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Sample records for age groups increased

  1. The infrarenal aortic diameter in relation to age: only part of the population in older age groups shows an increase.

    PubMed

    Wilmink, A B; Pleumeekers, H J; Hoes, A W; Hubbard, C S; Grobbee, D E; Quick, C R

    1998-11-01

    To resolve whether the infrarenal aortic diameter (IAD) continues to increase throughout life; to ascertain the relationship between IAD and age, sex, body size, and smoking status, and to determine whether these factors influence the IAD over the entire range of aortic diameters or only in a proportion. Combined cross-sectional data from two population-based screening programmes for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in Huntingdon (U.K.) and Rotterdam (The Netherlands). The antero-posterior diameter of the infrarenal aorta was measured. The influences of age, gender, body size and smoking status were examined. Data were analysed from 3066 women and 8270 men. In men, mean IAD rose from 20.7 mm to 23.5 mm in the older age groups. However, IADs remained constant below the 75th perentile in men and the 85th percentile in women. Similarly only the top 15-25% of the aortic diameters were larger in smokers compared with non-smokers. The aortic diameter increased with age in only a minority of the population. Furthermore, known risk factors for AAA contributed to aortic dilatation in only the upper tail of the frequency distribution. Thus only 25% of men and 15% of women may be prone to aortic dilatation.

  2. Increase in participation but decrease in performance in age group mountain marathoners in the 'Jungfrau Marathon': a Swiss phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Zingg, Matthias A; Rüst, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    Participation and performance trends for age group marathoners have been investigated for large city marathons such as the 'New York City Marathon' but not for mountain marathons. This study investigated participation and trends in performance and sex difference in the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' held in Switzerland from 2000 to 2014 using single and mixed effects regression analyses. Results were compared to a city marathon (Lausanne Marathon) also held in Switzerland during the same period. Sex difference was calculated using the equation ([race time in women] - [race time in men]/[race time in men] × 100). Changes in sex differences across calendar years and were investigated using linear regression models. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', participation in all female and male age groups increased with exception of women in age groups 18-24 and men in age groups 30-34, 40-44 and 60-64 years where participation remained unchanged. In 'Lausanne Marathon', participation increased in women in age groups 30-34 to 40-44 years. In men, participation increased in age groups 25-29 to 44-44 years and 50-54 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon' runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 to 70-74 years. In 'Lausanne Marathon', runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 and 30-34 to 65-69 years, but not for 25-29, 70-74 and 75-79 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', sex difference increased in age groups 25-29 (from 4 to 10 %) and 60-64 years (from 3 to 8 %) but decreased in age group 40-44 years (from 12 to 6 %). In 'Lausanne Marathon', the sex difference showed no changes. In summary, participation increased in most female and male age groups but performance decreased in most age groups for both the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' and the city marathon 'Lausanne Marathon'. The sex differences were lower in the 'Jungfrau Marathon' (~6-7 %) compared to the 'Lausanne Marathon' where the sex difference was ~10-12 % from age groups 18-24 to 55

  3. Contributions of mortality changes by age group and selected causes of death to the increase in Japanese life expectancy at birth from 1950 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Kazuhiko; Une, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze contributions of mortality change by age group and selected causes of death to the increase in life expectancy at birth from 1950 to 2000 in Japan, which has the longest longevity in the world. Using mortality data from Japanese vital statistics from 1950 to 2000, we analyzed contributions of mortality change by age group and selected causes of death to the increase in life expectancy at birth by the method of decomposition of changes and calculated age-adjusted death rates for selected causes of death. Gastroenteritis, tuberculosis and pneumonia largely contributed to an increase in life expectancy in childhood and in the young in the 1950s and 1960s. The largest contributing disease changed from tuberculosis and pneumonia in earlier decades to cerebrovascular diseases in the 1970s. The largest contributing age group also shifted to older age groups. Age-adjusted death rate for cerebrovascular diseases in 2000 was one fifth of the 1965 level. Cerebrovascular diseases contributed to an increase in life expectancy at birth of 2.9 years in males and 3.1 years in females from 1970 to 2000. In the 1990s, the largest contributing age group, both among males and among females, was the 75-84 age group. Of the selected causes of death, heart diseases other than ischemic heart disease became the largest contributor to the increase in life expectancy at birth. Unlike cerebrovascular diseases, cancer and ischemic heart disease contributed little to change in life expectancy at birth over the past 50 years. In conclusion, although mortality from ischemic heart disease has not increased since 1970 and remained low compared with levels in western countries, mortality from cerebrovascular diseases has dramatically decreased since the mid-1960s in Japan. This gave Japan the longest life expectancy at birth in the world. It is necessary to study future trends in life expectancy at birth in Japan.

  4. [Prevalence of myopia and increase trend in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in Han ethnic group in China, 2005-2014].

    PubMed

    Dong, Y H; Liu, H B; Wang, Z H; Yang, Z P; Xu, R B; Yang, Z G; Ma, J

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To understand and evaluate the prevalence of myopia and its trend in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in Han ethnic group in China from 2005 to 2014, and provide evidence for the prevention of myopia. Methods: The data of 2005, 2010 and 2014 Chinese National Students Constitution and Health Surveys were collected. The children and adolescents with complete detection data of binoculus were selected as study subjects. The sample size of three studies were 233 108, 215 319 and 212 743, respectively. The method of curve fitting was used to simulate the myopia detection increase model and analyze the gender and area specific myopia detection increase trends and characteristics from 2005 to 2014. Results: The overall myopia detection rate increased gradually in the children and adolescents aged 7 to 18, which was 47.5% in 2005, 55.5% in 2010 and 57.1% in 2014, respectively. The increase slowed in 2014. A"parabola" shape of myopia detection increase rate was observed. Myopia detection rate increased with age before puberty and decreased with age after puberty gradually. A"cross phenomenon" of myopia detection increase was observed in boys and girls between urban and rural areas. The increase of myopia detection was mainly in urban students before puberty and in rural students after puberty. The age of myopia prevalence peak has become earlier constantly in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years from 2005 to 2014, which was 13 years old in 2005, 12 years old in 2010 and 11 years old in 2014. The increase rate was about 7%. During 2005-2014, the increase rate of myopia detection gradually increased in younger students and tended to zero in older students. Conclusion: The detection rate of myopia was still high in children and adolescents in China. The age of myopia prevalence peak has become earlier gradually.

  5. Suicidal behaviour in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia: Prevalence data suggest disparities increase across age groups.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Gregory; Pirkis, Jane; Arabena, Kerry; Currier, Dianne; Spittal, Matthew J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2017-04-01

    We compare the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia, and examine the extent to which any disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males varies across age groups. We used data from the baseline wave of The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men), a large-scale cohort study of Australian males aged 10-55 years residing in urban and regional areas. Indigenous identification was determined through participants self-reporting as Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander or both. The survey collected data on suicidal thoughts in the preceding 2 weeks and lifetime suicide attempts. A total of 432 participants (2.7%) identified as Indigenous and 15,425 as non-Indigenous (97.3%). Indigenous males were twice as likely as non-Indigenous males to report recent suicidal thoughts (17.6% vs 9.4%; odds ratio = 2.1, p < 0.001) and more than three times as likely to report a suicide attempt in their lifetime (17.0% vs 5.1%; odds ratio = 3.6; p < 0.001). The prevalence of recent suicidal thoughts did not differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in younger age groups, but a significant gap emerged among men aged 30-39 years and was largest among men aged 40-55 years. Similarly, the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts did not differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in the 14- to 17-years age group, but a disparity emerged in the 18- to 24-years age group and was even larger among males aged 25 years and older. Our paper presents unique data on suicidal thoughts and attempts among a broad age range of Indigenous and non-Indigenous males. The disparity in the prevalence of suicidal thoughts increased across age groups, which is in contrast to the large disparity between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous suicide rates in younger age groups.

  6. Increased breast cancer mortality only in the lower education group: age-period-cohort effect in breast cancer mortality by educational level in South Korea, 1983-2012.

    PubMed

    Bahk, Jinwook; Jang, Sung-Mi; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee

    2017-03-31

    A steadily increasing pattern of breast cancer mortality has been reported in South Korea since the late 1980s. This paper explored the trends of educational inequalities of female breast cancer mortality between 1983 and 2012 in Korea, and conducted age-period-cohort (APC) analysis by educational level. Age-standardized mortality rates of breast cancer per 100,000 person-years were calculated. Relative index of inequality (RII) for breast cancer mortality was used as an inequality measure. APC analyses were conducted using the Web tool for APC analysis provided by the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics at the U.S. National Cancer Institute. An increasing trend in breast cancer mortality among Korean women between 1983 and 2012 was due to the increased mortality of the lower education groups (i.e., no formal education or primary education and secondary education groups), not the highest education group. The breast cancer mortality was higher in women with a tertiary education than in women with no education or a primary education during 1983-1992, and the reverse was true in 1993-2012. Consequently, RII was changed from positive to negative associations in the early 2000s. The lower education groups had the increased breast cancer mortality and significant cohort and period effects between 1983 and 2012, whereas the highest group did not. APC analysis by socioeconomic position used in this study could provide an important clue for the causes on breast cancer mortality. The long-term monitoring of socioeconomic patterning in breast cancer risk factors is urgently needed.

  7. Increase in reptile-associated human salmonellosis and shift toward adulthood in the age groups at risk, the Netherlands, 1985 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Heck, Max; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-01-01

    While the contribution of the main food-related sources to human salmonellosis is well documented, knowledge on the contribution of reptiles is limited. We quantified and examined trends in reptile-associated salmonellosis in the Netherlands during a 30-year period, from 1985 to 2014. Using source attribution analysis, we estimated that 2% (95% confidence interval: 1.3–2.8) of all sporadic/domestic human salmonellosis cases reported in the Netherlands during the study period (n = 63,718) originated from reptiles. The estimated annual fraction of reptile-associated salmonellosis cases ranged from a minimum of 0.3% (corresponding to 11 cases) in 1988 to a maximum of 9.3% (93 cases) in 2013. There was a significant increasing trend in reptile-associated salmonellosis cases (+ 19% annually) and a shift towards adulthood in the age groups at highest risk, while the proportion of reptile-associated salmonellosis cases among those up to four years-old decreased by 4% annually and the proportion of cases aged 45 to 74 years increased by 20% annually. We hypothesise that these findings may be the effect of the increased number and variety of reptiles that are kept as pets, calling for further attention to the issue of safe reptile–human interaction and for reinforced hygiene recommendations for reptile owners. PMID:27589037

  8. Increase in reptile-associated human salmonellosis and shift toward adulthood in the age groups at risk, the Netherlands, 1985 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Heck, Max; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-08-25

    While the contribution of the main food-related sources to human salmonellosis is well documented, knowledge on the contribution of reptiles is limited. We quantified and examined trends in reptile-associated salmonellosis in the Netherlands during a 30-year period, from 1985 to 2014. Using source attribution analysis, we estimated that 2% (95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.8) of all sporadic/domestic human salmonellosis cases reported in the Netherlands during the study period (n = 63,718) originated from reptiles. The estimated annual fraction of reptile-associated salmonellosis cases ranged from a minimum of 0.3% (corresponding to 11 cases) in 1988 to a maximum of 9.3% (93 cases) in 2013. There was a significant increasing trend in reptile-associated salmonellosis cases (+ 19% annually) and a shift towards adulthood in the age groups at highest risk, while the proportion of reptile-associated salmonellosis cases among those up to four years-old decreased by 4% annually and the proportion of cases aged 45 to 74 years increased by 20% annually. We hypothesise that these findings may be the effect of the increased number and variety of reptiles that are kept as pets, calling for further attention to the issue of safe reptile-human interaction and for reinforced hygiene recommendations for reptile owners.

  9. Grouping Students for Increased Achievements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews results of four recent studies exploring the effects of various student-grouping schemes on academic achievement. Grouping plans included multiage classrooms, full-time ability grouping, and within-classroom grouping. Two studies investigated administrator attitudes toward student grouping. Several studies found that grouping plans…

  10. GUIDANCE ON SELECTING AGE GROUPS FOR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance document provides a set of early-lifestage age groups for Environmental Protection Agency scientists to consider when assessing children’s exposure to environmental contaminants and the resultant potential dose. These recommended age groups are based on current understanding of differences in behavior and physiology which may impact exposures in children. A consistent set of early-life age groups, supported by an underlying scientific rationale, is expected to improve Agency exposure and risk assessments for children by increasing the consistency and comparability of risk assessments across the Agency; by improving accuracy and transparency in assessments for those cases where current practice might too broadly combine behaviorally and physiologically disparate age groups; and by fostering a consistent approach to future exposure surveys and monitoring efforts to generate improved exposure factors for children. see description

  11. GUIDANCE ON SELECTING AGE GROUPS FOR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance document provides a set of early-lifestage age groups for Environmental Protection Agency scientists to consider when assessing children’s exposure to environmental contaminants and the resultant potential dose. These recommended age groups are based on current understanding of differences in behavior and physiology which may impact exposures in children. A consistent set of early-life age groups, supported by an underlying scientific rationale, is expected to improve Agency exposure and risk assessments for children by increasing the consistency and comparability of risk assessments across the Agency; by improving accuracy and transparency in assessments for those cases where current practice might too broadly combine behaviorally and physiologically disparate age groups; and by fostering a consistent approach to future exposure surveys and monitoring efforts to generate improved exposure factors for children. see description

  12. Age Group Differences in Perceived Age Discrimination: Associations With Self-Perceptions of Aging.

    PubMed

    Giasson, Hannah L; Queen, Tara L; Larkina, Marina; Smith, Jacqui

    2017-08-01

    From midlife onwards, age stereotypes increasingly underlie social judgments and contribute to age-based discrimination. Whereas many studies compare differences between young and older adults in reports of age discrimination or sensitivity to age stereotypes, few consider age group differences among adults over 50. We form subgroups corresponding to social age group membership (early midlife, late midlife, young old, oldest old) and examine differences in reported experiences of everyday age discrimination and associations with self-perceptions of aging. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS: N = 15,071; M Age = 68, range 50-101), multivariate logistic regression was used to examine experiences of everyday discrimination attributed to age, and associations between age discrimination and self-perceptions of aging, in four age groups: early midlife, late midlife, young old, oldest old. People in the early midlife group (aged 50-59) reported more experiences of unfair treatment than the older age groups but were less likely to attribute their experiences to age discrimination. After controlling for covariates, individuals in all age groups who perceived their own aging positively were less likely to report experiences of age discrimination. The magnitude of this effect, however, was greatest in the early midlife group. Findings support proposals that midlife is a pivotal life period when individuals adjust to life events and social role transitions. Future longitudinal studies will provide further insight into whether positive self-perceptions of aging are especially important in this phase of the life course.

  13. Longitudinal comparison of a physiotherapist-led, home-based and group-based program for increasing physical activity in community-dwelling middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Freene, Nicole; Waddington, Gordon; Davey, Rachel; Cochrane, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the longer-term effects of physical activity interventions. Here we compare a 6-month physiotherapist-led, home-based physical activity program to a community group exercise program over 2 years. Healthy, sedentary community-dwelling 50-65 year olds were recruited to a non-randomised community group exercise program (G, n = 93) or a physiotherapist-led, home-based physical activity program (HB, n = 65). Outcomes included 'sufficient' physical activity (Active Australia Survey), minutes of moderate-vigorous physical activity (ActiGraph GT1M), aerobic capacity (2-min step-test), quality of life (SF-12v2), blood pressure, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Using intention-to-treat analysis, both interventions resulted in significant and sustainable increases in the number of participants achieving 'sufficient' physical activity (HB 22 v. 41%, G 22 v. 47%, P ≤ 0.001) and decreases in waist circumference (HB 90 v. 89 cm, G 93 v. 91 cm, P < 0.001) over 2 years. The home-based program was less costly (HB A$47 v. G $84 per participant) but less effective in achieving the benefits at 2 years. The physiotherapist-led, home-based physical activity program may be a low-cost alternative to increase physical activity levels for those not interested in, or unable to attend, a group exercise program.

  14. Increased participation and improved performance in age group backstroke master swimmers from 25-29 to 100-104 years at the FINA World Masters Championships from 1986 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Unterweger, Chiara M; Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2016-01-01

    Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated for different sport disciplines, but not for master swimmers. The knowledge on this topic is still missing for a particular stroke such as backstroke. Changes in participation and performance of male and female age group backstroke swimmers (≥25 years) competing in 50, 100 and 200 m pool swimming at the FINA World Masters Championships held between 1986 and 2014 were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses. The overall participation was n = 26,217 including n = 13,708 women and n = 12,509 men. In 50 m, female (age groups 85-89 years; p = 0.002) and male participation (age groups 55-59; p = 0.030 and 80-84 years; p = 0.002) increased, while female participation decreased in age groups 55-59 (p = 0.010) and 60-64 years (p = 0.050). In 100 and 200 m, participation increased in age groups 45-49, 50-54, 65-69, 70-74, 80-84 years. Swimmers in age groups 25-29 to 95-99 years improved performance over all distances. Women were slower than men in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years, but not in age groups 85-89 to 95-99 years over all distances. In 50 m and 100 m, the sex difference decreased in age groups 40-44 (p = 0.007 and p = 0.005), 45-49 (p = 0.017 and p = 0.034), 50-54 (p = 0.002 and p = 0.040), to 55-59 years (p = 0.002 and p = 0.004). In 200 m, the sex difference decreased in age groups 40-44 (p = 0.044) and 90-94 (p = 0.011), but increased in age group 25-29 years (p = 0.006). In summary, in age group backstroke swimmers, (1) participation increased or remained unchanged (except women in age groups 55-59 and 60-64 years in 50 m), (2) swimming performance improved in all age groups from 25-29 to 95-99 years over all distances, (3) men were faster than women in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years (except age groups 85-89 to 95-99 years) over time and all distances.

  15. Acute Viral Hepatitis in Pediatric Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Kc, Sudhamshu; Sharma, Dilip; Poudyal, Nandu; Basnet, Bhupendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Our clinical experience showed that there has been no decrease in pediatric cases of acute viral hepatitis in Kathmandu. The objective of the study was to analyze the etiology, clinical features, laboratory parameters, sonological findings and other to determine the probable prognostic factors of Acute Viral Hepatitis in pediatric population. Consecutive patients of suspected Acute Viral Hepatitis, below the age of 15 years, attending the liver clinic between January 2006 and December 2010 were studied. After clinical examination they were subjected to blood tests and ultrasound examination of abdomen. The patients were divided in 3 age groups; 0-5, 5-10 and 5-15 years. Clinical features, laboratory parameters, ultrasound findings were compared in three age groups. Etiology of Acute Viral Hepatitis was Hepatitis A virus 266 (85%), Hepatitis E virus in 24 (8%), Hepatitis B virus in 15 (5%). In 7(2%) patients etiology was unknown. Three patients went to acute liver failure but improved with conservative treatment. There was no statistical difference in most of the parameters studied in different age groups. Ascites was more common in 5-10 years age group. Patients with secondary bacterial infection, ultrasound evidence of prominent biliary tree and ascites were associated with increased duration of illness. Patients with history of herbal medications had prolonged cholestasis. Hepatitis A is most common cause of Acute Viral Hepatitis in pediatric population. Improper use of herbal medications, secondary bacterial infection and faulty dietary intake was associated with prolonged illness. Patients with prominent biliary radicals should be treated with antibiotics even with normal blood counts for earlier recovery.

  16. Age Increases Monocyte Adhesion on Collagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaji, Samira; Zondler, Lisa; Kleinjan, Fenneke; Nolte, Ulla; Mulaw, Medhanie A.; Danzer, Karin M.; Weishaupt, Jochen H.; Gottschalk, Kay-E.

    2017-05-01

    Adhesion of monocytes to micro-injuries on arterial walls is an important early step in the occurrence and development of degenerative atherosclerotic lesions. At these injuries, collagen is exposed to the blood stream. We are interested whether age influences monocyte adhesion to collagen under flow, and hence influences the susceptibility to arteriosclerotic lesions. Therefore, we studied adhesion and rolling of human peripheral blood monocytes from old and young individuals on collagen type I coated surface under shear flow. We find that firm adhesion of monocytes to collagen type I is elevated in old individuals. Pre-stimulation by lipopolysaccharide increases the firm adhesion of monocytes homogeneously in older individuals, but heterogeneously in young individuals. Blocking integrin αx showed that adhesion of monocytes to collagen type I is specific to the main collagen binding integrin αxβ2. Surprisingly, we find no significant age-dependent difference in gene expression of integrin αx or integrin β2. However, if all integrins are activated from the outside, no differences exist between the age groups. Altered integrin activation therefore causes the increased adhesion. Our results show that the basal increase in integrin activation in monocytes from old individuals increases monocyte adhesion to collagen and therefore the risk for arteriosclerotic plaques.

  17. The aging kidney: increased susceptibility to nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinhui; Bonventre, Joseph V; Parrish, Alan R

    2014-09-01

    Three decades have passed since a series of studies indicated that the aging kidney was characterized by increased susceptibility to nephrotoxic injury. Data from these experimental models is strengthened by clinical data demonstrating that the aging population has an increased incidence and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). Since then a number of studies have focused on age-dependent alterations in pathways that predispose the kidney to acute insult. This review will focus on the mechanisms that are altered by aging in the kidney that may increase susceptibility to injury, including hemodynamics, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, inflammation and decreased repair.

  18. The Aging Kidney: Increased Susceptibility to Nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinhui; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Parrish, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Three decades have passed since a series of studies indicated that the aging kidney was characterized by increased susceptibility to nephrotoxic injury. Data from these experimental models is strengthened by clinical data demonstrating that the aging population has an increased incidence and severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). Since then a number of studies have focused on age-dependent alterations in pathways that predispose the kidney to acute insult. This review will focus on the mechanisms that are altered by aging in the kidney that may increase susceptibility to injury, including hemodynamics, oxidative stress, apoptosis, autophagy, inflammation and decreased repair. PMID:25257519

  19. Age group athletes in inline skating: decrease in overall and increase in master athlete participation in the longest inline skating race in Europe – the Inline One-Eleven

    PubMed Central

    Teutsch, Uwe; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated in endurance and ultraendurance races in swimming, cycling, running, and triathlon, but not in long-distance inline skating. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in participation, age, and performance in the longest inline race in Europe, the Inline One-Eleven over 111 km, held between 1998 and 2009. Methods The total number, age distribution, age at the time of the competition, and race times of male and female finishers at the Inline One-Eleven were analyzed. Results Overall participation increased until 2003 but decreased thereafter. During the 12-year period, the relative participation in skaters younger than 40 years old decreased while relative participation increased for skaters older than 40 years. The mean top ten skating time was 199 ± 9 minutes (range: 189–220 minutes) for men and 234 ± 17 minutes (range: 211–271 minutes) for women, respectively. The gender difference in performance remained stable at 17% ± 5% across years. Conclusion To summarize, although the participation of master long-distance inline skaters increased, the overall participation decreased across years in the Inline One-Eleven. The race times of the best female and male skaters stabilized across years with a gender difference in performance of 17% ± 5%. Further studies should focus on the participation in the international World Inline Cup races. PMID:23690697

  20. Voluntary Group Participation by Third Age Australians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Claire; Swindell, Rick

    A study investigated characteristics of retirees and types of voluntary groups they joined after retirement. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and completed questionnaires of 206 Australians over age 50. Five categories of voluntary organizations were studied: intellectually challenging, sporting/exercise, social, helping others,…

  1. Increased portion sizes from energy-dense foods affect total energy intake at eating occasions in US children and adolescents: patterns and trends by age group and sociodemographic characteristics, 1977–2006123

    PubMed Central

    Piernas, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Larger portion sizes of foods and beverages could affect overall energy intake at meals and promote overeating. Objective: We investigated trends in portion sizes of energy-dense foods and energy intakes at eating occasions in US children and adolescents. Design: Four US nationally representative surveys from 1977 to 2006 were analyzed (n = 31,337). We measured trends in portion sizes (kcal, g, and mL) of selected foods [sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), salty snacks, desserts, French fries, burgers, pizzas, and Mexican fast foods] and energy intake (kcal) at eating occasions during which selected foods were consumed. Trends were reported by age group (2–6-, 7–12-, and 13–18-y-olds), sex, and socioeconomic status. Results: In 2003–2006, the selected foods accounted for 38% of daily energy intake in 13–18-y-olds, 35% of the daily energy intake in 7–12-y-olds, and 28% of the daily energy intake in 2–6-y-olds. In all age groups, larger portion sizes of pizza coincided with higher energy intakes at eating occasions during which pizzas were consumed. In 7–12- and 13–18-y-olds, higher energy intakes at meals coincided with larger portion sizes of SSBs, French fries, or salty snacks. In all age groups, nonsignificant larger portions of Mexican fast foods were related to higher energy intakes at meals. Adolescent boys consumed larger portion sizes of the selected foods and had higher energy intakes at meals for all periods than did girls (P < 0.01). The percentage of kilocalories from pizza within a meal increased more sharply in non-Hispanic African Americans, in Hispanics, and in the group with a low household education than in the other groups. Conclusions: Adolescents are more susceptible to increased portion sizing than are younger children. The group of non-Hispanic African Americans and Hispanics and individuals with a lower education represents key concerns for public health policies. PMID:21918222

  2. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  3. [The electrocardiogram in the paediatric age group].

    PubMed

    Sanches, M; Coelho, A; Oliveira, E; Lopes, A

    2014-09-01

    A properly interpreted electrocardiogram (ECG) provides important information and is an inexpensive and easy test to perform. It continues to be the method of choice for the diagnosis of arrhythmias. Although the principles of cardiac electrophysiology are the same, there are anatomical and physiological age-dependent changes which produce specific alterations in the paediatric ECG, and which may be misinterpreted as pathological. The intention of this article is to address in a systematic way the most relevant aspects of the paediatric ECG, to propose a possible reading scheme of the ECG and to review the electrocardiograph tracings most frequently found in the paediatric age group.

  4. Vitreous Hemorrhage in Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    AlHarkan, Dora H.; Kahtani, Eman S.; Gikandi, Priscilla W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To identify and study causes of vitreous hemorrhage (VH) in pediatric age group and to investigate factors predicting visual and anatomical outcomes. Procedure. A retrospective review of patients aged 16 years or less with the diagnosis of vitreous hemorrhage from January 2005 until December 2010. Results. A total number of 230 patients (240 eyes) were identified. Traumatic vitreous hemorrhage accounted for 82.5%. In cases of accidental trauma, final visual acuity of 20/200 was significantly associated with visual acuity of ≥20/200 at presentation and the absence of retinal detachment at last follow-up. Patients with nontraumatic vitreous hemorrhage were significantly younger with higher rates of enucleation/evisceration/exenteration and retinal detachment at last follow-up compared to traumatic cases. Conclusion. Trauma is the most common cause of VH in pediatric age group. In this group, initial visual acuity was the most important predictor for visual outcome, and the presence of retinal detachment is a negative predictor for final good visual outcome. The outcome is significantly worse in nontraumatic cases compared to traumatic cases. PMID:25505975

  5. Changes in the incomes of age groups, 1984-89.

    PubMed

    Radner, D B

    1991-12-01

    In terms of changes in the incomes of age groups, the 1984-89 period was very different from the periods that immediately preceded it. This summary focuses on changes for aged family units. During the 1984-89 period, the rate of growth of real median income of aged units was substantially lower than in other subperiods since 1967, the first year for which comparable detailed estimates are available. During the 1984-89 period, the ratio of aged to nonaged median incomes fell for 4 consecutive years, after generally rising since about 1970. The relative medians of almost all detailed aged age groups fell at least slightly from 1984 to 1989, after a period of substantial rises. The increases in income for aged units during 1984-89 were higher for high-income units than for low-income units, producing an increase in inequality. The percentage of aged persons who were poor fell slightly from 1984 to 1989, but that percentage remained above the rates for other adult age groups. A relatively high percentage of aged persons had income that was less than 50 percent above the poverty threshold. The increase in the real mean total income of aged units from 1984 to 1989 was the net result of substantial increases in earnings and pension income and a substantial decrease in property income. In contrast, the much larger increase in real mean total income for aged units from 1979 to 1984 was characterized by a large increase in property income, substantial increases in Social Security benefits and pension income, and a small decrease in earnings.

  6. Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Complex technologies used in most human societies are beyond the inventive capacities of individuals. Instead, they result from a cumulative process in which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population’s ability to develop complex technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present a simple computer-based experiment that compares the accumulation of innovations by fully and partially connected groups of the same size in a complex fitness landscape. We find that the propensity to learn from successful individuals drastically reduces cultural diversity within fully connected groups. In comparison, partially connected groups produce more diverse solutions, and this diversity allows them to develop complex solutions that are never produced in fully connected groups. These results suggest that explanations of ancestral patterns of cultural complexity may need to consider levels of population fragmentation and interaction patterns between partially isolated groups. PMID:26929364

  7. Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups.

    PubMed

    Derex, Maxime; Boyd, Robert

    2016-03-15

    Complex technologies used in most human societies are beyond the inventive capacities of individuals. Instead, they result from a cumulative process in which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population's ability to develop complex technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present a simple computer-based experiment that compares the accumulation of innovations by fully and partially connected groups of the same size in a complex fitness landscape. We find that the propensity to learn from successful individuals drastically reduces cultural diversity within fully connected groups. In comparison, partially connected groups produce more diverse solutions, and this diversity allows them to develop complex solutions that are never produced in fully connected groups. These results suggest that explanations of ancestral patterns of cultural complexity may need to consider levels of population fragmentation and interaction patterns between partially isolated groups.

  8. Dynamics of a smile in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Chetan, Patil; Tandon, Pradeep; Singh, Gulshan K; Nagar, Amit; Prasad, Veerendra; Chugh, Vinay K

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate smile in different age groups and to detect gender differences in smile. Digital videographic records of 241 randomly selected subjects were obtained for smile analysis. The subjects were divided into four groups by age (15-20 years, 21-30 years, 31-40 years, and 41-50 years). Each group was further subdivided by gender. After 41 subjects were excluded, the smile dimensions of 200 subjects were analyzed by two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with Duncan's multiple range post hoc test. All dynamic measurements (change in upper lip length, upper lip thickness, commissure height, and intercommissural width from rest to smile) decreased with age in both males and females. Changes in upper lip length and commissure height on smiling were greater in males as compared with females of the same age groups. Changes in intercommissural width on smiling were greater in females as compared with males in all age groups. Smile changes with increase in age, and the changes differ between males and females. Females had a wider smile as compared with males of similar age groups.

  9. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  10. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  11. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  12. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  13. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  14. Age-group differences in saccadic interference.

    PubMed

    Gottlob, Lawrence R; Fillmore, Mark T; Abroms, Ben D

    2007-03-01

    We examined age-group differences in a saccadic interference task, which requires that participants execute a saccade (eye movement) toward an abrupt-onset visual target presented to the right or left of fixation. On some trials, we imposed diffuse interference by bilateral (top and bottom) flashes of light presented 20 to 210 ms after target onset. When the flashes followed the cue at shorter intervals, time to execute a saccade was slowed relative to no-flash trials. This slowing was greater and sustained over a larger cue-flash interval for older participants than for the young participants. The results indicate that, when diffuse distractors are used, older adults are more susceptible to saccade disruption than are young adults.

  15. Group demographics in the mental patient movement: group location, age, and size as structural factors.

    PubMed

    Emerick, R E

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a descriptive overview of the mental patient selfhelp movement based on a sample of 104 groups. Groups are classified in terms of group structure, group affiliation, and evaluation of psychiatry and are then described in a demographic profile that includes the factors of location, age and size. After a review of the literature on functional models of selfhelp groups, the mental patient movement is shown to be composed of groups with widely varying political philosophies-from radical "separatist" groups promoting consciousness-raising, empowerment, and social reform to conservative "partnership" groups that emphasize individual reform through "alternative therapy". The movement is shown to be increasingly dominated by moderate "supportive" groups and, as such, is characterized as a true client-controlled social or "community" alternative to the professionally-controlled medical programs that dominate the mental health system today.

  16. Increasing Student Involvement in Cognitive Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkel, Linda A.

    2006-01-01

    The involvement of undergraduates in research on aging has benefits for the students and for the faculty mentors, as well as for their departments, their universities, and the field of gerontology at large. This article reports on the application of a 3-year Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) by the National Institute on Aging awarded to…

  17. Social group membership increases STEM engagement among preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Master, Allison; Cheryan, Sapna; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2017-02-01

    The American educational system currently yields disappointing levels of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) engagement and achievement among students. One way to remedy this may be to increase children's motivation in STEM from an early age. This study examined whether a social cue-being part of an experimental "minimal group"-increases STEM engagement in preschoolers (N = 141; 4.5-year-olds). Using a within-subjects design, participants were assigned to a group and an individual condition (counterbalanced for order) before they worked on a math task and a spatial task. Children persisted longer on, placed more pieces correctly, reported higher self-efficacy, and were more interested in the group STEM task than the individual STEM task. In addition, we conducted a continuously cumulating meta-analysis (CCMA) to combine the results of the current experiment with two previous experiments. These findings suggest that incorporating nonacademic social factors, such as group membership, into current STEM curricula could be an effective way to boost young children's STEM motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Normal aging increases cognitive heterogeneity: analysis of dispersion in WAIS-III scores across age.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2007-11-01

    Individual differences in cognitive decline during normal aging need further delineation. The purpose of this study was to find the score dispersions in the WAIS-III subtests at different ages. Norms presented in the Administration and Scoring Manual [Wechsler, D. (1997). WAIS-III: Administration and scoring manual. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation] were used. The WAIS-III was standardized and normalized using 2450 American adults divided into 13 age ranges and 4 education groups. Means and standard deviations for the different WAIS-III subtests were deduced and the ratio Percentage of the mean="(standard deviation/mean)x100" was calculated. It was hypothesized that during normal aging, whereas mean scores decrease, score dispersions increase, pointing to an increased heterogeneity in intellectual abilities in older individuals. In all subtests, except Digit Span, it was found that score dispersions indeed increased during aging. However, in some subtests, increase in dispersion was less than 20% (Block Design, Object Assembly, and Information), whereas in others, increase in dispersion was over 200% (Matrix Reasoning, L-N Sequencing, Digit-Symbol, Picture Completion, and Picture Arrangement). It was proposed that cognitive heterogeneity during normal aging is related to those abilities measured with these latter subtests, basically, executive functions, attention, and selected non-verbal abilities. In other abilities (e.g., visuoconstructive abilities and fund of general information), normal aging is associated with a more homogenous pattern of decline.

  19. Salmon lice increase the age of returning Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Vollset, Knut Wiik; Barlaup, Bjørn Torgeir; Skoglund, Helge; Normann, Eirik Straume; Skilbrei, Ove Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The global increase in the production of domestic farmed fish in open net pens has created concerns about the resilience of wild populations owing to shifts in host–parasite systems in coastal ecosystems. However, little is known about the effects of increased parasite abundance on life-history traits in wild fish populations. Here, we report the results of two separate studies in which 379 779 hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts were treated (or not) against salmon lice, marked and released. Adults were later recaptured, and we specifically tested whether the age distribution of the returning spawners was affected by the treatment. The estimates of parasite-induced mortality were 31.9% and 0.6% in the River Vosso and River Dale stock experiments, respectively. Age of returning salmon was on average higher in treated versus untreated fish. The percentages of fish returning after one winter at sea were 37.5% and 29.9% for the treated and untreated groups, respectively. We conclude that salmon lice increase the age of returning salmon, either by affecting their age at maturity or by disproportionately increasing mortality in fish that mature early. PMID:24478199

  20. Multi-age-grouping paradigm for young swimmers.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kosuke; Jamison, Paul L; Stager, Joel M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the adequacy of "multi-age" classification systems in youth sports with a specific focus on the unisex multi-age-groupings used by USA Swimming. In addition, we offer an analytical rationale for the multi-age-groupings and potential alternatives. We examined the top 100 US swim performances for three years (2005, 2006, and 2007) for girls and boys in 15 age-groups (7 to 20 years and a singular group of 21 years and older). Data for each age and sex were pooled over the three years and means were calculated for each of seven competitive swim events. Swim times differed among each age up to the 14-year age-group in girls (F (14,30885) = 183.9, P < 0.01, Cohen's d = 1.19-3.72, large effect) and 16-year age-group in boys (F (14,30885) = 308.7, P < 0.01, Cohen's d = 0.81-3.64, large effect) for all events. Age-related differences in swim times continued later in boys than girls likely due to differences between the sexes in timing of growth and maturation. Because of the differences in swim performance in contemporary multi-age-groups, stratifying swimmers by a single age is the best means to ensure competitive fairness and equality, although there is no rationale for swimmers under the age of 8 years to compete in separate unisex competitive groups.

  1. Strategies to Increase Participation in Cooperative Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This action research examines how focused organization, group roles, and gender grouping impact student participation when working in a cooperative group setting. Fifty-two sixth graders were studied for a period of nine weeks. Results show when students are organized in their cooperative groups, there will be an increase in student participation.…

  2. Acute pancreatitis in the paediatric age group: a personal experience.

    PubMed

    Cosentini, A; Stranieri, G; Capillo, S; Notarangelo, L; Madonna, L; Iannini, S; Ferro, V; Defilippo, V; Defilippo, R G; Rubino, R

    2005-01-01

    Although relatively rare, acute pancreatitis is the most common disease complex involving the pancreas in the paediatric age group. The etiology of the disease is often unknown, and Italian epidemiological data on the paediatric population and, in particular, on the etiology of the disease are not available (except for studies of prevalence). Within the field of the most frequently encountered pancreatitis in the age range of our interest (i.e. 0-18 years), not only the commonly observed forms whose etiopathogenesis is ascribable to cholelithiasis must be mentioned but also those forms due to proteic-caloric malnutrition that are becoming increasingly common. The presenting clinical symptoms and signs may not be typical and the laboratory tests may not always be sensitive enough. In such age range chronic recurrent pancreatitis plays a very important epidemiologic role. Approximately 40% of children and teenagers admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of pancreatitis report a previous episode of the disease. Irreversible changes in pancreatic parenchyma develop in those patients in whom the disease progresses, leading to pancreatic insufficiency. Such a morbid condition (chronic pancreatitis) is more often observed in adolescents, in whom the disease manifests itself with a vague repetitive dyspeptic symptomatology, after alternating remissions and recrudescences, not always clinically evident. In children, the clinical picture most commonly encountered is represented by recurrent abdominal pains, in view of the fact that the patients are frequently affected by thalassaemia. The pseudocystic evolution of the disease is the most common organic damage resulting from the chronic progression of the pancreatic impairment. A few differences have been found with respect to severity, etiology, and mortality of pancreatitis in the paediatric age group as compared with older age groups. Both the general practitioner with a paediatric practice and the paediatrician

  3. Mobile Device Accuracy for Step Counting Across Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yi; Bian, Jiang; Gurka, Matthew J; Parish, Alice; Smith, Megan D; Lee, Alexandra M; Buford, Thomas W

    2017-01-01

    Background Only one in five American meets the physical activity recommendations of the Department of Health and Human Services. The proliferation of wearable devices and smartphones for physical activity tracking has led to an increasing number of interventions designed to facilitate regular physical activity, in particular to address the obesity epidemic, but also for cardiovascular disease patients, cancer survivors, and older adults. However, the inconsistent findings pertaining to the accuracy of wearable devices for step counting needs to be addressed, as well as factors known to affect gait (and thus potentially impact accuracy) such as age, body mass index (BMI), or leading arm. Objective We aim to assess the accuracy of recent mobile devices for counting steps, across three different age groups. Methods We recruited 60 participants in three age groups: 18-39 years, 40-64 years, and 65-84 years, who completed two separate 1000 step walks on a treadmill at a self-selected speed between 2 and 3 miles per hour. We tested two smartphones attached on each side of the waist, and five wrist-based devices worn on both wrists (2 devices on one wrist and 3 devices on the other), as well as the Actigraph wGT3X-BT, and swapped sides between each walk. All devices were swapped dominant-to-nondominant side and vice-versa between the two 1000 step walks. The number of steps was recorded with a tally counter. Age, sex, height, weight, and dominant hand were self-reported by each participant. Results Among the 60 participants, 36 were female (60%) and 54 were right-handed (90%). Median age was 53 years (min=19, max=83), median BMI was 24.1 (min=18.4, max=39.6). There was no significant difference in left- and right-hand step counts by device. Our analyses show that the Fitbit Surge significantly undercounted steps across all age groups. Samsung Gear S2 significantly undercounted steps only for participants among the 40-64 year age group. Finally, the Nexus 6P significantly

  4. Mobile Device Accuracy for Step Counting Across Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Modave, François; Guo, Yi; Bian, Jiang; Gurka, Matthew J; Parish, Alice; Smith, Megan D; Lee, Alexandra M; Buford, Thomas W

    2017-06-28

    Only one in five American meets the physical activity recommendations of the Department of Health and Human Services. The proliferation of wearable devices and smartphones for physical activity tracking has led to an increasing number of interventions designed to facilitate regular physical activity, in particular to address the obesity epidemic, but also for cardiovascular disease patients, cancer survivors, and older adults. However, the inconsistent findings pertaining to the accuracy of wearable devices for step counting needs to be addressed, as well as factors known to affect gait (and thus potentially impact accuracy) such as age, body mass index (BMI), or leading arm. We aim to assess the accuracy of recent mobile devices for counting steps, across three different age groups. We recruited 60 participants in three age groups: 18-39 years, 40-64 years, and 65-84 years, who completed two separate 1000 step walks on a treadmill at a self-selected speed between 2 and 3 miles per hour. We tested two smartphones attached on each side of the waist, and five wrist-based devices worn on both wrists (2 devices on one wrist and 3 devices on the other), as well as the Actigraph wGT3X-BT, and swapped sides between each walk. All devices were swapped dominant-to-nondominant side and vice-versa between the two 1000 step walks. The number of steps was recorded with a tally counter. Age, sex, height, weight, and dominant hand were self-reported by each participant. Among the 60 participants, 36 were female (60%) and 54 were right-handed (90%). Median age was 53 years (min=19, max=83), median BMI was 24.1 (min=18.4, max=39.6). There was no significant difference in left- and right-hand step counts by device. Our analyses show that the Fitbit Surge significantly undercounted steps across all age groups. Samsung Gear S2 significantly undercounted steps only for participants among the 40-64 year age group. Finally, the Nexus 6P significantly undercounted steps for the group

  5. Antimicrobial strength increases with group size: implications for social evolution.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Christine; Hoggard, Stephen; Gillings, Michael; Palmer, Chris; Stow, Adam; Beattie, Doug; Briscoe, David; Smith, Shannon; Wilson, Peter; Beattie, Andrew

    2011-04-23

    We hypothesize that aggregations of animals are likely to attract pathogenic micro-organisms and that this is especially the case for semisocial and eusocial insects where selection ultimately led to group sizes in the thousands or even millions, attracting the epithet 'superorganism'. Here, we analyse antimicrobial strength, per individual, in eight thrips species (Insecta: Thysanoptera) that present increasing innate group sizes and show that species with the largest group size (100-700) had the strongest antimicrobials, those with smaller groups (10-80) had lower antimicrobial activity, while solitary species showed none. Species with large innate group sizes showed strong antimicrobial activity while the semisocial species showed no activity until group size increased sufficiently to make activity detectable. The eusocial species behaved in a similar way, with detectable activity appearing once group size exceeded 120. These analyses show that antimicrobial strength is determined by innate group size. This suggests that the evolution of sociality that, by definition, increases group size, may have had particular requirements for defences against microbial pathogens. Thus, increase in group size, accompanied by increased antibiotic strength, may have been a critical factor determining the 'point of no return', early in the evolution of social insects, beyond which the evolution of social anatomical and morphological traits was irreversible. Our data suggest that traits that increase group size in general are accompanied by increased antimicrobial strength and that this was critical for transitions from solitary to social and eusocial organization.

  6. Increased Bilateral Interactions in Middle-Aged Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Heetkamp, Jolien; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Zijdewind, Inge

    2014-01-01

    A hallmark of the age-related neural reorganization is that old versus young adults execute typical motor tasks by a more diffuse neural activation pattern including stronger ipsilateral activation during unilateral tasks. Whether such changes in neural activation are present already at middle age and affect bimanual interactions is unknown. We compared the amount of associated activity, i.e., muscle activity and force produced by the non-task hand and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) produced by magnetic brain stimulation between young (mean 24 years, n = 10) and middle-aged (mean 50 years, n = 10) subjects during brief unilateral (seven levels of % maximal voluntary contractions, MVCs) and bilateral contractions (4 × 7 levels of % MVC combinations), and during a 120-s-long MVC of sustained unilateral index finger abduction. During the force production, the excitability of the ipsilateral (iM1) or contralateral primary motor cortex (cM1) was assessed. The associated activity in the “resting” hand was ~2-fold higher in middle-aged (28% of MVC) versus young adults (11% of MVC) during brief unilateral MVCs. After controlling for the background muscle activity, MEPs in iM1 were similar in the two groups during brief unilateral contractions. Only at low (bilateral) forces, MEPs evoked in cM1 were 30% higher in the middle-aged versus young adults. At the start of the sustained contraction, the associated activity was higher in the middle-aged versus young subjects and increased progressively in both groups (30 versus 15% MVC at 120 s, respectively). MEPs were greater at the start of the sustained contraction in middle-aged subjects but increased further during the contraction only in young adults. Under these experimental conditions, the data provide evidence for the reorganization of neural control of unilateral force production as early as age 50. Future studies will determine if the altered neural control of such inter-manual interactions are of

  7. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Bültmann, Ute; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Methods The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender. Results Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups. Conclusions Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of

  8. The Subculture of the Aging, Aging Group-Conciousness, and Morale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, William C.

    The central concern of this paper is to examine the subculture of the aging theory and the relationship between aging group-consciousness and morale. Aging group-consciousness is postulated to be one of the major components of an aging subculture. A study of 81 older people was conducted in a rural, multi-story housing facility. Questionnaires…

  9. School's Out! Group Day Care for the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth; Milich, Cynthia

    This report on group day care is designed to: (1) examine the kinds of group programs for school-age children which exist in Los Angeles County, (2) describe the conditions necessary for program operation, and (3) consider the issue of quality as it relates to community expansion of day care services for children of school age. The report is…

  10. Differentiation of Occupational Perceptions Among Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Hypothesizes that occupational perceptions are more specific for older age groups than for younger age groups. Hypothesis was tested by using latent root analysis and minimum residual factor analysis to analyze intercorrelations among six Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) scales for five large and diverse samples. Both analyses supported the…

  11. Redefining meaningful age groups in the context of disease.

    PubMed

    Geifman, Nophar; Cohen, Raphael; Rubin, Eitan

    2013-12-01

    Age is an important factor when considering phenotypic changes in health and disease. Currently, the use of age information in medicine is somewhat simplistic, with ages commonly being grouped into a small number of crude ranges reflecting the major stages of development and aging, such as childhood or adolescence. Here, we investigate the possibility of redefining age groups using the recently developed Age-Phenome Knowledge-base (APK) that holds over 35,000 literature-derived entries describing relationships between age and phenotype. Clustering of APK data suggests 13 new, partially overlapping, age groups. The diseases that define these groups suggest that the proposed divisions are biologically meaningful. We further show that the number of different age ranges that should be considered depends on the type of disease being evaluated. This finding was further strengthened by similar results obtained from clinical blood measurement data. The grouping of diseases that share a similar pattern of disease-related reports directly mirrors, in some cases, medical knowledge of disease-age relationships. In other cases, our results may be used to generate new and reasonable hypotheses regarding links between diseases.

  12. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  13. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  14. Striving for group agency: threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of agentic groups

    PubMed Central

    Stollberg, Janine; Fritsche, Immo; Bäcker, Anna

    2015-01-01

    When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups) but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93) that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects). Turning to groups people are not (yet) part of, Study 2 (N = 47) showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78) replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control. PMID:26074832

  15. Striving for group agency: threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of agentic groups.

    PubMed

    Stollberg, Janine; Fritsche, Immo; Bäcker, Anna

    2015-01-01

    When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups) but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93) that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects). Turning to groups people are not (yet) part of, Study 2 (N = 47) showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78) replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control.

  16. Age Changes in Nonverbal Decoding Skills: Evidence for Increasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePaulo, Bella M.; Rosenthal, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Middle class children and adults (n=632) from eight age levels (mean ages 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 17, 19 and 33 years) were tested with the Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity (the PONS test) to measure accuracy in decoding nonverbal cues. The prediction that nonverbal skills would increasingly differentiate over ages was confirmed. (RH)

  17. The inter-group comparison-intra-group cooperation hypothesis: comparisons between groups increase efficiency in public goods provision.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Robert; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Identifying methods to increase cooperation and efficiency in public goods provision is of vital interest for human societies. The methods that have been proposed often incur costs that (more than) destroy the efficiency gains through increased cooperation. It has for example been shown that inter-group conflict increases intra-group cooperation, however at the cost of collective efficiency. We propose a new method that makes use of the positive effects associated with inter-group competition but avoids the detrimental (cost) effects of a structural conflict. We show that the mere comparison to another structurally independent group increases both the level of intra-group cooperation and overall efficiency. The advantage of this new method is that it directly transfers the benefits from increased cooperation into increased efficiency. In repeated public goods provision we experimentally manipulated the participants' level of contribution feedback (intra-group only vs. both intra- and inter-group) as well as the provision environment (smaller groups with higher individual benefits from cooperation vs. larger groups with lower individual benefits from cooperation). Irrespective of the provision environment groups with an inter-group comparison opportunity exhibited a significantly stronger cooperation than groups without this opportunity. Participants conditionally cooperated within their group and additionally acted to advance their group to not fall behind the other group. The individual efforts to advance the own group cushion the downward trend in the above average contributors and thus render contributions on a higher level. We discuss areas of practical application.

  18. Functional group diversity increases with modularity in complex food webs.

    PubMed

    Montoya, D; Yallop, M L; Memmott, J

    2015-06-10

    Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from patterns in the structure of the food web.

  19. Functional group diversity increases with modularity in complex food webs

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, D.; Yallop, M.L.; Memmott, J.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from patterns in the structure of the food web. PMID:26059871

  20. Swimming and cardiovascular fitness in the older age group.

    PubMed

    Arthur, R J

    1975-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is an extraordinarily common and devastating disorder of middle aged and even young men in the United States and Western Europe. An increasing risk of developing the disease is associated with such factors as high blood pressure, obesity, high levels of cholesterol in the blood serum, cigarette smoking, certain behavioral patterns, decreased vital capacity and a low level of physical activity. There is much evidence to indicate that exercise may well help prevent heart attacks through such mechanisms as increasing heart efficiency, decreasing the level of serum cholesterol, decreasing obesity, decreasing high blood pressure and promoting psychic well-being. It is necessary, however, that the exercise be continued throughout life. Athletic activity in high school or college is of no help in later years. The exercise must be part of a regular scheduled year-round activity. It is suggested that swimming has many unique advantages for such an endeavor. The Amateur Athletic Union of the United States has developed competition in older age groups as a motivating force for the continuance of a regular training program of a healthful nature.

  1. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jonathon N; Kiesler, Sara; Bosagh Zadeh, Reza; Balakrishnan, Aruna D

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous groups are valuable, but differences among members can weaken group identification. Weak group identification may be especially problematic in larger groups, which, in contrast with smaller groups, require more attention to motivating members and coordinating their tasks. We hypothesized that as groups increase in size, productivity would decrease with greater heterogeneity. We studied the longitudinal productivity of 549 research groups varying in disciplinary heterogeneity, institutional heterogeneity, and size. We examined their publication and citation productivity before their projects started and 5 to 9 years later. Larger groups were more productive than smaller groups, but their marginal productivity declined as their heterogeneity increased, either because their members belonged to more disciplines or to more institutions. These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units.

