessive alcohol user". Reasons for the general increase of alcohol consumption in Western Germany are for instance: --a change of drinking habits (more frequently, drinking at home and alone); --a shift of preferances (from relatively low percentage-beverages like beer and wine to so-called hard liquors); --an increase of alcohol consumption among those societal groups--the young and women--who formerly were almost abstinent. Some reasons and causes for the increase of alcohol consumption among school-children are: --being exposed to negative model-behaviour of adults and especially of parents; --peer-group pressure; --the discovery of school-children

  4. African American Children: A Culturally Sensitive Model for Group Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziegielewski, Sophia F.; Leon, Ana M.; Green, Cheryl E.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a time-limited group model of intervention based on culturally sensitive practice for African-American children, ages 8-12 years old. This group model emphasizes the role of social workers in providing culturally sensitive treatment; introduces this specific model for practice in the short-term treatment setting; and provides specific…

  5. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  6. Age and learning environment: Are children implicit second language learners?

    PubMed

    Lichtman, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Children are thought to learn second languages (L2s) using primarily implicit mechanisms, in contrast to adults, who primarily rely on explicit language learning. This difference is usually attributed to cognitive maturation, but adults also receive more explicit instruction than children, which may influence their learning strategies. This study crosses instruction condition with age, teaching forty children aged 5;3 to 7;11 and forty adults an artificial mini-language under implicit or explicit training conditions. Participants produced novel sentences and judged sentence grammaticality equally well in either condition, but both children and adults in the explicit training condition developed greater awareness of the mini-language's structures - and greater awareness was associated with better performance for both age groups. Results show that explicit instruction affects children and adults in the same way, supporting the hypothesis that age differences in implicit vs. explicit L2 learning are not exclusively caused by maturation, but also influenced by instruction. PMID:26915737

  7. Seizure Management for School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frueh, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…

  8. Long-Term Survival of Children Less than Six Years of Age Enrolled on the CCG-945 Phase III Trial for Newly-Diagnosed High-Grade Glioma: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Batra, V; Sands, S; Holmes, E; Geyer, JR; Yates, A; Becker, L; Burger, P; Gilles, F; Wisoff, J; Allen, J; Pollack, IF; Finlay, JL

    2015-01-01

    Background We analyzed the long-term survival of children under six years of age (<6 yo) enrolled upon the Children’s Cancer Group (CCG)-945 high-grade glioma (HGG) study to determine the impact of intrinsic biological characteristics as well as treatment upon both survival and quality of life (QOL) in this younger age population. Procedure Analyses were undertaken on patients <6 yo with institutionally diagnosed HGG enrolled on the CCG-945 trial. Comparisons of survival were performed for patients less than three years of age (<3 yo) (treated with intent to avoid irradiation) versus those between three to six years of age (3–6 yo) (treated with irradiation and chemotherapy) at diagnosis. Discordance between the institutional diagnoses of HGG and consensus-reviewed diagnoses led us to perform further survival analyses for both groups. We compared the two groups of patients for biological markers, and evaluated the neuropsychological and QOL outcomes of long-term survivors. Results Patients <3 yo (n=49,19.5% of all enrolled patients) at diagnosis had a 10-year EFS and OS of 29± 6.5% and 37.5 ± 7% respectively while for patients 3–6 yo (n=34,13.5% of all enrolled patients) 10-year EFS and OS were 35± 8% and 36 ± 8% respectively. Molecular marker analysis showed that a smaller proportion of patients <3 yo harbored TP53 mutations (p=0.05). Analysis of QOL outcomes with a median length of follow up of 15.1 years (9.5–19.2) showed comparable results. Conclusions QOL and survival data were similar for the two groups. A larger prospective study is justified to study the efficacy of chemotherapy only regimens in younger children. PMID:24038913

  9. Distribution and titres of rotavirus antibodies in different age groups.

    PubMed Central

    Elias, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty-seven sera selected at random from hospital patients of all ages were examined for rotavirus antibodies using indirect immunofluorescence (FA) and complement fixation levels (CFT). Three hundred and fourteen of these were also tested for neutralizing antibodies to human rotavirus. Sera from patients admitted with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis were excluded from this survey. FA antibodies were found in newborn infants but fell to undetectable titres at 3 months. The highest titres were found in children between the ages of one and three years. In older age groups, the model titre fell gradually with increasing age until, in sera from those above 70 years of age, FA antibodies were almost undetectable. The same pattern was observed with neutralizing antibodies. A high model titre of CF antibodies was only found in sera from those aged one to three years. PMID:200676

  10. Orthographic Word Knowledge Growth in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagovich, Stacy A.; Pak, Youngju; Miller, Margaret D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Natural reading experiences provide an opportunity for the development of orthographic word knowledge as well as other forms of partial word knowledge. The purpose of this study was to compare the orthographic word knowledge growth of school-age children with relatively low language skills (LL group) to that of age- and gender-matched…

  11. Age and Ethnic Variation in Children's Thinking about the Nature of Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark

    2004-01-01

    A content analysis of interviews with an ethnically diverse group of 202 children aged 6 to 10 describes what children think racism is, and examines associations between age, ethnicity, and children's thinking about racism. Children's narratives capture many dimensions of racism, including stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and ethnic…

  12. Using Dental Age to Estimate Chronological Age in Czech Children Aged 3-18 Years.

    PubMed

    Ginzelová, Kristina; Dostálová, Taťjana; Eliášová, Hana; Vinšů, Alex; Buček, Antonín; Bučková, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    The Demirjian methods to determine dental age are based on analysis of orthopantograms. The dental age estimation is based on establishing the tooth development stages. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of estimation of dental age by Demirjian in the use of all of his four methods. 505 Czech healthy boys and girls aged 3 to 18 years were examined radiographically at the Department of Stomatology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. It was mentioned the factors of underlying diseases influence the accuracy of the dental age estimation. For statistical evaluation, descriptive statistics was used to compare deviations of the mean values of chronological and dental age in each age group. The resulting difference between dental age and chronological age is not significant in both genders only when using both Demirjian 7-teeth methods of 1973 and 1976. Therefore these may be most appropriately used for forensic age estimation. There are shown standard deviation differences in different countries. Demirjian's original 7-teeth method from 1973 and Demirjian's revised 4-teeth method from 1976 appear to be the best methods for calculating the dental age of healthy Czech children of both genders. PMID:26093668

  13. Children in Residential Group Care with No Family Ties: Facing Existential Aloneness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dvir, Orly; Weiner, Anita; Kupermintz, Hagai

    2012-01-01

    The issue of children living in residential group care in Israel completely without family ties is studied in order to explore the feelings of staff and uncover possible characteristics of these children. Data were collected through focus groups, questionnaires, and life stories of children who left group care at 18 years of age. Results reveal…

  14. Speech Differences of Factory Worker Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    This article, which focuses on speech differences of age groups, is part of a larger study of occupational jargon, its characteristics and underlying features and the part it plays in reflecting the workers' knowledge of their jobs and their attitudes toward jobs in general. The project incorporated a case method of research in a china factory.…

  15. Age-dependent pupillary light reflex parameters in children.

    PubMed

    Daluwatte, Chathuri; Miles, Judith H; Christ, Shawn E; Beversdorf, David Q; Lofgreen, Andrew; Berliner, Nathan; Yao, Gang

    2012-01-01

    Pupillary light reflex (PLR) refers to the phenomenon where pupil size changes in response to stimulation with a flash of light. It is a simple functional test that can reveal dysfunctions associated with the PLR pathway. Although abnormal PLR responses have been reported in many neurological disorders, few studies investigated neurodevelopmental effects on PLR parameters. We studied the effect of age on PLR in a group of 6 to 17 year old children with typical development. A significant and consistent age effect was found on PLR latency in children younger than 10 years old. Age effects were also observed in resting pupil diameter and constriction amplitude. However such age related trends were not observed in children with neurodevelopment disorders. These results suggest that PLR has the potential to be used as a simple noninvasive tool for monitoring neurodevelopment in children. PMID:23366750

  16. Relative weights of the backpacks of elementary-aged children.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Benjamin P; Bryant, Judith B

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school students (56% girls; 88% car or bus riders) participated. Their school backpacks were weighed, and their age, gender, and mode of transportation to school were recorded. Only 40% of the sample carried backpacks that were less than 10% of their body weights. Five percent of the students' backpacks exceeded 20% of their body weights. Neither age group nor gender significantly predicted relative backpack weight or relative weight levels. Recommendations are made for ways to reduce the weight these young children carry. PMID:23811534

  17. Group crisis intervention for children during ongoing war conflict.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Abdel Aziz; Vostanis, Panos; Karim, Khalid

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term impact of a group crisis intervention for children aged 9-15 years from five refugee camps in the Gaza Strip during ongoing war conflict. Children were selected if they reported moderate to severe posttraumatic stress reactions, and were allocated to group intervention (N=47) encouraging expression of experiences and emotions through storytelling, drawing, free play and role-play; education about symptoms (N=22); or no intervention (N=42). Children completed the CPTSD-RI and the CDI pre- and post-intervention. No significant impact of the group intervention was established on children's posttraumatic or depressive symptoms. Possible explanations of the findings are discussed, including the continuing exposure to trauma and the non-active nature of the intervention. PMID:15981138

  18. [The electrocardiogram in the paediatric age group].

    PubMed

    Sanches, M; Coelho, A; Oliveira, E; Lopes, A

    2014-09-01

    A properly interpreted electrocardiogram (ECG) provides important information and is an inexpensive and easy test to perform. It continues to be the method of choice for the diagnosis of arrhythmias. Although the principles of cardiac electrophysiology are the same, there are anatomical and physiological age-dependent changes which produce specific alterations in the paediatric ECG, and which may be misinterpreted as pathological. The intention of this article is to address in a systematic way the most relevant aspects of the paediatric ECG, to propose a possible reading scheme of the ECG and to review the electrocardiograph tracings most frequently found in the paediatric age group. PMID:24907888

  19. Infants' and Young Children's Imitation of Linguistic In-Group and Out-Group Informants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Lauren H.; Henderson, Annette M. E.; Carrazza, Cristina; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Although children can use social categories to intelligently select informants, children's preference for in-group informants has not been consistently demonstrated across age and context. This research clarifies the extent to which children use social categories to guide learning by presenting participants with a live or video-recorded…

  20. Children Displaced by Hurricane Katrina: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Houston, J. Brian; Wyche, Karen Fraser; Van Horn, Richard L.; Reyes, Gilbert; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; North, Carol S.

    2008-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 23 children and adolescents, aged 9 to 17 years, who relocated from Louisiana to Texas following Hurricane Katrina to explore their disaster, evacuation, and resettlement experiences. The resilience described by some was remarkable and, despite evidence of cultural disparity and stigma, many identified positive…

  1. Families with School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  2. Age and Ageism in Children's First Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansello, Edward F.

    1977-01-01

    An exhaustive survey of children's first literature (juvenile picture books and easy readers) determined the extent of age stereotyping--ageism--in roles, behaviors, and descriptions of older characters. Some 656 children's books in active circulation were subjected to content analysis. The findings are placed in etiological perspective. (Author)

  3. Children's Ocular Components and Age, Gender, and Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Twelker, J. Daniel; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Messer, Dawn H.; Bhakta, Rita; Jones, Lisa A.; Mutti, Donald O.; Cotter, Susan A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Manny, Ruth E.; Zadnik, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This cross-sectional report includes ocular component data as a function of age, gender, and ethnicity from the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Methods The ocular components of 4881 school-aged children were examined using cycloplegic autorefraction (refractive error), keratometry (corneal curvature), ultrasonography (axial dimensions), and videophakometry (lens curvature). Results The average age (± SD) was 8.8 ± 2.3 years, and 2458 were girls (50.4%). Sixteen percent were African American, 14.8% were Asian, 22.9% were Hispanic, 11.6% were Native American, and 34.9% were White. More myopic/less hyperopic refractive error was associated with greater age, especially in Asians, less in Whites and African Americans. Corneal power varied slightly with age, with girls showing a greater mean corneal power. Native-American children had greater corneal toricity with a markedly flatter horizontal corneal power. Anterior chambers were deeper with age, and boys had deeper anterior chambers. Native-American children had the shallowest anterior chambers and Whites the deepest. Girls had higher Gullstrand and calculated lens powers than boys. Boys had longer vitreous chambers and axial lengths, and both were deeper with age. Native Americans had the longest vitreous chambers and Whites the shortest. Conclusions Most ocular components showed little clinically meaningful variation by ethnicity. The shallower anterior chambers and deeper vitreous chambers of Native-American children appeared to be offset by flatter corneas. The relatively deeper anterior chamber and shallower vitreous chambers of White children appeared to be offset by steeper corneas. Asian children had more myopic spherical equivalent refractive errors, but for a given refractive error the ocular parameters of Asian children were moderate in value compared to those of other ethnic groups. Asian children may develop longer, myopic eyes more often

  4. [Lycopene intake by different aged women groups].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice. PMID:20839464

  5. Vitreous Hemorrhage in Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    AlHarkan, Dora H.; Kahtani, Eman S.; Gikandi, Priscilla W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To identify and study causes of vitreous hemorrhage (VH) in pediatric age group and to investigate factors predicting visual and anatomical outcomes. Procedure. A retrospective review of patients aged 16 years or less with the diagnosis of vitreous hemorrhage from January 2005 until December 2010. Results. A total number of 230 patients (240 eyes) were identified. Traumatic vitreous hemorrhage accounted for 82.5%. In cases of accidental trauma, final visual acuity of 20/200 was significantly associated with visual acuity of ≥20/200 at presentation and the absence of retinal detachment at last follow-up. Patients with nontraumatic vitreous hemorrhage were significantly younger with higher rates of enucleation/evisceration/exenteration and retinal detachment at last follow-up compared to traumatic cases. Conclusion. Trauma is the most common cause of VH in pediatric age group. In this group, initial visual acuity was the most important predictor for visual outcome, and the presence of retinal detachment is a negative predictor for final good visual outcome. The outcome is significantly worse in nontraumatic cases compared to traumatic cases. PMID:25505975

  6. Emergent Leadership in Children's Discussion Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuan; Anderson, Richard C.; Nguyen-Jahiel, Kim; Dong, Ting; Archodidou, Anthi; Kim, Il-Hee; Kuo, Li-Jen; Clark, Ann-Marie; Wu, Xiaoying; Jadallah, May; Miller, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Emergent leadership was examined in 12 discussion groups in 4 fourth-grade classrooms. Children's leadership moves were coded from transcripts of 10 free-flowing, open-format discussions of each of the 12 groups. The transcripts encompassed 26,000 turns for speaking, including 22,000 child turns of which 1,700 were judged to serve one of five…

  7. Leading Psychoeducational Groups for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides readers with direction on how to organize psychoeducational groups while helping them enhance skills for effectively leading such groups. Offering an applied approach, the author integrates research and practice to suggest leadership strategies while addressing special issues such as children of divorce, anger management,…

  8. What Is a Group? Young Children's Perceptions of Different Types of Groups and Group Entitativity.

    PubMed

    Plötner, Maria; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To date, developmental research on groups has focused mainly on in-group biases and intergroup relations. However, little is known about children's general understanding of social groups and their perceptions of different forms of group. In this study, 5- to 6-year-old children were asked to evaluate prototypes of four key types of groups: an intimacy group (friends), a task group (people who are collaborating), a social category (people who look alike), and a loose association (people who coincidently meet at a tram stop). In line with previous work with adults, the vast majority of children perceived the intimacy group, task group, and social category, but not the loose association, to possess entitativity, that is, to be a 'real group.' In addition, children evaluated group member properties, social relations, and social obligations differently in each type of group, demonstrating that young children are able to distinguish between different types of in-group relations. The origins of the general group typology used by adults thus appear early in development. These findings contribute to our knowledge about children's intuitive understanding of groups and group members' behavior. PMID:27010484

  9. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  10. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qingling; Li, Feng; Wang, Junli; Shen, Lixiao; Sheng, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years. Methods Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1) was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ), weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ), and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ) respectively. Fecal calprotectin was detected by a commercially available ELISA. Results In total 274 children were recruited, with age ranging from 1 to 4 years old. The median FC concentration was 83.19 μg/g [range 4.58 to 702.50 μg/g, interquartile range (IQR) 14.69–419.45 μg/g] or 1.92 log10 μg/g (range 0.66 log10 to 2.85 log10 μg/g, IQR 1.17 log10-2.62 log10 μg/g). All of the children were divided into three groups, 1–2 years (12–24 months), 2–3 years (24–36 months), 3–4 years (36–48 months), with median FC concentrations 96.14 μg/g (1.98 log10 μg/g), 81.48 μg/g (1.91 log10 μg/g), 65.36 μg/g (1.82 log10 μg/g), respectively. There was similar FC level between boys and girls. FC concentrations showed a downward trend by the growing age groups. A statistic difference was found in FC concentrations among groups 1–2 years, 2–3 years and 3–4 years (P = 0.016). In inter-groups comparison, a significant difference was found between children aged 1–2 years and children aged 3–4 years (P = 0.007). A negative correlation trend was found between age and FC concentration (Spearman's rho = -0.167, P = 0.005) in all the participants. A simple correlation was performed among WLZ, WAZ, birth weight, or birth length with FC, and there was no correlation being observed. Conclusion Children aged from 1 to 4 years old have lower FC concentrations compared with healthy infants (<1years), and higher FC

  11. Unintentional Injuries in Preschool Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Ethem; Dursun, Onur Burak; Esin, İbrahim Selcuk; Öğütlü, Hakan; Özcan, Halil; Mutlu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children. Previous research has shown that most of the injuries occur in and around the home. Therefore, parents have a key role in the occurrence and prevention of injuries. In this study, we examined the relationship among home injuries to children and parental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, parental attitudes, and children's behavioral problems. Forty children who were admitted to the emergency department because of home injuries constitute the study group. The control group also consisted of 40 children, who were admitted for mild throat infections. The parents filled out questionnaires assessing parental ADHD, child behavioral problems, and parenting attitudes. Scores were significantly higher for both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders in study groups. We also found that ADHD symptoms were significantly higher among fathers of injured children compared with fathers of control groups. Democratic parenting was also found to correlate with higher numbers of injuries. Parenting style, as well as the psychopathology of both the parents and children, is important factors in children's injuries. A child psychiatrist visit following an emergency procedure may help to prevent further unintentional injuries to the child. PMID:26266395

  12. Predicting mortality from burns: the need for age-group specific models.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandra L; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2014-09-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000 to 2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. "One size fits all" models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  13. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  14. School-age children development

    MedlinePlus

    ... the parent is concerned about their well-being. Peer acceptance becomes more important during the school-age ... are highly active. They need physical activity and peer approval, and want to try more daring and ...

  15. Functional Decline in Children Undergoing Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy after Age 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacWilliams, Bruce A.; Johnson, Barbara A.; Shuckra, Amy L.; D'Astous, Jacques L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare function and gait in a group of children older than most children who received selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) with age- and function-matched peers who received either orthopedic surgery or no surgical intervention. Method: A retrospective study examined ambulatory children with diplegic cerebral palsy, aged between 10 years and…

  16. Children's Expressive Drawing Strategies: The Effects of Mood, Age and Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misalidi, Plousia; Bonoti, Fotini

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate whether the impact of mood state on children's choice of expressive strategies (literal and non-literal content and abstract) varies as a function of mood valence, age and topic to be drawn. The sample (N?=?96) consisted of four groups of children aged 5, 7, 9 and 11years, respectively. Half of the children in…

  17. Assessment of Skeletal Age in Children with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    PubMed Central

    Ravikala, S

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the skeletal maturity in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and to compare it with that of the noncleft children. Design and setting: It is an institution based study conducted on randomly selected subjects visiting the hospital for consultation and treatment. Participants: A total of 60 children with UCLP (25 boys and 35 girls) and 60 noncleft children (30 boys and 30 girls) with normal occlusion in the age group of 10 to 15 years participated in the study. They were classified as younger (10 to 13 years) and older (13 to 15 years) age group and the cervical vertebrae were assessed in lateral cephalograms using Hassel and Farman, modifications of Lamparski's criteria. Statistical analysis: Data was analyzed using Fisher's exact test. Results: Younger age group children with UCLP showed significant delay in skeletal maturation when compared with the noncleft children, whereas older age group children with UCLP showed a faster rate of skeletal maturation when compared with that of noncleft children but the difference was statistically not significant. Conclusion: Children with UCLP exhibit delay in attaining skeletal maturation when compared to noncleft children. There is a delay in skeletal maturation at younger age but not in older age group of children with UCLP. How to cite this article: Ravi MS, Ravikala S. Assessment of Skeletal Age in Children with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):151-155. PMID:25206213

  18. Children Associate Racial Groups with Wealth: Evidence from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.

    2012-01-01

    Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N=84) in South Africa associate higher-status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher-value belongings with White people more often than with multiracial or Black people and with multiracial people more often than with Black people, thus showing sensitivity to the de facto racial hierarchy in their society. There were no age-related changes in children’s tendency to associate racial groups with wealth differences. The implications of these results are discussed in light of the general tendency for people to legitimize and perpetuate the status quo. PMID:22860510

  19. BCG vaccination at three different age groups: response and effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Briassoulis, George; Karabatsou, Irene; Gogoglou, Vasilis; Tsorva, Athina

    2005-01-01

    Background The protection, which some BCG vaccines could confer against the development of tuberculosis (TB) in childhood, might be indirectly reflected by the subsequent development of BCG immune response. The objectives of the study were to examine effectiveness and possible differences of post-vaccination reaction to a lyophilized BCG at different age groups and to evaluate its protection against TB in a decade's period. Methods We studied the post-vaccination PPD-skin reaction and scar formation at three different school levels, corresponding to ages of 6, 12 and 15 years old, vaccinated by a lyophilized BCG vaccine (Pasteur Institute), currently used in our country. During a 10-year follow up the reported TB cases in vaccinated and non-vaccinated adolescences up to 24-years old were analyzed and compared to the number of cumulative cases observed in the adult population of two neighboring territories (vaccinated and non-vaccinated). Results and Discussion There was a significant correlation (r2 = 0.87, p < 0.0001) between tuberculin induration and scar formation. There was no statistically significant difference between the three age groups (6, 12, and 15 year-old, respectively) in regard to the diameter of tuberculin induration or scar formation. Although 34% of 10-year later indurations were unpredictably related to the initial ones (increased or decreased), they were significantly correlated (r2 = 0.45, p = 0.009). The relative percentage of TB for the 14–24 years-age group to the adult studied population was significantly lower among the immunized children compared to the non-immunized population of the same age group (17/77, 22% vs. 71/101, 70%, p < .0001). Conclusion Our data suggest that the lyophilized BCG vaccine used for BCG programs at different age groups is equally effective and may confer satisfactory protection against tuberculosis in puberty. PMID:15804351

  20. Art therapy focus groups for children and adolescents with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Stafstrom, Carl E; Havlena, Janice; Krezinski, Anthony J

    2012-06-01

    Children with epilepsy are at risk for numerous psychological and social challenges. We hypothesized that art therapy focus groups would enhance the self-image of children and adolescents with epilepsy. Sixteen children with epilepsy, ages 7-18 years, were recruited from pediatric neurology clinics at the University of Wisconsin to participate in four art therapy sessions. Pre-group assessments included psychological screens (Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale; Childhood Attitude Toward Illness Scale; Impact of Childhood Neurologic Disability Scale) and art therapy instruments (Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale; Seizure Drawing Task; Levick Emotional and Cognitive Art Therapy Assessment). Developmental levels of drawings were significantly below age-expected standards. Following completion of focus groups, a repeat Childhood Attitude Toward Illness Scale showed no differences between pre- and post-test scores on any measure of this scale. However, subjects and parents were uniformly positive about their group experiences, suggesting a qualitative benefit from participation in art therapy focus groups. PMID:22554978

  1. Latchkey Children and School-Age Child Care. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligson, Michelle; Fink, Dale B.

    This ERIC Digest provides an overview of school-age child care (SACC) programs and suggests reasons for their growth. Discussion points out that escalating interest in SACC has paralleled the raising numbers of children left on their own, and that educators are only the latest in a parade of civic and professional groups which have gone on record…

  2. Age-dependent humoral responses of children to mycobacterial antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Fairchok, M P; Rouse, J H; Morris, S L

    1995-01-01

    In the United States, disseminated infection with environmental mycobacteria, including the Mycobacterium avium complex, is the most common opportunistic bacterial infection seen in AIDS patients. However, the source and relative degree of exposure to environmental mycobacteria during childhood are unknown. To examine the age-related exposure to mycobacteria, we obtained serum samples from 150 children ranging in age from 6 months to 18 years. Each sample was tested against both M. avium (serovar 1) sonic extracts and mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All serum samples were also subjected to immunoblot analysis with the sonic extract antigen. These studies established that elevated ELISA values (P < 0.0001) and increased immunoblot reactivity (P < 0.0001) against mycobacterial antigens were both associated with increasing age. The seroreactivity differences were most striking when comparing the age groups of children below the age of 6 with the older age groups. Our results suggest that the development of humoral immune responses to mycobacterial antigens in children correlates with increasing age and that there may be an environmental factor predisposing to mycobacterial exposure which is related to advancing age. PMID:7583921

  3. Can a Targeted, Group-Based CBT Intervention Reduce Depression and Anxiety and Improve Self-Concept in Primary-Age Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Cunningham, Enda

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined the impact of a 10 session, group-based, early-intervention cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme (Cool Connections) on anxiety, depression and self-concept in nine 8-11 year old pupils in Northern Ireland. The intervention was facilitated by a teacher, education welfare officer and two classroom assistants, with…

  4. Sleep disturbance in preschool-aged hyperactive and nonhyperactive children.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, B J; McNicol, J; Conte, R A; Moghadam, H K

    1987-12-01

    In spite of inadequate laboratory demonstrations of sleep problems in children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, the belief persists that such problems exist. Sleep restlessness is, in fact, one of the criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 3, definition of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, and sleep problems are listed on two major checklists often used for describing the symptoms of this disorder. In a series of three studies, sleep problems were investigated in preschool-aged children with attention deficit disorder relative to control children without the disorder. Results of the first two studies demonstrated clearly that parents of hyperactive children considered their children to have many more sleep problems than did parents of the control children. Parental daily documentation, which is less likely to be affected by reporting bias, was used in the third study. Although the results of the third study supported the finding of increased frequency of night wakings in these children, there was no difference in total sleep time or sleep onset latency between the two groups. Two other significant group differences (enuresis and night sweats) were primarily due to subgroups of children with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity. The greater number of sleep wakings, which disrupt parents' sleep, may be responsible for the clinical reports that these children are poor sleepers. PMID:3684394

  5. Auditory Sensitivity in School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trehub, Sandra E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Obtained thresholds for octave-band noises with center frequencies of 0.4, 1, 2, 4, and 10 kHz and 1/3-octave band noises centered at 10 and 20 kHz from children aged 6 to 16 years. Compared results with findings for infants, preschool children, and adults. Continuing sensitivity improvements were evident from infancy well into the school years.…

  6. Empathy, Group Norms and Children's Ethnic Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Griffith, Judith; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Two minimal group studies (Ns=150, 123) examined the impact of emotional empathy on the ethnic attitudes of 5 to 12-year old white Anglo-Australian children. Study 1 evaluated the relationship between empathy and attitudes towards a same (Anglo-Australian) versus different ethnicity (Pacific Islander) outgroup. A significant empathy x outgroup…

  7. Elementary school age children's comprehension of specific idiomatic expressions.

    PubMed

    Brinton, B; Fujiki, M; Mackey, T A

    1985-08-01

    This study explored the ability of elementary school age children to comprehend six idiomatic expressions. Eighty linguistically normal children, 20 from each of four different grade levels (kindergarten, second grade, fourth grade, and sixth grade) participated as subjects. All of the children completed a task designed to probe comprehension of specific idioms. A short story was presented, after which the subjects were required to identify events in the story, which were described using idiomatic phrases. When examined as a group, comprehension of the idioms studied improved with increasing age. However, when examined individually, performance was found to be highly variable from idiom to idiom. These results are discussed with regard to clinical implications in the assessment and management of language-disordered children. PMID:4019816

  8. Racial-Ethnic Comparisons of Temperament Constructs for Three Age Groups Using the Student Styles Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Mary E.; Oakland, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses construct validity for comparisons of racial-ethnic group response patterns on the SSQ when age is considered as a factor. Assesses whether the SSQ's factor structure is similar for African American, Hispanic American, and Anglo American children and youth, grouped by ages 8-10, 11-13, and 14-17 years old. (RJM)

  9. Differentiated thyroid cancer: determinants of disease progression in patients <21 years of age at diagnosis: a report from the Surgical Discipline Committee of the Children's Cancer Group.

    PubMed Central

    Newman, K D; Black, T; Heller, G; Azizkhan, R G; Holcomb, G W; Sklar, C; Vlamis, V; Haase, G M; La Quaglia, M P

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was done to define the extent of disease and evaluate the effect of staging and treatment variables on progression-free survival in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma who were less than 21 years of age at diagnosis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Differentiated thyroid cancer in young patients is associated with early regional lymph node involvement and distant parenchymal metastases. Despite this, the overall long-term survival rate is greater than 90%, which suggests that biologic rather than treatment factors have a greater effect on outcome. METHODS: Variables analyzed for their impact on progression-free survival in a multi-institutional cohort of 329 patients included age, antecedent thyroid irradiation, extrathyroidal tumor extension, size, nodal involvement, distant metastases, technique of thyroid surgery and lymphatic dissection, initial treatment with 131Iodine, residual cervical disease, and histopathologic subtype. Surgical complications were correlated with the specific procedures completed on the thyroid gland or cervical lymphatics. RESULTS: The overall progression-free survival rate was 67% (95%, CI: 61%-73%) at 10 years with 2 disease-related deaths. Regional lymph node and distant metastases were present in 74% and 25% of patients, respectively. Progression-free survival was less in younger patients (p = 0.009) and those with residual cervical disease after thyroid surgery (p = 0.001). Permanent hypocalcemia was more frequent after total or subtotal thyroidectomy (p = 0.001) while wound complications increased after radical neck dissections (p < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS: The progression-free survival rate was better after a complete resection and in older patients. Progression-free survival rate was the same after lobectomy or more extensive thyroid procedures, but comparison was confounded by the increased use of total or subtotal thyroidectomy in patients with advanced disease. The risk of permanent hypocalcemia

  10. Age Related Personality Characteristics of Epileptic Children: Parent and Child Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kralj, M. M.; And Others

    Personality characteristics of 101 epileptic children in two age groups (5-11 and 11-16) were studied by means of the child-reported Missouri Children's Picture Series and the mother-reported Missouri Problem Behavior Checklist. Scores for each age group across both parent and child reports were compared to published norms. A one-way multivariate…

  11. Serving Hispanic School-Aged Children in after School Programming: Implications for School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Joy Pastan

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. school-age population has been experiencing dramatic demographic changes over the past two decades. Hispanic students constitute the fastest growing student group today, and this growth is expected to continue such that there will be more Hispanic school-aged children than non-Hispanic school-aged children in 2050. Unfortunately, Hispanic…

  12. Age-dependency of posture parameters in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Oliver; Mazet, Carola; Mazet, Dirk; Hammes, Annette; Schmitt, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Poor posture in children and adolescents is a well-known problem. Therefore, early detection of incorrect posture is important. Photometric posture analysis is a cost-efficient and easy method, but needs reliable reference values. As children’s posture changes as they grow, the assessment needs to be age-specific. This study aimed to investigate the development of both one-dimensional posture parameter (body inclination angle) and complex parameter (posture index) in different age groups (childhood to adolescence). [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 372 symptom-free children and adolescents (140 girls and 232 boys aged 6–17). Images of their habitual posture were obtained in the sagittal plane. High-contrast marker points and marker spheres were placed on anatomical landmarks. Based on the marker points, the body inclination angle (INC) and posture index (PI) were calculated using the Corpus concepts software. [Results] The INC angle significantly increased with age. The PI did not change significantly among the age groups. No significant differences between the corresponding age groups were found for PI and INC for both sexes. [Conclusion] When evaluating posture using the body inclination angle, the age of the subject needs to be considered. Posture assessment with an age-independent parameter may be more suitable. PMID:27313382

  13. Supporting Children's Transition to School Age Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2016-01-01

    While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…

  14. Relationship between age and white matter integrity in children with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Wesonga, Erika; Shimony, Joshua S; Rutlin, Jerrel; Grange, Dorothy K; White, Desiree A

    2016-06-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has shown poorer microstructural white matter integrity in children with phenylketonuria (PKU), specifically decreases in mean diffusivity (MD), in comparison with healthy children. However, little research has been conducted to investigate the relationship between age and white matter integrity in this population. The present study examined group differences in the relationship between age and MD across a range of brain regions in 31 children with early- and continuously-treated PKU and 51 healthy control children. Relationships among MD, age, and group were explored using hierarchical linear regression and Pearson correlation. Results indicated a stronger age-related decrease in MD for children with PKU in comparison with healthy children in 4 of the 10 brain regions examined, suggesting that the trajectory of white matter development is abnormal in children with PKU. Further research using longitudinal methodology is needed to fully elucidate our understanding of white matter development in children with PKU. PMID:27114916

  15. Relationship between age and white matter integrity in children with phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Wesonga, Erika; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Grange, Dorothy K.; White, Desiree A.