  2. Social Group Membership Increases STEM Engagement among Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Master, Allison; Cheryan, Sapna; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2017-01-01

    The American educational system currently yields disappointing levels of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) engagement and achievement among students. One way to remedy this may be to increase children's motivation in STEM from an early age. This study examined whether a social cue--being part of an experimental "minimal…

  3. Social Group Membership Increases STEM Engagement among Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Master, Allison; Cheryan, Sapna; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2017-01-01

    The American educational system currently yields disappointing levels of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) engagement and achievement among students. One way to remedy this may be to increase children's motivation in STEM from an early age. This study examined whether a social cue--being part of an experimental "minimal…

  4. Increased brain-predicted aging in treated HIV disease

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Jonathan; Caan, Matthan W.A.; De Francesco, Davide; van Zoest, Rosan A.; Leech, Robert; Wit, Ferdinand W.N.M.; Portegies, Peter; Geurtsen, Gert J.; Schmand, Ben A.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Franceschi, Claudio; Sabin, Caroline A.; Majoie, Charles B.L.M.; Winston, Alan; Reiss, Peter; Sharp, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To establish whether HIV disease is associated with abnormal levels of age-related brain atrophy, by estimating apparent brain age using neuroimaging and exploring whether these estimates related to HIV status, age, cognitive performance, and HIV-related clinical parameters. Methods: A large sample of virologically suppressed HIV-positive adults (n = 162, age 45–82 years) and highly comparable HIV-negative controls (n = 105) were recruited as part of the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) collaboration. Using T1-weighted MRI scans, a machine-learning model of healthy brain aging was defined in an independent cohort (n = 2,001, aged 18–90 years). Neuroimaging data from HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals were then used to estimate brain-predicted age; then brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD = brain-predicted brain age − chronological age) scores were calculated. Neuropsychological and clinical assessments were also carried out. Results: HIV-positive individuals had greater brain-PAD score (mean ± SD 2.15 ± 7.79 years) compared to HIV-negative individuals (−0.87 ± 8.40 years; b = 3.48, p < 0.01). Increased brain-PAD score was associated with decreased performance in multiple cognitive domains (information processing speed, executive function, memory) and general cognitive performance across all participants. Brain-PAD score was not associated with age, duration of HIV infection, or other HIV-related measures. Conclusion: Increased apparent brain aging, predicted using neuroimaging, was observed in HIV-positive adults, despite effective viral suppression. Furthermore, the magnitude of increased apparent brain aging related to cognitive deficits. However, predicted brain age difference did not correlate with chronological age or duration of HIV infection, suggesting that HIV disease may accentuate rather than accelerate brain aging. PMID:28258081

  5. Increased brain-predicted aging in treated HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Cole, James H; Underwood, Jonathan; Caan, Matthan W A; De Francesco, Davide; van Zoest, Rosan A; Leech, Robert; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; Portegies, Peter; Geurtsen, Gert J; Schmand, Ben A; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Franceschi, Claudio; Sabin, Caroline A; Majoie, Charles B L M; Winston, Alan; Reiss, Peter; Sharp, David J

    2017-04-04

    To establish whether HIV disease is associated with abnormal levels of age-related brain atrophy, by estimating apparent brain age using neuroimaging and exploring whether these estimates related to HIV status, age, cognitive performance, and HIV-related clinical parameters. A large sample of virologically suppressed HIV-positive adults (n = 162, age 45-82 years) and highly comparable HIV-negative controls (n = 105) were recruited as part of the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) collaboration. Using T1-weighted MRI scans, a machine-learning model of healthy brain aging was defined in an independent cohort (n = 2,001, aged 18-90 years). Neuroimaging data from HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals were then used to estimate brain-predicted age; then brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD = brain-predicted brain age - chronological age) scores were calculated. Neuropsychological and clinical assessments were also carried out. HIV-positive individuals had greater brain-PAD score (mean ± SD 2.15 ± 7.79 years) compared to HIV-negative individuals (-0.87 ± 8.40 years; b = 3.48, p < 0.01). Increased brain-PAD score was associated with decreased performance in multiple cognitive domains (information processing speed, executive function, memory) and general cognitive performance across all participants. Brain-PAD score was not associated with age, duration of HIV infection, or other HIV-related measures. Increased apparent brain aging, predicted using neuroimaging, was observed in HIV-positive adults, despite effective viral suppression. Furthermore, the magnitude of increased apparent brain aging related to cognitive deficits. However, predicted brain age difference did not correlate with chronological age or duration of HIV infection, suggesting that HIV disease may accentuate rather than accelerate brain aging. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Geroscience approaches to increase healthspan and slow aging

    PubMed Central

    Melov, Simon

    2016-01-01

    For decades, researchers in the biology of aging have focused on defining mechanisms that modulate aging by primarily studying a single metric, sometimes described as the “gold standard” lifespan. Increasingly, geroscience research is turning towards defining functional domains of aging such as the cardiovascular system, skeletal integrity, and metabolic health as being a more direct route to understand why tissues decline in function with age. Each model used in aging research has strengths and weaknesses, yet we know surprisingly little about how critical tissues decline in health with increasing age. Here I discuss popular model systems used in geroscience research and their utility as possible tools in preclinical studies in aging. PMID:27158475

  7. The effect of group composition and age on social behavior and competition in groups of weaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Faerevik, G; Jensen, M B; Bøe, K E

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how group composition affects behavior and weight gain of newly weaned dairy calves and how age within heterogeneous groups affects behavior and competition. Seventy-two calves were introduced into 6 groups of 12 calves, of which 3 groups were homogeneous and 3 groups were heterogeneous (including 6 young and 6 old calves). The 9.8 mx9.5 m large experimental pen had 4 separate lying areas as well as a feeding area. Behavior and subgrouping were recorded on d 1, 7, and 14 after grouping, and calves were weighed before and after the experimental period of 14 d. Analysis of the effect of group composition on behavior and weight gain included young calves in heterogeneous groups and calves in homogeneous groups within the same age range at grouping (30 to 42 d). Irrespective of group composition, time spent feeding and lying increased, whereas time spent active decreased from d 1 to 7. In homogeneous groups, calves were more explorative on d 1 after grouping. Finally, calves in homogeneous groups had a higher average daily weight gain than calves in heterogeneous groups. Analysis of the effect of age included young and old calves of heterogeneous groups. Young calves were less explorative than old calves. Young calves were more active than old calves on d 1 but less active on d 7. Time spent lying and lying alone increased over time. More displacements from the feed manger were performed by old calves than by young calves. An analysis including all calves in both homogeneous and heterogeneous groups showed that when lying, calves were evenly distributed on the 4 lying areas and formed subgroups of on average 3 calves. In conclusion, age heterogeneity leads to increased competition, which may have a negative influence on the young calves' performance.

  8. Prevalence of cerebral cavernous malformations associated with developmental venous anomalies increases with age.

    PubMed

    Brinjikji, Waleed; El-Masri, Ali El-Rida; Wald, John T; Flemming, Kelly D; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2017-06-22

    To test the hypothesis that the prevalence of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) associated with developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) increases with age, we studied the age-related prevalence of DVA-associated CCM among patients with DVAs. Patients with DVAs on contrast-enhanced MRI exams performed over a 2-year period were included in this study. A single neuroradiologist reviewed all imaging exams for the presence of CCMs. Baseline demographic data collected included age, gender, presence of CNS neoplasm, history of cranial radiation, and history of seizure. Patients were divided into age groups based on decade of life. Cochran-Armitage trend tests were performed to determine if increasing age was associated with CCM prevalence. A total of 1689 patients with DVAs identified on contrast-enhanced MRI were included. Of these patients, 116 (6.9%) had a cavernous malformation associated with the DVA. There was a significant positive association between age and the prevalence of DVA-associated CCM (P = 0.002). The prevalence of DVA-associated CCM was 0.8% for the 0-10 age group, 1.6% for the 11-20 age group, 7.5% for the 21-30 age group, 9.5% for the 31-40 age group, 6.1% for the 41-50 age group, 6.3% for the 51-60 age group, 7.4% for the 61-70 age group, and 11.6% for the >70 age group (P < .0001). Our study demonstrated an age-related increase in prevalence of DVA-associated cavernous malformations among patients with DVAs. These findings suggest that DVA-associated cavernous malformations are acquired lesions.

  9. Finisher and performance trends in female and male mountain ultramarathoners by age group

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Eichenberger, Evelyn; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined changes according to age group in the number of finishers and running times for athletes in female and male mountain ultramarathoners competing in the 78 km Swiss Alpine Marathon, the largest mountain ultramarathon in Europe and held in high alpine terrain. Methods The association between age and performance was investigated using analysis of variance and both single and multilevel regression analyses. Results Between 1998 and 2011, a total of 1,781 women and 12,198 men finished the Swiss Alpine Marathon. The number of female finishers increased (r2 = 0.64, P = 0.001), whereas the number of male finishers (r2 = 0.18, P = 0.15) showed no change. The annual top ten men became older and slower, whereas the annual top ten women became older but not slower. Regarding the number of finishers in the age groups, the number of female finishers decreased in the age group 18–24 years, whereas the number of finishers increased in the age groups 30–34, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, and 70–74 years. In the age groups 25–29 and 35–39 years, the number of finishers showed no changes across the years. In the age group 70–74 years, the increase in number of finishers was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. For men, the number of finishers decreased in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, and 35–39 years. In the age groups 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 70–74, and 75–79 years, the number of finishers increased. In the age group 40–44 years, the increase was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. Female finishers in the age group 40–44 years became faster over time. For men, finishers in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, 40–44, and 45–49 years became slower. Conclusion The number of women older than 30 years and men older than 40 years increased in the Swiss Alpine Marathon. Performance improved in women aged 40–44 years but

  10. [Symptomatic and asymptomatic infections of Demodex spp. in eye lashes of patients of different age groups].

    PubMed

    Kuźna-Grygiel, Wanda; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Czepita, Damian; Sambor, Izabella

    2004-01-01

    Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis were looked for on eyelashes sampled from 481 people, aged 3 through 96. The persons studied were divided into 9 age groups. Magnitude of the infection symptoms was assessed based on macroscopic changes of eye-lid edges and on interviews with patients. An increase of the prevalence of infection and intensification of the symptoms were observed to coincide with the age increase of the persons studied. No significant differences were demonstrated between the infection frequencies of women and men. Symptoms of ocular demodecosis were more frequent only in women of group III (aged 21-30) and group V (41-50) (p < 0.05).

  11. Task factor usability ratings for different age groups writing Chinese.

    PubMed

    Chan, A H S; So, J C Y

    2009-11-01

    This study evaluated how different task factors affect performance and user subjective preferences for three different age groups of Chinese subjects (6-11, 20-23, 65-70 years) when hand writing Chinese characters. The subjects copied Chinese character sentences with different settings for the task factors of writing plane angle (horizontal 0 degrees , slanted 15 degrees ), writing direction (horizontal, vertical), and line spacing (5 mm, 7 mm and no lines). Writing speed was measured and subjective preferences (effectiveness and satisfaction) were assessed for each of the task factor settings. The result showed that there was a conflict between writing speed and personal preference for the line spacing factor; 5 mm line spacing increased writing speed but it was the least preferred. It was also found that: vertical and horizontal writing directions and a slanted work surface suited school-aged children; a horizontal work surface and horizontal writing direction suited university students; and a horizontal writing direction with either a horizontal or slanted work surface suited the older adults.

  12. High blood pressure in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Helena; Antonio, Natália; Rodrigues, Dina; Da Silva, Marinho; Pêgo, Mariano; Providência, Luís Augusto

    2010-03-01

    The definition of hypertension (HT) in the pediatric age group is based on the normal distribution of blood pressure (BP) in healthy children. Normal BP is defined as being below the 90th percentile for gender, age and height, and hypertension as equal to or higher than the 95th percentile on at least three separate occasions. If the values are above the 90th percentile but below the 95th percentile, the child should be considered prehypertensive. Ambulatory BP monitoring is useful in the assessment of BP levels in the young. P values in children and adolescents have creased in the last decade, in parallel with increases in body mass index, and HT now has a prevalence of 2-5%. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is one of the main predictors of HT in adulthood, but it is also associated with other cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, inflammation and impaired vascular function. Left ventricular hypertrophy is the most prominent evidence of target organ damage caused by hypertension in children and adolescents. The goal for antihypertensive treatment is to reduce BP below the 95th percentile. Weight control, with regular physical activity and dietary changes, is the primary therapy for obesity-related hypertension. Weight loss decreases not only BP but also other cardiovascular risk factors. The indications for use of antihypertensive drugs are: symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, established hypertensive target organ damage, stage 2 hypertension and failure of nonpharmacologic measures.

  13. Negative impact of asthma on patients in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Alith, Marcela Batan; Gazzotti, Mariana Rodrigues; Montealegre, Federico; Fish, James; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Jardim, José Roberto

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of asthma on patients in Brazil, by age group (12-17 years, 18-40 years, and ≥ 41 years). From a survey conducted in Latin America in 2011, we obtained data on 400 patients diagnosed with asthma and residing in one of four Brazilian state capitals (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador). The data had been collected using a standardized questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. For the patients who were minors, the parents/guardians had completed the questionnaire. The questions addressed asthma control, number of hospitalizations, number of emergency room visits, and school/work absenteeism, as well as the impact of asthma on the quality of life, sleep, and leisure. We stratified the data by the selected age groups. The proportions of patients who responded in the affirmative to the following questions were significantly higher in the 12- to 17-year age group than in the other two groups: "Have you had at least one episode of severe asthma that prevented you from playing/exercising in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.012); "Have you been absent from school/work in the last 12 months?" (p < 0.001); "Have you discontinued your asthma relief or control medication in the last 12 months?" (p = 0.008). In addition, 30.2% of the patients in the 12- to 17-year age group reported that normal physical exertion was very limiting (p = 0.010 vs. the other groups), whereas 14% of the patients in the ≥ 41-year age group described social activities as very limiting (p = 0.011 vs. the other groups). In this sample, asthma had a greater impact on the patients between 12 and 17 years of age, which might be attributable to poor treatment compliance.

  14. Prevalence of vaginitis in different age groups among females in Greece.

    PubMed

    Sianou, Argiri; Galyfos, George; Moragianni, Dimitra; Baka, Stavroula

    2017-08-01

    Patients with vaginitis were classified into four groups: Group A (prepubertal under-aged females); Group B (pubertal under-aged females); Group C (reproductive age adult females); Group D (postmenopausal adult females). All vaginal specimens underwent microscopy, amine testing, Gram staining and culturing. Overall, 163 patients were included (33, 14, 81 and 35 patients, respectively). The most common infection was bacterial vaginosis (BV), followed by Ureaplasma infection, aerobic vaginitis (AV) and candidiasis. The most common AV-associated organism was Escherichia coli and the most common BV-associated organism was Gardnerella vaginalis. AV was more frequent in Group A, BV in Group C and Ureaplasma infections in Groups C/D. Decreased lactobacilli concentrations were associated with BV in fertile patients (Groups B-C). Although presentation of vaginitis is similar among females of different age in Greece, type and prevalence of pathogens differ. Normal vaginal flora changes are associated with higher risk of vaginitis in specific age groups. Impact Statement The worldwide incidence of reproductive tract infections has been increasing, with specific pathogens being associated with significant risk of morbidity and complications. However, literature data on the distribution of such infections in different age groups is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to provide data on the prevalence and causes of vaginitis in adult and non-adult females of all ages. This study has shown that although presentation of vaginitis is similar among females of different age groups and menstrual status in Greece, type and prevalence of responsible pathogens are different among groups. Changes in normal vaginal flora seem to be associated with higher risk of vaginitis in specific age-groups as well. These findings could contribute in adjusting diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for each age group according to the prevailing pathogens. Further research on antibiotic

  15. Increasing Awareness of Group Privilege with College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Rose, Rose M.; Lokken, Jayne M.; Zarghami, Fatemeh

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted with 850 participants in 36 different classes including Child and Family Studies, Human Relations, Aviation, and Community Studies in a university in the Midwest. The study conducted was based on a simulated discrimination exercise to increase awareness of group privilege and preferential treatment among college…

  16. Increasing Awareness of Group Privilege with College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Rose, Rose M.; Lokken, Jayne M.; Zarghami, Fatemeh

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted with 850 participants in 36 different classes including Child and Family Studies, Human Relations, Aviation, and Community Studies in a university in the Midwest. The study conducted was based on a simulated discrimination exercise to increase awareness of group privilege and preferential treatment among college…

  17. Increasing efficiency of preclinical research by group sequential designs.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Konrad; Grittner, Ulrike; Piper, Sophie K; Rex, Andre; Florez-Vargas, Oscar; Karystianis, George; Schneider, Alice; Wellwood, Ian; Siegerink, Bob; Ioannidis, John P A; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    Despite the potential benefits of sequential designs, studies evaluating treatments or experimental manipulations in preclinical experimental biomedicine almost exclusively use classical block designs. Our aim with this article is to bring the existing methodology of group sequential designs to the attention of researchers in the preclinical field and to clearly illustrate its potential utility. Group sequential designs can offer higher efficiency than traditional methods and are increasingly used in clinical trials. Using simulation of data, we demonstrate that group sequential designs have the potential to improve the efficiency of experimental studies, even when sample sizes are very small, as is currently prevalent in preclinical experimental biomedicine. When simulating data with a large effect size of d = 1 and a sample size of n = 18 per group, sequential frequentist analysis consumes in the long run only around 80% of the planned number of experimental units. In larger trials (n = 36 per group), additional stopping rules for futility lead to the saving of resources of up to 30% compared to block designs. We argue that these savings should be invested to increase sample sizes and hence power, since the currently underpowered experiments in preclinical biomedicine are a major threat to the value and predictiveness in this research domain.

  18. Increasing efficiency of preclinical research by group sequential designs

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Sophie K.; Rex, Andre; Florez-Vargas, Oscar; Karystianis, George; Schneider, Alice; Wellwood, Ian; Siegerink, Bob; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of sequential designs, studies evaluating treatments or experimental manipulations in preclinical experimental biomedicine almost exclusively use classical block designs. Our aim with this article is to bring the existing methodology of group sequential designs to the attention of researchers in the preclinical field and to clearly illustrate its potential utility. Group sequential designs can offer higher efficiency than traditional methods and are increasingly used in clinical trials. Using simulation of data, we demonstrate that group sequential designs have the potential to improve the efficiency of experimental studies, even when sample sizes are very small, as is currently prevalent in preclinical experimental biomedicine. When simulating data with a large effect size of d = 1 and a sample size of n = 18 per group, sequential frequentist analysis consumes in the long run only around 80% of the planned number of experimental units. In larger trials (n = 36 per group), additional stopping rules for futility lead to the saving of resources of up to 30% compared to block designs. We argue that these savings should be invested to increase sample sizes and hence power, since the currently underpowered experiments in preclinical biomedicine are a major threat to the value and predictiveness in this research domain. PMID:28282371

  19. Prosocial Behavior Increases with Age across Five Economic Games

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yoshie; Yamagishi, Toshio; Li, Yang; Kiyonari, Toko

    2016-01-01

    Ontogenic studies of human prosociality generally agree on that human prosociality increases from early childhood through early adulthood; however, it has not been established if prosociality increases beyond early adulthood. We examined a sample of 408 non-student residents from Tokyo, Japan, who were evenly distributed across age (20–59) and sex. Participants played five economic games each separated by a few months. We demonstrated that prosocial behavior increased with age beyond early adulthood and this effect was shown across all five economic games. A similar, but weaker, age-related trend was found in one of three social value orientation measures of prosocial preferences. We measured participants’ belief that manipulating others is a wise strategy for social success, and found that this belief declined with age. Participants’ satisfaction with the unilateral exploitation outcome of the prisoner’s dilemma games also declined with age. These two factors—satisfaction with the DC outcome in the prisoner’s dilemma games and belief in manipulation—mediated the age effect on both attitudinal and behavioral prosociality. Participants’ age-related socio-demographic traits such as marriage, having children, and owning a house weakly mediated the age effect on prosociality through their relationships with satisfaction with the DC outcome and belief in manipulation. PMID:27414803

  20. Prosocial Behavior Increases with Age across Five Economic Games.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoshie; Yamagishi, Toshio; Li, Yang; Kiyonari, Toko

    2016-01-01

    Ontogenic studies of human prosociality generally agree on that human prosociality increases from early childhood through early adulthood; however, it has not been established if prosociality increases beyond early adulthood. We examined a sample of 408 non-student residents from Tokyo, Japan, who were evenly distributed across age (20-59) and sex. Participants played five economic games each separated by a few months. We demonstrated that prosocial behavior increased with age beyond early adulthood and this effect was shown across all five economic games. A similar, but weaker, age-related trend was found in one of three social value orientation measures of prosocial preferences. We measured participants' belief that manipulating others is a wise strategy for social success, and found that this belief declined with age. Participants' satisfaction with the unilateral exploitation outcome of the prisoner's dilemma games also declined with age. These two factors-satisfaction with the DC outcome in the prisoner's dilemma games and belief in manipulation-mediated the age effect on both attitudinal and behavioral prosociality. Participants' age-related socio-demographic traits such as marriage, having children, and owning a house weakly mediated the age effect on prosociality through their relationships with satisfaction with the DC outcome and belief in manipulation.

  1. Age-group differences in inhibiting an oculomotor response.

    PubMed

    Gottlob, Lawrence R; Fillmore, Mark T; Abroms, Ben D

    2007-11-01

    Age-group differences were examined in the delayed oculomotor response task, which requires that observers delay the execution of a saccade (eye movement) toward an abrupt-onset visual cue. This task differs from antisaccade and attentional capture in that inhibition causes saccades to be postponed, not redirected. Older adults executed more premature saccades than young adults, but there were no age-group differences in latency or accuracy of saccades executed at the proper time. The results suggest that older adults are less capable of inhibiting a prepotent saccadic response, but that other aspects of visual working memory related to the task are preserved.

  2. Cold hardiness increases with age in juvenile Rhododendron populations

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chon-Chong; Krebs, Stephen L.; Arora, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Winter survival in woody plants is controlled by environmental and genetic factors that affect the plant’s ability to cold acclimate. Because woody perennials are long-lived and often have a prolonged juvenile (pre-flowering) phase, it is conceivable that both chronological and physiological age factors influence adaptive traits such as stress tolerance. This study investigated annual cold hardiness (CH) changes in several hybrid Rhododendron populations based on Tmax, an estimate of the maximum rate of freezing injury (ion leakage) in cold-acclimated leaves from juvenile progeny. Data from F2 and backcross populations derived from R. catawbiense and R. fortunei parents indicated significant annual increases in Tmax ranging from 3.7 to 6.4°C as the seedlings aged from 3 to 5 years old. A similar yearly increase (6.7°C) was observed in comparisons of 1- and 2-year-old F1 progenies from a R. catawbiense × R. dichroanthum cross. In contrast, CH of the mature parent plants (>10 years old) did not change significantly over the same evaluation period. In leaf samples from a natural population of R. maximum, CH evaluations over 2 years resulted in an average Tmax value for juvenile 2- to 3-year-old plants that was 9.2°C lower than the average for mature (~30 years old) plants. A reduction in CH was also observed in three hybrid rhododendron cultivars clonally propagated by rooted cuttings (ramets)—Tmax of 4-year-old ramets was significantly lower than the Tmax estimates for the 30- to 40-year-old source plants (ortets). In both the wild R. maximum population and the hybrid cultivar group, higher accumulation of a cold-acclimation responsive 25 kDa leaf dehydrin was associated with older plants and higher CH. The feasibility of identifying hardy phenotypes at juvenile period and research implications of age-dependent changes in CH are discussed. PMID:25360138

  3. Marginal effect of increasing ageing drivers on injury crashes.

    PubMed

    Tay, Richard

    2008-11-01

    The safety effects of the ageing driving population have been a topic of research interests in health and transportation economics in recent years due to the ageing of the baby boomers. This study adds to the current knowledge by examining the marginal effects of changing the driver mix on injury crashes using data from the Canadian Province of Alberta between 1990 and 2004. Results from a Poisson regression model reveal that increasing the number of young and ageing drivers will result in an increase in the number of injury crashes whereas increasing the number of middle-aged drivers will result in a reduction. These results are in contrast to those obtained in a previous study on the marginal effects of changing the driver mix on fatal crashes in the Australian State of Queensland and some possible explanations for the differing results are provided.

  4. Increasing pulse wave velocity in a realistic cardiovascular model does not increase pulse pressure with age

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Mohammad W.; Rihani, Ryan J.; Laine, Glen A.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of the well-documented increase in aortic pulse pressure (PP) with age is disputed. Investigators assuming a classical windkessel model believe that increases in PP arise from decreases in total arterial compliance (Ctot) and increases in total peripheral resistance (Rtot) with age. Investigators assuming a more sophisticated pulse transmission model believe PP rises because increases in pulse wave velocity (cph) make the reflected pressure wave arrive earlier, augmenting systolic pressure. It has recently been shown, however, that increases in cph do not have a commensurate effect on the timing of the reflected wave. We therefore used a validated, large-scale, human arterial system model that includes realistic pulse wave transmission to determine whether increases in cph cause increased PP with age. First, we made the realistic arterial system model age dependent by altering cardiac output (CO), Rtot, Ctot, and cph to mimic the reported changes in these parameters from age 30 to 70. Then, cph was theoretically maintained constant, while Ctot, Rtot, and CO were altered. The predicted increase in PP with age was similar to the observed increase in PP. In a complementary approach, Ctot, Rtot, and CO were theoretically maintained constant, and cph was increased. The predicted increase in PP was negligible. We found that increases in cph have a limited effect on the timing of the reflected wave but cause the system to degenerate into a windkessel. Changes in PP can therefore be attributed to a decrease in Ctot. PMID:22561301

  5. Aging increases the susceptibility of hepatic inflammation, liver fibrosis and aging in response to high-fat diet in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Hee; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xiao; Koyama, Yukinori; Ma, Hsiao-Yen; Diggle, Karin; You, Young-Hyun; Schilling, Jan M; Jeste, Dilip; Sharma, Kumar; Brenner, David A; Kisseleva, Tatiana

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate whether aging increases the susceptibility of hepatic and renal inflammation or fibrosis in response to high-fat diet (HFD) and explore the underlying genetic alterations. Middle (10 months old) and old (20 months old) aged, male C57BL/6N mice were fed either a low-fat diet (4 % fat) or HFD (60 % fat) for 4 months. Young (3 months old) aged mice were included as control group. HFD-induced liver and kidney injuries were analyzed by serum and urine assay, histologic staining, immunohistochemistry, and reverse-transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Total RNA sequencing with next-generation technology was done with RNA extracted from liver tissues. With HFD feeding, aged was associated with higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels, marked infiltration of hepatic macrophages, and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17A). Importantly, aged mice showed more advanced hepatic fibrosis and increased expression of fibrogenic markers (Col-I-α1, αSMA, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGFβRII, PDGF, PDGFRβII, TIMP1) in response to HFD. Aged mice fed on HFD also showed increased oxidative stress and TLR4 expression. In the total RNA seq and gene ontology analysis of liver, old-aged HFD group showed significant up-regulation of genes linked to innate immune response, immune response, defense response, inflammatory response compared to middle-aged HFD group. Meanwhile, aging and HFD feeding showed significant increase in glomerular size and mesangial area, higher urine albumin/creatinine ratio, and advanced renal inflammation or fibrosis. However, the difference of HFD-induced renal injury between old-aged group and middle-aged group was not significant. The susceptibility of hepatic fibrosis as well as hepatic inflammation in response to HFD was significantly increased with aging. In addition, aging was associated with glomerular alterations and increased renal inflammation or

  6. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention.

  7. Menopausal age in various ethnic groups in Israel.

    PubMed

    Neri, A; Bider, D; Lidor, Y; Ovadia, J

    1982-12-01

    The effects of various parameters on age at menopause have been investigated in five ethnic groups in Israel comprising East European, West European, North African, Israeli and other Middle Eastern (Mediterranean) women, respectively. The data were acquired by means of anonymous questionnaires and were programmed for 1770 women. Correlation coefficients between various variables and age at menopause revealed three variables which have a straight correlation, vis. obesity index, number of children, and years of amenorrhoea (during the reproductive years). The years-of-smoking variable has an inverse correlation with age at menopause. East Europeans have the highest age at menarche. Two-way analysis of variance has shown that the obesity index, years of amenorrhoea, number of children and years-of-smoking parameters are individually more important than ethnic origin. The finding that the age at menopause is highest in the North African group is explained by the higher incidence in this group of high parity, a greater number of amenorrhoea, obesity, and low cigarette consumption. Since many habits (such as smoking, diet, use of contraceptive pills, multiple partners and marital obligations) are subject to frequent change in the modern world, it is of the utmost importance to repeat such a study every few years.

  8. Maximum Bite Force Analysis in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Patricia; Vieira, Marilena; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF) is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI), using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo), and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil), on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups. PMID:25992105

  9. Age Group and Sex of Students Fall 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    This report provides statistical tables on the age group and sex of full-time and part-time graduate and undergraduate students in the State University of New York (SUNY) system for Fall 1990. Part I contains data for the entire system including headcount tables with corresponding percent distribution arrays. Part II shows headcount and percentage…

  10. An Adolescent Age Group Approach to Examining Youth Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…

  11. Youth Assets and Delayed Coitarche across Developmental Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that assets are associated with youth abstinence, but whether these relationships are constant across developmental age groups has not been shown. Data for this study were obtained from two independent datasets collected across a 2-year period using in-person, in-home interviews of youth (52% female; 44% Caucasian,…

  12. Methamphetamine increases basal ganglia iron to levels observed in aging.

    PubMed

    Melega, William P; Laćan, Goran; Harvey, Dennis C; Way, Baldwin M

    2007-10-29

    Increases in basal ganglia iron are well documented for neurodegenerative diseases but have not been associated with methamphetamine (METH). In this study, vervet monkeys that received two doses of METH (2 mg/kg, intramuscularly, 6 h apart) showed at 1 month, iron increases in substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus, with concurrent increases of ferritin-immunoreactivity and decreases of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity in substantia nigra. At 1.5 years, substantia nigra tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity had recovered while iron and ferritin-immunoreactivity increases persisted. Globus pallidus and substantia nigra iron levels of the adult METH-exposed animals (age 5-9 years) were now comparable with those of drug-naive, aged animals (19-22 years), suggesting an aging-related condition that might render those regions more vulnerable to oxidative stress.

  13. Age-related hearing loss increases cross-modal distractibility.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Sandmann, Pascale; Bendixen, Alexandra; Thiel, Christiane M

    2014-10-01

    Recent electrophysiological studies have provided evidence that changes in multisensory processing in auditory cortex cannot only be observed following extensive hearing loss, but also in moderately hearing-impaired subjects. How the reduced auditory input affects audio-visual interactions is however largely unknown. Here we used a cross-modal distraction paradigm to investigate multisensory processing in elderly participants with an age-related high-frequency hearing loss as compared to young and elderly subjects with normal hearing. During the experiment, participants were simultaneously presented with independent streams of auditory and visual input and were asked to categorize either the auditory or visual information while ignoring the other modality. Unisensory sequences without any cross-modal input served as control conditions to assure that all participants were able to perform the task. While all groups performed similarly in these unisensory conditions, hearing-impaired participants showed significantly increased error rates when confronted with distracting cross-modal stimulation. This effect could be observed in both the auditory and the visual task. Supporting these findings, an additional regression analysis indicted that the degree of high-frequency hearing loss significantly modulates cross-modal visual distractibility in the auditory task. These findings provide new evidence that already a moderate sub-clinical hearing loss, a common phenomenon in the elderly population, affects the processing of audio-visual information.

  14. Aging increases CCN1 expression leading to muscle senescence.

    PubMed

    Du, Jie; Klein, Janet D; Hassounah, Faten; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Cong; Wang, Xiaonan H

    2014-01-01

    Using microarray analysis, we found that aging sarcopenia is associated with a sharp increase in the mRNA of the matricellular protein CCN1 (Cyr61/CTGF/Nov). CCN1 mRNA was upregulated 113-fold in muscle of aged vs. young rats. CCN1 protein was increased in aging muscle in both rats (2.8-fold) and mice (3.8-fold). When muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) were treated with recombinant CCN1, cell proliferation was decreased but there was no change in the myogenic marker myoD. However, the CCN1-treated MPCs did express a senescence marker (SA-βgal). Interestingly, we found CCN1 increased p53, p16(Ink4A), and pRP (hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma protein) protein levels, all of which can arrest cell growth in MPCs. When MPCs were treated with aged rodent serum CCN1 mRNA increased by sevenfold and protein increased by threefold suggesting the presence of a circulating regulator. Therefore, we looked for a circulating regulator. Wnt-3a, a stimulator of CCN1 expression, was increased in serum from elderly humans (2.6-fold) and aged rodents (2.0-fold) compared with young controls. We transduced C2C12 myoblasts with wnt-3a and found that CCN1 protein was increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We conclude that in aging muscle, the circulating factor wnt-3a acts to increase CCN1 expression, prompting muscle senescence by activating cell arrest proteins.

  15. Performance trends in age group breaststroke swimmers in the FINA World Championships 1986-2014.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2016-10-31

    Performance trends in breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level in pool competitions are well investigated for elite swimmers, but not for age group swimmers. This study investigated trends in participation, performance and sex difference in performance in a total of 35,143 (16,160 women and 18,983 men) age group breaststroke swimmers aged 25-29 to 95-99 years competing in the Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) World Masters Championships between 1986 and 2014. Trends in participation were analysed using linear regression analyses and trends in performance were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses with sex, distance and calendar year as fixed variables. Women and men improved performance in all age groups. For age groups 25-29 to 85-89 years, men were faster than women. For age groups 90-94 to 95-99 years, men were not faster than women. Sex and distance showed a significant interaction for all distances in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years. In 50 m, women reduced the gap to men in age groups 40-44 to 70-74 years and in 100 m and 200 m, women reduced the gap in age groups 50-54 to 60-64 years. In summary, (i) women and men improved performance in all race distances and in all age groups, (ii) men were faster than women from 25 to 89 years, but not from 90 to 99 years, and (iii), women reduced the gap to men between ~40 and ~75 years, but not in younger (<40 years) or older (>75 years) age groups. Based on these findings for a time period of nearly 30 years, we may assume a further increase in participation and a further improvement in performance in the near future in age group breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level.

  16. Do levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age after age 65? A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Osmanovic-Thunström, Almira; Mossello, Enrico; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2015-09-01

    psychological and health-related stressors often occur in advanced ages, but little is known about perceived stress in adults aged 65 and over. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that levels of perceived stress increase with increasing age and to detect factors that may account for the association. a dementia-free cohort of 1,656 adults aged 66-97 years living at home or in institutions, participating in the Swedish National Aging and Care study, Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) was assessed for levels of perceived stress using the 10-item perceived stress scale (PSS). prevalence of high stress according to the top tertile of the population (PSS score 20+) was 7.8% in adults aged 81+ years, 7.5% in adults aged 72-78 and 6.2% in adults aged 66 years (P = 0.020). More women than men reported high stress, 8.3 versus 5.4% (P = 0.001). Levels of stress increased with increasing age (P = 0.001) in the linear regression model. This association remained after adjustment for demographic and psychosocial factors, but no longer was present after adjusting for health-related factors. health-related stress is highly prevalent in older adults and seems to play an important role in the association between levels of perceived stress and age in older adults. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cost analysis can help a group practice increase revenues.

    PubMed

    Migliore, Sherry

    2002-02-01

    Undertaking a cost analysis to determine the cost of providing specific services can help group practices negotiate increased payment and identify areas for cost reduction. An OB/GYN practice in Pennsylvania undertook a cost analysis using the resource-based relative value system. Using data from the cost analysis, the practice was able to negotiate increased payment for some of its services. The practice also was able to target some of its fixed costs for reduction. Another result of the analysis was that the practice was able to focus marketing efforts on some of its most profitable, elective services, thereby increasing revenues. In addition, the practice was able to reduce the provision of unprofitable services.

  18. Brain isoprenoids farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate are increased in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Hooff, Gero P; Wood, W Gibson; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Igbavboa, Urule; Ong, Wei-Yi; Muller, Walter E; Eckert, Gunter P

    2012-08-01

    The mevalonate/isoprenoids/cholesterol pathway has a fundamental role in the brain. Increasing age could be associated with specific changes in mevalonate downstream products. Other than age differences in brain cholesterol and dolichol levels, there has been little if any evidence on the short-chain isoprenoids farnesylpyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (GGPP), as well as downstream lipid products. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether brain levels of FPP, GGPP and sterol precursors and metabolites would be altered in aged mice (23 months) as compared to middle-aged mice (12 months) and young mice (3 months). FPP and GGPP levels were found to be significantly higher in brain homogenates of 23-months-old mice. The ratio of FPP to GGPP did not differ among the three age groups suggesting that increasing age does not alter the relative distribution of the two isoprenoids. Gene expression of FPP synthase and GGPP synthase did not differ among the three age groups. Gene expression of HMG-CoA reductase was significantly increased with age but in contrast gene expression of squalene synthase was reduced with increasing age. Levels of squalene, lanosterol and lathosterol did not differ among the three age groups. Desmosterol and 7-dehydroxycholesterol, which are direct precursors in the final step of cholesterol biosynthesis were significantly lower in brains of aged mice. Levels of cholesterol and its metabolites 24S- and 25S-hydroxycholesterol were similar in all three age groups. Our novel find ings on increased FPP and GGPP levels in brains of aged mice may impact on protein prenylation and contribute to neuronal dysfunction observed in aging and certain neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Gender influences headache characteristics with increasing age in migraine patients.

    PubMed

    Bolay, Hayrunnisa; Ozge, Aynur; Saginc, Petek; Orekici, Gulhan; Uludüz, Derya; Yalın, Osman; Siva, Aksel; Bıçakçi, Şebnem; Karakurum, Başak; Öztürk, Musa

    2015-08-01

    Migraine headache is one of the most common primary headache disorders and is three times more prevalent in women than in men, especially during the reproductive ages. The neurobiological basis of the female dominance has been partly established. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of gender on the headache manifestations in migraine patients. The study group consisted of 2082 adult patients from five different hospitals' tertiary care-based headache clinics. The relationship between headache characteristics and gender was evaluated in migraine with aura (MwA) and migraine without aura (MwoA). The duration, severity, frequency of headache and associated symptoms were evaluated in both genders and age-dependent variations and analyzed in two subgroups. Women with migraine were prone to significantly longer duration and intensity of headache attacks. Nausea, phonophobia and photophobia were more prevalent in women. Median headache duration was also longer in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.013) and MwoA (p < 0.001). Median headache intensity was higher in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.010) and MwoA (p = 0.009). The frequency of nausea was significantly higher in women than in men in MwA (p = 0.049). Throbbing headache quality and associated features (nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia) were significantly more frequent in women than in men in MwoA. The gender impact varied across age groups and significant changes were seen in female migraineurs after age 30. No age-dependent variation was observed in male migraineurs. Gender has an influence on the characteristics of the headache as well as on the associated symptoms in migraine patients, and this impact varies across the age groups, particularly in women. © International Headache Society 2014.

  20. Coupling of Temperament with Mental Illness in Four Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Increase in the Age of Olympic Swimmers in Modern Times.

    PubMed

    Mazzilli, Facundo M

    2017-08-01

    Mazzilli, FM. Increase in the age of Olympic swimmers in modern times. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2208-2215, 2017-Anecdotal data suggest an increase in the age of Olympic swimmers, but scientific studies in this regard are scarce, despite the importance for coaches of the confirmation of this increase in different styles. To ascertain the reality of this increase, this study focused on the analysis of the data contained in the reports of the Internal Olympic Games Association, covering different events and styles throughout the history of the Games. Starting with the 1908 Games, a total of 806 swimmers (436 men and 370 women) were included in the study. Of them, 137 men and 135 women had won 2 or more medals. Plots of the age of the swimmer at the time a gold, silver, or bronze medal was granted versus year of competition elicited statistical significant increases in 3 events in men and 9 events in women. Interestingly, significant increases were regularly observed in the styles introduced in the 60s, and a kind of V-shaped distribution was observed in some of the long established competitions, namely in the 100, 400 and 1,500 m freestyle in men, where the point of inflexion seems to occur around 1960. Overall, there is a continuing increase in the age of swimmers of ages over 24 years mirrored by a decrease of those younger than 20 years, and this is accompanied by the increased presence of swimmers that have won medals in 2 or 3 different Games.

  2. Increased White Matter Inflammation in Aging- and Alzheimer's Disease Brain.

    PubMed

    Raj, Divya; Yin, Zhuoran; Breur, Marjolein; Doorduin, Janine; Holtman, Inge R; Olah, Marta; Mantingh-Otter, Ietje J; Van Dam, Debby; De Deyn, Peter P; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Eggen, Bart J L; Amor, Sandra; Boddeke, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Chronic neuroinflammation, which is primarily mediated by microglia, plays an essential role in aging and neurodegeneration. It is still unclear whether this microglia-induced neuroinflammation occurs globally or is confined to distinct brain regions. In this study, we investigated microglia activity in various brain regions upon healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology in both human and mouse samples. In purified microglia isolated from aging mouse brains, we found a profound gene expression pattern related to pro-inflammatory processes, phagocytosis, and lipid homeostasis. Particularly in white matter microglia of 24-month-old mice, abundant expression of phagocytic markers including Mac-2, Axl, CD16/32, Dectin1, CD11c, and CD36 was detected. Interestingly, in white matter of human brain tissue the first signs of inflammatory activity were already detected during middle age. Thus quantification of microglial proteins, such as CD68 (commonly associated with phagocytosis) and HLA-DR (associated with antigen presentation), in postmortem human white matter brain tissue showed an age-dependent increase in immunoreactivity already in middle-aged people (53.2 ± 2.0 years). This early inflammation was also detectable by non-invasive positron emission tomography imaging using [(11)C]-(R)-PK11195, a ligand that binds to activated microglia. Increased microglia activity was also prominently present in the white matter of human postmortem early-onset AD (EOAD) brain tissue. Interestingly, microglia activity in the white matter of late-onset AD (LOAD) CNS was similar to that of the aged clinically silent AD cases. These data indicate that microglia-induced neuroinflammation is predominant in the white matter of aging mice and humans as well as in EOAD brains. This white matter inflammation may contribute to the progression of neurodegeneration, and have prognostic value for detecting the onset and progression of aging and neurodegeneration.

  3. Vestibular Perceptual Thresholds Increase above the Age of 40.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez Rey, María Carolina; Clark, Torin K; Wang, Wei; Leeder, Tania; Bian, Yong; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    We measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in 105 healthy humans (54F/51M) ranging from 18 to 80 years of age. Direction-recognition thresholds were measured using standard methods. The motion consisted of single cycles of sinusoidal acceleration at 0.2 Hz for roll tilt and 1.0 Hz for yaw rotation about an earth-vertical axis, inter-aural earth-horizontal translation (y-translation), inferior-superior earth-vertical translation (z-translation), and roll tilt. A large subset of this population (99 of 105) also performed a modified Romberg test of standing balance. Despite the relatively large population (54F/51M), we found no difference between thresholds of male and female subjects. After pooling across sex, we found that thresholds increased above the age of 40 for all five motion directions investigated. The data were best modeled by a two-segment age model that yielded a constant baseline below an age cutoff of about 40 and a threshold increase above the age cutoff. For all subjects who passed all conditions of the balance test, the baseline thresholds were 0.97°/s for yaw rotation, 0.66°/s for 1-Hz roll tilt, 0.35°/s for 0.2-Hz roll tilt, 0.58 cm/s for y-translation, and 1.24 cm/s for z-translation. As a percentage of the baseline, the fitted slopes (indicating the threshold increase each decade above the age cutoff) were 83% for z-translation, 56% for 1-Hz roll tilt, 46% for y-translation, 32% for 0.2-Hz roll tilt, and 15% for yaw rotation. Even taking age and other factors into consideration, we found a significant correlation of balance test failures with increasing roll-tilt thresholds.

  4. Vestibular Perceptual Thresholds Increase above the Age of 40

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez Rey, María Carolina; Clark, Torin K.; Wang, Wei; Leeder, Tania; Bian, Yong; Merfeld, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    We measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in 105 healthy humans (54F/51M) ranging from 18 to 80 years of age. Direction-recognition thresholds were measured using standard methods. The motion consisted of single cycles of sinusoidal acceleration at 0.2 Hz for roll tilt and 1.0 Hz for yaw rotation about an earth-vertical axis, inter-aural earth-horizontal translation (y-translation), inferior–superior earth-vertical translation (z-translation), and roll tilt. A large subset of this population (99 of 105) also performed a modified Romberg test of standing balance. Despite the relatively large population (54F/51M), we found no difference between thresholds of male and female subjects. After pooling across sex, we found that thresholds increased above the age of 40 for all five motion directions investigated. The data were best modeled by a two-segment age model that yielded a constant baseline below an age cutoff of about 40 and a threshold increase above the age cutoff. For all subjects who passed all conditions of the balance test, the baseline thresholds were 0.97°/s for yaw rotation, 0.66°/s for 1-Hz roll tilt, 0.35°/s for 0.2-Hz roll tilt, 0.58 cm/s for y-translation, and 1.24 cm/s for z-translation. As a percentage of the baseline, the fitted slopes (indicating the threshold increase each decade above the age cutoff) were 83% for z-translation, 56% for 1-Hz roll tilt, 46% for y-translation, 32% for 0.2-Hz roll tilt, and 15% for yaw rotation. Even taking age and other factors into consideration, we found a significant correlation of balance test failures with increasing roll-tilt thresholds. PMID:27752252

  5. Increases in Cognitive and Linguistic Processing Primarily Account for Increases in Speaking Rate with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 ("N" = 7), 7 ("N" = 10), 10…

  6. Increases in Cognitive and Linguistic Processing Primarily Account for Increases in Speaking Rate with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 ("N" = 7), 7 ("N" = 10), 10…

  7. Increased mobilization of aged carbon to rivers by human disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butman, David E.; Wilson, Henry F.; Barnes, Rebecca T.; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A.; Raymond, Peter A.

    2015-02-01

    Approximately 8% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are estimated to come from land-use change, but this estimate excludes fluxes of terrestrial carbon to aquatic ecosystems from human disturbance. Carbon fluxes from land to rivers have probably increased by 0.1 to 0.2 petagrams of carbon per year as a result of disturbances such as deforestation, agricultural intensification and the injection of human wastewater. Most dissolved organic carbon in rivers originates from young organic carbon from soils and vegetation, but aged carbon removed from the modern carbon cycle is also exported in many systems. Here we analyse a global data set of radiocarbon ages of riverine dissolved organic carbon and spatial data on land cover, population and environmental variables. We find that the age of dissolved organic carbon in rivers increases with population density and the proportion of human-dominated landscapes within a watershed, and decreases with annual precipitation. We reason that disturbance reintroduces aged soil organic matter into the modern carbon cycle, although fossil carbon in fertilizer or petroleum products may also be a source of aged carbon in disturbed watersheds. The total export from the terrestrial environment to freshwater systems remains unknown; nevertheless, our results suggest that 3-9% of dissolved organic carbon in rivers is aged carbon mobilized by human disturbance.

  8. Increases in Cognitive and Linguistic Processing Primarily Account for Increases in Speaking Rate with Age

    PubMed Central

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 (N = 7), 7 (N = 10), 10 (N = 9), 13 (N = 7), 16 (N = 9) years and young adults (N = 11) in speaking tasks varying in task demands. Speaking rate increased with age, with decreases in pauses and articulator displacements but not increases in articulator movement speed. Movement speed did not appear to constrain the speaking. Rather, age-related increases in speaking rate are due to gains in cognitive and linguistic processing and speech motor control. PMID:23331100

  9. Increases in cognitive and linguistic processing primarily account for increases in speaking rate with age.

    PubMed

    Nip, Ignatius S B; Green, Jordan R

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 (N = 7), 7 (N = 10), 10 (N = 9), 13 (N = 7), 16 (N = 9) years, and young adults (N = 11) in speaking tasks varying in task demands. Speaking rate increased with age, with decreases in pauses and articulator displacements but not increases in articulator movement speed. Movement speed did not appear to constrain the speaking. Rather, age-related increases in speaking rate are due to gains in cognitive and linguistic processing and speech motor control. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Breast cancer under 40 years of age: increasing number and worse prognosis.

    PubMed

    Dobi, Ágnes; Kelemen, Gyöngyi; Kaizer, László; Weiczner, Roland; Thurzó, László; Kahán, Zsuzsanna

    2011-06-01

    Breast cancer at a relatively young age with a poor prognosis is currently exhibiting an increasing incidence. In a retrospective cohort analysis of early breast cancer cases after surgery from our institutional patient registry, 141 patients aged ≤ 40 years constituted the younger group, with 300 randomly selected patients aged >40 years as controls. A significant and steady increase was found in the relative number of younger cases during the years 2004-2009. The histological type and grade and the lymph node status of the cancers differed significantly between the two groups, with more aggressive biological behaviour, a more advanced stage and a worse prognosis in the younger group. Half of the cancers in the younger cohort were ER-negative, while two-thirds in the control group were ER-positive. Comparatively more tumours were PR-positive and HER2-negative in the control group than in the younger group. The rates of triple-negative cases were 25% and 13% in the younger age and the control group, respectively (p = 0.026). Significantly higher mastectomy and axillary block dissection rates were observed in the younger age group, and more chemotherapy was administered than in the control group. Our findings demonstrate the significance of breast cancer in cases aged <40 years, and draw attention to the need for appropriate care in these cases.

  11. Reliability of Tethered Swimming Evaluation in Age Group Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Nuno; Marinho, Daniel A; Batalha, Nuno; Marques, Mário C; Morouço, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability of tethered swimming in the evaluation of age group swimmers. The sample was composed of 8 male national level swimmers with at least 4 years of experience in competitive swimming. Each swimmer performed two 30 second maximal intensity tethered swimming tests, on separate days. Individual force-time curves were registered to assess maximum force, mean force and the mean impulse of force. Both consistency and reliability were very strong, with Cronbach’s Alpha values ranging from 0.970 to 0.995. All the applied metrics presented a very high agreement between tests, with the mean impulse of force presenting the highest. These results indicate that tethered swimming can be used to evaluate age group swimmers. Furthermore, better comprehension of the swimmers ability to effectively exert force in the water can be obtained using the impulse of force. PMID:25114742

  12. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  13. Delirium in the elderly: current problems with increasing geriatric age

    PubMed Central

    Kukreja, Deepti; Günther, Ulf; Popp, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Delirium is an acute disorder of attention and cognition seen relatively commonly in people aged 65 yr or older. The prevalence is estimated to be between 11 and 42 per cent for elderly patients on medical wards. The prevalence is also high in nursing homes and long term care (LTC) facilities. The consequences of delirium could be significant such as an increase in mortality in the hospital, long-term cognitive decline, loss of autonomy and increased risk to be institutionalized. Despite being a common condition, it remains under-recognised, poorly understood and not adequately managed. Advanced age and dementia are the most important risk factors. Pain, dehydration, infections, stroke and metabolic disturbances, and surgery are the most common triggering factors. Delirium is preventable in a large proportion of cases and therefore, it is also important from a public health perspective for interventions to reduce further complications and the substantial costs associated with these. Since the aetiology is, in most cases, multfactorial, it is important to consider a multi-component approach to management, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Detection and treatment of triggering causes must have high priority in case of delirium. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of delirium in the elderly population, given the increasing numbers of ageing people as well as increasing geriatric age. PMID:26831414

  14. Delirium in the elderly: Current problems with increasing geriatric age.

    PubMed

    Kukreja, Deepti; Günther, Ulf; Popp, Julius

    2015-12-01

    Delirium is an acute disorder of attention and cognition seen relatively commonly in people aged 65 yr or older. The prevalence is estimated to be between 11 and 42 per cent for elderly patients on medical wards. The prevalence is also high in nursing homes and long term care (LTC) facilities. The consequences of delirium could be significant such as an increase in mortality in the hospital, long-term cognitive decline, loss of autonomy and increased risk to be institutionalized. Despite being a common condition, it remains under-recognised, poorly understood and not adequately managed. Advanced age and dementia are the most important risk factors. Pain, dehydration, infections, stroke and metabolic disturbances, and surgery are the most common triggering factors. Delirium is preventable in a large proportion of cases and therefore, it is also important from a public health perspective for interventions to reduce further complications and the substantial costs associated with these. Since the aetiology is, in most cases, multifactorial, it is important to consider a multi-component approach to management, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Detection and treatment of triggering causes must have high priority in case of delirium. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of delirium in the elderly population, given the increasing numbers of ageing people as well as increasing geriatric age.

  15. Increased NGF proforms in aged sympathetic neurons and their targets.

    PubMed

    Bierl, Michael A; Isaacson, Lori G

    2007-01-01

    Target-derived neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) regulate sympathetic neuron survival. Here, NGF and NT-3 protein and transcript were examined in sympathetic neurons and targets in order to determine their role in age-related neuronal atrophy. One obvious alteration was a dramatic increase (up to 50-fold) in NGF protein forms, corresponding to proNGF-B, in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) and targets where sympathetic innervation shows atrophy. In the iris, where sympathetic innervation is protected into old age, proNGF-B was decreased. Alterations in NGF transcript paralleled changes in NGF protein, albeit to a lesser degree. Though significantly increased in aged SCG, NT-3 protein, found primarily as the 'mature' form, showed only minor changes in most tissues, though NT-3 mRNA generally was decreased. In contrast, both NT-3 transcript and NT-3 precursors were increased in iris. The dramatic increases in proNGF, together with minimal changes in NT-3, suggest that alterations in NGF regulation may contribute to the loss of sympathetic innervation observed in many aged peripheral targets.

  16. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong-Liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-Jun; Wang, Yu-Long; Ji, Qing-Hai

    2016-06-08

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were built to analyze the outcomes and risk factors. Increasing age gradient with a 10-year interval was associated with the trend of higher proportions for male gender, grade III/IV and summary stage of distant metastases. Both CSS and OS continued to worsen with increasing age, being poorest in in the oldest age group (≥71); multivariate analysis confirmed that CSS continued to fall with each age decade, significantly starting at 60 years (HR = 7.5, 95% 1.0-54.1, p = 0.047) compared to the young group (≤20). Similarly, multivariate analysis suggested that OS continued worsening with increasing age, but starting at 40 years (HR = 3.7, 95% 1.4-10.1, p = 0.009) compared to the young group. The current study suggests that an age exceeding 60 years itself represents an unfavorable prognostic factor and high risk for cancer-specific death in DTC.

  17. Lack of age-related increase in carotid artery wall viscosity in cardiorespiratory fit men

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kenta; Gando, Yuko; Tanimoto, Michiya; Murakami, Haruka; Ohmori, Yumi; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Tabata, Izumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Age-related arterial stiffening and reduction of arterial elasticity are attenuated in individuals with high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Viscosity is another mechanical characteristic of the arterial wall; however, the effects of age and cardiorespiratory fitness have not been determined. We examined the associations among age, cardiorespiratory fitness and carotid arterial wall viscosity. Methods: A total of 111 healthy men, aged 25–39 years (young) and 40–64 years (middle-aged), were divided into either cardiorespiratory fit or unfit groups on the basis of peak oxygen uptake. The common carotid artery was measured noninvasively by tonometry and automatic tracking of B-mode images to obtain instantaneous pressure and diameter hysteresis loops, and we calculated the effective compliance, isobaric compliance and viscosity index. Results: In the middle-aged men, the viscosity index was larger in the unfit group than in the fit group (2533 vs. 2018 mmHg·s/mm, respectively: P < 0.05), but this was not the case in the young men. In addition, effective and isobaric compliance were increased, and viscosity index was increased with advancing age, but these parameters were unaffected by cardiorespiratory fitness level. Conclusion: These results suggest that the wall viscosity in the central artery is increased with advancing age and that the age-associated increase in wall viscosity may be attenuated in cardiorespiratory fit men. PMID:24029868

  18. Lack of age-related increase in carotid artery wall viscosity in cardiorespiratory fit men.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kenta; Gando, Yuko; Tanimoto, Michiya; Murakami, Haruka; Ohmori, Yumi; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Tabata, Izumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2013-12-01

    Age-related arterial stiffening and reduction of arterial elasticity are attenuated in individuals with high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Viscosity is another mechanical characteristic of the arterial wall; however, the effects of age and cardiorespiratory fitness have not been determined. We examined the associations among age, cardiorespiratory fitness and carotid arterial wall viscosity. A total of 111 healthy men, aged 25-39 years (young) and 40-64 years (middle-aged), were divided into either cardiorespiratory fit or unfit groups on the basis of peak oxygen uptake. The common carotid artery was measured noninvasively by tonometry and automatic tracking of B-mode images to obtain instantaneous pressure and diameter hysteresis loops, and we calculated the effective compliance, isobaric compliance and viscosity index. In the middle-aged men, the viscosity index was larger in the unfit group than in the fit group (2533 vs. 2018 mmHg·s/mm, respectively: P<0.05), but this was not the case in the young men. In addition, effective and isobaric compliance were increased, and viscosity index was increased with advancing age, but these parameters were unaffected by cardiorespiratory fitness level. These results suggest that the wall viscosity in the central artery is increased with advancing age and that the age-associated increase in wall viscosity may be attenuated in cardiorespiratory fit men.

  19. Age-Associated Increase in BMP Signaling Inhibits Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Hanadie; Morgenthaler, Adam; Schlesinger, Christina; Bugaj, Lukasz; Conboy, Irina M; Schaffer, David V

    2015-05-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis, the product of resident neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation, persists into adulthood but decreases with organismal aging, which may contribute to the age-related decline in cognitive function. The mechanisms that underlie this decrease in neurogenesis are not well understood, although evidence in general indicates that extrinsic changes in an aged stem cell niche can contribute to functional decline in old stem cells. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family members are intercellular signaling proteins that regulate stem and progenitor cell quiescence, proliferation, and differentiation in various tissues and are likewise critical regulators of neurogenesis in young adults. Here, we establish that BMP signaling increases significantly in old murine hippocampi and inhibits neural progenitor cell proliferation. Furthermore, direct in vivo attenuation of BMP signaling via genetic and transgenic perturbations in aged mice led to elevated neural stem cell proliferation, and subsequent neurogenesis, in old hippocampi. Such advances in our understanding of mechanisms underlying decreased hippocampal neurogenesis with age may offer targets for the treatment of age-related cognitive decline.

  20. Why Is Cognitive Change More Negative With Increased Age?

    PubMed

    Salthouse, Timothy A

    2017-09-28

    The primary goal of the current study was to investigate factors contributing to more negative cognitive change at older ages. Longitudinal data on 12 cognitive tests were examined in 2,637 adults ranging from 18 to 85 years of age. Because both the intervals between measurement occasions and the number of occasions varied across participants, it was possible to investigate effects of interval and number of measurement occasions on cognitive change in adults of different ages. In addition, about 1/2 of the participants performed alternate versions of the tests on a second and third session on the first occasion, which allowed change to be monitored over intervals of less than 1 week. Regression analyses revealed that cognitive change was more negative with increases in the interval between occasions but was more positive with additional measurement occasions. Both the effects of interval and of number of measurement occasions were similar across adulthood. Increased age was associated with more positive gains over a period of a few days but was associated with more negative declines when the intervals between occasions averaged about 3 years. This combination of results suggests that longitudinal change in cognitive functioning is more negative at older ages not because of greater declines with increases in the interval between measurement occasions, or because of smaller gains with additional measurements. Instead most of the age differences in change may be due to greater losses of benefits associated with the initial assessment over intervals of months or more from the initial assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. CKD increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin; Iyengar, Sudha K; Wang, Jie Jin

    2008-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the United States and often coexists with chronic kidney disease. Both conditions share common genetic and environmental risk factors. A total of 1183 participants aged 54+ were examined in the population-based, prospective cohort Blue Mountains Eye Study (Australia) to determine if chronic kidney disease increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Moderate chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) based on the Cockcroft-Gault equation) was present in 24% of the population (286 of 1183). The 5-yr incidence of early age-related macular degeneration was 3.9% in participants with no/mild chronic kidney disease (35 of 897) and 17.5% in those with moderate chronic kidney disease (50 of 286). After adjusting for age, sex, cigarette smoking, hypertension, complement factor H polymorphism, and other risk factors, persons with moderate chronic kidney disease were 3 times more likely to develop early age-related macular degeneration than persons with no/mild chronic kidney disease (odds ratio = 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 5.7, P < 0.0001). Each SD (14.8 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) decrease in Cockcroft-Gault estimated glomerular filtration rate was associated with a doubling of the adjusted risk for early age-related macular degeneration (odds ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 2.8, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, persons with chronic kidney disease have a higher risk of early age-related macular degeneration, suggesting the possibility of shared pathophysiologic mechanisms between the two conditions.

  2. Advanced age increases chromosome structural abnormalities in human spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Templado, Cristina; Donate, Anna; Giraldo, Jesús; Bosch, Mercè; Estop, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between sperm structural aberrations and age by using a multicolor multichromosome FISH strategy that provides information on the incidence of duplications and deletions on all the autosomes. ToTelvysion kit (Abbott Molecular, Abbott Park, IL, USA) with telomere-specific probes was used. We investigated the sperm of 10 male donors aged from 23 to 74 years old. The donors were divided into two groups according to age, a cohort of five individuals younger than 40 and a cohort of five individuals older than 60 years. The goal of this study was to determine (1) the relationship between donor age and frequency and type of chromosome structural abnormalities and (2) chromosomes more frequently involved in sperm structural aberrations. We found that the older patients had a higher rate of structural abnormalities (6.6%) compared with the younger cohort (4.9%). Although both duplications and deletions were seen more frequently in older men, our findings demonstrate the presence of an excess of duplications versus deletions in both groups at a ratio of 2 to 1. We demonstrate that the distribution of duplications and deletions was not linear along the chromosomes, although a trend toward a higher rate of abnormalities in larger chromosomes was observed. This work is the first study addressing the frequencies of sperm chromosome structural aberrations of all autosomes in a single assay thus making a contribution to the clarification of the amount and origin of damage present in human spermatozoa and in relation to age. PMID:21045871

  3. Telomerase gene therapy in adult and old mice delays aging and increases longevity without increasing cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes de Jesus, Bruno; Vera, Elsa; Schneeberger, Kerstin; Tejera, Agueda M; Ayuso, Eduard; Bosch, Fatima; Blasco, Maria A

    2012-01-01

    A major goal in aging research is to improve health during aging. In the case of mice, genetic manipulations that shorten or lengthen telomeres result, respectively, in decreased or increased longevity. Based on this, we have tested the effects of a telomerase gene therapy in adult (1 year of age) and old (2 years of age) mice. Treatment of 1- and 2-year old mice with an adeno associated virus (AAV) of wide tropism expressing mouse TERT had remarkable beneficial effects on health and fitness, including insulin sensitivity, osteoporosis, neuromuscular coordination and several molecular biomarkers of aging. Importantly, telomerase-treated mice did not develop more cancer than their control littermates, suggesting that the known tumorigenic activity of telomerase is severely decreased when expressed in adult or old organisms using AAV vectors. Finally, telomerase-treated mice, both at 1-year and at 2-year of age, had an increase in median lifespan of 24 and 13%, respectively. These beneficial effects were not observed with a catalytically inactive TERT, demonstrating that they require telomerase activity. Together, these results constitute a proof-of-principle of a role of TERT in delaying physiological aging and extending longevity in normal mice through a telomerase-based treatment, and demonstrate the feasibility of anti-aging gene therapy. PMID:22585399

  4. Autism risk associated with parental age and with increasing difference in age between the parents

    PubMed Central

    Sandin, S; Schendel, D; Magnusson, P; Hultman, C; Surén, P; Susser, E; Grønborg, T; Gissler, M; Gunnes, N; Gross, R; Henning, M; Bresnahan, M; Sourander, A; Hornig, M; Carter, K; Francis, R; Parner, E; Leonard, H; Rosanoff, M; Stoltenberg, C; Reichenberg, A

    2016-01-01

    Advancing paternal and maternal age have both been associated with risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the shape of the association remains unclear, and results on the joint associations is lacking. This study tests if advancing paternal and maternal ages are independently associated with ASD risk and estimates the functional form of the associations. In a population-based cohort study from five countries (Denmark, Israel, Norway, Sweden and Western Australia) comprising 5 766 794 children born 1985–2004 and followed up to the end of 2004–2009, the relative risk (RR) of ASD was estimated by using logistic regression and splines. Our analyses included 30 902 cases of ASD. Advancing paternal and maternal age were each associated with increased RR of ASD after adjusting for confounding and the other parent's age (mothers 40–49 years vs 20–29 years, RR=1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–1.24), P-value<0.001; fathers⩾50 years vs 20–29 years, RR=1.66 (95% CI: 1.49–1.85), P-value<0.001). Younger maternal age was also associated with increased risk for ASD (mothers <20 years vs 20–29 years, RR=1.18 (95% CI: 1.08–1.29), P-value<0.001). There was a joint effect of maternal and paternal age with increasing risk of ASD for couples with increasing differences in parental ages. We did not find any support for a modifying effect by the sex of the offspring. In conclusion, as shown in multiple geographic regions, increases in ASD was not only limited to advancing paternal or maternal age alone but also to differences parental age including younger or older similarly aged parents as well as disparately aged parents. PMID:26055426

  5. Autism risk associated with parental age and with increasing difference in age between the parents.

    PubMed

    Sandin, S; Schendel, D; Magnusson, P; Hultman, C; Surén, P; Susser, E; Grønborg, T; Gissler, M; Gunnes, N; Gross, R; Henning, M; Bresnahan, M; Sourander, A; Hornig, M; Carter, K; Francis, R; Parner, E; Leonard, H; Rosanoff, M; Stoltenberg, C; Reichenberg, A

    2016-05-01

    Advancing paternal and maternal age have both been associated with risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the shape of the association remains unclear, and results on the joint associations is lacking. This study tests if advancing paternal and maternal ages are independently associated with ASD risk and estimates the functional form of the associations. In a population-based cohort study from five countries (Denmark, Israel, Norway, Sweden and Western Australia) comprising 5 766 794 children born 1985-2004 and followed up to the end of 2004-2009, the relative risk (RR) of ASD was estimated by using logistic regression and splines. Our analyses included 30 902 cases of ASD. Advancing paternal and maternal age were each associated with increased RR of ASD after adjusting for confounding and the other parent's age (mothers 40-49 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.24), P-value<0.001; fathers⩾50 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.66 (95% CI: 1.49-1.85), P-value<0.001). Younger maternal age was also associated with increased risk for ASD (mothers <20 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.18 (95% CI: 1.08-1.29), P-value<0.001). There was a joint effect of maternal and paternal age with increasing risk of ASD for couples with increasing differences in parental ages. We did not find any support for a modifying effect by the sex of the offspring. In conclusion, as shown in multiple geographic regions, increases in ASD was not only limited to advancing paternal or maternal age alone but also to differences parental age including younger or older similarly aged parents as well as disparately aged parents.

  6. Learning science in small multi-age groups: the role of age composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-06-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by pre-primary children aged 4-6. The second part included one primary class attended by students aged 6-8 in addition to the pre-primary classes. Students were involved in inquiry-based science activities. Two sources of data were used: Lesson recordings and children's assessments. The data from both sources were separately analyzed and the findings plotted. The resulting graphs indicate a linear relationship between the overall performance of the younger children in a class and the number of older ones participating in the groups in each class. It seems that the age composition of the groups can significantly affect the overall cognitive achievements of the younger children and preferentially determines the time within which this factor reaches its maximum value. The findings can be utilized in deciding the age composition of small groups in a class with the aim of facilitating the younger children's learning in science.

  7. The age at onset of rheumatoid arthritis is increasing in Japan: a nationwide database study.

    PubMed

    Kato, Eri; Sawada, Tetsuji; Tahara, Koichiro; Hayashi, Haeru; Tago, Mayu; Mori, Hiroaki; Nishino, Jinju; Matsui, Toshihiro; Tohma, Shigeto

    2017-07-01

    To determine whether the age at onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has increased in Japan using a nationwide database (National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan, NinJa). We analyzed the data of RA patients who had been diagnosed with early RA (disease duration < 2 years) and newly registered in 2003, 2008 or 2013. The numbers of patients who developed RA in 2002-2003, 2007-2008, and 2012-2013 were 536, 812 and 1864, respectively. The mean age at RA onset increased significantly from 55.8 years in 2002-2003 and 57.0 years in 2007-2008 to 59.9 years in 2012-2013. The peak age shifted from the 50-59 years age group in 2002-2003 to the 60-69 years age group in 2012-2013. There was no apparent difference in the age at RA onset between male and female RA patients. Notably, in the period 2002-2003, the prevalence of RA was markedly higher in the age group of 50-59 years, which included the first 'baby boomers', than in the age groups of 30-39 and 40-49 years, even with consideration of the variations in the age composition of the general population. We have demonstrated that the age at RA onset in Japan has increased significantly over the last decade. This can be attributed to Japan's aging population. In addition, the high prevalence of RA among the first baby boomers suggests that environmental factors might also have contributed to the increase in age at RA onset in Japan. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Group Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Increases Smoke Toxicant Concentration.

    PubMed

    Ramôa, Carolina P; Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a global health concern. Laboratory research has focused on individual waterpipe users while group use is common. This study examined user toxicant exposure and smoke toxicant yield associated with individual and group waterpipe smoking. Twenty-two pairs of waterpipe smokers used a waterpipe individually and as a dyad. Before and after smoking, blood was sampled and expired carbon monoxide (CO) measured; puff topography was recorded throughout. One participant from each pair was selected randomly and their plasma nicotine and expired air CO concentrations were compared when smoking alone to when smoking as part of a dyad. Recorded puff topography was used to machine-produce smoke that was analyzed for toxicant content. There was no difference in mean plasma nicotine concentration when an individual smoked as part of a dyad (mean = 14.9 ng/ml; standard error of the mean [SEM] = 3.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean = 10.0 ng/ml; SEM = 1.5). An individual smoking as part of as a dyad had, on average, lower CO (mean = 15.8 ppm; SEM = 2.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean= 21.3 ppm; SEM = 2.7). When two participants smoked as a dyad they took, on average, more puffs (mean = 109.8; SEM = 7.6) than a singleton smoker (mean = 77.7; SEM = 8.1) and a shorter interpuff interval (IPI; dyad mean = 23.8 seconds; SEM = 1.9; singleton mean = 40.8 seconds; SEM = 4.8). Higher concentrations of several toxicants were observed in dyad-produced smoke. Dyad smoking may increase smoke toxicant content, likely due to the dyad's shorter IPIs and greater puff number. More work is needed to understand if group waterpipe smoking alters the health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. This study is the first to measure toxicants in smoke generated from a waterpipe when used by a dyad. Relative to smoke generated by a singleton, dyad smoke had higher concentration of some toxicants. These differences may be attributed to differences in puffing behavior

  9. Designing Group Examinations to Decrease Social Loafing and Increase Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revere, Lee; Elden, Max; Bartsch, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study examines a method to decrease social loafing in a group examination. Students who met in teams during the semester took an exam in groups. Rules for the exam, based on the Jeopardy game show, facilitated both group and individual accountability. Feedback from students indicated that compared to a class that did not have group exams,…

  10. Prevalence of Unique Pediatric Pathologies Encountered by Paramedic Students Across Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Ernest, Eric V; Brazelton, Tom B; Carhart, Elliot D; Studnek, Jonathan R; Tritt, Patricia L; Philip, Genghis A; Burnett, Aaron M

    2016-08-01

    abdominal pain and behavioral/psych increased. Bimodal distributions for overdose were seen with one spike in the toddler and another in the adolescent population. Seizures were most common in the age group associated with febrile seizure. Sepsis was seen most often in the youngest patients and its prevalence decreased with age. There are statistically significant variations in the frequency of paramedic student primary impressions as a function of age in the pediatric population. Emphasizing paramedic student exposure to the most common pathologies encountered in each age group, in the context of the psychological and physiological milestones of each age, may improve paramedic student pediatric practice. Ernest EV , Brazelton TB , Carhart ED , Studnek JR , Tritt PL , Philip GA , Burnett AM . Prevalence of unique pediatric pathologies encountered by paramedic students across age groups. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016; 31(4):386-391.

  11. Resistance training increases basal limb blood flow and vascular conductance in aging humans.

    PubMed

    Anton, Maria M; Cortez-Cooper, Miriam Y; DeVan, Allison E; Neidre, Daria B; Cook, Jill N; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2006-11-01

    Age-related reductions in basal limb blood flow and vascular conductance are associated with the metabolic syndrome, functional impairments, and osteoporosis. We tested the hypothesis that a strength training program would increase basal femoral blood flow in aging adults. Twenty-six sedentary but healthy middle-aged and older subjects were randomly assigned to either a whole body strength training intervention group (52 +/- 2 yr, 3 men, 10 women) who underwent three supervised resistance training sessions per week for 13 wk or a control group (53 +/- 2 yr, 4 men, 9 women) who participated in a supervised stretching program. At baseline, there were no significant differences in blood pressure, cardiac output, basal femoral blood flow (via Doppler ultrasound), vascular conductance, and vascular resistance between the two groups. The strength training group increased maximal strength in all the major muscle groups tested (P < 0.05). Whole body lean body mass increased (P < 0.05) with strength training, but leg fat-free mass did not. Basal femoral blood flow and vascular conductance increased by 55-60% after strength training (both P < 0.05). No such changes were observed in the control group. In both groups, there were no significant changes in brachial blood pressure, plasma endothelin-1 and angiotensin II concentrations, femoral artery wall thickness, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance. Our results indicate that short-term strength training increases basal femoral blood flow and vascular conductance in healthy middle-aged and older adults.

  12. Safety and efficacy of retrograde intrarenal surgery in patients of different age groups.

    PubMed

    Tolga-Gulpinar, M; Resorlu, B; Atis, G; Tepeler, A; Ozyuvali, E; Oztuna, D; Resorlu, M; Akbas, A; Sancak, E B; Unsal, A

    2015-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) to treat renal stones in different age groups of patients. We performed a retrospective analysis of 947 patients who underwent RIRS for renal calculi between January 2008 and January 2014. Age at RIRS was analysed both as a continuous and categorical variable and patients were categorized into three age groups; aged ≤ 15 years at surgery (group i, n=51), 16 - 60 years (group Ii, n=726) and>60 years (group iii, n=170). We compared the 3 groups with the regard to stone characteristics, operative parameters and postoperative outcomes. The stone-free rate was 78.4% in group i, 77.5% in group ii, and 81.1% in group iii (P=.587). A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only stone size and stone number had significant influence on the stone-free rates after RIRS. Intraoperative complications occurred 13.7% in group i, 5.6% group ii, and 7.6% in group iii. Overall complication rates in children were higher than adult patients but the differences were not statistically significant. We found that only operation time was associated with the increased risk of intraoperative complications. Peroperative medical complications developed in 8 patients (.8%) in group ii and 2 patients (1.1%) in group iii. A 48-year-old man died from septic shock 5 days after the surgery. RIRS was observed to be a safe and effective procedure in all age groups of patients with stone disease, therefore age should not be considered as a limiting factor. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Excess dietary aluminum increases Drosophila's rate of aging.

    PubMed

    Massie, H R; Williams, T R; Aiello, V R

    1985-01-01

    Aluminum concentrations in the whole organism increased during development and aging of Drosophila melanogaster. The amount of aluminum in the flies was also reflected by the dietary content of aluminum. Additional dietary aluminum, in the form of aluminum salts, decreased the life span by as much as 20%. A significant reduction in life span was found for 1 X 10(-4) M aluminum chloride and for 1 X 10(-3) M aluminum nitrate and aluminum sulfate. Dietary sodium fluoride failed to increase life span.

  14. Trends in Female Breast Cancer by Age Group in the Chiang Mai Population

    PubMed

    Sripan, Patumrat; Sriplung, Hutcha; Pongnikorn, Donsuk; Virani, Shama; Bilheem, Surichai; Chaisaengkhaum, Udomlak; Maneesai, Puttachart; Waisri, Narate; Hanpragopsuk, Chirapong; Tansiri, Panrada; Khamsan, Varunee; Poungsombat, Malisa; Mawoot, Aumnart; Chitapanarux, Imjai

    2017-05-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to determine incidence trends of female breast cancer according to age groups and to predict future change in Chiang Mai women through 2028. Method: Data were collected from all hospitals in Chiang Mai in northern Thailand, from 1989 through 2013, and used to investigate effects of age, year of diagnosis (period) and year of birth (cohort) on female breast cancer incidences using an age-period-cohort model. This model features geometric cut trends to predict change by young (<40 years), middle-aged (40-59) and elderly (≥60) age groups. Result: Of 5, 417 female breast cancer patients with a median age of 50 years (interquartile range: 43 to 59 years), 15%, 61% and 24% were young, middle-aged and elderly, respectively. Seventy nine percent of cancer cases in this study were detected at advanced stage. The trend in stage classification showed an increase in percentage of early stage and a decrease in metastatic cancers. Linear trends for cohort and period were not found in young females but were observed in middle-aged and elderly groups. Age-standardized rates (ASR) can be expected to remain stable around 6.8 per 100,000 women-years in young females. In the other age groups, the ASR trends were calculated to increase and reach peaks in 2024 of 120.2 and 138.2 per 100,000 women-years, respectively. Conclusion: Cohort effects or generation-specific effects, such as life style factors and the year of diagnosis (period) might have impacted on increased incidence in women aged over 40 years but not those under 40 years. A budget should be provided for treatment facilities and strategies to detect early stage cancers. The cost effectiveness of screening measures i.e. mammographic screening may need to be reconsidered for women age over 40 years. Creative Commons Attribution License

  15. Diabetes technology and treatments in the paediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Shalitin, S; Peter Chase, H

    2011-02-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases and its incidence has doubled during the last decade. The goals of intensive management of diabetes were established in 1993 by the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) (1). Children with T1D and their caregivers continue to face the challenge to maintain blood glucose levels in the near-normal range. It is important to prevent sustained hyperglycaemia which is associated with long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications and to avoid recurrent episodes of hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia, especially in young children, which may have adverse effects on cognitive function and impede efforts to achieve the recommended glycaemic targets. Advances in the use of technology that may help maintain the metabolic control goals for young people with T1D were centred on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) (2-4), continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) (5-7), and combining both technologies into a closed-loop system (8-10). The dilemma in paediatrics of patient selection for insulin pump therapy was found to be most successful in those with more frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and younger age prior to pump initiation (2). Similarly, those who used a dual-wave bolus probably paid closer attention to their management and had lower HbA1c levels (3). The advantage of using a pre-meal bolus to improve postprandial glucose levels was shown to offer another potential method to improve glycaemic control (4). SMBG is an important component of therapy in patients with diabetes, especially in the paediatric age group. Standard use of glucose meters for SMBG provides only intermittent single blood glucose levels, without giving the 'whole picture' of glucose variability during the 24 h, and especially during the night, when blood glucose levels are seldom measured. Therefore, the use of a device such as real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) that provides

  16. A ketogenic diet increases succinic dehydrogenase activity in aging cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Balietti, Marta; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Giorgetti, Belinda; Casoli, Tiziana; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Solazzi, Moreno; Platano, Daniela; Aicardi, Giorgio; Bertoni-Freddari, Carlo

    2009-08-01

    Impairment of energy metabolism and an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production seem to play a major role in age-related apoptotic loss of cardiomyocytes. Succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) is an important marker of the mitochondrial capability to provide an adequate amount of ATP. Moreover, because of its unique redox properties, SDH activity contributes to maintain the reduced state of the ubiquinone pool. Recent reports have shown that ketone body intake improves cardiac metabolic efficiency and exerts a cardioprotective antioxidant action, we therefore performed a cytochemical investigation of SDH activity in cardiomyocytes of late-adult (19-month-old) rats fed for 8 weeks with a medium-chain triglycerides ketogenic diet (MCT-KD). Young, age-matched and old animals fed with a standard chow were used as controls. The overall area of the precipitates (PA) from SDH activity and the area of the SDH-positive mitochondria (MA) were measured. The percent ratios PA/MA and MA/total myocardial tissue area (MA/TA) were the parameters taken into account. We found that PA/MA was significantly higher in young control rats and in MCT-KD-fed rats versus late-adult and old control rats and in young control versus MCT-KD-fed rats. MA/TA of MCT-KD-fed rats was significantly higher versus age-matched and old control rats and tended to be higher versus young control rats; this parameter was significantly higher in young versus old control rats. Thus, MCT-KD intake partially recovers age-related decrease of SDH activity and increases the myocardial area occupied by metabolically active mitochondria. These effects might counteract metabolic alterations leading to apoptosis-induced myocardial atrophy and failure during aging.

  17. Increasing Social Presence in Online Learning through Small Group Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcaoglu, Mete; Lee, Eunbae

    2016-01-01

    Social presence is difficult to achieve, but an imperative component of online learning. In this study, we investigated the effect of group size on students' perceptions of social presence in two graduate-level online courses, comparing small group versus whole class discussions. Our results indicated that when in small group discussions, students…

  18. Increased Exploration Capacity Promotes Group Fission in Gregarious Foraging Herbivores.

    PubMed

    Lardy, Sophie; Fortin, Daniel; Pays, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Many gregarious species display rapid fission-fusion dynamics with individuals frequently leaving their groups to reunite or to form new ones soon after. The adaptive value of such ephemeral associations might reflect a frequent tilt in the balance between the costs and benefits of maintaining group cohesion. The lack of information on the short-term advantages of group fission, however, hampers our understanding of group dynamics. We investigated the effect of group fission on area-restricted search, a search tactic that is commonly used when food distribution is spatially autocorrelated. Specifically, we determine if roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) improve key aspects of their extensive search mode immediately after fission. We found that groups indeed moved faster and farther over time immediately after than before fission. This gain was highest for the smallest group that resulted from fission, which was more likely to include the fission's initiator. Sex of group members further mediated the immediate gain in search capacity, as post-fission groups moved away at farthest rate when they were only comprised of males. Our study suggests that social conflicts during the extensive search mode can promote group fission and, as such, can be a key determinant of group fission-fusion dynamics that are commonly observed in gregarious herbivores.

  19. Increased Exploration Capacity Promotes Group Fission in Gregarious Foraging Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Lardy, Sophie; Fortin, Daniel; Pays, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Many gregarious species display rapid fission-fusion dynamics with individuals frequently leaving their groups to reunite or to form new ones soon after. The adaptive value of such ephemeral associations might reflect a frequent tilt in the balance between the costs and benefits of maintaining group cohesion. The lack of information on the short-term advantages of group fission, however, hampers our understanding of group dynamics. We investigated the effect of group fission on area-restricted search, a search tactic that is commonly used when food distribution is spatially autocorrelated. Specifically, we determine if roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) improve key aspects of their extensive search mode immediately after fission. We found that groups indeed moved faster and farther over time immediately after than before fission. This gain was highest for the smallest group that resulted from fission, which was more likely to include the fission’s initiator. Sex of group members further mediated the immediate gain in search capacity, as post-fission groups moved away at farthest rate when they were only comprised of males. Our study suggests that social conflicts during the extensive search mode can promote group fission and, as such, can be a key determinant of group fission-fusion dynamics that are commonly observed in gregarious herbivores. PMID:27907143

  20. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated.

  1. [Rational balanced nutrition of schoolchildren of various age groups].

    PubMed

    Kulikova, N V; Samolyuk, N G; Fedotov, A S; Krotenko, N M

    2013-01-01

    The problem of nutrition of schoolchildren as the main index of health status is considered. Recommendations for implementation of correction system of school feeding in conditions of Siberia will be presented. The purpose of work: on the basis of the results of monitoring living activity and assessment of the health of schoolchildren of different age groups in Siberia to develop guidelines on the rational balanced nutrition. Studies bear witness to inadequate diet and regimen of feeding of schoolchildren. In Siberia a progressive deterioration in the health of students during the years of learning is observed, part of diseases is associated with an unbalanced diet. We offer the project, in course of realization of which study in schools are carried out, scientifically grounded recommendations on appropriate diet and regimen of feeding for schoolchildren of different age groups in the Siberia in the cold and warm period of the year are developed. Implementation of recommendations will result in the general improvement of children health and reduction in medical aid appealability due to diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. The causes of difficult tracheal intubation and preoperative assessments in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyoung-Yong; Kim, Jin-Seo; Koo, Gill Hoi; Kim, Jin-Yun; Woo, Young-Cheol; Jung, Yong Hun; Kang, Hyun; Shin, Hwa-Yong; Yang, So-Young

    2013-01-01

    Background We studied the differences in airway assessment factors among old, middle, and young age groups, and evaluated the frequency and causes of difficult intubation among these groups. Methods Patients were divided into young (< 40 yr, n = 75 ), middle (40-59 yr, n = 83), and old (≥ 60 yr, n = 89) group. Airway assessment factors such as head and neck movement, thyromental distance, interincisor gap, dentition, Mallampati score, and Arné score were assessed. After muscle relaxation, cervical joint rigidity and Cormack-Lehane (C-L) grade were assessed. The differences in airway assessment factors between difficult (C-L grade 3, 4) and easy (C-L grade 1, 2) intubation were then examined. Logistic regression analysis was also carried out to identify the extent to which airway assessment factors reflected difficult intubation. Results As aging, head and neck movement, thyromental distance, and interincisor gap decreased, the grade of dentition, Mallampati score, cervical joint rigidity and the ratio of Arné score > 11 increased. In the old and middle group, the incidence of difficult intubation was increased compared with the young group. Dentition in the young group, Mallampati score and interinsisor gap in the middle group and Mallampati score, cervical joint rigidity in the old group respectively predicted difficult intubation. Conclusions Compared to young individuals, middle-aged or elderly adults are likely to experience more difficulty in endotracheal intubation and its predictive factors could vary by age group. PMID:23646239

  3. Cephalometric and anthropometric data of obstructive apnea in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Borges, Paulo de Tarso Moura; Silva, Benedito Borges da; Moita Neto, José Machado; Borges, Núbia Evangelista de Sá; Li, Li M

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome usually present with changes in upper airway morphology and/or body fat distribution, which may occur throughout life and increase the severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with age. To correlate cephalometric and anthropometric measures with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity in different age groups. A retrospective study of cephalometric and anthropometric measures of 102 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was analyzed. Patients were divided into three age groups (≥20 and <40 years, ≥40 and <60 years, and ≥60 years). Pearson's correlation was performed for these measures with the apnea-hypopnea index in the full sample, and subsequently by age group. The cephalometric measures MP-H (distance between the mandibular plane and the hyoid bone) and PNS-P (distance between the posterior nasal spine and the tip of the soft palate) and the neck and waist circumferences showed a statistically significant correlation with apnea-hypopnea index in both the full sample and in the ≥40 and <60 years age group. These variables did not show any significant correlation with the other two age groups (<40 and ≥60 years). Cephalometric measurements MP-H and PNS-P and cervical and waist circumferences correlated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome severity in patients in the ≥40 and <60 age group. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Health literacy among different age groups in Germany: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Berens, Eva-Maria; Vogt, Dominique; Messer, Melanie; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Schaeffer, Doris

    2016-11-09

    Health literacy is of increasing importance in public health research. It is a necessary pre-condition for the involvement in decisions about health and health care and related to health outcomes. Knowledge about limited health literacy in different age groups is crucial to better target public health interventions for subgroups of the population. However, little is known about health literacy in Germany. The study therefore assesses the prevalence of limited health literacy and associated factors among different age groups. The Health Literacy Survey Germany is a cross-sectional study with 2,000 participants aged 15 years or older in private households. Perceived health literacy was assessed via computer-assisted personal interviews using the HLS-EU-Q-47 questionnaire. Descriptive analyses, chi-square tests and odds ratios were performed stratified for different age groups. The population affected by limited perceived health literacy increases by age. Of the respondents aged 15-29 years, 47.3 % had limited perceived health literacy and 47.2 % of those aged 30-45 years, whereas 55.2 % of the respondents aged 46-64 years and 66.4 % aged 65 years and older showed limited perceived health literacy. In all age groups, limited perceived health literacy was associated with limited functional health literacy, low social status, and a high frequency of doctor visits. The results suggest a need to further investigate perceived health literacy in all phases of the life-course. Particular attention should be devoted to persons with lower social status, limited functional health literacy and/or a high number of doctor visits in all age groups.

  5. A developmental increase in allostatic load from ages 3 to 11 years is associated with increased schizotypal personality at age 23 years.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Melissa; Raine, Adrian; Gao, Yu; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2011-11-01

    Although allostatic load has been investigated in mood and anxiety disorders, no prior study has investigated developmental change in allostatic load as a precursor to schizotypal personality. This study employed a multilevel developmental framework to examine whether the development of increased allostatic load, as indicated by impaired sympathetic nervous system habituation from ages 3 to 11 years, predisposes to schizotypal personality at age 23 years. Electrodermal activity to six aversive tones was recorded in 995 subjects at age 3 years and again at 11 years. Habituation slopes at both ages were used to create groups who showed a developmental increase in habituation (decreased allostatic load), and those who showed a developmental decrease in habituation (increased allostatic load). Children who showed a developmental increase in allostatic load from ages 3 to 11 years had higher levels of schizotypal personality at 23 years. A breakdown of total schizotypy scores demonstrated specificity of findings to cognitive-perceptual features of schizotypy. Findings are the first to document a developmental abnormality in allostasis in relation to adult schizotypal personality. The relative failure to develop normal habituation to repeated stressors throughout childhood is hypothesized to result in an accumulation of allostatic load and consequently increased positive symptom schizotypy in adulthood.

  6. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  7. Dihydrocapsiate improved age-associated impairments in mice by increasing energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Kana; Suzuki, Katsuya

    2017-08-15

    Metabolic dysfunction is associated with aging and results in age-associated chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. Hence, there has been a focus on increasing energy expenditure in aged populations to protect them from age-associated diseases. Dihydrocapsiate (DCT) is a compound that belongs to the capsinoid family. Capsinoids are capsaicin analogs that are found in non-pungent peppers and increase whole-body energy expenditure. However, their effect on energy expenditure has been reported only in young populations, and to date the effectiveness of DCT in increasing energy expenditure in aged populations has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated whether DCT supplementation in aged mice improves age-associated impairments. We obtained five-week-old and one-year-old male C57BL/6J mice and randomly assigned the aged mice to two groups, resulting in a total of three groups: 1) young mice, 2) old mice, and 3) old mice supplemented with 0.3% DCT. After 12 weeks of supplementation, blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed. DCT significantly suppressed age-associated fat accumulation, adipocyte hypertrophy, and liver steatosis. In addition, the DCT treatment dramatically suppressed age-associated increases in hepatic inflammation, immune cell infiltration, and oxidative stress. DCT exerted these suppression effects by increasing energy expenditure linked to upregulation of both the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) gene program and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that DCT efficiently improves age-associated impairments, including liver steatosis and inflammation, in part by increasing energy expenditure via activation of the fat oxidation pathway in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism.

  8. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  9. Hypermaintenance and hypofunction of aged spermatogonia: insight from age-related increase of Plzf expression.

    PubMed

    Ferder, Ianina C; Wang, Ning

    2015-06-30

    Like stem cells in other tissues, spermatogonia, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) at the foundation of differentiation hierarchy, undergo age-related decline in function. The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (Plzf) protein plays an essential role in spermatogonia maintenance by preventing their differentiation. To evaluate whether there is an age-related change in Plzf expression, we found that aged mouse testes exhibited a robust "Plzf overexpression" phenotype, in that they showed not only a higher frequency of Plzf-expressing cells but also an increased level of Plzf expression in these cells. Moreover, some Plzf-expressing cells in aged testes even aberrantly appeared in the differentiating spermatogonia compartment, which is usually low or negative for Plzf expression. Importantly, ectopic Plzf expression in F9 cells suppressed retinoic acid (RA)-induced Stra8 activation, a gene required for meiosis initiation. These data, together with our observation of a lack of meiosis-initiating spermatocytes associated with high Plzf-expressing spermatogonia in the aged testes, particularly in the degenerative seminiferous tubules, suggest that age-related increase in Plzf expression represents a novel molecular signature of spermatogonia aging by functionally arresting their differentiation.

  10. Annual age-grouping and athlete development: a meta-analytical review of relative age effects in sport.

    PubMed

    Cobley, Stephen; Baker, Joseph; Wattie, Nick; McKenna, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Annual age-grouping is a common organizational strategy in sport. However, such a strategy appears to promote relative age effects (RAEs). RAEs refer both to the immediate participation and long-term attainment constraints in sport, occurring as a result of chronological age and associated physical (e.g. height) differences as well as selection practices in annual age-grouped cohorts. This article represents the first meta-analytical review of RAEs, aimed to collectively determine (i) the overall prevalence and strength of RAEs across and within sports, and (ii) identify moderator variables. A total of 38 studies, spanning 1984-2007, containing 253 independent samples across 14 sports and 16 countries were re-examined and included in a single analysis using odds ratios and random effects procedures for combining study estimates. Overall results identified consistent prevalence of RAEs, but with small effect sizes. Effect size increased linearly with relative age differences. Follow-up analyses identified age category, skill level and sport context as moderators of RAE magnitude. Sports context involving adolescent (aged 15-18 years) males, at the representative (i.e. regional and national) level in highly popular sports appear most at risk to RAE inequalities. Researchers need to understand the mechanisms by which RAEs magnify and subside, as well as confirm whether RAEs exist in female and more culturally diverse contexts. To reduce and eliminate this social inequality from influencing athletes' experiences, especially within developmental periods, direct policy, organizational and practitioner intervention is required.

  11. Will the age of peak ultra-marathon performance increase with increasing race duration?

    PubMed

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies found that the athlete's age of the best ultra-marathon performance was higher than the athlete's age of the best marathon performance and it seemed that the athlete's age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased in distance-limited races with rising distance. We investigated the athlete's age of peak ultra-marathon performance in the fastest finishers in time-limited ultra-marathons from 6 hrs to 10 d. Running performance and athlete's age of the fastest women and men competing in 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 144 hrs (6 d) and 240 hrs (10 d) were analysed for races held between 1975 and 2012 using analysis of variance and multi-level regression analysis. The athlete's ages of the ten fastest women ever in 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 6 d and 10 d were 41 ± 9, 41 ± 6, 42 ± 5, 46 ± 5, 44 ± 6, 42 ± 4, and 37 ± 4 yrs, respectively. The athlete's age of the ten fastest women was different between 48 hrs and 10 d. For men, the athlete's ages were 35 ± 6, 37 ± 9, 39 ± 8, 44 ± 7, 48 ± 3, 48 ± 8 and 48 ± 6 yrs, respectively. The athlete's age of the ten fastest men in 6 hrs and 12 hrs was lower than the athlete's age of the ten fastest men in 72 hrs, 6 d and 10 d, respectively. The athlete's age of peak ultra-marathon performance did not increase with rising race duration in the best ultra-marathoners. For the fastest women ever in time-limited races, the athlete's age was lowest in 10 d (~37 yrs) and highest in 48 hrs (~46 yrs). For men, the athlete's age of the fastest ever in 6 hrs (~35 yrs) and 12 hrs (~37 yrs) was lower than the athlete's age of the ten fastest in 72 hrs (~48 yrs), 6 d (~48 yrs) and 10 d (~48 yrs). The differences in the athlete's age of peak performance between female and male ultra-marathoners for the different race durations need further investigations.

  12. Scurvy in pediatric age group – A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009–2014) with search terms “scurvy” “vitamin C deficiency” “ascorbic acid deficiency” “scurvy and children” “scurvy and pediatric age group”. There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  13. Non-fatal self-poisoning across age groups, in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning in common in Sri Lanka, but little is known about variation of psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent across differing ages. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka across three different age groups (namely 14-24 years, 25-34 years and ≥ 35 years). It was anticipated that the findings of the study would inform and guide development of preventive interventions for non-fatal self-poisoning in this country. 935 participants were interviewed within one week of admission to hospital for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning, over a consecutive 14-month period. Socio-demographic factors, types of poison ingested, triggers and psychiatric morbidity was examined as a function of age. Results showed that a majority (83%) of participants were aged below 35 years. Younger participants aged <25 years were significantly more likely to ingest medicinal overdoses, compared to older persons (aged 25-34 years, and ≥ 35 years), who were more likely to ingest pesticides. Recent interpersonal conflict was a proximal trigger seen in all age groups, but suicidal intent, depression and alcohol use disorders increased with age. The overall study findings indicate that most who carry out acts of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka are young (aged <35 years). Interpersonal conflict as a trigger is common to all age groups, but psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent is higher in the older age groups, as is pesticide ingestion. Age specific interventions may be efficacious in the prevention of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka.

  14. Are age-based strategies effective in increasing influenza vaccination coverage?: the Spanish experience.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Herńndez-Barrera, Valentín; Rodríguez-Rieiro, Cristina; de Andrés, Ana López; Miguel-Diez, Javier de; Trujillo, Isabel Jimenez; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of applying age-based strategies to improve influenza vaccination coverage in Spain. We described and compared influenza vaccination coverage from 2003 to 2010 between those Spanish autonomous regions (AR) that lowered the age limit to 60 y and those regions that maintained the limit at 65 y. We used data collected from two surveys covering a representative sample of the Spanish population aged ≥ 16 y [Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS) 2003/2004 and the European Health Survey for Spain (EHSS) 2009/2010]. The study population (persons aged ≥ 60 y) comprised 7,496 persons in the SNHS and 7,686 in the EHSS. In 2010, those AR which had reduced the age limit had higher coverage for all age groups analyzed-regardless of the presence of associated chronic conditions-than AR which continued vaccination for those ≥ 65 y. The greatest differences appeared in individuals aged 60 to 64 y (36.9% vs. 24.4% for individuals without chronic conditions, 59.1% vs. 52.9% for those with chronic conditions, and 43.3% vs. 32.3% for the entire age group). Multivariate analysis showed that those AR which lowered the age limit increased total coverage for all age groups, specifically among individuals with chronic conditions aged 60 to 64 y (IRR 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.54) and ≥ 65 y (IRR 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00-1.14). No significant changes were observed over time for the AR that continued vaccinating people aged ≥ 65 y. Our results suggest that age-based strategies are effective for improving influenza vaccination coverage in Spain.

  15. Increasing the Athletic Group Play of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Catherine A.; Charlop, Marjorie H.

    2014-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across three children with autism and within child across activity was used to assess the effects of interventions designed to teach children with autism to play two common athletic group games, handball and 4-square. Treatment consisted of two phases. In Phase I, athletic skills training, the children participated in…

  16. Study: California Ethnic Groups Seeing Increased Cancer Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A statewide study on cancer and ethnicity hints that cancer rates among immigrant groups may be tied to their degree of assimilation into American culture. The study, released by the University of Southern California's Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, marks the first statewide look at cancer rates among Vietnamese and South Asians and provides…

  17. Study: California Ethnic Groups Seeing Increased Cancer Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A statewide study on cancer and ethnicity hints that cancer rates among immigrant groups may be tied to their degree of assimilation into American culture. The study, released by the University of Southern California's Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, marks the first statewide look at cancer rates among Vietnamese and South Asians and provides…

  18. Increasing the Athletic Group Play of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Catherine A.; Charlop, Marjorie H.

    2014-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across three children with autism and within child across activity was used to assess the effects of interventions designed to teach children with autism to play two common athletic group games, handball and 4-square. Treatment consisted of two phases. In Phase I, athletic skills training, the children participated in…

  19. Classroom-Based Interdependent Group Contingencies Increase Children's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, Sarah; Rudrud, Eric H.; Witts, Benjamin N.; Schulze, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 2 interdependent group contingencies (individual vs. cumulative classroom goal setting) on the number of pedometer-recorded steps taken per day. Thirty third-grade students in 2 classrooms participated. An ABACX design was conducted in which the X phase referred to a replication of the most successful phase…

  20. Climate control of decadal-scale increases in apparent ages of eogenetic karst spring water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Kurz, Marie J.; Khadka, Mitra B.

    2016-09-01

    Water quantity and quality in karst aquifers may depend on decadal-scale variations in recharge or withdrawal, which we hypothesize could be assessed through time-series measurements of apparent ages of spring water. We tested this hypothesis with analyses of various age tracers (3H/3He, SF6, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and selected solute concentrations [dissolved oxygen (DO), NO3, Mg, and SO4] from 6 springs in a single spring complex (Ichetucknee springs) in northern Florida over a 16-yr period. These springs fall into two groups that reflect shallow short (Group 1) and deep long (Group 2) flow paths. Some tracer concentrations are altered, with CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations yielding the most robust apparent ages. These tracers show a 10-20-yr monotonic increase in apparent age from 1997 to 2013, including the flood recession that followed Tropical Storm Debby in mid-2012. This increase in age indicates most water discharged during the study period recharged the aquifer within a few years of 1973 for Group 2 springs and 1980 for Group 1 springs. Inverse correlations between apparent age and DO and NO3 concentrations reflect reduced redox state in older water. Positive correlations between apparent age and Mg and SO4 concentrations reflect increased water-rock reactions. Concentrated recharge in the decade around 1975 resulted from nearly 2 m of rain in excess of the monthly average that fell between 1960 and 2014, followed by a nearly 4 m deficit to 2014. This excess rain coincided with two major El Niño events during the maximum cool phase in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Although regional water withdrawal increased nearly 5-fold between 1980 and 2005, withdrawals represent only 2-5% of Ichetucknee River flow and are less important than decadal-long variations in precipitation. These results suggest that groundwater management should consider climate cycles as predictive tools for future water resources.

  1. Sleep quality, use of hypnotics and sleeping habits in different age-groups among older people.

    PubMed

    Hägg, Miriam; Houston, Britta; Elmståhl, Sölve; Ekström, Henrik; Wann-Hansson, Christine

    2014-12-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among older people (>65 years). Further, long-term use of sedative hypnoticsin older people is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, older people represent a large span of life years, and few studies have included the oldest-old above 85 years. To investigate and compare sleep quality, use of hypnotics and sleeping habits in different age groups of the older population in the Scania region, Sweden and in relation to sociodemographic- and functional status. A cross-sectional population-based study including 2931 people aged 60-93 years from five different municipalities in Scania was performed during 2001-2004. The sample was divided into age groups, young old (60-72 years), old-old (78-84 years) and oldest-old (87-93) years. Data constitutes of sleep related questions, sociodemographic- and functional status from the study 'Good Ageing in Skane'. Descriptive statistics were used to describe sleep quality, hypnotics use and sleeping habitsin relation to sociodemographic- and functional status. The aim was to investigate associations, not the magnitude of associations between variables. In all age groups, those who used hypnotics and were living alone had significantly poorer sleep quality and shortest sleeping time than nonhypnotic users and those who lived together. A significant increase of hypnotics and frequency of use was seen with increasing age. Frequency of napping increased significantly with degree of dependence in all age groups and with increasing age. Insomnia is still a problem and hypnotic use has not improved sleep for a large number of older people. Hypnotics are effective as short-term treatment, however, nonpharmacological interventions and psychological and behavioural therapies should be considered for treating older people with chronic insomnia.