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has shown poorer microstructural white matter integrity in children with phenylketonuria (PKU), specifically decreases in mean diffusivity (MD), in comparison with healthy children. However, little research has been conducted to investigate the relationship between age and white matter integrity in this population. The present study examined group differences in the relationship between age and MD across a range of brain regions in 31 children with early- and continuously-treated PKU and 51 healthy control children. Relationships among MD, age, and group were explored using hierarchical linear regression and Pearson correlation. Results indicated a stronger age-related decrease in MD for children with PKU in comparison with healthy children in 4 of the 10 brain regions examined, suggesting that the trajectory of white matter development is abnormal in children with PKU. Further research using longitudinal methodology is needed to fully elucidate our understanding of white matter development in children with PKU. PMID:27114916

  16. Ageing without children: rural Wales.

    PubMed

    Wenger, G C

    2001-03-01

    This paper aims to identify the pathways and adaptations to childlessness. It is based on data for 65 childless men and women who took part in the Bangor Longitudinal Study of Ageing (1979-1999) and survived to at least 1987. Interviews were conducted mainly in the homes of the respondents at 4 yearly intervals and both qualitative and quantitative data were recorded. The paper distinguishes between men and women and between those who married and those who never-married. The findings demonstrate contrasting life styles between childless men and childless women. Never-married childless men tend to have been employed in solitary occupations or those based on an all male workforce and to rely on dependency relationships with female kin, while men who marry rely heavily on their wives. Never-married women in contrast tend to be more independent and outgoing and to have worked in jobs which brought them into frequent contact with people. Most childless women who married had not worked after marriage; they had close relationships with husbands and on widowhood adopted an independent, self-sufficient lifestyle. The findings demonstrate more positive adaptations to childlessness among women than men. PMID:14617994

  17. Positive Peer Relationships and Risk of Victimization in Chinese and South Korean Children's Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abou-ezzeddine, Tania; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei; Lee-Shin, Yoolim; Farver, JoAnn; Xu, Yiyuan

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the moderating role of positive peer relationships in the relation between behavioral or academic risk factors and victimization in Asian children's peer groups. We recruited 296 children (161 boys, 135 girls) from Tianjin, China (mean age of 11.5 years) and 122 children (66 boys, 56 girls) from Seoul, South Korea (approximate…

  18. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    PubMed

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children. PMID:26656554

  19. Phonology Matters: A Comprehensive Investigation of Reading and Spelling Skills of School-Age Children with Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jungjun; Lombardino, Linda J.; Ritter, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    The investigators measured 7 literacy skills in a group of 21 school-age children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MSNH group), and compared the scores to those of 2 age-matched groups: children with dyslexia (DYS group) and, as a control, typically developing hearing children (CA group). The MSNH group performed consistently…

  20. Dietary intakes of age-group swimmers.

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, J A; Williams, M M

    1991-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to collect information regarding the dietary habits of male and female age-group swimmers and report the energy consumptions of these athletes in relation to their daily training demands. Twenty competitive swimmers, who were training 6000 m per day 6 days a week, recorded all fluid and food consumed during a 4-day period. Dietary analysis revealed that 11 swimmers (55%) had calcium intakes below recommended dietary allowances (RDA), while 13 (65%) had iron intakes lower than RDA. Despite identical training loads and body mass, male swimmers had significantly greater (P = 0.004) daily mean (s.d.) energy consumption (3072(732) kcal, 12.9(3.1) MJ) than females (2130(544) kcal, 8.9(2.3) MJ) and were maintaining energy balance. Although the contribution of carbohydrate to total daily energy intake was the same for male (55%) and female swimmers (56%), the females ingested significantly less (P = 0.011) carbohydrate (292(87) g) than the males (404(88) g) and could be considered deficient in dietary carbohydrate with respect to their daily training demands. PMID:1777785

  1. Teachers Observe to Learn: Differences in Social Behavior of Toddlers and Preschoolers in Same-Age and Multiage Groupings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Mary Ellin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an action research conducted by a group of teachers comparing multiage with same-age interactions of children, especially among toddlers. The research involving 31 children ranging in age from two through five-and-a-half was conducted under optimal conditions, with small groups, low teacher-child ratios, and highly trained…

  2. Ages and Ages: The Multiplication of Children's "Ages" in Early Twentieth-Century Child Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauvais, Clementine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of "discovering," labelling and calculating different "ages" in children. Those new "ages"--from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more--were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to,…

  3. A group storybook-reading intervention with children at a residential school for the deaf.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, C W; Twardosz, S

    1997-10-01

    Deaf children's patterns of emergent literacy can parallel those of hearing children, but their acquisition of conventional reading skills in elementary school is often delayed. Group storybook reading in the residences of a state-sponsored school for the Deaf was investigated as a means of fostering literacy development outside the classroom. Eighteen children, ages 4-11 years, participated. The nine children in the experimental group cottages participated in group storybook reading twice each week for 5 months. Both the experimental and the control-group cottages were provided with a variety of books that were rotated biweekly. Children were highly engaged during the storybook-reading sessions, particularly when the readers used an interactive/expressive reading style. Children in the experimental group performed more independently on an emergent reading task, and their counselors judged them to be more interested in books than children in the control group. PMID:9351302

  4. The Coming of Age in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Carol; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Briefly discusses the concept of ageism, the stereotyping of groups of people on the basis of age, and lists resources including books, articles and organizations which can be used to combat ageism. (BR)

  5. Scurvy in pediatric age group – A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009–2014) with search terms “scurvy” “vitamin C deficiency” “ascorbic acid deficiency” “scurvy and children” “scurvy and pediatric age group”. There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  6. "Make Sure You Keep Our House Safe!" Thematic Analysis of a Children's Psychotherapy Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devi, Akasha; Fenn, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic thematic analysis of one particular latency-aged children's group and includes a discussion about potentially helpful outcomes measures. The impetus for our small, practice-based qualitative research project came from the two papers by Reid (1999) and Canham (2002) about children's psychotherapy groups,…

  7. Children in Residential Care: Development and Validation of a Group Climate Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strijbosch, E. L. L.; van der Helm, G. H. P.; van Brandenburg, M. E. T.; Mecking, M.; Wissink, I. B.; Stams, G. J. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the development and validation of the Group Climate Instrument for Children aged 8 to 15 years (GCIC 8-15), which purports to measure the quality of group climate in residential care. Methods: A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on data of 117 children in Dutch residential youth care. Reliability analysis was…

  8. Preschool Children's Attention to Environmental Messages about Groups: Social Categorization and the Origins of Intergroup Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Meagan M.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of adults' labeling and use of social groups on preschool children's intergroup attitudes. Children (N=87, aged 3-5) attending day care were given measures of classification skill and self-esteem and assigned to membership in a novel ("red" or "blue") social group. In experimental classrooms, teachers…

  9. Early Childhood Teachers' Affectionate Behavior: Differential Expression to Female Children, Male Children, and Groups of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botkin, Darla; Twardosz, Sandra

    Examined were differences in the amount of affectionate behavior early childhood teachers expressed to (1) individual children and groups of children, and (2) female and male children. Data were collected through naturalistic observations of 47 female teachers in six day care centers. Teachers' affectionate behaviors and the types of recipients…

  10. Latin American Consensus: Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Children born small for gestational age (SGA) experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of children born SGA is a critical issue. Leading experts in pediatric endocrinology throughout Latin America established working groups in order to discuss key challenges regarding the evaluation and management of children born SGA and ultimately develop a consensus statement. Discussion SGA is defined as a birth weight and/or birth length greater than 2 standard deviations (SD) below the population reference mean for gestational age. SGA refers to body size and implies length-weight reference data in a geographical population whose ethnicity is known and specific to this group. Ideally, each country/region within Latin America should establish its own standards and make relevant updates. SGA children should be evaluated with standardized measures by trained personnel every 3 months during year 1 and every 6 months during year 2. Those without catch-up growth within the first 6 months of life need further evaluation, as do children whose weight is ≤ -2 SD at age 2 years. Growth hormone treatment can begin in SGA children > 2 years with short stature (< -2.0 SD) and a growth velocity < 25th percentile for their age, and should continue until final height (a growth velocity below 2 cm/year or a bone age of > 14 years for girls and > 16 years for boys) is reached. Blood glucose, thyroid function, HbA1c, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) should be monitored once a year. Monitoring insulin changes from baseline and surrogates of insulin sensitivity is essential. Reduced fetal growth followed by excessive postnatal catch-up in height, and particularly in weight, should be closely monitored. In both sexes, gonadal function should be monitored especially during puberty. Summary Children born SGA should be carefully followed by a multidisciplinary group

  11. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  12. Some Immediate Effects of a Smoking Environment on Children of Elementary School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luquette, A. J.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of a cigarette smoking environment on children of elementary school age. Physical effects were looked for, as were differences between children from smoking homes and non-smoking homes, and male subjects and female subjects. A total of 103 children were divided into two groups, Group…

  13. Semantic Development in Spanish-English Bilingual Children: Effects of Age and Language Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Li; Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Fiestas, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study examines semantic development in 60 Spanish-English bilingual children, ages 7 years 3 months to 9 years 11 months, who differed orthogonally in age (younger, older) and language experience (HEE: higher English experience, HSE: higher Spanish experience). Children produced three associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents. Older children produced more semantic responses and code-switched more often from Spanish to English than younger children. Within each group, children demonstrated better performance in the more frequently used than the less used language. The HEE children outperformed the HSE children in English and the HSE children outperformed the HEE children in Spanish. These effects of age and language experience are consistent with predictions of the Revised Hierarchical Model of bilingual lexical organization. PMID:23163772

  14. Vocal overimitation in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Subiaul, Francys; Winters, Katherine; Krumpak, Kathryn; Core, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Overimitation--copying incorrect, idiosyncratic, or causally irrelevant actions--has been linked to our species' long history with artifacts whose functions are often opaque. It is an open question, however, whether children overimitate outside the artifact domain. We explored this question by presenting preschool-age children (3- to 5-year-olds, N=120) with an elicited imitation task that included high- and low-frequency disyllabic nouns (e.g., 'pizza) and nonwords (e.g., 'chizza), all of which had a stressed first syllable. However, during testing, half of the stimuli were incorrectly pronounced by stressing the second syllable (e.g., pi'zza). More than half of the children copied the model's incorrect pronunciation of high-frequency familiar words, consistent with overimitation. This pattern of response persisted even after children had themselves correctly named the familiar words prior to the start of testing, confirming that children purposefully altered the pronunciation of known words to match the incorrect pronunciations used by a model. These results demonstrate that overimitation is not restricted to the artifact domain and might extend to many different tasks and domains. PMID:26407825

  15. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  16. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  17. How do groups work? Age differences in performance and the social outcomes of peer collaboration.

    PubMed

    Leman, Patrick J

    2015-05-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were awarded to the best performing individuals. Findings, both in terms of social outcomes and performance in the quiz, indicated that the 8-year olds viewed the benefits of group membership in terms of the opportunities to receive information from other members. The 13-year olds, in contrast, viewed group collaboration as a constructive process where success was connected with group cohesiveness. PMID:25250886

  18. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  19. Executive Functioning Skills in Preschool-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Jessica; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Colson, Bethany G.; Henning, Shirley C.; Pisoni, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether deficits in executive functioning (EF) in children with cochlear implants (CIs) emerge as early as the preschool years. Method: Two groups of children ages 3 to 6 years participated in this cross-sectional study: 24 preschoolers who had CIs prior to 36 months of age and 21 preschoolers…

  20. Speech and Articulatory Rates of School-Age Children in Conversation and Narrative Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, Jennifer A.; Seery, Carol H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study provides preliminary reference data for speech and articulatory rates of school-age children in conversational and narrative speaking contexts. Method: Participants included 36 typically developing children in 3 groups of 12 participants at ages 7, 9, and 11 years. Conversational and narrative speech rates were measured in…

  1. Minimal Groups Increase Young Children's Motivation and Learning on Group-Relevant Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments ("N" = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the…

  2. Linguistic Masking Release in School-Age Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, Lori J.; Buss, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed if 6- to 8-year-old children benefit from a language mismatch between target and masker speech for sentence recognition in a 2-talker masker. Method English sentence recognition was evaluated for English monolingual children (ages 6–8 years, n = 15) and adults (n = 15) in an English 2-talker and a Spanish 2-talker masker. A regression analysis with subject as a random variable was used to test the fixed effect of listener group and masker language and the interaction of these two effects. Results Thresholds were approximately 5 dB higher for children than for adults in both maskers. However, children and adults benefited to the same degree from a mismatch between the target and masker language with approximately 3 dB lower thresholds in the Spanish than the English masker. Conclusions Results suggest that children are able to take advantage of linguistic differences between English and Spanish speech maskers to the same degree as adults. Yet, overall worse performance for children may indicate general cognitive immaturity compared with adults, perhaps causing children to be less efficient when combining glimpses of degraded speech information into a meaningful sentence. PMID:26974870

  3. Premature aging and immune senescence in HIV-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Gianesin, Ketty; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Zanchetta, Marisa; Del Bianco, Paola; Petrara, Maria Raffaella; Freguja, Riccardo; Rampon, Osvalda; Fortuny, Clàudia; Camós, Mireia; Mozzo, Elena; Giaquinto, Carlo; De Rossi, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Several pieces of evidence indicate that HIV-infected adults undergo premature aging. The effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure on the aging process of HIV-infected children may be more deleterious since their immune system coevolves from birth with HIV. Design: Seventy-one HIV-infected (HIV+), 65 HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and 56 HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children, all aged 0–5 years, were studied for biological aging and immune senescence. Methods: Telomere length and T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels were quantified in peripheral blood cells by real-time PCR. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were analysed for differentiation, senescence, and activation/exhaustion markers by flow cytometry. Results: Telomere lengths were significantly shorter in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (overall, P < 0.001 adjusted for age); HIV+ ART-naive (42%) children had shorter telomere length compared with children on ART (P = 0.003 adjusted for age). T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels and CD8+ recent thymic emigrant cells (CD45RA+CD31+) were significantly lower in the HIV+ than in control groups (overall, P = 0.025 and P = 0.005, respectively). Percentages of senescent (CD28−CD57+), activated (CD38+HLA-DR+), and exhausted (PD1+) CD8+ cells were significantly higher in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (P = 0.004, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Within the CD4+ cell subset, the percentage of senescent cells did not differ between HIV+ and controls, but programmed cell death receptor-1 expression was upregulated in the former. Conclusions: HIV-infected children exhibit premature biological aging with accelerated immune senescence, which particularly affects the CD8+ cell subset. HIV infection per se seems to influence the aging process, rather than exposure to ART for prophylaxis or treatment. PMID:26990630

  4. Cost Analysis of Direct versus Indirect and Individual versus Group Modes of Manual-Based Speech-and-Language Therapy for Primary School-Age Children with Primary Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Kirstin; Marshall, Marjorie; Boyle, James; McCartney, Elspeth; O'Hare, Anne; Forbes, John

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study is the first within trial cost analysis of direct versus indirect and individual versus group modes of speech-and-language therapy for children with primary language impairment. Aims: To compare the short-run resource consequences of the four interventions alongside the effects achieved measured by standardized scores on a…

  5. [A comparative study of the perceptual and motor performance at school age of preterm and full term children].

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Lívia de Castro; Catarina, Patrícia Wendling; Barbosa, Vanêssa Maziero; Mancini, Marisa Cota; Paixão, Maria Lúcia

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the perceptualmotor performance in school age children who were born preterm and full term. Two groups of children, ages 5 to 7, participated in this study. Group I had 35 children, from low-income families, born up to the 34 week of gestation and/or weight bellow 1500 g. Group II had 35 full-term children, matched by age, gender and socioeconomic status to the children in Group I. Children were tested on the Bender gestalt, the motor accuracy test and on balance and postural responses measures. The preterm group obtained significantly lower scores in the majority of the tests. These besides reinforcing the importance of the follow-up of preterm children up to school age, also indicate the need to stimulate the fine motor and postural control Devment, even among preterm children who do not show evidence of neurological impairment. PMID:12806505

  6. Preschool children's attention to environmental messages about groups: social categorization and the origins of intergroup bias.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Meagan M; Bigler, Rebecca S

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of adults' labeling and use of social groups on preschool children's intergroup attitudes. Children (N=87, aged 3-5) attending day care were given measures of classification skill and self-esteem and assigned to membership in a novel ("red" or "blue") social group. In experimental classrooms, teachers used the color groups to label children and organize the classroom. In control classrooms, teachers ignored the color groups. After 3 weeks, children completed multiple measures of intergroup attitudes. Results indicated that children in both types of classrooms developed ingroup-biased attitudes. As expected, children in experimental classrooms showed greater ingroup bias on some measures than children in control classrooms. PMID:16942493

  7. Assessing attachment in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Crittenden, Patricia; Kozlowska, Kasia; Landini, Andrea

    2010-04-01

    The School-age Assessment of Attachment (SAA) is a newly developed clinical tool to identify pattern of attachment using the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment and adaptation (DMM). Seven picture cards were used to elicit fantasy stories and recalled episodes. The transcribed discourse was analyzed to yield one of 13 DMM attachment classifications, together with possible unresolved traumas and losses, and modifiers (depression and intrusions). In this article, we outline the steps necessary to validate an assessment tool, describe the development of the SAA, and report data from a preliminary clinical study testing the SAA's reliability, validity, and utility. Concurrent construct, familial, and discriminant validity were evaluated in terms of mental health status and exposure to danger on a sample of 5-12-year-old children, drawn from clinical ( n = 51) and normative (n = 40) populations. The SAA (a) differentiated children referred for psychiatric diagnosis from those in the normative population; (b) accounted for 31% of the variance (46% when family variables were added); (c) identified risk children in the normative sample; and (d) suggested risk factors associated with children's psychiatric disorder. PMID:20176770

  8. Home drowning among preschool age Mexican children.

    PubMed Central

    Celis, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of drowning by different bodies of water in and near the home for children aged 1 to 4 years. SETTING: The Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico. METHODS: A population case-control study. Cases (n=33) were children 1 to 4 years old who drowned at their home; controls (n=200) were a random sample of the general population. RESULTS: The risk of drowning for children whose parents reported having a water well at home was almost seven times that of children in homes without a water well (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=6.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.2 to 20.5). Risk ratio estimates for other bodies of water were: swimming pools (OR=5.8, 95% CI=0.9 to 37.5), water barrel (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.0 to 5.6), underground cistern (OR=2.1, 95% CI=0.8 to 5.2), and a basin front (courtyard pool to store water) of 35 or more litres (OR=1.8, 95% CI=0.8 to 4.4). CONCLUSION: Drowning at home is frequent in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, but the causes are different from those reported in developed countries. Accordingly, the preventive strategies must also be different. Images PMID:9493619

  9. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Ghalebandi, Mirfarhad; Salehi, Mansour; Rasoulain, Maryam; Naserbakht, Morteza; Salarifar, Mohammad Hosien

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. Methods In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran). A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. Results Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. Conclusion A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances. PMID:22952526

  10. Federal Expenditures on Elementary-Age Children in 2008 (Ages 6 through 11)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vericker, Tracy C.; Macomber, Jennifer; Isaacs, Julia; Kent, Adam; Bringewatt, Elizabeth H.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides a first-time analysis of the nation's current investments in elementary-age children, defined as children ages 6 through 11. The authors consider over 100 federal programs through which the federal government allocates money to children, and subsequently estimate the amount spent on six- to eleven-year-old children. This…

  11. At What Age Should Children Engage in Agricultural Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jingzhen; O'Gara, Erin; Cheng, Gang; Kelly, Kevin M.; Ramirez, Marizen; Burmeister, Leon F.; Merchant, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We compared parents' perceived-as-appropriate ages with actual-performance ages for their children engaging in selected agricultural tasks or practices, and we examined the factors associated with age discrepancy. Methods: We analyzed data from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study collected among parents of children age 17 or younger.…

  12. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  13. Middle-school-age outcomes in children with very low birthweight.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H G; Klein, N; Minich, N M; Hack, M

    2000-01-01

    Most previous studies of children with birthweight <750 g have focused on early childhood sequelae. To evaluate later outcomes, a regional sample of 60 <750-g birthweight children was compared at middle school age (M = 11 years) to 55 children with birthweight 750-1,499 g and 49 term controls. The groups were matched on age, gender, and demographic variables at the time of an early-school-age assessment (mean age 7 years). The <750-g birthweight group fared less well at middle school age than the term group on measures of cognitive function, achievement, behavior, and academic performance. In many instances, outcomes were less favorable for the <750-g children than for the 750 to 1,499-g group. Children in the <750-g group who were free of neurosensory disorders and global cognitive impairment performed more poorly on several tests than their term counterparts. Group differences in this subsample on tests of motor skills, math, and the ability to copy and recall a complex drawing remained significant even after controlling for IQ. Disparities between the <750-g and term groups increased with age for some measures. Despite favorable outcomes for many children in the <750-g group, this population is at risk for long-term developmental problems. PMID:11194251

  14. How do young children expect others to address resource inequalities between groups?

    PubMed

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-10-01

    Age-related changes in young children's expectations for others' resource allocation decisions were investigated. Children ages 3 to 6years (N=80) were introduced to an inequality of resources between two groups. Participants gave their expectations for (a) how a member of the group with more resources (advantaged group) and a member of the group with fewer resources (disadvantaged group) would evaluate the inequality (okay or not okay), (b) which group each of the two individuals would prefer (ingroup or outgroup), and (c) how each of the two individuals would allocate subsequent resources between the groups. Findings revealed children's differing expectations for how others would address resource inequalities based on group status. Children expected that if the disadvantaged group member evaluated the inequality negatively then he or she would reduce the disparity. But children expected that if the advantaged group member evaluated the inequality positively then he or she would increase the disparity. Furthermore, 5- and 6-year-olds, but not 3- and 4-year-olds, expected individuals to seek more for their ingroup if they preferred their ingroup over the outgroup. Different from previous research on children's own resource allocation decisions, these findings reveal the circumstances under which children expect others to perpetuate or attenuate resource inequalities between groups. PMID:27262524

  15. GROUP TREATMENT OF AUTISTIC CHILDREN. PRENTICE-HALL PSYCHOLOGY SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COFFEY, HUBERT S.; WIENER, LOUISE L.

    AT THE EAST BAY ACTIVITY CENTER IN BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA, TREATMENT INVOLVED THE MIXING OF AUTISTIC CHILDREN WITH LESS SEVERELY DISTURBED CHILDREN. NON-AUTISTIC CHILDREN IN THE GROUP WERE EXPECTED TO ACT AS CATALYSTS BY TRYING TO FORM SOME TYPE OF SOCIALLY MATURE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE AUTISTIC CHILDREN WHILE THE THERAPIST ENCOURAGED INTERACTION.…

  16. Formant frequencies of Malay vowels produced by Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years.

    PubMed

    Ting, Hua-Nong; Zourmand, Alireza; Chia, See-Yan; Yong, Boon-Fei; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman

    2012-09-01

    The formant frequencies of Malaysian Malay children have not been well studied. This article investigates the first four formant frequencies of sustained vowels in 360 Malay children aged between 7 and 12 years using acoustical analysis. Generally, Malay female children had higher formant frequencies than those of their male counterparts. However, no significant differences in all four formant frequencies were observed between the Malay male and female children in most of the vowels and age groups. Significant differences in all formant frequencies were found across the Malay vowels in both Malay male and female children for all age groups except for F4 in female children aged 12 years. Generally, the Malaysian Malay children showed a nonsystematic decrement in formant frequencies with age. Low levels of significant differences in formant frequencies were observed across the age groups in most of the vowels for F1, F3, and F4 in Malay male children and F1 and F4 in Malay female children. PMID:22285457

  17. Once failed, twice shy: How group-based competition influences risk preference in young children.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi; Wang, Jiajie; Lv, Xiaofeng; Li, Yansong

    2016-04-01

    Recent developmental research demonstrates that young children tend to be risk-seeking. However, very little is known about the extent to which such a capacity varies with children's group-based experience. Given that between-group competition is a central feature of human social life, this study aimed at examining the influence of group-based competition over risk preference in young children. In total, 234 children from 3 age groups (2-4-year-olds, 5-6-year-olds, and 8-9-year-olds) engaged in an intergroup competition manipulation, which was followed by a prosocial game assessing children's ingroup egalitarianism and a gambling task measuring children's risk preference. We found that children in the intergroup competition condition tended to be risk-averse compared with those who were in the nonintergroup competition condition. Furthermore, we found that an aversion to risk in the intergroup competition condition was driven by such an aversion observed in children from the losing group. In addition, we found a positive relationship between ingroup egalitarianism and risk preference in children from the winning group rather than those from the losing group. Together, our results contribute to the understanding of the effects of group-based experience on children's risk preference and may have important implications for understanding individuals' risky decisions. PMID:26974207

  18. Group Play Therapy with Sexually Abused Preschool Children: Group Behaviors and Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Karyn Dayle

    2002-01-01

    Group play therapy is a common treatment modality for children who have been sexually abused. Sexually abused preschoolers exhibit different group play therapy behaviors than do nonabused children. Group workers need to be aware of these differences and know the appropriate group interventions. This article describes group play therapy with…

  19. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... this kind of pain when they have a stomach virus, indigestion, gas, or when they become constipated. ...

  20. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe it to you. Here are different kinds of pain: ...

  1. Children Associate Racial Groups with Wealth: Evidence from South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.

    2012-01-01

    Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N = 84) in South Africa associate higher status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher…

  2. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among School Age Palestinian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamis, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…

  3. School Entry Age and Future Adjustment of Inner City Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, William R.

    Randomly selected fourth grade teachers completed the Peterson and Quay Behavior Problem Checklist on 304 inner city children classified according to their age at entry into kindergarten. Findings revealed that earlier entry age children (children who were comparatively young when they started school) scored highest on the conduct subtest of the…

  4. Children of mentally ill parents—a pilot study of a group intervention program

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Hanna; Anding, Jana; Schrott, Bastian; Röhrle, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. Children of mentally ill parents are a vulnerable high risk group with overall impaired development and high rates of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009) and adapted it for groups. First results of this pilot study are presented. Method: This investigation evaluates a preventive group intervention for children of mentally ill parents. In a quasi-experimental design three groups are compared: an intervention group (Family Talk Intervention group: n = 28), a Wait Control group (n = 9), and a control group of healthy children (n = 40). Mean age of children was 10.41 years and parental disorders were mostly depressive/affective disorders (n = 30), but a small number also presented with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 7). Results: Children of mentally ill parents showed higher rates of internalizing/externalizing disorders before and after the intervention compared to children of parents with no disorders. Post intervention children's knowledge on mental disorders was significantly enhanced in the Family Talk Intervention group compared to the Wait Control group and the healthy control group. Parental ratings of externalizing symptoms in the children were reduced to normal levels after the intervention in the Family Talk Intervention group, but not in the Wait Control group. Discussion: This pilot study of a group intervention for children of mentally ill parents highlights the importance of psycho-education on parental mental disorders for children. Long-term effects of children's enhanced knowledge about parental psychopathology need to be explored in future studies. PMID:26539129

  5. Early psychological intervention in accidentally injured children ages 2–16: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Didier N.; Landolt, Markus A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Road traffic accidents (RTA) and burns are frequent events in children. Although many children recover spontaneously, a considerable number develop long-term psychological sequelae. Evidence on early psychological interventions to prevent such long-term problems is still scarce for school-age children and completely lacking for pre-school children. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of an early two-session cognitive-behavioral intervention in 108 children ages 2–16 after RTAs and burns. Methods Children assessed at risk for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were randomly assigned to either a control group offered treatment as usual or an intervention group. Primary outcomes were PTSD, behavioral problems, and depression symptoms. Baseline and blinded 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments were conducted. Results In pre-school children, no intervention effects were found. School-age children in the intervention group exhibited significantly fewer internalizing problems at 3-month follow-up relative to controls and a borderline significant time-by-group effect for PTSD intrusion symptoms was found (p=0.06). Conclusions This is the first study examining the efficacy of an indicated, early psychological intervention among both school-age and pre-school-age children. Because the intervention was ineffective for young children, no evidence-based practice can currently be suggested. Given that parents of pre-school children perceived the intervention as helpful, brief counseling of parents in terms of psychoeducation and training in coping skills still should be provided by clinicians, despite the current lack of evidence. To prevent trauma-related disorders in school-age children, the intervention might be used in a step-wise manner, where only children at risk for long-term psychological maladjustment are provided with psychological support. PMID:24987498

  6. Invasive Group A Streptococcus Infection among Children, Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Mark R.; Anampiu, Kirimi; Morpeth, Susan C.; Nyongesa, Sammy; Mwarumba, Salim; Smeesters, Pierre R.; Efstratiou, Androulla; Karugutu, Rosylene; Mturi, Neema; Williams, Thomas N.; Scott, J. Anthony G.; Kariuki, Samuel; Dougan, Gordon; Berkley, James A.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the extent of group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in sub-Saharan Africa and the serotypes that cause disease, we analyzed surveillance data for 64,741 hospital admissions in Kilifi, Kenya, during 1998–2011. We evaluated incidence, clinical presentations, and emm types that cause invasive GAS infection. We detected 370 cases; of the 369 for which we had data, most were skin and soft tissue infections (70%), severe pneumonia (23%), and primary bacteremia (14%). Overall case-fatality risk was 12%. Incidence of invasive GAS infection was 0.6 cases/1,000 live births among neonates, 101/100,000 person-years among children <1 year of age, and 35/100,000 among children <5 years of age. Genome sequencing identified 88 emm types. GAS causes serious disease in children in rural Kenya, especially neonates, and the causative organisms have considerable genotypic diversity. Benefit from the most advanced GAS type–specific vaccines may be limited, and efforts must be directed to protect against disease in regions of high incidence. PMID:26811918

  7. Invasive Group A Streptococcus Infection among Children, Rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Seale, Anna C; Davies, Mark R; Anampiu, Kirimi; Morpeth, Susan C; Nyongesa, Sammy; Mwarumba, Salim; Smeesters, Pierre R; Efstratiou, Androulla; Karugutu, Rosylene; Mturi, Neema; Williams, Thomas N; Scott, J Anthony G; Kariuki, Samuel; Dougan, Gordon; Berkley, James A

    2016-02-01

    To determine the extent of group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in sub-Saharan Africa and the serotypes that cause disease, we analyzed surveillance data for 64,741 hospital admissions in Kilifi, Kenya, during 1998-2011. We evaluated incidence, clinical presentations, and emm types that cause invasive GAS infection. We detected 370 cases; of the 369 for which we had data, most were skin and soft tissue infections (70%), severe pneumonia (23%), and primary bacteremia (14%). Overall case-fatality risk was 12%. Incidence of invasive GAS infection was 0.6 cases/1,000 live births among neonates, 101/100,000 person-years among children <1 year of age, and 35/100,000 among children <5 years of age. Genome sequencing identified 88 emm types. GAS causes serious disease in children in rural Kenya, especially neonates, and the causative organisms have considerable genotypic diversity. Benefit from the most advanced GAS type-specific vaccines may be limited, and efforts must be directed to protect against disease in regions of high incidence. PMID:26811918

  8. Urinary Cortisol Circadian Rhythm in a Group of High-Functioning Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richdale, Amanda L.; Prior, Margot R.

    1992-01-01

    This study found no evidence for abnormal temporal placement of the basal urinary cortisol circadian rhythm in a group of 18 high-functioning children (ages 4-14) with autism. There was a tendency toward cortisol hypersecretion during the day, predominantly in autistic children who were integrated into the normal school system. (Author/JDD)

  9. The Nature-Nurture Controversy Revisited: Divorce and Gender as Factors in Children's Racial Group Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jeanne E.; Guidubaldi, John

    1997-01-01

    Examined divorce and gender as factors in racial differences in performance of elementary age children on Hahnemann Elementary School Behavior Rating Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test, Vineland Teachers Questionnaire, and an interview. Found more racial group differences within the divorced…

  10. Children's Preferences for Group Musical Activities in Child Care Centres: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a cross-cultural research study of children's preferences for group musical activities in child care centres. A total of 228 young children aged 4-5 years in seven child care centres in Hong Kong and in the Adelaide City of South Australia participated in the study. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected via a…

  11. Goal-Orientated Group Intervention for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunford, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This study measures the effectiveness of a goal-orientated group intervention using concentrated practice schedules for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The study design is repeated measures. The sample comprises eight children with DCD, aged 7-11 years. Outcome measures are the Movement Assessment Battery for Children…

  12. The Family Hour Focus Groups: Children's Responses to Sexual Content on TV and Their Parents' Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser Foundation, Oakland, CA.

    With regard to sexual content, an argument is often made that sexual jokes, innuendoes, and behavior on television "go over kids' heads." To address this issue, focus groups were conducted with children between the ages of 8 and 13. Children viewed a tape of a selection of clips containing sexual content from programs aired in 1996 during the…

  13. Illegitimate Participation? A Group of Young Minority Ethnic Children's Experiences of Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore how a group of children, the majority of whom were of minority ethnic heritage, experienced starting nursery school in a setting where the majority of staff were of white indigenous heritage. The nursery is in a small town in the north-west of England, and the children were aged three and four. Observations were carried…

  14. Families with school-age children.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  15. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  16. Factors that Limit and Enable Preschool-Aged Children's Physical Activity on Child Care Centre Playgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Bianca; Dyment, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity amongst preschool-aged children has increased dramatically in recent years and can be attributed, in part, to a lack of physical activity amongst children in this age group. This study explores the social factors that stand to limit and/or enable children's physical activity opportunities in outdoor settings…

  17. Middle-School-Age Outcomes in Children with Very Low Birthweight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Minich, Nori M.; Hack, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    Compared outcomes of middle-school-age children born at very low (less than 750-g) or low birthweights (750 to 1,499-g) and full-term. Found that the very-low-weight group fared less well at school age than the low weight and term groups on cognitive functioning, achievement, behavior, and academic performance. Those without neurosensory disorders…

  18. Parents' Developmental Concerns and Age Variance at Diagnosis of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twyman, Kimberly A.; Maxim, Rolanda A.; Leet, Terry L.; Ultmann, Monica H.