  2. Differentiated effects of social participation components on suicidal ideation across age groups in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide among adults in the Korean population merits study to improve the understanding of the salient risk and protective factors because suicide rates in Korea have increased dramatically over the past 20 years. However, the association between social participation and suicidal ideation is poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to identify the components of social participation in Korean society and to examine the processes through which the components of social participation influence the degree of suicidal ideation people experience across age groups. Methods This study used survey data from the 2010 Seoul Welfare Panel Study. The sample population was restricted to adults aged 20 or older and was categorised into three groups by respondents’ ages. The groups were defined as 'young adults’ (aged 20–39), 'middle-aged adults’ (aged 40–64) and 'the elderly’ (age 65 or more). Three dimensions of social participation were identified by factor analysis – friendship network and hobby group, religious involvement, and instrumental social participation. Results In the young adult group, only instrumental participation was statistically significant (-0.10, p = 0.06). In the middle-aged adult group, only friendship network and hobby group had a strong association with suicidal ideation (-0.11, p = 0.01). Interestingly, for the elderly, religious involvement was related to suicidal ideation, but in a positive way (0.26, p = 0.02). Conclusion The study results supported the theory that different components of social participation are associated with a lower risk of suicidal ideation in different stages of adulthood. PMID:24067075

  3. Population Analysis of Adverse Events in Different Age Groups Using Big Clinical Trials Data.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jake; Eldredge, Christina; Cho, Chi C; Cisler, Ron A

    2016-10-17

    Understanding adverse event patterns in clinical studies across populations is important for patient safety and protection in clinical trials as well as for developing appropriate drug therapies, procedures, and treatment plans. The objective of our study was to conduct a data-driven population-based analysis to estimate the incidence, diversity, and association patterns of adverse events by age of the clinical trials patients and participants. Two aspects of adverse event patterns were measured: (1) the adverse event incidence rate in each of the patient age groups and (2) the diversity of adverse events defined as distinct types of adverse events categorized by organ system. Statistical analysis was done on the summarized clinical trial data. The incident rate and diversity level in each of the age groups were compared with the lowest group (reference group) using t tests. Cohort data was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov, and 186,339 clinical studies were analyzed; data were extracted from the 17,853 clinical trials that reported clinical outcomes. The total number of clinical trial participants was 6,808,619, and total number of participants affected by adverse events in these trials was 1,840,432. The trial participants were divided into eight different age groups to support cross-age group comparison. In general, children and older patients are more susceptible to adverse events in clinical trial studies. Using the lowest incidence age group as the reference group (20-29 years), the incidence rate of the 0-9 years-old group was 31.41%, approximately 1.51 times higher (P=.04) than the young adult group (20-29 years) at 20.76%. The second-highest group is the 50-59 years-old group with an incidence rate of 30.09%, significantly higher (P<.001) when compared with the lowest incidence in the 20-29 years-old group. The adverse event diversity also increased with increase in patient age. Clinical studies that recruited older patients (older than 40 years) were more

  4. Population Analysis of Adverse Events in Different Age Groups Using Big Clinical Trials Data

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Christina; Cho, Chi C; Cisler, Ron A

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding adverse event patterns in clinical studies across populations is important for patient safety and protection in clinical trials as well as for developing appropriate drug therapies, procedures, and treatment plans. Objectives The objective of our study was to conduct a data-driven population-based analysis to estimate the incidence, diversity, and association patterns of adverse events by age of the clinical trials patients and participants. Methods Two aspects of adverse event patterns were measured: (1) the adverse event incidence rate in each of the patient age groups and (2) the diversity of adverse events defined as distinct types of adverse events categorized by organ system. Statistical analysis was done on the summarized clinical trial data. The incident rate and diversity level in each of the age groups were compared with the lowest group (reference group) using t tests. Cohort data was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov, and 186,339 clinical studies were analyzed; data were extracted from the 17,853 clinical trials that reported clinical outcomes. The total number of clinical trial participants was 6,808,619, and total number of participants affected by adverse events in these trials was 1,840,432. The trial participants were divided into eight different age groups to support cross-age group comparison. Results In general, children and older patients are more susceptible to adverse events in clinical trial studies. Using the lowest incidence age group as the reference group (20-29 years), the incidence rate of the 0-9 years-old group was 31.41%, approximately 1.51 times higher (P=.04) than the young adult group (20-29 years) at 20.76%. The second-highest group is the 50-59 years-old group with an incidence rate of 30.09%, significantly higher (P<.001) when compared with the lowest incidence in the 20-29 years-old group. The adverse event diversity also increased with increase in patient age. Clinical studies that recruited older

  5. Alliance for aging research AD biomarkers work group: structural MRI.

    PubMed

    Jack, Clifford R

    2011-12-01

    Biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are increasingly important. All modern AD therapeutic trials employ AD biomarkers in some capacity. In addition, AD biomarkers are an essential component of recently updated diagnostic criteria for AD from the National Institute on Aging--Alzheimer's Association. Biomarkers serve as proxies for specific pathophysiological features of disease. The 5 most well established AD biomarkers include both brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measures--cerebrospinal fluid Abeta and tau, amyloid positron emission tomography (PET), fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This article reviews evidence supporting the position that MRI is a biomarker of neurodegenerative atrophy. Topics covered include methods of extracting quantitative and semiquantitative information from structural MRI; imaging-autopsy correlation; and evidence supporting diagnostic and prognostic value of MRI measures. Finally, the place of MRI in a hypothetical model of temporal ordering of AD biomarkers is reviewed.

  6. Minimal Groups Increase Young Children's Motivation and Learning on Group-Relevant Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments ("N" = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the…

  7. Minimal Groups Increase Young Children's Motivation and Learning on Group-Relevant Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments ("N" = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the…

  8. Cardiovascular reactivity in Black South-African males of different age groups: the influence of urbanization.

    PubMed

    van Rooyen, J M; Huisman, H W; Eloff, F C; Laubscher, P J; Malan, L; Steyn, H S; Malan, N T

    2002-01-01

    Blacks in an urban environment seem to be more vulnerable to excessive increases in blood pressure during daily life events. This greater cardiovascular reactivity during acute stress situations in urban Blacks may lead to the development of hypertension in their later lives. Because Blacks in South Africa are involved in a massive process of urbanization, which may lead to chronic diseases of lifestyle like hypertension and diabetes, this study was undertaken to compare the cardiovascular reactivity patterns of urbanized and rural Black males in the North-West province of South Africa. Two hundred twenty-three Black males of different age groups, Group 1: younger than 25 years of age; Group 2: between 25 and 44 years of age; and Group 3: 45 years of age and older. Participants were randomly selected from rural and urbanized settlements. After resting blood pressure was recorded with a Finapres apparatus, and cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, and total peripheral vascular resistance had been obtained, an acute laboratory stressor (hand dynamometer exercise) was applied and the above measurements repeated. The SBP, DBP, and MAP increased 28% and 42% in both the rural and the urbanized groups. There was a shift from a central reactivity pattern (increased cardiac output) in the young rural group (< 25 years) to a peripheral reactivity pattern (increased total peripheral resistance) in the > or = 45 years old urbanized males after applying the stressor. Cardiovascular reactivity differs between Black males from a rural area compared to urbanized Black males. The urbanized males > or = 45 years of age were at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease because their total peripheral resistance reactivity increased the most during application of the stressor.

  9. On the relative role of different age groups in influenza epidemics.

    PubMed

    Worby, Colin J; Chaves, Sandra S; Wallinga, Jacco; Lipsitch, Marc; Finelli, Lyn; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-12-01

    The identification of key "driver" groups in influenza epidemics is of much interest for the implementation of effective public health response strategies, including vaccination programs. However, the relative importance of different age groups in propagating epidemics is uncertain. During a communicable disease outbreak, some groups may be disproportionately represented during the outbreak's ascent due to increased susceptibility and/or contact rates. Such groups or subpopulations can be identified by considering the proportion of cases within the subpopulation occurring before (Bp) and after the epidemic peak (Ap) to calculate the subpopulation's relative risk, RR=Bp/Ap. We estimated RR for several subpopulations (age groups) using data on laboratory-confirmed US influenza hospitalizations during epidemics between 2009-2014. Additionally, we simulated various influenza outbreaks in an age-stratified population, relating the RR to the impact of vaccination in each subpopulation on the epidemic's initial effective reproductive number R_e(0). We found that children aged 5-17 had the highest estimates of RR during the five largest influenza A outbreaks, though the relative magnitude of RR in this age group compared to other age groups varied, being highest for the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. For the 2010-2011 and 2012-2013 influenza B epidemics, adults aged 18-49, and 0-4 year-olds had the highest estimates of RR respectively. For 83% of simulated epidemics, the group with the highest RR was also the group for which initial distribution of a given quantity of vaccine would result in the largest reduction of R_e(0). In the largest 40% of simulated outbreaks, the group with the highest RR and the largest vaccination impact was children 5-17. While the relative importance of different age groups in propagating influenza outbreaks varies, children aged 5-17 play the leading role during the largest influenza A epidemics. Extra vaccination efforts for this group may contribute

  10. Increasing influenza vaccination coverage in recommended population groups in Europe.

    PubMed

    Blank, Patricia R; Szucs, Thomas D

    2009-04-01

    The clinical and economic burden of seasonal influenza is frequently underestimated. The cornerstone of controlling and preventing influenza is vaccination. National and international guidelines aim to implement immunization programs and targeted vaccination-coverage rates, which should help to enhance the vaccine uptake, especially in the at-risk population. This review purposes to highlight the vaccination guidelines and the actual vaccination situation in four target groups (the elderly, people with underlying chronic conditions, healthcare workers and children) from a European point of view.

  11. Increased liver AGEs induce hepatic injury mediated through an OST48 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Aowen; Yap, Felicia Yt; Bruce, Clinton; Leung, Chris; Plan, Manuel R; Sullivan, Mitchell A; Herath, Chandana; McCarthy, Domenica; Sourris, Karly C; Kantharidis, Phillip; Coughlan, Melinda T; Febbraio, Mark A; Hodson, Mark P; Watt, Matthew J; Angus, Peter; Schulz, Benjamin L; Forbes, Josephine M

    2017-09-25

    The protein oligosaccharyltransferase-48 (OST48) is integral to protein N-glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but is also postulated to act as a membrane localised clearance receptor for advanced glycation end-products (AGE). Hepatic ER stress and AGE accumulation are each implicated in liver injury. Hence the objective of this study was to increase the expression of OST48 and examine the effects on hepatic function and structure. Groups of 8 week old male mice (n = 10-12/group) over-expressing the gene for OST48, dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide-protein glycosyltransferase (DDOST+/-), were followed for 24 weeks, while randomised to diets either low or high in AGE content. By week 24 of the study, either increasing OST48 expression or consumption of high AGE diet impaired liver function and modestly increased hepatic fibrosis, but their combination significantly exacerbated liver injury in the absence of steatosis. DDOST+/- mice had increased both portal delivery and accumulation of hepatic AGEs leading to central adiposity, insulin secretory defects, shifted fuel usage to fatty and ketoacids, as well as hepatic glycogen accumulation causing hepatomegaly along with hepatic ER and oxidative stress. This study revealed a novel role of the OST48 and AGE axis in hepatic injury through ER stress, changes in fuel utilisation and glucose intolerance.

  12. Increased Adipocyte Area in Injured Muscle With Aging and Impaired Remodeling in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fearing, Caitlin M.; Melton, David W.; Lei, Xiufen; Hancock, Heather; Wang, Hanzhou; Sarwar, Zaheer U.; Porter, Laurel; McHale, Matthew; McManus, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated that young male and female mice similarly regenerated injured skeletal muscle; however, female mice transiently increased adipocyte area within regenerated muscle in a sex hormone-dependent manner. We extended these observations to investigate the effect of aging and sex on sarcopenia and muscle regeneration. Cardiotoxin injury to the tibialis anterior muscle of young, middle, and old-aged C57Bl/6J male and female mice was used to measure regenerated myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA), adipocyte area, residual necrosis, and inflammatory cell recruitment. Baseline (uninjured) myofiber CSA was decreased in old mice of both sexes compared to young and middle-aged mice. Regenerated CSA was similar in male mice in all age groups until baseline CSA was attained but decreased in middle and old age female mice compared to young females. Furthermore, adipocyte area within regenerated muscle was transiently increased in young females compared to young males and these sex-dependent increases persisted in middle and old age female mice and were associated with increased Pparg. Young female mice had more pro-inflammatory monocytes/macrophages in regenerating muscle than young male mice and increased Sca-1+CD45−cells. In conclusion, sex and age influence pro-inflammatory cell recruitment, muscle regeneration, and adipocyte area following skeletal muscle injury. PMID:26273023

  13. Prehistorical climate change increased diversification of a group of butterflies.

    PubMed

    Peña, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2008-06-23

    Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and grasses (Poaceae) are very diverse and distributed worldwide. Most Satyrinae use grasses as host plants, but the temporal scale of this tight association is not known. Here, we present a phylogenetic study of Satyrinae butterflies and related groups, based on 5.1 kilobases from six gene regions and 238 morphological characters for all major lineages in the 'satyrine clade'. Estimates of divergence times calibrated using a fossil from the Late Oligocene indicate that the species-rich tribe Satyrini diversified to its current 2200 species simultaneously with the expansion and radiation of grasses during the dramatic cooling and drying up of the Earth in the Oligocene. We suggest that the adaptive radiation of grass feeders in Satyrini has been facilitated by the ubiquitousness of grasses since 25Myr ago, which was triggered by a change in global climate.

  14. Differential symptomatology and functioning in borderline personality disorder across age groups.

    PubMed

    Frías, Álvaro; Palma, Carol; Solves, Laia; Martínez, Bárbara; Salvador, Ana

    2017-09-28

    There is increasing research aimed at addressing whether patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) may exhibit variations in symptomatology and functioning according to their chronological age. The current study consisted of 169 outpatients diagnosed with BPD, who were divided into four age groups as follows: 16-25 years (n = 41), 26-35 years (n = 43), 36-45 years (n = 45), and 46 and more years (n = 40). Age groups were compared for symptomatology, normal personality traits, psychiatric comorbidities, functioning, and treatment-related features. The younger group had significantly higher levels of physical/verbal aggression and suicide attempts relative to the older group. Conversely, the older group had significantly greater severity of somatization, depression, and anxiety symptoms. In addition, the older group showed significantly greater functional impairment overall and across physical/psychological domains, specifically when compared to the younger group. Overall, these findings may suggest that age-related symptoms should be considered when diagnosing BPD. Also, functional impairments should be the target interventions for older BPD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Grouping for Achievement Gains: For Whom Does Achievement Grouping Increase Kindergarten Reading Growth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelson, Jill L.; Carpenter, Brittany D.

    2011-01-01

    With ever-present budget cuts, teachers often use within-class achievement grouping to meet the needs of students of all ability levels but particularly high-ability students. Using a national database, this study examined the relationship between achievement grouping and the size of achievement groups on kindergarten reading growth. Additionally,…

  16. Age group analysis of psychological, physical and functional deterioration in patients hospitalized for pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Martín-Salvador, Adelina; Torres-Sánchez, Irene; Sáez-Roca, Germán; López-Torres, Isabel; Rodríguez-Alzueta, Elisabeth; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2015-10-01

    Hospital admissions due to pneumonia range from 1.1 to 4 per 1,000 patients and this figure increases with age. Hospitalization causes a decline in functional status. Physical impairment impedes recovery and constitutes a higher risk of disability and mortality in elderly people. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of hospital stay in patients with pneumonia related with age. A total of 116 patients with pneumonia were included in this study, and divided into two age groups:<75 years (n=68) and ≥ 75 years (n=48). Respiratory function, physical function and psychological and emotional profile were evaluated. Pneumonia severity, nutritional status, independence and comorbidities were also assessed. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences between both age groups in pneumonia severity and comorbidities. Significant improvements between admission and discharge were found in lung function in both groups (p<0.05), while a significant decrease (p<0.05) in strength assessed by dynamometer was found in the ≥75 years group. Hospitalization leads to a significant physical impairment in patients admitted for pneumonia. This deterioration increases with age. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional group diversity of bee pollinators increases crop yield

    PubMed Central

    Hoehn, Patrick; Tscharntke, Teja; Tylianakis, Jason M; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2008-01-01

    Niche complementarity is a commonly invoked mechanism underlying the positive relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, but little empirical evidence exists for complementarity among pollinator species. This study related differences in three functional traits of pollinating bees (flower height preference, daily time of flower visitation and within-flower behaviour) to the seed set of the obligate cross-pollinated pumpkin Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir. across a land-use intensity gradient from tropical rainforest and agroforests to grassland in Indonesia. Bee richness and abundance changed with habitat variables and we used this natural variation to test whether complementary resource use by the diverse pollinator community enhanced final yield. We found that pollinator diversity, but not abundance, was positively related to seed set of pumpkins. Bees showed species-specific spatial and temporal variation in flower visitation traits and within-flower behaviour, allowing for classification into functional guilds. Diversity of functional groups explained even more of the variance in seed set (r2=45%) than did species richness (r2=32%) highlighting the role of functional complementarity. Even though we do not provide experimental, but rather correlative evidence, we can link spatial and temporal complementarity in highly diverse pollinator communities to pollination success in the field, leading to enhanced crop yield without any managed honeybees. PMID:18595841

  18. Effect of Age Group on Technical-Tactical Performance Profile of the Serve in Men's Volleyball.

    PubMed

    García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical-tactical performance profile of the serve for various age groups and categories of competition in men's volleyball. The sample comprised 13,262 serves performed by 986 players in 299 sets observed in various categories of competition (U-14, U-16, U-19, national senior, and international senior). An observational design was used. The variables studied were category of competition, type of execution, and serve performance. The results showed that for higher age groups (senior categories), there were significantly fewer jump serves and poorer serve performance, regardless of players' maturity and training development. The use of the jump serves increased the serve risk while attempting to hinder the organization of the opponent attack. This paper discusses the serve evolution and the implications on the training process at the different age groups in men's volleyball.

  19. Transient Elastography-Based Liver Stiffness Age-Dependently Increases in Children

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhara, Daisuke; Cho, Yuki; Shintaku, Haruo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Pediatric use of liver transient elastography (TE) is attractive for its non-invasiveness, but reference values have not been established. We aimed to determine reference values for TE in children. Methods In pediatric patients (1 to 18 years), TE (FibroScan®) with an M probe was used for both liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and measurement of hepatic fat deposition by using a controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). The patients were divided into three relevant age groups: preschoolers (1 to 5 years), elementary school children (6 to 11 years), and adolescents (12 to 18 years). Overweight or obese patients or those with known liver disease, elevated serum liver enzymes, or hepatic echogenic abnormality were excluded from the study. Results Among 139 children, 123 (88.5%; 62 male; median age, 11.7 years; age range, 1.3 to 17.2 years) were successfully subjected to M-probe TE without anesthesia. Median LSM increased with age: it was 3.4 kPa (2.3 to 4.6 kPa, 5th to 95th percentiles) at ages 1 to 5 years; 3.8 (2.5 to 6.1) kPa at ages 6 to 11; and 4.1 (3.3 to 7.9) kPa at ages 12 to 18 (P = 0.001). Median CAP was not age dependent: it was 183 (112 to 242) for ages 1 to 18 years. Conclusions M-probe TE is suitable in a wide age range of children from age 1 year up. In children without evidence of liver disease, LSM has an age-dependent increase, whereas CAP does not differ between ages 1 and 18. PMID:27861607

  20. Increased Number of Neurons in the Cervical Spinal Cord of Aged Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Portiansky, Enrique L.; Nishida, Fabian; Barbeito, Claudio G.; Gimeno, Eduardo J.; Goya, Rodolfo G.

    2011-01-01

    In the brain, specific signaling pathways localized in highly organized regions called niches allow the persistence of a pool of stem and progenitor cells that generate new neurons in adulthood. Much less is known about the spinal cord where a sustained adult neurogenesis is not observed. Moreover, there is scarce information concerning cell proliferation in the adult mammalian spinal cord and virtually none in aging animals or humans. We performed a comparative morphometric and immunofluorescence study of the entire cervical region (C1-C8) in young (5 mo.) and aged (30 mo.) female rats. Serum prolactin (PRL), a neurogenic hormone, was also measured. Gross anatomy showed a significant age-related increase in size of all of the cervical segments. Morphometric analysis of cresyl violet stained segments also showed a significant increase in the area occupied by the gray matter of some cervical segments of aged rats. The most interesting finding was that both the total area occupied by neurons and the number of neurons increased significantly with age, the latter increase ranging from 16% (C6) to 34% (C2). Taking the total number of cervical neurons the age-related increase ranged from 19% (C6) to 51% (C3), C3 being the segment that grew most in length in the aged animals. Some bromodeoxyuridine positive-neuron specific enolase negative (BrdU+-NSE−) cells were observed and, occasionally, double positive (BrdU+-NSE+) cells were detected in some cervical segments of both young and aged rats groups. As expected, serum PRL increased markedly with age. We propose that in the cervical spinal cord of female rats, both maturation of pre-existing neuroblasts and/or possible neurogenesis occur during the entire life span, in a process in which PRL may play a role. PMID:21799890

  1. Minimal groups increase young children's motivation and learning on group-relevant tasks.

    PubMed

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments (N = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the "puzzles child" or children in a control condition. Experiment 2 showed that this boost in motivation occurred only when the group was associated with the task. In Experiment 3, children assigned to a minimal group associated with word learning learned more words than children assigned an analogous individual identity. The studies demonstrate that fostering shared motivations may be a powerful means by which to shape young children's academic outcomes. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  3. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  4. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  5. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in Great Britain, 1976-2005: age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J Q; Blakey, Karen; James, Peter W; Gomez Pozo, Basilio; Basta, Nermine O; Hale, Juliet

    2012-08-01

    Increases in the incidence of thyroid cancer have been previously reported. The purpose of the present study was to examine temporal trends in the incidence of primary thyroid cancer diagnosed in 0-49 year olds in parts of Great Britain during 1976-2005. Data on 4,337 cases of thyroid cancer were obtained from regional cancer registries. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) were calculated. Negative binomial regression was used to examine effects of age, sex, drift (linear trend), non-linear period and non-linear cohort. The best fitting negative binomial regression model included age (P < 0.001), sex (P < 0.001) and drift (P < 0.001). Non-linear period (P = 0.648) and non-linear cohort (P = 0.788) were not statistically significant. For males aged 0-14, the ASR increased from 0.2 per million persons per year in 1976-1986 to 0.6 in 1997-2005. For males aged 15-29 and 30-49 the ASRs increased from 1.9 to 3.3 and from 7.4 to 12.7, respectively. For females aged 0-14, the corresponding ASR increased from 0.3 to 0.5. For females aged 15-29 and 30-49 the ASRs increased from 6.9 to 12.4 and from 21.2 to 42.3, respectively. For all age groups, there has been a linear increase in incidence of thyroid cancer, which has led to a doubling of the number of cases diagnosed over a twenty year span. The reasons for this increase are not well understood, but it is consistent with findings from other countries.

  6. Global genome splicing analysis reveals an increased number of alternatively spliced genes with aging.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sofía A; Grochová, Diana; McKenna, Tomás; Borate, Bhavesh; Trivedi, Niraj S; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is a key regulatory mechanism for the development of different tissues; however, not much is known about changes to alternative splicing during aging. Splicing events may become more frequent and widespread genome-wide as tissues age and the splicing machinery stringency decreases. Using skin, skeletal muscle, bone, thymus, and white adipose tissue from wild-type C57BL6/J male mice (4 and 18 months old), we examined the effect of age on splicing by AS analysis of the differential exon usage of the genome. The results identified a considerable number of AS genes in skeletal muscle, thymus, bone, and white adipose tissue between the different age groups (ranging from 27 to 246 AS genes corresponding to 0.3-3.2% of the total number of genes analyzed). For skin, skeletal muscle, and bone, we included a later age group (28 months old) that showed that the number of alternatively spliced genes increased with age in all three tissues (P < 0.01). Analysis of alternatively spliced genes across all tissues by gene ontology and pathway analysis identified 158 genes involved in RNA processing. Additional analysis of AS in a mouse model for the premature aging disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome was performed. The results show that expression of the mutant protein, progerin, is associated with an impaired developmental splicing. As progerin accumulates, the number of genes with AS increases compared to in wild-type skin. Our results indicate the existence of a mechanism for increased AS during aging in several tissues, emphasizing that AS has a more important role in the aging process than previously known.

  7. Population biology of intestinal enterococcus isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Tedim, Ana P; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  8. Population Biology of Intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Individuals in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  9. Normal aging increases discriminal dispersion in visuospatial short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Noack, Hannes; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-09-01

    Computational models of cognitive aging propose that age-related decrements in cognitive performance, including short-term memory (STM), result from less distinct stimulus representations. When applied to visual STM, these models predict higher discriminal dispersion (L. L. Thurstone, 1927, Psychophysical analysis, The American Journal of Psychology, 38, 368-389.) in older adults than in younger adults. To test this prediction, we used a change-detection paradigm for visuospatial locations, with different levels of cognitive load (one, three, or five items) and retention interval (100 or 1,000 ms). Adult age differences were not reliable at Load 1, but were substantial at Loads 3 and 5. Effects of retention time did not differ across age groups, suggesting that age-related differences originated mainly from early processing stages. Applying a mixture model to the data revealed age-related increases in discriminal dispersion and decreases in asymptotic discrimination performance (indexing STM capacity). We concluded that age-related declines in discriminal dispersion, in addition to increasing capacity limitations, impair visual STM performance with advancing adult age.

  10. Metabolomic profiling reveals severe skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of metabolism in aged FBN rats.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Sean M; Dugle, Janis E; Kennedy, Adam D; McDunn, Jonathan E; Kline, William; Guo, Lining; Guttridge, Denis C; Pereira, Suzette L; Edens, Neile K

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles exhibit age-related adaptive and pathological remodeling. Several muscles in particular undergo progressive atrophy and degeneration beyond median lifespan. To better understand myocellular responses to aging, we used semi-quantitative global metabolomic profiling to characterize trends in metabolic changes between 15-month-old adult and 32-month-old aged Fischer 344 × Brown Norway (FBN) male rats. The FBN rat gastrocnemius muscle exhibits age-dependent atrophy, whereas the soleus muscle, up until 32 months, exhibits markedly fewer signs of atrophy. Both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were analyzed, as well as plasma and urine. Compared to adult gastrocnemius, aged gastrocnemius showed evidence of reduced glycolytic metabolism, including accumulation of glycolytic, glycogenolytic, and pentose phosphate pathway intermediates. Pyruvate was elevated with age, yet levels of citrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide were reduced, consistent with mitochondrial abnormalities. Indicative of muscle atrophy, 3-methylhistidine and free amino acids were elevated in aged gastrocnemius. The monounsaturated fatty acids oleate, cis-vaccenate, and palmitoleate also increased in aged gastrocnemius, suggesting altered lipid metabolism. Compared to gastrocnemius, aged soleus exhibited far fewer changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but did show reductions in several glycolytic intermediates, fumarate, malate, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Plasma biochemicals showing the largest age-related increases included glycocholate, heme, 1,5-anhydroglucitol, 1-palmitoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine, palmitoleate, and creatine. These changes suggest reduced insulin sensitivity in aged FBN rats. Altogether, these data highlight skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of glucose and lipid metabolism consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction in aged FBN rats.

  11. When self-interest and age sterotypes collide: elders opposing increased funds for programs benefiting themselves.

    PubMed

    Levy, Becca R; Schlesinger, Mark J

    2005-01-01

    Elders tend to be portrayed by the media as selfishly promoting programs that benefit the old. We predicted, however, that older individuals who choose positive stereotypes about the young over positive stereotypes about the old would oppose an increase in spending on these programs. By analyzing the responses of 1656 individuals, we found: (1) older participants were more likely than younger participants to oppose increased funding of Social Security, Meals on Wheels, and Medicare; and (2) this opposition to increased funding for Social Security and Meals on Wheels was predicted by a stereotype of aging based on a more favorable perception of the capabilities of the young than of the old. Our findings suggest that elders' evaluation of programs that benefit their age group may be more influenced by stereotypes internalized decades earlier than by their current group interests.

  12. Evaluation of human antibody responses to diphtheria toxin subunits A and B in various age groups.

    PubMed

    Karakus, R; Caglar, K; Aybay, C

    2007-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate human antibody responses to diphtheria toxin subunits in various age groups. Antibodies against the intact diphtheria toxin and the diphtheria toxin subunits A and B were evaluated in 1319 individuals using a double-antigen ELISA. Although high levels of protection (83.6%, 95% CI 79.2-87.4) were found in children and adolescents, the middle-aged adult population was less protected (28.8%, 95% CI 24.3-33.6). An increase in age was associated with a decrease in the frequency of protected individuals in the 0-39-year age group (p <0.001). Anti-subunit B levels correlated well (p <0.01) with levels of antibodies against the intact toxin. In children aged < or =16 years, the intervals at which the peaks in geometric mean titres of anti-subunit B antibodies were observed were found to correlate with the ages at which booster doses are administered. Overall, males appeared to be more protected than females (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.34-2.08, p <0.001). A small group of individuals had antibody levels of > or =0.1 IU/mL against the intact toxin, but did not have protective antibody against subunit B. Determination of anti-subunit B antibody levels should help in evaluating the effectiveness of diphtheria boosters and other aspects of diphtheria immunity.

  13. Increased muscle PGC-1alpha expression protects from sarcopenia and metabolic disease during aging.

    PubMed

    Wenz, Tina; Rossi, Susana G; Rotundo, Richard L; Spiegelman, Bruce M; Moraes, Carlos T

    2009-12-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for metabolic disease and loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, a condition known as sarcopenia. Both conditions present a major health burden to the elderly population. Here, we analyzed the effect of mildly increased PGC-1alpha expression in skeletal muscle during aging. We found that transgenic MCK-PGC-1alpha animals had preserved mitochondrial function, neuromuscular junctions, and muscle integrity during aging. Increased PGC-1alpha levels in skeletal muscle prevented muscle wasting by reducing apoptosis, autophagy, and proteasome degradation. The preservation of muscle integrity and function in MCK-PGC-1alpha animals resulted in significantly improved whole-body health; both the loss of bone mineral density and the increase of systemic chronic inflammation, observed during normal aging, were prevented. Importantly, MCK-PGC-1alpha animals also showed improved metabolic responses as evident by increased insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling in aged mice. Our results highlight the importance of intact muscle function and metabolism for whole-body homeostasis and indicate that modulation of PGC-1alpha levels in skeletal muscle presents an avenue for the prevention and treatment of a group of age-related disorders.

  14. Modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease and subjective memory impairment across age groups.

    PubMed

    Chen, Stephen T; Siddarth, Prabha; Ercoli, Linda M; Merrill, David A; Torres-Gil, Fernando; Small, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older adults. Research is limited on the potential link between these risk factors and subjective memory impairment (SMI), which may precede AD and other dementias. Examination of these potential relationships may help identify those at risk for AD at a stage when interventions may delay or prevent further memory problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk factors for AD are associated with SMI among different age groups. Trained interviewers conducted daily telephone surveys (Gallup-Healthways) of a representative community sample of 18,614 U.S. respondents, including 4,425 younger (age 18 to 39 years), 6,365 middle-aged (40 to 59 years), and 7,824 older (60 to 99 years) adults. The surveyors collected data on demographics, lifestyles, and medical information. Less education, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, less exercise, obesity and depression, and interactions among them, were examined for associations with SMI. Weighted logistic regressions and chi-square tests were used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for SMI with each risk factor and pairwise interactions across age groups. Depression, less education, less exercise, and hypertension were significantly associated with SMI in all three age groups. Several interactions between risk factors were significant in younger and middle-aged adults and influenced their associations with SMI. Frequency of SMI increased with age and number of risk factors. Odds of having SMI increased significantly with just having one risk factor. These results indicate that modifiable risk factors for AD are also associated with SMI, suggesting that these relationships occur in a broad range of ages and may be targeted to mitigate further memory problems. Whether modifying these risk factors reduces SMI and the eventual incidence of AD and other dementias later in life remains to be determined.

  15. The effect of age on skin color and color heterogeneity in four ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    de Rigal, Jean; Des Mazis, Isabelle; Diridollou, Stephane; Querleux, Bernard; Yang, Grace; Leroy, Frederce; Barbosa, Vietoria Holloway

    2010-05-01

    Few comparative data are available on age-related changes in skin color among different ethnic groups. The aim of the study was to measure and analyze the skin color and color heterogeneity in four different ethnic groups living in the same local environment and to determine the effects of age on these skin color characteristics. Female volunteers (385) from four ethnic populations (African-American, Caucasian, Chinese and Mexicans) living in the same city were enrolled after informed consent. Skin color was measured on two facial areas, forehead and cheek. The subjects were further divided into six age ranges: 19-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70 and 71-87 years to determine any age-related effects on the skin color and color heterogeneity in both areas. According to the L(*)a(*)b(*) CIE system, clarity (fairness/lightness) was found to be lower in the African-American group whereas the hue was lower in Caucasians, which means more red skin. A clear, statistically significant darkening of the skin with age was observed in all ethnic groups, while evidence of yellowing of the skin was shown in the Chinese volunteers. Overall, the skin color of the face of African-Americans was more heterogeneous than in the other ethnic groups, but showed the least increase with age. Our study revealed interesting differences in skin color and color heterogeneity with respect to ethnicity and age-related alterations. Data obtained are very useful in improving our knowledge about the skin of people of different origins and helps in the development of specific cosmetic products that are well adapted to all these populations.

  16. Increase in spinal deformity surgery in patients age 60 and older is not associated with increased complications.

    PubMed

    Sing, David C; Berven, Sigurd H; Burch, Shane; Metz, Lionel N

    2017-05-01

    Surgical treatment for adult spinal deformity improves patient quality of life; however, trends in surgical utilization in the elderly, who may be at higher risk for complications, remain unclear. To identify trends in the utilization of adult deformity and determine complication rates among older patients. This is a retrospective database analysis. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was queried from 2004 to 2011 to identify adult patients who underwent spinal fusion of eight or more levels using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) coding. Incidence of surgery, complication rates, length of stay, and total hospital charges. The incidence of surgery was normalized to United States census data by age group. Trends in complications, length of stay, and inflation-adjusted hospital charges were determined using linear regression and Cochran-Armitage trend testing. An estimated 29,237 patients underwent adult spinal deformity surgery with an increase from 2,137 to 5,030 cases per year from 2004 to 2011. Surgical incidence among patients 60 years and older increased from 1.9 to 6.5 cases per 100,000 people from 2004 to 2011 (p<.001), whereas utilization in patients younger than 60 increased from 0.59 to 0.93. Linear regression revealed that the largest increase in surgical utilization was for patients aged 65-69 years with an increase of 0.68 patients per 100,000 people per year (p<.001), followed by patients aged 70-74 years with a rate of 0.56 patients per 100,000 people per year (p=.001). Overall complication rates were 22.5% in 2004 and 26.7% in 2011. Although complication risk increased with age (≥60 vs. <60: relative risk 1.91 [1.83, 1.99], p<.001), within-age group rates were stable over time. Mean length of stay was 9.6 days in 2004 and 9.0 days in 2011. Inflation-adjusted mean hospital charges increased from $171,517 in 2004 to $303,479 in 2011 (p<.001). Operative management of adult spinal deformity increased 3.4-fold among

  17. Aging per se Increases the Susceptibility to Free Fatty Acid–Induced Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Derek M.; Fishman, Sigal; Jerschow, Elina; Heo, Hye J.; Atzmon, Gil; Schechter, Clyde; Muzumdar, Radhika H.

    2010-01-01

    Elevations in systemic free fatty acids (FFA) contribute to insulin resistance. To determine the effects of an acute elevation in FFA on insulin action with aging, we infused saline or intralipid (IL) during a hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp in three groups of rats: young ad libitum–fed (YAL), old ad libitum–fed (OAL), and old on lifelong calorie restriction (OCR). The OCR group was included to distinguish between aging per se and age-related changes in body fat distribution. IL induced marked insulin resistance in both YAL and OCR, but the onset of insulin resistance was approximately two to three times more rapid in OCR as compared with YAL. In response to IL infusion, plasminogen-activating inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) expression was increased in subcutaneous fat from OAL animals. In visceral fat, a marked increase in PAI-1 and interleukin-6 expression was observed in OAL and OCR rats, but not YAL, in response to IL treatment. Thus, aging per se increases the inflammatory response to excess nutrients and vulnerability to FFA-induced insulin resistance with aging. PMID:20504893

  18. [Chinese Total Diet Study in 2000. Cadium intakes by different age-sex population groups].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Gao, Junquan; Li, Xiaowei

    2008-05-01

    To estimate the dietary cadium intakes by different age-sex groups in China. The cadium concentrations of food sample from 3rd Chinese total diet study were determined, and then combine these data with the food consumption by population of ten age-sex groups, The cadium intakes, and its distribution and dietary sources were obtained. It was found that the mean and median concentrations of cadium in all food samples were 0.046 and 0.006 mg/kg, respectively. The cadium contents in shellfish and liver were far higher than other food staffs. The cadium intakes by different age-sex groups were estimated to be 12.0 - 25.9 microg/day, ranged from 30.3% to 67.0% of PTWI. The individual dietary cadium intakes by 14% children in 2 - 7 years old group exceed PTWI. Cereals, vegetables and seafood were the main sources of cadium exposure, and contributed about 80% of total intakes. Although the dietary cadium intakes by different age-sex groups are all lower than PTWI, they are increased in the past decade. Moreover, in some provinces, the cadium burden of people is heavy.

  19. Evidence for a major gene influencing 7-year increases in diastolic blood pressure with age

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shu-Chuan Cheng; Carmelli, D.; Hunt, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    The contribution of genetic factors to blood pressure levels is well established. The contribution of genes to the longitudinal change in blood pressure has been less well studied, because of the lack of longitudinal family data. The present study investigated a possible major-gene effect on the observed increase with age in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels. Subjects included 965 unmedicated adults (age {ge}18 years) in 73 pedigrees collected in Utah as part of a longitudinal cardiovascular family study. Segregation analysis of DBP change over 7.2 years of follow-up identified a recessive major-gene effect with a gene frequency of p = .23. There was also a significant age effect on the genotypic means, which decreased expression of the major gene at older ages. For those inferred to have the genotype responsible for large DBP increases, DBP increased 32.3%, compared with a 1.5% increase in the nonsusceptible group (P < .0001). The relative risk of developing hypertension between the susceptible and nonsusceptible groups after 7.2 years was 2.4 (P = .006). Baseline DBP reactivities to mental arithmetic (P < .0001) and isometric hand-grip (P < .0001) stress tests were greatest in those assigned to the susceptible genotype. We conclude that age-related changes in DBP are influenced by a major gene. Characteristics of this major-gene effect for greater age-related blood pressure increases include greater reactivity to mental and physical stressors. The present study thus provides evidence for genetic control of changes in blood pressure, in addition to the previously suggested genetic control of absolute blood pressure level. 28 refs., 6 tabs.

  20. The Name-Letter-Effect in Groups: Sharing Initials with Group Members Increases the Quality of Group Work

    PubMed Central

    Polman, Evan; Pollmann, Monique M. H.; Poehlman, T. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Although the name-letter-effect has been demonstrated reliably in choice contexts, recent research has called into question the existence of the name-letter-effect–the tendency among people to make choices that bear remarkable similarity with the letters in their own name. In this paper, we propose a connection between the name-letter-effect and interpersonal, group-level behavior that has not been previously captured in the literature. Specifically, we suggest that sharing initials with other group members promotes positive feelings toward those group members that in turn affect group outcomes. Using both field and laboratory studies, we found that sharing initials with group members cause groups to perform better by demonstrating greater performance, collective efficacy, adaptive conflict, and accuracy (on a hidden-profile task). Although many studies have investigated the effects of member similarity on various outcomes, our research demonstrates how minimal a degree of similarity among members is sufficient to influence quality of group outcomes. PMID:24236087

  1. Group A Streptococcal Carriage and Seroepidemiology in Children up to 10 Years of Age in Australia.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Helen S; Richmond, Peter; Nissen, Michael; Lambert, Stephen; Booy, Robert; Reynolds, Graham; Sebastian, Shite; Pride, Michael; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Scully, Ingrid L

    2015-08-01

    Group A streptococci (GAS) and other β-hemolytic streptococci (BHS) cause pharyngitis, severe invasive disease and serious nonsuppurative sequelae including rheumatic heart disease and post streptococcal glomerulonephritis. The aim of this study was to assess carriage rates and anti-streptococcal C5a peptidase (anti-SCP) IgG levels and identify epidemiologic factors related to carriage or seropositivity in Australian children. A throat swab and blood sample were collected for microbiological and serological analysis (anti-SCP IgG) in 542 healthy children aged 0-10 years. Sequence analysis of the SCP gene was performed. Serological analysis used a competitive Luminex Immunoassay designed to preferentially detect functional antibody. GAS-positive culture prevalence in throat swabs was 5.0% (range 0-10%), with the highest rate in 5 and 9 years old children. The rate of non-GAS BHS carriage was low (<1%). The scp gene was present in all 22 isolates evaluated. As age of child increased, the rate of carriage increased; odds ratio, 1.14 (1.00, 1.29); P = 0.50. Geometric mean anti-SCP titers increased with each age-band from 2 to 7 years, then plateaued. Age, geographic location and number of children within the household were significantly associated with the presence of anti-SCP antibodies. Children are exposed to GAS and other BHS at a young age, which is important for determining the target age for vaccination to protect before the period of risk.

  2. Multistrategy health education program to increase mammography use among women ages 65 and older.

    PubMed Central

    Rimer, B K; Resch, N; King, E; Ross, E; Lerman, C; Boyce, A; Kessler, H; Engstrom, P F

    1992-01-01

    Mammography use decreases with age although the risk of breast cancer increases with age. Medicare now provides biennial coverage for screening mammography. This study was designed to simulate the Medicare condition by subsidizing mammography among women in eight retirement communities in the metropolitan Philadelphia area. The study also measured the impact of health education interventions and the presence of a mobile mammography van on increased use of mammography. Retirement communities were assigned randomly to the control (cost subsidy alone) or experimental group (cost subsidy, mammography van, and tailored health education interventions). A total of 412 women ages 65 and older who had not had mammograms in the previous year were surveyed at baseline and 3 months later. Analytic techniques reflected the cluster nature of the randomization. Women in the experimental group were significantly more likely than the control group women to have obtained mammograms. Forty-five percent of the experimental group women compared with 12 percent of the control group women subsequently had mammograms in the 3 months after the baseline interview (P less than .001). Logistic regression analysis for mammography use indicated an odds ratio of 6.1 associated with being in the experimental group. For women in the experimental group, a separate logistic regression for mammography use showed an odds ratio of 7.8 associated with attendance at the educational presentation. The results suggest that Medicare coverage alone will not increase mammography use sufficiently to achieve year 2000 objectives. However, the addition of access enhancing and health education interventions boosts utilization dramatically. PMID:1641432

  3. Predicting age groups of Twitter users based on language and metadata features.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Kim, Annice E; Chew, Robert F; Ruddle, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Health organizations are increasingly using social media, such as Twitter, to disseminate health messages to target audiences. Determining the extent to which the target audience (e.g., age groups) was reached is critical to evaluating the impact of social media education campaigns. The main objective of this study was to examine the separate and joint predictive validity of linguistic and metadata features in predicting the age of Twitter users. We created a labeled dataset of Twitter users across different age groups (youth, young adults, adults) by collecting publicly available birthday announcement tweets using the Twitter Search application programming interface. We manually reviewed results and, for each age-labeled handle, collected the 200 most recent publicly available tweets and user handles' metadata. The labeled data were split into training and test datasets. We created separate models to examine the predictive validity of language features only, metadata features only, language and metadata features, and words/phrases from another age-validated dataset. We estimated accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 metrics for each model. An L1-regularized logistic regression model was conducted for each age group, and predicted probabilities between the training and test sets were compared for each age group. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated to examine the relative importance of significant features. Models containing both Tweet language features and metadata features performed the best (74% precision, 74% recall, 74% F1) while the model containing only Twitter metadata features were least accurate (58% precision, 60% recall, and 57% F1 score). Top predictive features included use of terms such as "school" for youth and "college" for young adults. Overall, it was more challenging to predict older adults accurately. These results suggest that examining linguistic and Twitter metadata features to predict youth and young adult Twitter users may be helpful for

  4. Predicting age groups of Twitter users based on language and metadata features

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Chew, Robert F.; Ruddle, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Health organizations are increasingly using social media, such as Twitter, to disseminate health messages to target audiences. Determining the extent to which the target audience (e.g., age groups) was reached is critical to evaluating the impact of social media education campaigns. The main objective of this study was to examine the separate and joint predictive validity of linguistic and metadata features in predicting the age of Twitter users. We created a labeled dataset of Twitter users across different age groups (youth, young adults, adults) by collecting publicly available birthday announcement tweets using the Twitter Search application programming interface. We manually reviewed results and, for each age-labeled handle, collected the 200 most recent publicly available tweets and user handles’ metadata. The labeled data were split into training and test datasets. We created separate models to examine the predictive validity of language features only, metadata features only, language and metadata features, and words/phrases from another age-validated dataset. We estimated accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 metrics for each model. An L1-regularized logistic regression model was conducted for each age group, and predicted probabilities between the training and test sets were compared for each age group. Cohen’s d effect sizes were calculated to examine the relative importance of significant features. Models containing both Tweet language features and metadata features performed the best (74% precision, 74% recall, 74% F1) while the model containing only Twitter metadata features were least accurate (58% precision, 60% recall, and 57% F1 score). Top predictive features included use of terms such as “school” for youth and “college” for young adults. Overall, it was more challenging to predict older adults accurately. These results suggest that examining linguistic and Twitter metadata features to predict youth and young adult Twitter users may be

  5. Ageing Fxr deficient mice develop increased energy expenditure, improved glucose control and liver damage resembling NASH.

    PubMed

    Bjursell, Mikael; Wedin, Marianne; Admyre, Therése; Hermansson, Majlis; Böttcher, Gerhard; Göransson, Melker; Lindén, Daniel; Bamberg, Krister; Oscarsson, Jan; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (Nr1h4, FXR) is a bile acid activated nuclear receptor mainly expressed in the liver, intestine, kidney and adrenal glands. Upon activation, the primary function is to suppress cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the classic or neutral bile acid synthesis pathway. In the present study, a novel Fxr deficient mouse line was created and studied with respect to metabolism and liver function in ageing mice fed chow diet. The Fxr deficient mice were similar to wild type mice in terms of body weight, body composition, energy intake and expenditure as well as behaviours at a young age. However, from 15 weeks of age and onwards, the Fxr deficient mice had almost no body weight increase up to 39 weeks of age mainly because of lower body fat mass. The lower body weight gain was associated with increased energy expenditure that was not compensated by increased food intake. Fasting levels of glucose and insulin were lower and glucose tolerance was improved in old and lean Fxr deficient mice. However, the Fxr deficient mice displayed significantly increased liver weight, steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration and lobular inflammation together with elevated plasma levels of ALT, bilirubin and bile acids, findings compatible with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cholestasis. In conclusion, ageing Fxr deficient mice display late onset leanness associated with elevated energy expenditure and improved glucose control but develop severe NASH-like liver pathology.

  6. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  7. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  8. The Pros and Cons of Mixed-Age Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodish, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Recently, numerous larger schools have tried to capture the potential advantages of a wide age range in their classrooms. The nongraded organizational system recognizes and plans for varied student abilities, provides for different rates of progress, and adjusts to individual emotional and social needs. Both advantages and disadvantages are…

  9. Cytokine production by the tumor from patients with breast cancer in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Kunts, T A; Mikhaylova, E S; Marinkin, I O; Varaksin, N A; Autenshlyus, A I; Lyakhovich, V V

    2017-07-01

    Dependence of cytokine pattern in the tumor supernatant obtained after cultivation of biopsy samples-on the patients' age was evaluated among patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. An increase in VEGF and IL-6 production in a group of younger patients was observed. An increase only in interferon γ concentration was revealed in the supernatants of the tumor after addition of polyclonal activators to the culture medium. This result indicates likely secretion of interferon γ in younger patients. The relation among the production of angiogenic factors by tumor cells, age of the patients, and presence or absence of lymph node metastases shows that in such studies, patients have to be stratified by age.

  10. Posterior scleritis in pediatric age group: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Radha; Suryawanshi, Milind; Isaac, Roshini; Philip, Santhosh K.

    2016-01-01

    Posterior scleritis is rare in both the adult and pediatric age groups. Increased awareness and availability of advanced diagnostic facilities aid in early diagnosis and management. Visual recovery is possible with systemic steroids and immunosuppression. We report the case of a 12-year-old male child who presented with poor vision in his right eye and was found to have retinal striae and disc edema due to posterior scleritis. PMID:27013832

  11. Happiness across age groups: results from the 2007 National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    PubMed

    Cooper, C; Bebbington, P; King, M; Jenkins, R; Farrell, M; Brugha, T; McManus, S; Stewart, R; Livingston, G

    2011-06-01

    To test our hypotheses that happiness declines with age, and that age moderates the relationship of other influences on happiness, so that they vary in different age groups. We analysed data from adults interviewed for the 2007 English National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, representative of people living in private homes. 7399 (57%) of people approached completed information about our main outcome measure, a single item measure of happiness. We compared happiness between younger adults (aged 16-59) and those aged 60-69, 70-79 and 80+. 2746 (39.6%) of people said that they were currently 'very happy', 3956 (52.4%) were 'fairly happy' and 697 (8.0%) were 'not too happy'. Levels of happiness did not vary with age. Social capital and participation predicted happiness across the age span. However, the impact of several variables was moderated by age. Compared with younger people, living with a partner more strongly predicted happiness in people in their 70s. Attendance at religious services or places and having qualifications were more important predictors of happiness in the oldest old, whereas having a social network of at least three people was relatively less important in this age group. Four out of 10 people reported being very happy, and five out of 10 were fairly happy. This is higher than levels reported in earlier surveys. Our findings suggest that interventions that increase social capital and participation may augment general happiness, health and recovery from illness and this would be an interesting area for future study. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Increasing Availability of Exposure Therapy Through Intensive Group Treatment for Childhood Anxiety and OCD.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Stephen P H; Dammann, Julie E; Tiede, Michael S; Biggs, Bridget K; Hillson Jensen, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Archival data were used to examine the feasibility of a 5-day, clinic-based, intensive exposure-based cognitive-behavioral group therapy for childhood anxiety disorders (CADs) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Participants were 143 children (82 girls) aged 6 to 19 years ( M = 13.93 years, SD = 2.9 years) with CADs or OCD (or both) in 28 consecutive groups. Repeated-measures ANOVA in the subsample ( n = 57) with complete treatment data indicated positive change on all variables from pretreatment to posttreatment with few differences between CADs and OCD patients. Effect sizes were moderate to large for anxiety symptoms (parent reported = 0.74, child reported = 0.65) and impairment (parent reported = 1.02, child reported = 0.69). The intensive group protocol required fewer sessions and 36% fewer therapist-hours per patient than the individually administered protocol. The program increased treatment availability for families from diverse geographic areas ( M distance traveled to clinic = 407 miles, SD = 786.4 miles). These findings support further, well-controlled examination of the 5-day intensive group treatment protocol's efficacy and potential to increase availability of evidence-based exposure therapy.