    2009-01-01

    Although early recognition of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important, the age of children at diagnosis is variable. Forty-five participants diagnosed with ASD were divided into groups based on age at diagnosis and compared on age when parents first became concerned about various aspects of their development. Results demonstrated no…

  19. Effects of Age and Ritalin Dosage on the Mother-Child Interactions of Hyperactive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Observed the mother-child interactions of three age groups of hyperactive children (N=54) during free play and task settings using two dose levels of Ritalin. Results indicated that the interactions of hyperactive boys with their mothers improve with age, and that Ritalin produces further improvements regardless of age examined. (LLL)

  20. [Construction of age group vegetation index and preliminary application].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhang-hua; Li, Cong-hui; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-yong; Gong, Cong-hong; Tang, Meng-ya

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper, one remote sensing index-age group vegetation index (AGVI) was put forward, and its feasibility was verified. Taking 518 groups of pine forest age group data collected in 13 counties (cities) of Sanming, Jiangle, Shaxian, Nanping, Huaan, Yunxiao, Nanping, Anxi, Putian, Changting, Jianyang, Ningde and Fuqing, Fujian Province and HJ-1 CCD multi-spectral image at the same time-phase as the basis, the spectrum differences of blue, green, red, near infrared and NDVI of each age group were analyzed, showing the characteristics of young forest>middle-aged forest>over-mature forest>mature forest>near mature forest at near infrared band and mature forest>near mature forest>over-mature forest>young forest>middle-aged forest at NDVI, thus the age group vegetation index (AGVI) was constructed; the index could increase the absolute and relative spectrum differences among age groups. For the pine forest AGVI, cluster analysis was conducted with K-mean method, showing that the division accuracy of pine forest age group was 80.45%, and the accurate rate was 90.41%. Therefore, the effectiveness of age group vegetation index constructed was confirmed. PMID:25358177

  1. What Do Children Know about Their Futures: Do Children's Expectations Predict Outcomes in Middle Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallerod, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    Are children's statements about their futures related to outcomes in middle age? In 1966 almost 13,500 children ages 12-13 were asked whether they thought their futures would be worse, similar or better as compared to others of their own age. It was shown that children with low, and surprisingly high, expectations did suffer from increased…

  2. Evaluation of dental age in protein energy malnutrition children

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Patil, Kavitha; Munoli, Karishma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of dental age is very essential for a dental practitioner in planning treatment and it is a supplementary source of information for Pediatrician, Orthopedician and Endocrinologist. There are few studies in the literature about the comparison of dental with chronological age in protein energy malnutrition children (PEM). Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare dental age and chronological age in PEM children. Aims and Objective: To determine and compare dental age and chronological age in PEM children. Methods: A total of 100 PEM children within the age range of 6–12 years were selected. Chronological age was recorded using date of birth. Dental age was assessed by Demirjian's method using orthopantomogram. Comparison of two ages was done using the unpaired Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Dental age was retarded compared to chronological age, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The correlations between two ages were positive in both sexes. Conclusion: Dental age was delayed in our sample of 100 PEM children. Dental age can be considered as variable for diagnosing growth retardation in PEM children. Further studies are required to support our findings. PMID:26538919

  3. The Effects of Music and Group Stage on Group Leader and Member Behavior in Psychoeducational Groups for Children of Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cercone, Kristin; DeLucia-Waack, Janice

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music and group stage on group process and group leader and member behavior within 8-week psychoeducational groups for children of divorce. Audiotapes of group sessions were rated using the Interactional Process Analysis and the Group Sessions Ratings Scale. Both treatment groups were very similar in terms of…

  4. Comparative Research on Mixed-Age Groups in Swedish Nursery and Compulsory Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundell, Knut

    1994-01-01

    Reviews recent studies on the effects of mixed-age grouping (MAG) in Swedish nursery and elementary schools. Although studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s suggested that MAG was beneficial to children's learning and socioemotional development and to teachers' work satisfaction, studies conducted in the 1990s suggest that MAG does not promote…

  5. Young children's experiences of participating in group treatment for children exposed to intimate partner violence: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Pernebo, Karin; Almqvist, Kjerstin

    2016-01-01

    The risk of exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) between caregivers is increased during early childhood. The adverse effects on the health and development of the youngest children may be severe. Effective and promising interventions for children who have experienced IPV have been developed and evaluated. However, there is a lack in knowledge about how the children themselves experience the interventions. The aim of this study was to contribute to the evaluation of group treatment designed to improve the psychological health of young children in the aftermath of family violence by elucidating the children's experiences of participating. Nine children, aged 4 to 6 years, were interviewed after participating in group programmes specifically designed for children who have been exposed to intimate partner violence. A semi-structured interview guide with open-ended questions was used. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, to ensure a focus on the children's own views and experiences. Five master themes embracing the children's experiences were identified: joy - positive emotional experience of participation; security - feeling safe; relatedness - relationships within the group; to talk - externalised focus on the violence; and competence - new knowledge and skills. Theoretical and clinical implications and the benefit of including very young children's views and experiences in research are discussed. PMID:25410886

  6. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  7. MULTI-AGE GROUPING--ENRICHING THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES OF CHILDREN OCCUR NATURALLY IN PLAY AND IN MANY SCHOOL ACTIVITIES, FOR EXAMPLE, STUDENT COUNCIL MEETINGS, CLUBS, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS. THESE ACTIVITIES DEMAND THE VARIETY OF AGES, TALENTS, INTERESTS, AND EXPERIENCES REPRESENTED BY THE WHOLE RANGE OF STUDENTS IN A SCHOOL. IT IS QUESTIONED WHETHER ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES WOULD NOT…

  8. Increasing the Athletic Group Play of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Catherine A.; Charlop, Marjorie H.

    2014-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across three children with autism and within child across activity was used to assess the effects of interventions designed to teach children with autism to play two common athletic group games, handball and 4-square. Treatment consisted of two phases. In Phase I, athletic skills training, the children participated in…

  9. The Effect of Object and Age on Children's Judgment and Reasoning About "Aliveness".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Sandra E.; And Others

    The purposes of this study were twofold: (1) to investigate the effect of movement for several inanimate objects on children's judgments of "aliveness;" and (2) to examine the nature of explanations given by three age groups of children in support of their judgments as to whether animate and inanimate objects were "alive" or "not alive." Inanimate…

  10. 45 CFR 147.120 - Eligibility of children until at least age 26.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Eligibility of children until at least age 26. 147.120 Section 147.120 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKETS § 147.120 Eligibility of children...

  11. Identification of Aggressive Behaviour Tendencies in Junior Age Children: First Stage in a Study of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a study of children aged eight to nine years who were presenting aggressive behavior, with the aim of facilitating intervention at an early stage. Results of questionnaires given to teachers, the children themselves, their peer group, and parents are examined. Difficulties that arose in undertaking this study are explored. (Author/CT)

  12. Age Effects in a Study Abroad Context: Children and Adults Studying Abroad and at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llanes, Angels; Munoz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of learning context and age on second language development by comparing the language gains, measured in terms of oral and written fluency, lexical and syntactic complexity, and accuracy, experienced by four groups of learners of English: children in a study abroad setting, children in their at-home school, adults in…

  13. Pragmatic Language Profiles of School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philofsky, Amy; Fidler, Deborah J.; Hepburn, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe and compare the pragmatic language profiles of school-age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS) on a standardized measure to determine whether a standard pragmatics tool can differentiate between 2 groups of children with opposing social presentations and pragmatic language difficulties.…

  14. Language Outcomes of School-Aged Internationally Adopted Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that, as a group, many internationally adopted children catch up to their peers in terms of their language development by the time they reach their school-age years. Although this appears to be particularly true for children adopted during the first few years of life, it is not true for all internationally adopted…

  15. Children's Media Comprehension: The Relationship between Media Platform, Executive Functioning Abilities, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menkes, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Children's media comprehension was compared for material presented on television, computer, or touchscreen tablet. One hundred and thirty-two children were equally distributed across 12 groups defined by age (4- or 6-years-olds), gender, and the three media platforms. Executive functioning as measured by attentional control, cognitive…

  16. An Analysis of Personal Event Narratives Produced by School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Kristina M.; Ward-Lonergan, Jeannene M.

    This study compared and analyzed the language capabilities of 10 school-age children raised in either single parent homes resulting from divorce or in two parent families. More specifically, it compared the context and complexity of oral personal event narratives produced by both groups of children. The study also investigated the usefulness and…

  17. Standards for Day Care Centers for Infants and Children Under 3 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Academy of Pediatrics, Evanston, IL.

    The Committee on Infant and Preschool Child of the American Academy of Pediatrics has developed basic standards for quality day care for children under 3 years of age. The availability of day care provides a mother with the choice of group day care as one of the means of providing for her children. Options should include full-time or part-time day…

  18. Determinants of caregivers’ vaccination intention with respect to child age group: a cross-sectional survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Shin, Kyung-Ah; Park, Kisoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined how knowledge, risk perception, health beliefs and multidimensional health locus of control (HLC) were associated with caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their child, and how these associations varied across child age groups. Setting South Korea. Methods The cross-sectional survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview among 1017 nationally representative caregivers who had children aged 12 or younger. The outcome variable was caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their children. Results Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that risk perception was negatively associated with vaccination intention only among the age group 4–6 (β=−0.127, p<0.05). Perceived benefit was the only significant predictor of the outcome variables for all three age groups. In contrast, perceived barrier was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=−0.104, p<0.05). Internal HLC was positively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=0.151, p<0.001), while chance HLC was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 0–3 (β=−0.121, p<0.05). Conclusions This study identifies key vaccination intention determinants that are differentially associated with caregivers’ children's age groups. To improve vaccination rates, it suggests the need for strategies tailored to children's age. PMID:26408283

  19. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  20. The Effects of a School-Based Atopy Care Program for School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hosihn; Lee, Youngjin

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based atopy care program (SACP) for children with atopic dermatitis (AD). The program is administered by health teachers who are also school nurses. The study compared groups using a pre- and post-test design. Participants were children with AD and their parents (98 dyads; 32 in the test group and 66 in the control group) sampled from four elementary schools in Seoul. After completing the SACP, parents in the test group had significantly increased knowledge of AD (p = .04) and a greater sense of parental efficacy (p = .02) when compared with the control group. This study derived guidelines that elementary health teachers can use in practice for school-aged children with AD. We concluded that there is sufficient evidence of effectiveness for the SACP to be used as a model for chronic disease management in school-aged children. PMID:24942774

  1. Age of children who fall down stairs in strollers and guidelines for safety.

    PubMed

    Ridenour, M V

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe age differences for children 3 yr. old or less regarding the frequency of falling down stairs while being pushed in strollers, and frequencies of stroller incidents were compared for three age groups of children under 3 yr. of age. The first year is the time of highest risk based on the number of stroller incidents on stairs when compared to each of the next 2 years. 80% of the incidents involving children occurred between birth and 12 months. Safety recommendations to reduce risk are provided. PMID:11565923

  2. Temperament and Friendship in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.; Gower, Amy L.; Hohmann, Lisa M.; Gleason, Terry C.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of three components of temperament (activity level, impulsivity, and soothability) on children's friendships was investigated. Children (40 girls, 35 boys) aged 43 to 69 months responded to a sociometric interview and teachers provided temperament ratings. The probability of children choosing particular classmates as friends was…

  3. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  4. Children and the Aged: Attitudes, Contact, and Discriminative Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shirley M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assessed attitudes toward older versus younger persons, age discrimination performance, and seriation ability in 68 three- to six-year-old children. Results showed children preferred young people over old people in all situations. A significant relationship was found between children's ability to discriminate old from young people and their…

  5. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  6. Who Joins Support Groups among Parents of Children with Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.; Salzer, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    This study identified factors associated with support group participation among families of children with autism. A survey was administered to 1005 caregivers of children with autism in Pennsylvania. Two-thirds of respondents (66.4%) had ever participated in an autism-specific support group. In adjusted analyses, demographic characteristics,…

  7. The Group as an Effective Medium for Working with Children of Chemically Dependent Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Renate I.; Stockton, Rex

    1993-01-01

    Provides counselors with the foundations of group theory and practice specifically geared toward meeting the needs of school children growing up in chemically dependent homes. Information is geared toward late elementary and early middle school grades. Examples provided reflect work with that age group, but counselors can use materials with other…

  8. Listening to Voices of Children with a Visual Impairment: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khadka, Jyoti; Ryan, Barbara; Margrain, Tom H.; Woodhouse, J. Margaret; Davies, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the educational, social and leisure activities and issues that matter to school children and young people with a visual impairment and to compare their lifestyle with fully sighted counterparts. Thirteen focus groups were conducted and the groups were stratified by age, gender, visual status and school…

  9. Children's Choice Strategies: The Effects of Age and Task Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Assor, Avi; Katz, Idit

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of age and cognitive demands on children's choice strategies. Children aged 8-9 and 12-13 years were asked to choose among either two or four products that differed in several attributes of varying importance to them. Choice tasks were designed to differentiate between the lexicographic and the equal-weighting…

  10. The Age Grading of Physical Activity among Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrow, Andrew C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Preschool children (N=102) viewed sex facial pictures of two fictitiously aged adults and then rated competence of the adults on six physical activities. Children's assessments of the competence of adult participation in physical activity were largely dictated by their perceptions of the adult's age. Adults perceived as older were rated as less…

  11. What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

  12. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  13. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2012 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about school-age children and CCDBG. This…

  14. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  15. Dental age assessment of Western Saudi children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alshihri, Amin M.; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the London Atlas of Human Tooth Development and Eruption for age estimation in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents (aged 2–20 years), for forensic odontology application. Materials and methods This cross-sectional survey analyzed orthopantomograms (OPGs) of the complete dentition (including root development) to estimate the deviation from chronological age. Each OPG was de-identified and analyzed individually and classified into age-groups by the lead author, using the methods of the Atlas of Tooth Development. Results OPGs from a total of 252 patients [110 (44%) males, 142 (56%) females] aged 2–20 years (24–240 months) were examined in this study. The average estimated and chronological ages of subjects differed significantly p < 0.001 (143 ± 55.4 vs. 145 ± 57.9 months). Most (65.5%) estimates were within 12 months of subjects’ chronological ages; 19% overestimated and 15.5% underestimated age by >12 months. Conclusion This study, conducted in a sub-population of different origin than the UK sample used for the development of the London Atlas, identified variation in age estimates that may have significant impacts on results. The establishment of a composite international repository of atlas-based data for diverse ethnic sub-populations would be of great value to clinicians across the globe. PMID:26236126

  16. The formation of in-group favoritism and out-group prejudice in young children: are they distinct attitudes?

    PubMed

    Aboud, Frances E

    2003-01-01

    Although standardized measures of prejudice reveal high levels of ethnocentric bias in the preschool years, it may reflect in-group favoritism or out-group prejudice. A measure that partially decouples the two attitudes was given to White children between 4 and 7 years of age to examine the reciprocal relation between and the acquisition and correlates of in-group and out-group attitudes. The two attitudes were reciprocally correlated in 1 sample from a racially homogeneous school but not in a 2nd sample from a mixed-race school. In-group favoritism did not appear until 5 years of age but then reached significant levels; it was strongly related to developing social cognitions. Out-group prejudice was weaker, but its targets suffer from comparison with the high favoritism accorded in-group members. PMID:12518808

  17. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  18. Automated bone age assessment of older children using the radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, Han K.

    2008-03-01

    The Digital Hand Atlas in Assessment of Skeletal Development is a large-scale Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) project for automating the process of grading Skeletal Development of children from 0-18 years of age. It includes a complete collection of 1,400 normal hand X-rays of children between the ages of 0-18 years of age. Bone Age Assessment is used as an index of skeletal development for detection of growth pathologies that can be related to endocrine, malnutrition and other disease types. Previous work at the Image Processing and Informatics Lab (IPILab) allowed the bone age CAD algorithm to accurately assess bone age of children from 1 to 16 (male) or 14 (female) years of age using the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones. At the older ages (16(male) or 14(female) -19 years of age) the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones are fully developed and do not provide well-defined features for accurate bone age assessment. Therefore integration of the Radius Bone as a region of interest (ROI) is greatly needed and will significantly improve the ability to accurately assess the bone age of older children. Preliminary studies show that an integrated Bone Age CAD that utilizes the Phalanges, Carpal Bones and Radius forms a robust method for automatic bone age assessment throughout the entire age range (1-19 years of age).

  19. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  20. Children's learning of number words in an indigenous farming-foraging group.

    PubMed

    Piantadosi, Steven T; Jara-Ettinger, Julian; Gibson, Edward

    2014-07-01

    We show that children in the Tsimane', a farming-foraging group in the Bolivian rain-forest, learn number words along a similar developmental trajectory to children from industrialized countries. Tsimane' children successively acquire the first three or four number words before fully learning how counting works. However, their learning is substantially delayed relative to children from the United States, Russia, and Japan. The presence of a similar developmental trajectory likely indicates that the incremental stages of numerical knowledge - but not their timing - reflect a fundamental property of number concept acquisition which is relatively independent of language, culture, age, and early education. PMID:24766463

  1. Neurocognitive Functioning in Preschool-age Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Patiño-Fernández, Anna Maria; Delamater, Alan M.; Applegate, E. Brooks; Brady, Erika; Eidson, Margaret; Nemery, Robin; Gonzalez-Mendoza, Luis; Richton, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Neurocognitive functioning may be compromised in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The factor most consistently implicated in the long-term neurocognitive functioning of children with T1DM is age of onset. The pediatric literature suggests that glycemic extremes may have an effect on the neurocognitive functioning of children, but findings are mixed. The purpose of this study was to compare the neurocognitive functioning of young children with T1DM diagnosed before six years of age and healthy children (i.e., without chronic illness). Additionally, in the children with T1DM, we examined the relationship between their neurocognitive functioning and glycemic control. Sixty eight (36 with T1DM and 32 without chronic illness) preschool-age children (M age = 4.4yrs) were recruited and administered a battery of instruments to measure cognitive, language, and fine motor skills. Children with T1DM performed similarly to the healthy controls and both groups' skills fell in the average range. Among children with diabetes, poor glycemic control (higher HbA1c) was related to lower general cognitive abilities (r = -.44, p < .04), slower fine motor speed (r = -.64, p < .02), and lower receptive language scores (r = -.39, p < .04). Such findings indicate that young children with T1DM already demonstrate some negative neurocognitive effects in association with chronic hyperglycemia. PMID:20456084

  2. Grouping Children for Instruction in Team Teaching. Module IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, L. Jean

    The fourth of seven modules on team teaching, this document deals with grouping children for instruction, in order that teachers may understand the purposes of grouping, the various kinds of grouping, the variables to be considered in choosing a method, the ways grouping can facilitate individualized instruction, and the need for a flexible…

  3. Health expenditures by age group, 1977 and 1987

    PubMed Central

    Waldo, Daniel R.; Sonnefeld, Sally T.; McKusick, David R.; Arnett, Ross H.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, concern has increased over the rapid growth of health care spending, especially spending on behalf of the aged. In 1987, those 65 years or over comprised 12 percent of the population but consumed 36 percent of total personal health care. This article is an examination of the current and future composition of the population and effects on health care spending. National health accounts aggregates for 1977 and 1987 are split into three age groups, and the consumption patterns of each group are discussed. The variations in spending within the aged cohort are also examined. PMID:10313274

  4. Equestrian trauma: injury patterns vary among age groups.

    PubMed

    Bilaniuk, Jaroslaw W; Adams, John M; DiFazio, Louis T; Siegel, Brian K; Allegra, John R; Luján, Juan J; Durling-Grover, Renay; Pawar, Joanne; Rolandelli, Rolando H; Németh, Zoltán H

    2014-04-01

    Patients with equestrian injuries were identified in the trauma registry from 2004 to 2007. We a priori divided patients into three groups: 0 to 18 years, 19 to 49 years, and 50 years old or older. There were 284 patients identified with equestrian-related trauma. Injury Severity Score for the three major age categories 0 to 18 years, 19 to 49 years, and 50 years or older, were 3.47, 5.09, and 6.27, respectively. The most common body region injured among all patients was the head (26.1%). The most common injuries by age group were: 0 to 18 years, upper extremity fractures; 19 to 49 year olds, concussions; and 50 years or older, rib fractures. Significant differences were observed among the three age groups in terms of percent of patients with rib fractures: percent of patients with rib fractures was 2, 8, and 22 per cent in age groups 0 to 18, 19 to 49, and 50 years or older, respectively. We found different patterns of injuries associated with equestrian accidents by age. Head injuries were commonly seen among participants in equestrian activities and helmet use should be promoted to minimize the severity of closed head injuries. Injury patterns also seem to vary among the various age groups that ride horses. This information could be used to better target injury prevention efforts among these patients. PMID:24887673

  5. Dental age assessment among Tunisian children using the Demirjian method

    PubMed Central

    Aissaoui, Abir; Salem, Nidhal Haj; Mougou, Meryam; Maatouk, Fethi; Chadly, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Since Demirjian system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the Demirjian's method for dental age assessment in Tunisian children. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study previously approved by the Research Ethics Local Committee of the University Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of Monastir (Tunisia). Panoramic radiographs of 280 healthy Tunisian children of age 2.8–16.5 years were examined with Demirjian method and scored by three trained observers. Statistical Analysis Used: Dental age was compared to chronological age by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Cohen's Kappa test was performed to calculate the intra- and inter-examiner agreements. Results: Underestimation was seen in children aged between 9 and 16 years and the range of accuracy varied from −0.02 to 3 years. The advancement in dental age as determined by Demirjian system when compared to chronological age ranged from 0.3 to 1.32 year for young males and from 0.26 to 1.37 year for young females (age ranged from 3 to 8 years). Conclusions: The standards provided by Demirjian for French-Canadian children may not be suitable for Tunisian children. Each population of children may need their own specific standard for an accurate estimation of chronological age. PMID:27051223

  6. Early group bias in the Faroe Islands: Cultural variation in children's group-based reasoning.

    PubMed

    Schug, Mariah G; Shusterman, Anna; Barth, Hilary; Patalano, Andrea L

    2016-09-01

    Recent developmental research demonstrates that group bias emerges early in childhood. However, little is known about the extent to which bias in minimal (i.e., arbitrarily assigned) groups varies with children's environment and experience, and whether such bias is universal across cultures. In this study, the development of group bias was investigated using a minimal groups paradigm with 46 four- to six-year-olds from the Faroe Islands. Children observed in-group and out-group members exhibiting varying degrees of prosocial behaviour (egalitarian or stingy sharing). Children did not prefer their in-group in the pretest, but a pro-in-group and anti-out-group sentiment emerged in both conditions in the posttest. Faroese children's response patterns differ from those of American children [Schug, M. G., Shusterman, A., Barth, H., & Patalano, A. L. (2013). Minimal-group membership influences children's responses to novel experience with group members. Developmental Science, 16(1), 47-55], suggesting that intergroup bias shows cultural variation even in a minimal groups context. PMID:26444259

  7. Development of Joint Engagement in Young Deaf and Hearing Children: Effects of Chronological Age and Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Cejas, Ivette; Barker, David H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Niparko, John K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate joint engagement (JE) in age-matched children with and without hearing and its relationship to oral language skills. Method Participants were 180 children with severe-to-profound hearing loss prior to cochlear implant surgery, and 96 age-matched children with normal hearing; all parents were hearing. JE was evaluated in a 10-minute videotaped free play task with parents. Engagement states ranged from the lowest (unengaged) to the highest level (symbol-infused coordinated). Standardized language measures were administered. Results Multivariate analyses were conducted between the groups, stratified by chronological and language age. Children who were deaf (Deaf) spent less time in total symbol-infused JE than children with normal hearing (NH) across all ages. The majority of the Deaf group (83%) fell in the lowest language age group, in comparison to 35% of the NH group, and spent significantly less time in symbol-infused JE than hearing children. These delays were also observed in the Deaf group, who fell into the 18-36 month language age. No children in the Deaf group had achieved a language age of >36 months. Conclusions Young children with and without hearing had different developmental trajectories of JE, which were related to oral language skills. PMID:24845423

  8. Helping the In-Group Feels Better: Children's Judgments and Emotion Attributions in Response to Prosocial Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weller, Drika; Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen

    2013-01-01

    Five- to 13-year-old European American children ("N" = 76) predicted characters' decisions, emotions, and obligations in prosocial moral dilemmas. Across age, children judged that characters would feel more positive emotions helping an unfamiliar child from the racial in-group versus out-group (African American), happier ignoring the needs of a…

  9. Current trends and age-based differences of unintentional injury in Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Natsuki; Honda, Chikako; Nagata, Satoko

    2016-05-23

    Unintentional injury in children is a worldwide public health problem, as it increases the health burden and is a leading cause of death among children. It is important to understand the differences between different age groups of children in regard to unintentional injury, in order to effectively implement child safety education. The present study aimed to determine the current trends of unintentional injury in children, and to identify the differences between different age groups of children with regard to unintentional injury. We identified 1,521 children who attended an 18-month health checkup (18-month group), and 1,368 children who attended a 36-month health checkup (36-month group), between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2014. The rate of hospital visits associated with unintentional injury was 10.6% (161/1,521) in the 18-month group, and 13.1% (180/1,368) in the 36-month group. In both groups, present/past illness was associated with hospital visits, and in the 36-month group, hospital visits were more common in boys than in girls. The number of unintentional injuries that occurred outdoors was higher in the 36-month group than in the 18-month group. Unintentional injuries resulting from accidental ingestion and falls were more common in the 18-month group, while unintentional injuries resulting from turning over were more common in the 36-month group. In conclusion, the number of hospital visits for unintentional injury might be higher, and the number of preventive actions taken by mothers might be lower, among children attending the 36-month health checkup than among those attending the 18-month health checkup. PMID:27020119

  10. Marquesan Children's Group Organization Skills as Exhibited in Large-Group Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martini, Mary

    This research summary reports on a 4-month long study of 30 children, ages 10-13, who live at the elementary boarding school on the island of 'Ua Pou, Marquesas Island, French Polynesia. Of the sample of 15 boys and 15 girls, 20 of the children are from a single small valley. Follow-up studies also were done of the families of these children. The…

  11. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    PubMed Central

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  12. User involvement: children's participation in a parent-baby group.

    PubMed

    Maconochie, Heloise; McNeill, Fiona

    2010-08-01

    According to the National Service Framework, children have a right to participate in the development of healthcare services and yet research suggests that young children are at risk of exclusion from user involvement initiatives. This paper outlines the findings of a participatory action research project conducted with families attending a health visitors' parent-baby group. A combination of participatory research methods were used to ascertain the infants' perspectives of the service and this led to a number of changes in terms of professional attitudes, service provision and working practices. Changes in professional attitudes included acknowledging the importance of social interaction to the children, recognising young children's views as embodied and produced within social interactions, and respecting children as active contributors and not simply as passive recipients of healthcare services. Changes in service provision resulted in redistributing resources, structures and spaces to take account of children's perspectives. Finally, reciprocity and responsiveness were seen as key components in enhancing young children's participation. PMID:20722326

  13. Longitudinal Effects of Group Music Instruction on Literacy Skills in Low-Income Children

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Jessica; Strait, Dana L.; Skoe, Erika; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6–9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development. PMID:25409300

  14. Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income children.

    PubMed

    Slater, Jessica; Strait, Dana L; Skoe, Erika; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6-9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development. PMID:25409300

  15. Reading and Coherent Motion Perception in School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassaliete, Evita; Lacis, Ivars; Fomins, Sergejs; Krumina, Gunta

    2015-01-01

    This study includes an evaluation, according to age, of the reading and global motion perception developmental trajectories of 2027 school age children in typical stages of development. Reading is assessed using the reading rate score test, for which all of the student participants, regardless of age, received the same passage of text of a medium…

  16. 29 CFR 2590.715-2714 - Eligibility of children until at least age 26.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eligibility of children until at least age 26. 2590.715-2714 Section 2590.715-2714 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS Other Requirements § 2590.715-2714 Eligibility...

  17. Language Maintenance and Loss in Preschool-Age Children of Mexican Immigrants: Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiberson, Mark M.; Barrett, Karen C.; Jancosek, Elizabeth G.; Itano, Christine Yoshinaga

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors plotted the Spanish language usage of 10 preschool-age children over the course of 3 years and assigned them to one of two groups: language maintenance and language loss. The authors then compared the groups' scores on structured tasks, language behaviors, and language usage/exposure variables. They found that children…

  18. A Model for the Treatment of College Age Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Diane; Winterowd, Carrie

    A session by session cognitive behavioral approach to group treatment for college age children of alcoholics was presented. Four groups ranging in size from four to eight persons participated in these semester-long sessions offered during one academic year through the counseling center at a major midwestern university. The treatment was comprised…

  19. 29 CFR 2590.715-2714 - Eligibility of children until at least age 26.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility of children until at least age 26. 2590.715-2714 Section 2590.715-2714 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR GROUP HEALTH PLANS Other Requirements § 2590.715-2714 Eligibility...

  20. Outcomes of an Auditory-Verbal Program for Children with Hearing Loss: A Comparative Study with a Matched Group of Children with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornan, Dimity; Hickson, Louise; Murdoch, Bruce; Houston, Todd

    2007-01-01

    The speech and language developmental progress of children with hearing loss educated using an Auditory-Verbal approach was compared to that of a control group of children with normal hearing. The experimental group consisted of 29 children ages 2-6 years with a mean pure tone average in the better ear of 76.17 dB HL at 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz. The 29…

  1. Screening for developmental delay among children aged 1-4 years: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rachel; Kenny, Meghan; Bennett, Teresa; Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Sherifali, Diana; Raina, Parminder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Existing guidelines on screening children less than 5 years of age for developmental delay vary. In this systematic review, we synthesized the literature on the effectiveness and harms of screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and PsychINFO for relevant articles published to June 16, 2015. We identified studies that included children aged 1-4 years who were not at high risk of developmental delay, screened in a primary care setting. Randomized trials and controlled cohort studies were considered for benefits (cognitive, academic and functional outcomes); no restrictions on study design were imposed for the review of harms. Results: Two studies were included. One used the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II for screening and reported significantly more referrals to early intervention in the intervention groups than in the control group (relative risk [RR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.54, in the intervention group with office support and RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.30-2.25, in the intervention group without office support). The time to referral was 70% shorter in the intervention group with office support (rate ratio 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.48) and 64% shorter in the intervention group without office support (rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.59), compared with the control group. The other study used the VroegTijdige Onderkenning Ontwikkelingsstoornissen Language Screening instrument to screen children aged 15 months at enrolment for language delay. It reported no differences between groups in academic performance outcomes at age 8 years. Interpretation: The evidence on screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years is inconclusive. Further research with longer-term outcomes is needed to inform decisions about screening and screening intervals. PMID:27226967

  2. HEALTH OF CHILDREN OF SCHOOL AGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LESSER, ARTHUR

    A HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE STUDY OF SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAMS, THIS REPORT PRESENTS STATISTICS ON (1) THE NATION'S CHILD POPULATION, (2) CHILDREN IN LOW-INCOME FAMILIES, (3) ILLNESSES OF CHILDHOOD, (4) SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES, AND (5) TRENDS IN THE PROVISION OF HEALTH CARE FOR CHILDREN. THE REPORT EMPHASIZES THE GAPS IN CHILD HEALTH SUPERVISION…

  3. Children's Learning Groups: A Study of Emergent Leadership, Dominance, and Group Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko

    This study explores the importance of the group context in the emergence of leadership, dominance, and group effectiveness in children's collaborative learning groups. Ten 3-person work groups performed a collaborative math activity. Using achievement goal orientation (Ames, 1992; Maehr and Midgley, 1996; Pintrich and Schunk, 1996) as a framework,…

  4. A Counseling Group for Children of Cancer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanko, Cynthia A.; Taub, Deborah J.

    2002-01-01

    Cancer affects not just the patient but also the entire family system. The effect of a parent's cancer on young children in the family may lead to emotional distress and school problems. This article describes guidelines for a counseling group for elementary school children of cancer patients to be led by the school counselor and meet in the…

  5. ERIC/EECE Digests Related to the Education and Care of Children from Birth through 12 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Early Childhood Education, Champaign, IL.

    The ERIC/EECE Digests in this compilation focus on different aspects of the education and care of children from birth through 12 years of age. The four digests produced in 1989 concern the escalating kindergarten curriculum, involvement of parents in the education of their children, mixed-age groups in early childhood education, and praise in the…

  6. Language Ability Groups in Bilingual Children: A Latent Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gray, Shelley; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Classifying children into two language ability groups, with and without language impairment, may underestimate the number of groups with distinct language ability patterns, or, alternatively, there may be only a single group characterized by a continuum of language performance. The purpose of the current study was to identify the number…

  7. Fluency Remediation in Dyslexic Children: Does Age Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E.; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Brenbati, Federica; Donini, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis whether older dyslexic children may obtain fewer gains on fluency and accuracy with respect to their younger peers after specific remediation. Changes in accuracy and fluency of a group of children with a diagnosis of dyslexia attending third and fourth grades were compared with those obtained by a group of…

  8. Ageing and the group-reference effect in memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeon-Nyeon; Rosa, Nicole M; Gutchess, Angela H

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines age differences in the memory benefits from group-referncing. While prior work establishes that the memory performance of younger and older adults similarly benefits from relating information to the self, this study assessed whether those benefits extend to referencing a meaningful group membership. Young and older adult participants encoded trait words by judging whether each word describes themselves, describes their group membership (selected for each age group), or is familiar. After a retention interval, participants completed a surprise recognition memory test. The results indicate that group-referencing increased recognition memory performance compared to the familiarity judgements for both young and older groups. However, the group-reference benefit is limited, emerging as smaller than the benefit from self-referencing. These results challenge previous findings of equivalent benefits for group-referencing and self-referencing, suggesting that such effects may not prevail under all conditions, including for older adults. The findings also highlight the need to examine the mechanisms of group-referencing that can lead to variability in the group-reference effect. PMID:26252870

  9. The acquisition of accusative object clitics by IA children from China: evidence of early age effects?

    PubMed

    Delcenserie, Audrey; Genesee, Fred

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared the performance of twenty-seven French-speaking internationally adopted (IA) children from China to that of twenty-seven monolingual non-adopted French-speaking children (CTL) matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status on a Clitic Elicitation task. The IA children omitted significantly more accusative object clitics and made significantly more agreement errors using clitics than the CTL children. No other significant differences were found between the groups. The findings suggest that the adoptees may experience difficulties in morphosyntactic development possibly as a result of their delayed exposure to the adopted language. PMID:24274007

  10. The applicability of Willems' method for age estimation in southern Turkish children: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Onat Altan, Halenur; Altan, Ahmet; Bilgiç, Fundagül; Akıncı Sözer, Özlem; Damlar, İbrahim

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the applicability and accuracy of Willems' method for assessing southern Turkish children and to analyze the practicability of this method in different age groups for both genders. Panoramic radiographs of 756 children (378 females, 378 males) aged between 5 and 14.99 years were examined by one observer. This retrospective study involved a contemporary southern Turkish population. The chronological ages of the subjects were divided into 10 groups. These 10 groups consisted of children of the following ages 5 and 14.99. Relationships between continuous variables were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The paired t-test was used to compare all data according to gender and age groups. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant for all statistical data. According to the results, a very high correlation was found for both girls (r(2) = 0.946) and for boys (r(2) = 0.940). Dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA) were consistent for girls in the four age groups (5-5.99, 6-6.99, 12-12.99, and 14-14.99) and for boys in the three age groups (5-5.99,13-13.99, 14-14.99). The maturity score of Willems' Belgian samples of the DA was applicable to seven groups of the southern Turkish children. The present study reports that Willems' method is more accurate for girls than for boys. PMID:26698388

  11. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention. PMID:26537543

  12. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, John P.

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  13. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751

  14. Violent death in the pediatric age group: rural and urban differences.

    PubMed

    Gausche, M; Seidel, J S; Henderson, D P; Ness, B; Ward, P M; Wayland, B W

    1989-03-01

    Violent death (homicide and suicide) in the pediatric age group is a major public health problem. A descriptive study was undertaken to review retrospectively the 1077 pediatric coroner's cases in 11 California counties for differences between urban and rural violent death rates. Pediatric violent death was more prevalent in the urban region than in the rural region (P less than 0.0007). High urban homicide rates accounted for most of this difference. Suicide rates were not significantly different (P = 0.18). Seventy-four percent of the violent deaths were in the 15- to 18-year age group, and most of these deaths were caused by firearms (81%). Blacks had the highest homicide and suicide rates. Child abuse was an important cause of death for young children in the urban area only. Socioeconomic factors, cultural differences, high population density, and the availability of firearms were proposed as factors affecting violent death in the pediatric age group. PMID:2785264

  15. Social Orders and Interactions among Children in Age-Mixed Classes in Primary Schools--New Perspectives from a Synthesis of Ethnographic Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huf, Christina; Raggl, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The article synthesises data from two ethnographic projects, which both explore interactions of children in age-mixed groups in primary schools. It illuminates critical perspectives on social orders and children's interactions in age-mixed classes by showing how pupils in age-mixed groups become involved in power relations and how the teacher's…

  16. Aging Parents and Adult Children: Research Themes in Intergenerational Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancini, Jay A.; Blieszner, Rosemary

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the following dominant themes in the relationships of older parents and their adult children within the context of societal age structure changes: roles and responsibilities, parent-child interaction, individual well-being, relationship quality, and caregiving by adult children. Concludes with speculations on the future of research on…

  17. Rational-Emotive Assessment of School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on assessment of emotions and irrational beliefs in Rational-Emotive Therapy with school-aged children. Argues that, for children to understand and agree to process of disputing irrational beliefs, practitioner first assesses individual child's emotional vocabulary, his/her understanding of relationship between disturbed emotion and…

  18. Executive Function in Very Preterm Children at Early School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke S. H.; Smidts, Diana P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether very preterm ([less than or equal to] 30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50 children (27 boys and 23 girls) born very…

  19. Language Development in Preschool-Age Children Adopted from China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jenny A.; Pollock, Karen E.; Krakow, Rena; Price, Johanna; Fulmer, Kathleen C.; Wang, Paul P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the language development of 55 preschool-age children adopted from China who had resided in their permanent homes for approximately 2 years or longer. Slightly over 5% of the children scored below average on 2 or more measures from a battery of standardized speech-language tests normed on monolingual English speakers. However,…

  20. Attitudes Toward Animals: Age-Related Development Among Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellert, Stephen R.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews a study's findings on children's (N=267) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward animals and natural habitats. Research results indicate that existence of three stages in the development of children's perceptions of animals. Major differences in age, sex, ethnicity and urban/rural residence were also noted. (ML)

  1. Sentence Completion to Assess Children's Views about Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Michael J.; Pruski, Linda A.; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Lee, Shuko; Plaetke, Rosemarie

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Sentence completion exercises require students to give open-ended responses to prompts. The first purpose of this article is to describe the method of sentence completion to assess middle-school children's attitudes and beliefs about aging. The second purpose is to describe the patterns of characteristics that children associate with…

  2. Self-Control in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these…

  3. Visual Development and Neuropsychological Profile in Preterm Children from 6 Months to School Age.

    PubMed

    Sayeur, Mélissa Sue; Vannasing, Phetsamone; Tremblay, Emmanuel; Lepore, Franco; McKerral, Michelle; Lassonde, Maryse; Gallagher, Anne

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this semilongitudinal study was to investigate the development of central visual pathways in children born preterm but without major neurologic impairments and to establish their cognitive and behavioral profile at school age. Ten children born preterm were assessed at 6 months and at school age, using visual evoked potentials at both time points and cognitive and behavioral tests at school age. We also tested 10 age-matched children born full-term. At 6 months' corrected age, we found no significant differences between preterm and full-term groups for either amplitude or latency of N1 and P1 components. At school age, the preterm group manifested significantly higher N1 amplitudes and tended to show higher P1 amplitudes than the full-term group. We found no significant differences in cognitive and behavioral measures at school age. These results suggest that preterm birth affects visual pathways development, yet the children born preterm did not manifest cognitive problems. PMID:25414236

  4. Growth status of small for gestational age Indian children from two socioeconomic strata

    PubMed Central

    Khadilkar, Vaman V.; Mandlik, Rubina M.; Palande, Sonal A.; Pandit, Deepa S.; Chawla, Meghna; Nadar, Ruchi; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Kadam, Sandeep S.; Khadilkar, Anuradha A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess growth and factors associated with growth in children born small for gestational age (SGA) from two socioeconomic strata in comparison to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Methods: Retrospective study conducted at two hospitals in Pune, 0.5–5 years, 618 children: 189-SGA from upper socioeconomic strata (USS), 217-SGA from lower socioeconomic strata (LSS), and 212 appropriate for gestational age healthy controls were randomly selected. Birth and maternal history, socioeconomic status, length/height, and weight of children were recorded. Anthropometric data were converted to Z scores (height for age Z-score [HAZ], weight for age Z-score [WAZ]) using WHO AnthroPlus software. Results: The HAZ and WAZ of the SGA group were significantly lower as compared to the controls and that of the LSS SGAs were lower than USS SGAs (P < 0.05). Thirty two percent children were stunted (HAZ <−2.0) in USS and 49% in LSS (P < 0.05). Twenty nine percent children in the USS SGA group were stunted at 2 years and 17% at 5 years. In the LSS SGA group, 54% children were stunted at 2 years and 46% at 5 years. Generalized linear model revealed normal vaginal delivery (β = 0.625) and mother's age (β =0.072) were positively associated and high SES (β = −0.830), absence of major illness (β = −1.01), higher birth weight (β = −1.34) were negatively associated for risk of stunting (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Children born SGA showed poor growth as compared to controls. Special attention to growth is necessary in children from LSS, very low birth weight babies, and those with major illnesses during early years of life. PMID:27366721

  5. [Psychological state of abused children of risk group].

    PubMed

    Didziokiene, Alina; Zemaitiene, Nida

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the psychological peculiarities of physically abused schoolchildren of risk group. The survey was based on the data gathered using anonymous questionnaire. Indicators, chosen for evaluation of psychological well-being of schoolchildren, were the following: loneliness, happiness, ability to make contacts and socialize with peers, sense of coherence, self-esteem, and suicidal tendencies. The sample of 211 schoolchildren, aged 10 to 16 year from seventeen Kaunas secondary schools participated in the survey. The sampling was made on the basis of lists of socially and pedagogically neglected schoolchildren. It has been established that psychological well-being of physically abused schoolchildren, in comparison with the ones not abused, was worse. Physically abused children more often felt loneliness and unhappiness, found it more difficult to make friends, were more often characterized by low self-esteem and weak sense of coherence. The relationship between physical abuse and suicidal tendencies was established; suicidal tendencies among physically abused schoolchildren were six times more frequent than among those, who did not suffer violence (78.5% and 12.5%). Almost all schoolchildren, attributed to the group with high risk for suicide, were physically abused (29.0% and 1.9%, respectively). PMID:15687752

  6. Malaria in school-age children in Africa: an increasingly important challenge

    PubMed Central

    Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Brooker, Simon J; Clarke, Sian E; Fernando, Deepika; Gitonga, Caroline W; Schellenberg, David; Greenwood, Brian

    2014-01-01

    School-age children have attracted relatively little attention as a group in need of special measures to protect them against malaria. However, increasing success in lowering the level of malaria transmission in many previously highly endemic areas will result in children acquiring immunity to malaria later in life than has been the case in the past. Thus, it can be anticipated that in the coming years there will be an increase in the incidence of both uncomplicated and severe malaria in school-age children in many previously highly endemic areas. In this review, which focuses primarily on Africa, recent data on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and on the incidence of clinical malaria in African school-age children are presented and evidence that malaria adversely effects school performance is reviewed. Long-lasting insecticide treated bednets (LLIN) are an effective method of malaria control but several studies have shown that school-age children use LLINs less frequently than other population groups. Antimalarial drugs are being used in different ways to control malaria in school-age children including screening and treatment and intermittent preventive treatment. Some studies of chemoprevention in school-age children have shown reductions in anaemia and improved school performance but this has not been the case in all trials and more research is needed to identify the situations in which chemoprevention is likely to be most effective and, in these situations, which type of intervention should be used. In the longer term, malaria vaccines may have an important role in protecting this important section of the community from malaria. Regardless of the control approach selected, it is important this is incorporated into the overall programme of measures being undertaken to enhance the health of African school-age children. PMID:25145389

  7. On the age of the β Pictoris moving group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamajek, Eric E.; Bell, Cameron P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Binks & Jeffries and Malo et al. have recently reported Li depletion boundary (LDB) ages for the β Pictoris moving group (BPMG) which are twice as old as the oft-cited kinematic age of ˜12 Myr. In this study, we present (1) a new evaluation of the internal kinematics of the BPMG using the revised Hipparcos astrometry and best available published radial velocities, and assess whether a useful kinematic age can be derived, and (2) derive an isochronal age based on the placement of the A-, F-, and G-type stars in the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD). We explore the kinematics of the BPMG looking at velocity trends along Galactic axes, and conducting traceback analyses assuming linear trajectories, epicyclic orbit approximation, and orbit integration using a realistic gravitational potential. None of the methodologies yield a kinematic age with small uncertainties using modern velocity data. Expansion in the Galactic X and Y directions is significant only at the 1.7σ and 2.7σ levels, and together yields an overall kinematic age with a wide range (13-58 Myr; 95 per cent CL). The A-type members are all on the zero-age main sequence, suggestive of an age of >20 Myr, and the loci of the CMD positions for the late-F- and G-type pre-main-sequence BPMG members have a median isochronal age of 22 Myr (± 3 Myr statistical, ±1 Myr systematic) when considering four sets of modern theoretical isochrones. The results from recent LDB and isochronal age analyses are now in agreement with a median BPMG age of 23 ± 3 Myr (overall 1σ uncertainty, including ±2 Myr statistical and ±2 Myr systematic uncertainties).

  8. Parental Beliefs about Young Children's Socialization across US Ethnic Groups: Coexistence of Independence and Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Chen, Wan-Chen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Liang, Angel S.; Contreras, Helen; Zanger, Dinorah; Robinson, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    This study compared dimensions of independence and interdependence in parents' beliefs about daily child-rearing practices across four ethnic groups. Two questionnaires were completed by 310 parents of preschool-age children, and three belief constructs were identified. "Conformity" was least valued by European Americans. "Autonomy" was equally…

  9. An Open Trial Investigation of a Transdiagnostic Group Treatment for Children with Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilek, Emily L.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the feasibility and preliminary outcomes associated with a transdiagnostic emotion-focused group protocol for the treatment of anxiety disorders and depressive symptoms in youth. Twenty-two children (ages 7 to 12; M = 9.79) with a principal anxiety disorder and varying levels of comorbid depressive symptoms were…

  10. Children's Group Manual. TOPS Program: A School/Mental Health Cooperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewenstein, Arline; And Others

    The first of two booklets on the TOPS Program (Teaching Outreach Prevention School), a school/mental health cooperative project, describes the operation of group work for elementary aged children with emotional and behavioral problems. Goals are said to include increasing the students' feelings of acceptance, caring, and support as well as…

  11. Effectiveness of a Universal, Interdependent Group Contingency Program on Children's Academic Achievement: A Countywide Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Robert; Osborne, Karen J.; Dean, Emily L.

    2015-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a universal prevention program designed to increase academic engagement and to decrease disruptive behavior in elementary school-age children. Teachers and other school personnel use interdependent group contingencies to improve students' behavior in the classroom. Previous research indicates the GBG is efficacious…

  12. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624..., respectively, during the calendar year; and (2) They have been previously ordered to report for induction...

  13. Maximum Bite Force Analysis in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Patricia; Vieira, Marilena; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF) is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI), using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo), and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil), on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups. PMID:25992105

  14. Youth Assets and Delayed Coitarche across Developmental Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that assets are associated with youth abstinence, but whether these relationships are constant across developmental age groups has not been shown. Data for this study were obtained from two independent datasets collected across a 2-year period using in-person, in-home interviews of youth (52% female; 44% Caucasian,…

  15. An Adolescent Age Group Approach to Examining Youth Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…

  16. Food selectivity in children with and without an autism spectrum disorder: investigation of diagnosis and age.

    PubMed

    Beighley, Jennifer S; Matson, Johnny L; Rieske, Robert D; Adams, Hilary L

    2013-10-01

    Feeding problems are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), with food selectivity being the most frequently reported. Selectivity based on type and/or texture of food is of concern in those with ASD. Variations in symptom presentation of food selectivity in children with different autism spectrum diagnoses across childhood have not often been investigated. Parent-report of food selectivity was examined in 525 children age 2-18 years diagnosed with autistic disorder, PDD-NOS, Asperger's disorder, atypical development, and typical development using information garnered from the Autism Spectrum Disorder-Comorbidity for Children (ASD-CC), a tool to assess emotional issues and comorbid psychopathology. Individuals with an ASD were reported to have significantly more food selectivity than both the atypically developing group and the typically developing group. In addition, the ASD groups, when looked at together, showed a decrease in food selectivity across childhood with significant decrease in the Asperger's disorder group. PMID:23948127

  17. Age-specific risk factors for lead absorption in children

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, S.D.; Yankel, A.J.; von Lindern, I.H.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of blood lead levels to environmental and individual characteristics is analyzed in a large sample of children residing near a lead smelting complex, with particular emphasis on the identification of age-related risk factors. Exceptional variation in both blood leads and its determinants within the study region facilitated the simultaneous detection of several significant risk factors for each year of age from 1 to 9 y. The strongest predictor of blood lead at all ages was air lead, but the secondary risk factors were age dependent. Household dustiness was significantly related to blood lead in young children, especially those under 2 y of age; soil lead may be an important source of ingested lead for children between 2 and 7 y. Other significant effects included that of pica at about 2 y of age, a slight effect of the occupational category of the fathers of 5- to 8-y-old children, and a tendency for 8- and 9-y-old boys to have higher blood leads than girls of the same age. Lead concentration in household paint was not a significant risk factor. These results suggest that a multifactorial approach to the prevention of excessive lead absorption by children is required.

  18. The Development of Associate Learning in School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Brian T.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Snyder, Peter J.; Thomas, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda C.; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes. PMID:25014755

  19. Peer Groups, Social Identity, and Children's Bullying Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Amanda L.; Nesdale, Drew

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on social identity theory, this study explored the impact of the peer group on childhood bullying. Participants were 351 students, aged 8 to 13 years. Involvement in bullying, friendship group membership, norms of particular groups, and intra-group positions (prototypical vs. peripheral) were determined using peer reports. Results revealed…

  20. Age and Gender-Related Changes in Biogenic Amine Metabolites in Cerebrospinal Fluid in Children.

    PubMed

    Kuśmierska, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Krystyna; Rokicki, Dariusz; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Mierzewska, Hanna; Szczepanik, Elzbieta; Pronicka, Ewa; Demkow, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites of cerebrospinal biogenic amines (dopamine and serotonin)are an important tool in clinical research and diagnosis of children with neurotransmitter disorders. In this article we focused on finding relationships between the concentration of biogenic amine metabolites, age, and gender. We analyzed 148 samples from children with drug resistant seizures of unknown etiology and children with mild stable encephalopathy aged 0-18 years. A normal profile of biogenic amineswas found in 107 children and those children were enrolled to the study group. The CSF samples were analyzed by HPLC with an electrochemical detector. The concentrations of the dopamine and serotonin metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), respectively, were high at birth, gradually decreasing afterward until the 18 years of age. Nevertheless, the HVA/5-HIAA ratio did not vary with age, except in the children below 1 year of age. In the youngest group we observed a strong relationship between the HVA/5-HIAA ratio and age (r = 0.69, p < 0.001). There were no statistical differences in the level of both dopamine and serotonin metabolites between boys and girls, although a tread toward lower HVA and 5-HIAA in the boys was noticeable. Significant inter-gender differences in the level of HVA and 5-HIAA were noted only in the age-group of 1-4 years, with 5-HIAA being higher in the girls than boys (p = 0.004). In conclusion, the study revealed that the concentration of biogenic amine metabolites is age and sex dependent. PMID:26453071

  1. Old People's Attitudes Toward Other Age Groups' Beliefs and Opinions About the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris, Helen Brown

    The need for research which will provide old people's evaluation of what is positive or negative about beliefs and opinions of other age groups about the aged forms the basis for the research proposed in this report. Six sections are included. The introduction, section 1, covers statement of the problem, and the purpose, need, assumptions,…

  2. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR COMPETENCE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IS WEAKER IN THE 15-16 YR. ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP THAN IN YOUNGER AGE GROUPS (4-5 YR. AND 11-12 YR.).

    PubMed

    Haga, Monika; Gísladóttír, Thórdís; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2015-12-01

    Developing motor competence and physical fitness can affect the maintenance of a sufficient level of physical activity in children and adolescents. This study assesses the relationship between motor competence and physical fitness from childhood through early adolescence. A cross-sectional sample of 194 participants from 4 to 16 years old were divided into three groups; 4-6 yr. (n=42, M age=5.2, SD 0.6), 11-12 yr. (n=58, M age=12.4, SD=0.3), and 15-16 yr. (n=94, M age=15.9, SD=0.4). To assess motor competence, each child completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). To measure physical fitness, three tasks (strength, speed, and endurance) were selected from the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF). To analyze the significance of the difference between the correlation coefficient in the three age groups (samples) (4-6, 11-12, and 15-16 yr.), Fischer r-to-z transformation was used. The correlation (Pearson's) between motor competence and physical fitness in the age groups was statistically higher for the youngest age groups (4-6 and 11-12 yr.) and the adolescent group (age 15-16). The differences between the two youngest age groups were not statistically significant. The results demonstrate that the correlation between motor competence and physical fitness decreases with age. PMID:26595203

  3. Fecal Calprotectin Concentrations in Healthy Children Aged 1-18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Ma, Jingqiu; Geng, Shanshan; Wang, Junli; Liu, Jinrong; Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Xiaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Fecal calprotectin (FC) is an established biomarker of gut inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate FC concentrations in healthy children between 1 and 18 months of age. Methods Healthy children aged 1-18 months were enrolled in this study at the Department of Children's Health Care in Shanghai, China. Children’s stool samples were collected and analyzed, and FC concentration was determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The children's weights and lengths were measured. Parents were asked to complete a brief questionnaire regarding several clinical and sociodemographic factors. Results The FC concentrations were unevenly distributed; the median FC concentration was 174.3 μg/g (range: 6.0-1097.7 μg/g) or 2.241 log10 μg/g (range: 0.775-3.041 log10 μg/g) for all 288 children. The children were divided into several age groups: 1-3 months, 3-6 months, 6-9 months, 9-12 months and 12-18 months. The median FC concentrations for these age groups were 375.2 μg/g (2.574 log10 μg/g), 217.9 μg/g (2.338 log10 μg/g), 127.7 μg/g (2.106 log10 μg/g), 96.1 μg/g (1.983 log10 μg/g) and 104.2 μg/g (2.016 log10 μg/g), respectively. A significant correlation between age and FC concentration was found (r=-0.490, p<0.001). A simple correlation analysis of weight-for-length Z-scores or weight-for-age Z-scores vs. FC concentrations showed that these variables were negatively correlated (Spearman’s rho=-0.287, p<0.001; Spearman’s rho=-0.243, p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions The FC levels of children aged 1-18 months exhibit a downward trend with increasing age and are greater than the normal levels observed in healthy adults. In healthy children aged <6 months, FC levels are high. In children aged 6-18 months, FC concentrations are relatively low but are still higher than those of children aged >4 years. PMID:25742018

  4. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach

    PubMed Central

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-01-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity. PMID:23610606

  5. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach.

    PubMed

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-04-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity. PMID:23610606

  6. Group rhythmic synchrony and attention in children

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Alexander K.; Minces, Victor; McLoughlin, Grainne; Chiba, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Synchrony, or the coordinated processing of time, is an often-overlooked yet critical context for human interaction. This study tests the relationship between the ability to synchronize rhythmically in a group setting with the ability to attend in 102 elementary schoolchildren. Impairments in temporal processing have frequently been shown to exist in clinical populations with learning disorders, particularly those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that the ability to synchronize rhythmically in a group setting—an instance of the type of temporal processing necessary for successful interaction and learning—would be correlated with the ability to attend across the continuum of the population. A music class is an ideal setting for the study of interpersonal timing. In order to measure synchrony in this context, we constructed instruments that allowed the recording and measurement of individual rhythmic performance. The SWAN teacher questionnaire was used as a measurement of attentional behavior. We find that the ability to synchronize with others in a group music class can predict a child's attentional behavior. PMID:24032021

  7. Evaluating and treating school-aged children who stutter.

    PubMed

    Yaruss, J Scott

    2010-11-01

    School-based speech-language pathologists are often called upon to treat children who stutter, though many clinicians have reported that they feel uncomfortable working with this population. Fortunately, there is much that speech-language pathologists can do to help children who stutter speak more easily and minimize the adverse impact of stuttering in both academic and social settings. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with a guide to some of the key issues they should consider when working with school-aged children who stutter. The goal is to encourage clinicians to develop a better understanding of how stuttering can affect school-aged children, how the adverse effects of the disorder can be documented so children can be qualified for treatment, and, ultimately, how the negative consequences of stuttering can be minimized through a comprehensive approach to treatment. PMID:21080298

  8. Age-Related Benefits of Digital Noise Reduction for Short-Term Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the rate of word learning for children with hearing loss (HL) in quiet and in noise compared to normal-hearing (NH) peers. The effects of digital noise reduction (DNR) were examined for children with HL. Method: Forty-one children with NH and 26 children with HL were grouped by age (8-9 years and 11-12 years). The children…

  9. Obesity status trajectory groups among elementary school children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about patterns in the transition from healthy weight to overweight or obesity during the elementary school years. This study examined whether there were distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectory groups among elementary school children, and predictors of trajectory group membership. T...

  10. Children and Youth Grow and Develop in Group Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Henry W.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that child caregivers in group settings are pivotal in providing charges with attention and interpersonal dependence provided to children in familial settings. Explains why group caregivers must understand child development, and how program planners might take development into account. Discusses child and adolescent developmental stages…

  11. Racial Group Concept and Self-Esteem in Black Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Maxine L.

    The relationship of racial group concepts (racial preference and racial attitudes) to general and specific self-esteem in black children was examined in this study. A secondary purpose of this study was to assess the validity of Nobles' (1973) theory that racial group attitudes influence the black American's concept of "self." The subjects were…

  12. The Group Project for Holocaust Survivors and Their Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danieli, Yael

    1981-01-01

    Describes a program, both rehabilitative and preventive, which provides individual, family, group, and community work for Holocaust survivors and their children. Six group experiences are offered: awareness, self-help, long-term therapy, mixed, multiple-family, and intergenerational. (Author/DB)

  13. Group Supervision. Teaching Young Children With Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estus, Lorian; And Others

    A group supervision component is an integral part of the Wheelock College Graduate Program for teacher interns who work with special needs children. The group meetings evolved in response to four observed developments: (1) Common issues characterized the role of the intern regardless of school placement; (2) Interns had common learning needs; (3)…

  14. Short-Term Group Treatment for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Alvin; McCormack, WIlliam A.

    1992-01-01

    Adult children of alcoholics (n=24) were tested on measures of loneliness, anxiety, hostility, depression, and interpersonal dependency before and after participation in short-term group therapy. Highly significant test score changes supported effectiveness of individual therapy in short-term groups. (Author/NB)

  15. Aggression in children with autism spectrum disorders and a clinic-referred comparison group.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive and the Aggression subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist were rated for 414 children with autism spectrum disorder (autistic disorder, 69%; pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 24%; Asperger's disorder, 7%) and 243 clinic-referred children without autism spectrum disorder, aged 1-21 years (mean age about 7 years). Participants were not selected for aggressive behavior. Relative to the comparison group, children with autism spectrum disorder were reported to have less aggression and were more likely to be rated as reactive rather than proactive. Among all subjects, sex was not associated with aggression; higher IQ/adaptive behavior and older age were associated with more sophisticated types of aggression, while lower scores on IQ, adaptive behavior, and communication measures were associated with more physical aggression. The interaction between demographic variables and diagnosis was significant only for age: younger but not older children with autism spectrum disorder showed less aggression than clinic-referred controls. PMID:24497627

  16. Preschool-aged children recognize ambivalence: emerging identification of concurrent conflicting desires.

    PubMed

    Rostad, Kristin; Pexman, Penny M

    2015-01-01

    We examined the ability of preschool-aged children to identify conflicting, or ambivalent, desire states (e.g., "I want to go to the birthday party because there will be cake, but I also don't want to go because I'm having fun playing at home"). Participants were 4- and 5-year-old children, and a group of undergraduate students (n = 20 in each age group). They were presented with 14 scenarios involving both "single desire" and "dual desire" states, including both approach (i.e., "want") and avoidance (i.e., "not want") desires. Our primary interest was children's ability to identify concurrent conflicting "dual desire" states, and this ability was found in most of the 5-year-old age group tested and in about half of the 4-year-old age group. As such, these results provide evidence that children can identify ambivalence at earlier ages than previously reported. In addition, results showed that the challenge in recognizing ambivalence is the presence of desires of opposite valence directed at the same target. PMID:25914671

  17. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    PubMed

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were severe cerebral injuries, neurosensory disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (< 1 SD) at 6 years. The presence of learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school. PMID:27445952

  18. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age

    PubMed Central

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L.; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001–2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW < 1000 g and/or GA < 28 weeks. Exclusion criteria were severe cerebral injuries, neurosensory disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (< 1 SD) at 6 years. The presence of learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9–10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school. PMID:27445952

  19. Consequences of ‘minimal’ group affiliations in children

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, Yarrow; Baron, Andrew Scott; Carey, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments (total N = 140) tested the hypothesis that 5-year-old children’s membership in randomly assigned ‘minimal’ groups would be sufficient to induce intergroup bias. Children were randomly assigned to groups and engaged in tasks involving judgments of unfamiliar ingroup or outgroup children. Despite an absence of information regarding the relative status of groups or any competitive context, ingroup preferences were observed on explicit and implicit measures of attitude and resource allocation (Experiment 1), behavioral attribution, and expectations of reciprocity, with preferences persisting when groups were not described via a noun label (Experiment 2). In addition, children systematically distorted incoming information by preferentially encoding positive information about ingroup members (Experiment 3). Implications for the developmental origins of intergroup bias are discussed. PMID:21413937

  20. Children Bicyclists: Should a Minimum Age be Required?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Barbara City Dept. of Public Works, CA. Div. of Transportation.

    This paper reports on a Santa Barbara, California study to determine the need for establishing a minimum age for bicyclists using the public roadways, examining the proposition that children below a certain age are developmentally unable to perform safely in traffic. Data on the disproportionate incidence of accident involvement among young…

  1. Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parent Information Pregnancy Infants (Ages 0-3) Diseases & Conditions Safety in the Home & ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Information For... Media Policy Makers Infants & Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children Recommend on Facebook ...

  2. Coupling of Temperament with Mental Illness in Four Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament. PMID:27154370

  3. Experiential Environmental Education for Primary Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Heather

    Environmental education is defined as a cross-curricular theme in the national curriculum (NC) of England and Wales. Environmental education may be experiential in and outside the classroom; outside, the environment may act as a stimulus for creative writing, investigative fieldwork, or sensory activities. Young children learn best by doing.…

  4. Resistance Training for Elementary School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langford, George A.; McCurdy, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    It is essential for physical education teachers to utilize a foundation of physiological principles to design and monitor appropriate, safe, and effective exercise for their students. Adult training programs are not appropriate for children. Teachers should consider individual levels of maturation, motor skill ability, and affective needs when…

  5. Bipolar Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Patricia M.; Pacheco, Mary Rae

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the individual components of bipolar disorder in children and the behaviors that can escalate as a result of misdiagnosis and treatment. The brain/behavior relationship in bipolar disorders can be affected by genetics, developmental failure, or environmental influences, which can cause an onset of dramatic mood swings and…

  6. Nutritional status of school-age children - A scenario of urban slums in India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the greatest problems for India is undernutrition among children. The country is still struggling with this problem. Malnutrition, the condition resulting from faulty nutrition, weakens the immune system and causes significant growth and cognitive delay. Growth assessment is the measurement that best defines the health and nutritional status of children, while also providing an indirect measurement of well-being for the entire population. Methods A cross-sectional study, in which we explored nutritional status in school-age slum children and analyze factors associated with malnutrition with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and clinical examination from December 2010 to April 2011 in urban slums of Bareilly, Uttar-Pradesh (UP), India. Result The mean height and weight of boys and girls in the study group was lower than the CDC 2000 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) standards in all age groups. Regarding nutritional status, prevalence of stunting and underweight was highest in age group 11 yrs to 13 yrs whereas prevalence of wasting was highest in age group 5 yrs to 7 yrs. Except refractive errors all illnesses are more common among girls, but this gender difference is statistically significant only for anemia and rickets. The risk of malnutrition was significantly higher among children living in joint families, children whose mother's education was [less than or equal to] 6th standard and children with working mothers. Conclusions Most of the school-age slum children in our study had a poor nutritional status. Interventions such as skills-based nutrition education, fortification of food items, effective infection control, training of public healthcare workers and delivery of integrated programs are recommended. PMID:22958757

  7. Auditory scene analysis in school-aged children with developmental language disorders.

    PubMed

    Sussman, E; Steinschneider, M; Lee, W; Lawson, K

    2015-02-01

    Natural sound environments are dynamic, with overlapping acoustic input originating from simultaneously active sources. A key function of the auditory system is to integrate sensory inputs that belong together and segregate those that come from different sources. We hypothesized that this skill is impaired in individuals with phonological processing difficulties. There is considerable disagreement about whether phonological impairments observed in children with developmental language disorders can be attributed to specific linguistic deficits or to more general acoustic processing deficits. However, most tests of general auditory abilities have been conducted with a single set of sounds. We assessed the ability of school-aged children (7-15 years) to parse complex auditory non-speech input, and determined whether the presence of phonological processing impairments was associated with stream perception performance. A key finding was that children with language impairments did not show the same developmental trajectory for stream perception as typically developing children. In addition, children with language impairments required larger frequency separations between sounds to hear distinct streams compared to age-matched peers. Furthermore, phonological processing ability was a significant predictor of stream perception measures, but only in the older age groups. No such association was found in the youngest children. These results indicate that children with language impairments have difficulty parsing speech streams, or identifying individual sound events when there are competing sound sources. We conclude that language group differences may in part reflect fundamental maturational disparities in the analysis of complex auditory scenes. PMID:24548430

  8. Auditory scene analysis in school-aged children with developmental language disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, E.; Steinschneider, M.; Lee, W.; Lawson, K.

    2014-01-01

    Natural sound environments are dynamic, with overlapping acoustic input originating from simultaneously active sources. A key function of the auditory system is to integrate sensory inputs that belong together and segregate those that come from different sources. We hypothesized that this skill is impaired in individuals with phonological processing difficulties. There is considerable disagreement about whether phonological impairments observed in children with developmental language disorders can be attributed to specific linguistic deficits or to more general acoustic processing deficits. However, most tests of general auditory abilities have been conducted with a single set of sounds. We assessed the ability of school-aged children (7–15 years) to parse complex auditory non-speech input, and determined whether the presence of phonological processing impairments was associated with stream perception performance. A key finding was that children with language impairments did not show the same developmental trajectory for stream perception as typically developing children. In addition, children with language impairments required larger frequency separations between sounds to hear distinct streams compared to age-matched peers. Furthermore, phonological processing ability was a significant predictor of stream perception measures, but only in the older age groups. No such association was found in the youngest children. These results indicate that children with language impairments have difficulty parsing speech streams, or identifying individual sound events when there are competing sound sources. We conclude that language group differences may in part reflect fundamental maturational disparities in the analysis of complex auditory scenes. PMID:24548430

  9. Relationship between growth of facial morphology and chronologic age in preschool children with obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Shigeto; Ueda, Koichiro; Shinohara, Mitsuyo; Mano, Mikiko; Kanegae, Haruhide; Namaki, Shunsuke

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between facial morphology using cephalometry and chronologic age in preschool children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Materials and Methods From a group of lateral cephalometric radiographs taken of 35 children with OSA for diagnostic purposes, 15 were selected for the present investigation based on head position. The subjects consisted of preschool children with both OSA and primary dentition, all of them with a lowest documented SpO2 <90% and a lowest 0 group included 15 preschool children with primary dentition and without enlarged tonsils or adenoids. Results The present findings reveal that, compared to the controls, OSA children had a narrower pharyngeal airway space related to OSA. In addition, we found that, although there were direct correlations between heights, nasal floor and corpus length, with chronologic age in the controls, there was no significant correlation between height, nasal floor length or corpus length with age in the OSA children. Conclusion Obstructive sleep apnea in children may be associated with growth disturbances of the nasal floor and corpus length. PMID:25756027

  10. Risk and Resilience in Preterm Children at Age 6

    PubMed Central

    Poehlmann, Julie; Gerstein, Emily D.; Burnson, Cynthia; Weymouth, Lindsay; Bolt, Daniel M.; Maleck, Sarah; Schwichtenberg, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for experiencing significant deleterious developmental outcomes throughout their childhood and adolescence. However, individual variation and resilience are hallmarks of the preterm population. The present study examined pathways to resilience across multiple domains (e.g. social activities, peer relations, ADHD symptomology, externalizing and internalizing behavior, sleep quality) as children born preterm reached school age. The study also examined early child and family predictors of resilience. Using a prospective longitudinal design, 173 infants born preterm and without significant neurological complications were assessed at 5 timepoints: NICU discharge, 9 months, 16 months, 24 months, and 6 years. Three pathways of adaptation emerged at 6 years: children who were resilient, those who remained at-risk, and children who exhibited significant difficulties. Resilient children were less likely to have experienced negative parenting at 9 and 16 months, more likely to delay gratification at 24 months, and more likely to experience neonatal health complications than non-resilient children. PMID:25196017

  11. Reducing Children's Aggressive and Oppositional Behaviors in the Schools: Preliminary Results on the Effectiveness of a Social-Cognitive Group Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Vincken, Manon; Eijkelenboom, Anneke

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a social-cognitive group intervention program for children with oppositional and aggressive behaviors. Forty-two children aged between 9 and 12 years who clearly displayed behavior problems at school were treated with this program. A cross-over design was used in which one group of children first received…

  12. 42 CFR 435.118 - Infants and children under age 19.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Infants and children under age 19. 435.118 Section..., Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.118 Infants and children under age 19. (a) Basis. This...); and 1931(b) and (d) of the Act. (b) Scope. The agency must provide Medicaid to children under age...