  13. Obesity-induced oxidative stress, accelerated functional decline with age and increased mortality in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Fischer, Kathleen E; Soto, Vanessa; Liu, Yuhong; Sosnowska, Danuta; Richardson, Arlan; Salmon, Adam B

    2015-06-15

    Obesity is a serious chronic disease that increases the risk of numerous co-morbidities including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and cancer as well as increases risk of mortality, leading some to suggest this condition represents accelerated aging. Obesity is associated with significant increases in oxidative stress in vivo and, despite the well-explored relationship between oxidative stress and aging, the role this plays in the increased mortality of obese subjects remains an unanswered question. Here, we addressed this by undertaking a comprehensive, longitudinal study of a group of high fat-fed obese mice and assessed both their changes in oxidative stress and in their performance in physiological assays known to decline with aging. In female C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet starting in adulthood, mortality was significantly increased as was oxidative damage in vivo. High fat-feeding significantly accelerated the decline in performance in several assays, including activity, gait, and rotarod. However, we also found that obesity had little effect on other markers of function and actually improved performance in grip strength, a marker of muscular function. Together, this first comprehensive assessment of longitudinal, functional changes in high fat-fed mice suggests that obesity may induce segmental acceleration of some of the aging process. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Obesity-induced oxidative stress, accelerated functional decline with age and increased mortality in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Fischer, Kathleen E.; Soto, Vanessa; Liu, Yuhong; Sosnowska, Danuta; Richardson, Arlan; Salmon, Adam B.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a serious chronic disease that increases the risk of numerous co-morbidities including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and cancer as well as increases risk of mortality leading some to suggest this represents accelerated aging. Obesity is associated with significant increases in oxidative stress in vivo and, despite the well-explored relationship between oxidative stress and aging, the role this plays in the increased mortality of obese subjects remains an unanswered question. Here, we addressed this by undertaking a comprehensive, longitudinal study of a group of high fat-fed obese mice and assessed both their changes in oxidative stress and in their performance in physiological assays known to decline with aging. In female C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet starting in adulthood, mortality was significantly increased in high fat-fed mice as was oxidative damage in vivo. High fat-feeding significantly accelerated the decline in performance in several assays, including activity, gait, and rotarod. However, we also found that obesity had little effect on other markers and actually improved performance in grip strength, a marker of muscular function. Together, this first comprehensive assessment of longitudinal functional changes in high fat-fed mice suggests that obesity may induce segmental acceleration of some of the aging process. PMID:25558793

  15. Hepatitis B virus infection among different sex and age groups in Pakistani Punjab

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious health problem in the developing countries including Pakistan. Various risk factors are responsible for the spread of this infectious disease. Prevalence of HBV infection in apparently suspected individual of Punjab province of Pakistan was analyzed during January 2008 to December 2010. Current study was aimed to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of HBV infection. Methodology Four thousand eight hundred and ninety patients suffering from chronic liver disease were screened for the presence of HBV DNA using qualitative Real Time PCR methodology to confirm their status of infection. A predesigned standard questionnaire was filled for all the patients that included information about the possible risk factors. Results A total of 4890 ELISA positive patients were screened for Hepatitis B virus infection. Of these 3143 were positive for HBV, includes 68.15% males and 31.85% females. Male were observed to be more frequently infected as compared to the female with a positivity ratio of 2.14: 1. The rate of infection increases with the passage of time in the course of three years. Highest frequency of infection was found in the age of 21-30 was 34.93% followed by 23.83% in 31-40. Only (13.39%) were belonging to the age group 11-20 year. The rate of infection declines with increasing age as shown by age groups 41-50 (16.13%) and 51-60 (7.09%). While children aged 0-10 and very old >60 age groups were very less frequently 1.49% and 1.65% infected respectively. Important risk factors contributing to HBV spread include barber risk (23.60%), blood transfusion (4.04%), History of injection 26.19%, Reuse of syringes 26.60%, dental risk (11.20%) and surgical procedure (4.26%). Among the entire respondents trend sharing personal items was very common. History of injection, barber risk, surgery and dental procedure and reuse of syringes appear as major risk factors for the transmission. Conclusion Male were more

  16. PREVENTIVE TRAINING PROGRAMME FOR PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE CORONARY EVENT-- CORRELATION BETWEEN SELECTED PARAMETERS AND AGE GROUPS.

    PubMed

    Vysoký, Robert; Fiala, Jindřich; Dosbaba, Filip; Bat'alik, Ladislav; Nehyba, Svatopluk; Ludka, Ondřej

    2015-09-01

    Interventional cardiovascular training programmes provide a prescription of optimal form and safe intensity. They are part of the second phase of cardiovascular rehabilitation which is a key point in the whole tertiary-preventive care for patients with coronary artery disease. The patients are hemodynamically adapted to a normal physical load, their aerobic capacity is gradually increased, and they learn principles of regular aerobic-resistance exercise. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of modified aerobic-resistance exercise on cardiorespiratory indicators in patients after acute coronary event, and evaluate the differences between monitored parameters in different age groups. The study was conducted on a group of 106 patients (85% of men) of an average age of 60.4 ± 10.9 years, with left ventricular ejec- tion fraction of 57.4 ± 7.2%. All subjects went through an acute coronary event. The time elapsed between the occurence of a coronary event and the beginning of the training programme was 35 ± 8 days. In patients after coronary artery bypass grafting, the time passed was 50 ± 16 days on average. All patients received a two-month aerobic-resistance training with a frequency of three times a week. The length of a training unit was set to 100 minutes (out of which 60 minutes were allocated to individual aerobic training). A significant negative correlation between age and average values of monitored parameters was observed. Even though the values of all parameters are decreasing with increasing age, a shift towards higher values in all parameters occurred after completing the training programme. The study reveals that there are interindividual differences between the parameter values. Asignificant difference in individual parameters was found between different age groups. The result of the study shows that a given parameter could characterize each age group. Completing the interventional training programme also led to a significant increase of

  17. Capturing heterogeneous group differences using mixture-of-experts: Application to a study of aging.

    PubMed

    Eavani, Harini; Hsieh, Meng Kang; An, Yang; Erus, Guray; Beason-Held, Lori; Resnick, Susan; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-01-15

    In MRI studies, linear multi-variate methods are often employed to identify regions or connections that are affected due to disease or normal aging. Such linear models inherently assume that there is a single, homogeneous abnormality pattern that is present in all affected individuals. While kernel-based methods can implicitly model a non-linear effect, and therefore the heterogeneity in the affected group, extracting and interpreting information about affected regions is difficult. In this paper, we present a method that explicitly models and captures heterogeneous patterns of change in the affected group relative to a reference group of controls. For this purpose, we use the Mixture-of-Experts (MOE) framework, which combines unsupervised modeling of mixtures of distributions with supervised learning of classifiers. MOE approximates the non-linear boundary between the two groups with a piece-wise linear boundary, thus allowing discovery of multiple patterns of group differences. In the case of patient/control comparisons, each such pattern aims to capture a different dimension of a disease, and hence to identify patient subgroups. We validated our model using multiple simulation scenarios and performance measures. We applied this method to resting state functional MRI data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, to investigate heterogeneous effects of aging on brain function in cognitively normal older adults (>85years) relative to a reference group of normal young to middle-aged adults (<60years). We found strong evidence for the presence of two subgroups of older adults, with similar age distributions in each subgroup, but different connectivity patterns associated with aging. While both older subgroups showed reduced functional connectivity in the Default Mode Network (DMN), increases in functional connectivity within the pre-frontal cortex as well as the bilateral insula were observed only for one of the two subgroups. Interestingly, the subgroup

  18. Younger age increases the risk of early prosthesis failure following primary total knee replacement for osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Total knee replacements (TKRs) are being increasingly performed in patients aged ≤ 65 years who often have high physical demands. We investigated the relation between age of the patient and prosthesis survival following primary TKR using nationwide data collected from the Finnish Arthroplasty Register. Materials From Jan 1, 1997 through Dec 31, 2003, 32,019 TKRs for primary or secondary osteoarthritis were reported to the Finnish Arthroplasty Register. The TKRs were followed until the end of 2004. During the follow-up, 909 TKRs were revised, 205 (23%) due to infection and 704 for other reasons. Results Crude overall implant survival improved with increasing age between the ages of 40 and 80. The 5-year survival rates were 92% and 95% in patients aged ≤ 55 and 56–65 years, respectively, compared to 97% in patients who were > 65 years of age (p < 0.001). The difference was mainly attributable to reasons other than infections. Sex, diagnosis, type of TKR (condylar, constrained, or hinge), use of patellar component, and fixation method were also associated with higher revision rates. However, the differences in prosthesis survival between the age groups ≤ 55, 56–65, and > 65 years remained after adjustment for these factors (p < 0.001). Interpretation Young age impairs the prognosis of TKR and is associated with increased revision rates for non-infectious reasons. Diagnosis, sex, type of TKR, use of patellar component, and fixation method partly explain the differences, but the effects of physical activity, patient demands, and obesity on implant survival in younger patients warrant further research. PMID:20809740

  19. Age Differences and Changes of Coping Behavior in Three Age Groups: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Rott, Christoph; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With increasing age, older adults are more likely to be challenged by an increasing number of physical, functional and social losses. As a result, coping with losses becomes a central theme in very late life. This study investigated age differences and age changes in active behavioral, active cognitive and avoidance coping and related coping to…

  20. Age Differences and Changes of Coping Behavior in Three Age Groups: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Rott, Christoph; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With increasing age, older adults are more likely to be challenged by an increasing number of physical, functional and social losses. As a result, coping with losses becomes a central theme in very late life. This study investigated age differences and age changes in active behavioral, active cognitive and avoidance coping and related coping to…

  1. Estimation of the amount of telomere molecules in different human age groups and the telomere increasing effect of acupuncture and shiatsu on St.36, using synthesized basic units of the human telomere molecules as reference control substances for the bi-digital O-ring test resonance phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Omura, Y; Shimotsura, Y; Ooki, M; Noguchi, T

    1998-01-01

    It is well established that the telomeres at the ends of chromosomes are composed of long arrays of (TTAGGG)n x (CCCTAA)n that form a nucleoprotein complex required for the replication and protection of chromosome ends. Throughout the cell cycle, telomeres also contain a protein component related to the proto-oncogene Myb that is known as TRF1 (telomere TTAGGG repeat binding factor 1) that binds to the duplex array of TTAGGG repeats in the telomere. Previous studies have shown that TRF1 appears to play a role in controlling the length of telomeres by acting as an inhibitor of telomerase. The amount of each of the TRF1(C-19) & TRF1(N-19) was identical to the amount of telomere of the same organ of the same apparently normal individual. Using synthesized basic unit of TTAGGG, as well as CCCTAA, as separate reference control substances for the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test of Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical substances, we were able to non-invasively measure the approximate amount of TTAGGG and CCCTAA units, in both normal and cancerous human cells. We examined about 30 apparently normal subjects (both Asian and Caucasian in both sex). The subjects' ages ranged from infancy to 76 years. Each subject was first examined using TTAGGG as a control substance and then examined using CCCTAA as a control substance. The amount of telomere in various cancer tissues are almost always higher than that of normal tissue of the same organ. The measured amounts of both TTAGGG and CCCTAA were found to be in an average of 1500-1600 ng for human fetus or infancy and decreased with the advance of age in both sex with the exception of the heart, brain, eyes (retina), testes, and ovaries, which usually remain at the level of the infant, or reduced very little. Individuals in the same age group had a similar range of amounts of both TTAGGG and CCCTAA in the same organ of the same individual, (except for those with unusually low telomeres often had chronic degenerative diseases, and those

  2. Changing relationship among clinic, home, and ambulatory blood pressure with increasing age.

    PubMed

    Stergiou, George S; Ntineri, Angeliki; Kollias, Anastasios; Destounis, Antonios; Nasothimiou, Efthimia; Roussias, Leonidas

    2015-07-01

    Studies in adults have shown similar levels of home (HBP) and daytime ambulatory blood pressure (dABP), which are lower than clinic blood pressure (CBP) measurements. This study investigated the impact of age on these differences. A total of 642 untreated children, adolescents, and adults referred to a hypertension clinic were evaluated with CBP, HBP, and dABP measurements within 4 weeks (mean age 38.6 ± 19.4 years; range 5-78 years; 61.1% males). In children, dABP was higher than both CBP and HBP. These differences were progressively eliminated with increasing age, and after the age of 30 years, dABP was similar to HBP, and both were lower than CBP. In subjects aged ≥60 years, dABP appeared to be lower than HBP. Age and hypertension appeared to be the main independent predictors of the differences among the three methods.These data suggest that the relationship between office and out-of-office blood pressure measurements is not the same across all age groups and should be taken into account in the evaluation of subjects with elevated blood pressure in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Age-related increases in right frontal activation during task switching are mediated by reaction time and white matter microstructure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Z; Hakun, J G; Johnson, N F; Gold, B T

    2014-10-10

    Age-related increases in right frontal cortex activation are a common finding in the neuroimaging literature. However, neurocognitive factors contributing to right frontal over-recruitment remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the influence of age-related reaction time (RT) slowing and white matter (WM) microstructure reductions as potential explanatory factors for age-related increases in right frontal activation during task switching. Groups of younger (N=32) and older (N=33) participants completed a task switching paradigm while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed, and rested while diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed. Two right frontal regions of interest (ROIs), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and insula, were selected for further analyses from a common network of regions recruited by both age groups during task switching. Results demonstrated age-related activation increases in both ROIs. In addition, the older adult group showed longer RT and decreased fractional anisotropy in regions of the corpus callosum with direct connections to the fMRI ROIs. Subsequent mediation analyses indicated that age-related increases in right insula activation were mediated by RT slowing and age-related increases in right DLPFC activation were mediated by WM microstructure. Our results suggest that age-related RT slowing and WM microstructure declines contribute to age-related increases in right frontal activation during cognitive task performance.

  4. Malaria in school-age children in Africa: an increasingly important challenge.

    PubMed

    Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Brooker, Simon J; Clarke, Sian E; Fernando, Deepika; Gitonga, Caroline W; Schellenberg, David; Greenwood, Brian

    2014-11-01

    School-age children have attracted relatively little attention as a group in need of special measures to protect them against malaria. However, increasing success in lowering the level of malaria transmission in many previously highly endemic areas will result in children acquiring immunity to malaria later in life than has been the case in the past. Thus, it can be anticipated that in the coming years there will be an increase in the incidence of both uncomplicated and severe malaria in school-age children in many previously highly endemic areas. In this review, which focuses primarily on Africa, recent data on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and on the incidence of clinical malaria in African school-age children are presented and evidence that malaria adversely effects school performance is reviewed. Long-lasting insecticide treated bednets (LLIN) are an effective method of malaria control but several studies have shown that school-age children use LLINs less frequently than other population groups. Antimalarial drugs are being used in different ways to control malaria in school-age children including screening and treatment and intermittent preventive treatment. Some studies of chemoprevention in school-age children have shown reductions in anaemia and improved school performance but this has not been the case in all trials and more research is needed to identify the situations in which chemoprevention is likely to be most effective and, in these situations, which type of intervention should be used. In the longer term, malaria vaccines may have an important role in protecting this important section of the community from malaria. Regardless of the control approach selected, it is important this is incorporated into the overall programme of measures being undertaken to enhance the health of African school-age children.

  5. Malaria in school-age children in Africa: an increasingly important challenge

    PubMed Central

    Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Brooker, Simon J; Clarke, Sian E; Fernando, Deepika; Gitonga, Caroline W; Schellenberg, David; Greenwood, Brian

    2014-01-01

    School-age children have attracted relatively little attention as a group in need of special measures to protect them against malaria. However, increasing success in lowering the level of malaria transmission in many previously highly endemic areas will result in children acquiring immunity to malaria later in life than has been the case in the past. Thus, it can be anticipated that in the coming years there will be an increase in the incidence of both uncomplicated and severe malaria in school-age children in many previously highly endemic areas. In this review, which focuses primarily on Africa, recent data on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and on the incidence of clinical malaria in African school-age children are presented and evidence that malaria adversely effects school performance is reviewed. Long-lasting insecticide treated bednets (LLIN) are an effective method of malaria control but several studies have shown that school-age children use LLINs less frequently than other population groups. Antimalarial drugs are being used in different ways to control malaria in school-age children including screening and treatment and intermittent preventive treatment. Some studies of chemoprevention in school-age children have shown reductions in anaemia and improved school performance but this has not been the case in all trials and more research is needed to identify the situations in which chemoprevention is likely to be most effective and, in these situations, which type of intervention should be used. In the longer term, malaria vaccines may have an important role in protecting this important section of the community from malaria. Regardless of the control approach selected, it is important this is incorporated into the overall programme of measures being undertaken to enhance the health of African school-age children. PMID:25145389

  6. Diversity, Group Identity, and Citizenship Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide immigration and quests for rights by minority groups have caused social scientists and educators to raise serious questions about liberal assimilationist conceptions of citizenship that historically have dominated citizenship education in nation-states. The author of this article challenges liberal assimilationist conceptions of…

  7. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751

  8. The relationship between age-stereotypes and health locus of control across adult age-groups.

    PubMed

    Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2015-01-01

    This study integrates healthy ageing and health psychology theories to explore the mechanisms underlying the relationship between health control expectancies and age-attitudes on the process of ageing well. Specifically, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between age-stereotypes and health locus of control. A population-based survey of 739 adults aged 20-97 years (mean = 57.3 years, SD = 13.66; 42% female) explored attitudes towards ageing and health attitudes. A path-analytical approach was used to investigate moderating effects of age and gender. Higher age-stereotype endorsement was associated with higher chance (β = 2.91, p < .001) and powerful other (β = 1.07, p = .012) health expectancies, after controlling for age, gender, education and self-rated health. Significant age and gender interactions were found to influence the relationship between age-stereotypes and internal health locus of control. Our findings suggest that the relationship between age-stereotypes and health locus of control dimensions must be considered within the context of age and gender. The findings point to the importance of targeting health promotion and interventions through addressing negative age-attitudes.

  9. Chromosome numbers in three species groups of freshwater flatworms increase with increasing latitude.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Sven; Zeuss, Dirk; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Polyploidy in combination with parthenogenesis offers advantages for plasticity and the evolution of a broad ecological tolerance of species. Therefore, a positive correlation between the level of ploidy and increasing latitude as a surrogate for environmental harshness has been suggested. Such a positive correlation is well documented for plants, but examples for animals are still rare. Species of flatworms (Platyhelminthes) are widely distributed, show a remarkably wide range of chromosome numbers, and offer therefore good model systems to study the geographical distribution of chromosome numbers. We analyzed published data on counts of chromosome numbers and geographical information of three flatworm "species" (Phagocata vitta, Polycelis felina and Crenobia alpina) sampled across Europe (220 populations). We used the mean chromosome number across individuals of a population as a proxy for the level of ploidy within populations, and we tested for relationships of this variable with latitude, mode of reproduction (sexual, asexual or both) and environmental variables (annual mean temperature, mean diurnal temperature range, mean precipitation and net primary production). The mean chromosome numbers of all three species increased with latitude and decreased with mean annual temperature. For two species, chromosome number also decreased with mean precipitation and net primary production. Furthermore, high chromosome numbers within species were accompanied with a loss of sexual reproduction. The variation of chromosome numbers within individuals of two of the three species increased with latitude. Our results support the hypothesis that polyploid lineages are able to cope with harsh climatic conditions at high latitudes. Furthermore, we propose that asexual reproduction in populations with high levels of polyploidization stabilizes hybridization events. Chromosomal irregularities within individuals tend to become more frequent at the extreme environments of high

  10. Farm fatalities to youth 1995-2000: A comparison by age groups.

    PubMed

    Goldcamp, Michael; Hendricks, Kitty J; Myers, John R

    2004-01-01

    Although a myriad of research illustrates the safety issues related to farm fatalities in youth populations, very little empirical evidence exists that includes work and non-work related farm fatalities to all youths under 20 years of age at the national level. This research will use death certificate data for the six years from 1995 to 2000 that were collected by NIOSH from all 50 state vital statistics registries. Demographic data from the 1998 CAIS were used in rate calculations. In addition to providing annual fatality rates and descriptions of the general causes of death, this research will examine the variation between age groups. Analysis of 695 total farm-related youth fatalities shows an average annual fatality rate of 9.3 fatalities per 100,000 youths. Males account for 80% of these fatalities. The most prevalent causes of death are: machinery (25%), motor vehicle (17%), drowning (16%), suicide (8%) and homicide (6%). Of all youth fatalities occurring while at work, 45% are to youths less than 16 years of age. This same age group accounts for 71% of all non-work related fatalities. This research will provide farm families and researchers more detailed information on farm hazards that contribute to the deaths of youths. As these youths may encounter hazards while working or playing in their daily environment, identification and elimination of these hazards will increase overall safety on the farm. This research also indicates the need to include youths under 16 years of age in future comprehensive farm safety research.

  11. Personality-informed interventions for healthy aging: conclusions from a National Institute on Aging work group.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-05-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how. In fact, the notion that personality could be changed was part and parcel of many schools of psychotherapy, which suggested that long-term and meaningful change in symptoms could not be achieved without change in relevant aspects of personality. We review intervention research documenting change in personality. On the basis of an integrative view of personality as a complex system, we describe a bottom-up model of change in which interventions to change basic personality processes eventuate in changes at the trait level. A 2nd framework leverages the descriptive and predictive power of personality to tailor individual risk prediction and treatment, as well as refine public health programs, to the relevant dispositional characteristics of the target population. These methods dovetail with, and add a systematic and rigorous psychosocial dimension to, the personalized medicine and patient-centeredness movements in medicine. In addition to improving health through earlier intervention and increased fit between treatments and persons, cost-effectiveness improvements can be realized by more accurate resource allocation. Numerous examples from the personality, health, and aging literature on Conscientiousness and other traits are provided throughout, and we conclude with a series of recommendations for research in these emerging areas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  13. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  14. Increase of Reproductive Life Span Delays Age of Onset of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Frentzel, Dominik; Judanin, Grigorij; Borozdina, Olga; Klucken, Jochen; Winkler, Jürgen; Schlachetzki, Johannes C M

    2017-01-01

    One striking observation in Parkinson's disease (PD) is the remarkable gender difference in incidence and prevalence of the disease. Data on gender differences with regard to disease onset, motor and non-motor symptoms, and dopaminergic medication are limited. Furthermore, whether estrogen status affects disease onset and progression of PD is controversially discussed. In this retrospective single center study, we extracted clinical data of 226 ambulatory PD patients and compared age of disease onset, disease stage, motor impairment, non-motor symptoms, and dopaminergic medication between genders. We applied a matched-pairs design to adjust for age and disease duration. To determine the effect of estrogen-related reproductive factors including number of children, age at menarche, and menopause on the age of onset, we applied a standardized questionnaire and performed a regression analysis. The male to female ratio in the present PD cohort was 1.9:1 (147 men vs. 79 women). Male patients showed increased motor impairment than female patients. The levodopa equivalent daily dose was increased by 18.9% in male patients compared to female patients. Matched-pairs analysis confirmed the increased dose of dopaminergic medication in male patients. No differences were observed in age of onset, type of medication, and non-motor symptoms between both groups. Female reproductive factors including number of children, age at menarche, and age at menopause were positively associated with a delay of disease onset up to 30 months. The disease-modifying role of estrogen-related outcome measures warrants further clinical and experimental studies targeting gender differences, specifically hormone-dependent pathways in PD.

  15. A systematic review and pooled analysis of the prevalence of rotator cuff disease with increasing age.

    PubMed

    Teunis, Teun; Lubberts, Bart; Reilly, Brian T; Ring, David

    2014-12-01

    Hypothesis and background: Abnormalities of the rotator cuff are more common with age, but the exact prevalence of abnormalities and the extent to which the presence of an abnormality is associated with symptoms are topics of debate. Our aim was to review the published literature to establish the prevalence of abnormalities of the rotator cuff and to determine if the prevalence of abnormalities increases with older age in 10-year intervals. In addition, we assessed prevalence in 4 separate groups: (1) asymptomatic patients, (2) general population, (3) symptomatic patients, and (4) patients after shoulder dislocation. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to February 24, 2014, and included studies reporting rotator cuff abnormalities by age. Thirty studies including 6112 shoulders met our criteria. We pooled the individual patient data and calculated proportions of patients with and without abnormalities per decade (range, younger than 20 years to 80 years and older). Overall prevalence of abnormalities increased with age, from 9.7% (29 of 299) in patients aged 20 years and younger to 62% (166 of 268) in patients aged 80 years and older (P < .001) (odds ratio, 15; 95% confidence interval, 9.6-24; P < .001). There was a similar increasing prevalence of abnormalities regardless of symptoms or shoulder dislocation. The prevalence of rotator cuff abnormalities in asymptomatic people is high enough for degeneration of the rotator cuff to be considered a common aspect of normal human aging and to make it difficult to determine when an abnormality is new (e.g., after a dislocation) or is the cause of symptoms.

  16. Increase of Reproductive Life Span Delays Age of Onset of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Frentzel, Dominik; Judanin, Grigorij; Borozdina, Olga; Klucken, Jochen; Winkler, Jürgen; Schlachetzki, Johannes C. M.

    2017-01-01

    One striking observation in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the remarkable gender difference in incidence and prevalence of the disease. Data on gender differences with regard to disease onset, motor and non-motor symptoms, and dopaminergic medication are limited. Furthermore, whether estrogen status affects disease onset and progression of PD is controversially discussed. In this retrospective single center study, we extracted clinical data of 226 ambulatory PD patients and compared age of disease onset, disease stage, motor impairment, non-motor symptoms, and dopaminergic medication between genders. We applied a matched-pairs design to adjust for age and disease duration. To determine the effect of estrogen-related reproductive factors including number of children, age at menarche, and menopause on the age of onset, we applied a standardized questionnaire and performed a regression analysis. The male to female ratio in the present PD cohort was 1.9:1 (147 men vs. 79 women). Male patients showed increased motor impairment than female patients. The levodopa equivalent daily dose was increased by 18.9% in male patients compared to female patients. Matched-pairs analysis confirmed the increased dose of dopaminergic medication in male patients. No differences were observed in age of onset, type of medication, and non-motor symptoms between both groups. Female reproductive factors including number of children, age at menarche, and age at menopause were positively associated with a delay of disease onset up to 30 months. The disease-modifying role of estrogen-related outcome measures warrants further clinical and experimental studies targeting gender differences, specifically hormone-dependent pathways in PD. PMID:28871235

  17. Decrease of delta oscillatory responses is associated with increased age in healthy elderly.

    PubMed

    Emek-Savaş, Derya Durusu; Güntekin, Bahar; Yener, Görsev G; Başar, Erol

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in delta event-related oscillations (EROs) in younger and older healthy elderly subjects. We hypothesized that delta EROs were affected by age-related changes, which could be reflected in a visual oddball paradigm. The study included two groups of subjects, 17 younger healthy elderly (mean age: 63.1±2.8years) and 17 gender- and education-matched older healthy elderly (mean age: 79.6±5.2years), who performed a visual oddball paradigm. EEG was recorded from F3, Fz, F4, C3, Cz, C4, P3, Pz, P4, O1, Oz and O2 locations. Peak-to-peak amplitudes of delta (0.5-3Hz) target ERO responses during the post-stimulus 0-800ms time window were measured. Repeated measures of ANOVA was used to analyze four locations (frontal, central, parietal, occipital), at three sagittal (left, midline, right) sites. Independent t-tests were applied for post-hoc analyses. The older healthy elderly group had 16-25% lower values for the maximum peak-to-peak amplitudes of delta ERO compared with the younger healthy elderly group over frontal (p<0.003), central (p<0.0001) and parietal (p<0.007) locations [F3.96=4.396, p=0.015]. Furthermore, there was a moderate negative correlation between age and Cz peak-to-peak amplitude of target delta responses [r=-0.401, p<0.02], indicating the notion that peak-to-peak amplitude of Cz decreases as age increases. In the present study younger healthy elderly showed significantly higher event-related delta responses than older healthy elderly at frontal, central and parietal locations. Moreover, delta ERO responses decreased in accordance with age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Aging-related kidney damage is associated with a decrease in klotho expression and an increase in superoxide production.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhong; Lei, Han; Wang, Xiuqing; Wang, Yuhong; Sonntag, William; Sun, Zhongjie

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in klotho, endothelin (ET) receptors, and superoxide production in kidneys of aged rats and whether these changes are exacerbated in aged rats with cognitive impairment. Twenty aged rats (male, 27 months) were divided into an Old Impaired group (n=9) and an Old Intact group (n=11) according to a cognitive function test. A group of 12-month-old rats (n=10) was used as a Young Intact group. Serum creatinine was increased significantly in the Old Impaired group, suggesting impaired renal function. Aged rats showed glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitialfibrosis. These pathological changes were markedly aggravated in the old cognitively impaired than in the old cognitively intact animals. Notably, aged rats demonstrated a significant decrease in klotho protein expression in renal cortex and medulla. Protein expression of IL-6, Nox2, ETa receptors and superoxide production were increased whereas mitochondrial SOD (MnSOD) and ETb receptors expression were decreased in kidneys of the aged rats. Interestingly, these changes were more pronounced in the old impaired than in the old intact rats. In conclusion, the aging-related kidney damage was exacerbated in aged rats with cognitive impairment. Klotho, ETB, and MnSOD were downregulated but ETa, IL-6, Nox2, and superoxide production were upregulated in the aging-related kidney damage. These changes were more pronounced in rats with cognitive impairment.

  19. Respect the technique: Status-based respect increases minority group social cohesion with majority groups, while also increasing minority collective action tendencies.

    PubMed

    Glasford, Demis E; Johnston, Brian

    2017-05-08

    The present work explores the implications of respect for social change. Social change can be achieved via improved attitudes between minority and majority groups (i.e., social cohesion) or via action taken by minority groups (i.e., collective action). Recent work suggests that the social cohesion route to social change, in particular an emphasis on commonality, may be incompatible with the collective action route to social change. We suggest that social-cohesion strategies rooted in status-based respect may allow for social cohesion and collective action. We experimentally investigated the relative effects of a majority group communicating status-based respect and commonality, as compared to a control, on minority group members' social cohesion with the majority group and willingness to engage in collective action. Status-based respect increased positive attitudes toward a majority group, relative to commonality and control, but was also associated with increased collective action tendencies. Implications for social change are discussed.

  20. Activated mesenchymal stem cells increase wound tensile strength in aged mouse model via macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Simon; Szilagyi, Erzsebet; Chen, Lin; Premanand, Kavitha; DiPietro, Luisa A; Ennis, William; Bartholomew, Amelia M

    2013-05-01

    Wound healing is impaired in the aged. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can exert beneficial effects in wounds; however, promoting healing in the challenging setting of aged skin may require additional potency. MSCs can enhance the production of pro-regenerative cytokines and growth factors when activated with interferon gamma. We hypothesized that the increased potency of activated MSC could be used to facilitate wound healing in the aged mice. Young and old C57BL6 mice underwent incisional wounds and were treated with naive MSCs, activated MSCs, or vehicle to examine MSC effects on tensile strength in the aged skin. To test whether the benefits of MSC treatment could be attributed to the participation of host macrophages, liposomal clodronate was used to deplete host macrophages. In older mice, tensile strength of healing wounds was significantly lower than that in younger mice. Older mice treated with activated MSCs showed significant increases in tensile strength restoring the strength to that observed in younger mice. Macrophage depletion abrogated the beneficial effect of MSC. Activated MSCs restored wound tensile strength in the aged mice, and this effect was dependent on host macrophage activity. These data provide encouraging support for the development of activated MSC therapies for enhanced tissue regeneration, especially for older population groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. BDNF increases with behavioral enrichment and an antioxidant diet in the aged dog.

    PubMed

    Fahnestock, Margaret; Marchese, Monica; Head, Elizabeth; Pop, Viorela; Michalski, Bernadeta; Milgram, William N; Cotman, Carl W

    2012-03-01

    The aged canine (dog) is an excellent model for investigating the neurobiological changes that underlie cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration in humans, as canines and humans undergo similar pathological and behavioral changes with aging. Recent evidence indicates that a combination of environmental enrichment and antioxidant-fortified diet can be used to reduce the rate of age-dependent neuropathology and cognitive decline in aged dogs, although the mechanisms underlying these changes have not been established. We examined the hypothesis that an increase in levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the factors underlying improvements in learning and memory. Old, cognitively impaired animals that did not receive any treatment showed a significant decrease in BDNF mRNA in the temporal cortex when compared with the young group. Animals receiving either an antioxidant diet or environmental enrichment displayed intermediate levels of BDNF mRNA. However, dogs receiving both an antioxidant diet and environmental enrichment showed increased levels of BDNF mRNA when compared with untreated aged dogs, approaching levels measured in young animals. BDNF receptor TrkB mRNA levels did not differ between groups. BDNF mRNA levels were positively correlated with improved cognitive performance and inversely correlated with cortical Aβ((1-42)) and Aβ((1-40)) levels. These findings suggest that environmental enrichment and antioxidant diet interact to maintain brain levels of BDNF, which may lead to improved cognitive performance. This is the first demonstration in a higher animal that nonpharmacological changes in lifestyle in advanced age can upregulate BDNF to levels approaching those in the young brain.

  2. Climate impacts of oil extraction increase significantly with oilfield age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masnadi, Mohammad S.; Brandt, Adam R.

    2017-08-01

    Record-breaking temperatures have induced governments to implement targets for reducing future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Use of oil products contributes ~35% of global GHG emissions, and the oil industry itself consumes 3-4% of global primary energy. Because oil resources are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, requiring different extraction and processing methods, GHG studies should evaluate oil sources using detailed project-specific data. Unfortunately, prior oil-sector GHG analysis has largely neglected the fact that the energy intensity of producing oil can change significantly over the life of a particular oil project. Here we use decades-long time-series data from twenty-five globally significant oil fields (>1 billion barrels ultimate recovery) to model GHG emissions from oil production as a function of time. We find that volumetric oil production declines with depletion, but this depletion is accompanied by significant growth--in some cases over tenfold--in per-MJ GHG emissions. Depletion requires increased energy expenditures in drilling, oil recovery, and oil processing. Using probabilistic simulation, we derive a relationship for estimating GHG increases over time, showing an expected doubling in average emissions over 25 years. These trends have implications for long-term emissions and climate modelling, as well as for climate policy.

  3. Why is polypharmacy increasing in aged care facilities? The views of Australian health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Jokanovic, Natali; Tan, Edwin C K; Dooley, Michael J; Kirkpatrick, Carl M; Elliott, Rohan A; Bell, J Simon

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of polypharmacy in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) is high and increasing. Although not necessarily inappropriate, polypharmacy has been associated with drug interactions, adverse drug events, geriatric syndromes and hospital admissions. The aim of this study was to identify and prioritize factors contributing to the increasing prevalence of polypharmacy in RACFs. Seventeen health care professionals from metropolitan and regional Victoria and South Australia identified and prioritized factors using a modified nominal group technique. The top five factors ranked from most important to fifth most important were 'changes in resident mix', 'increasing numbers of prescribers and the reluctance of one prescriber to discontinue a medicine commenced by another prescriber', 'better adherence to clinical practice guidelines', 'increasing reliance on locums' and 'greater recognition and pharmacological management of pain'. Reasons for the increase in polypharmacy are multifactorial. Understanding the factors contributing to polypharmacy may help to guide future research and develop interventions to manage polypharmacy in RACFs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A

    2015-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50-64; 65-79; 80 and older). Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old-old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  6. [Effect of obesity on pulmonary function in asthmatic children of different age groups].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Wen; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xue-Li; Liang, Fan-Mei; Luo, Rong

    2017-05-01

    To study the effect of obesity on pulmonary function in newly diagnosed asthmatic children of different age groups. Two hundred and ninety-four children with newly diagnosed asthma were classified into preschool-age (<6 years) and school-age (6 to 12.5 years) groups. They were then classified into obese, overweight, and normal-weight subgroups based on their body mass index (BMI). All the children underwent pulmonary function tests, including large airway function tests [forced vital capacity (FVC%) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%)] and small airway function tests [maximal expiratory flow at 25% of vital capacity (MEF25%), maximal expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (MEF50%), and maximal expiratory flow at 75% of vital capacity (MEF75%)]. The school-age group showed lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% than the preschool-age group (P<0.05) after adjustment for sex and BMI. The normal-weight children in the school-age group had lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% compared with their counterparts in the preschool-age group (P<0.05). The overweight children in the school-age group showed lower FVC% and MEF50% than those in the preschool-age group. However, all the pulmonary function parameters showed no significant differences between the obese children in the preschool-age and school-age groups. In the preschool-age group, FVC%, FEV1%, and MEF75% of the obese children were lower than those of the normal-weight children. In the school-age group, only FVC% and FEV1% showed differences between the obese and normal-weight children (P<0.05). The effect of obesity on the pulmonary function varies with age in children with asthma, and the effect is more obvious in those of preschool age.

  7. Churg-strauss syndrome in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    El-Gamal, Yehia

    2008-02-01

    The rate of reporting of childhood Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) has increased lately because of either increased awareness to the disease or a real increase in incidence. It is defined as one of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides, but the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positivity is less reported in pediatric cases. The cause of CSS remains unknown. Several lines of evidence suggest genetic predisposition, which may entail inherited tendency to dysregulation of the cellular immune system. With the addition of leukotriene receptor antagonists to the treatment regimen of asthma, an association to CSS was presumed. However, the nature of this relationship remains to be elucidated. In addition, some environmental factors seem to provoke transient effects that resemble the disease. Patients' symptoms are defined by various degrees of eosinophilic inflammation and necrotizing vasculitis, which may affect any organ. Three clinical stages have been described in the clinical evolution of CSS: prodromal phase involving allergic rhinitis and asthma (usually without family history of atopy), a second phase that involves peripheral eosinophilia and eosinophilic tissue infiltration, and the hallmark of the final phase is systemic vasculitis. Pulmonary disease is a central feature of pediatric CSS, but other manifestations include skin lesions, testicular pain, hypertension, seizures, and nephropathy. More subtle presentations in children include cervical lymphadenopathy, acute abdominal pain, deep venous thrombosis, oral ulceration, multiple colonic ulcers, chorea, bilateral optic neuropathy, and retinal artery occlusions. Churg-Strauss syndrome patients usually respond well to corticosteroid therapy. Several trials reported additional benefit from cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, and methotrexate, whereas the therapeutic effects of etanercept, plasma exchange, and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy are controversial. The relapse rate is

  8. Habitual aerobic exercise increases plasma pentraxin 3 levels in middle-aged and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Asako; Maeda, Seiji; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Ajisaka, Ryuichi

    2012-10-01

    Chronic inflammation that occurs with aging is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular exercise may prevent cardiovascular morbidity by decreasing chronic systematic inflammation. Additionally, excess inflammation can be reduced by the anti-inflammatory protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3). Thus, both habitual exercise and PTX3 have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, it is unclear whether regular exercise leads to increased plasma PTX3 concentration. In the present study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic exercise on plasma PTX3 concentration in middle-aged and elderly women. Twenty-two postmenopausal women (60 ± 6 years) were randomly divided evenly into 2 groups (i.e., exercise intervention and control). Subjects in the exercise group completed 2 months of regular aerobic exercise training (walking and cycling, 30-45 min, 3-5 days·week⁻¹). Before and after the intervention, we evaluated plasma PTX3 concentration, peak oxygen uptake, blood chemistry, and arterial distensibility (carotid arterial compliance and β-stiffness) in all participants. There were no significant differences in baseline parameters between the 2 groups. Plasma PTX3 concentration was significantly increased in the exercise group after the intervention (p < 0.05). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, peak oxygen uptake, and arterial compliance were also significantly increased (p < 0.05), while β-stiffness was markedly decreased (p < 0.01) after the intervention. On the other hand, there was no change in the parameters tested in the control group. This study demonstrates that regular aerobic exercise increases plasma PTX3 concentration with improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, peak oxygen uptake, and arterial distensibility in postmenopausal women.

  9. Increased serum levels of high mobility group box 1 protein in patients with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Emanuele, Enzo; Boso, Marianna; Brondino, Natascia; Pietra, Stefania; Barale, Francesco; Ucelli di Nemi, Stefania; Politi, Pierluigi

    2010-05-30

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein that functions as an activator for inducing the immune response and can be released from neurons after glutamate excitotoxicity. The objective of the present study was to measure serum levels of HMGB1 in patients with autistic disorder and to study their relationship with clinical characteristics. We enrolled 22 adult patients with autistic disorder (mean age: 28.1+/-7.7 years) and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (mean age: 28.7+/-8.1 years). Serum levels of HMGB1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with healthy subjects, serum levels of HMGB1 were significantly higher in patients with autistic disorder (10.8+/-2.6 ng/mL versus 5.6+/-2.5 ng/mL, respectively, P<0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, serum HMGB1 levels were independently associated with their domain A scores in the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, which reflects their impairments in social interaction. These results suggest that HMGB1 levels may be affected in autistic disorder. Increased HMGB1 may be a biological correlate of the impaired reciprocal social interactions in this neurodevelopmental disorder. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cortisol Responses to a Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents: Variations by Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; McQuillan, Mollie T.; Mirous, Heather J.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N = 191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of 5 adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  11. Cortisol responses to a group public speaking task for adolescents: variations by age, gender, and race.

    PubMed

    Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development.

  12. Blunt trauma of the aging eye: injury mechanisms and increasing lens stiffness.

    PubMed

    Stitzel, Joel D; Hansen, Gail A; Herring, Ian P; Duma, Stefan M

    2005-06-01

    To investigate possible injury mechanisms in the eyes of elderly individuals and the effects of lens stiffness on model outputs indicative of injury as a function of age. Three separate frontal impact scenarios, a foam particle (30 m/s), steering wheel (15 m/s), and air bag (67 m/s), were simulated with a validated finite-element model to determine the effects of changing lens stiffness on the eye when subjected to blunt trauma. The lens stiffness of the model was increased with increasing age using stiffness values determined from the literature for 3 age groups. The computational eye model demonstrated increasing peak stress in the posterior portion of the ciliary body and decreasing peak stress in the posterior portion of the zonules with increasing lens stiffness for the 2 most severe impact types, the air bag and steering wheel. Peak deformation of the lens decreased with increasing lens stiffness. On the basis of the computational modeling analysis, the risk of eye injury increases with age; as a result, the eyes of elderly patients may be more susceptible to ciliary body-related eye injuries in traumatic-impact situations. Clinical Relevance These data support the contention that trauma-induced damage to the lens, ciliary body, and zonules may be related to increased stiffness of the lens. The data indicate that all people, especially elderly individuals, should use safety systems while driving an automobile and sit as far from the air bag as is comfortable. Those in sports or work environments requiring protective lenses should wear them. Designers of air bags and automobile companies should continue to work to reduce the potential that the air bag will contact the eye.

  13. Mild eccentric exercise increases Hsp72 content in skeletal muscles from adult and late middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Evan J H; Ramsook, Andrew H; Locke, Marius; Amara, Catherine E

    2013-09-01

    The loss of muscle mass with age or sarcopenia contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Thus, preventing muscle loss with age is important for maintaining health. Hsp72, the inducible member of the Hsp70 family, is known to provide protection to skeletal muscle and can be increased by exercise. However, ability to increase Hsp72 by exercise is intensity-dependent and appears to diminish with advanced age. Thus, other exercise modalities capable of increasing HSP content and potentially preventing the age related loss of muscle need to be explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if the stress from one bout of mild eccentric exercise was sufficient to elicit an increase in Hsp72 content in the vastus intermedius (VI) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles, and if the Hsp72 response differed between adult and late middle-aged rats. To do this, 30 adult (6 months) and late middle-aged (24 months) F344BN rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6/group): control (C), level exercise (16 m x min(-1)) and eccentric exercise (16 m x min(-1), 16 degree decline). Exercised animals were sacrificed immediately post-exercise or after 48 hours. Hematoxylin and Eosin staining was used to assess muscle damage, while Western Blotting was used to measure muscle Hsp72 content. A nested ANOVA with Tukey post hoc analysis was performed to determine significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups. Hsp72 content was increased in the VI for both adult and late middle-aged rats 48 hours after eccentric exercise when compared to level and control groups but no differences between age groups was observed. Hsp72 was not detected in the WG following any type of exercise. In conclusion, mild eccentric exercise can increase Hsp72 content in the rat VI muscle and this response is maintained into late middle-age.

  14. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  15. Loss of Catecholaminergic Neuromodulation of Persistent Forms of Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity with Increasing Age

    PubMed Central

    Twarkowski, Hannah; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Neuromodulation by means of the catecholaminergic system is a key component of motivation-driven learning and behaviorally modulated hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In particular, dopamine acting on D1/D5 receptors and noradrenaline acting on beta-adrenergic receptors exert a very potent regulation of forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity that last for very long-periods of time (>24 h), and occur in conjunction with novel spatial learning. Antagonism of these receptors not only prevents long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), but prevents the memory of the spatial event that, under normal circumstances, leads to the perpetuation of these plasticity forms. Spatial learning behavior that normally comes easily to rats, such as object-place learning and spatial reference learning, becomes increasingly impaired with aging. Middle-aged animals display aging-related deficits of specific, but not all, components of spatial learning, and one possibility is that this initial manifestation of decrements in learning ability that become apparent in middle-age relate to changes in motivation, attention and/or the regulation by neuromodulatory systems of these behavioral states. Here, we compared the regulation by dopaminergic D1/D5 and beta-adrenergic receptors of persistent LTP in young (2–4 month old) and middle-aged (8–14 month old) rats. We observed in young rats, that weak potentiation that typically lasts for ca. 2 h could be strengthened into persistent (>24 h) LTP by pharmacological activation of either D1/D5 or beta-adrenergic receptors. By contrast, no such facilitation occurred in middle-aged rats. This difference was not related to an ostensible learning deficit: a facilitation of weak potentiation into LTP by spatial learning was possible both in young and middle-aged rats. It was also not directly linked to deficits in LTP: strong afferent stimulation resulted in equivalent LTP in both age groups. We postulate that this change in

  16. Increasing the Value of Age: Guidance in Employers' Age Management Strategies. Research Paper No 44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The European active population is ageing. In the face of growing skills shortages, both national States and employers need to prolong the working lives of their most experienced workers. While enterprises strive to respond to this challenge, most still have not fully explored the potential of guidance activities in addressing age-related issues in…

  17. Attitudes toward mental health services: Age-group differences in Korean American adults

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A.; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the attitudes toward mental health services held by younger (aged 20–45, n = 209) and older (aged 60 and older, n = 462) groups of Korean Americans. Following Andersen’s (1968; A behavioral model of families’ use of health service, Center for Health Administration Studies) behavioral health model, predisposing (age, gender, marital status and education), need (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and enabling (acculturation, health insurance coverage and personal experience and beliefs) variables were considered. In the mean-level assessment, younger and older adults were found to hold a similar level of positive attitudes toward mental health services. In the multivariate analysis, culture-influenced beliefs were shown to have a substantial contribution to the model of attitudes toward mental health services in both age groups. The belief that depression is a medical condition was found to be a common predictor of positive attitudes across the groups. In the older adult sample, more negative attitudes were observed among those who believed that depression is a sign of personal weakness and that having a mentally ill family member brings shame to the whole family. Our findings show that older adults are not only more subject to cultural misconceptions and stigma related to mental disorders, but also their attitudes toward service use are negatively influenced by the cultural stigma. The findings provide important implications for interventions targeted to improve access to mental health care among minority populations. Based on the similarities and differences found between young and old, both general and age-specific strategies need to be developed in order to increase effectiveness of these programs. PMID:19197698

  18. Susceptibility to varicella in childbearing age women, Central Italy: is there a need for vaccinating this population group?

    PubMed

    Alfonsi, Valeria; Montomoli, Emanuele; Manini, Ilaria; Alberini, Isabella; Gentile, Chiara; Rota, Maria Cristina; Ciofi degli Atti, Marta Luisa

    2007-08-10

    We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antibodies in childbearing age women aged 17-42 years. Sera were collected in Central Italy in years 2001-2002 and were tested by a commercial VZV IgG enzyme immunoassay. Overall VZV seroprevalence was 80.9% and it showed a significant increase by age, confirming a considerable circulation of VZV also in the older age groups not commonly considered at high risk. This study further supports the importance of vaccinating susceptible adolescents and women of childbearing age in order to reduce both maternal and foetal complications associated with varicella in pregnancy.

  19. Consumption of Cisatracurium in different age groups, using a closed loop computer controlled system.

    PubMed

    Joomye, Shehzaad; Yan, Donglai; Wang, Haiyun; Zhou, Guoqiang; Wang, Guolin

    2014-01-01

    We devised this study to quantify the effect of age on the consumption of cisatracurium under general anaesthesia, using a computer controlled closed loop infusion system. We further investigated this effect on, sufentanil and propofol consumption. 74 patients of physical status I and II, requiring general anaesthesia for elective abdominal surgery, were assigned to three groups. Patients in group 1 were aged from 20 to 45, group 2 were from 46 to 64, and group 3 above 65 years old. General Anesthesia was maintained with propofol and muscle paralysis was maintained using a closed-loop computer controlled infusion of cisatracurium. For analgesia, intermittent bolus of sufentanil 10 μg was given. Cisatracurium consumption in group 1, 2 and 3 were 1.8 ± 0.3, 1.6 ± 0.4 and 1.3 ± 0.4 μg/kg/min respectively. There was significant difference of cisatracurium consumption between group 1 and 3 (P = 0.002), and the consumption of cisatracurium in group 3 was less as compared with group 2 (P = 0.04). The average recovery index of patients in group 1, 2 and 3 were 8.8 ± 2.6, 11.5 ± 2.9 and 12.7 ± 2.5 minutes respectively. There were difference between group 1 and 2 (P = 0.02). As compared with group 1, the recovery index was still longer in group 3 (P = 0.001). Patients in group 1, 2 and 3 consumed an average sufentanil 0.4 ± 0.1, 0.4 ± 0.1 and 0.3 ± 0.1 μg/kg/hr, respectively. There were statistical significant between group 1 and 3 (P < 0.0001), and the same trend was found between group 2 and 3 (P = 0.03). The Consumption of propofol in group 1, 2 and 3 were 5.1 ± 0.4, 4.3 ± 0.6 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mg/kg/hr. The difference in the propofol consumption was found statistically significant when comparing between any two groups. We concluded that the sensitivity of anesthetic agents increased with age. Less medication was required to achieve a desirable effect in older patients specially those

  20. Faster Increases in Human Life Expectancy Could Lead to Slower Population Aging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Counterintuitively, faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging. The conventional view that faster increases in human life expectancy would lead to faster population aging is based on the assumption that people become old at a fixed chronological age. A preferable alternative is to base measures of aging on people’s time left to death, because this is more closely related to the characteristics that are associated with old age. Using this alternative interpretation, we show that faster increases in life expectancy would lead to slower population aging. Among other things, this finding affects the assessment of the speed at which countries will age. PMID:25876033

  1. Faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Warren C; Scherbov, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Counterintuitively, faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging. The conventional view that faster increases in human life expectancy would lead to faster population aging is based on the assumption that people become old at a fixed chronological age. A preferable alternative is to base measures of aging on people's time left to death, because this is more closely related to the characteristics that are associated with old age. Using this alternative interpretation, we show that faster increases in life expectancy would lead to slower population aging. Among other things, this finding affects the assessment of the speed at which countries will age.

  2. [Results of troponin I testing by high sensitive method in three age groups of healthy population].

    PubMed

    Pushkin, A S; Yakovlev, A A; Akhmedov, T A; Rukavishnikova, S A; Ryzhak, G A

    2017-01-01

    Article is about troponin I testing by high sensitive method in healthy population group. 165 people (employees of hospital) were examined, 71 % - women and 29 % - men. Inclusion criteria were as follows: absence of active complaints at the time of health examination and during the previous 30 days. All the examinees were divided into three age groups: 18-34 years (middle age, I period), 35-54 years (middle age, II period), above 55 years (old age). Research of correlation between cardiac troponin I and age of healthy population group was the main aim of investigation.

  3. Cognitive-affective symptoms of depression after myocardial infarction: different prognostic importance across age groups.

    PubMed

    Denollet, Johan; Freedland, Kenneth E; Carney, Robert M; de Jonge, Peter; Roest, Annelieke M

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive-affective symptoms of depression may not be as strongly related to prognosis after myocardial infarction (MI) as somatic depressive symptoms. Because it is not known whether this pattern of results is influenced by the age at which patients are diagnosed as having MI, we examined whether the importance of these symptoms is age dependent in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease study. Patients with depression after MI (n = 1823) in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease study were stratified into the following age groups: younger than 70 years (mean [standard deviation] = 55 [9.0] years) and 70 years or older (mean [standard deviation] = 76 [4.9] years). Measurements included demographic and clinical data and the Beck Depression Inventory. The end point was a composite of recurrent MI and mortality during a mean follow-up of 2.1 years. Patients 70 years or older had more severe manifestations of cardiac disease and somatic comorbidities than did patients younger than 70 years (p < .001). During follow-up, 456 patients died or had a recurrent MI. In patients 70 years or older, increasing age, disease severity, and comorbidities--but not depressive symptoms--independently predicted prognosis. In contrast, cognitive-affective symptoms of depression predicted death/MI in patients younger than 70 years (hazard ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.04, p = .011), after adjustment for disease severity and comorbidities. Somatic symptoms largely explained the link between cognitive-affective symptoms and adverse events, with the exception of hopelessness (hazard ratio = 1.47, 95% confidence interval = 1.11-1.95, p = .007), suggesting that somatic depressive symptoms accurately reflect the depressed mood state in this age group. Somatic symptoms and hopelessness independently predicted death/MI in MI patients younger than 70 years. Research needs to reexamine the modulating effect of age in studies on somatic and cognitive

  4. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Deborah L; Hodgkin, Dominic; Fagan, Pebbles; Reif, Sharon; Horgan, Constance M

    2012-07-11

    Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,323,758) were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy.