  13. 42 CFR 435.118 - Infants and children under age 19.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Infants and children under age 19. 435.118 Section... Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.118 Infants and children under age... to children under age 19 whose household income is at or below the income standard established by...

  14. 42 CFR 435.118 - Infants and children under age 19.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Infants and children under age 19. 435.118 Section..., Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.118 Infants and children under age 19. (a) Basis. This...); and 1931(b) and (d) of the Act. (b) Scope. The agency must provide Medicaid to children under age...

  15. Multiple Pathways to Conscience for Children with Different Temperaments: From Toddlerhood to Age 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna

    1997-01-01

    Assessed children's temperament and maternal socialization at age 2-3. Assessed children's conscience at ages 4 and 5 by observing children's cheating behavior in a game. Found that for children fearful as toddlers, maternal gentle discipline promoted conscience at age 5. For children fearless as toddlers, alternative maternal socialization…

  16. Play Opportunities for School-Age Children, 6 to 14 Years of Age. Advisory Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    Suggestions for the planning and design of playgrounds to meet the needs of children between 6 to 14 years of age living in medium- and high-density residential areas are offered in this document. The first and second chapters briefly focus on the child's right to play and present an overview of the developmental characteristics of children at…

  17. Phonological skills of children with specific expressive language impairment (SLI-E): outcome at age 3.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J; Rescorla, L; Giroux, J; Stevens, L

    1998-04-01

    Naturalistic speech samples of 29 3-year-olds diagnosed with specific expressive language delay (SU-E) were compared to those produced by 19 age-matched normally developing peers in order to determine their improvement in phonological skills since age 2, when Rescorla and Ratner (1996) studied them. Specifically, the groups were compared with regard to vocalization rate, verbalizations, fully intelligible utterances, phonetic inventories, percentages of consonants correct (PCC), phonological processes, and mean length of utterance (MLU). Results revealed that there was no significant difference between the groups in their numbers of vocalizations (as there had been at age 2), although there continued to be differences in their phonetic inventories, PCC scores, and overall intelligibility. These findings suggest that at age 2 the children with SU-E were not only less phonologically skilled but less talkative, whereas by age 3 they were equally vocal. Analysis of the phonetic inventories of the children demonstrated that for most consonants, the SLI-E group followed the some pattern of development as the comparison children, but more of the normally developing group had productive control of each consonant, consistent with findings of Rescorla and Ratner. There continued to be differences in intelligibility as measured by rates of verbalization (those utterances with at least one intelligible word) and fully intelligible utterances. Using these measures, we found that approximately half the SU-E children had caught up with their normally developing peers in terms of articulation, whereas half of them continued to be significantly delayed. Finally, although some of the late-bloomer group had caught up to the comparison children in language skills, as measured by MLU, many had not, suggesting that there was a tendency for the children to catch up in some articulation skills before catching up in language abilities. PMID:9570589

  18. DRAWING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DELAY AGED 2-5 YEARS.

    PubMed

    Morović, Maja Lang; Matijević, Valentina; Divljaković, Kristina; Kraljević, Marija; Dimić, Zdenka

    2015-06-01

    In typically developing children, drawing development occurs in stages from uncontrolled strokes to complex drawing. In this study, we examined drawing development in children with neurodevelopmental delay (NDD). In order to do so, we observed the influence of age, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and gender on the development of drawing skills. The sample consisted of 52 children with NDD, aged 2 years and 6 months to 5 years. All children were hospitalized for multidisciplinary team monitoring and developmental support. The evaluation of drawing development was administered by giving each child a blank A4 paper and the instruction to draw anything they wanted. All of the drawings were scored satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Descriptive statistics was employed on all relevant data to show results in frequencies and percentages. In order to determine differences between groups, the χ2-test was administered. The results showed greatest difference in drawing in children aged from 3 years to 3 years and 11 months. Children with lower IVH had better drawing scores than children with higher IVH levels. According to gender dissimilarities, a difference was found showing girls to have better drawing skills than boys. All study results pointed to the importance of early rehabilitation and continuous structured work with children with NDD. PMID:26415307

  19. Cultural responses to pain in UK children of primary school age: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Azize, Pary M; Endacott, Ruth; Cattani, Allegra; Humphreys, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Pain-measurement tools are often criticized for not addressing the influence of culture and ethnicity on pain. This study examined how children who speak English as a primary or additional language discuss pain. Two methods were used in six focus group interviews with 34 children aged 4-7 years: (i) use of drawings from the Pediatric Pain Inventory to capture the language used by children to describe pain; and (ii) observation of the children's placing of pain drawings on red/amber/green paper to denote perceived severity of pain. The findings demonstrated that children with English as an additional language used less elaborate language when talking about pain, but tended to talk about the pictures prior to deciding where they should be placed. For these children, there was a positive significant relationship between language, age, and length of stay in the UK. The children's placement of pain drawings varied according to language background, sex, and age. The findings emphasize the need for sufficient time to assess pain adequately in children who do not speak English as a first language. PMID:23991687

  20. The Impact of Audience Age and Familiarity on Children's Drawings of Themselves in Contrasting Affective States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkitt, Esther; Watling, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the impact of familiarity and audience age on children's self-presentation in self-drawings of happy, sad and neutral figures. Two hundred children (100 girls and 100 boys) with the average age of 8 years 2 months, ranging from 6 years 3 months to 10 years 1 month, formed two age groups and five…

  1. "Friends in Need": Designing and Implementing a Psychoeducational Group for School Children from Drug-Involved Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dore, Martha M.; Nelson-Zlupko, Lani; Kaufman, Eda

    1999-01-01

    Discusses design and use of a model curriculum for latency-aged children in schools located in communities where drug use is pervasive. Results show that children affected by family drug use have workable strategies and skills for coping with aversive environments. Responsiveness of group participants to structure, predictability, and affirmation…

  2. Using Matched Groups to Explore Child Behavior Problems and Maternal Well-Being in Children with down Syndrome and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Gemma M.; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie; Hill, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Mothers of children with Down syndrome, autism, and mixed etiology intellectual disabilities, matched on child age, gender, and communication skills (n = 19 in each group) completed measures of their child's adaptive and problem behaviors, their own parenting stress, and positive perceptions of their child. Children with autism were rated as…

  3. Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR): Preliminary Evidence from an Open Trial in Children's Residential Group Homes in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pat-Horenczyk, R.; Shi, C. Sim Wei; Schramm-Yavin, S.; Bar-Halpern, M.; Tan, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR) program is a theory-based group intervention for enhancing resilience in children, with a focus on strengthening emotion regulation. The BEAR is a 6-session protocol for children aged 7-12 who have been subject to traumatic life events. Objective: This paper presents the guiding…

  4. Variability in the Inter-Group Attitudes of White Children: What We Can Learn from Their Ethnic Identity Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears; Spatzier, Agnieszka; Tobin, Mollie

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the ethnic identity of White (N = 120), Latino (N = 87), and African-American (N = 65) children and early adolescents (aged = 9-14 years), with an emphasis on whether the specific ethnic label White children used to describe themselves might reflect differences in their inter-group attitudes and whether those differences…

  5. Global-Local Precedence in the Perception of Facial Age and Emotional Expression by Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas F.

    2005-01-01

    Global information processing and perception of facial age and emotional expression was studied in children with autism, language disorders, mental retardation, and a clinical control group. Children were given a global-local task and asked to recognize age and emotion in human and canine faces. Children with autism made fewer global responses and…

  6. Interrelationship among Dental, Skeletal and Chronological Ages in Urban and Rural Female Children

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, A; Rehani, U

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: This study was an attempt, to determine chronological age, dental age and skeletal age, and to establish interrelationship, amongst the dental, skeletal and chronological ages and their differences if any between rural and urban female children. The study included 80 girls aged 8 to 14 years from rural and urban areas. Material and methods: The subjects were divided into 4 Groups: Group I, II, III, and IV. Group I and II comprising of rural female subjects, wherein Group I comprised of 8 to 11 years and Group II comprised of 11 to 14 years old females. Group III and IV comprising of urban females wherein Group III included 8 to 11 years and Group IV comprised of 11 to 14 years old females. Orthopantomograms and hand and wrist radiographs were taken. The calcification status of permanent teeth was evaluated from orthopantomograms, and dental age was calculated according to Demirjian’s method. The stages of ossification of various carpal bones were evaluated from the hand-wrist radiograph using radiographic atlas of Greulich and Pyle and skeletal age was calculated. The chronological age was recorded from the actual date of birth. Results: Data collected was statistically analyzed. Conclusion: Highly significant correlation was observed between dental and skeletal age (r=0.752, p-value < 0.01) in total sample. Strong correlation of chronological age with dental and skeletal age was also observed (r=0.650, r = 0.620, respectively). Out of all three correlations, dental age and skeletal age had the maximum correlation in total sample. While comparing rural and urban sample as regard to ages or correlations no significant difference was found (p-value < 0.01).

  7. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Administration in Pediatric Older Age Groups in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Kimberly; Welch, Emily; Elder, Kate; Cohn, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is included in the World Health Organization’s routine immunization schedule and is recommended by WHO for vaccination in high-risk children up to 60 months. However, many countries do not recommend vaccination in older age groups, nor have donors committed to supporting extended age group vaccination. To better inform decision-making, this systematic review examines the direct impact of extended age group vaccination in children over 12 months in low and middle income countries. Methods An a priori protocol was used. Using pre-specified terms, a search was conducted using PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CAB Abstracts, clinicaltrials.gov and the International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases abstracts. The primary outcome was disease incidence, with antibody titers and nasopharyngeal carriage included as secondary outcomes. Results Eighteen studies reported on disease incidence, immune response, and nasopharyngeal carriage. PCV administered after 12 months of age led to significant declines in invasive pneumococcal disease. Immune response to vaccine type serotypes was significantly higher for those vaccinated at older ages than the unimmunized at the established 0.2ug/ml and 0.35ug/ml thresholds. Vaccination administered after one year of age significantly reduced VT carriage with odds ratios ranging from 0.213 to 0.69 over four years. A GRADE analysis indicated that the studies were of high quality. Discussion PCV administration in children over 12 months leads to significant protection. The direct impact of PCV administration, coupled with the large cohort of children missed in first year vaccination, indicates that countries should initiate or expand PCV immunization for extended age group vaccinations. Donors should support implementation of PCV as part of delayed or interrupted immunization for older

  8. Fluoride supplements in pregnancy, effectiveness in the prevention of dental caries in a group of children

    PubMed Central

    MATURO, P.; COSTACURTA, M.; PERUGIA, C.; DOCIMO, R.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY This clinical, retrospective study intends to evaluate whether the systemic administration of fluoride during pregnancy can reduce caries incidence in a group of paediatric patients, compared to a control group. 84 patients were selected out of a sample of 2000 children (3–15 years of age) and then divided in two groups: TEST Group: 34 patients (16M – 18F, mean age 9.23), whose mothers had taken fluoride during pregnancy; CONTROL Group: 50 patients (23M – 27F, mean age 9) whose mothers had not taken fluoride. Patients underwent a clinical and radiographic inspection to assess the dfs/DFS value as caries index (decayed or filled surfaces for deciduous or permanent teeth). Results: dfs/DFS value: TEST Group: 3.41, CONTROL group 2.49. The TEST group was further divided in individuals who were administered fluoride only during pregnancy (33%) with a dfs/DFS of 3.14 and individuals who were administered fluoride also after birth (67%) with a dfs/DFS of 3. Caries index (dfs/DFS) did not show any significant differences between the test and control groups. Fluoride administration during pregnancy and postpartum does not seem to have a significant impact on the reduction of caries incidence. More preventive strategies should be investigated to contrast the multifactorial etiology of children caries. PMID:23285398

  9. Population-Based Age Group Specific Annual Incidence Rates of Symptomatic Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saari, Jukka M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the population-based annual incidence rates of exudative, dry and all cases of symptomatic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in different age and sex groups. Methods. This is a one year, prospective, population-based study on all consecutive new patients with AMD in the hospital district of Central Finland. The diagnosis was confirmed in all patients with slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a Spectralis HRA + OCT device, and the Heidelberg Eye Explorer 1.6.2.0 program. Fluorescein angiograms were taken when needed. Results. The population-based annual incidence rates of all cases of symptomatic AMD increased from 0.03% (95% CI, 0.01-0.05%) in the age group 50-59 years to 0.82% (95% CI, 0.55-1.09%) in the age group 85-89 years and were 0.2% (95% CI, 0.17-0.24%) in exudative, 0.11% (95% CI, 0.09-0.14%) in dry, and 0.32% (95% CI, 0.28-0.36%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. During the next 20 years in Central Finland the population-based annual incidence rates can be estimated to increase to 0.27% (95% CI, 0.24-0.30%) in exudative, to 0.13% (95% CI, 0.11-0.15%) in dry, and to 0.41% (95% CI, 0.37-0.45%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. The population-based annual incidence of AMD did not show statistically significant differences between males and females (p>0.1). Conclusion: The population-based age-group specific annual incidence rates of symptomatic AMD of this study may help to plan health care provision for patients of AMD. PMID:25674187

  10. Children with Differing Developmental Trajectories of Prelinguistic Communication Skills: Language and Working Memory at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Määttä, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors examine the developmental continuity from prelinguistic communication to kindergarten age in language and working memory capacity. Method: Following work outlining 6 groups of children with different trajectories of early communication development (ECD; Määttä, Laakso, Tolvanen, Ahonen, & Aro, 2012), the…

  11. Utterance Complexity and Stuttering on Function Words in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richels, Corrin; Buhr, Anthony; Conture, Edward; Ntourou, Katerina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the relation between utterance complexity and utterance position and the tendency to stutter on function words in preschool-age children who stutter (CWS). Two separate studies involving two different groups of participants (Study 1, n = 30; Study 2, n = 30) were conducted. Participants were…

  12. Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

  13. Sleep, Neurobehavioral Functioning, and Behavior Problems in School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeh, Avi; Gruber, Reut; Raviv Amiram

    2002-01-01

    Examined associations between sleep and neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) in second-, fourth-, and sixth-graders. Found significant correlations between sleep- quality measures and NBF measures, particularly for the younger age group. Children with fragmented sleep were characterized by lower performance on NBF measures, particularly those…

  14. Efficacy of Attention Regulation in Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kia N.; Conture, Edward G.; Walden, Tedra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation assessed the attentional processes of preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not stutter (CWNS) during Traditional cueing and Affect cueing tasks. Method: Participants consisted of 12 3- to 5-year-old CWS and the same number of CWNS (all boys). Both talker groups participated in two tasks of shifting and…

  15. Patterns of Parental Rearing Styles and Child Behaviour Problems among Portuguese School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2009-01-01

    The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child's adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal,…

  16. Age-Related Maturation of Wave V Latency of Auditory Brainstem Response in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bist, Sampan Singh; Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Auditory brainstem response (ABR) is a noninvasive measurement of a stimulus-locked, synchronous electrical event. ABR provides information concerning the functional integrity of brainstem nuclei. Age is a key factor in the interpretation of ABR peak latency among different age groups. Progressively with time it follows a "maturation pattern" during which latencies decrease. Wave V is very prominent and reliable for detection of threshold in children. The present study was performed to see the effect of age related auditory maturation on ABR wave V latency in children. Subjects and Methods The study involved 80 subjects ranging in age from birth to 12 years. The subjects were divided equally into eight age groups. ABR were elicited by an acoustic click stimuli, brainstem responses collected through electrode and recorded at the same time. Latency of wave V was acknowledged. Results Wave V latency decreased rapidly in early childhood, became slower after 3 years of age and completely matured by 12 years of age. There was no significant difference in latency of wave V between the ears with age. Conclusions There is a distinct maturation pattern of wave V latency in ABR for both ears. ABR is a reliable test to assess the functional maturation of wave V in children.

  17. Group approach for the evaluation of language disorders in young children.

    PubMed

    Zerbeto, Amanda Brait; Batista, Cecilia Guarnieri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the contributions of a group therapy approach, which had a social interactionist focus, on the evaluation of language in children aged from between one year, nine months and three years. Nine children participated in the study and they were evaluated in three groups of three participants (G1 and G2--children with language disorder problems, G3--children without language disorders). Four video-recorded meetings were performed for each group, each of which lasted from 30 to 60 minutes. The videos were analyzed along with the field journal, focusing on the participation of the children and their oral and non-oral production. This study provides a detailed analysis of G2, which showed an increase in oral production and an expansion of linguistic functions throughout the sessions. The non-verbal aspects contributed to the identification of relevant elements related to language, especially at the pragmatic level. The context of play and group interaction, and even disputes for objects, led to the detection of different aspects of language. The proposed assessment which is described made it possible to observe the children's language in a live context and it is a model that covers the different aspects of language in meaningful contexts of interaction. PMID:26816177

  18. Maine Department of Education Regulation 180: Early Intervention and Special Education for Children Age Birth to under Age Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta.

    This document contains regulations governing the administration of the Childfind system for children age birth to under age 6, the provision of early intervention services to eligible children birth through two with disabilities and their families, and the provision of special education and related services to eligible children age 3 to under 6…

  19. Valve repair in rheumatic heart disease in pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pramod K; Dharmapuram, Anil K; Swain, Sunil K; Ramdoss, Nagarajan; Raghavan, Sreekanth S; Murthy, Kona S

    2008-04-01

    Valve repair in children is technically demanding but more desirable than valve replacement. From April 2004 to September 2005, 1 boy and 8 girls with rheumatic heart disease, aged 2-13 years (median, 9 years), underwent valve repair for isolated mitral regurgitation in 5, combined mitral and aortic regurgitation in 2, mitral stenosis in 1, and mitral regurgitation associated with atrial septal defect in 1. Chordal shortening in 7, annular plication in 6, commissurotomy in 1, reconstruction of commissural leaflets in 7 were performed for mitral valve disease. Plication and reattachment of the aortic cusps was carried out in 2 patients. Annuloplasty rings were not used. All patients survived the operation, 8 had trivial or mild residual mitral regurgitation, and 1 had trivial aortic regurgitation. Mean left atrial pressure decreased from 14 to 7 mm Hg postoperatively. During follow-up of 3-18 months, all children were asymptomatic and enjoyed normal activity. None required reoperation. In addition to chordal shortening and annular plication, reconstruction of the commissural leaflets is considered the most important aspect of valve repair. It can be achieved without annuloplasty rings, giving good early and midterm results. PMID:18381871

  20. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf.

    PubMed

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and severity of injury, and functional outcomes. Seventy percent of the children sustained a TBI from a fall. We also found that playing golf was associated with 40% of the TBIs, with three (30%) children being unrestrained passengers in a moving golf cart and another one (10%) was struck by a golf club. Injury awareness could have benefited or prevented most injuries, and school nurses are in the best position to provide preventative practice education. In golf-centric communities, prevention of golf-related injuries should include education within the schools. PMID:25899097

  1. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    PubMed Central

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0–15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and severity of injury, and functional outcomes. Seventy percent of the children sustained a TBI from a fall. We also found that playing golf was associated with 40% of the TBIs, with three (30%) children being unrestrained passengers in a moving golf cart and another one (10%) was struck by a golf club. Injury awareness could have benefited or prevented most injuries, and school nurses are in the best position to provide preventative practice education. In golf-centric communities, prevention of golf-related injuries should include education within the schools. PMID:25899097

  2. State of the science: group therapy interventions for sexually abused children.

    PubMed

    Miffitt, Lisa A

    2014-06-01

    Research investigating the use of group therapy treatment for sexually abused children is limited. This paper aims to review the current state of the science of group therapy and its outcomes with children and adolescents under age 18 who have experienced sexual abuse. A literature review was conducted which located eight articles meeting the inclusion criteria of this paper. These outcome studies utilized a wide array of theoretical orientations and intervention delivery, as well as an assortment of outcomes measurement. While the studies lacked consistency, there is some support that group therapy formats to treat sexually abused children and adolescents may be effective across a range of symptoms. Implications for practice, policy, and future research are discussed. PMID:24856269

  3. Elevated cortisol during play is associated with age and social engagement in children with autism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The hallmark characteristic of autism is impaired reciprocal social interaction. While children find social interaction stress-reducing, many children with autism may find social interaction stress-inducing. The current study was designed to examine stress responsivity as measured by cortisol by comparing children with autism to neurotypical peers during an ecologically valid 20-minute playground paradigm. Methods The experiment involved sets of three children: a child with autism, a neurotypical child, and a confederate. Participants included 45 prepubescent males between 8 and 12 years of age (21 with autism and 24 neurotypical children). Results Children with autism showed fewer initiations (χ²(1) = 4.03, P = 0.044), rejected initiations from others more (χ²(1) = 7.10, P = 0.008) and spent less time interacting during motor (F(1,43) = 16.7, P = 0.0002) and cooperative (F(1,43) = 14.78, P = 0.0004) play. Repeated measures analysis of the cortisol values revealed a significant model (χ²(4) = 22.76, P < 0.0005) that included time of measurement, diagnosis and age as main effects and an interaction between diagnosis and age. Thus, as age increased among children with autism, they experienced enhanced cortisol levels while age did not modify expected cortisol levels for typical children. Stress responsivity was associated with more peripheral equipment play for motor (χ²(3) = 12.3, P = 0.006) and cooperative (χ²(3) = 8.24, P = 0.04) play as well as reduced nonverbal social skills during motor (χ²(1) = 5.52, P = 0.018) and cooperative play (χ²(1) = 4.53, P = 0.033). Conclusions Overall, children with autism engaged in fewer social overtures and spent less time interacting than typically developing peers during play. The peer interaction paradigm resulted in significantly higher levels of cortisol in many children with autism. Distinct patterns emerged within the autism group based on developmental (older), biological (cortisol responder) and

  4. Childhood Depression in School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Sandra M.

    At any one time, between 2 percent and 17 percent of the school-age population in the United States experiences moderate to severe depression. Too often, depression goes unrecognized, damaging self-esteem, ruining academic achievement, and disrupting families. This paper discusses childhood depression and treatment. Following an introduction…

  5. Effects of Age, Walking Speed, and Body Composition on Pedometer Accuracy in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, J. Scott; Schofield, Grant; Duncan, Elizabeth K.; Hinckson, Erica A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of age group, walking speed, and body composition on the accuracy of pedometer-determined step counts in children. Eighty-five participants (43 boys, 42 girls), ages 5-7 and 9-11 years, walked on a treadmill for two-minute bouts at speeds of 42, 66, and 90 m[middle dot]min[superscript -1]…

  6. Assessment of Intima-Media Thickness in Healthy Children Aged 1 to 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Baroncini, Liz Andréa Villela; Sylvestre, Lucimary de Castro; Filho, Roberto Pecoits

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been shown to be increased in children and adolescents with traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, compared with those of healthy children. Objective To assess the influence of sex, age and body mass index (BMI) on the CIMT in healthy children and adolescents aged 1 to 15 years. Methods A total of 280 healthy children and adolescents (males, n=175; mean age, 7.49±3.57 years; mean BMI, 17.94±4.1 kg/m2) were screened for CIMT assessment. They were divided into 3 groups according to age: GI, 1 to 5 years [n=93 (33.2%); males, 57; mean BMI, 16±3 kg/m2]; GII, 6 to 10 years [n=127 (45.4%); males, 78; mean BMI, 17.9±3.7 kg/m2], and GIII, 11 to 15 years [n=60 (21.4%); males, 40; mean BMI, 20.9±4.5 kg/m2]. Results There was no significant difference in CIMT values between male and female children and adolescents (0.43±0.06 mm vs. 0.42±0.05 mm, respectively; p=0.243). CIMT correlated with BMI neither in the total population nor in the 3 age groups according to Pearson correlation coefficient. Subjects aged 11 to 15 years had the highest CIMT values (GI vs. GII, p=0.615; GI vs. GIII, p=0.02; GII vs. GIII, p=0.004). Conclusions CIMT is constant in healthy children younger than 10 years, regardless of sex or BMI. CIMT increases after the age of 10 years. PMID:26959401

  7. Identification of Serologic Markers for School-Aged Children With Congenital Rubella Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Terri B.; Sato, Helena Keico; Hao, LiJuan; Flannery, Brendan; Zheng, Qi; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Ciccone, Flávia Helena; de Sousa Marques, Heloisa; Weckx, Lily Yin; Sáfadi, Marco Aurélio; de Oliveira Moraes, Eliane; Pinhata, Marisa Mussi; Neto, Jaime Olbrich; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecilia; Junior, Alfredo Tabith; Monteiro, Tatiana Alves; Figueiredo, Cristina Adelaide; Andrus, Jon K.; Reef, Susan E.; Toscano, Cristiana M.; Castillo-Solorzano, Carlos; Icenogle, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) case identification is challenging in older children since laboratory markers of congenital rubella virus (RUBV) infection do not persist beyond age 12 months. Methods We enrolled children with CRS born between 1998 and 2003 and compared their immune responses to RUBV with those of their mothers and a group of similarly aged children without CRS. Demographic data and sera were collected. Sera were tested for anti–RUBV immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG avidity, and IgG response to the 3 viral structural proteins (E1, E2, and C), reflected by immunoblot fluorescent signals. Results We enrolled 32 children with CRS, 31 mothers, and 62 children without CRS. The immunoblot signal strength to C and the ratio of the C signal to the RUBV-specific IgG concentration were higher (P < .029 for both) and the ratio of the E1 signal to the RUBV-specific IgG concentration lower (P = .001) in children with CRS, compared with their mothers. Compared with children without CRS, children with CRS had more RUBV-specific IgG (P < .001), a stronger C signal (P < .001), and a stronger E2 signal (P ≤ .001). Two classification rules for children with versus children without CRS gave 100% specificity with >65% sensitivity. Conclusions This study was the first to establish classification rules for identifying CRS in school-aged children, using laboratory biomarkers. These biomarkers should allow improved burden of disease estimates and monitoring of CRS control programs. PMID:25362195

  8. Evaluation of Obesity in School-Age Children.

    PubMed

    Dobashi, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    To prevent obesity in middle age, early precautions and interventions are required during childhood. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the degree of overweight in children. Body mass index (BMI) is widely used worldwide in adults, but not in children. Because standard BMI, which is calculated using the average height and weight for age, changes widely during growth, a constant cut-off point cannot be set for children. An international unified method defining childhood obesity has not been established. In many countries, BMI-for-age percentile (BMI%) value or Z (standard deviation) score is used, whereas in Japan, the percentage of overweight (POW), which is the modified weight-for-height method, is used. We compared BMI% values with POW values obtained using the anthropometric data of elementary and junior high school students based on the Japanese school survey conducted in 2000 and found that the values for the degree of overweight were significantly different between the two methods. It became clear that tall students were easily defined as being overweight, whereas short students tended to be evaluated as being underweight when using BMI%. POW method seemed to be more appropriate than BMI% for school-age children. Abdominal obesity, excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is highly associated with obesity-related complications. Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as an appropriate guide to VAT accumulation. The cut-off value of WC defining excess VAT is 80 cm at the umbilical level in Japanese school-age children. It is not easy to decide the obesity criteria and optimum WC in school-age children. Childhood obesity should be discussed more internationally. PMID:26510873

  9. Weight Patterns in Children With Higher Risk ALL: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group (COG) for CCG 1961

    PubMed Central

    Withycombe, Janice S.; Post-White, Janice E.; Meza, Jane L.; Hawks, Ria G.; Smith, Lynette M.; Sacks, Nancy; Seibel, Nita L.

    2011-01-01

    Background This retrospective analysis defined and described patterns and predictors of weight change during treatment in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) with high-risk features who received treatment on Children's Cancer Group protocol CCG 1961. Procedure Patients (1,638) were enrolled in CCG 1961 from November 1996 to May 2002. Weight was measured as BMI percent (%), specific for age and gender, and defined as 100 × ln(BMI/median BMI). Results By the end of treatment, 23% of children were obese (BMI ≥ 95%), compared with 14% at diagnosis. Children who received post-induction intensified therapy (arms C, D, SER with Doxorubicin or Idarubicin) had higher gastrointestinal toxicities and lower BMI% from consolidation through interim maintenance 1. BMI% then increased for all arms between delayed intensification and maintenance 1 or 2. Children who were of Black or Hispanic race, obese at diagnosis, or who had grade 3 or 4 pancreatitis/glucose toxicities during induction had higher BMI% throughout treatment. Children were more likely to be obese at the end of the study if they were aged 5–9 years at diagnosis or female gender. Cranial radiation was not a predictor of obesity. Conclusions Successful treatment of higher risk childhood ALL was associated with obesity, independent of cranial irradiation. The beginning of maintenance therapy may be the best time to intervene with nutritional and behavioral interventions, particularly for children who are obese or aged 5–9 years at diagnosis, female, Black or Hispanic, or those with metabolic toxicities during induction. PMID:19688832

  10. Assessment of Single-Word Production for Children under Three Years of Age: Comparison of Children with and without Cleft Palate

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Nancy J.; Williams, Lynn; Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Kaiser, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Background. This study reports comparative phonological assessment results for children with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) to typically developing peers using an evaluation tool for early phonological skills. Methods. Children without clefts (NC = noncleft) and 24 children with CLP, ages of 18–36 months, were evaluated using the Profile of Early Expressive Phonological Skills (PEEPSs) [1]. Children interacted with toy manipulatives to elicit a representative sample of target English consonants and syllable structures that are typically acquired by children between 18 and 27 months of age. Results. Results revealed significant differences between the two groups with regard to measures of consonant inventory, place of articulation, manner of production, accuracy, and error patterns. Syllable structure did not indicate differences, with the exception of initial consonant clusters. Conclusions. findings provide support for PEEPS as a viable option for single-word assessment of children with CLP prior to 3 years of age. PMID:22611404

  11. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8–10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  12. Dietary and physical activity/inactivity factors associated with obesity in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-07-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8-10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA. PMID:22798003

  13. A Feasibility Study of Wearable Activity Monitors for Pre-Adolescent School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Van Loan, Marta; German, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Understanding physical activity is key in the fight against childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using certain wearable devices to measure physical activity among children. Methods A qualitative study was conducted with 25 children aged 7 to 10 years to assess acceptability and compliance of wearable activity devices in this age group. During March through August 2012, children participated in a 4-week study of 3 accelerometer models and a heart rate monitor. Children were asked to use a different device each week for 7 consecutive days. Children and their parents completed structured interviews after using each device; they also completed a final exit interview. Results The wrist-worn Polar Active was the device most preferred by children and was associated with the highest level of compliance. Devices that are comfortable to wear, fit properly, have engaging features, and are waterproof increase feasibility and are associated with higher levels of compliance. Conclusion The wrist-worn device was the most feasible for measuring physical activity among children aged 7 to 10 years. These findings will inform researchers in selecting tools for measuring children’s physical activity. PMID:24854236

  14. Risk factors for mental health problems in school-age children from a community sample.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Ana Vilela; Souza Crippa, José Alexandre de; Souza, Roberto Molina; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2013-12-01

    The epidemiological dimension of mental health problems in childhood and its impact warrant new studies. Knowledge about the predictors of mental health in children is scant in developing countries. The present study estimated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Brazilian school-age children based on a community sample from primary health care services, with the aim of verifying the predictive value of biological, social, and familial risk factors in children's mental health. The study was performed with 120 children of both genders identified through their mothers. The children's mental health was evaluated by sociodemographic factors and a diagnostic interview conducted with parents. Biological, social, and familial risk factors were evaluated by the Supplemental Questionnaire and Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. Of the 120 children, 45.8 % were diagnosed with at least one mental health disorder. Children with diagnoses of depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder presented evidence of greater exposure to risk factors compared with children without these psychiatric diagnoses. Children with more risk factors throughout their lifetime had greater comorbidities compared with children with a lower number of risk factors. The identification of groups exposed to interconnected risk factors represents a priority when planning mental health practices. The strong role of chronic familial risk factors needs to be emphasized because they are a possible target for the prevention of depressive and anxiety disorders. PMID:23212399

  15. Preschool-aged children recognize ambivalence: emerging identification of concurrent conflicting desires

    PubMed Central

    Rostad, Kristin; Pexman, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the ability of preschool-aged children to identify conflicting, or ambivalent, desire states (e.g., “I want to go to the birthday party because there will be cake, but I also don’t want to go because I’m having fun playing at home”). Participants were 4- and 5-year-old children, and a group of undergraduate students (n = 20 in each age group). They were presented with 14 scenarios involving both “single desire” and “dual desire” states, including both approach (i.e., “want”) and avoidance (i.e., “not want”) desires. Our primary interest was children’s ability to identify concurrent conflicting “dual desire” states, and this ability was found in most of the 5-year-old age group tested and in about half of the 4-year-old age group. As such, these results provide evidence that children can identify ambivalence at earlier ages than previously reported. In addition, results showed that the challenge in recognizing ambivalence is the presence of desires of opposite valence directed at the same target. PMID:25914671

  16. Anxiety and Attentional Bias in Preschool-Aged Children: An Eyetracking Study.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Helen F; Hudson, Jennifer L; Williams, Tracey; Morris, Talia; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Byrow, Yulisha

    2015-08-01

    Extensive research has examined attentional bias for threat in anxious adults and school-aged children but it is unclear when this anxiety-related bias is first established. This study uses eyetracking technology to assess attentional bias in a sample of 83 children aged 3 or 4 years. Of these, 37 (19 female) met criteria for an anxiety disorder and 46 (30 female) did not. Gaze was recorded during a free-viewing task with angry-neutral face pairs presented for 1250 ms. There was no indication of between-group differences in threat bias, with both anxious and non-anxious groups showing vigilance for angry faces as well as longer dwell times to angry over neutral faces. Importantly, however, the anxious participants spent significantly less time looking at the faces overall, when compared to the non-anxious group. The results suggest that both anxious and non-anxious preschool-aged children preferentially attend to threat but that anxious children may be more avoidant of faces than non-anxious children. PMID:25434325

  17. Group Supervision: Supporting Practitioners in Their Work with Children and Families in Children's Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soni, Anita

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how group supervision can be used to support the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) of those working with children and families in early years provision in England. It is based on research conducted in 2008 with a cluster of four Children's Centres in the West Midlands in England, UK. The research evaluated group…

  18. FINAL REPORT: NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY FOCUS GROUPS - FOLLOW-UP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work assignment was to add to our knowledge of the issues that will affect

    recruitment and retention of pregnant women into the National Children's Study by conducting 14 focus

    groups comprised of pregnant women, couples, and parents of young chi...