  5. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. Methods The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,323,758) were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Results Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Conclusions Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy. PMID:22784412

  6. Extreme Sleep Durations and Increased C-Reactive Protein: Effects of Sex and Ethnoracial Group

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Jackson, Nicholas; Sands-Lincoln, Megan; Pandey, Abhishek; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: We hypothesize that extremes of sleep duration are associated with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), a pro-inflammatory marker for cardiovascular disease risk. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Population-based research. Participants: Nationally representative sample of 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants (n = 5,587 adults). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Associations between CRP and self-reported total sleep time (TST) were examined. Explanatory models considered contributions of sex, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), and BMI squared (BMI2). Models also explored the role of insomnia symptoms, sleep apnea, active medical illness, and antidiabetic/antihypertensive treatment. Differential patterns among race/ethnicity groups were examined using interactions and stratified analyses. Nonlinear relationships between CRP and TST were assessed using polynomial and multinomial regression models (< 5, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and > 9 h). Linear and squared terms were significant in all models in the complete sample, with notable differences by sex and ethnoracial group. Overall, in models adjusted for sociodemographics and BMI, different patterns were observed for non-Hispanic white (elevated CRP for < 5 h and > 9 h), black/African-American (elevated CRP for < 5 h and 8 h), Hispanic/Latino (elevated CRP for > 9 h), and Asian/ Other (higher in 9 and > 9 h and lower in 5 h and 6 h) groups. Ethnoracial groups also demonstrated patterning by sex. Conclusion: In a representative sample of American adults, elevated CRP was associated with extreme sleep durations. Sex, race/ethnicity, sleep disorders, and medical comorbidity influenced these associations. Differences in CRP along these dimensions should be considered in future research on sleep related disparities influencing cardiometabolic disease risk. Citation: Grandner MA; Buxton OM; Jackson N; Sands M; Pandey A; Jean-Louis G. Extreme sleep durations and

  7. Is Small for Gestational Age Status Associated with an Increased Risk of Atherogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    STROESCU, Ramona; MICLE, Ioana; MARGINEAN, Otilia; BIZEREA, Teofana; MARAZAN, Monica; PUIU, Maria; SIPOS, Ciprian; DOROS, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The "catch-up growth" phenomenon in children born small for gestational age (SGA) has been linked to early onset obesity with the subsequent emergence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The intima media thickness of the common carotid artery (CIMT) is a well-known marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Aim: to determine the association between being born SGA and CIMT, a measure of atherogenesis and to investigate metabolic risk factors which impact on CIMT in obese children. Material and methods: A prospective study was carried out over a 1 year period (July 2012-June 2013). We analyzed 122 obese patients, 96 patients appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and 26 patients SGA. Both groups were matched for age, sex and BMI. Blood pressure, lipids and glucose were determined. Oral glucose tolerance tests (oGTT) were performed. Insulin resistance (IR) was assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). CIMT was measured in all the patients. Results: CIMT in obese children born SGA was significantly increased as compared with obese children born AGA similar age, sex and BMI (p=0.0035). We demonstrated a strong correlation between CIMT and all other metabolic factors (r=0.98). In both groups, mean CIMT of was significantly related to diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides and HOMA. CIMT was not significantly related to systolic blood pressure and baseline glucose. Conclusion: High triglycerides levels and low HDL-cholesterol levels, IR and diastolic blood pressure, which are all components of MetS are strong predictors of increased CIMT in obese children. Being born SGA increases the atherogenic risk. PMID:24790660

  8. Identification of specific age groups with a high risk for developing cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Malinova, Vesna; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Voit, Martin; Suntheim, Patricia; Rohde, Veit; Mielke, Dorothee

    2016-07-01

    The impact of age on the incidence of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a matter of ongoing discussion. The aim of this study was to identify age groups with a higher risk for developing vasospasm, delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND), or delayed infarction (DI) and to identify a cut-off age for a better risk stratification. We defined six age groups (<30, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and >70 years). ROC analysis was performed to determine a cutoff age with the highest positive predictive value (PPV) for developing vasospasm, defined as a blood-flow-velocity-increase >120 cm/s in transcranial-Doppler-sonography (TCD). Multivariate binary-logistic-regression-analysis was then performed to evaluate differences in the incidence of cerebral vasospasm, DIND, and DI among the different age groups. A total of 753 patients were included in the study. The highest incidence (70 %) of TCD-vasospasm was found in patients between 30 and 39 years of age. The cutoff age with the highest PPV (65 %) for developing TCD-vasospasm was 38 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that age <38 years (OR 3.6; CI 95 % 2.1-6.1; p < 0.001) best predicted vasospasm, followed by the need for cerebrospinal fluid drainage (OR 1.5; CI 95 % 1.0-2.3; p = 0.04). However, lower age did not correlate with higher rates of DIND or infarcts. The overall vasospasm-incidence after aSAH is age-dependent and highest in the age group <38 years. Surprisingly, the higher incidence in the younger age group does not translate into a higher rate of DIND/DI. This finding may hint towards age-related biological factors influencing the association between arterial narrowing and cerebral ischemia.

  9. Initiation of calorie restriction in middle-aged male rats attenuates aging-related motoric decline and bradykinesia without increased striatal dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Michael F.; Terrebonne, Jennifer; Fields, Victoria; Nodurft, Danielle; Runfalo, Cori; Latimer, Brian; Ingram, Donald K.

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related bradykinesia affects ~15% of those reaching age 65 and 50% of those reaching their 80s. Given this high risk and lack of pharmacological therapeutics, non-invasive lifestyle strategies should be identified to diminish its risk and identify the neurobiological targets to reduce aging-related bradykinesia. Early-life, long-term calorie restriction (CR) attenuates aging-related bradykinesia in rodents. Here, we addressed whether CR initiation at middle age could attenuate aging-related bradykinesia and motoric decline measured as rotarod performance. A 30% CR regimen was implemented for 6 months duration in 12-month old male Brown-Norway Fischer 344 F1 hybrid rats after establishing individual baseline locomotor activities. Locomotor capacity was assessed every 6 weeks thereafter. The ad libitum (AL) group exhibited predictably decreased locomotor activity, except movement speed, out to 18 months of age. In contrast, in the CR group, movement number and horizontal activity did not decrease during the 6-month trial and aging-related decline in rotarod performance was attenuated. The response to CR was influenced by baseline locomotor activity. The lower the locomotor activity level at baseline, the greater the response to CR. Rats in the lower 50th percentile surpassed their baseline level of activity, whereas rats in the top 50th percentile decreased at 6 weeks and then returned to baseline by 12 weeks of CR. We hypothesized that nigrostriatal dopamine tissue content would be greater in the CR group and observed a modest increase only in substantia nigra with no group differences in striatum, nucleus accumbens, or ventral tegmental area. These results indicate initiation of CR at middle age may reduce aging-related bradykinesia and, furthermore, subjects with below average locomotor activity may increase baseline activity. Sustaining nigral DA neurotransmission may be one component of preserving locomotor capabilities during aging. PMID:26610387

  10. Onset of mortality increase with age and age trajectories of mortality from all diseases in the four Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Dolejs, Josef; Marešová, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The answer to the question "At what age does aging begin?" is tightly related to the question "Where is the onset of mortality increase with age?" Age affects mortality rates from all diseases differently than it affects mortality rates from nonbiological causes. Mortality increase with age in adult populations has been modeled by many authors, and little attention has been given to mortality decrease with age after birth. Nonbiological causes are excluded, and the category "all diseases" is studied. It is analyzed in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden during the period 1994-2011, and all possible models are screened. Age trajectories of mortality are analyzed separately: before the age category where mortality reaches its minimal value and after the age category. Resulting age trajectories from all diseases showed a strong minimum, which was hidden in total mortality. The inverse proportion between mortality and age fitted in 54 of 58 cases before mortality minimum. The Gompertz model with two parameters fitted as mortality increased with age in 17 of 58 cases after mortality minimum, and the Gompertz model with a small positive quadratic term fitted data in the remaining 41 cases. The mean age where mortality reached minimal value was 8 (95% confidence interval 7.05-8.95) years. The figures depict an age where the human population has a minimal risk of death from biological causes. Inverse proportion and the Gompertz model fitted data on both sides of the mortality minimum, and three parameters determined the shape of the age-mortality trajectory. Life expectancy should be determined by the two standard Gompertz parameters and also by the single parameter in the model c/x. All-disease mortality represents an alternative tool to study the impact of age. All results are based on published data.

  11. Absence of DJ-1 causes age-related retinal abnormalities in association with increased oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, Vera L; Bell, Brent A; Rayborn, Mary E; Samuels, Ivy S; King, Anna; Hollyfield, Joe G; Xie, Chengsong; Cai, Huaibin

    2017-03-01

    Oxidative stress alters physiological function in most biological tissues and can lead to cell death. In the retina, oxidative stress initiates a cascade of events leading to focal loss of RPE and photoreceptors, which is thought to be a major contributing factor to geographic atrophy. Despite these implications, the molecular regulation of RPE oxidative stress under normal and pathological conditions remains largely unknown. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in regulating RPE and photoreceptors oxidative stress response is greatly needed. To this end we evaluated photoreceptor and RPE changes in mice deficient in DJ-1, a protein that is thought to be important in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Young (3 months) and aged (18 months) DJ-1 knockout (DJ-1 KO) and age-matched wild-type mice were examined. In both group of aged mice, scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) showed the presence of a few autofluorescent foci. The 18 month-old DJ-1 KO retinas were also characterized by a noticeable increase in RPE fluorescence to wild-type. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging demonstrated that all retinal layers were present in the eyes of both DJ-1 KO groups. ERG comparisons showed that older DJ-1 KO mice had reduced sensitivity under dark- and light-adapted conditions compared to age-matched control. Histologically, the RPE contained prominent vacuoles in young DJ-1 KO group with the appearance of enlarged irregularly shaped RPE cells in the older group. These were also evident in OCT and in whole mount RPE/choroid preparations labeled with phalloidin. Photoreceptors in the older DJ-1 KO mice displayed decreased immunoreactivity to rhodopsin and localized reduction in cone markers compared to the wild-type control group. Lower levels of activated Nrf2 were evident in retina/RPE lysates in both young and old DJ-1 KO mouse groups compared to wild-type control levels. Conversely, higher levels of protein carbonyl derivatives and i

  12. Evaluation of cardiac function in a group of small for gestational age school-age children treated with growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Aurensanz Clemente, Esther; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Ruiz Frontera, Pablo; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2017-02-09

    Small for gestational age (SGA) patients have an increased risk of developing a cardiovascular pathology, as well as a metabolic syndrome. Our objective is to evaluate the cardiac morphology and function of SGA children treated with growth hormone (GH), identifying changes that could potentially have long-term consequences. We selected 23 SGA school-age patients and 23 healthy children. We measured their weight, height, blood pressure and heart rate. Using transthoracic echocardiography, we evaluated cardiac chamber size, ascending and abdominal aortic diameter as well as the systolic and diastolic function of both ventricles. SGA children have a higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P<.05) without significant changes in their heart rate. They also have a thicker interventricular septum (SGA Z-score 1.57 vs. 0.89; P=.026) and a worse right ventricular systolic function, with a lower TAPSE (SGA Z-score -0.98 vs. 0.95; P=.000), as well as a lower blood flow rate in the pulmonary artery (SGA 0.85m/s vs. 0.97m/s; P=.045). No significant difference was observed in the patients' left ventricular function. SGA patients' ascending aortic diameter was greater (SGA Z-score -1.09 vs. -1.93; P=.026), whereas the systolic abdominal aortic diameter was smaller (SGA Z-score-0.89 vs. -0.19; P=.015). We found functional and morphological cardiac changes in SGA school-age patients treated with GH. It is important to follow-up this patient group in order to determine if these changes contribute to an increased cardiac morbidity in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Training on Physiological and Biochemical Variables of Soccer Players of Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Indranil; Khanna, Gulshan Lal; Chandra Dhara, Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To find out the effect of training on selected physiological and biochemical variables of Indian soccer players of different age groups. Methods A total of 120 soccer players volunteered for the study, were divided (n = 30) into 4 groups: (i) under 16 years (U16), (ii) under 19 years (U19), (iii) under 23 years (U23), (iv) senior (SR). The training sessions were divided into 2 phases (a) Preparatory Phase (PP, 8 weeks) and (b) Competitive Phase (CP, 4 weeks). The training program consisted of aerobic, anaerobic and skill development, and were completed 4 hrs/day; 5 days/week. Selected physiological and biochemical variables were measured at zero level (baseline data, BD) and at the end of PP and CP. Results A significant increase (P < 0.05) in lean body mass (LBM), VO2max, anaerobic power, grip and back strength, urea, uric acid and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C); and a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in body fat, hemoglobin (Hb), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected in some groups in PP and CP phases of the training when compare to BD. However, no significant change was found in body mass and maximal heart rate of the players after the training program. Conclusion This study would provide useful information for training and selection of soccer players of different age groups. PMID:22375187

  14. Frontal Lobe Morphometry with MRI in a Normal Age Group of 6-17 Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    İlkay Koşar, M; Otağ, İlhan; Sabancıoğulları, Vedat; Atalar, Mehmet; Tetiker, Hasan; Otağ, Aynur; Çimen, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Background Morphometric data of the frontal lobe are important for surgical planning of lesions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide suitable data for this purpose. Objectives In our study, the morphometric data of mid-sagittal MRI of the frontal lobe in certain age and gender groups of children have been presented. Patients and Methods In a normal age group of 6-17-year-old participants, the length of the line passing through predetermined different points, including the frontal pole (FP), commissura anterior (AC), commissura posterior (PC), the outermost point of corpus callosum genu (AGCC), the innermost point of corpus callosum genu (IGCC), tuberculum sella (TS), AGCC and IGCC points parallel to AC-PC line and the point such line crosses at the frontal lobe surface (FCS) were measured in three age groups (6-9, 10-13 and 14-17 years) for each gender. Results The frontal lobe morphometric data were higher in males than females. Frontal lobe measurements peak at the age group of 10-13 in the male and at the age group of 6-13 in the female. In boys, the length of FP-AC increases 4.1% in the 10-13 age group compared with the 6-9-year-old group, while this increase is 2.3% in girls. Conclusion Differences in age and gender groups were determined. While the length of AGCC-IGCC increases 10.4% in adults, in children aged 6-17, the length of AC-PC is 11.5% greater than adults. These data will contribute to the preliminary assessment for developing a surgical plan in fine interventions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings in children. PMID:23599707

  15. Frontal lobe morphometry with MRI in a normal age group of 6-17 year-olds.

    PubMed

    Ilkay Koşar, M; Otağ, Ilhan; Sabancıoğulları, Vedat; Atalar, Mehmet; Tetiker, Hasan; Otağ, Aynur; Cimen, Mehmet

    2012-12-01

    Morphometric data of the frontal lobe are important for surgical planning of lesions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide suitable data for this purpose. In our study, the morphometric data of mid-sagittal MRI of the frontal lobe in certain age and gender groups of children have been presented. In a normal age group of 6-17-year-old participants, the length of the line passing through predetermined different points, including the frontal pole (FP), commissura anterior (AC), commissura posterior (PC), the outermost point of corpus callosum genu (AGCC), the innermost point of corpus callosum genu (IGCC), tuberculum sella (TS), AGCC and IGCC points parallel to AC-PC line and the point such line crosses at the frontal lobe surface (FCS) were measured in three age groups (6-9, 10-13 and 14-17 years) for each gender. The frontal lobe morphometric data were higher in males than females. Frontal lobe measurements peak at the age group of 10-13 in the male and at the age group of 6-13 in the female. In boys, the length of FP-AC increases 4.1% in the 10-13 age group compared with the 6-9-year-old group, while this increase is 2.3% in girls. Differences in age and gender groups were determined. While the length of AGCC-IGCC increases 10.4% in adults, in children aged 6-17, the length of AC-PC is 11.5% greater than adults. These data will contribute to the preliminary assessment for developing a surgical plan in fine interventions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings in children.

  16. The emerging trend of work beyond retirement age in Germany. Increasing social inequality?

    PubMed

    Hofäcker, D; Naumann, E

    2015-07-01

    Population ageing, demographic change and the financial crisis has put the financial sustainability of the German pension system at risk. In reaction to these challenges, Germany recently abandoned generous early retirement policies and moved towards policies encouraging higher employment among the elderly. In this article we evaluate how these labour market and pension policies affected the retirement decisions of older workers in Germany over the last three decades. Complementing previous research on early retirement, we focus in particular on those working past the mandatory retirement age of 65 years and examine whether the composition of this group of postretirement-age workers has changed over time. We analyse pooled cross-sectional data from three rounds of the German Ageing Survey which allow us to cover the last three decades from 1980 to 2008. Estimating multinomial logit models we distinguish explanatory factors on the individual, organizational and institutional level that frame the decision to leave the labour market before the age of 65, to stop working at 65 or to work past 65. Over the last three decades, the share of German workers leaving the labour market after the mandatory retirement age of 65 has increased markedly. This trend towards working longer has changed particularly among the low educated workforce which in previous decades traditionally has exhibited a tendency to retire early. In contrast to high-skilled workers, the decision to work longer among low-educated workers is mainly driven by financial need (and is usually not in line with their desire or their ability to work for longer). Our findings suggest an increase in social inequality in retirement decisions as a result of the policy shift towards activation. We conclude by arguing for a more fine-grained understanding of the reasons why people work longer. Such research would provide valuable insights into how to design future labour market and pension reforms preventing a rise in

  17. Age-related decline in cardiac autonomic function is not attenuated with increased physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Njemanze, Hugo; Warren, Charlotte; Eggett, Christopher; MacGowan, Guy A.; Bates, Matthew G D; Siervo, Mario; Ivkovic, Srdjan; Trenell, Michael I.; Jakovljevic, Djordje G.

    2016-01-01

    Age and physical inactivity are important risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Heart rate response to exercise (HRRE) and heart rate recovery (HRR), measures of cardiac autonomic function, are strong predictors of mortality. The present study defined the effect of age and physical activity on HRRE and HRR. Healthy women (N=72) grouped according to age (young, 20-30 years; middle, 40-50 years; and older, 65-81 years) and daily physical activity (low active <7500, high active >12,500 steps/day) performed a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. The HRRE was defined as an increase in heart rate from rest to 1, 3 and 5 minutes of exercise and at 1/3 of total exercise time, and HRR as the difference in heart rate between peak exercise and 1, 2, and 3 minutes later. Age was associated with a significant decline in HRRE at 1 min and 1/3 of exercise time (r= − 0.27, p=0.04, and r=−0.39, p=0.02) and HRR at 2 min and 3 min (r=−0.35, p=0.01, and r=−0.31, p=0.02). There was no significant difference in HRRE and HRR between high and low-active middle-age and older women (p>0.05). Increased level of habitual physical activity level appears to have a limited effect on age-related decline in cardiac autonomic function in women. PMID:27705949

  18. No evidence of age-related increases in unconscious plagiarism during free recall.

    PubMed

    Perfect, Timothy John; Defeldre, Anne-Catherine; Elliman, Rachel; Dehon, Hedwige

    2011-07-01

    In three experiments younger and older participants took part in a group generation task prior to a delayed recall task. In each, participants were required to recall the items that they had generated, avoiding plagiarism errors. All studies showed the same pattern: older adults did not plagiarise their partners any more than younger adults did. However, older adults were more likely than younger adults to intrude with entirely novel items not previously generated by anyone. These findings stand in opposition to the single previous demonstration of age-related increases in plagiarism during recall.

  19. Cochlear implantees: Analysis of behavioral and objective measures for a clinical population of various age groups.

    PubMed

    Greisiger, Ralf; Shallop, Jon K; Hol, Per Kristian; Elle, Ole Jakob; Jablonski, Greg Eigner

    2015-01-01

    As of 2014 more than 1200 patients have received a cochlear implant (CI) at Oslo University Hospital (OUS) and approximately half of them have been children. The data obtained from these patients have been used to develop a comprehensive database for a systematic analysis of several objective measurements and programming measurements. During the past 10 years, we have used an objective measurements protocol for our CI surgeries. Our intra-operative protocol includes: Evoked Compound Action Potentials (ECAP), visually observed Electrically evoked Stapedius Reflex Threshold (ESRT), and electrode impedances. Post-operative (Post-OP) programming sessions typically begin 4-6 weeks after surgery and continue on a scheduled basis. The initial programming data include threshold levels (T-levels) and comfortable levels (C-levels) for the different patient age groups. In this study, we compared initial stimulation levels and stimulation levels after at least 1 year of CI with objective measurements obtained intra-operatively. This study focused on the development of a comprehensive database of detailed intra-operative objective measures and post-OP programming measurements from a group of 296 CI patients who received the same type of CI and electrode configuration (Cochlear Corporation CI with Contour electrode). This group included 92 bilateral CI patients. Measurements from 388 CI devices were studied. Patients were divided into 5 different age groups at the age of implantation: 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-20, and above 20 years in order to investigate age-related differences in programming levels and objective measurements. For the comparison analysis we used T- and C-levels obtained after the last day of initial programming and also after at least 1 year implant use. These programming levels were then correlated with some of the intra-operative objective measurements. T-levels were found to be the lowest for the youngest patient group and increased with age. C-levels varied

  20. GROUP COUNSELING-PLUS--INCREASING SCHOOL SUCCESS OF JUNIOR COLLEGE STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DESSENT, SHIRLEY C.

    TO TEST THE HYPOTHESIS THAT STUDENTS ON ACADEMIC PROBATION WHO RECEIVED SUPPORT AND INSIGHT FROM A GROUP WOULD OBTAIN HIGHER GRADE POINT AVERAGES THAN THOSE WITHOUT SUCH AN EXPERIENCE, THE RECORDS OF AN EXPERIMENTAL GROUP OF 30 PROBATIONARY STUDENTS WERE MATCHED ON THE BASIS OF AGE, SEX, AND NUMBER OF UNITS TAKEN, MARITAL STATUS OF PARENTS,…

  1. GROUP COUNSELING-PLUS--INCREASING SCHOOL SUCCESS OF JUNIOR COLLEGE STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DESSENT, SHIRLEY C.

    TO TEST THE HYPOTHESIS THAT STUDENTS ON ACADEMIC PROBATION WHO RECEIVED SUPPORT AND INSIGHT FROM A GROUP WOULD OBTAIN HIGHER GRADE POINT AVERAGES THAN THOSE WITHOUT SUCH AN EXPERIENCE, THE RECORDS OF AN EXPERIMENTAL GROUP OF 30 PROBATIONARY STUDENTS WERE MATCHED ON THE BASIS OF AGE, SEX, AND NUMBER OF UNITS TAKEN, MARITAL STATUS OF PARENTS,…

  2. The risk of embryo-endometrium asynchrony increases with maternal age after ovarian stimulation and IVF.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Bruce S; Daneshmand, Said T; Desai, Jyoti; Garner, Forest C; Aguirre, Martha; Hudson, Cynthia

    2016-07-01

    This retrospective cohort analysis examined the effects of maternal age on the incidence of factors associated with embryo-endometrium asynchrony in fresh autologous blastocyst transfer. The study included 1169 routine fresh autologous blastocyst transfers. The main outcome measure was asynchronous transfer defined by delayed (day 6) blastocyst transfer or elevated pre-ovulatory serum progesterone level. Compared with patients younger than 35 years, patients 35 years or older had increased risk of having at least one risk factor for asynchronous transfer, including premature progesterone elevation or delayed blastocyst transfer (RR 1.36; 95% CI 1.24 to 1.50). The older group had increased risk of simultaneously having both risk factors (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.21) compared with the younger group. In patients younger than 35 years, live birth rate per transfer was 62.9% with day 5 transfer and low progesterone, declining to 27.9% for day 6 transfer combined with elevated progesterone. In patients 35 years or older, live birth rate per transfer was 38.0% with day 5 transfer and low progesterone, declining to 18.1% for day 6 transfer combined with elevated progesterone. Indicators of embryo-endometrium asynchrony increase in prevalence as women age and asynchrony disproportionately decreases birth rates in older patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Onset of mortality increase with age and age trajectories of mortality from all diseases in the four Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Dolejs, Josef; Marešová, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Background The answer to the question “At what age does aging begin?” is tightly related to the question “Where is the onset of mortality increase with age?” Age affects mortality rates from all diseases differently than it affects mortality rates from nonbiological causes. Mortality increase with age in adult populations has been modeled by many authors, and little attention has been given to mortality decrease with age after birth. Materials and methods Nonbiological causes are excluded, and the category “all diseases” is studied. It is analyzed in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden during the period 1994–2011, and all possible models are screened. Age trajectories of mortality are analyzed separately: before the age category where mortality reaches its minimal value and after the age category. Results Resulting age trajectories from all diseases showed a strong minimum, which was hidden in total mortality. The inverse proportion between mortality and age fitted in 54 of 58 cases before mortality minimum. The Gompertz model with two parameters fitted as mortality increased with age in 17 of 58 cases after mortality minimum, and the Gompertz model with a small positive quadratic term fitted data in the remaining 41 cases. The mean age where mortality reached minimal value was 8 (95% confidence interval 7.05–8.95) years. The figures depict an age where the human population has a minimal risk of death from biological causes. Conclusion Inverse proportion and the Gompertz model fitted data on both sides of the mortality minimum, and three parameters determined the shape of the age–mortality trajectory. Life expectancy should be determined by the two standard Gompertz parameters and also by the single parameter in the model c/x. All-disease mortality represents an alternative tool to study the impact of age. All results are based on published data. PMID:28176929

  4. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Matheus M; Reis, Júlia G; Carvalho, Regiane L; Tanaka, Erika H; Hyppolito, Miguel A; Abreu, Daniela C C

    2015-01-01

    muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women.

  5. The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Dai, K

    1991-03-01

    Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome.

  6. Increase of photosynthesis and starch in potato under elevated CO2 is dependent on leaf age.

    PubMed

    Katny, María Angélica Casanova; Hoffmann-Thoma, Gudrun; Schrier, Anton Arij; Fangmeier, Andreas; Jäger, Hans-Jürgen; van Bel, Aart J E

    2005-04-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum cv. Bintje) were grown in open top chambers under ambient (400 microL L(-1)) and elevated CO2 (720 microL L(-1)). After 50 days one half of each group was transferred to the other CO2 concentration and the effects were studied in relation to leaf age (old, middle-aged and young leaves) in each of the four groups. Under long-term exposure to elevated CO2, photosynthesis increased between 10% and 40% compared to ambient CO2. A subsequent shift of the same plants to ambient CO2 caused a 20-40% decline in photosynthetic rate, which was most pronounced in young leaves. After shifting from long-term ambient to elevated CO2, photosynthesis also increased most strongly in young leaves (90%); these experiments show that photosynthesis was downregulated in the upper young fully expanded leaves of potato growing long-term under elevated CO2. Soluble sugar content in all leaf classes under long-term exposure was stable irrespective of the CO2 treatment, however under elevated CO2 young leaves showed a strongly increased starch accumulation (up to 400%). In all leaf classes starch levels dropped in response to the shift from 720 to 400 microL L(-1) approaching ambient CO2 levels. After the shift to 720 microL L(-1), sucrose and starch levels increased, principally in young Leaves. There is clear evidence that leaves of different age vary in their responses to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration.

  7. Sources of energy from meals versus snacks in 220 people in four age groups.

    PubMed

    Summerbell, C D; Moody, R C; Shanks, J; Stock, M J; Geissler, C

    1995-01-01

    To assess meals versus snacks in terms of their contribution to total daily energy intake (TDI), macronutrient composition, and food commodity profile. Meals and snacks were assessed from 220 7-day weighed dietary records. 187 records were obtained from three separate existing studies, and reanalysed. These studies contained data on three different age groups in the British population; elderly group (n = 88), middle-aged group (n = 40), young adult group (n = 59). A separate study of 13-14-year-olds living in Croydon was conducted from which 33 usable diet records were collected (adolescent group). Boys in the adolescent group consumed more of their TDI as snacks (29.0%) compared with men in the young adult (18.9%) and elderly groups (16.6%), but not the middle-aged group (25.8%). Females consumed about the same percentage of their TDI as snacks; adolescent group 23.6%, young adult group 19.4%, middle-aged group 21.4%, elderly group 17.9%. Meals were higher in protein and fat, and lower in total sugars, compared with snacks. Chocolate confectionery, crisps and fizzy drinks and squashes were popular snack foods in the adolescent group. Unlike snacks, the food commodity profiles of meals were similar in all age groups. This study shows that foods and drinks consumed as snacks by the British public, including the elderly, have a relatively high total sugar composition. These results add to the concern relating snack foods with dental caries.

  8. Increased Waist-to-height Ratio May Contribute to Age-related Increase in Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Masoumeh; Kamali, Majid; Dastsouz, Farideh; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Amanat, Sassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) increases with age. The objective was to determine whether lifestyle and dietary behaviors and anthropometric measures, which are affected by these behaviors, contribute to the increase of CVD risk factors across age categories of 20–50-year-old. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 437 adults aged 20–50-year-old were selected from households living in Shiraz. Risk factors of CVD, including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively) as well as lifestyle behaviors (physical activity and smoking), dietary habits, and food intakes were assessed across the age categories of 20–29, 30–39, and 40–50 years. Linear regression was used to examine the contribution of different variables to the age-related increase of CVD risk factors. Results: All CVD risk factors, except for HDL-C, significantly increased across age categories. Older subjects had healthier dietary habits and food intakes, but they possessed nonsignificantly lower physical activity and higher smoking rate compared to younger adults. Adjusting for physical activity, smoking, and BMI did not change the significant positive association between age and CVD risk factors but adjusting for WHtR disappeared associations for blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic syndrome although significant associations remained for FBG and total and LDL-C. Conclusions: Age-related increase of CVD risk factors occurred independent of lifestyle habits. WHtR, but not BMI, may partially contribute to the age-related increase in CVD risk factors. PMID:27195100

  9. Increased low back pain prevalence in females than in males after menopause age: evidences based on synthetic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wáng, Jùn-Qīng; Káplár, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Female sex hormones play an important role in the etiology and pathophysiology of a variety of musculoskeletal degenerative diseases. Postmenopausal women show accelerated disc degeneration due to relative estrogen deficiency. This literature review aims to validate or falsify this hypothesis, i.e., while overall females have higher prevalence of low back pain (LBP) across all age groups, this male vs. female difference in LBP prevalence further increases after female menopause age. The literature search was performed on PubMed on January 2, 2016. The search word combination was (low back pain) AND prevalence AND [(males OR men) AND (females OR women)]. The following criteria were taken to include the papers for synthetic analysis: (I) only English primary literatures on nonspecific pain; (II) only prospective studies on general population, but not population with occupational LBP causes, of both males and female subjects studied using the same LBP criterion, ages-specific information available, and males and female subjects were age-matched; (III) studies without major quality flaws. In total 98 studies with 772,927 subjects were analyzed. According to the information in the literature, participant subjects were divided into four age groups: (I) school age children group: 6–19 years; (II) young and middle aged group: 20–50 years; (III) mixed age group: data from studies did not differentiate age groups; (IV) elderly group: ≥50 years old. When individual studies were not weighted by participant number and each individual study is represented as one entry regardless of their sample size, the median LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.310, 1.140, 1.220, and 1.270 respectively for the four age groups. When individual studies were weighted by participant number, the LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.360, 1.127, 1.185, and 1.280 respectively for the four groups. The higher LBP prevalence in school age girls than in school age boys is likely

  10. Effect of Weather Variability on Seasonal Influenza Among Different Age Groups in Queensland, Australia: A Bayesian Spatiotemporal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaodong; Mengersen, Kerrie; Milinovich, Gabriel; Hu, Wenbiao

    2017-06-01

    The effects of weather variability on seasonal influenza among different age groups remain unclear. The comparative study aims to explore the differences in the associations between weather variability and seasonal influenza, and growth rates of seasonal influenza epidemics among different age groups in Queensland, Australia. Three Bayesian spatiotemporal conditional autoregressive models were fitted at the postal area level to quantify the relationships between seasonal influenza and monthly minimum temperature (MIT), monthly vapor pressure, school calendar pattern, and Index of Relative Socio-Economic Advantage and Disadvantage for 3 age groups (<15, 15-64, and ≥65 years). The results showed that the expected decrease in monthly influenza cases was 19.3% (95% credible interval [CI], 14.7%-23.4%), 16.3% (95% CI, 13.6%-19.0%), and 8.5% (95% CI, 1.5%-15.0%) for a 1°C increase in monthly MIT at <15, 15-64, and ≥65 years of age, respectively, while the average increase in the monthly influenza cases was 14.6% (95% CI, 9.0%-21.0%), 12.1% (95% CI, 8.8%-16.1%), and 9.2% (95% CI, 1.4%-16.9%) for a 1-hPa increase in vapor pressure. Weather variability appears to be more influential on seasonal influenza transmission in younger (0-14) age groups. The growth rates of influenza at postal area level were relatively small for older (≥65) age groups in Queensland, Australia.

  11. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years) and older (64-85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  12. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  13. Increased apoptotic neuronal cell death and cognitive impairment at early phase after traumatic brain injury in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Nishida, Shozo; Tsubaki, Masahiro; Mizuguchi, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Shigeo; Ito, Akihiko; Satou, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Progressive age-associated increases in cerebral dysfunction have been shown to occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Moreover, levels of neuronal mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes in the aged brain are reduced, resulting in free radical-induced cell death. It was hypothesized that cognitive impairment after TBI in the aged progresses to a greater degree than in younger individuals, and that damage involves neuronal degeneration and death by free radicals. In this study, we investigated the effects of free radicals on neuronal degeneration, cell death, and cognitive impairment in 10-week-old (young group) and 24-month-old rats (aged group) subjected to TBI. Young and aged rats received TBI with a pneumatic controlled injury device. At 1, 3 and 7 days after TBI, immunohistochemistry, lipid peroxidation and behavioral studies were performed. At 1, 3 and 7 days post-TBI, the number of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine-, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-positive cells, and the levels of malondialdehyde around the damaged area after TBI significantly increased in the aged group when compared with the young group (P < 0.05). In addition, the majority of ssDNA-positive cells in both groups co-localized with neuronal cells around the damaged area. There was a significant decrease in the number of surviving neurons and an increase in cognitive impairment after TBI in the aged group when compared with the young group (P < 0.05). These results indicate that following TBI, high levels of free radicals are produced in the aged rat brain, which induces neuronal degeneration and apoptotic cell death around the damaged area, resulting in cognitive impairment.

  14. Dating, Sex, and Substance Use Predict Increases in Adolescents' Subjective Age across Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Albrecht, Arne K.; Jansson, S. Mikael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the nature of the relationship between adolescents' subjective age (how old they feel) and chronological age, and explored whether dating, sex, and substance use predicted increases in adolescents' subjective age across a two-year period. The participants were 570 adolescents who were interviewed when they were first ages 12-19…

  15. How Accurate is Orthoptic Examination at Age One?: The Early vs. Late Strabismus Surgery Study Group.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    The Early vs. Late Strabismus Surgery Study Group is a group of strabismologists and orthoptists who wish to investigate whether early or late surgery is better in cases of infantile strabismus, in a controlled, multicentre, matched-pair trial: All infants will receive a standardized entry examination at age one and then be operated either before their second birthday in clinics A, or between the 32nd and 60th month of age in clinics B. The children will be evaluated at age six. After completion of the study, one child will be selected from each group, to form a pair of children with the same entry examination, who were operated early or late. Successive pairs will be generated so that finally two smaller groups with the same entry examinations are formed. These two groups can then be compared regarding degree of binocular vision, angle of squint and visual acuity of the worse eye. It was decided to perform first a pilot-study of the examination of infants age nine to 15 months, because we wanted to know to what degree of accuracy infants age one can be examined and what parts of the examination can be carried out most reliably and can therefore be used as parameters to match the pairs in the main study. 190 Children were each examined by three examiners on one day, according to a standardized examination sheet, and differences were quantified. We found that the angle of squint could be measured with reasonable precision: The largest difference between any two of the three measured angles averaged at 6.5″. The angle did not increase when the infant was examined a second or third time. Variability of the angle, vertical divergence and up-/downshoot-in-adduction could not be assessed reliably. On the other hand, restriction of abduction (in a 4-class scale) could be measured with adequate precision: in 58% there were no differences at all between the three examinations. The degree of amblyopia could be well assessed by observing the fixation pattern by means of

  16. Spectrum of aortic valve abnormalities associated with aortic dilation across age groups in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Laura J; Baba, Ridhwan Y; Arai, Andrew E; Bandettini, W Patricia; Rosing, Douglas R; Bakalov, Vladimir; Sachdev, Vandana; Bondy, Carolyn A

    2013-11-01

    Congenital aortic valve fusion is associated with aortic dilation, aneurysm, and rupture in girls and women with Turner syndrome. Our objective was to characterize aortic valve structure in subjects with Turner syndrome and to determine the prevalence of aortic dilation and valve dysfunction associated with different types of aortic valves. The aortic valve and thoracic aorta were characterized by cardiovascular MRI in 208 subjects with Turner syndrome in an institutional review board-approved natural history study. Echocardiography was used to measure peak velocities across the aortic valve and the degree of aortic regurgitation. Four distinct valve morphologies were identified: tricuspid aortic valve, 64% (n=133); partially fused aortic valve, 12% (n=25); bicuspid aortic valve, 23% (n=47); and unicuspid aortic valve, 1% (n=3). Age and body surface area were similar in the 4 valve morphology groups. There was a significant trend, independent of age, toward larger body surface area-indexed ascending aortic diameters with increasing valve fusion. Ascending aortic diameters were (mean±SD) 16.9±3.3, 18.3±3.3, and 19.8±3.9 mm/m(2) (P<0.0001) for tricuspid aortic valve, partially fused aortic valve, and bicuspid aortic valve+unicuspid aortic valve, respectively. Partially fused aortic valve, bicuspid aortic valve, and unicuspid aortic valve were significantly associated with mild aortic regurgitation and elevated peak velocities across the aortic valve. Aortic valve abnormalities in Turner syndrome occur with a spectrum of severity and are associated with aortic root dilation across age groups. Partial fusion of the aortic valve, traditionally regarded as an acquired valve problem, had an equal age distribution and was associated with an increased ascending aortic diameters.

  17. Endoparasite prevalence and recurrence across different age groups of dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Gates, Maureen C; Nolan, Thomas J

    2009-12-03

    The apparent prevalence of endoparasite infections across different age groups was calculated from 6555 dogs and 1566 cats that had a fecal examination performed upon presentation to the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 1997 and 2007. Based on notations from the medical history indicating prior parasite infections, estimates of recurrence were generated for each common group of parasites, including Trichuris, Giardia, ascarids, hookworms, Cystoisospora, and tapeworms. Endoparasitism was predominantly a disease of younger animals, with peak prevalence observed almost uniformly in dogs under 6 months old, with the exception of Trichuris with its longer pre-patent period, and in cats less than 18 months old. Furthermore, nearly 50% of dogs under 6 months old with a history of parasites, were diagnosed with at least one species of parasite on subsequent fecal examination. The percentage dropped to 18.4% in animals aged 1-4 years, but again increased to 31.5% in animals over 10 years old. There was no reported recurrence of Giardia or Cystoisospora from canine or feline patients older than 1 year. The recurrence of whipworm rose steadily with age, while hookworm and roundworm recurrence peaked in patients 1-4 years old. Findings from the study emphasize the importance of follow up fecal examinations and treatments in patients diagnosed with endoparasites.

  18. Endoparasite prevalence and recurrence across different age groups of dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Maureen C.; Nolan, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The apparent prevalence of endoparasite infections across different age groups was calculated from 6,555 dogs and 1,566 cats that had a fecal examination performed upon presentation to the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 1997 and 2007. Based on notations from the medical history indicating prior parasite infections, estimates of recurrence were generated for each common group of parasites, including Trichuris, Giardia, ascarids, hookworms, Cystoisospora, and tapeworms. Endoparasitism was predominantly a disease of younger animals, with peak prevalence observed almost uniformly in dogs under 6 months old, with the exception of Trichuris with its longer pre-patent period, and in cats less than 18 months old. Furthermore, nearly 50% of dogs under 6 months old with a history of parasites, were diagnosed with at least one species of parasite on subsequent fecal examination. The percentage dropped to 18.4% in animals aged 1 – 4 years, but again increased to 31.5% in animals over 10 years old. There was no reported recurrence of Giardia or Cystoisospora from canine or feline patients older than 1 year. The recurrence of whipworm rose steadily with age, while hookworm and roundworm recurrence peaked in patients 1 - 4 years old. Findings from the study emphasize the importance of follow up fecal examinations and treatments in patients diagnosed with endoparasites. PMID:19709815

  19. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  20. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  1. Pattern of fractures across pediatric age groups: analysis of individual and lifestyle factors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the epidemiology of children's fractures is essential to develop preventive strategies. The aim of this study was to analyze the individual/lifestyle determinants of fractures across pediatric age groups. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in the first six months of 2008 through questionnaire on a sample of children from an outpatient clinic for pediatric fractures. Differences in gender, anatomic site, circumstances and location of fracture occurrence, behavioural lifestyle, and calcium intake were investigated among three different age classes (pre-school children, school children, and adolescents). Results The sample consisted of 382 subjects (2-14 years of age) sustaining a fracture after low or moderate trauma. Males were at a higher risk of fractures than females; greater than two-thirds of injuries occurred after low-energy trauma and the upper limb was more frequently involved. With increasing age, the male/female ratio and time spent in sports participation increased (p < 0.001), while calcium intake and time spent in sedentary behaviors decreased (p < 0.001 and < 0.003, respectively). Gender discordance existed in pre-school children with respect to the anatomic location, and in school children and adolescents with respect to the dynamics. In the adolescent group, males were more physically active and also more sedentary than females. Fractures most frequently occurred in homes (41.6%), followed by playgrounds and footpaths (26.2%), sports facilities (18.3%), and educational facilities (13.9%), with gender differences existing only in adolescence. Twenty-three percent of the subjects sustained one or more fractures in the past. The percentage of recurrent fractures increased with age (p = 0.001), with a similar trend in both genders. Conclusions Gender differences were shown in the prevalence of injuries, characteristics, and circumstances across ages. These differences may be explained by the related changes in

  2. Aging in wild female lemurs: sustained fertility with increased infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Wright, Patricia; King, Stephen J; Baden, Andrea; Jernvall, Jukka

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the way prosimian primates age can be helpful in inferring what the 'basal primate mode' of senescence may have been. Even though prosimians are known to be long-lived in captivity, relatively little is known about their reproductive senescence, and even less is known about how prosimians age in their natural habitats. Twenty years of observational data in Madagascar for four Propithecus edwardsi sifaka groups were used to analyze reproductive and behavioral trends of aging in the wild. Techniques using tooth wear were developed to establish ages of wild sifakas and to estimate the onset of their 'dental senescence', a proxy for the onset of decline in the ability to obtain nutrition. Estimated maximum longevity was 32 years for female sifakas. Based on the loss of dental functional morphology, and changes in tooth wear patterns and in chewing efficiency, dental senescence was estimated to set in at approximately 18 years of age. Of the adult females in the study groups, the yearly average of the number of dentally senescent females was 24%. There was no indication of a decline in fertility in the dentally senescent females (aged >18 years) compared to younger adult females (aged 4-18 years). The field data showed, however, that in years when rain was decreased during months of prime lactation, infants of dentally senescent mothers died before weaning. This may be because the nursing mother's worn teeth could not shear leaves and extract moisture, nor nutrition, both essential for successful lactation. Old females showed no clear signs of social disengagement, further suggesting that drought-induced stress plays a direct role in increased infant mortality. These data support earlier findings that prosimian females continue to cycle and give birth until death. The effect of environmental variation on infant survival, however, indicates an incipient age-linked decline in reproductive fitness. Therefore, whereas lemurs represent the condition of no

  3. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  4. Difference in Perception of Pregnancy Risk in Two Maternal Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Ziba; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Pooralajal, Jalal; Aghababaei, Soodabeh

    2017-05-01

    Various health risks and complications may happen during pregnancy for both the mother and her child. Women should be informed of the risk associated with their pregnancy. To compare the differences of perception of pregnancy risk of two maternal age groups of healthy nulliparous women. In an analytical, descriptive cross-sectional study, 240 nulliparous pregnant women (160 women aged 18 to 35 years as a normal age group and 80 women < 18 years as a high risk age group) were randomly selected. Women were asked to complete questionnaire which included sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy history, perception of pregnancy risk and pregnancy related anxiety. Overall, women of < 18 years (high-risk group) perceived the risks of pregnancy higher than those of 18-35 years age women (reference group). Women in high-risk group rated their risks for herself, having haemorrhaging, having a cesarean birth and dying during pregnancy to be significantly higher than reference group. There was a statistically significant relationship between maternal age and perception of pregnancy risk (p<0.003). There was also a statistically significant relationship between pregnancy related anxiety and perception of pregnancy risk (p<0.002). Women's perception of pregnancy risk is different in various maternal age groups. Maternal age can be considered as one of the important factors affecting perception of pregnancy risk. By routine screening of perception of pregnancy risk during prenatal care more effective risk consulting model could be designed.

  5. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  6. Religious Affiliation Among Older Age Groups Worldwide: Estimates for 2010 and Projections Until 2050.

    PubMed

    Skirbekk, Vegard; Potancoková, Michaela; Hackett, Conrad; Stonawski, Marcin

    2016-11-09

    The religious landscape of older adults around the world is changing profoundly. Yet until now, no study has chronicled these changes or compared expected aging patterns of religious groups. Differential aging among religious groups can have important economic and social consequences. This study estimates and projects the future religious composition by age at the global and regional levels. This study presents estimates of age structures by religion for 2010 and projections until 2050. It is based on analyses of more than 2,500 censuses, registers, and surveys from 198 countries. Regional and global results are the aggregate of demographic projections carried out at the country level. In 2010, Muslims were least likely to be aged 60 or older (7% of all Muslims), and Jews were most likely to be in this age group (20% of all Jews). By 2050, we project that Buddhists and the religiously unaffiliated will have the oldest populations (both will have 32% above the age of 60), whereas Muslims will remain the youngest religious group (with only 16% above the age of 60). Christians will, globally, age relatively slowly, from 14% to 21% above the age of 60 from 2010 to 2050. The religious landscape among the world's seniors will change fundamentally in the coming years, due to the combination of rapid aging among the religiously unaffiliated and Buddhist populations and the persistence of relatively young age structures among Muslims and Christians, which are the dominant religions in Africa.

  7. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  8. How Hyperarousal and Sleep Reactivity Are Represented in Different Adult Age Groups: Results from a Large Cohort Study on Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Altena, Ellemarije; Chen, Ivy Y.; Daviaux, Yannick; Ivers, Hans; Philip, Pierre; Morin, Charles M.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperarousal is a 24-h state of elevated cognitive and physiological activation, and is a core feature of insomnia. The extent to which sleep quality is affected by stressful events—so-called sleep reactivity—is a vulnerability factor for developing insomnia. Given the increasing prevalence of insomnia with age, we aimed to investigate how hyperarousal and sleep reactivity were related to insomnia severity in different adult age groups. Data were derived from a large cohort study investigating the natural history of insomnia in a population-based sample (n = 1693). Baseline data of the Arousal Predisposition Scale (APS) and Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST) were examined across age and sleep/insomnia subgroups: 25–35 (n = 448), 35–45 (n = 528), and 45–55 year olds (n = 717); good sleepers (n = 931), individuals with insomnia symptoms (n = 450), and individuals with an insomnia syndrome (n = 312). Results from factorial analyses of variance (ANOVA) showed that APS scores decreased with increasing age, but increased with more severe sleep problems. FIRST scores were not significantly different across age groups, but showed the same strong increase as a function of sleep problem severity. The findings indicate that though arousal predisposition and sleep reactivity increase with more severe sleep problems, only arousal decreases with age. How arousing events affect an individual during daytime thus decreases with age, but how this arousal disrupts sleep is equivalent across different adult age groups. The main implication of these findings is that treatment of insomnia could be adapted for different age groups and take into consideration vulnerability factors such as hyperarousal and stress reactivity. PMID:28420079

  9. Hippocampal extracellular matrix levels and stochasticity in synaptic protein expression increase with age and are associated with age-dependent cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Végh, Marlene J; Rausell, Antonio; Loos, Maarten; Heldring, Céline M; Jurkowski, Wiktor; van Nierop, Pim; Paliukhovich, Iryna; Li, Ka Wan; del Sol, Antonio; Smit, August B; Spijker, Sabine; van Kesteren, Ronald E

    2014-11-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is a serious health concern in our aging society. Decreased cognitive function observed during healthy brain aging is most likely caused by changes in brain connectivity and synaptic dysfunction in particular brain regions. Here we show that aged C57BL/6J wild-type mice have hippocampus-dependent spatial memory impairments. To identify the molecular mechanisms that are relevant to these memory deficits, we investigated the temporal profile of mouse hippocampal synaptic proteome changes at 20, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 weeks of age. Extracellular matrix proteins were the only group of proteins that showed robust and progressive up-regulation over time. This was confirmed by immunoblotting and histochemical analysis, which indicated that the increased levels of hippocampal extracellular matrix might limit synaptic plasticity as a potential cause of age-related cognitive decline. In addition, we observed that stochasticity in synaptic protein expression increased with age, in particular for proteins that were previously linked with various neurodegenerative diseases, whereas low variance in expression was observed for proteins that play a basal role in neuronal function and synaptic neurotransmission. Together, our findings show that both specific changes and increased variance in synaptic protein expression are associated with aging and may underlie reduced synaptic plasticity and impaired cognitive performance in old age. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Age group and sex differences in performance on a computerized neurocognitive battery in children age 8–21

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Ruben C.; Richard, Jan; Calkins, Monica E.; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Hansen, John A.; Bilker, Warren B.; Loughead, James; Connolly, John J.; Qiu, Haijun; Mentch, Frank D.; Abou-Sleiman, Patrick M.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Gur, Raquel E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Examine age group effects and sex differences by applying a comprehensive computerized battery of identical behavioral measures linked to brain systems in youths that were already genotyped. Such information is needed to incorporate behavioral data as neuropsychological “biomarkers” in large-scale genomic studies. Method We developed and applied a brief computerized neurocognitive battery that provides measures of performance accuracy and response time for executive-control, episodic memory, complex cognition, social cognition and sensorimotor speed domains. We tested a population-based sample of 3500 genotyped youths ages 8–21 years. Results Substantial improvement with age occurred for both accuracy and speed, but the rates varied by domain. The most pronounced improvement was noted in executive control functions, specifically attention, and in motor speed, with some effect sizes exceeding 1.8 standard deviation units. The least pronounced age group effect was in memory, where only face memory showed a large effect size on improved accuracy. Sex differences had much smaller effect sizes but were evident, with females outperforming males on attention, word and face memory, reasoning speed and all social cognition tests and males outperforming females in spatial processing and sensorimotor and motor speed. These sex differences in most domains were seen already at the youngest age groups, and age group × sex interactions indicated divergence at the oldest groups with females becoming faster but less accurate than males. Conclusions The results indicate that cognitive performance improves substantially in this age span, with large effect sizes that differ by domain. The more pronounced improvement for executive and reasoning domains than for memory suggests that memory capacities have reached their apex before age 8. Performance was sexually modulated and most sex differences were apparent by early adolescence. PMID:22251308

  11. Benefits of gregarious feeding by aposematic caterpillars depend on group age structure.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stuart A; Stastny, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Gregarious feeding is a common feature of herbivorous insects and can range from beneficial (e.g. dilution of predation risk) to costly (e.g. competition). Group age structure should influence these costs and benefits, particularly when old and young larvae differ in their feeding mode or apparency to predators. We investigated the relative value of gregarious feeding by aposematic larvae of Uresiphita reversalis that we observed feeding in groups of mixed ages and variable densities on wild Lupinus diffusus. In a manipulative field experiment, the survivorship and growth of young larvae were enhanced in the presence of older conspecifics, but not in large groups of similarly aged larvae. Estimates of insect damage and induced plant responses suggest that mixed-age groups enhance plant quality for young larvae while avoiding competition. We conclude that benefits of gregariousness in this species are contingent on group age structure, a finding of significance for the ecology and evolution of gregariousness and other social behaviours.