  19. Fostering Success through Group Work with Children Who Celebrate Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Bogusia; Brigman, Greg; Rhone, Angela

    2003-01-01

    A multicultural model for children in Grades K through 5 to foster skills needed for success is presented. The learning, living, and working (LLW) group work model focuses on three skill sets identified by multiple researchers over the past 30 years as necessary for success in school, relationships, and work. These three skill sets--learning…

  20. Group Counseling With Emotionally Disturbed School Children in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Peter

    The application of group counseling to emotionally disturbed school children in Chinese culture was examined. Two junior high schools located in Tao-Yuan Province were randomly selected with two eighth-grade classes randomly selected from each school. Ten emotionally disturbed students were chosen from each class and randomly assigned to two…

  1. Group Work with Parents of Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarnari, Olga

    Topics include the role of the family in the development and growth of the mentally handicapped (MH) child, the psychological impact of the MH child on the family, parental attitudes, and the need for guidance and counseling of parents of MH children. Also of concern are the agency framework, the goals aimed at by the group guidance program, the…

  2. Small Group Intervention for Children with Attention Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houck, Gail; King, Mary Catherine; Tomlinson, Bill; Vrabel, Ann; Wecks, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Two practice improvement projects that provided small group experiences for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior addressed: communication, friendship, self-control, and social problem solving. One provided activities for elementary students with ADHD (treated with medication only). Another provided…

  3. Neuropsychological Impairment in School-Aged Children Born to Mothers With Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Lourdes; Matute, Esmeralda; Ramírez-Dueñas, María de Lourdes; Zarabozo, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether school-aged children born to mothers with gestational diabetes show delays in their neuropsychological development. Several key neuropsychological characteristics of 32 children aged 7 to 9 years born to mothers with gestational diabetes were examined by comparing their performance on cognitive tasks to that of 28 children aged 8 to 10 years whose mothers had glucose levels within normal limits during pregnancy. The gestational diabetes group showed low performance on graphic, spatial, and bimanual skills and a higher presence of soft neurologic signs. Lower scores for general intellectual level and the working memory index were also evident. Our results suggest that gestational diabetes is associated with mild cognitive impairment. PMID:25814475

  4. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  5. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  6. Motor coordination, empathy, and social behaviour in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Ariane; Piek, Jan P; Dyck, Murray J

    2005-07-01

    Children with motor coordination problems are known to have emotional difficulties and poor social skills. The current study investigated whether children with poor motor ability have poor emotion recognition skills, and whether these could be linked to problems in social behaviour. It was hypothesized that difficulties in empathic ability might be related to the poor visuo-spatial processing ability identified in children with developmental coordination disorder (as defined by the American Psychiatric Association). The relationship between motor coordination, emotion recognition, and social behaviour was examined in a sample of 234 children (113 males, 121 females; mean age 9y 7mo, [SD 1y 8mo] age range 6y 8mo to 12y 11mo). From this sample two groups of 39 children each (17 females, 22 males), one group with motor difficulties (mean age 9y 11mo [SD 2y], range 6y 11mo to 12y 11mo) and the other of control children (mean age 10y [SD ly 11mo], range 6y 11mo to 12y 11mo), matched for age and sex, were compared using a set of six emotion recognition scales that measured both verbal and perceptual aspects of empathic ability. Children with motor difficulties were found to perform more poorly on scales measuring the ability to recognize static and changing facial expressions of emotion. This difference remained even when visuo-spatial processing was controlled. When controlling for emotion recognition and visuo-spatial organization, a child's motor ability remained a significant predictor of social behaviour. PMID:15991862

  7. Risk factors affecting quality of life in a group of Italian children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Indinnimeo, L; Chiarotti, F; De Vittori, V; Baldini, L; De Castro, G; Zicari, A M; Tancredi, G; Leonardi, L; Duse, M

    2014-01-01

    The measure of Quality of Life (QoL) has become one of the most important criteria used to assess the impact of chronic illness, such as asthma, on the patient’s daily life, in adults and children alike. The objective of our open observational study was to measure the QoL and analyze several factors that potentially affect QoL, such as symptoms and functional respiratory parameters, in a cohort of children with asthma. One hundred and twenty-seven children with asthma, 6 to 14 years of age, living in the city of Rome, were enrolled as outpatients. They were subjected to Skin Prick Tests (SPT), underwent spirometry and filled out the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). One hundred and eleven children were diagnosed with intermittent asthma, 12 (10%) with mild asthma, and four with moderate persistent asthma. Ninety-six children had a positive SPT. The mean total score of QoL, obtained from the questionnaire, was 5.4 (∓1.2 SD). Two QoL groups were created. Children with total QoL score <5.5 were included in the “Lower QoL” score group while children with total QoL score ≥ 5.5 were included in the “Higher QoL” score group. Children in the Higher group and their mothers had a higher mean age, suffered from fewer asthma exacerbations during the year preceding the study, and showed a higher mean value of forced expiratory volume (FEV1) compared to the children in the Lower category. Using Logistic regression we identified the main factors that may affect QoL as FEV1, symptoms in the previous year and mother’s age. QoL is correlated with the frequency of asthma exacerbations and FEV1 values. Furthermore, our research shows that a significant impairment of QoL may also occur in patients with normal lung function, pointing out the importance of evaluating QoL in all children with asthma. PMID:25004835

  8. Mother's Age and Physical Abuse of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connelly, Cynthia D.; Straus, Murray A.

    Young, poorly educated, single mothers from lower socioeconomic groups are commonly identified as being at high risk of engaging in physical abuse. However, the seemingly obvious relationship between adolescent parenting and child maltreatment is not clearly supported by previous empirical research. This study, based on an ecological framework,…

  9. Teasing among School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nacev, Vladimir; Brubach, April

    Teasing is an attempt to look better at the expense of someone else. This abuse may be as mild as verbal bantering or as severe as group violence against others. The chronically oppressed student may conclude that school is a frightening and unfriendly place. Teasing has recently become the focus of psychological research and this paper provides a…

  10. Identification of Normal Blood Pressure in Different Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Chen, Yen-Lin; Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Pei, Dee; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The concept of using single criterion of normal blood pressure with systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < 90 mmHg for all ages is still disputable. The aim of the study is to identify the cutoff value of normotension in different age and sex groups. Totally, 127,922 (63,724 men and 64,198 women) were enrolled for the analysis. Finally, four fifths of them were randomly selected as the study group and the other one fifths as the validation group. Due the tight relationship with comorbidities from cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MetS) was used as a surrogate to replace the actual cardiovascular outcomes in the younger subjects. For SBP, MetS predicted by our equation had a sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 67% in males and 65%, 83% in females, respectively. At the same time, they are 61%, 73% in males and 73%, 86% in females for DBP, respectively. These sensitivity, specificity, odds ratio, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from our equations are all better than those derived from the criteria of 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg in both genders. By using the presence of MetS as the surrogate of CVD, the regression equations between SBP, DBP, and age were built in both genders. These new criteria are proved to have better sensitivity and specificity for MetS than either 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg. These simple equations should be used in clinical settings for early prevention of CVD. PMID:27057846

  11. A study of language development and affecting factors in children aged 5 to 27 months.

    PubMed

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a study to assess the factors that affect language development in infants and toddlers using data obtained during developmental screening. Our study group consisted of 505 children-244 (48.3%) boys and 261 (51.7%) girls, aged 5 to 27 months. The children were divided into four age groups: group 1, which we designated as the "6 months" group (age range: 5 to 7 mo); group 2, designated as the "12 months" group (11 to 13 mo); group 3, designated as the "18 months" group (17 to 19 mo); and group 4, designated as the "24 months" group (23 to 27 mo). In addition to demographic data, we compiled data using the Denver II Developmental Screening Test, as well as neurologic examination findings and medical histories. At 6 months, the social item "Works for toy out of reach" was positively related to all language development items. Two gross motor development items-"Pull to sit, no head lag" and "Lifts chest with arm support"-were related to the "Turns to sound" and "Turns to voice" items, respectively. Overall, children whose mothers had higher education levels and who were living in higher socioeconomic areas showed significantly greater language development, as did boys, specifically. At 12 months, higher maternal ages, some gross motor development items, and some social items were related to better language development, and children living in higher socioeconomic areas had a significantly increased ability to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item. At 18 months, the ability of girls to pass the "4 words other than mama/dada" item increased, and children who passed the "4 words other than mama/dada" item did not pass the "Throws ball" gross motor item. At 24 months, children whose mothers were older had better "Combines 2 words" and "Speech half intelligible" items, girls had better "Comprehends prepositions (such as under/above)" skills, and boys had better "Shows 4 parts of doll" skills. We conclude that language items appear to change together with

  12. Age-Related Changes in Children's Associations of Economic Resources and Race.

    PubMed

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in children's associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5-6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10-11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African-American (n = 93), European-American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian-American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African-American and European-American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children's associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African-American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European-American targets. Finally, children associated African-American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European-American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants' own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children's associations of economic resources and race. PMID:27378981

  13. Adults' Detection of Deception in Children: Effect of Coaching and Age for Children's True and Fabricated Reports of Injuries.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kelly L; Bakhtiar, Aishah; Mulrooney, Brent; Raynor, Graham; Dodd, Elyse; Peterson, Carole

    2015-01-01

    A total of 1,074 undergraduates judged the truthfulness of children's interviews (from verbatim transcripts) about experiencing injuries serious enough to require hospital emergency room treatment. Ninety-six children (three age groups: 5-7, 8-10, and 11-14 years, 50% girls) were interviewed. At each age, 16 children told truthful accounts of actual injury experiences and 16 fabricated their reports, with half of each group coached by parents for the previous 4 days. Lies by 5- to 7-year-olds, whether coached or not, were detected at above-chance levels. In contrast, 8- to 10-year-olds' accounts that were coached, whether true or not, were more likely to be believed. For 11- to 14-year-olds, adults were less likely to accurately judge lies if they were coached. The believability of children aged 8 or above who were coached to lie is particularly disturbing in light of the finding that participants were more confident in the accuracy of their veracity decisions when judging coached reports. PMID:26549017

  14. Perceived Stress, Perceived Social Support, and Wellbeing among Mothers of School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skok, Anita; Harvey, David; Reddihough, Dinah

    2006-01-01

    Background: The study considers how severity of disability, perceived stress, and perceived social support impact on the well-being of a group of mothers caring for school-aged children with cerebral palsy. Method: Forty-three mothers attending clinics at the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne, Australia were interviewed and completed the…

  15. Relationships between Narrative Language Samples and Norm-Referenced Test Scores in Language Assessments of School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Scott, Cheryl M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Both narrative language samples and norm-referenced language tests can be important components of language assessment for school-age children. The present study explored the relationship between these 2 tools within a group of children referred for language assessment. Method: The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical records from…

  16. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Miglioli, Teresa Cristina; Fonseca, Vania Matos; Gomes, Saint Clair; da Silva, Katia Silveira; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Batista, Malaquias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs. METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels). Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels), age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF) and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables. RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73) and height/age (-0.99) of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82), prenatal appointments (-0.43), geographical area of the residence (-0.41), and household income per capita (-0.42). Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44) showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48) was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72) and retinol serum levels (-0.40) of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43). CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A

  17. "They" are old but "I" feel younger: age-group dissociation as a self-protective strategy in old age.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David; Lang, Frieder R

    2012-03-01

    Age becomes an important self-defining aspect particularly during advanced age. With increasing age, negative attributes related to age and aging become salient. Aging-related declines, losses, as well as the finitude of life seem to threaten older adults' sense of self. We hypothesize that older adults will try to avoid the negative consequences of their age group membership by distancing themselves from their age group. Study 1 (N = 544, 65% women; 18-85 years of age) examined the role of age-group identification for self-conception and self-image (subjective age and future time perspective) across the life span. Results show that weakly identified older adults feel younger than their chronological age and report a more expanded future time perspective relative to their same-age counterparts. A second experiment (N = 68, 69% women; 65-85 years of age) tested the impact of age stereotypes on older adults' level of age-group identification. Results suggest that older adults are more likely to psychologically dissociate themselves from their age group when negative age stereotypes are salient. Discussion focuses on (mal)adaptive consequences of age-group dissociation in later adulthood. PMID:21988154

  18. Age Effects in Foreign Language Learning for Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Zhiliang; Chen, Guanying

    2009-01-01

    To know the age effects in foreign language learning for children in China, we made both qualitative survey on the English teachers, the students and their parents by means of questionnaire; and quantitative survey on the students' scores from junior 1 to senior 2 (5 years) in the secondary school by analyses between those (over 30 students) who…

  19. How Elementary-Age Children Read Polysyllabic Polymorphemic Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Devin M.

    2015-01-01

    Developing readers of English appear to favor phonograms over grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs) to read unknown words. For polysyllabic polymorphemic (PSPM) words, the morphophonemic nature of English means elementary-age children may focus on roots and affixes. Does developing readers' PSPM word reading accuracy relate to the morphological…

  20. Child Sustained Attention in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Baumgartner, Jennifer J.; Ota, Carrie; Geary, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mean duration of child attention across three teaching conditions (child choice, adult choice, or adult presentation) of 63 preschool-age children. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare the means across the three teaching conditions, indicating a statistically significant difference between the teaching conditions.…

  1. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2010 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Firgens, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality for low-income families. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about infants and toddlers…

  2. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2009 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Lim, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…

  3. School Readiness of Moderately Preterm Children at Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perricone, Giovanna; Morales, M. Regina; Anzalone, Germana

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the preschool readiness of moderately preterm children and, in particular, the likely presence of learning disabilities at preschool age. Its theoretical model detects linguistic comprehension and expression; memory-related metacognition and cognition skills; orientation and motor coordination skills; premathematics and…

  4. Hearing-Impaired Children under Age 6: 1977 and 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildroth, Arthur

    1986-01-01

    A review of annual survey data revealed that hearing impaired children under age 6 reported in 1984, when compared to those reported in 1977, tended to be younger; had higher percentages of heredity, meningitis, and prematurity as causes of hearing loss; and were more likely to have additional handicaps. (CL)

  5. [Influence of pedagogy on vigilance in school age children].

    PubMed

    Zaczyk-Martin, C; Nuttens, M C; Hautekeete, M; Salomez, J L; Lequien, P

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between vigilance and pedagogy was studied in 3 middle classes of primary school (children aged between 8 and 9 yrs). Three different types of pedagogy, belonging to 3 major pedagogic currents were evaluated: the pedagogy of Maria Montessori, the traditional one and the so-called "open" pedagogy. The vigilance of children was tested with the psychometric test of Zazzo. The rate of performance of the test was significantly different according to the nature of pedagogy after adjustment of the only 2 confusing factors between the 3 schools: the age of the children and the degree of the mother. This difference was in favor of the pedagogy of Maria Montessori compared with the 2 others. It was observed on the results to the tests but also on learning. PMID:2170913

  6. Social Information Processing in Elementary-School Aged Children with ADHD: Medication Effects and Comparisons with Typical Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.

    2009-01-01

    Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo…

  7. Social Interactions of School-Aged Children With CFA: Mothers' Perspectives and Advice.

    PubMed

    Klein, Tovah P; Pope, Alice; Abbott, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    Objective : To learn about (1) mothers' perspectives on their children's social experiences and (2) how mothers interpret social situations and provide guidance to their children in challenging situations. Design : This was a qualitative study analyzing narratives. Mothers participated in a semistructured interview; mothers and their children participated in a social coaching task involving responses to hypothetical situations. Transcripts of audio recordings were used to create thematic coding categories, and transcripts were reviewed and coded. Setting : Children were patients at a reconstructive plastic surgery center in an urban hospital and medical school; families were recruited from a regional support group associated with the hospital. Participants : Mothers of nine children with congenital craniofacial anomalies, aged 9 to 14 years. Main Outcome Measures : Thematic narrative coding categories, focusing on mothers' perspectives on children's actual social experiences (from the interview) and mothers' advice and interpretations regarding challenging hypothetical social tasks (from the coaching task). Results : In the interviews, mothers reported positive and negative social experiences for their children. Multiple approaches were used by mothers to interpret social interactions experienced by children (interview) and hypothetical social situations (coaching task). These included consideration of situational factors, motivations of others, and factors within own child. Mothers' hypothetical advice was often prosocial, including concrete strategies to resolve conflict, to plan ways to avoid problems, to foster self-reliance, and to avoid hurtful situations. Conclusions : Mothers showed active interest and concern in their children's peer relationships and were thoughtful in devising strategies to successfully manage potential social challenges. PMID:24003837

  8. The medico-legal evaluation of injuries from falls in pediatric age groups.

    PubMed

    Kafadar, Safiye; Kafadar, Hüseyin

    2015-04-01

    Blunt trauma from accidental falls or intentional jumping from great heights occurs frequently in forensic medicine. The goal of this study was to investigate injuries due to falls in children under 19 years of age. Injuries from falls are the leading cause of visits to emergency departments and to deaths due to injuries. Various methods are used in the classification of falls. In this study, we have classified falls as "high-level" (≥ 5 m), "low-level" (<5 m) and "ground-level". We have retrospectively evaluated 814 boys (61.18%) and 512 girls (38.62%), making up a total of 1326 children (under 19 years old) with the mean age of 7.85 ± 3.46, that were admitted to State Hospital between January 2009 and December 2013 due to falls from heights and falls on ground-level. Falls were low-level in 738 cases, high-level in 176 cases, and ground-level in 412 cases. Cases were categorized by gender, age, age group, fall height, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), injured body part(s), mortality rate, and distribution according to months. In conclusion, falls merit attention because of their high risk of mortality and morbidity, as well as their burden on medical budgets. If the medico-legal aspects of falls were evaluated with regard to preventive event or death, the importance of the topic could be better understood. PMID:25735785

  9. Adherence to Canadian physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines among children 2 to 13 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Pujadas Botey, Anna; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Carson, Valerie; Vinturache, Angela; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Active living is relevant for healthy child development and disease prevention. In 2011–2012 new Canadian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines were developed for children under four and 5–17 years of age. This cross-sectional study assessed children's adherence to the national guidelines, using a large sample of Alberta children ages 2–4 and 5–13 years in 2013. The proportions of children achieving the average daily duration of physical activity and screen time recommended were determined, and child and parental predictors of non-achievement were identified. Participants were 631 parent and child dyads. Data were collected by parental reports of physical activity and screen time during weekdays, and analysed using univariate and multivariate techniques (p < 0.05). Logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with children's non-achievement of physical activity and screen time recommendations while adjusting for covariates. Sixty-two percent of children aged 2–4 and 26% of children aged 5–13 did not meet physical activity time recommendations, and 64% of children aged 2–4 and 23% of children aged 5–13 exceeded the maximum screen time recommendation. Several associations between parental age and education with non-achievement were observed but associations were not consistent across age groups or behaviours. Among preschoolers, those with middle-age parents were more likely to not achieve physical activity recommendations. Evidence of high non-achievement of the recommendations among children 2–4 years highlights the need for increased programming targeting preschool children. Further research is required to identify modifiable risk factors that may inform future health promotion efforts. PMID:26844180

  10. Adherence to Canadian physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines among children 2 to 13 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pujadas Botey, Anna; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Carson, Valerie; Vinturache, Angela; Tough, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    Active living is relevant for healthy child development and disease prevention. In 2011-2012 new Canadian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines were developed for children under four and 5-17 years of age. This cross-sectional study assessed children's adherence to the national guidelines, using a large sample of Alberta children ages 2-4 and 5-13 years in 2013. The proportions of children achieving the average daily duration of physical activity and screen time recommended were determined, and child and parental predictors of non-achievement were identified. Participants were 631 parent and child dyads. Data were collected by parental reports of physical activity and screen time during weekdays, and analysed using univariate and multivariate techniques (p < 0.05). Logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with children's non-achievement of physical activity and screen time recommendations while adjusting for covariates. Sixty-two percent of children aged 2-4 and 26% of children aged 5-13 did not meet physical activity time recommendations, and 64% of children aged 2-4 and 23% of children aged 5-13 exceeded the maximum screen time recommendation. Several associations between parental age and education with non-achievement were observed but associations were not consistent across age groups or behaviours. Among preschoolers, those with middle-age parents were more likely to not achieve physical activity recommendations. Evidence of high non-achievement of the recommendations among children 2-4 years highlights the need for increased programming targeting preschool children. Further research is required to identify modifiable risk factors that may inform future health promotion efforts. PMID:26844180

  11. Capturing Age-group Differences and Developmental Change with the BASC Parent Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Baptiste; Hein, Sascha; Luthar, Suniya S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of age-group differences and intra-individual change across distinct developmental periods is often challenged by the use of age-appropriate (but non-parallel) measures. We present a short version of the Behavior Assessment System (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1998), Parent Rating Scales for Children (PRS-C) and Adolescents (PRS-A), which uses only their common-items to derive estimates of the initial constructs optimized for developmental studies. Measurement invariance of a three-factor model (Externalizing, Internalizing, Adaptive Skills) was tested across age-groups (161 mothers using PRS-C; 200 mothers using PRS-A) and over time (115 mothers using PRS-C at baseline and PRS-A five years later) with the original versus short PRS. Results indicated that the short PRS holds a sufficient level of invariance for a robust estimation of age-group differences and intra-individual change, as compared to the original PRS, which held only weak invariance leading to flawed developmental inferences. Importance of test-content parallelism for developmental studies is discussed. PMID:25045196

  12. The Seroepidemiology of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) in Different Age Groups in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Zohreh; Emadi Ghanjin, Sekyneh

    2005-06-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV), the causative agent of chicken pox and shingles, can cause severe systemic infections of the CNS and the respiratory tract in immunocompetent individuals as well as in immunocompromized patients.The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of antibody Varicella zoster virus in different age groups.The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to assess the presence of anti -VZV antibody.A total of 635 serum samples were collected. Age specific prevalence of IgG antibody to VZV showed a progressive increase with age in both males and females. The overall seroprevalence rate was 83.6%. Prevalence of antibodies was 59.7% in the age group of less than 10 years, 60.4 % in 10-14 years, 87.5 % in 15-19 years, 88 % in 20-24 years, 89.4 % in 25-29 years and 87.9 % in 30-39 years.The data show that children should be considered as a target group for prevention programs against VZV infection. PMID:17301429

  13. Sleep problems of school-aged children: a complementary view.

    PubMed

    Paavonen, E J; Aronen, E T; Moilanen, I; Piha, J; Räsänen, E; Tamminen, T; Almqvist, F

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this population-based multicentre study was to evaluate the prevalence rates of sleep problems among 8-9-y-old children. The sample consisted of 5813 Finnish children, making up 10% of the age cohort. Both parents and children provided information. Disturbed sleep was reported by 21.7% of parents. Most of the problems were mild; only 0.3% were serious. Dyssomnias were frequent: 11.1% had difficulties with sleep onset, 7.1% with night waking and 2.3% with waking too early. Multiple sleep problems were present in 9.1% of the children. 17.8% of children reported disturbed sleep, 12.7% had problems many nights and 5.1% every night. In 32.0% of cases, either the parent or the child reported disturbed sleep; 7.4% of these reports came from both the parent and the child, 14.1% from the parent only and 10.3% from the child only. The correspondence between informants was poor (kappa = 0.224). Sleeping problems were associated with somatic and psychiatric problems. It is concluded that by restricting questioning to parents only, one-third of all potential cases of sleep problems may go unnoticed. In order to increase the sensitivity of screening children's sleep problems, both parents and children should provide information in epidemiological settings as well as in clinical work. PMID:10709895

  14. Vulnerability of children: more than a question of age.

    PubMed

    Hutton, David

    2010-11-01

    The vulnerability of children in disasters is well-established. Children are at greater risk of the impacts of disasters because of both their age and level of physiological, anatomical, cognitive and emotional development. Frequently overlooked, however, is the influence of other social and health determinants. This article highlights the importance of family and household income in determining the ability of children to withstand the shocks of catastrophic events. Children raised in lower income families are made disadvantaged in multiple ways; by poor living and neighbourhood conditions, less stable home environments, as well as lower levels of education and health care. During disasters, lower income families and children suffer disproportionately, both because they are frequently the hardest hit but also because they have fewer resources with which to cope. The article emphasises not only the importance of understanding the vulnerability of children within a broader family context, but a continuing requirement for public health and emergency planners to integrate more fully the diverse needs of children and families into emergency preparedness policies and plans. PMID:20798187

  15. Heart Rates in Hospitalized Children by Age and Body Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Bonafide, Christopher P.; Brady, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heart rate (HR) is frequently used by clinicians in the hospital to assess a patient’s severity of illness and make treatment decisions. We sought to develop percentiles that characterize the relationship of expected HR by age and body temperature in hospitalized children and to compare these percentiles with published references in both primary care and emergency department (ED) settings. METHODS: Vital sign data were extracted from electronic health records of inpatients <18 years of age at 2 large freestanding children’s hospitals from July 2011 to June 2012. We selected up to 10 HR-temperature measurement pairs from each admission. Measurements from 60% of patients were used to derive the percentile curves, with the remainder used for validation. We compared our upper percentiles with published references in primary care and ED settings. RESULTS: We used 60 863 observations to derive the percentiles. Overall, an increase in body temperature of 1°C was associated with an increase of ∼10 beats per minute in HR, although there were variations across age and temperature ranges. For infants and young children, our upper percentiles were lower than in primary care and ED settings. For school-age children, our upper percentiles were higher. CONCLUSIONS: We characterized expected HR by age and body temperature in hospitalized children. These percentiles differed from references in primary care and ED settings. Additional research is needed to evaluate the performance of these percentiles for the identification of children who would benefit from further evaluation or intervention for tachycardia. PMID:25917984

  16. Fatty acid composition of diets of early school-age children and its health implications

    PubMed Central

    Kostecka, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the amount and type of fat consumed by early school-age children per day. Dietary fat intake as a percentage of the total calorie intake was also estimated. Methods: The study was conducted in Lublin, the largest city in south-east Poland, between January 2014 and April 2014, on 702 randomly selected children, i.e. 3% of the total population of early school-age children in the research area. The parents were asked to provide information about the type and amount of food consumed by their children daily. A standard food frequency questionnaire was used. Results: Dietary levels of saturated fat were elevated in the analyzed populations and were the source of 13.33% of daily calorie intake. In the studied population, the ratio of saturated to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids was determined at 3.25: 2.95: 1. Dietary intake of α-linolenic acid (ALA) reached 1.057 ± 0.55 g (0.63% of daily calorie intake) on average, and dietary intake of linoleic acid (LA) was determined at 3.86 ± 2.51 g (2.31% of daily calorie intake). Conclusions: The average total calorie intake of children aged 6-11 years was 1445.66 calories per day. Average fat intake was 29.64 % of the total calorie intake. The highest intake of SFAs was found in the youngest age group of 6- to 8-year-olds. The type of food consumed by children affected the amount and type of dietary fat in all age groups. PMID:26870117

  17. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part II. Counseling recommendations.

    PubMed

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    School-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are establishing patterns of behavior that may last a lifetime; therefore, it is important to counsel these patients about healthy lifestyle practices during well-child examinations. Children and families should be advised to eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat or nonfat dairy products, beans, fish, and lean meats, while limiting sugar, fast food, and highly processed foods. Children should engage in at least 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games) should be limited to no more than one to two hours of quality programming daily. Most school-aged children require 11 hours of sleep per night. Decreased sleep is associated with behavioral issues, decreased concentration at school, and obesity. Children should brush their teeth twice per day with a toothpaste containing fluoride. Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death in this age group in the United States, and families should be counseled on traffic, water, sports, and firearm safety. Because high-risk behaviors may start in early adolescence, many experts recommend screening for tobacco, alcohol, and drug use beginning at 11 years of age. Sexually active adolescents should be counseled on protecting against sexually transmitted infections, and should be screened for these infections if indicated. PMID:21404979

  18. Number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years.

    PubMed

    Dos, Santos Flávia Heloisa; Da Silva, Paulo Adilson; Ribeiro, Fabiana Silva; Dias, Ana Luiza Ribeiro Pereira; Frigério, Michele Cândida; Dellatolas, Georges; von Aster, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Numerical cognition is based on two components - number processing and calculation. Its development is influenced by biological, cognitive, educational, and cultural factors. The objectives of the present study were to: i) assess number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years from public schools using the Zareki-R (Battery of neuropsychological tests for number processing and calculation in children, Revised; von Aster & Dellatolas, 2006) in order to obtain normative data for Portuguese speakers; ii) identify how environment, age, and gender influences the development of these mathematical skills; iii) investigate the construct validity of the Zareki-R by the contrast with the Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The sample included 172 children, both genders, divided in two groups: urban (N = 119) and rural (N = 53) assessed by the Zareki-R. Rural children presented lower scores in one aspect of number processing; children aged 7-8 years demonstrated an inferior global score than older; boys presented a superior performance in both number processing and calculation. Construct validity of Zareki-R was demonstrated by high to moderate correlations with Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The Zareki-R therefore is a suitable instrument to assess the development of mathematical skills, which is influenced by factors such as environment, age, and gender. PMID:22774425

  19. Two Year Study of the Effect of Group Therapy on Teacher Perceived Classroom Behavior of Hyperactive Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Harold; And Others

    A 2-year study was done on the effect of group therapy on the teacher-perceived classroom behavior of 82 hyperactive minority boys (ages 10-16 years) in a day school for disruptive children. By the end of the study, there were a minimum of four behaviors which indicated that the group therapy was accomplishing a statistically significant change in…

  20. Reliability and Validity of the Acanthosis Nigricans Screening Tool for Use in Elementary School-Age Children by School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Leslie K.; Hall, Lynne M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of an acanthosis nigricans (AN) screening tool for use in elementary school-age children of different ethnic groups. Cross-sectional data were collected via observation of 288, 5- to 12-year-old school-age children. Three nurse clinicians used a 0-4 grade AN screening tool to rate…

  1. Heterogeneous vs. Homogeneous Social Class Grouping of Preschool Children in Head Start Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boger, Robert P.; And Others

    This study tests the hypothesis that disadvantaged children learn more from interaction with advantaged children in Head Start classrooms than when grouped solely with other disadvantaged children. Subjects were 32 disadvantaged children who were assigned to two experimental groups of eight each and a control group of 16. Eight advantaged children…

  2. Peanut allergy in Mexican children: what is the effect of age at first consumption?

    PubMed

    Bedolla Barajas, Martín; Alcala-Padilla, Guadalupe; Morales Romero, Jaime; Camacho Fregoso, Jupiter; Rivera Mejía, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    Studies suggest that children who start solid foods early are at risk for developing food allergies. Herein, we evaluated the effects of the introduction of peanuts to the diets of children on emerging peanut allergies. Children with allergic rhinitis and asthma were enrolled in the present study and evaluated in four stages. In the first stage, a clinical history was completed for all participants. In the second stage, skin tests were conducted to detect the sensitization to peanuts. In the third stage, the parents were interviewed about the peanut-eating habits of their children. In the fourth stage, children with a convincing history of allergy or a positive peanut skin test result were subjected to an open oral food challenge (OOFC). Three hundred children in four groups were included, 58.2% of the subjects were male, and the mean age was 7.3±3.9 years. The median age of first exposure to peanuts in patients with peanut allergies was greater than that in children without peanut allergies (2 years versus 1 year; p=0.009). The multivariate analysis, including only those children subjected to the OOFC, revealed that the consumption of peanuts after the age of ≥2 years is a risk factor for developing a peanut allergy (odds ratio=8.0, 95% confidence interval 1.3-50.0, p=0.026). The results of the present study showed that the late introduction of peanuts to children increases the risk of developing a peanut allergy. PMID:26996112

  3. The hierarchical factor model of ADHD: Invariant across age and national groupings?

    PubMed Central

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Sorge, Geoff B.; Flora, David B.; Chen, Wai; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Thompson, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary; Asherson, Philip; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the factor structure of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of 1373 children and adolescents with ADHD and their 1772 unselected siblings recruited from different countries across a large age range. Hierarchical and correlated factor analytic models were compared separately in the ADHD and sibling samples, across three different instruments and across parent and teacher informants. Specific consideration was given to factorial invariance analyses across different ages and different countries in the ADHD sample. Method A sample of children and adolescents between 5 and 17 years of age with ADHD and their unselected siblings was assessed. Participants were recruited from seven European countries and Israel. ADHD symptom data came from a clinical interview with parents (PACS) and questionnaires from parents and teachers (Conners Parent and Teacher). Results A hierarchical general factor model with two specific factors best represented the structure of ADHD in both the ADHD and unselected sibling groups, and across informants and instruments. The model was robust and invariant with regard to age differences in the ADHD sample. The model was not strongly invariant across different national groups in the ADHD sample, likely reflecting severity differences across the different centers and not any substantial difference in the clinical presentation of ADHD. Conclusions The results replicate previous studies of a model with a unitary ADHD component and separable specific traits of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The unique contribution of this study was finding support for this model across a large developmental and multinational/multicultural sample and its invariance across ages. PMID:22084976

  4. Distinct Visual Evoked Potential Morphological Patterns for Apparent Motion Processing in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Measures of visual cortical development in children demonstrate high variability and inconsistency throughout the literature. This is partly due to the specificity of the visual system in processing certain features. It may then be advantageous to activate multiple cortical pathways in order to observe maturation of coinciding networks. Visual stimuli eliciting the percept of apparent motion and shape change is designed to simultaneously activate both dorsal and ventral visual streams. However, research has shown that such stimuli also elicit variable visual evoked potential (VEP) morphology in children. The aim of this study was to describe developmental changes in VEPs, including morphological patterns, and underlying visual cortical generators, elicited by apparent motion and shape change in school-aged children. Forty-one typically developing children underwent high-density EEG recordings in response to a continuously morphing, radially modulated, circle-star grating. VEPs were then compared across the age groups of 5–7, 8–10, and 11–15 years according to latency and amplitude. Current density reconstructions (CDR) were performed on VEP data in order to observe activated cortical regions. It was found that two distinct VEP morphological patterns occurred in each age group. However, there were no major developmental differences between the age groups according to each pattern. CDR further demonstrated consistent visual generators across age and pattern. These results describe two novel VEP morphological patterns in typically developing children, but with similar underlying cortical sources. The importance of these morphological patterns is discussed in terms of future studies and the investigation of a relationship to visual cognitive performance. PMID:27445738