  12. Constraining the age of the Mitu Group, South-East Peru: U-Pb ages of detrital and igneous zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitsma, Mariël.; Schaltegger, Urs; Spikings, Richard; Winkler, Wilfried; Carlotto, Victor

    2010-05-01

    Inverted extensional basins with continental deposits of the Mitu Group straddle the Eastern Cordillera of Peru. The present study investigates the Mitu Group of south-east Peru (13-16°S), which consists of continental clastic sedimentary rocks and interbedded basaltic to andesitic lavas. There is a paucity of geochemical and geochronological data from the Mitu Group, and the interpretation of its evolution is complicated by i) rapid changes in fault structure along-strike of the graben system, and ii) inversion during Andean orogenesis. Due to dominating coarse-grained clastics, the Mitu Group is devoid of fossils and its age is poorly bracketed to the Permo-Triassic, based on its stratigraphic relationships with the underlying Copacabana and overlying Pucará groups. The upper strata of the Copacabana Group have been constrained by palynology to the Artinskian, while marine fossils at the base of the Pucará Group indicate a Norian age. The Pucará Group is only present in northern Peru, whereas the Mitu Group has an erosional contact with overlying Cretaceous sandstones in the study area. Preliminary data suggest that the lower Mitu Group is middle Triassic, leaving a significant hiatus between the Copacabana and Mitu groups. Laser ablation ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating was utilized to characterize pre- and syn-rift detrital zircon assemblages in sandstones, as well as to date the syn-rift volcanic and plutonic activity. Detrital zircon U-Pb age histograms of medium grained sandstones in the pre-rift Ambo and Copacabana groups contain several age populations, which can be immediately linked to major events identified along the western Gondwanan margin, such as the Sunsas/Grenville (1 Ga) and Pampean (0.55 Ga) orogenies, as well as the Famatinian arc (0.45 Ga). The youngest zircon in the population assigns a maximum deposition age to the rock; these zircons are of late Mississippian age for the Ambo and latest Pennsylvanian for the Copacabana groups. The

  13. Perceptions of mental workload in Dutch university employees of different ages: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As academic workload seems to be increasing, many studies examined factors that contribute to the mental workload of academics. Age-related differences in work motives and intellectual ability may lead to differences in experienced workload and in the way employees experience work features. This study aims to obtain a better understanding of age differences in sources of mental workload. 33 academics from one faculty discussed causes of workload during focus group interviews, stratified by age. Findings Among our participants, the influence of ageing seems most evident in employees’ actions and reactions, while the causes of workload mentioned seemed largely similar. These individual reactions to workload may also be driven by differences in tenure. Most positively assessed work characteristics were: interaction with colleagues and students and autonomy. Aspects most often indicated as increasing the workload, were organisational aspects as obstacles for ‘getting the best out of people’ and the feeling that overtime seems unavoidable. Many employees indicated to feel stretched between the ‘greediness’ of the organisation and their own high working standards, and many fear to be assigned even less time for research if they do not meet the rigorous output criteria. Moreover, despite great efforts on their part, promotion opportunities seem limited. A more pronounced role for the supervisor seems appreciated by employees of all ages, although the specific interpretation varied between individuals and career stages. Conclusions To preserve good working conditions and quality of work, it seems important to scrutinize the output requirements and tenure-based needs for employee supervision. PMID:23506458

  14. Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Stiffness as a Mechanism for Increased Aortic Stiffness with Aging

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Hongyu; Zhu, Yi; Sun, Zhe; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P.; Gansner, Meredith; Depre, Christophe; Resuello, Ranillo R.G.; Natividad, Filipinas F.; Hunter, William C.; Genin, Guy M.; Elson, Elliot L.; Vatner, Dorothy E.; Meininger, Gerald A.; Vatner, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Increased aortic stiffness, an important feature of many vascular diseases, e.g., aging, hypertension, atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysms, is assumed due to changes in extracellular matrix (ECM). Objective We tested the hypothesis that the mechanisms also involve intrinsic stiffening of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Methods and Results Stiffness was measured in vitro both by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and in a reconstituted tissue model, using VSMCs from aorta of young versus old male monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, n=7/group), where aortic stiffness increases by 200 % in vivo. The apparent elastic modulus was increased (P<0.05) in old VSMCs (41.7±0.5 kPa) versus young (12.8±0.3 kPa), but not after disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D. Stiffness of the VSMCs in the reconstituted tissue model was also higher (P<0.05) in old (23.3±3.0 kPa) than in young (13.7±2.4 kPa). Conclusions These data support the novel concept, not appreciated previously, that increased vascular stiffness with aging is due not only to changes in ECM, but also to intrinsic changes in VSMCs. PMID:20634486

  15. The changing national policy system: complexity, Medicare, and implications for aging groups.

    PubMed

    Hill, B S; Hinckley, K A

    1991-01-01

    Changes in congressional processes, health agendas, and competitive positions of physician and hospital groups in the 1980s have produced important setbacks for such group interests within Medicare. Though united and successful in opposing Carter's 1977-79 hospital cost-containment proposals, these groups were subjected to severe new limits on hospital reimbursements under the 1982 budget reconciliation act. Thereafter, problems in protecting their interests continued or increased. Disagreements among hospital groups (e.g., the American Hospital Association and the former Federation of American Hospitals) surfaced over the Prospective Payment System introduced in 1983. In 1984, Congress instituted a freeze on physicians' Medicare fees despite AMA opposition. This projected narrow self-interest, thus decreasing the AMA's credibility. Further cost restrictions were imposed in 1985-86 budget acts. The problems of these organizations indicate that if aging groups are to protect their own stake in Medicare in the new political context, they must be particularly concerned with unity, credibility, and long-term perspectives.

  16. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  17. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-06-04

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively.

  18. Accelerated tissue aging and increased oxidative stress in broiler chickens fed allopurinol.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Rathore, D S; Iqbal, M; Shi, X; Van Dyke, K

    2001-06-01

    Uric acid has been hypothesized as being one of the more important antioxidants in limiting the accumulation of glycosylated endproducts in birds. Study 1 was designed to quantitatively manipulate the plasma concentrations of uric acid using hemin and allopurinol while study 2 determined their effects on skin pentosidine, the shear force value of Pectoralis major muscle, plasma glucose, body weight and chemiluminescence monitored oxidative stress in broiler chickens. Hemin was hypothesized to raise uric acid concentrations thereby lowering oxidative stress whereas allopurinol was hypothesized to lower uric acid concentrations and raise measures of oxidative stress. In study 1 feeding allopurinol (10 mg/kg body weight) to 8-week-old broiler chicks (n=50) for 10 days decreased plasma uric acid by 57%. However, hemin (10 mg/kg body weight) increased uric acid concentrations 20%. In study 2, 12-week-old broiler chicks (n=90) were randomly assigned to either an ad libitum (AL) diet or a diet restricted (DR) group. Each group was further divided into three treatments (control, allopurinol or hemin fed). Unexpectedly, hemin did not significantly effect uric acid concentrations but increased (P<0.05) measures of chemiluminescence dependent oxidative stress in both the DR and AL birds probably due to the ability of iron to generate oxygen radicals. Allopurinol lowered concentrations of uric acid and increased (P<0.05) the oxidative stress in the AL birds at week 22, reduced (P<0.05) body weight in both the AL and DR fed birds at 16 and 22 weeks of age, and markedly increased (P<0.001) shear force values of the pectoralis major muscle. Skin pentosidine levels increased (P<0.05) in AL birds fed allopurinol or hemin fed birds, but not in the diet restricted birds at 22 weeks. The significance of these studies is that concentrations of plasma uric acid can be related to measures of oxidative stress, which can be linked to tissue aging.

  19. Advanced maternal age increases the risk of very preterm birth, irrespective of parity: a population-based register study.

    PubMed

    Waldenström, U; Cnattingius, S; Vixner, L; Norman, M

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether advanced maternal age is associated with preterm birth, irrespective of parity. Population-based registry study. Swedish Medical Birth Register. First, second, and third live singleton births to women aged 20 years or older in Sweden, from 1990 to 2011 (n = 2 009 068). Logistic regression analysis was used in each parity group to estimate risks of very and moderately preterm births to women at 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, and 40 years or older, using 25-29 years as the reference group. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for year of birth, education, country of birth, smoking, body mass index, and history of preterm birth. Age-related risks of spontaneous and medically indicated preterm births were also investigated. Very preterm (22-31 weeks of gestation) and moderately preterm (32-36 weeks) births. Risks of very preterm birth increased with maternal age, irrespective of parity: adjusted ORs in first, second, and third births ranged from 1.18 to 1.28 at 30-34 years, from 1.59 to 1.70 at 35-39 years, and from 1.97 to 2.40 at ≥40 years. In moderately preterm births, age-related associations were weaker, but were statistically significant from 35-39 years in all parity groups. Advanced maternal age increased the risks of both spontaneous and medically indicated preterm births. Advanced maternal age is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, irrespective of parity, especially very preterm birth. Women aged 35 years and older, expecting their first, second, or third births, should be regarded as a risk group for very preterm birth. Women aged 35 years and older should be regarded as a risk group for very preterm birth, irrespective of parity. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Effects of increased paternal age on sperm quality, reproductive outcome and associated epigenetic risks to offspring.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ashok; Rohra, Vikram K; Assidi, Mourad; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Turki, Rola F

    2015-04-19

    Over the last decade, there has been a significant increase in average paternal age when the first child is conceived, either due to increased life expectancy, widespread use of contraception, late marriages and other factors. While the effect of maternal ageing on fertilization and reproduction is well known and several studies have shown that women over 35 years have a higher risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, spontaneous abortion, congenital anomalies, and perinatal complications. The effect of paternal age on semen quality and reproductive function is controversial for several reasons. First, there is no universal definition for advanced paternal ageing. Secondly, the literature is full of studies with conflicting results, especially for the most common parameters tested. Advancing paternal age also has been associated with increased risk of genetic disease. Our exhaustive literature review has demonstrated negative effects on sperm quality and testicular functions with increasing paternal age. Epigenetics changes, DNA mutations along with chromosomal aneuploidies have been associated with increasing paternal age. In addition to increased risk of male infertility, paternal age has also been demonstrated to impact reproductive and fertility outcomes including a decrease in IVF/ICSI success rate and increasing rate of preterm birth. Increasing paternal age has shown to increase the incidence of different types of disorders like autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and childhood leukemia in the progeny. It is thereby essential to educate the infertile couples on the disturbing links between increased paternal age and rising disorders in their offspring, to better counsel them during their reproductive years.

  1. Blood pressure categories and long-term risk of cardiovascular disease according to age group in Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Akira; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2012-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) categories defined by systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) are commonly used. However, the BP category-specific risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been thoroughly investigated in different age groups. The aim of this study was to assess long-term CVD risk and its impact according to BP categories and age group. Pooling individual data from 10 cohorts, we studied 67 309 Japanese individuals (40-89 years old) who were free of CVD at baseline: we categorized them as belonging to three age groups: 'middle-aged' (40-64 years), 'elderly' (65-74 years) and 'very elderly' (75-89 years). BP was classified according to the 2009 Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Cox models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for CVD deaths. We observed 1944 CVD deaths over a mean follow-up of 10.2 years. In all age groups, the overall relationship between BP category and CVD risk was positive, with a greater strength observed for younger age groups. We observed a trend of increased risk from SBP/DBP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg in the very elderly, and a significant increase from SBP/DBP ≥ 120/80 mm Hg in the other age groups. The population attributable fractions (PAFs) of CVD death in reference to the SBP/DBP<120/80 mm Hg category ranged from 23.4% in the very elderly to 60.3% in the middle-aged. We found an overall graded increase in CVD risk with higher BP category in the very elderly. The PAFs suggest that keeping BP levels low is an important strategy for primary CVD prevention, even in an elderly population.

  2. Trends in birth across high-parity groups by race/ethnicity and maternal age.

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Muktar H.; Salihu, Hamisu M.; Keith, Louis G.; Ehiri, John E.; Islam, M. Aminul; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The changing racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. population along with delayed childbearing suggest that shifts in the demographic composition of gravidas are likely. It is unclear whether trends in the proportion of births to parous women in the United States have changed over the decades by race and ethnicity, reflecting parallel changes in population demographics. METHODS: Singleton deliveries > or = 20 weeks of gestation in the United States from 1989 through 2000 were analyzed using data from the "Natality data files" assembled by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). We classified maternal age into three categories; younger mothers (aged < 30 years), mature mothers (30-39 years) and older mothers (> or = 40 years) and maternal race/ethnicity into three groups: blacks (non-Hispanic), Hispanics and whites (non-Hispanic). We computed birth rates by period of delivery across the entire population and repeated the analysis stratified by age and maternal race. Chi-squared statistics for linear trend were utilized to assess linear trend across three four-year phases: 1989-1992, 1993-1996 and 1997-2000. In estimating the association between race/ethnicity and parity status, the direct method of standardization was employed to adjust for maternal age. RESULTS: Over the study period, the total number of births to blacks and whites diminished consistently (p for trend < 0.001), whereas among Hispanics a progressive increase in the total number of deliveries was evident (p for trend < 0.001). Black and white women experienced a reduction in total deliveries equivalent to 10% and 9.3%, respectively, while Hispanic women showed a substantial increment in total births (25%). Regardless of race or ethnicity, birth rate was associated with increase in maternal age in a dose-effect fashion among the high (5-9 previous live births), very high (10-14 previous live births) and extremely high (> or = 15 previous live births) parity groups (p for trend

  3. Trends in birth across high-parity groups by race/ethnicity and maternal age.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Muktar H; Salihu, Hamisu M; Keith, Louis G; Ehiri, John E; Islam, M Aminul; Jolly, Pauline E

    2005-06-01

    The changing racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. population along with delayed childbearing suggest that shifts in the demographic composition of gravidas are likely. It is unclear whether trends in the proportion of births to parous women in the United States have changed over the decades by race and ethnicity, reflecting parallel changes in population demographics. Singleton deliveries > or = 20 weeks of gestation in the United States from 1989 through 2000 were analyzed using data from the "Natality data files" assembled by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). We classified maternal age into three categories; younger mothers (aged < 30 years), mature mothers (30-39 years) and older mothers (> or = 40 years) and maternal race/ethnicity into three groups: blacks (non-Hispanic), Hispanics and whites (non-Hispanic). We computed birth rates by period of delivery across the entire population and repeated the analysis stratified by age and maternal race. Chi-squared statistics for linear trend were utilized to assess linear trend across three four-year phases: 1989-1992, 1993-1996 and 1997-2000. In estimating the association between race/ethnicity and parity status, the direct method of standardization was employed to adjust for maternal age. Over the study period, the total number of births to blacks and whites diminished consistently (p for trend < 0.001), whereas among Hispanics a progressive increase in the total number of deliveries was evident (p for trend < 0.001). Black and white women experienced a reduction in total deliveries equivalent to 10% and 9.3%, respectively, while Hispanic women showed a substantial increment in total births (25%). Regardless of race or ethnicity, birth rate was associated with increase in maternal age in a dose-effect fashion among the high (5-9 previous live births), very high (10-14 previous live births) and extremely high (> or = 15 previous live births) parity groups (p for trend < 0.001). After maternal age

  4. The communication of "pure" group-based anger reduces tendencies toward intergroup conflict because it increases out-group empathy.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Bart; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gordijn, Ernestine H; Postmes, Tom

    2013-08-01

    The communication of group-based anger in intergroup conflict is often associated with destructive conflict behavior. However, we show that communicating group-based anger toward the out-group can evoke empathy and thus reduce intergroup conflict. This is because it stresses the value of maintaining a positive long-term intergroup relationship, thereby increasing understanding for the situation (in contrast to the communication of the closely related emotion of contempt). Three experiments demonstrate that the communication of group-based anger indeed reduces destructive conflict intentions compared with (a) a control condition (Experiments 1-2), (b) the communication of group-based contempt (Experiment 2), and (c) the communication of a combination of group-based anger and contempt (Experiments 2-3). Moreover, results from all three experiments reveal that empathy mediated the positive effect of communicating "pure" group-based anger. We discuss the implications of these findings for the theory and practice of communicating emotions in intergroup conflicts.

  5. Increasing Career Self-Efficacy for Women: Evaluating a Group Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kate Roy; Mahalik, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates whether women participating in a career group designed to increase career-related self-efficacy would make gains on career decision-making self-efficacy and vocational exploration and commitment compared with women in a control group. Results indicate that women in the treatment group improved on career decision-making self-efficacy and…

  6. Energy Cost Expression for a Youth Compendium of Physical Activities: Rationale for Using Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, K A; Watson, K B; McMurray, R G; Bassett, D R; Butte, N F; Crouter, S E; Herrmann, S D; Trost, S G; Ainsworth, B E; Fulton, J E; Berrigan, D

    2017-08-08

    This study compared the accuracy of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) prediction using two methods of accounting for age dependency versus one standard (single) value across all ages. PAEE estimates were derived by pooling data from five studies. Participants, 6-18 years (n=929), engaged in 14 activities while in a room calorimeter or wearing a portable metabolic analyzer. Linear regression was used to estimate the measurement error in PAEE (expressed as METy) associated with using age-groups (6-9, 10-12, 13-15, and 16-18 years) and age-in-years (each year of chronological age (e.g., 12=12.0-12.99 years)) versus the standard (a single value across all ages). Age-groups and age-in-years showed similar error, and both showed less error than the standard method for cycling, skilled and moderate-to-vigorous intensity activities. For sedentary and light activities, the standard had similar error to the other two methods. Mean values for root mean square error ranged from 0.2-1.7 METy across all activities. Error reduction ranged from -0.2-21.7% for age-groups and -0.23-18.2% for age-in-years, compared to the standard. Accounting for age showed lower errors than a standard (single) value; using an age-dependent model in the Youth Compendium is recommended.

  7. Age Group Comparisons of TENS Response among Individuals with Chronic Axial Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Corey B.; Riley, Joseph L.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Bishop, Mark D.; George, Steven Z.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a highly prevalent and disabling musculoskeletal pain condition among older adults. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is commonly used to treat CLBP, however, TENS response for older adults compared to younger adults is untested. In a dose-response study stratified by age, sixty participants with axial CLBP (20 young, 20 middle-aged, 20 older) received four 20-minute sessions of high frequency, high intensity TENS over a two to three-week period in a laboratory-controlled setting. Experimental measures of pain sensitivity (mechanical pressure pain detection threshold, PPT) and central pain excitability (phasic heat temporal summation, TS; heat aftersensations, AS) were assessed before and after TENS. Episodic or immediate axial CLBP relief was assessed after TENS via measures of resting pain, movement-evoked-pain, and self-reported disability. Cumulative or prolonged axial CLBP relief was assessed by comparing daily pain report across sessions. Independent of age, individuals experienced episodic increase in PPT and reduction in AS following TENS application. Similarly, all groups, on average, experienced episodic axial CLBP relief via improved resting pain, movement-evoked pain, and disability report. Under this design, no cumulative effect was observed as daily pain did not improve for any age group across the four sessions. However, older adults received higher TENS amplitude across all sessions in achieving similar TENS responses to younger adults. These findings suggest that older adults experience similar episodic axial CLBP relief as younger individuals following high frequency, high intensity TENS when higher dosage parameters are used. PMID:26342650

  8. Resistance exercise training increases the expression of irisin concomitant with improvement of muscle function in aging mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Jae; So, Byunghun; Choi, Mijung; Kang, Dongheon; Song, Wook

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the effect of resistance training on irisin expression with improvement in muscle strength and function in aged mice and human. In the mice study, 19 months old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into two groups; control group and resistance exercise group. Ladder climbing exercise with tail weight was performed 3 days per week for 12 weeks. In the human study, participants (aged over 65 years) were randomly assigned into exercise group or control group. Elastic band exercise program consisted of 12 weeks of 1-h session 2 days per week. In the mice study, we found an increase of irisin in serum and soleus muscle as well as improvement in muscle strength (p=0.02) and muscle quality (p=0.03) without body composition change in training animals. In the human study, isokinetic leg strength and grip strength were improved in the exercise group compared to the control group without change of body composition. In addition, the level of circulating irisin level was increased. It had a positive correlation with grip strength (R=0.526, p=0.002) and leg strength (R=0.414, p=0.003) in the exercise group. Thus, resistant training might be an efficient intervention method to increase irisin levels and prevent age-related decline in muscle function.

  9. Six weeks of conditioning exercise increases total, but not free testosterone in lifelong sedentary aging men.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Herbert, Peter; Baker, Julien S; Spagna, Roberto; Grace, Fergal M

    2015-01-01

    Advancing age is associated with a gradual decline in circulating androgens, and the putative role of exercise training on systemic androgens remains to be adequately defined. The present investigation examined the impact of 6 weeks of supervised exercise training on resting levels of systemic hormones in a cohort of lifelong sedentary men [SED (n = 28), 62.5 ± 5.3 years], compared with a positive control group of age-matched lifelong exercisers [LE (n = 20), 60.4 ± 4.7 years, >30 years training history]. Blood hormones were sampled pre- and post-intervention from an antecubital forearm vein and analysed using electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. Cardiorespiratory fitness ([Formula: see text]) was determined via indirect calorimetry during an incremental cycle test to volitional exhaustion. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a lack of significant change in any parameter amongst LE, whilst SED experienced a significant exercise-induced improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness and total testosterone (all p < 0.05). Concurrent increases in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG; p < 0.05) resulted in a lack of change to either bioavailable or calculated free testosterone (p > 0.05) amongst SED. Although resting levels of systemic total testosterone increased in response to 6 weeks of exercise training, increases in SHBG negated any potential relationship between calculated-free or bioavailable testosterone. These findings indicate that increases in bioavailable testosterone fraction are not required for cardiorespiratory fitness improvements in aging men.

  10. Age-related increase in brain activity during task-related and -negative networks and numerical inductive reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Qi, Zhigang; Li, Kuncheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that elderly adults exhibit increased and decreased activation on various cognitive tasks, yet little is known about age-related changes in inductive reasoning. Methods: To investigate the neural basis for the aging effect on inductive reasoning, 15 young and 15 elderly subjects performed numerical inductive reasoning while in a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. Results: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis revealed that numerical inductive reasoning, relative to rest, yielded multiple frontal, temporal, parietal, and some subcortical area activations for both age groups. In addition, the younger participants showed significant regions of task-induced deactivation, while no deactivation occurred in the elderly adults. Direct group comparisons showed that elderly adults exhibited greater activity in regions of task-related activation and areas showing task-induced deactivation (TID) in the younger group. Conclusions: Our findings suggest an age-related deficiency in neural function and resource allocation during inductive reasoning. PMID:25337240

  11. Age-Group Differences in Interference from Young and Older Emotional Faces

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Natalie C.; Johnson, Marcia K.

    2009-01-01

    Human attention is selective, focusing on some aspects of events at the expense of others. In particular, angry faces engage attention. Most studies have used pictures of young faces, even when comparing young and older age groups. Two experiments asked (1) whether task-irrelevant faces of young and older individuals with happy, angry, and neutral expressions disrupt performance on a face-unrelated task, (2) whether interference varies for faces of different ages and different facial expressions, and (3) whether young and older adults differ in this regard. Participants gave speeded responses on a number task while irrelevant faces appeared in the background. Both age groups were more distracted by own than other-age faces. In addition, young participants' responses were slower for angry than happy faces, whereas older participants' responses were slower for happy than angry faces. Factors underlying age-group differences in interference from emotional faces of different ages are discussed. PMID:21286236

  12. Is there an incremental rise in the risk of obstetric intervention with increasing maternal age?

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, A N; Paterson-Brown, S

    1998-10-01

    To determine whether increasing maternal age increases the risk of operative delivery and to investigate whether such a trend is due to fetal or maternal factors. DESIGN ANALYSIS: of prospectively collected data on a maternity unit database. A postgraduate teaching hospital. 6410 nulliparous women with singleton cephalic pregnancies delivering at term (3742 weeks of gestation) between 1 January 92 and 31 December 95. Mode of delivery, rates of prelabour caesarean section, induction of labour and epidural usage. There was a positive, highly significant association between increasing maternal age and obstetric intervention. Prelabour (P < 0.001) and emergency (P < 0.001) caesarean section, instrumental vaginal delivery (spontaneous labour P < 0001; induced labour P = 0.001), induction of labour (P < 0.001) and epidural usage in spontaneous labour (P = 0.005) all increased with increasing age. In the second stage of labour fetal distress and failure to advance, requiring instrumental delivery, were both more likely with increasing maternal age (in both P < 0.001). Epidural usage in induced labour and the incidence of small for gestational age newborns did not increase with increasing maternal age (P = 0.68 and P = 0.50, respectively). This study demonstrates that increasing maternal age is associated with an incremental increase in obstetric intervention. Previous studies have demonstrated a significant effect in women older than 35 years of age, but these data show changes on a continuum from teenage years. This finding may reflect a progressive, age-related deterioration in myometrial function.

  13. Effect of defocus on response time in different age groups: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Balamurali; Sultani, Kaiser; Cossette, Christopher; Burr, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    To assess the response time associated with visual performance (VP) tasks in the presence of defocus in different presbyopic populations. 58 eyes between the ages of 35 and 50 years were studied. Subjects were categorized as pre-presbyopic (35-39 years), early-presbyopic (40-45 years), and mid-presbyopic (46-50 years). VP measurements obtained monocularly included distance and near high contrast (HC) and low contrast (LC) optotype recognition, and contrast threshold at 12cpd for different defocus magnitudes between 0D and 3D in 1D steps. Response time defined as the time taken to recognize and verbalize an optotype, was compared among different presbyopic age groups. From 58 eyes, mean (SD) response time for high contrast distance visual acuity for 0D through 3D ranged between 1.48 (0.23) and 1.87 (0.31)s, whereas low contrast distance visual acuity ranged between 1.5 (0.22) and 2.09 (0.49)s. Mean response time for high contrast near visual acuity for 0D through 3D ranged between 1.56 (0.19) and 2.23 (0.45)s. However, for low contrast near visual acuity it ranged between 1.75 (0.32) and 2.71 (0.94)s. Mean (SD) response time for 12cpd ranged between 2.11 (0.50) and 5.72 (1.09)s. ANOVA revealed a significant difference in response time for distance, near visual acuity and contrast sensitivity as a function of defocus for different age groups. Response time is increased in the presence of increasing defocus for both distance and near visual acuity and could impact on performance for critical tasks. Full correction of visual acuity at distance and near in presbyopes is warranted always. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Electronic paper display preferred viewing distance and character size for different age groups.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Chieh

    2011-09-01

    This study explores the preferred viewing distance and character size for an electronic paper display for three age groups. Proofreading speed and accuracy ratio were measured during Chinese proofreading tests using the preferred character size and minimum acceptable character size. Data analysis showed that the mean preferred viewing distance for young, middle-aged and older groups was 503, 455 and 444 mm, respectively. The mean preferred character size determined by young, middle-aged and older groups was 42.0, 50.0 and 55.2 min arc, respectively. The proofreading test results indicated that the older group proofread significantly more slowly (1.25 word/sec) than the young (1.76 word/sec) and middle-aged groups (1.74 word/sec). Further, the participants proofread more correctly with their preferred character size (73.3%) than with their minimum acceptable character size (65.4%). This study provides valuable information for the design of Chinese text presentations for various age groups. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study confirmed the preferred viewing distance and character size for E-paper display were influenced by age. The preferred Chinese character size for young, middle-aged and older people was 42, 50 and 55 min arc, respectively. Therefore, the age factor should be considered for E-paper displays design and video display terminal (VDT) guidelines.

  15. Dermatological disease in the older age group: a cross-sectional study in aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Maneka S; Vandal, Alain C; Jarrett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of dermatological disease in aged care facilities, and the relationship between cognitive or physical disability and significant disease. Setting 2 large aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand, each providing low and high level care. Participants All 161 residents of the facilities were invited to participate. The only exclusion criterion was inability to obtain consent from the individual or designated guardian. 88 participants were recruited—66 females (75%), 22 males (25%) with average age 87.1 years (SD 5.5 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary—presence of significant skin disease (defined as that which in the opinion of the investigators needed treatment or was identified as a patient concern) diagnosed clinically on full dermatological examination by a dermatologist or dermatology trainee. Secondary—functional and cognitive status (Rehabilitation Complexity Scale and Abbreviated Mental Test Score). Results 81.8% were found to have at least one significant condition. The most common disorders were onychomycosis 42 (47.7%), basal cell carcinoma 13 (14.8%), asteototic eczema 11 (12.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ 9 (10.2%). Other findings were invasive squamous cell carcinoma 7 (8%), bullous pemphigoid 2 (2.3%), melanoma 2 (2.3%), lichen sclerosus 2 (2.3%) and carcinoma of the breast 1 (1.1%). Inflammatory disease was more common in those with little physical disability compared with those with serious physical disability (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6, p=0.04). No significant association was found between skin disease and cognitive impairment. Conclusions A high rate of dermatological disease was found. Findings ranged from frequent but not life-threatening conditions (eg, onychomycosis), to those associated with a significant morbidity (eg, eczema, lichen sclerosus and bullous pemphigoid), to potentially life-threatening (eg, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and breast cancer

  16. How do groups work? Age differences in performance and the social outcomes of peer collaboration.

    PubMed

    Leman, Patrick J

    2015-05-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were awarded to the best performing individuals. Findings, both in terms of social outcomes and performance in the quiz, indicated that the 8-year olds viewed the benefits of group membership in terms of the opportunities to receive information from other members. The 13-year olds, in contrast, viewed group collaboration as a constructive process where success was connected with group cohesiveness. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) increase renal lipid accumulation: a pathogenic factor of diabetic nephropathy (DN).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yang; Sun, Hong; Sun, Zilin

    2017-06-28

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are pathogenic factors of diabetic nephropathy (DN), causing renal damage in various ways. The aim of this study is to investigate the ectopic lipid accumulation caused by AGEs in human renal tubular epithelial cell line (HK-2) cells and the kidney of type 2 diabetic rats. In vivo study, diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats through intraperitoneal injection of high-fat/high-sucrose diet and low-dose streptozocin (STZ). Two weeks after STZ injection, the diabetic rats were randomly divided into two groups, namely, untreated diabetic and Aminoguanidine Hydrochloride (AG, an AGEs formation inhibitor)-treated (100 mg/Kg/day, i.g., for 8 weeks) group. In vitro study, according to the different treatments, HK-2 were divided into 6 groups. Intracellular cholesterol content was assessed by Oil Red O staining and cholesterol enzymatic assay. Expression of mRNA and protein of molecules controlling cholesterol homeostasis in the treated cells was examined by real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) translocation was detected by confocal microscopy. Here we found Nε-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML, a member of the AGEs family) increased Oil Red O staining and intracellular cholesterol ester (CE) in HK-2 cells; Anti-RAGE (AGEs receptor) reduced lipid droplets and the CE level. A strong staining of Oil Red O was also found in the renal tubules of the diabetic rats, which could be alleviated by AG. CML upregulated both mRNA and protein expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR), LDL receptor (LDLr), sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) and SCAP, which were inhibited by anti-RAGE. The upregulation of these molecules in the kidney of the diabetic rats was also ameliorated by AG. Furthermore, AG reduced serum and renal CML deposition, and improved urine protein and u-NGAL in type 2 diabetic rats. Overall, these results

  18. Quantifying the impact of expanded age group campaigns for polio eradication.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bradley G; Behrend, Matthew R; Klein, Daniel J; Upfill-Brown, Alexander M; Eckhoff, Philip A; Hu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    A priority of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) 2013-2018 strategic plan is to evaluate the potential impact on polio eradication resulting from expanding one or more Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs) to children beyond age five-years in polio endemic countries. It has been hypothesized that such expanded age group (EAG) campaigns could accelerate polio eradication by eliminating immunity gaps in older children that may have resulted from past periods of low vaccination coverage. Using an individual-based mathematical model, we quantified the impact of EAG campaigns in terms of probability of elimination, reduction in polio transmission and age stratified immunity levels. The model was specifically calibrated to seroprevalence data from a polio-endemic region: Zaria, Nigeria. We compared the impact of EAG campaigns, which depend only on age, to more targeted interventions which focus on reaching missed populations. We found that EAG campaigns would not significantly improve prospects for polio eradication; the probability of elimination increased by 8% (from 24% at baseline to 32%) when expanding three annual SIAs to 5-14 year old children and by 18% when expanding all six annual SIAs. In contrast, expanding only two of the annual SIAs to target hard-to-reach populations at modest vaccination coverage-representing less than one tenth of additional vaccinations required for the six SIA EAG scenario-increased the probability of elimination by 55%. Implementation of EAG campaigns in polio endemic regions would not improve prospects for eradication. In endemic areas, vaccination campaigns which do not target missed populations will not benefit polio eradication efforts.

  19. Other age groups than children need to be considered as carriers of Streptococcal pneumoniae serotypes.

    PubMed

    Slotved, Hans-Christian

    2016-10-02

    We need to raise the issue that focus on children as the only carriage group for pneumococci is not optimal; we need to consider that other age groups might also be carriers of pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in unvaccinated age groups. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have successfully removed IPD from vaccinated children. Studies have shown an effect of PCV reducing the pneumococcal carriage of PCV serotypes in children. The status for several countries having used PCV for many years is that they do not see PCV serotypes neither carried nor as a cause of IPD in children. PCV vaccination of children has shown a herd protection effect in unvaccinated groups as a reduction in IPD cases caused by PCV serotypes. However, not all PCV serotypes have disappeared as the cause of IPD in the unvaccinated age groups. The author therefore believes that if we are to see PCV serotypes disappear as a cause of IPD in unvaccinated age groups, we need to perform further carriage studies to examine carriage in other age groups. Alternatively, all age groups should be vaccinated against pneumococci to eliminate IPD caused by PCV serotypes from possible hidden carriers.

  20. Hydroacoustic separation of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Stetter S.L.; Rudstam, L. G.; Stritzel, Thomson J.L.; Parrish, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Separate assessment of young-of-year (YOY) and yearling-and-older (YAO) fish is desirable from both ecological and management perspectives. Acoustic assessments provide information on fish population size structure in the target strength (TS) distribution, but interpretation of TS distributions must be done carefully, as single age groups can produce multiple TS modes. We assessed the ability of in situ TS distributions to identify Lake Champlain rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in June, July, and September of 2001 using mobile and stationary surveys, knowledge of vertical distribution preferences, and predicted TS from trawl catches. YAO rainbow smelt (93-179 mm total length) had wide TS distributions between -60 and -35 dB in all 3 months with two modes at approximately -50 and -40 dB. Most stationary survey single-fish tracks attributed to YAO had targets in both TS modes and a wide TS range often over 15 dB. Between June and September, YOY rainbow smelt TS increased, but single-fish tracks were unimodal, and the TS range was smaller (6 dB). Overlap in TS attributed to YOY and YAO increased from no overlap in June (YOY TS -76 to -61 dB, 15-25 mm) to moderate overlap in July (-76 to -50 dB, 25-63 mm) to considerable overlap in September (-68 to -45 dB, 33-80 mm). In June and July, the TS distribution changed abruptly at the thermocline, indicating almost complete separation of the two groups. A more gradual TS transition was evident in September, indicating substantial overlap between YOY and YAO. Separate estimates can be obtained in September by decomposing TS overlap into components attributed to YOY and YAO rainbow smelt. However, this decomposition introduces additional uncertainty and an assessment in July or possibly August is preferable to obtain separate abundance estimates of YOY and YAO. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The age-related increase in arterial stiffness is augmented in phases according to the severity of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Arai, Tomio; Koji, Yutaka; Yambe, Minoru; Motobe, Kohki; Zaydun, Glunisa; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Hori, Saburoh; Yamashina, Akira

    2004-07-01

    Although blood pressure and age are major determinants of arterial stiffness, it is still unclear whether age-related changes in arterial stiffness are similar among subjects with different degrees of severity of hypertension. The present study examined the association between age and pulse wave velocity in subjects with different degrees of hypertension stratified according to the JNC-7 classification (Normal, Prehypertensive, and Stage I or II Hypertensive subjects). A number of 5,312 subjects (age range, 30-79 years) with no atherosclerotic risk factors other than high blood pressure were selected from two cohorts who regularly underwent annual health checkups, including the measurement of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). baPWV was increased according to the severity of hypertension in all age groups. The association between age and baPWV formed a quadratic curve in each stage in both genders. The steepness of the slope of the quadratic curve increased according to the severity of hypertension. In each stage of hypertension, age and the baPWV were divided into tertiles. After adjustment for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the odds ratio of having an increased baPWV in the 3rd age tertile (the highest-age group) was found to increase according to the severity of hypertension. In conclusion, the age-related increase of baPWV was shown to be augmented in phases according to the severity of hypertension, and this augmentation occurred even between the Normal and Prehypertensive stages. These results support the JNC-7 recommendations for a strict control of blood pressure even in the elderly.

  2. Paleontological evidence of Paleozoic age for the Walden Creek Group, Ocoee Supergroup, Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unrug, Raphael; Unrug, Sophia

    1990-11-01

    A newly discovered fossil assemblage including trilobite, ostracod, bryozoan, and microcrinoid fragments and agglutinated foraminifers has been found in the Wilhite Formation, Walden Creek Group, Ocoee Supergroup, in the foothills of the Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee. These fossils prove a Paleozoic age for the Walden Creek Group, which had been interpreted to be of Late Proterozoic age. The foraminiferal assemblage indicaes the Silurian as the older age limit for the Walden Creek Group. These findings make necessary a redefinition of the Ocoee sedimentary basin and reinterpretation of models of the evolution of the Blue Ridge structural province.

  3. Polyphenols decreased liver NADPH oxidase activity, increased muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and decreased gastrocnemius age-dependent autophagy in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Caroline; Chabi, Beatrice; Fouret, Gilles; Py, Guillaume; Sairafi, Badie; Elong, Cecile; Gaillet, Sylvie; Cristol, Jean Paul; Coudray, Charles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine

    2012-09-01

    This study explored major systems of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and their consequences on oxidative stress, mitochondriogenesis and muscle metabolism in aged rats, and evaluated the efficiency of 30-day oral supplementation with a moderate dose of a red grape polyphenol extract (RGPE) on these parameters. In the liver of aged rats, NADPH oxidase activity was increased and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities were altered, while xanthine oxidase activity remained unchanged. In muscles, only mitochondrial activity was modified with aging. The oral intake of RGPE decreased liver NADPH oxidase activity in the aged rats without affecting global oxidative stress, suggesting that NADPH oxidase was probably not the dominant detrimental source of production of O(2)·(-) in the liver. Interestingly, RGPE supplementation increased mitochondrial biogenesis and improved antioxidant status in the gastrocnemius of aged rats, while it had no significant effect in soleus. RGPE supplementation also decreased age-dependent autophagy in gastrocnemius of aged rats. These results extended existing findings on the beneficial effects of RGPE on mitochondriogenesis and muscle metabolism in aged rats.

  4. Teenagers' oral health attitudes and behavior in Japan: comparison by sex and age group.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Makoto; Takase, Naoko; Sasahara, Hisako; Okada, Mitsugi

    2008-06-01

    We investigated sex and age group differences in attitudes to oral health among school-age children using an Oral Self-Care Appraisal (OSCA) to systematically determine changes in oral health knowledge, attitude, and behavior across developmental stages. The subjects (n = 1584) were stratified after random sampling so that each school grade analyzed contained 88 boys and 88 girls. Factor analysis was undertaken to identify a set of underlying factors, with 10 factors considered in the cross-sectional study. Our results showed that the factors toothbrushing, persistence, and sociability were more predominant in primary school children than in junior high and senior high school students. Furthermore, postponement of visiting the dentist and resignation to one's own dental cavities became more predominant in proportion to the level of school education. Girls had significantly higher scores than boys for desire to improve oral care, dental anxiety, dependency on snacks, toothbrushing, concern over number of cavities, and sociability. Together, the results indicated that the oral health care behavior of girls was better than that of boys, and that the tendency to postpone visiting the dentist and resignation to one's own dental cavities increased markedly with age.

  5. The influence of gender and gender typicality on autobiographical memory across event types and age groups.

    PubMed

    Grysman, Azriel; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie A; Graci, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Gender differences in autobiographical memory emerge in some data collection paradigms and not others. The present study included an extensive analysis of gender differences in autobiographical narratives. Data were collected from 196 participants, evenly split by gender and by age group (emerging adults, ages 18-29, and young adults, ages 30-40). Each participant reported four narratives, including an event that had occurred in the last 2 years, a high point, a low point, and a self-defining memory. Additionally, all participants completed self-report measures of masculine and feminine gender typicality. The narratives were coded along six dimensions-namely coherence, connectedness, agency, affect, factual elaboration, and interpretive elaboration. The results indicated that females expressed more affect, connection, and factual elaboration than males across all narratives, and that feminine typicality predicted increased connectedness in narratives. Masculine typicality predicted higher agency, lower connectedness, and lower affect, but only for some narratives and not others. These findings support an approach that views autobiographical reminiscing as a feminine-typed activity and that identifies gender differences as being linked to categorical gender, but also to one's feminine gender typicality, whereas the influences of masculine gender typicality were more context-dependent. We suggest that implicit gendered socialization and more explicit gender typicality each contribute to gendered autobiographies.

  6. Testing principle working mechanisms of the health action process approach for subjective physical age groups.

    PubMed

    Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; Fink, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in social-cognitive predictors and self-regulatory planning, as proposed by the health action process approach (HAPA), across three different subjective physical age groups for physical activity. With a cross-sectional design, 521 participants across the chronological age span from 25 to 86 years (M = 48.79; SD = 12.66) were separated into three groups: those who feel physically younger than they are in terms of chronological age, the same perceived and chronological age, and feeling physically older compared to their chronological age. Participants were assessed regarding their perceived vulnerability, outcome expectancies, general intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and stages of physical activity (non-intenders, intenders, and actors). Data were analysed via mean comparison and multigroup structural equation modelling. Mean differences for all but one construct were eminent in all groups, generally showing that those feeling physically younger also report better social-cognitive predictors of physical activity (e.g. lower perceived vulnerability) in comparison to those who feel the same age or older. The model showed that basic working mechanisms of the HAPA can be applied to all groups. With that, the results provide for the first time evidence that principle working mechanism of the HAPA can be applied to all subjective physical age groups. These may be used to tailor health promoting interventions according to participants' needs as a more suitable proxy than chronological age.

  7. Ageing effects on medio-lateral balance during walking with increased and decreased step width.

    PubMed

    Nagano, H; Begg, R; Sparrow, W A

    2013-01-01

    The current study used falls direction to categorize falls and explore age-related effects on the biomechanics of medio-lateral balance control. Minimum lateral margin (MLM) was defined as the critical swing phase event where the medio-lateral length between center of mass (CoM) and stance heel became minimum and accordingly, any lateral balance perturbation at MLM was considered to increase the risk of balance loss lateral to the stance foot. Lateral center of pressure (CoP) displacement from toe-off to MLM was also monitored to assess the risk of medio-lateral balance perturbation. Gait testing involving 30 young and 26 older male subjects was conducted under the three step width conditions: preferred and ± 50% wider and narrower. For an overall description of gait, spatio-temporal parameters were also obtained. Typical ageing effects on spatio-temporal parameters such as lower step velocity, shorter step length and prolonged double support time were found, emerging most clearly in narrower, followed by wider and least in preferred width walking. MLM and CoP lateral displacement were not differentiated between the two age groups, but older adults demonstrated significantly more variable MLM and CoP in their non-dominant limb when walking with non-preferred widths. Variability of step width reduced in increased and decreased step width conditions while MLM and CoP variability increased, suggesting less consistent medio-lateral CoM control despite consistent foot control in altered width conditions. In summary, older adults were found to have less consistent control of CoM with respect to the non-dominant stance foot when walking with narrower and wider widths possibly due to more variable medio-lateral CoP control.

  8. [The assessment of flow velocity in carotid and intracranial arteries in three different age groups].

    PubMed

    Niebudek, S

    1998-01-01

    In this report we assess the systolic maximal flow velocity in carotid and intracranial arteries in 191 subjects with no history of cerebral vascular disease in 3 age groups: 20-40 years (1 group), 41-60 years (2 group), and above 60 years (3 group). The subjects were assessed using Sonomed Transcranial Doppler Spectrograph according to generally accepted principles. The purpose of the study was to establish the mean value of maximal flow velocity in each particular artery in three age groups, and to observe the changes in this parameter with age. The results were analyzed using statistical methods and a significant decrease in blood flow, Vmax, was found in all investigated arteries. A mean decrease of 8.02% in flow velocity Vmax was found, when comparing groups 2 and 1, and difference 15.99% comparing 3 and 1.

  9. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  10. A self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young moving groups in the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2015-11-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young ( ≲ 200 Myr), nearby ( ≲ 100 pc) moving groups in the solar neighbourhood based on homogeneous fitting of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones using the τ2 maximum-likelihood fitting statistic of Naylor & Jeffries in the MV, V - J colour-magnitude diagram. The final adopted ages for the groups are as follows: 149^{+51}_{-19} {Myr} for the AB Dor moving group, 24 ± 3 Myr for the β Pic moving group (BPMG), 45^{+11}_{-7} {Myr} for the Carina association, 42^{+6}_{-4} {Myr} for the Columba association, 11 ± 3 Myr for the η Cha cluster, 45 ± 4 Myr for the Tucana-Horologium moving group (Tuc-Hor), 10 ± 3 Myr for the TW Hya association and 22^{+4}_{-3} {Myr} for the 32 Ori group. At this stage we are uncomfortable assigning a final, unambiguous age to the Argus association as our membership list for the association appears to suffer from a high level of contamination, and therefore it remains unclear whether these stars represent a single population of coeval stars. Our isochronal ages for both the BPMG and Tuc-Hor are consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary (LDB) ages, which unlike isochronal ages, are relatively insensitive to the choice of low-mass evolutionary models. This consistency between the isochronal and LDB ages instils confidence that our self-consistent, absolute age scale for young, nearby moving groups is robust, and hence we suggest that these ages be adopted for future studies of these groups. Software implementing the methods described in this study is available from http://www.astro.ex.ac.uk/people/timn/tau-squared/.

  11. [The consequences of the demographic revolution and of the aging of society: restructuring the age groups and modifying intergenerational relations].

    PubMed

    Loriaux, M

    1995-01-01

    The consequences of demographic aging in developed societies are examined. The author notes that "demographic aging has intensified over the last decades, bringing with it a significant modification in relationships between age groups and the sexes.... These changes in demographic structures bring with them the reorganization in intergenerational relations, the most spectacular instance of which...[is] the coexistence at the same time and in the same place of four or five generations of direct descendants." The author develops the hypothesis that a new attitude toward old age is needed in which "the social status of the elderly must be reinstated, and everything must be brought into play to encourage the integration of different age groups and intergenerational solidarity, so as to arrive in the best possible conditions at what [can be termed] the 'era of old age'...which will accompany the coming of the post-industrial society with its orientation toward the mass production of leisure and of services." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  12. Redox proteomic profiling of neuroketal-adducted proteins in human brain: Regional vulnerability at middle age increases in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Mayelín; de Oliveira, Eliandre; Odena, María Antonia; Portero, Manuel; Pamplona, Reinald; Ferrer, Isidro

    2016-06-01

    Protein lipoxidation was assessed in the parietal cortex (PC), frontal cortex (FC), and cingulate gyrus (CG) in middle-aged and old-aged individuals with no clinical manifestations of cognitive impairment, in order to increase understanding of regional brain vulnerability to oxidative damage during aging. Twenty-five lipoxidized proteins were identified in all the three regions although with regional specificities, by using redox proteomics to detect target proteins of neuroketals (NKT) adduction. The number of cases with NKT-adducted proteins was higher in old-aged individuals but most oxidized proteins were already present in middle-aged individuals. Differences in vulnerability to oxidation were dependent on the sub-cellular localization, secondary structure, and external exposition of certain amino acids. Lipoxidized proteins included those involved in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, proteostasis, neurotransmission and O2/CO2, and heme metabolism. Total NKT and soluble oligomer levels were estimated employing slot-blot, and these were compared between age groups. Oligomers increased with age in PC and FC; NKT significantly increased with age in FC, whereas total NKT and oligomer levels were not modified in CG, thus highlighting differences in brain regional vulnerability with age. Oligomers significantly correlated with NKT levels in the three cortical regions, suggesting that protein NKT adduction parallels soluble oligomer formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [NUCLEAR AND PERIKARYA SIZES OF THE NEURONS IN THE NUCLEUS BASALIS OF MEYNERT AND POSTERIOR HYPOTHALAMUS IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS].

    PubMed

    Ishunina, T A

    2015-01-01

    Morphometric parameters of neuronal metabolic activity, such as the area of neuronal nuclei and perikarya and nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), tuberomamillary (TMN) and medial mammillary (MMN) hypothalamic nuclei of human subjects belonging to four age groups were studied. Statistically significant increase in the size of neuronal perikarya and their nuclei was found in elderly people aged 60-74 years. The surge in the metabolic activity of neurons in the NBM starts earlier than in the TMN and MMN, and becomes apparent morphologically in people of middle age (45-59 years). The age-related increase in the metabolic activity of neurons in the studied structures of the human brain participating in the regulation of memory and other cognitive functions, may represent protective, adaptive and/or compensatory mechanisms of the aging process that also prevents the development of Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of middle-aged vs. aged vastus lateralis reveals increased levels of carbonic anhydrase isoform 3 in senescent human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Staunton, Lisa; Zweyer, Margit; Swandulla, Dieter; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2012-10-01

    The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and associated progressive decline in contractile strength is a serious pathophysiological issue in the elderly. In order to investigate global changes in the skeletal muscle proteome after the fifth decade of life, this study analysed total extracts from human vastus lateralis muscle by fluorescence difference in-gel electrophoresis. Tissue specimens were derived from middle-aged (47-62 years) vs. aged (76-82 years) individuals and potential changes in the protein expression profiles were compared between these two age groups by a comprehensive gel electrophoresis-based survey. Age-dependent alterations in the concentration of 19 protein spots were revealed and mass spectrometry identified these components as being involved in the excitation-contraction-relaxation cycle, muscle metabolism, ion handling and the cellular stress response. This indicates a generally perturbed protein expression pattern in senescent human muscle. Increased levels of mitochondrial enzymes and isoform switching of the key contractile protein, actin, support the idea of glycolytic-to-oxidative and fast-to-slow transition processes during muscle aging. Importantly, the carbonic anhydrase (CA)3 isoform displayed an increased abundance during muscle aging, which was independently verified by immunoblotting of differently aged human skeletal muscle samples. Since the CA3 isoform is relatively muscle-specific and exhibits a fibre type-specific expression pattern, this enzyme may represent an interesting new biomarker of sarcopenia. Increased levels of CA are indicative of an increased demand of CO₂-removal in senescent muscle, and also suggest age-related fibre type shifting to slower-contracting muscles during human aging.

  15. Guidance on Selecting Age Groups for Monitoring and Assessing Childhood Exposures to Environmental Contaminants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document recommends a set of age groupings based on current understanding of differences in lifestage behavior and anatomy and physiology that can serve as a starting set for consideration by Agency risk assessors and researchers.

  16. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Katharine; Chen, Ping-An; Vazzano, Andrea; Thambinayagam, Ananthy; Pillay, Yogan; Loykissoonlal, Dayanund; Bonnecwe, Collen; Barron, Peter; Kiwango, Eva; Castor, Delivette; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15-49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa's efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC. The study team populated the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0) with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM), as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20-34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15-24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15-29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15-34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program's cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections. The VMMC program's impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15-34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25-34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them insufficient to support geographic targeting.

  17. Does aging with a cortical lesion increase fall-risk: Examining effect of age versus stroke on intensity modulation of reactive balance responses from slip-like perturbations.