  5. Distinct Visual Evoked Potential Morphological Patterns for Apparent Motion Processing in School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Julia; Sharma, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Measures of visual cortical development in children demonstrate high variability and inconsistency throughout the literature. This is partly due to the specificity of the visual system in processing certain features. It may then be advantageous to activate multiple cortical pathways in order to observe maturation of coinciding networks. Visual stimuli eliciting the percept of apparent motion and shape change is designed to simultaneously activate both dorsal and ventral visual streams. However, research has shown that such stimuli also elicit variable visual evoked potential (VEP) morphology in children. The aim of this study was to describe developmental changes in VEPs, including morphological patterns, and underlying visual cortical generators, elicited by apparent motion and shape change in school-aged children. Forty-one typically developing children underwent high-density EEG recordings in response to a continuously morphing, radially modulated, circle-star grating. VEPs were then compared across the age groups of 5-7, 8-10, and 11-15 years according to latency and amplitude. Current density reconstructions (CDR) were performed on VEP data in order to observe activated cortical regions. It was found that two distinct VEP morphological patterns occurred in each age group. However, there were no major developmental differences between the age groups according to each pattern. CDR further demonstrated consistent visual generators across age and pattern. These results describe two novel VEP morphological patterns in typically developing children, but with similar underlying cortical sources. The importance of these morphological patterns is discussed in terms of future studies and the investigation of a relationship to visual cognitive performance. PMID:27445738

  6. Supporting Children on the Autism Spectrum in Peer Play at Home and School: Piloting the Integrated Play Groups Model in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tsung-Ren; Wolfberg, Pamela J.; Wu, Shu-Chin; Hwu, Pey-Yun

    2003-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the integrated play groups (IPGs) model designed to support children with autism in play with typical children. A pilot investigation involving 2 Taiwanese children (ages 6-7) found each child made notable gains in reciprocal social interactions and symbolic/pretend play with participating in IPGs. (Contains…

  7. Factors related to plaque distribution in a group of Canadian preschool children.

    PubMed

    Koroluk, L D; Hoover, J N; Komiyama, K

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that were related to plaque distribution in a group of preschool children. 153 children aged 3-5 years from seven randomly-selected preschool programmes in Saskatoon, Canada, were examined for plaque (Silness & Loe, 1964) and for dental caries (WHO, 1987). The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: 3, 4 and 5 years old. Plaque was assessed on the buccal and lingual surfaces of all teeth. The examinations were conducted in the morning or afternoon. No prior oral hygiene instructions were given to the children or parents. Teachers, however, were informed when the examinations would take place. The mean total plaque score was 0.51. There was no significant difference between the plaque scores for the different age groups. Total plaque score was significantly related to dft and dfs scores (P < 0.05). The mean dft was 0.68 and mean dfs was 1.18, and 80.4% of the subjects were caries-free and had no restored teeth or surfaces. There was significantly more plaque on posterior teeth than on anterior teeth (P < 0.0001), and on buccal surfaces than on lingual surfaces (P < 0.001) in both mandibular and maxillary arches. Significant differences in plaque distribution were also found between subjects examined in the morning or the afternoon. PMID:7811671

  8. 1H NMR metabolomics study of age profiling in children

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Haiwei; Pan, Zhengzheng; Xi, Bowei; Hainline, Bryan E.; Shanaiah, Narasimhamurthy; Asiago, Vincent; Nagana Gowda, G. A.; Raftery, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic profiling of urine provides a fingerprint of personalized endogenous metabolite markers that correlate to a number of factors such as gender, disease, diet, toxicity, medication, and age. It is important to study these factors individually, if possible to unravel their unique contributions. In this study, age-related metabolic changes in children of age 12 years and below were analyzed by 1H NMR spectroscopy of urine. The effect of age on the urinary metabolite profile was observed as a distinct age-dependent clustering even from the unsupervised principal component analysis. Further analysis, using partial least squares with orthogonal signal correction regression with respect to age, resulted in the identification of an age-related metabolic profile. Metabolites that correlated with age included creatinine, creatine, glycine, betaine/TMAO, citrate, succinate, and acetone. Although creatinine increased with age, all the other metabolites decreased. These results may be potentially useful in assessing the biological age (as opposed to chronological) of young humans as well as in providing a deeper understanding of the confounding factors in the application of metabolomics. PMID:19441074

  9. Profiling oral narrative ability in young school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to determine if oral narrative comprehension and production measures derived in a fictional story retelling task could be used to create a profile of strengths and weaknesses in oral narrative ability (Profile of Oral Narrative Ability: PONA) in young school-aged children. The story retelling task was field-tested with 169 typically developing children, aged between 5;0 and 7;6 years. Children listened twice to an unfamiliar story while looking at the pictures in a book. Comprehension questions were asked after the first exposure. Following the second exposure, children were asked to retell the story without the use of the pictures. Story retellings were analysed on measures of semantics, morphosyntax, verbal productivity, and narrative quality. Results indicated sensitivity for age on measures of comprehension, narrative quality, semantics, and verbal productivity, but not for morphosyntactic measures. Factor analysis indicated that oral narrative performance comprised three factors, explaining more than 80% of the variance. Two clinical case examples are presented, which show the potential of the PONA to reveal different patterns of strengths and weaknesses across the oral narrative measures. Although early evidence suggests the potential usefulness of the PONA, further research is now needed to test the validity, reliability and clinical application of this tool. PMID:20433337

  10. Impact of the presence of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) on outcomes of children at three years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Day, Julia; Dillon, Harvey; Gardner-Berry, Kirsty; Hou, Sanna; Seeto, Mark; Wong, Angela; Zhang, Vicky

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the influence of the presence of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) on speech, language, and psycho-social development of children at three years of age. Design A population-based, longitudinal study was performed on outcomes of children with hearing impairment (LOCHI) in Australia. The demographic characteristics of the children were described, and their developmental outcomes were evaluated at three years of age. Performance of children with ANSD was compared with that of children without ANSD in the LOCHI study. Study sample There were 47 children with ANSD in the study sample. Results Sixty-four percent of children with ANSD have hearing sensitivity loss ranging from mild to severe degree, and the remaining have profound hearing loss. At three years, 27 children used hearing aids, 19 used cochlear implants, and one child did not use any hearing device. Thirty percent of children have disabilities in addition to hearing loss. On average, there were no significant differences in performance level between children with and without ANSD. Also, the variability of scores was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions There was no significant difference in performance levels or variability between children with and without ANSD, both for children who use hearing aids, and children who use cochlear implants. PMID:24350696

  11. [Clinical diagnostics of ADHD in preschool-aged children].

    PubMed

    Merkt, Julia; Petermann, Franz

    2015-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence and has many negative consequences for both the child and the family. Early identification of children with ADHD would be helpful for the prevention of long-term consequences. This review appraises questionnaires and clinical interviews that can be used for the diagnosis of ADHD in preschool-aged children (3-5 years). We compare and discuss both German and international methods. The role of questionnaires and clinical interviews in the diagnostic process of ADHD is discussed. PMID:25769765

  12. A Longitudinal Study of a Group of Children Reared in a Severely Depriving Environment During Infancy and Early Childhood: Sixteen Years Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Betty M.

    The purpose of this 16-year study was to investigate the developmental progress of a group of children reared in severely deprived environments during infancy and early childhood in order to evaluate their adjustment to family, school, and community by age 15. The subjects were 31 children ranging in age from 1 year 7 months through 5 years 11…

  13. Body-image perceptions across sex and age groups.

    PubMed

    Cullari, S; Rohrer, J M; Bahm, C

    1998-12-01

    Weight dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, and body-image distortion measures were used with 98 fifth and eighth graders and 57 undergraduate students. Measures included the Piers-Harris Self-concept Scale and the Kids Eating Disorder Survey for the young children, the Interpersonal Behavior Survey, and a seven-item mistaken beliefs scale for the college sample. Body dissatisfaction and Body-image distortion were assessed with a figure-drawing procedure. Significant differences in both weight dissatisfaction and body dissatisfaction were found between males and females in the eighth grade and undergraduate groups. There were no significant sex differences in body-image distortion in the fifth or eighth grades, but significant differences in body-image distortion between men and women were found in the college sample. The direction of body-image distortion for both the 20 men and the 37 women was consistent with their ideal weight. In the college sample, there was a significant correlation between body-image dissatisfaction and self-confidence for the women but not for the men. PMID:9885045

  14. Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among school-age children.

    PubMed

    Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight. PMID:27090341

  15. Risk and resilience in preterm children at age 6.

    PubMed

    Poehlmann-Tynan, Julie; Gerstein, Emily D; Burnson, Cynthia; Weymouth, Lindsay; Bolt, Daniel M; Maleck, Sarah; Schwichtenberg, A J

    2015-08-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for experiencing significant deleterious developmental outcomes throughout their childhood and adolescence. However, individual variation and resilience are hallmarks of the preterm population. The present study examined pathways to resilience across multiple domains (e.g., social activities, peer relations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomology, externalizing and internalizing behavior, and sleep quality) as children born preterm reached school age. The study also examined early child and family predictors of resilience. Using a prospective longitudinal design, 173 infants born preterm and without significant neurological complications were assessed at five time points: neonatal intensive care unit discharge, 9 months, 16 months, 24 months, and 6 years. Three pathways of adaptation emerged at 6 years: children who were resilient, those who remained at-risk, and children who exhibited significant difficulties. Resilient children were less likely to have experienced negative parenting at 9 and 16 months, more likely to delay gratification at 24 months, and more likely to experience neonatal health complications than nonresilient children. PMID:25196017

  16. Sensory evaluation of a novel vegetable in school age children.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Helen; Palfreyman, Zoe; Morizet, David

    2016-05-01

    A behavioural sensory task was undertaken to further understanding into whether children's sensory evaluation of a new vegetable is associated with tasting and food neophobia scores. A sample of ninety-five children, aged 7-11 years, was recruited from a primary school in inner city Birmingham, UK. They were asked to rate the sight, smell and feel of a familiar vegetable (carrot) and an unfamiliar vegetable (celeriac) in a randomised order to control for order effects. They were then asked to try the each vegetable, and rate its taste. It was found that children rated the sensory characteristics of the familiar vegetable more positively than the novel vegetable across all sensory domains (p < 0.05). Refusing to try the novel vegetable was associated with food neophobia scores and olfactory ratings. The ratings of the taste of the novel vegetable were associated with olfactory and tactile ratings. In addition there was a clear developmental shift in the sample with younger children being more likely to rate the novel vegetable as 'looking strange' and older children rating the novel vegetable as 'smelling strange'. This research strengthens the idea that sensory information is important in children deciding to try, and their hedonic evaluation of the taste of a new vegetable. PMID:26809143

  17. Bicycle safety knowledge and behavior in school age children.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, S R; Nagel, R W

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine school age children's knowledge of bicycling rules of the road and their bicycling behaviors. A one-page questionnaire was administered in the classroom to 276 of 300 children in grades 4 through 8 of an upper middle class suburban school district. The children were questioned regarding their knowledge of three basic bicycling rules of the road, prior bicycle safety instruction, use of bicycle helmets, and the occurrence and severity of previous bicycle accidents. Students who reported receiving previous bicycle safety instruction were more knowledgeable than those receiving no instruction regarding rule 2, always stop at a stop sign or red light (90% compared with 74%), and rule 3, always stop and look when approaching a street from a driveway or alley (74% compared with 60%). Students who did not know rule 3 were more likely to have had a recent bicycle accident in which their bicycle was damaged (21% compared with 8%) and to have ever gone to the hospital or a physician because of injuries sustained in a bicycle accident (19% compared with 9%). Children who lacked knowledge of basic bicycling rules were more likely to have had a significant bicycling accident. Bicycle safety instruction increases children's knowledge of these rules and should be promoted by physicians caring for children. PMID:2345336

  18. False memories in children and adults: age, distinctiveness, and subjective experience.

    PubMed

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S

    2002-09-01

    This study investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information in false-memory formation, and participants' subjective experience of true and false memories. Children (5- and 7-year-olds) and adults studied lists of semantically associated words. Half of the participants studied words alone, and half studied words accompanied by pictures. There were significant age differences in recall (5-year-olds evinced more false memories than did adults) but not in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false memory for all age groups. Younger children provided with distinctive information, and older children and adults regardless of whether they viewed distinctive information, expressed higher levels of confidence in true than in false memories. Source attributions did not significantly differ between true and false memories. Implications for theories of false memory and memory development are discussed. PMID:12220049

  19. School-aged children can benefit from audiovisual semantic congruency during memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2016-05-01

    Although we live in a multisensory world, children's memory has been usually studied concentrating on only one sensory modality at a time. In this study, we investigated how audiovisual encoding affects recognition memory. Children (n = 114) from three age groups (8, 10 and 12 years) memorized auditory or visual stimuli presented with a semantically congruent, incongruent or non-semantic stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent recognition memory performance was better for auditory or visual stimuli initially presented together with a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than for stimuli accompanied by a non-semantic stimulus in the other modality. This congruency effect was observed for pictures presented with sounds, for sounds presented with pictures, for spoken words presented with pictures and for written words presented with spoken words. The present results show that semantically congruent multisensory experiences during encoding can improve memory performance in school-aged children. PMID:26048162

  20. A Comparison of Differential Treatment Approaches for Impulsive Responding of Hyperactive Children at Two Age Levels. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ronald T.

    The study examined the effectiveness of two psychoeducational treatment approaches and drug therapy on the impulsivity of 120 hyperactive emotionally disturbed children in two age groups (mean ages 13 and 8 years old). The psychoeducational approaches tested were modeling of reflective behavior and a specific instructional procedure to increase…

  1. Caregiver's Country of Birth Is a Significant Determinant of Accurate Perception of Preschool-Age Children's Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Ruby; Uhlhorn, Susan B.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Camejo, Stephanie; Englebert, Nicole; Delamater, Alan M.; Messiah, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: One in four preschool-age children in the United States are currently overweight or obese. Previous studies have shown that caregivers of this age group often have difficulty accurately recognizing their child's weight status. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with accurate/inaccurate perception of child body…

  2. Comparison of Two Oral Reading Feedback Strategies in Improving Reading Comprehension of School-Age Children with Low Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Linda K.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the effects of two oral reading feedback strategies in improving the reading comprehension of eight school-age children with low reading ability. Participants were assigned to one of two intervention groups matched on age, grade, gender, and general reading performance. Intervention 1 (I1) used traditional decoding-based…

  3. [Voiding dysfunction in children aged five to 15 years].

    PubMed

    Karaklajić, Dragana; Peco-Antić, Amira

    2004-01-01

    Voiding dysfunction in children was analyzed in 91 patients in a period from January 1st to October 1st 1998. Most of the patients had functional voiding disorder (92.31%), and only 7.69% manifested monosymptomatic night enuresis. The number of girls was bigger in the group of patients with voiding dysfunction while the boys were predominant in the group with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. More than a half of children with functional voiding disorder had repeated urinal infections (58.23%), incontinence (93.49%), need for urgent voiding (68.13%), and vesicoureteral reflux (47.61%). The most common type of voiding dysfunction was urge syndrome/urge incontinence. The incidence of dysfunctional voiding disorder was more often in children with scaring changes of kidney which were diagnosed by static scintigraphy. PMID:15794052

  4. Lipreading in School-Age Children: The Roles of Age, Hearing Status, and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Hale, Sandra; Spehar, Brent; Myerson, Joel; Sommers, Mitchell S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study addressed three research questions: Does lipreading improve between the ages of 7 and 14 years? Does hearing loss affect the development of lipreading? How do individual differences in lipreading relate to other abilities? Method: Forty children with normal hearing (NH) and 24 with hearing loss (HL) were tested using 4…

  5. Advancing Age, Advantaged Youth: Parental Age and the Transmission of Resources to Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Brian; Steelman, Lala Carr; Carini, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, we identify parental age as influential in the parental provision of economic resources, social capital and cultural capital to adolescents, as well as in parental educational expectations for their children. At the bivariate level, the relationship is curvilinear, suggesting that…

  6. Metabolism of Oxycodone in Human Hepatocytes from Different Age Groups and Prediction of Hepatic Plasma Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Korjamo, Timo; Tolonen, Ari; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Turpeinen, Miia; Kokki, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Oxycodone is commonly used to treat severe pain in adults and children. It is extensively metabolized in the liver in adults, but the maturation of metabolism is not well understood. Our aim was to study the metabolism of oxycodone in cryopreserved human hepatocytes from different age groups (3 days, 2 and 5 months, 4 years, adult pool) and predict hepatic plasma clearance of oxycodone using these data. Oxycodone (0.1, 1, and 10 μM) was incubated with hepatocytes for 4 h, and 1 μM oxycodone also with CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole (1 μM). Oxycodone and noroxycodone concentrations were determined at several time points with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. In vitro clearance of oxycodone was used to predict hepatic plasma clearance, using the well-stirred model and published physiological parameters. Noroxycodone was the major metabolite in all batches and ketoconazole inhibited the metabolism markedly in most cases. A clear correlation between in vitro oxycodone clearance and CYP3A4 activity was observed. The predicted hepatic plasma clearances were typically much lower than the published median total plasma clearance from pharmacokinetic studies. The data suggests that there are no children-specific metabolites of oxycodone. Moreover, CYP3A activity seems to be the major determinant in metabolic clearance of oxycodone regardless of age group or individual variability in hepatocyte batches. PMID:22291644

  7. Preschool children favor copying a successful individual over an unsuccessful group.

    PubMed

    Wilks, Matti; Collier-Baker, Emma; Nielsen, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The human aptitude for imitation and social learning underpins our advanced cultural practices. While social learning is a valuable evolutionary survival strategy, blind copying does not necessarily facilitate survival. Copying from the majority allows individuals to make rapid judgments on the value of a trait, based on its frequency. This is known as the majority bias: an individual's tendency to copy the behavior elicited by the largest number of individuals in a population. An alternative approach is to follow those who are the most proficient. While there is evidence that children do show both processes, no study has directly pitted them against each other. To do this, in the current experiment 36 children aged between 4 and 5 years watched live actors demonstrate, as a group or individually, how to open novel puzzle boxes. Children exhibited a bias to the majority when group and individual methods were successful, but favored the individual if the group method was unsuccessful. Affiliating children with the unsuccessful majority group did not impact on this pattern. PMID:25529854

  8. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  9. The Effect of Performing Preoperative Preparation Program on School Age Children's Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Vaezzadeh, Nazanin; Douki, Zahra Esmaeeli; Hadipour, Abbas; Osia, Soheil; Shahmohammadi, Soheila; Sadeghi, Roghieh

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine effects of performing preoperative preparation program on children's anxiety. Methods This study was performed in Amirkola Pediatrics Hospital, Mazandaran. A randomized controlled trail was performed on 122 children (7–12 years of age) admitted for elective surgery during 15 months. The researcher randomly assigned eligible participants in to the experimental and control groups, after pre-test baseline measurement had been taken. Analyzing was performed through independent t-test and χ2 test. P<0.005 was considered statistically significant. The experimental group received therapeutic play and the control group received routine preoperative information preparation. Findings The mean and standard deviation of the state anxiety scores of children in experimental and control groups before intervention were 35.52±6.99 and 34.98±6.78, after intervention 31.44±5.87 and 38.31±7.44 respectively. The state anxiety score was lower significantly in the experimental group prior to preoperative surgery than in the control group (P=0.000). Conclusion Performing preoperative program with using therapeutic play intervention is effective for preparing children before surgery and decreases their anxiety. PMID:23056832

  10. Diplopia of pediatric orbital blowout fractures: a retrospective study of 83 patients classified by age groups.

    PubMed

    Su, Yun; Shen, Qin; Lin, Ming; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-01-01

    Orbital blowout fractures are relatively rare in patients under 18 years of age, but may lead to serious complications. We conducted this retrospective study to evaluate diplopia, clinical characteristics, and postoperative results in cases of orbital blowout fractures in the pediatric population. Eighty-three patients, all less than 18 years old, with orbital blowout fractures, were divided into 3 groups by age: 0 to 6 years old, 7 to 12 years old, and 13 to 18 years old. The cause of injury, fracture locations, diplopia grades, ocular motility restrictions, enophthalmos, and postoperative results were reviewed from their records. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact analyses, analyses of variance, and logistic regressions were performed to determine characteristics associated with diplopia, and to identify factors related to residual diplopia in pediatric patients. The most common causes of injuries were traffic accidents in the 0 to 6 years old group, normal daily activities in the 7 to 12 years old group, and assaults in the 13 to 18 years old group. Floor fractures were the most common location in both the 0 to 6- and 7 to 12 years old groups, and medial-floor fractures were the most common location in the 13 to 18 years old group. The occurrence of preoperative diplopia was related to ocular motility restriction and enophthalmos, but not with the age group, the gender, the cause of injury, or the fracture locations. The time interval from injury to surgery was significant in the outcome of postoperative diplopia (P < 0.01). A statistical difference was also found in the recovery time from diplopia among the 3 age groups (P < 0.01). The characteristics of orbital blowout fracture varied among the different age groups. It was related to 2 factors, the cause of injury and fracture locations, which probably resulted from structural growth changes and differences in daily habits. Children had a slower recovery from orbital fractures, and the younger the

  11. Diplopia of Pediatric Orbital Blowout Fractures: A Retrospective Study of 83 Patients Classified by Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun; Shen, Qin; Lin, Ming; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Orbital blowout fractures are relatively rare in patients under 18 years of age, but may lead to serious complications. We conducted this retrospective study to evaluate diplopia, clinical characteristics, and postoperative results in cases of orbital blowout fractures in the pediatric population. Eighty-three patients, all less than 18 years old, with orbital blowout fractures, were divided into 3 groups by age: 0 to 6 years old, 7 to 12 years old, and 13 to 18 years old. The cause of injury, fracture locations, diplopia grades, ocular motility restrictions, enophthalmos, and postoperative results were reviewed from their records. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact analyses, analyses of variance, and logistic regressions were performed to determine characteristics associated with diplopia, and to identify factors related to residual diplopia in pediatric patients. The most common causes of injuries were traffic accidents in the 0 to 6 years old group, normal daily activities in the 7 to 12 years old group, and assaults in the 13 to 18 years old group. Floor fractures were the most common location in both the 0 to 6- and 7 to 12 years old groups, and medial-floor fractures were the most common location in the 13 to 18 years old group. The occurrence of preoperative diplopia was related to ocular motility restriction and enophthalmos, but not with the age group, the gender, the cause of injury, or the fracture locations. The time interval from injury to surgery was significant in the outcome of postoperative diplopia (P < 0.01). A statistical difference was also found in the recovery time from diplopia among the 3 age groups (P < 0.01). The characteristics of orbital blowout fracture varied among the different age groups. It was related to 2 factors, the cause of injury and fracture locations, which probably resulted from structural growth changes and differences in daily habits. Children had a slower recovery from orbital fractures, and the younger

  12. Comparison of remifentanil versus regional anaesthesia in children anaesthetised with isoflurane/nitrous oxide. International Remifentanil Paediatric Anaesthesia Study group.

    PubMed

    Prys-Roberts, C; Lerman, J; Murat, I; Taivainen, T; Lopez, T; Lejus, C; Spahr-Schopfer, I; Splinter, W; Kirkham, A J

    2000-09-01

    We compared the efficacy and safety of a remifentanil (0.25 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)-based balanced anaesthetic technique with a bupivacaine-based regional anaesthetic technique in an open label, multicentre study in 271 ASA physical status 1 or 2 children aged 1-12 years. Subjects requiring major intra-abdominal, urological or orthopaedic surgery were randomly allocated to receive either intravenous remifentanil (group R; n = 185) or epidural bupivacaine (group B; n = 86) with isoflurane/nitrous oxide for their anaesthesia. The majority of children in both groups (85% in group R, 78% in group B) showed no defined response to skin incision, and although the mean increase in systolic blood pressure (+11 mm Hg) was significantly greater in group R than in group B, this change did not represent a serious haemodynamic disturbance. More children in group R (31%) required interventions to treat hypotension and/or bradycardia than those in group B (12%), but these were easily managed by administration of fluids or anticholinergic drugs. Adverse events, mainly nausea and/or vomiting, occurred in 45% of group R and 42% of group B (NS). The adverse event profile of remifentanil in this study was typical of a potent mu-opioid receptor agonist. Remifentanil was as effective as epidural or caudal block in providing analgesia and suppressing physiological responses to surgical stimuli in children aged between 1 and 12 years undergoing major abdominal, urological, or orthopaedic surgery under isoflurane/nitrous oxide anaesthesia. PMID:10947750

  13. Tissue expression levels of miR-29b and miR-422a in children, adolescents, and young adults' age groups and their association with prediction of poor prognosis in human osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Bahador, Reza; Taheriazam, Afshin; Mirghasemi, Alireza; Torkaman, Ali; Shakeri, Mohammadreza; Yahaghi, Emad; Goudarzi, Peyman Karimi

    2016-03-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer in children and adolescents. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the development, differentiation, and function of different cell types and in the pathogenesis of various human diseases. miRNAs are differentially expressed in normal and cancer cells. The investigation of miRNA expression between healthy subjects and patients with osteosarcoma is crucial for future clinical trials. In this study, the expression levels of miRNAs were detected by qRT-PCR. Correlation between expression levels of tow miRNAs and different clinicopathological characteristics were analyzed using the χ (2) test. Survival rate was detected using the log-rank test and Kaplan-Meier method. qRT-PCR was shown that expression levels of miR-29b and miR-422a were strongly decreased in osteosarcoma bone tissue compared with noncancerous bone tissues. Our result indicated that the low expression levels of miR-29b and miR-422a showed strong correlation with large tumor size (P = 0.20; 0.029), advanced TNM stage (P = 0.001; 0.012), distant metastasis (P = 0.008; 0.019), and grade of tumor (P = 0.009; 0.016). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the low expressions of miR-29b/miR-422a were correlated with shorter time overall survival (log-rank test, P = 0.009; P = 0.013). Moreover, multivariate Cox proportional hazards model indicated that miR-29b and miR-422a (P = 0.024; P = 0.016) were independent prognostic markers of overall survival of patients. Our result indicated that downregulation of miR-29b and miR-422a may be linked to the prediction of poor prognosis, indicating that miR-29b and miR-422a may be a valuable prognostic marker for osteosarcoma patients. PMID:26423405

  14. Age-related carbon dioxide reactivity in children after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Maa, Tensing; Yeates, Keith Owen; Moore-Clingenpeel, Melissa; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to assess carbon dioxide reactivity (CO2R) in children following traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS This prospective observational study enrolled children younger than 18 years old following moderate and severe TBI. Thirty-eight mechanically ventilated children had daily CO2R testing performed by measuring changes in their bilateral middle cerebral artery flow velocities using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) after a transient increase in minute ventilation. The cohort was divided into 3 age groups: younger than 2 years (n = 12); 2 to 5 years old (n = 9); and older than 5 years (n = 17). RESULTS Children younger than 2 years old had a lower mean CO2R over time. The 2-5-year-old age group had higher mean CO2R than younger patients (p = 0.01), and the highest CO2R values compared with either of the other age groups (vs > 5 years old, p = 0.046; vs < 2 years old, p = 0.002). Having a lower minimum CO2R had a statistically significant negative effect on outcome at discharge (p = 0.0413). Impaired CO2R beyond Postinjury Day 4 trended toward having an effect on outcome at discharge (p = 0.0855). CONCLUSIONS Abnormal CO2R is prevalent in children following TBI, and the degree of impairment varies by age. No clinical or laboratory parameters were identified as risk factors for impaired CO2R. Lower minimum CO2R values are associated with worse outcome at discharge. PMID:27035550

  15. Insulin Resistance, Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Changes in a Group of Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Pires, António; Martins, Paula; Pereira, Ana Margarida; Silva, Patricia Vaz; Marinho, Joana; Marques, Margarida; Castela, Eduardo; Sena, Cristina; Seiça, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obesity-related comorbidities are present in young obese children, providing a platform for early adult cardiovascular disorders. Objectives To compare and correlate markers of adiposity to metabolic disturbances, vascular and cardiac morphology in a European pediatric obese cohort. Methods We carried out an observational and transversal analysis in a cohort consisting of 121 obese children of both sexes, between the ages of 6 and 17 years. The control group consisted of 40 children with normal body mass index within the same age range. Markers of adiposity, plasma lipids and lipoproteins, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, common carotid artery intima-media thickness and left ventricular diameters were analyzed. Results There were statistically significant differences between the control and obese groups for the variables analyzed, all higher in the obese group, except for age, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin, higher in the control group. In the obese group, body mass index was directly correlated to left ventricular mass (r=0.542; p=0.001), the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (r=0.378; p=<0.001) and mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (r=0.378; p=<0.001). In that same group, insulin resistance was present in 38.1%, 12.5% had a combined dyslipidemic pattern, and eccentric hypertrophy was the most common left ventricular geometric pattern. Conclusions These results suggest that these markers may be used in clinical practice to stratify cardiovascular risk, as well as to assess the impact of weight control programs. PMID:25993589

  16. Predictors for snoring in children with rhinitis at age 5.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Nathaniel S; Almqvist, Catarina; Grunstein, Ronald R; Marks, Guy B

    2007-07-01

    Snoring is often found in allergic diseases and may be an early manifestation of more serious sleep-disordered breathing. We aimed to investigate whether the risk factors for snoring among pre-school children with rhinitis are similar to those for allergic diseases in a birth cohort. The study cohort was drawn from participants in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS). This is a randomized controlled trial of dietary intervention and house dust mite avoidance during the first 5 years of life, aimed at reducing the risk of acquiring asthma and other allergic conditions in children at high-risk for allergic diseases. Parents of children with symptoms of rhinitis at age 5 years (n = 219 out of 516 cohort members) were asked if their child snored: 127 (60%) reported some snoring and 56 (26%) snored more than three times per week. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that children who were first-born (adjusted odds ratio, 2.50, 95% CI 1.20-5.21), were exposed to maternal tobacco smoke during the first year of life (2.40, 1.1-5.25), or who had asthma (2.51, 1.14-5.55) and/or eczema (2.29, 1.02-5.13) at age 5 years were more likely to snore. Birth-weight, body mass index at age 4.5, spirometry, and breastfeeding were not related to snoring. Risk factors for snoring are similar to risk factors for allergic disorders. Snoring may be part of the allergic spectrum of diseases. Our data may contribute to clinician's ability to effectively screen for snoring in preschool children. PMID:17534968

  17. Adiposity in children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Tappy, L

    2006-12-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that children born small for gestational age (SGA) have an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders as adults. This suggests that foetal undernutrition leads to permanent metabolic alterations, which predispose to metabolic abnormalities upon exposure to environmental factors such as low physical activity and/or high-energy intake in later life (thrifty phenotype hypothesis). However, this relationship is not restricted to foetal undernutrition or intrauterine growth retardation, but is also found for children born premature, or for high birth weight children. Furthermore, early post-natal nutrition, and more specifically catch-up growth, appear to modulate cardiovascular risk as well. Intrauterine growth retardation can be induced in animal models by energy/protein restriction, or ligation of uterine arteries. In such models, altered glucose homeostasis, including low beta-cell mass, low insulin secretion and insulin resistance is observed after a few weeks of age. In humans, several studies have confirmed that children born SGA have insulin resistance as adolescents and young adults. Alterations of glucose homeostasis and increased lipid oxidation can indeed be observed already in non-diabetic children born SGA at early pubertal stages. These children also have alterations of stature and changes in body composition (increased fat mass), which may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Permanent metabolic changes induced by foetal/early neonatal nutrition (metabolic inprinting) may involve modulation of gene expression through DNA methylation, or alterations of organ structure. It is also possible that events occurring during foetal/neonatal development lead to long-lasting alterations of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis. PMID:17133233

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children aged 5-12 years 1

    PubMed Central

    de Moura, Louise Amália; Dias, Iohanna Maria Guimarães; Pereira, Lilian Varanda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with preoperative anxiety in children who wait for outpatient surgery. Method: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study that investigates the predictors of postoperative pain in children aged 5-12 years submitted to inguinal and umbilical hernia repair. It was selected 210 children, which were interviewed in the preoperative holding area of a general hospital. Anxiety was evaluated using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS). Sociodemographic and clinical variables were analyzed as exposure and anxiety (mYPAS final score>30) as outcome. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with preoperative anxiety. Results: forty-two percent (42.0%) of children presented preoperative anxiety (CI95%: 35.7%-48.6%), with mean scores equal to 30.1 (SD=8.4). Factors associated with preoperative anxiety were: age group of 5-6 years (OR=2.28; p=0.007) and socioeconomic status classified as class C (OR=2.39; p=0.016). Conclusion: the evaluation of children who wait for outpatient surgery should be multidimensional and comprise information on age and socioeconomic status, in order to help in the identification and early treatment of preoperative anxiety. PMID:27305179

  19. [Suicide attempts in children under 12 years of age].

    PubMed

    Stordeur, C; Acquaviva, E; Galdon, L; Mercier, J-C; Titomanlio, L; Delorme, R

    2015-03-01

    Suicide attempts (SA) in children are often considered rare and poorly studied. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical characteristics of SA in children under 12 years of age. A retrospective assessment was conducted in 30 consecutive SAs reported in children under 12 years of age admitted to the emergency department at the Robert-Debré University Hospital (Paris, France) from 2007 to 2010 and the Regional University Hospital (Besançon, France) from 2000 to 2008. All suicide attempters were directly assessed at the somatic and psychiatric level. Patients were 8-11 years old (mean, 10.2±0.8). The sex ratio was 0.9 boys for 1 girl. The leading SA methods were poisoning by medication (53.3%), hanging or strangulation (23.3%), jumping from a height (16.7%), poisoning by chemicals (3.3%), and lesions inflicted by sharp objects (3.3%). In addition, SAs were characterized by high lethality (43.7%) contrasting with their low to moderate suicidal intentionality (43.8% and 56.2%, respectively). In conclusion, we reported that SA in children differs from those of adolescents by their greater lethality related to the methods used, but contrasting with the low intentionality mentioned by these patients. PMID:25656458

  20. Enhancing Group Discussion Skills of Educable Children: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Raymond M.; Goldgraber, Jacob

    1974-01-01

    Two special classes, each containing eight educable mentally retarded students, 9 and 10 years of age, respectively, played a group discussion game twice a week for 3 consecutive weeks in which the teachers presented a discussion topic and reinforced specified good discussion behaviors with high points. (MC)

  1. Working Memory in Early-School-Age Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…

  2. The Effects of Age, Gender and Language on Children's Singing Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mang, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Literature on children's singing development is largely skewed towards findings based on English-speaking children. The present study aims to fill the gap in research through an investigation of the effects of age, gender and language on the singing competency of Cantonese-speaking children. One hundred and twenty children aged 7 and 9 years…

  3. Sleep Patterns of School-Age Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Sleep patterns of 32 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared to those of 32 typically developing age- and gender-matched children, using parent survey and one week of diary and actigraphic monitoring. Parents of children with AS/HFA more commonly reported that their children had difficulty…

  4. Speaking Rate Characteristics of Elementary-School-Aged Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Kenneth J.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Mazzocchi, Elizabeth M.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare articulation and speech rates of school-aged children who do and do not stutter across sentence priming, structured conversation, and narration tasks and to determine factors that predict children's speech and articulation rates. Method: 34 children who stutter (CWS) and 34 age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter…

  5. Optimizing Population Screening of Bullying in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Trinh, Vi; McDougall, Patricia; Duku, Eric; Cunningham, Lesley; Cunningham, Charles; Hymel, Shelley; Short, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    A two-part screening procedure was used to assess school-age children's experience with bullying. In the first part 16,799 students (8,195 girls, 8,604 boys) in grades 4 to 12 were provided with a definition of bullying and then asked about their experiences using two general questions from the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (1996). In the…

  6. [Bamako school age children and their diet from street vendors].

    PubMed

    Chauliac, M; Monnier, T; Bendech, M A

    1994-01-01

    Eating outside the home is very common in African cities. Food is bought from street vendors and eaten on the street. A large proportion of these consumers are school children, but little is known about what they buy, and the reasons why they make the choices they do. We therefore surveyed 494 second and sixth year primary school children in 1993. They were all enrolled at schools or Muslim colleges in both affluent and underprivileged areas of Bamako (Mali). The language used for the survey was Bambara. Almost all the children had money, mostly given by either or both of their parents and in most cases supplemented by odd jobs. The richest group of children were those in the sixth year in the more privileged areas. However, within a district or a (school) class, there was no correlation between the family's socio-economic group (SEG) and money available to the child. The proportions of children in each area, SEG and class buying the following classes of food were nearly identical; drinks, ice cream, groundnuts, fruit, cooked meals, uncooked meals, and sweets. The amount of money available correlated with the purchase of cooked or uncooked meals and drinks. The amount spent on food correlated with the money available, and the relationship is particularly clear for cooked and uncooked meals. The independence of the children in buying food represents a large part of the total daily food budget of the family. Their true diet and its nutritional value should therefore be quantified. Strategies targeting these children to help improve their diet would have a favorable effect on nutrition, because of their autonomy. Any such strategy should involve the street vendors so as to improve the quality of their products. PMID:7850193

  7. Child maltreatment in Taiwan for 2004-2013: A shift in age group and forms of maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Tsai; Yang, Nan-Ping; Chou, Pesus

    2016-02-01

    Cases of child maltreatment are being increasingly reported in Taiwan. However, the trend or changes of child maltreatment in Taiwan are fragmentary and lack empirical evidence. This study analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of substantiated child maltreatment cases from the previous decade, using mortality as an indicator to investigate the care of children who experienced substantiated maltreatment in the past to determine any new developments. Data for analysis and estimates were retrieved from the Department of Statistics in the Ministry of the Interior from 2004 to 2013. Trend analyses were conducted using the Joinpoint Regression Program. The child maltreatment rate in Taiwan was found to have nearly tripled from 2004 to 2013. A greater increase in the maltreatment of girls than boys and the maltreatment of aboriginal children than non-aboriginal children was noted from 2004 to 2013. When stratified by age group, the increase in maltreatment was most pronounced in children aged 12-17 years, and girls aged 12-17 years experienced the greatest increase in maltreatment. In terms of the proportional changes of different maltreatment forms among substantiated child maltreatment cases, child neglect was decreasing. The increase in sexual abuse was higher than for any other form of maltreatment and surpassed neglect by the end of 2013. Furthermore, the mortality rate of children with substantiated maltreatment record is increasing in Taiwan, whereas the mortality rate among children without any substantiated maltreatment record is decreasing. The results of this study highlight the need for policy reform in Taiwan regarding child maltreatment. PMID:26726760

  8. Anthropometric, environmental, and dietary predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels in Ukrainian children: Ukraine ELSPAC group

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Lee S. . E-mail: lfriedman@tspri.org; Lukyanova, Elena M.; Kundiev, Yuri I.; Shkiryak-Nizhnyk, Zoreslava A.; Chislovska, Nataliya V.; Mucha, Amy; Zvinchuk, Alexander V.; Oliynyk, Irene; Hryhorczuk, Daniel

    2006-09-15

    No comprehensive data on sources or risk factors of cadmium exposure in Ukrainian children are available. In this we measured the blood levels of cadmium among 80 Ukrainian children and evaluated sources of exposure. A nested case-control study from a prospective cohort of Ukrainian 3-year-old children was conducted. We evaluated predictors of elevated blood cadmium using a multivariable logistic regression model. The model included socioeconomic data, parent occupation, environmental tobacco smoke, hygiene, body-mass index, and diet. Dietary habits were evaluated using the 1992 Block-NCI-HHHQ Dietary Food Frequency survey. Elevated cadmium was defined as blood levels in the upper quartile (>=0.25{mu}g/L). The mean age for all 80 children was 36.6 months. Geometric mean cadmium level was 0.21{mu}g/L (range=0.11-0.42{mu}g/L; SD=0.05). Blood cadmium levels were higher among children taking zinc supplements (0.25 vs 0.21{mu}g/L; P=0.032), children who ate sausage more than once per week (0.23 vs 0.20; P=0.007) and children whose fathers worked in a by-product coking industry (0.25 vs 0.21; P=0.056). In the multivariable model, predictors of elevated blood cadmium levels included zinc supplementation (adjusted OR=14.16; P<0.01), father working in a by-product coking industry (adjusted OR=8.50; P=0.03), and low body mass index (<14.5; adjusted OR=5.67; P=0.03). This is the first study to indicate a strong association between elevated blood cadmium levels and zinc supplementation in young children. Whole-blood cadmium levels observed in this group of Ukrainian children appear to be similar to those reported in other Eastern European countries.

  9. A Study of Concept Development and Communication Abilities in Children Aged Five Through Eight Using Leaf Morphology as the Vehicle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, James Pittard

    Ninety-six children, divided by age (five, six, seven, and eight years) and sex into equal groups, were administered tests of discrimination between leaves, association of leaves with pictures of leaves, sorting leaves into generic groups, and communication of concepts of leaf structure. No sex differences or interactions were found, but there was…

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents with Fragile X Syndrome: Within-Syndrome Differences and Age-Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Andrea; Abbeduto, Leonard; Lewis, Pamela; Kover, Sara; Kim, Jee-Seon; Weber, Ann; Brown, W. Ted

    2010-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) was used to examine diagnostic profiles and age-related changes in autism symptoms for a group of verbal children and adolescents who had fragile X syndrome, with and without autism. After controlling for nonverbal IQ, we found statistically significant between-group differences for lifetime and…

  11. Evaluation of a Short-term, Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Primary Age Children with Anger-Related Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Rachel L.; Treadwell, Susanne; Dosani, Sima; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the school-based short-term, cognitive-behavioral group anger management programme, "Learning How to Deal with our Angry Feelings" (Southampton Psychology Service, 2003). Thirteen groups of children aged 7- to 11-years-old were randomly allocated to two different cohorts: One cohort ("n"?=?35) first received the intervention…

  12. Mouthing activity data for children aged 7 to 35 months old in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Ming-Chien; Özkaynak, Halûk; Beamer, Paloma; Dang, Winston; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Young children’s mouthing activities thought to be among the most important exposure pathways. Unfortunately, mouthing activity studies have only been conducted in a few countries. In the current study, we used videotaping and computer-based translating method to obtain mouthing activity data for 66 children aged 7 to 35 months old in Taiwan. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies were 8.91 and 11.39 contacts h−1, respectively. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth hourly contact durations were 0.34 and 0.46 min h−1, respectively. The indoor object-to-mouth activities were significantly and negatively correlated with age. Children aged 12 to <24 months in the current study had lower indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies than children of same age group in the United States. We also found that indoor mouthing duration with pacifier was significantly and negatively correlated with indoor mouthing duration with other non-dietary objects. The results of the current study indicate that the mouthing behaviors might be different between different countries or populations with different ethnic or lifestyle characteristics. We conclude that using hand-to-mouth frequency values from the current literature may not be most reliable for estimating non-dietary exposures of young children living in Taiwan or even in other similar Asian countries. PMID:25027450

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea in preschool-aged Japanese children - efficiency of screening using lateral neck radiography.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Takuro; Miyazaki, Soichiro; Kobayashi, Ryuichi; Kadotani, Hiroshi; Kanemura, Takashi; Komada, Ichiro; Nishikawa, Michiko; Okawa, Masako; Koizumi, Hiroki; Takeuchi, Shoko; Suzuki, Hideaki

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in preschool-aged children diagnosed by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) version 3 criteria was relatively higher than that diagnosed by ICSD-2. Although the assessment of the upper airway by lateral neck radiography was effective for detecting OSA in this age group, this assessment is not recommended for all children as a screening method because of parental concern related to radiation exposure. Objective This study investigated the prevalence of OSA and the screening capacity of lateral neck radiography in community-based preschool-aged children. Methods Parents of 211 children aged 3-6 years were requested to complete the sleep-related questionnaire. Subjects who agreed to further investigations were invited to undergo home type 3 portable monitoring and clinical examination, including radiography. We estimated the prevalence of OSA and evaluated the detection power of radiography for predicting OSA. Results One hundred and eighty-eight (89.1%) subjects completed the questionnaire and 67 (31.8%) agreed to further examinations. The weighted prevalence was 7.3% and 12.8% by ICSD-2 and 3, respectively. Area under the receiver operator curve for the adenoidal/nasopharyngeal and tonsil/pharyngeal ratios measured using radiography was slightly larger than that for tonsil size graded by visual inspection. PMID:26901288

  14. Changes in breathing pattern upon 100% oxygen in children at early school age.

    PubMed

    Jost, K; Lenherr, N; Singer, F; Schulzke, S M; Frey, U; Latzin, P; Yammine, S

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen multiple-breath washout (N2MBW) is an increasingly used tidal breathing test in young children to assess ventilation inhomogeneity. However, the test requires 100% oxygen to perform. We aimed to examine the potential influence of pure oxygen on breathing pattern in school-aged children. We performed tidal breathing measurements under room air followed by N2MBW in 16 former preterm children and 24 healthy controls. We compared tidal volume (VT), coefficient of variation of VT (CVVT), respiratory rate (RR), and minute ventilation (VE) between tidal breathing and N2MBW, and between the start and end of tidal breathing. Mean (range) age was 6.8 (5.9, 9.0) years. VT, RR and VE showed no significant change upon oxygen-exposure, while CVVT significantly decreased by 5% (95% CI: 1.2, 9.0; p=0.012). However CVVT was also the only parameter which significantly decreased during tidal breathing. Overall, pure oxygen has no systematic effect on breathing pattern in young school-aged children. N2MBW can reliably be used as tracer gas in this age group. PMID:26970571

  15. Activity Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children at Risk for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Senso, Meghan M.; Trost, Stewart G.; Crain, A. Lauren; Seburg, Elisabeth M.; Anderson, Julie D.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the prevalence of obesity in young children highlights the importance of early interventions to promote physical activity (PA), there are limited data on activity patterns in this age group. The purpose of this study is to describe activity patterns in preschool-aged children and explore differences by weight status. Methods Analyses use baseline data from Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids- Preschool, a pilot obesity prevention trial of preschool-aged children overweight or at risk for overweight. A modified parent-reported version of the previous-day PA recall was used to summarize types of activity. Accelerometry was used to summarize daily and hourly activity patterns. Results “Playing with toys” accounted for the largest proportion of a child’s previous day, followed by “meals and snacks”, and “chores”. Accelerometry-measured daily time spent in sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was 412, 247, and 69 minutes, respectively. Percent of hourly time spent in MVPA ranged from 3% to 13%, peaking in the late morning and evening hours. There were no statistically significant MVPA differences by weight status. Conclusions This study extends our understanding of activity types, amounts, and patterns in preschool-age children and warrants further exploration of differences in physical activity patterns by weight status. PMID:25133750

  16. Age Estimation Based on Children's Voice: A Fuzzy-Based Decision Fusion Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Hua-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Automatic estimation of a speaker's age is a challenging research topic in the area of speech analysis. In this paper, a novel approach to estimate a speaker's age is presented. The method features a “divide and conquer” strategy wherein the speech data are divided into six groups based on the vowel classes. There are two reasons behind this strategy. First, reduction in the complicated distribution of the processing data improves the classifier's learning performance. Second, different vowel classes contain complementary information for age estimation. Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients are computed for each group and single layer feed-forward neural networks based on self-adaptive extreme learning machine are applied to the features to make a primary decision. Subsequently, fuzzy data fusion is employed to provide an overall decision by aggregating the classifier's outputs. The results are then compared with a number of state-of-the-art age estimation methods. Experiments conducted based on six age groups including children aged between 7 and 12 years revealed that fuzzy fusion of the classifier's outputs resulted in considerable improvement of up to 53.33% in age estimation accuracy. Moreover, the fuzzy fusion of decisions aggregated the complementary information of a speaker's age from various speech sources. PMID:25006595

  17. 36 CFR 1280.6 - Can children under the age of 14 use NARA facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Conduct on NARA Property? General Information on Using Nara Facilities § 1280.6 Can children under the age of 14 use NARA facilities? Children under the age of 14 will be admitted to NARA facilities only if... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Can children under the age...

  18. 36 CFR 1280.6 - Can children under the age of 14 use NARA facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Conduct on NARA Property? General Information on Using Nara Facilities § 1280.6 Can children under the age of 14 use NARA facilities? Children under the age of 14 will be admitted to NARA facilities only if... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Can children under the age...

  19. 36 CFR 1280.6 - Can children under the age of 14 use NARA facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Conduct on NARA Property? General Information on Using Nara Facilities § 1280.6 Can children under the age of 14 use NARA facilities? Children under the age of 14 will be admitted to NARA facilities only if... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Can children under the age...

  20. 36 CFR 1280.6 - Can children under the age of 14 use NARA facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Conduct on NARA Property? General Information on Using Nara Facilities § 1280.6 Can children under the age of 14 use NARA facilities? Children under the age of 14 will be admitted to NARA facilities only if... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can children under the age...

  1. 78 FR 9765 - Assigning New Social Security Numbers (SSN) for Children Age 13 and Under

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... assigning new SSNs to children age 13 and under. We are requesting information from the public to ensure... children age 13 and under? Please see the information under ADDRESSES earlier in this document for methods... ADMINISTRATION Assigning New Social Security Numbers (SSN) for Children Age 13 and Under AGENCY: Social...

  2. Systematic review on antibiotic therapy for pneumonia in children between 2 and 59 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lassi, Zohra S; Das, Jai K; Haider, Syed Waqas; Salam, Rehana A; Qazi, Shamim A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-07-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a force to reckon with, as it accounts for 1.1 million of all deaths in children less than 5 years of age globally, with disproportionately higher mortality occurring in the low and middle income-countries (LMICs) of Southeast Asia and Africa. Existing strategies to curb pneumonia-related morbidity and mortality have not effectively translated into meaningful control of pneumonia-related burden. In the present systematic review, we conducted a meta-analysis of trials conducted in LMICs to determine the most suitable antibiotic therapy for treating pneumonia (very severe, severe and non-severe). While previous reviews, including the most recent review by Lodha et al, have focused either on single modality of antibiotic therapy (such as choice of antibiotic) or children under the age of 16 years, the current review updates evidence on the choice of drug, duration, route and combination of antibiotics in children specifically between 2 and 59 months of age. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that assessed the route, dose, combination and duration of antibiotics in the management of WHO-defined very severe/severe/non-severe CAP. Study participants included children between 2 and 59 months of age with CAP. All available titles and abstracts were screened for inclusion by two review authors independently. All data was entered and analysed using Review Manager 5 software. The review identified 8122 studies on initial search, of which 22 studies which enrolled 20,593 children were included in meta-analyses. Evidence from these trials showed a combination of penicillin/ampicillin and gentamicin to be effective for managing very severe pneumonia in children between 2 and 59 months of age, and oral amoxicillin to be equally efficacious, as other parenteral antibiotics for managing severe pneumonia in children of this particular age group. Oral amoxicillin was also found to be effective in non

  3. Patching vs Atropine to Treat Amblyopia in Children Aged 7 to 12 Years: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare patching with atropine eye drops in the treatment of moderate amblyopia (20/40 -20/100) in children age 7 to 12 years. Methods In a randomized multi-center clinical trial, 193 children with amblyopia were randomized to weekend atropine or patching 2 hours per day of the sound eye. Main Outcome Measure Masked assessment of amblyopic eye visual acuity using the EETDRS testing protocol at 17 weeks. Results At 17 weeks, visual acuity had improved from baseline by an average of 7.6 letters in the atropine group and 8.6 letters in the patching group. The mean difference (patching minus atropine) between groups adjusted for baseline acuity was 1.2 letters (ends of complementary 1-sided 95% confidence intervals for noninferiority = -0.7 and +3.1 letters). Based on the confidence intervals this difference met the pre-specified definition for equivalence (ends of confidence intervals <5 letters). Amblyopic eye visual acuity was 20/25 or better in 15 subjects (17%) in the atropine group and 20 subjects (24%) in the patching group (difference = 7%, 95% confidence interval = -3% to 17%). Conclusions Treatment with atropine or patching leads to similar degrees of improvement in 7 to 12 year old children with moderate amblyopia. About 1 in 5 achieves 20/25 or better visual acuity in the amblyopic eye. Application to Clinical Practice Treatment of older children with unilateral amblyopia. PMID:19064841

  4. Smoking during Pregnancy Is a Risk Factor for Executive Function Deficits in Preschool-aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Daseking, M.; Petermann, F.; Tischler, T.; Waldmann, H.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Maternal nicotine use during pregnancy has a negative impact on the child. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between smoking during pregnancy and psychological deficits. This study looks at deficits in executive functioning in preschool-aged children. Methods: The executive functioning of preschool children was assessed by asking parents to complete the parental form of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P, German version). The results for preschool children whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy (n = 71) were compared with those of a control group. In a subsample, parental assessments of children of smokers (n = 42) and non-smokers (n = 27) were complemented by the teacher form of the BRIEF-P (German version), which allowed inter-rater agreement (parents vs. preschool teachers) to be assessed. Results: An increased incidence of executive function deficits was noted in the children of smokers, based on parental assessment. Clinically relevant deficits were particularly evident with regard to inhibition, with inhibitory deficits in children of smokers found to be almost four times higher than in the control group (p = 0.006). Inhibitory deficits were reported both by parents and by preschool teachers. Discussion: The increased percentage of executive function deficits described here, particularly the increased inhibitory deficits, confirms the current state of research on smoking during pregnancy. Poor inhibition or impulse control is a key symptom of ADHD. PMID:25684788

  5. Effects of a self-esteem intervention program on school-age children.

    PubMed

    Dalgas-Pelish, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Self-esteem is essential for school-aged children's optimum health. High self-esteem is linked to increased school performance, improved health, and productive behavior. This study reports on the effects of a four-lesson self-esteem enhancement program for six groups of 5th and 6th grade children (N=98). The interactive lessons dealt with an overview of self-esteem, media influences, hiding emotions, and changes in self-esteem. Using a pre-test/ post-test design, Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to measure self-esteem. The self-esteem subscales dealing with general and social areas were found to significantly increase over time (p<.05). Girls had more significant changes than boys in the general subscale score and the total self-esteem score. Mean scores showed that children who had friends had more significant changes than those who did not have friends. Children with lower socioeconomic status had lower scores at both the pre and post testing with significance in the general and social subscales. No significance was found related to racial group, family make-up, or the number of household chores or activities. This study supports the effectiveness of a self-esteem enhancement program for girls, those children with friends, and those in lower socioeconomic status. Future research is needed to understand what contributes to the self-esteem of children who report that they do not have friends. PMID:16927727

  6. The Cognitive Processes Underlying Event-Based Prospective Memory in School-Age Children and Young Adults: A Formal Model-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Bayen, Ute J.; Martin, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Fifty children 7 years of age (29 girls, 21 boys), 53 children 10 years of age (29 girls, 24 boys), and 36 young adults (19 women, 17 men) performed a computerized event-based prospective memory task. All 3 groups differed significantly in prospective memory performance, with adults showing the best performance and with 7-year-olds showing the…

  7. Preparing Books for Children from Birth to Age Six: The Approach of Appropriateness for the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çer, Ekran

    2016-01-01

    Children's books must primarily be appropriate for children so that they could be a significant stimulus in children's lives. In other words, it is essential that the concepts child reality, literary criteria and artist sensitivity be reflected in books in order to create children's books. From birth to age 6, the fact that children's books are…

  8. Risk factors in the occurrence of molar-incisor hypomineralization amongst a group of Iraqi children.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, Aghareed; Manton, David; Bailey, Denise; Mariño, Rodrigo; Morgan, Michael

    2013-05-01

    BACKGROUND.  Despite the worldwide increasing interest in the prevalence studies of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH), there is still insufficient evidence to verify the aetiological factors of this condition. AIMS.  To investigate risk factors involved in the development of MIH in a group of school-aged Iraqi children. DESIGN.  Seven- to nine-year-old school children (823 of 1000 eligible, response rate of 82.3%) had their first permanent molars and incisors evaluated using the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry evaluation criteria for MIH. Mothers completed a medical history questionnaire-based interview performed in the schools by a trained examiner. RESULTS.  For children with MIH, 6% reported no relevant medical history; the remaining 94% reported various medical conditions putatively associated with MIH compared with 70% for the non-affected group. Post-natal medical conditions (33.3%) were most frequently reported. When data were split into the possible risk effect groups, maternal psychological stress (OR, 3.24), frequent exposure to ultrasonic scans during the last gestational trimester (OR, 2.51) and birth order as a fourth sibling or later (OR, 3.17 and 5.73, respectively) were previously unreported significant risk factors and postulated as contributing to, or causing the defect. CONCLUSIONS.  Children with MIH had experienced a greater number of medical conditions than their unaffected peers with no single health event identified as a risk factor. PMID:22646757

  9. Birth characteristics and age at menarche: results from the dietary intervention study in children (DISC)

    PubMed Central

    Ruder, Elizabeth H.; Hartman, Terryl J.; Rovine, Michael J.; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine whether birth weight, birth length, and gestational age are individually associated with age at menarche. Methods Analyses were conducted using data from n = 278 female participants in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC). Age at menarche was prospectively collected as part of the original DISC investigation. DISC participants self-reported birth weight, birth length, and gestational age with assistance from their mothers and other records as part of the DISC06 Follow-up Study at ages 25–29. Linear regression was used to estimate the association of birth characteristics and age at menarche. Results Birth weight was positively associated with age at menarche (p ≤ 0.01) in multiple regression analyses after controlling for BMI-for-age percentile, race and DISC treatment group. No statistically significant relationships were detected between either length or gestational age and age at menarche. Conclusions Higher birth weight may be associated with a modest delay in age at menarche. PMID:20495859

  10. Psychomotor development in Argentinean children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Horacio; Pascucci, María Cecilia; Krupitzky, Sara; Kelmansky, Diana; Bianco, Ana; Martínez, Elena; Tibaldi, Fabián; Cameron, Noel

    2002-01-01

    In Argentina, there is no information on ages of attainment of developmental milestones and very few data about environmental factors that influence them. A national survey on the psychomotor development of children under 6 years of age was carried out with the help of 129 paediatricians. Logistic regression was applied to a final sample of 3573 healthy, normal children in order to estimate selected centiles (25th, 50th, 75th and 90th), together with their respective confidence intervals, of the ages of attainment of 78 developmental items belonging to the following areas: personal-social (18 items), fine motor (19), language (18) and gross motor (23). The 50th centile obtained for each of the 43 comparable items was compared with those obtained in previously standardised tests: DDST, Denver II, Bayley and Chilean scales. Neither significant nor systematic differences were found between our results and those described in the tests used for comparison. Multiple logistic regressions showed that social class, maternal education and sex (female) were associated with earlier attainment of some selected developmental items, achieved at ages later than 1 year. Selected items achieved before the first year of life were not affected by any of the independent environmental variables studied. The information is useful in helping paediatricians in their daily practice for surveillance of development, as baseline information for epidemiological studies on development in our country and for cross-cultural analysis. PMID:11856454

  11. The Association of Urbanicity with Cognitive Development at Five Years of Age in Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, Marion; Flamant, Cyril; Gascoin, Géraldine; Rouger, Valérie; Florin, Agnès; Guimard, Philippe; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of urbanicity, defined as living in an urban area, with cognitive development at five years of age in preterm children who were free of any disabilities or neurodevelopmental delays. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting French regional Loire Infant Follow-up Team (LIFT) network. Participants Included in the study were 1738 surviving infants born between March 2003 and December 2008 before 35 weeks of gestational age. At two years of age, the children were free of any disabilities and neurodevelopmental delays and were living in the Pays de la Loire region from their birth to five years of age. Main Outcome Measures The cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated with the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). The urbanicity of the residence for each child was classified into three groups: urban, quasi-rural, and rural area. Results Quantile regression approaches were used to identify a significant association between urbanicity and the GSA score at five years of age (adjusting for child and family characteristics). We found that the negative impact of urbanicity on the GSA score was more important for the lower quantile of the GSA scores. Conclusions Urbanicity was significantly associated with cognitive neurodevelopment at five years of age in preterm children born before 35 weeks of gestation. Complementary results additionally suggest that this relation could be mediated at the residence level by a high socioeconomic deprivation level. If these results are confirmed, more personalized follow-ups could be developed for preterm children. Further studies are needed to finely identify the contextual characteristics of urbanicity that underlie this association. PMID:26161862

  12. Between- and Within-Group Cooperation and Competition among Kibbutz and Nonkibbutz Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira, Ariella; Madsen, Millard C.

    1974-01-01

    Israeli kibbutz and city children aged 8-11 years were compared on cooperative-competitive behavior. City children from the U.S. were also included in one of the comparisons. Kibbutz children were more cooperative than either Israeli or U.S. city children. (ST)

  13. Nutrient Intakes and Vegetable and White Potato Consumption by Children Aged 1 to 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    In 2020, for the first time, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans will include recommendations for children from birth to age 24 mo. We examined average nutrient intakes as well as total vegetable and white potato (WP) consumption among children aged 1-3 y using day 1 dietary data from the NHANES 2009-2012 and the Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2009-2012. Appropriate survey weights were used to calculate average daily consumption of total vegetables and WPs, which included French-fried potatoes and chips, for boys and girls aged 1-3 y. We calculated mean intakes of selected nutrients of concern, including vitamin D, potassium, dietary fiber (DF), and calcium. We also examined intakes of selected nutrients by major food group. Average intakes of most nutrients, including calcium, by children aged 1-3 y exceeded Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). However, average intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were 67%, 55%, and 49% of DRIs, respectively. Mean total vegetable intake was less than the recommendation of 1 cup/d. Boys and girls aged 1-3 y consumed an average of 0.58 cup equivalents of total vegetables on the day of the survey, which included 0.16 cups of WPs. Average vegetable consumption and mean intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were far below recommendations. The consumption of all vegetables, particularly those that are excellent sources of potassium and DF, such as potatoes, should be encouraged. PMID:26773032

  14. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  15. The Impact of Gestalt Group Psychotherapy on Parents' Perceptions of Children Identified as Problematic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Linda F.

    Gestalt therapy respects parents' perceptions of their children and does not attempt to train parents to become therapists for their children. To examine the impact of Gestalt group psychotherapy on parents' perceptions of children identified as problematic, an experimental group of 10 parents participated in 10 2-hour Gestalt sessions. A group of…

  16. Comparative Assessment of Health Benefits of Praziquantel Treatment of Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Preschool and Primary School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Gwisai, Reggis; Mduluza, Takafira; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Mutapi, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a major public health problem in Africa. However, it is only recently that its burden has become recognised as a significant component impacting on the health and development of preschool-aged children. A longitudinal study was conducted in Zimbabwean children to determine the effect of single praziquantel treatment on Schistosoma haematobium-related morbidity markers: microhaematuria, proteinuria, and albuminuria. Changes in these indicators were compared in 1–5 years versus 6–10 years age groups to determine if treatment outcomes differed by age. Praziquantel was efficacious at reducing infection 12 weeks after treatment: cure rate = 94.6% (95% CI: 87.9–97.7%). Infection rates remained lower at 12 months after treatment compared to baseline in both age groups. Among treated children, the odds of morbidity at 12 weeks were significantly lower compared to baseline for proteinuria: odds ratio (OR) = 0.54 (95% CI: 0.31–0.95) and albuminuria: OR = 0.05 (95% CI: 0.02–0.14). Microhaematuria significantly reduced 12 months after treatment, and the effect of treatment did not differ by age group: OR = 0.97 (95% CI: 0.50–1.87). In conclusion, praziquantel treatment has health benefits in preschool-aged children exposed to S. haematobium and its efficacy on infection and morbidity is not age-dependent.

  17. Differences in Clinical and Laboratory Findings between Group D and Non-Group D Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Gastroenteritis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Park, Heung Keun; Rhie, Kyuyol; Yeom, Jung Sook; Park, Ji Sook; Park, Eun Sil; Lim, Jae Young; Park, Chan-Hoo; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Youn, Hee-Shang; Kang, Ki Ryeon; Park, Jung Je

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the differences in clinical features and laboratory findings between group D and non-group D non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) gastroenteritis in children. Methods A retrospective chart review of children diagnosed with NTS confirmed by culture study was performed. The clinical features and laboratory findings of group D and non-group D NTS were compared. Results From 2003 to 2012, 75 cases were diagnosed as NTS at our center. The number of group D and non-group D patients was 45 and 30, respectively. The mean age was higher in group D than in non-group D patients (5.1 years vs. 3.4 years, p=0.038). Headaches were more frequently observed (p=0.046) and hematochezia was less frequently observed (p=0.017) in group D than in non-group D NTS gastroenteritis patients. A positive Widal test result was observed in 53.3% of group D and 6.7% of non-group D NTS cases (O-titer, p=0.030; H-titer, p=0.039). There were no differences in white blood cell counts, level of C-reactive protein and rate of antimicrobial resistance between group D and non-group D cases. Conclusion The more severe clinical features such as headache, fever, and higher Widal titers were found to be indicative of group D NTS gastroenteritis. Additionally, group D NTS gastroenteritis was more commonly found in older patients. Therefore, old age, fever, headache, and a positive Widal test are more indicative of group D NTS than non-group D NTS gastroenteritis. Pathophysiological mechanisms may differ across serologic groups. PMID:26157693

  18. Annual of the Modern Language Association Group on Children's Literature and the Children's Literature Association. Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Francelia, Ed.

    Because this periodical about children's literature was published during 1976, the United States Bicentennial Year, it features contemporary essays on American children's literature from the colonial age to the present. Other essays discuss the current state of children's literature and the practices used in its criticism, German and Italian…

  19. Patterns of Adverse Drug Reactions in Different Age Groups: Analysis of Spontaneous Reports by Community Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yun Mi; Shin, Wan Gyoon; Lee, Ju-Yeun; Choi, Soo An; Jo, Yun Hee; Youn, So Jung; Lee, Mo Se; Choi, Kwang Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) spontaneously reported by community pharmacists and to compare the ADRs by age. Methods ADRs reported to the Regional Pharmacovigilance Center of the Korean Pharmaceutical Association by community pharmacists from January 2013 to June 2014 were included. Causality was assessed using the WHO-Uppsala Monitoring Centre system. The patient population was classified into three age groups. We analyzed 31,398 (74.9%) ADRs from 9,705 patients, identified as having a causal relationship, from a total pool of 41,930 ADRs from 9,873 patients. Median patient age was 58.0 years; 66.9% were female. Results Gastrointestinal system (34.4%), nervous system (14.4%), and psychiatric (12.1%) disorders were the most frequent symptoms. Prevalent causative drugs were those for acid-related disorders (11.4%), anti-inflammatory products (10.5%), analgesics (7.2%), and antibacterials (7.1%). Comparisons by age revealed diarrhea and antibacterials to be most commonly associated with ADRs in children (p < 0.001), whereas dizziness was prevalent in the elderly (p < 0.001). Anaphylactic reaction was the most frequent serious event (19.7%), mainly associated with cephalosporins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Among 612 ADRs caused by nonprescription drugs, the leading symptoms and causative drugs were skin disorders (29.6%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (16.2%), respectively. Conclusions According to the community pharmacist reports, the leading clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with ADRs in outpatients differed among age groups. PMID:26172050

  20. Comorbid anxiety and depression in school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and selfreported symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, and depression among parents of school-aged children with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    XIA, Weiping; SHEN, Lixiao; ZHANG, Jinsong

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children that can extend into adulthood and that is often associated with a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Aim Assess the comorbidity of ADHD with anxiety disorders and depressive disorders in school-aged children, and the relationship of the severity of ADHD, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in children who have ADHD with the severity of the corresponding symptoms in their parents. Methods A two-stage screening process identified children 7-10 years of age with and without ADHD treated at the Xin Hua Hospital in Shanghai. ADHD and other DSM-IV diagnoses were determined by a senior clinician using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS-PL). One parent for each enrolled child completed three self-report scales: the ADHD Adult Self Report Scale (ASRS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In total 135 children with ADHD and 65 control group children without ADHD were enrolled; parents for 94 of the children with ADHD and 63 of the children without ADHD completed the parental assessment scales. Results Among the 135 children with ADHD, 27% had a comorbid anxiety disorder, 18% had a comorbid depressive disorder, and another 15% had both comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. Parents of children with ADHD self-reported more severe ADHD inattention symptoms than parents of children without ADHD and were more likely to meet criteria for adult ADHD. Mothers (but not fathers) of children with ADHD had significantly more severe trait anxiety and depressive symptoms than mothers of children without ADHD. Among children with ADHD, the severity of ADHD symptoms was not significantly correlated with the severity of ADHD symptoms in parents, but depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in the children were significantly correlated with the corresponding symptoms in the parents