    PubMed

    Patel, Prakruti J; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2016-10-01

    We examined whether aging with and without a cerebral lesion such as stroke affects modulation of reactive balance response for recovery from increasing intensity of sudden slip-like stance perturbations. Ten young adults, older age-match adults and older chronic stroke survivors were exposed to three different levels of slip-like perturbations, level 1 (7.75m/s(2)), Level II (12.00m/s(2)) and level III (16.75m/s(2)) in stance. The center of mass (COM) state stability was computed as the shortest distance of the instantaneous COM position and velocity relative to base of support (BOS) from a theoretical threshold for backward loss of balance (BLOB). The COM position (XCOM/BOS) and velocity (ẊCOM/BOS) relative to BOS at compensatory step touchdown, compensatory step length and trunk angle at touchdown were also recorded. At liftoff, stability reduced with increasing perturbation intensity across all groups (main effect of intensity p<0.05). At touchdown, while the young group showed a linear improvement in stability with increasing perturbation intensity, such a trend was absent in other groups (intensity×group interaction, p<0.05). Between-group differences in stability at touchdown were thus observed at levels II and III. Further, greater stability at touchdown positively correlated with anterior XCOM/BOS however not with ẊCOM/BOS. Young adults maintained anterior XCOM/BOS by increasing compensatory step length and preventing greater trunk extension at higher perturbation intensities. The age-match group attempted to increase step length from intensity I to II to maintain stability however could not further increase step length at intensity III, resulting in lower stability on this level compared with the young group. Stroke group on the other hand was unable to modulate compensatory step length or control trunk extension at higher perturbation intensities resulting in reduced stability on levels II and III compared with the other groups. The findings reflect

  18. On the psychological function of flags and logos: Group identity symbols increase perceived entitativity.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Shannon P; Ledgerwood, Alison

    2016-04-01

    Group identity symbols such as flags and logos have been widely used across time and cultures, yet researchers know very little about the psychological functions that such symbols can serve. The present research tested the hypotheses that (a) simply having a symbol leads collections of individuals to seem more like real, unified groups, (b) this increased psychological realness leads groups to seem more threatening and effective to others, and (c) group members therefore strategically emphasize symbols when they want their group to appear unified and intimidating. In Studies 1a-1c, participants perceived various task groups as more entitative when they happened to have a symbol. In Study 2, symbols not only helped groups make up for lacking a physical characteristic associated with entitativity (physical similarity), but also led groups to seem more threatening. Study 3 examined the processes underlying this effect and found that group symbols increase entitativity by increasing perceived cohesiveness. Study 4 extended our results to show that symbols not only shape the impressions people form of novel groups, but also change people's existing impressions of more familiar and real-world social groups, making them seem more entitative and competent but also less warm. Finally, Studies 5a and 5b further expand our understanding of the psychological function of symbols by showing that group members strategically display symbols when they are motivated to convey an impression of their group as unified and threatening (vs. inclusive and cooperative). We discuss implications for understanding how group members navigate their social identities. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Characterization of type 2 diabetes mellitus burden by age and ethnic groups based on a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Janice M S; Bailey, Robert A; Rupnow, Marcia F T; Annunziata, Kathy

    2014-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes. Risk factors for its development include older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism, physical inactivity, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to characterize T2DM burden, from a patient perspective, with respect to age and race/ethnicity. Adults aged ≥18 years with T2DM from a large, Internet-based, nationwide survey were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic and clinical characteristics (glycemic control, body mass index [BMI], comorbidities, and diabetes-related complications), hypoglycemic episodes, and medication adherence were used to assess diabetes burden. Degree of burden was compared across age (18-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years) and racial/ethnic (white, African American, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian) groups. An apparent association was found between glycemic control and medication adherence. Hispanics had the lowest percentage of participants with a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level <7.0% (24.4%) and the highest percentage of those not knowing their HbA1c levels (55.4%) but also had the poorest medication adherence among racial/ethnic groups. Conversely, American Indians and whites had the best glycemic control, HbA1c knowledge, and medication adherence. The 18- to 64-year age group had the poorest glycemic control (28.8%), the most with unknown HbA1c levels (46.3%), and the poorest medication adherence of the age groups. Mean BMIs were high (>30 mg/kg(2)) for all racial/ethnic groups other than the Asian group (28.9 mg/kg(2)). Approximately 71% of Asians were obese or overweight compared with ≥90% in the other racial/ethnic groups. Mean BMIs decreased with increasing age group (34.5, 32.6, and 29.8 kg/m(2) for the age groups of 18-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years, respectively). Regarding diabetes-related comorbidities, the Asian group had the lowest percentages of those with hypertension (39.1%) and

  20. High Number of Previous Plasmodium falciparum Clinical Episodes Increases Risk of Future Episodes in a Sub-Group of Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Loucoubar, Cheikh; Grange, Laura; Paul, Richard; Huret, Augustin; Tall, Adama; Telle, Olivier; Roussilhon, Christian; Faye, Joseph; Diene-Sarr, Fatoumata; Trape, Jean-François; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Bureau, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    There exists great disparity in the number of clinical P. falciparum episodes among children of the same age and living in similar conditions. The epidemiological determinants of such disparity are unclear. We used a data-mining approach to explore a nineteen-year longitudinal malaria cohort study dataset from Senegal and identify variables associated with increased risk of malaria episodes. These were then verified using classical statistics and replicated in a second cohort. In addition to age, we identified a novel high-risk group of children in whom the history of P. falciparum clinical episodes greatly increased risk of further episodes. Age and a high number of previous falciparum clinical episodes not only play major roles in explaining the risk of P. falciparum episodes but also are risk factors for different groups of people. Combined, they explain the majority of falciparum clinical attacks. Contrary to what is widely believed, clinical immunity to P. falciparum does not de facto occur following many P. falciparum clinical episodes. There exist a sub-group of children who suffer repeated clinical episodes. In addition to posing an important challenge for population stratification during clinical trials, this sub-group disproportionally contributes to the disease burden and may necessitate specific prevention and control measures. PMID:23405191

  1. Vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours across different age groups in Swedish Adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13–14, 15–16 and 17–18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15–16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in

  2. [A discussion on setting up target age group for immunization against leptospirosis].

    PubMed

    Zhuo, J T; Wang, S S; Lan, W L

    1995-08-01

    This paper presented the lesson of setting up a false immunization priority age group for leptospirosis which failed to prevent the leptospirosis outbreak. Our experience was that in the rice paddy field type endemic area the priority age group for the vaccination against leptopirosis should be 15 to 34 year olds followed by 35 years old or above. There was no preventive effect in the vaccination for the children 14 years old or yaunger, to our observation.

  3. Vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours across different age groups in Swedish Adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13-14, 15-16 and 17-18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15-16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in adolescents

  4. Cenomanian-? early Turonian minimum age of the Chubut Group, Argentina: SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Manuel; Márquez, Marcelo; De La Cruz, Rita; Navarrete, César; Fanning, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Four new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages older than 93 Ma from samples of the two uppermost formations accumulated in two different depocenters (Golfo de San Jorge and Cañadón Asfalto basins) of the Chubut Group in central Argentinean Patagonia, establish a pre-late Cenomanian-? early Turonian age for the group. It also confirms a coeval and comparable evolution of the two depocenters, where distal pyroclastic material was deposited together with fluvial and lacustrine facies.

  5. Extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields increase cell proliferation in lymphocytes from young and aged subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Cossarizza, A.; Monti, D.; Bersani, F.; Cantini, M.; Cadossi, R.; Sacchi, A.; Franceschi, C.

    1989-04-28

    The effect of the in vitro exposure to extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on the proliferation of human lymphocytes from 24 young and 24 old subjects was studied. The exposure to PEMFs during a 3-days culture period or during the first 24 hours was able to increase phytohaemagglutinin-induced lymphocyte proliferation in both groups. Such effect was greater in lymphocytes from old people which showed a markedly reduced proliferative capability and, after PEMF exposure, reached values of /sup 3/H-TdR incorporation similar to those of young subjects. The relevance of these data for the understanding and the reversibility of the proliferative defects in cells from aged subjects and for the assessment of risk related to the environmental exposure to PEMFs has to be considered.

  6. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive memories…

  7. Age Group Differences and Estimated Frequencies of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William H., III

    1995-01-01

    Reports results of analyses of key tables in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Atlas of Type Tables. Significant age group effects on every dimension indicates the need to reestimate population norms for each continuum on the MBTI for interpreting scores of people of various ages. (LKS)

  8. The Effects of Music on Age Group Swimmers' Motivation and Practice Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckel, Bryan D.

    This study examined the effects of music on the motivation of 22 female and 5 male swimmers ages 10-13 years. These age-group swimmers practiced 2.0-2.5 hours per day and had six training sessions per week. Using observation logs, surveys, and open-ended questions, the study analyzed swimmers' perceptions of, and behavior when, listening to music…

  9. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  10. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  11. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive memories…

  12. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  13. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  14. Age Group Differences in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Functional Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.; Kim, Johnny S.

    2007-01-01

    This study used data from the 2000 interview wave of the Health and Retirement Study to examine age group differences in the likelihood of self-reported depressive symptomatology among a nationally representative sample of 3,035 adults age 55 years or older who had at least one activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily…

  15. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak.

    PubMed

    Worby, Colin J; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-08-17

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic's peak. We found children aged 11-12y, 13-14y and 8-10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak's ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11-12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak's ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8-10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8-14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation.

  16. [Quantity and quality of the aged population in Japan: the use of life tables for the assessment of group vitality].

    PubMed

    Soda, T

    1980-01-01

    Due to the gradual increase in standard of living and the development of health and welfare services, man has succeeded in decreasing the death rate for all age groups with the consequent prolongation of the lifespan as a whole. On the other hand, however, the quantitative accumulation of the elderly is causing serious anxiety among all groups of people. Thus, concern about care for the aged is very high. The author is not quite so pessimistic but it is expected that there will be a qualitative improvement in the productive activities of the elderly along with an increased lifespan. Though there is not yet sufficient data to confirm improvement in the physical and mental activities of this segment of Japanese population, there are life table functions related to life expectancy, increase of mortality rate, etc. as qualitative indicators of survival or productive ability for the aged. In Japan prior to World War 2, people between 15-60 were usually regarded as the productive age population. Life expectancy of males at age 60 was 12.6 years in the 6th life tables compiled for 1935-6. The same phenomenon of prolongation of the productive age period was also recognized in connection with other values. If the borderline age dividing productive and nonproductive elderly populations will move toward a higher age in the future, the proportion of nonproductive elderly as a percentage of the total as well as of the productive population will decrease markedly as compared to when the elderly borderline is fixed at the same age. It is advised that new ways be found to allocate the expanded labor force found among this group for providing some necessary services and functions. (author's modified)

  17. Age-group Differences in Human Papillomavirus Types and Cofactors for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 Among Women Referred to Colposcopy

    PubMed Central

    Gargano, Julia W.; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Lee, Daisy R.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Steinau, Martin; Horowitz, Ira R.; Flowers, Lisa C.; Tadros, Talaat S.; Birdsong, George; Unger, Elizabeth R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recommendations for high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing as an adjunct to cytology for cervical cancer screening differ by age group, because HR-HPV tests lack adequate specificity in women aged <30. Here, we assess age-group differences in HPV types and other risk factors for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) versus CIN0–2 in women from four colposcopy clinics. Methods Women ages 18–69 (n=1658) were enrolled and completed structured interviews to elicit data on behavioral risk factors prior to their examinations. HPV genotyping was performed on exfoliated cervical cell samples. We estimated relative risks (RR) for HPV types and cofactors for CIN3+, overall and stratified by age group. Results After 2 years of follow-up, we identified 178 CIN3+, 1305 CIN0–2, and 175 indeterminate outcomes. Non-vaccine HR-HPV types were only associated with CIN3+ among women ≥30 (RR=2.3, 95% CI 1.5–3.4; <30: RR=0.9). Among all HR-HPV positive women, adjusting for age, significant cofactors for CIN3+ included current smoking (RR=1.5), former smoking (RR=1.8), regular Pap screening (RR=0.7), current regular condom use (RR=0.5), and parity ≥5 (RR=1.6, p-trend for increasing parity=.07). However, the parity association differed by age group (≥30: RR=1.8, p-trend=.008; <30: RR=0.9, p-trend=.55). Conclusions Subgroup variation by age in the risk of CIN3+ points to the importance of the timing of exposures in relation to CIN3+ detection. Impact Future screening strategies need to consider natural history and secular trends in cofactor prevalence in the pursuit of appropriately sensitive and specific screening tools applied to appropriate age groups. PMID:22028398

  18. Risk of autism and increasing maternal and paternal age in a large north American population.

    PubMed

    Grether, Judith K; Anderson, Meredith C; Croen, Lisa A; Smith, Daniel; Windham, Gayle C

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies are inconsistent regarding whether there are independent effects of maternal and paternal age on the risk of autism. Different biologic mechanisms are suggested by maternal and paternal age effects. The study population included all California singletons born in 1989-2002 (n = 7,550,026). Children with autism (n = 23,311) were identified through the California Department of Developmental Services and compared with the remainder of the study population, with parental ages and covariates obtained from birth certificates. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to evaluate the risk of autism associated with increasing maternal and paternal age. In adjusted models that included age of the other parent and demographic covariates, a 10-year increase in maternal age was associated with a 38% increase in the odds ratio for autism (odds ratio = 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.32, 1.44), and a 10-year increase in paternal age was associated with a 22% increase (odds ratio = 1.22, 95% confidence interval: 1.18, 1.26). Maternal and paternal age effects were seen in subgroups defined by race/ethnicity and other covariates and were of greater magnitude among first-born compared with later-born children. Further studies are needed to help clarify the biologic mechanisms involved in the independent association of autism risk with increasing maternal and paternal age.

  19. The applicability of Greulich and Pyle atlas to assess skeletal age for four ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Mansourvar, Marjan; Ismail, Maizatul Akmar; Raj, Ram Gopal; Kareem, Sameem Abdul; Aik, Saw; Gunalan, Roshan; Antony, Chermaine Deepa

    2014-02-01

    Recently, determination of skeletal age, defined as the assessment of bone age, has rapidly become an important task between forensic experts and radiologists. The Greulich-Pyle (GP) atlas is one of the most frequently used methods for the assessment of skeletal age around the world. After presentation of the GP approach for the estimation of the bone age, much research has been conducted to examine the usability of this method in various geographic or ethnic categories. This study investigates on a small-scale and compares the reliability of the GP atlas for assessment of the bone age for four ethnic groups - Asian, African/American, Caucasian and Hispanic - for a different range of ages. Plain radiographs of 184 left hands and wrists for males from the healthy sample between 1 to 18 years of age for four ethnic groups were taken. The skeletal age (SA) was estimated by a radiologist using the GP atlas. The blind method was utilized. The mean (SA) results were compared with mean chronological ages (CA) for the separate ethnic groups. SPSS was used to conduct the analysis and the paired t-test was applied to show the difference between the mean CA and mean SA achieved from the GP atlas. The results from the GP atlas were compared to the CA of the samples. In Asian subjects the mean difference was 0.873 years. The GP atlas showed delayed bone age at 2-7 ages (from 0.2 to 2.3 year) and then advanced bone age for age 8. In the African/American subjects the difference between CA and SA was statistically significant (P-value = 0.048). The mean difference in the Caucasian and Hispanic subjects reflects no considerable distinction with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.3088 and 0.3766, respectively, (P-value >0.05 for both groups). According to the present study, it is concluded that although the GP atlas is reliable for Caucasian and Hispanic ethnic groups it is not applicable for other ethnic groups for different ranges of age, especially in the sample of the male African

  20. Personal control decreases narcissistic but increases non-narcissistic in-group positivity.

    PubMed

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; de Zavala, Agnieszka Golec; Marchlewska, Marta; Bilewicz, Michał; Jaworska, Manana; Olechowski, Mateusz

    2017-05-22

    We examined the effects of control motivation on in-group positivity. Past research suggests that people compensate for low personal control by increasing support for social in-groups. We predicted that the effect of personal control on in-group positivity would depend on the type of in-group positivity. Low personal control should increase compensatory, narcissistic in-group positivity, whereas high personal control should increase secure, non-narcissistic in-group positivity. These hypotheses were tested in a cross-sectional survey (Study 1 N = 1,083, 54% female, Mage  = 47.68), two experiments (Study 2 N = 105, 50% female, Mage  = 32.05; Study 3 N = 154, 40% female, Mage  = 29.93), and a longitudinal survey (Study 4 N = 398, 51% female, Mage  = 32.05). In all studies, personal control was negatively associated with narcissistic in-group positivity but positively associated with non-narcissistic in-group positivity. The longitudinal survey additionally showed that the positive relationship between personal control and non-narcissistic in-group positivity was reciprocal. Moreover, both types of in-group positivity differentially mediated between personal control and out-group attitudes: Narcissistic in-group positivity predicted negative attitudes, and non-narcissistic positivity predicted positive attitudes. These findings highlight the role of individual motivation in fostering different types of in-group positivity and intergroup outcomes. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Performance in Subelite Gaelic Football Players From Under Thirteen to Senior Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Roe, Mark; Malone, Shane

    2016-11-01

    Roe, M and Malone, S. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance in subelite Gaelic football players from under thirteen to senior age groups. J Strength Cond Res 30 (11): 3187-3193, 2016-Gaelic football is indigenous to Ireland and has similar locomotion profiles to soccer and Australian Football. Given the increasing attention on long-term player development, investigations on age-related variation in Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) performance may provide useful information in talent identification, program design, and player monitoring. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate Yo-YoIR1 performance across Gaelic football age groups. Male participants (n = 355) were recruited from division one, Gaelic football teams. Participants were allocated to one of the 7 groups according to respective age groups from under 13 (U13), under 14, under 15 (U15), under 16 (U16), minor, under 21 (U21), to senior age groups. Total Yo-YoIR1 distance (m) increased progressively from U13 (885 ± 347 m) to U16 (1,595 ± 380 m) equating to a rate of change of 180.2%. In comparison to U13, total distance at minor (1,206 ± 327 m) increased by 136.4%. Subsequent increases were observed in U21 (1,585 ± 445 m) and senior players (2,365 ± 489). Minimum (800-880 m) and maximum (2,240-2,280 m) total distances were comparable for U15, U16, and U21 players. Differences in total distance (m) for all age groups were statistically significant when compared to U13 players (p < 0.002). In comparison to U13 players, the magnitude of differences between age groups for total distance was deemed to be large (effect size > 0.8). Similar trends were observed for maximum velocity and estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. The evolution of Yo-YoIR1 performance in Gaelic football players from adolescents to adulthood highlights how maturation may influence sport-related running ability. Changes in Yo-YoIR1 performance should be closely monitored to optimize interventions for

  2. Associative conditioning can increase liking for and consumption of brussels sprouts in children aged 3 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Capaldi-Phillips, Elizabeth D; Wadhera, Devina

    2014-08-01

    Pairing foods with liked flavors repeatedly can increase preferences for those foods. We compared the effectiveness of associative conditioning (pairing vegetables with sweetened and unsweetened cream cheese) and exposure (presenting vegetables alone) in increasing liking and consumption of bitter and nonbitter vegetables. Twenty-nine children (aged 3 to 5 years) participated in the study. One group of children received brussels sprouts (bitter) with sweetened cream cheese and cauliflower (nonbitter) with unsweetened cream cheese and a second group received the reverse pairing. A third group received brussels sprouts and cauliflower with no cream cheese. Pairing brussels sprouts with cream cheese increased liking and consumption more than exposure, whereas cauliflower was liked by all groups regardless of presence of cream cheese. Associative conditioning was more effective than exposure in increasing liking for a novel, bitter vegetable-brussels sprouts-whereas exposure alone was effective for a nonbitter, more familiar vegetable-cauliflower.

  3. Increased Arf/p53 activity in stem cells, aging and cancer.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Garcia, Estefania; Moreno, Manuel; Moreno-Cugnon, Leire; Matheu, Ander

    2017-04-01

    Arf/p53 pathway protects the cells against DNA damage induced by acute stress. This characteristic is the responsible for its tumor suppressor activity. Moreover, it regulates the chronic type of stress associated with aging. This is the basis of its anti-aging activity. Indeed, increased gene dosage of Arf/p53 displays elongated longevity and delayed aging. At a cellular level, it has been recently shown that increased dosage of Arf/p53 delays age-associated stem cell exhaustion and the subsequent decline in tissue homeostasis and regeneration. However, p53 can also promote aging if constitutively activated. In this context, p53 reduces tissue regeneration, which correlates with premature exhaustion of stem cells. We discuss here the current evidence linking the Arf/p53 pathway to the processes of aging and cancer through stem cell regulation. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Aging of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome fibroblasts is characterised by hyperproliferation and increased apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bridger, Joanna M; Kill, Ian R

    2004-05-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that mimics certain aspects of aging prematurely. Recent work has revealed that mutations in the lamin A gene are a cause of the disease. We show here that cellular aging of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome fibroblasts is characterised by a period of hyperproliferation and terminates with a large increase in the rate of apoptosis. The occurrence of cells with abnormal nuclear morphology reported by others is shown to be a result of cell division since the fraction of these abnormalities increases with cellular age. Similarly, the proportion of cells with an abnormal or absent A-type lamina increases with age. These data provide clues as to the cellular basis for premature aging in HGPS and support the view that cellular senescence and tissue homeostasis are important factors in the normal aging process.

  5. Nuchal cord complication in male small for gestational age increases fetal distress risk during labor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangcheng; Kuromaki, Kenichi; Kawabe, Ayaka; Kikugawa, Atsuko; Matsunaga, Shigetaka; Takagi, Akiyoshi

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether a nuchal cord increases the risk of perinatal complications during labor, and whether fetal growth and sex affect the risk of fetal distress. Medical records of 1749 women with singleton pregnancies planning a vaginal delivery were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of a nuchal cord at birth. Multivariate logistic regression analyses, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to determine whether the risks of perinatal complications increased in the nuchal cord group. A nuchal cord is associated with higher risks of Rupture of membranes (ROM) prior to delivery (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.12-1.76, p = 0.0031), need for augmentation during labor (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.27-2.23, p = 0.0003), prolonged second stage of labor (OR = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.55-4.25, p = 0.0002), nonreassuring fetal heart risk during labor (OR = 2.89, 95% CI: 2.18-3.84, p < 0.0001), and instrumental delivery or cesarean delivery (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.55-2.58, p < 0.0001). Fetal distress risk during labor was affected by fetal growth and sex, with male small for gestational age fetuses with a nuchal cord having a significantly higher risk than the control group (OR = 9.77, 95% CI: 3.67-25.79, p < 0.0001), despite there being no significant differences in the neonatal Apgar scores at 1 minute or 5 minutes, or in the need for neonatology between the two groups. Nuchal cord is associated with perinatal outcomes. Male small for gestational age fetuses with a nuchal cord have a significantly higher risk of fetal distress during labor. Our results suggest that evaluation of fetal sex and body weight is also important in antenatal ultrasonography if a nuchal cord is found. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Increase in humeral retrotorsion accounts for age-related increase in glenohumeral internal rotation deficit in youth and adolescent baseball players.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Elizabeth E; Oyama, Sakiko; Myers, Joseph B

    2014-04-01

    Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) is the difference in internal rotation range of motion (IRROM) between the dominant and nondominant limbs. Pathological GIRD of greater than 15° to 25° has previously been linked to shoulder and elbow injuries in baseball players. Because of its relationship to shoulder and elbow disorders, research has focused on understanding the underlying factors that contribute to changes in IRROM and ultimately GIRD. The rotation deficit reportedly increases during adolescence, but it remains unclear whether this change is caused by changes in osseous properties or soft tissue tightness. To evaluate the influence of age group on GIRD, humeral retrotorsion, retrotorsion-adjusted GIRD, and total range of motion (TROM) in healthy baseball players. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Four groups of healthy baseball players participated in the study: 52 youth (aged 6-10 years), 52 junior high school (JH) (aged 11-13 years), 70 junior varsity (JV) (aged 14-15 years), and 113 varsity (aged 16-18 years) players. Internal rotation range of motion, external rotation range of motion (ERROM), and humeral retrotorsion were measured bilaterally using a digital inclinometer and diagnostic ultrasound. Retrotorsion-adjusted IRROM was calculated as the available IRROM from the humeral retrotorsion position; TROM was calculated as the sum of IRROM and ERROM; and GIRD, the difference in humeral retrotorsion between limbs, adjusted GIRD, and the difference in TROM between limbs were calculated as the difference between the dominant and nondominant sides. Four separate analyses of variance were used to compare these variables between age groups. There was a significant group difference in GIRD (F3,284 = 8.957; P < .001) and a difference in humeral retrotorsion between limbs (F3,284 = 9.688; P < .001). Also, GIRD was greater in varsity participants compared with youth (mean difference [MD], 5.05°) and JH (MD, 4.95°) participants and in JV

  7. Prevalence, Formation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of Interdisciplinary Student Aging Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine J.; Vandenberg, Edward V.; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and…

  8. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  9. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  10. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  11. The Effects of Multi-Age Grouping on Young Children and Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Melanie K.; Green, Virginia P.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review on the effects of multiage groupings (MAGs) in the primary grades supports their use and argues that children in MAGs perform as well academically as children in single-age groupings (SAGs) and develop better self-concept and school attitudes than children in SAGs. Expresses concerns over lack of training and support for…

  12. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  13. Attitudes about Aging Well among a Diverse Group of Older Americans: Implications for Promoting Cognitive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Tseng, Winston; Wu, Bei; Beard, Renee L.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Ivey, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine perceptions about aging well in the context of cognitive health among a large and diverse group of older adults. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups were conducted with older adults living in the community ( N = 396; White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic). Participant descriptions …

  14. The Effects of Multi-Age Grouping on Young Children and Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Melanie K.; Green, Virginia P.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review on the effects of multiage groupings (MAGs) in the primary grades supports their use and argues that children in MAGs perform as well academically as children in single-age groupings (SAGs) and develop better self-concept and school attitudes than children in SAGs. Expresses concerns over lack of training and support for…

  15. Prevalence, Formation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of Interdisciplinary Student Aging Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine J.; Vandenberg, Edward V.; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and…

  16. Increased human AP endonuclease 1 level confers protection against the paternal age effect in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Jamila R.; Reddick, Traci L.; Perez, Marissa; Centonze, Victoria E.; Mitra, Sankar; Izumi, Tadahide; McMahan, C. Alex; Walter, Christi A.

    2015-01-01

    Increased paternal age is associated with a greater risk of producing children with genetic disorders originating from de novo germline mutations. Mice mimic the human condition by displaying an age-associated increase in spontaneous mutant frequency in spermatogenic cells. The observed increase in mutant frequency appears to be associated with a decrease in the DNA repair protein, AP endonuclease1 (APEX1) and Apex1 heterozygous mice display an accelerated paternal age effect as young adults. In this study, we directly tested if APEX1 over-expression in cell lines and transgenic mice could prevent increases in mutagenesis. Cell lines with ectopic expression of APEX1 had increased APEX1 activity and lower spontaneous and induced mutations in the lacI reporter gene relative to the control. Spermatogenic cells obtained from mice transgenic for human APEX1 displayed increased APEX1 activity, were protected from the age-dependent increase in spontaneous germline mutagenesis, and exhibited increased apoptosis in the spermatogonial cell population. These results directly indicate that increases in APEX1 level confer protection against the murine paternal age effect, thus highlighting the role of APEX1 in preserving reproductive health with increasing age and in protection against genotoxin-induced mutagenesis in somatic cells. PMID:26201249

  17. Habitual eating of breakfast, consumption frequency of selected food and overweight prevalence in adolescents from various age groups.

    PubMed

    Wüenstel, Justyna Weronika; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Wądołowska, Lidia; Słowińska, Małgorzata Anna; Niedźwiedzka, Ewa; Kurp, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    To assess the influence of eating breakfast on the consumption of selected food and overweight prevalence among adolescents from different age groups. The study group consisted of students aged 13-18.9 (n=1700). Their height and weight measurements were used to calculate their body mass index and interpreted according to international standards for adolescents. Food consumption was assessed via the frequency method and involved the consumption of breakfast, dietary "bre and sweetened beverages. We used Block's validated questionnaire to assess the intake of dietary "bre and its sources. Analysis of the results was carried out in three age groups: 13-14.9, 15-16.9 and 17-18.9 years old. We used one-factor logistic regression adjusted by gender. The percentage of adolescents with a regular habit of eating breakfast dropped by 5.7 percentage points when compared to adolescents aged 13-14.9 and 17-18.9 (from 54.2% to 48.5%), which was a phenomenon accompanied by an increase in the percentage of adolescents who ate breakfast irregularly or hardly ever (by 3.7 and 1.9 percentage points, respectively). Eating breakfast infrequently was related to a more frequent consumption of sweetened beverages (the odds ratio: from 2.32 to 2.67 depending on the age group) and a higher prevalence of a "bre-poor diet (from 1.49 to 2.23). Among adolescents aged 13-14.9 who hardly ever ate breakfast, the chance of being overweight increased by 83% in comparison to adolescents with regular habits of eating breakfast. The frequency of eating breakfast decreased with the adolescents' age, especially among girls. Eating breakfast infrequently was associated with unhealthy nutrition, typical examples of which are lower intake of dietary "bre and more frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, and in the youngest group of adolescents caused a higher prevalence of overweight.

  18. Anthropometric difference of the knee on MRI according to gender and age groups.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyuksoo; Oh, Sohee; Chang, Chong Bum; Kang, Seung-Baik

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data from MRI images that were obtained from the non-arthritic knees in Asian adults, and to identify the existence of morphologic differences between age groups. This cross-sectional study included knee MR images of 535 patients (273 males, 262 females) taken for the evaluation of soft-tissue injuries, excluding cases with cartilage defect and malalignment. The age, gender, height, and BMI were also assessed. The patients were grouped into three different 20-year age groups (20-39, 40-59, and 60-79). The MRI analysis was performed on the anthropometric parameters of distal femur and posterior tibial slope. Age-related differences were found in femoral width, distance from the distal and posterior cartilage surface to the medial/lateral epicondyle, medial posterior condylar offset (PCO), and posterior condylar angle (PCA) (all P < 0.001), but not in lateral PCO, and medial/lateral tibial slopes. In the analysis of covariance analyses, significant interaction between gender and age groups was found in most parameters, but not in PCA, distance from the posterior cartilage surface to the medial epicondyle, or medial tibial slope. We found anthropometric differences among age groups exist in most of distal femoral parameters, but not in posterior tibial slope. The results of this study can be used by manufacturers to modify prostheses to be suitable for the future Asian elderly population.

  19. Balint Groups as a Means to Increase Job Satisfaction and Prevent Burnout Among General Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Kjeldmand, Dorte; Holmström, Inger

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE General practitioners (GPs) occupy a central position in health care and often have demanding working situations. This corps shows signs of exhaustion, and many consider quitting their job or plan to retire early. It is therefore urgent to find ways of improving GP’s satisfaction with their work. One approach might be Balint group participation. The aim of this study was to explore GPs’ experience of participating in Balint groups and its influence on their work life. METHODS We conducted a descriptive, qualitative study. Nine GPs who had participated in Balint groups for 3 to 15 years were interviewed. A phenomenologic analysis was carried out to describe the phenomenon of Balint group participation. RESULTS The GPs perceived that their Balint group participation influenced their work life. Analyses revealed several interrelating themes: competence, professional identity, and a sense of security, which increased through parallel processes, creating a base of endurance and satisfaction, thus enabling the GPs to rediscover the joy of being a physician. CONCLUSIONS The GPs in this study described their Balint group participation as beneficial and essential to their work life as physicians in several ways. It seemed to increase their competence in patient encounters and enabled them to endure in their job and find joy and challenge in their relationships with patients. Balint groups might thus help GPs handle a demanding work life and prevent burnout. These groups might not suit all GPs, however, and additional ways to reduce stress and increase job satisfaction should be offered. PMID:18332406

  20. Sex-role stereotyping for selected sport and physical activities across age groups.

    PubMed

    Meaney, Karen S; Dornier, Lanie A; Owens, Mary S

    2002-06-01

    This investigation was designed to assess sex-role stereotyping across age groups. Participants (N=668) were girls and boys, students from Grades 3, 5, 8, and 10 at local public schools. All participants completed the Sport and Physical Activities Questionnaire on which were displayed pictures of 31 sport and physical activities. Participants were instructed to designate each activity as a boys' activity, a girls' activity, or a boys' and girls' activity. Chi-square analysis showed age-related differences in distribution of stereotyping of the activities. Over age groups there were more discrepancies between boys' and girls' ratings of activities as sex-specific. These findings suggest that sex-role stereotyping of sports and physical activities becomes more predominant across age groups.

  1. Near-infrared light increases ATP, extends lifespan and improves mobility in aged Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Rana; Calaza, Karin; Kam, Jaimie Hoh; Salt, Thomas E.; Hogg, Chris; Jeffery, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Ageing is an irreversible cellular decline partly driven by failing mitochondrial integrity. Mitochondria accumulate DNA mutations and reduce ATP production necessary for cellular metabolism. This is associated with inflammation. Near-infrared exposure increases retinal ATP in old mice via cytochrome c oxidase absorption and reduces inflammation. Here, we expose fruitflies daily to 670 nm radiation, revealing elevated ATP and reduced inflammation with age. Critically, there was a significant increase in average lifespan: 100–175% more flies survived into old age following 670 nm exposure and these had significantly improved mobility. This may be a simple route to extending lifespan and improving function in old age. PMID:25788488

  2. Near-infrared light increases ATP, extends lifespan and improves mobility in aged Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Begum, Rana; Calaza, Karin; Kam, Jaimie Hoh; Salt, Thomas E; Hogg, Chris; Jeffery, Glen

    2015-03-01

    Ageing is an irreversible cellular decline partly driven by failing mitochondrial integrity. Mitochondria accumulate DNA mutations and reduce ATP production necessary for cellular metabolism. This is associated with inflammation. Near-infrared exposure increases retinal ATP in old mice via cytochrome c oxidase absorption and reduces inflammation. Here, we expose fruitflies daily to 670 nm radiation, revealing elevated ATP and reduced inflammation with age. Critically, there was a significant increase in average lifespan: 100-175% more flies survived into old age following 670 nm exposure and these had significantly improved mobility. This may be a simple route to extending lifespan and improving function in old age.

  3. In-Group Ostracism Increases High-Fidelity Imitation in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Watson-Jones, Rachel E; Whitehouse, Harvey; Legare, Cristine H

    2016-01-01

    The Cyberball paradigm was used to examine the hypothesis that children use high-fidelity imitation as a reinclusion behavior in response to being ostracized by in-group members. Children (N = 176; 5- to 6-year-olds) were either included or excluded by in- or out-group members and then shown a video of an in-group or an out-group member enacting a social convention. Participants who were excluded by their in-group engaged in higher-fidelity imitation than those who were included by their in-group. Children who were included by an out-group and those who were excluded by an out-group showed no difference in imitative fidelity. Children ostracized by in-group members also displayed increased anxiety relative to children ostracized by out-group members. The data are consistent with the proposal that high-fidelity imitation functions as reinclusion behavior in the context of in-group ostracism.

  4. NIH Study Offers Insight into Why Cancer Incidence Increases with Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... increases cancer risk remains unclear. Researchers suspect that DNA methylation, or the binding of chemical tags, called methyl groups, onto DNA, may be involved. Methyl groups activate or silence ...

  5. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) increase human mesangial foam cell formation by increasing Golgi SCAP glycosylation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yang; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Yaxi; Moorhead, John F; Varghese, Zac; Powis, Stephen H; Minogue, Shane; Sun, Zilin; Ruan, Xiong Z

    2011-07-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is one of the causative factors of diabetic nephropathy, which is associated with lipid accumulation in glomeruli. This study was designed to investigate whether N(ε)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML; a member of the AGEs family) increases lipid accumulation by impairing the function of sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) in human mesangial cells (HMCs). Intracellular cholesterol content was assessed by Oil Red O staining and quantitative assay. The expression of molecules controlling cholesterol homeostasis was examined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. The activity of Golgi-processing enzymes was determined using enzyme-based methods, and the translocation of SCAP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi was detected by confocal microscopy. CML increased cholesterol accumulation in HMCs. Exposure to CML increased expression and abnormal translocation of SCAP from the ER to the Golgi even in the presence of a high concentration of LDL. The increased SCAP translocation carried more SREBP-2 to the Golgi for activation by proteolytic cleavages, enhancing transcription of 3-hydroxy-3-methylclutaryl-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor. CML increased Golgi mannosidase activity, which may enhance glycosylation of SCAP. This prolonged the half-life and enhanced recycling of SCAP between the ER and the Golgi. The effects of CML were blocked by inhibitors of Golgi mannosidases. AGEs (CML) increased lipid synthesis and uptake, thereby causing foam cell formation via increasing transcription and protein glycosylation of SCAP in HMCs. These data imply that inhibitors of Golgi-processing enzymes might have a potential renoprotective role in prevention of mesangial foam cell formation.

  6. Age-related increase in CNS sensitivity to benzodiazepines as assessed by task difficulty.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, A M; Ellinwood, E H; Heatherly, D G; Gupta, S K

    1990-01-01

    The differential sensitivity of young and elderly healthy adults to the impairment effects of benzodiazepines was assessed by tasks with several levels of difficulty. Using a double-blind procedure, single doses of placebo, alprazolam (0.75 and 1.5 mg) and triazolam (0.25 and 0.5 mg) were ingested orally by 10 young men, 9 young women, 7 elderly men, and 10 elderly women. Order of drug administration was determined by a random Latin square design. Different versions of the subcritical tracking and digit symbol substitution tasks were characterized by three difficulty levels. Assessments of task performance were conducted at varying intervals for 7 h after drug administration. Both drugs induced a rapid initial onset of impairment in the two age groups. Evidence of increased drug sensitivity in the elderly was provided by the more prolonged duration of the pharmacologic effect in the older than young subjects, especially for the harder versions of the SCT and DSS tasks. In summary, the data provide support for the hypothesis of an age-related decline in the adaptive capacity to inhibit adverse drug effects.

  7. Emergency department visits related to functional abdominal pain in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Pant, Chaitanya; Deshpande, Abhishek; Sferra, Thomas J; Olyaee, Mojtaba

    2017-01-10

    To analyze visits to and admissions from the emergency department (ED) in children with a primary diagnosis of functional abdominal pain (FAP). This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (HCUP-NEDS 2008-2012). FAP-related ED visits were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. The most frequent secondary diagnoses associated with FAP-related ED visits were also extracted. In 2012, a total of 796,665 children presented to the ED with a primary diagnosis of FAP. This correlated to a rate of 11.5 ED visits/1000 population. The highest incidence of ED visits was observed for children in the 10-14-year age group; median (IQR) age of 11 (8) years. In analyzing the temporal trends associated with FAP-related ED visits, we observed an increase in both the overall number of visits (14.0%) as well as the population-adjusted incidence (16.0%) during the period 2008-2012. This coincided with a decreasing trend in hospital admissions from the ED; from 1.4% in 2008 to 1.0% in 2012 (-28.5%). The overwhelming majority (96.7%) of patients with FAP who presented to the ED were treated and released. On multivariate analysis, the leading factor associated with an increased likelihood of admission from the ED was teaching hospital status (aOR 2.07; 95% CI 1.97 to 2.18). The secondary diagnosis most commonly associated with FAP-related ED visits was nausea and/or emesis (19.8%). Pediatric FAP-related ED visits increased significantly from the period 2008 to 2012. However, the incidence of hospital admissions from the ED declined during the same period.

  8. Adequate dosing of micronutrients for different age groups in the life cycle.

    PubMed

    Bienz, Denise; Cori, Hector; Hornig, Dietrich

    2003-09-01

    Many studies of micronutrient supplementation in developing countries have used single-nutrient supplements with either vitamins or minerals. However, people in these countries often suffer from multiple, rather than single, micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this paper is to discuss the factors that go into determining the adequate dosing of vitamins and/or minerals for people of different ages. To elaborate on the adequacy of micronutrient doses in supplements, a model described by the US FNB was used, which calculates the difference between the mean observed intake for an individual and the estimated average requirement for a life stage and gender group. This model allows estimating the degree of confidence that a certain nutrient intake (from supplements and diet) is adequate. The US/Canadian DRI values have been used as the basis for these calculations, from which it can be concluded that a daily supplement of one RDA of each micronutrient is adequate to cover the personal requirements of all individuals in each respective age and gender group of the population, provided that 20 to 40% of an RDA is supplied by the diet--likely a realistic value for developing countries. DRI values vary significantly between different age groups, reflecting changing needs over a life cycle. With the objective of a supplement to be adequate and safe, the design of a one-for-all supplement covering all age groups is not realistic. Such a supplement would either underscore or surpass the required intake of some of the age groups. Additionally the dosage of certain micronutrients might exceed the upper level of intake for lower age groups. Therefore, it is suggested that three different supplements following the one RDA concept for all micronutrients be developed for research use in developing countries for the following age groups; 1 to 3 years, 4 to 13 years, and females > 14 years (excluding during pregnancy).

  9. Comparative genetic variability in HIV-1 subtype C nef gene in early age groups of infants.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Uma; Gupta, Poonam; Singhal, Megha; Singh, Supriya; Gupta, Sunil; Venkatesh, Srinivas; Rai, Arvind; Husain, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Targeting properties of vertically transmitted viruses in early infancy is important to understand disease progression. To investigate genotypic characteristics of transmitted viruses, blood samples were obtained from infants aged 6 weeks-18 months, categorized in two age groups, acute (<6 months) and early (>6-18 months). Nef having an important role in pathogenesis was selected to explore the viral characteristics. A total of 57 PCR positive samples, amplified by nef gene were sequenced. Analysis showed that 50 sequences belonged to subtype C. In one sequence of acute age group, a long insertion of 10 residues (AAERMRRAEP) in variable region and a 13 residues deletion (ATNNADCAWLEAQ) around proteolytic cleavage region of gene in another sequence was observed. Insertions were also observed in sequences of early age group, however, they ranged from two to eight residues only. In one sequence of early age group, 3/4 arginines at positions 19, 21, 22 of arginine cluster were mutated to glutamine, alanine, and glutamine, respectively. Entropy analysis of two age groups revealed presence of several residues with statistically significant differences in their variability. Among these, 15 (R18,R23,R24; A66,L68,Q71; E74,E77,E78; V87,M92; R119, P144, E167, and C176) belonged to functional motifs, out of which, 12 were in acute age group, suggesting that variability was greater in this group. Prediction of HLA binding peptide motif revealed that epitope LTFGWCFKL was present in >80% study sequences. This epitope was also present in maximum number of HLA types circulating in India and vaccine candidate sequences, suggesting that it may be helpful in designing an epitope-based vaccine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Acute mastoiditis in children aged 0-16 years--a national study of 678 cases in Sweden comparing different age groups.

    PubMed

    Groth, Anita; Enoksson, Frida; Hultcrantz, Malou; Stalfors, Joacim; Stenfeldt, Karin; Hermansson, Ann

    2012-10-01

    To compare the characteristics of acute mastoiditis in children in different age groups in order to identify risk groups and risk factors for acute mastoiditis. Records for all children aged 0-16 years treated for acute mastoiditis during 1993-2007 at 33 Ear, Nose and Throat departments in Sweden were reviewed retrospectively according to defined criteria for acute mastoiditis. A total of 678 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Acute mastoiditis was most common in children younger than two years of age and this group was characterized by less prior history of other diseases and ear diseases, fewer visits to health care centers and less antibiotic treatment before admission, shorter duration of symptoms before admission, hospitalization for fewer days and lower frequency of complications and mastoidectomies. These children also showed a higher incidence of clinical findings, increased inflammatory markers such as fever and heightened counts of C-reactive protein and white blood cells compared with older children. They also tested positive for significantly more samples of Streptococcus pneumoniae while the older children more often exhibited growth of Streptococcus pyogenes or Pseudomonas aeruginosa or no microbial growth. The characteristics of pediatric acute mastoiditis differed significantly between age groups. Acute mastoiditis was most common in children younger than two years of age. They showed more rapid progress of symptoms and more distinct signs of acute mastoiditis. This is probably the reason why parents rapidly seek medical care for small children and hospital treatment thus starts earlier in the youngest children, which may in turn explain the excellent outcome. This study showed that younger children have neither more severe acute mastoiditis nor more complications than older ones. The differences between age groups suggest that there are distinctions in the pathophysiology behind the onset and course of acute mastoiditis in younger and older

  11. Sociocultural influences on strategies to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles among ten cultural groups.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Busija, Lucy; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Mussap, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This study determined how sociocultural messages to change one's body are perceived by adolescents from different cultural groups. In total, 4904 adolescents, including Australian, Chilean, Chinese, Indo-Fijian, Indigenous Fijian, Greek, Malaysian, Chinese Malaysian, Tongans in New Zealand, and Tongans in Tonga, were surveyed about messages from family, peers, and the media to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles. Groups were best differentiated by family pressure to gain weight. Girls were more likely to receive the messages from multiple sociocultural sources whereas boys were more likely to receive the messages from the family. Some participants in a cultural group indicated higher, and others lower, levels of these sociocultural messages. These findings highlight the differences in sociocultural messages across cultural groups, but also that adolescents receive contrasting messages within a cultural group. These results demonstrate the difficulty in representing a particular message as being characteristic of each cultural group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thin-for-gestational age infants are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental delay at 2 years.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Sinéad M; Hannon, Geraldine; Khashan, Ali S; Hourihane, J O'B; Kenny, Louise C; Kiely, Mairead; Murray, Deirdre M

    2017-05-01

    Infants born small-for-gestational age (SGA) are at increased risk of developmental difficulties. Identifying those most at risk is challenging. We examined the effect of neonatal body composition and customised birthweight centiles on neurocognitive and behavioural outcomes at age 2. Prospective cohort study of term infants from the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study classified into the following exposure groups: a birth weight <10th customised centile (SGA, n=51); body fat percentage at birth <10th centile (thin-for-gestational age (TGA, n=51)) or both SGA and TGA infants (small- and thin-for-gestational age (STGA), n=13). The SGA, TGA and STGA groups were compared with a reference (unexposed) group of appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA, n=189) infants. Outcome was assessed at 24 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Version III and the Child Behaviour Checklist. Outcomes in the SGA infants did not differ significantly from the AGA group. TGA infants had significantly lower scores across all three domains, with a 0.35, 0.38 and 0.41 SD reduction in language, cognitive and motor scale scores, respectively. STGA infants had poorer cognitive outcome with a median cognitive scale score of 90 (IQR 85-95) compared with 95 (IQR 90-100) in the AGA reference group, p=0.005. The adjusted OR of developmental delay at 2 years was 5.00 (95% CI 1.46 to 17.13, p=0.010) in the STGA group. TGA infants, in particular those born STGA, are at increased risk of developmental delay at 2 years compared with the AGA infants. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Free radical theory of aging: an update: increasing the functional life span.

    PubMed

    Harman, Denham

    2006-05-01

    Aging is the progressive accumulation of diverse, deleterious changes with time that increase the chance of disease and death. The basic chemical process underlying aging was first advanced by the free radical theory of aging (FRTA) in 1954: the reaction of active free radicals, normally produced in the organisms, with cellular constituents initiates the changes associated with aging. The involvement of free radicals in aging is related to their key role in the origin and evolution of life. Aging changes are commonly attributed to development, genetic defects, the environment, disease, and an inborn aging process (IAP). The latter produces aging changes at an exponentially increasing rate with age, becoming the major risk factor for disease and death for humans after the age of 28 years in the developed countries. In them the IAP limits human average life expectancy at birth (ALE-B)--a rough measure of the healthy life span--to about 85 years; few reach 100 years and only one is known to have lived to 122 years. In these countries, improvements in living conditions (ILC) have gradually raised ALE-Bs to 76-79 years, 6-9 years less than the limit imposed by aging, with no change in the maximum life span (MLS). The extensive studies based on the FRTA hold promise that ALE-B and the MLS can be extended, the ALE-B possibly by a few years, and the MLS somewhat less.

  14. Intestine-Specific Deletion of Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein Increases Mortality in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhe; Xie, Yan; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Breed, Elise R.; Yoseph, Benyam P.; Burd, Eileen M.; Farris, Alton B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mice with conditional, intestine-specific deletion of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp-IKO) exhibit a complete block in chylomicron assembly together with lipid malabsorption. Young (8–10 week) Mttp-IKO mice have improved survival when subjected to a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced sepsis. However, 80% of deaths in sepsis occur in patients over age 65. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age impacts outcome in Mttp-IKO mice subjected to sepsis. Methods Aged (20–24 months) Mttp-IKO mice and WT mice underwent intratracheal injection with P. aeruginosa. Mice were either sacrificed 24 hours post-operatively for mechanistic studies or followed seven days for survival. Results In contrast to young septic Mttp-IKO mice, aged septic Mttp-IKO mice had a significantly higher mortality than aged septic WT mice (80% vs. 39%, p = 0.005). Aged septic Mttp-IKO mice exhibited increased gut epithelial apoptosis, increased jejunal Bax/Bcl-2 and Bax/Bcl-XL ratios yet simultaneously demonstrated increased crypt proliferation and villus length. Aged septic Mttp-IKO mice also manifested increased pulmonary myeloperoxidase levels, suggesting increased neutrophil infiltration, as well as decreased systemic TNFα compared to aged septic WT mice. Conclusions Blocking intestinal chylomicron secretion alters mortality following sepsis in an age-dependent manner. Increases in gut apoptosis and pulmonary neutrophil infiltration, and decreased systemic TNFα represent potential mechanisms for why intestine-specific Mttp deletion is beneficial in young septic mice but harmful in aged mice as each of these parameters are altered differently in young and aged septic WT and Mttp-IKO mice. PMID:25010671

  15. [Lead intakes by different age-sex population groups from Chinese total diet study in 2000].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Gao, Junquan; Li, Xiaowei

    2007-07-01

    To estimate the dietary lead intakes by different age-sex population groups in China. The lead concentrations of food sample from 3rd Chinese total diet study were determined, and then were combined with the food consumption by population of ten age-sex groups, The lead intakes, and its distribution and dietary sources were obtained. It was found that the mean and median concentrations of lead in all food samples were 0.118 and 0.052mg/kg, respectively. The highest concentration of individual sample and mean concentrations of lead in preserved egg were 8.964mg/kg and 2.577mg/kg, respectively. The vegetable samples in Hubei Province were heavily contaminated. The lead intakes by different age-sex groups were estimated to be 54.9-112.7microg/day. The average dietary lead intakes by 2-7 years old group could reach 86.1% of PTWI, and individual lead intakes by about 30% children in this group exceed PTWI. But the average dietary lead intakes of other age-sex population groups ranged from 42.8% to 86.1% of PTWI. The main sources of dietary lead were cereals and vegetables in ten age-sex population groups, and could reach 72%-80% of total lead intakes. Although the dietary lead intakes by different age-sex population groups are all lower than PTWI, it should be decreased to a lower level. Moreover, the dietary exposures to lead are higher enough for 2-7 years old children and population in some provinces to be considered seriously.

  16. The Comparison of Sagittal Spinopelvic Parameters between Young Adult Patients with L5 Spondylolysis and Age-Matched Control Group.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Min; Choi, Ha Young; Eun, Jong Pil

    2013-09-01

    To compare spinopelvic parameters in young adult patients with spondylolysis to those in age-matched patients without spondylolysis and investigate the clinical impact of sagittal spinopelvic parameters in patients with L5 spondylolysis. From 2009 to 2012, a total of 198 young adult male patients with spondylolysis were identified. Eighty age-matched patients without spondylolysis were also selected. Standing lateral films that included both hip joints were obtained for each subject. Pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis angle, sacral inclination, lumbosacral angle, and sacral table angle were measured in both groups. A comparative study of the spinopelvic parameters of these two groups was performed using SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Among the aforementioned spinopelvic parameters, PI, SS and STA were significantly different between patients with spondylolysis and those without spondylolysis. PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. Patients with spondylolysis have low STA at birth, which remains constant during growth; a low STA translates into high SS. As a result, PI is also increased in accordance with SS. Therefore, we suggest that STA is an important etiologic factor in young adult patients with L5 spondylolysis.

  17. The Comparison of Sagittal Spinopelvic Parameters between Young Adult Patients with L5 Spondylolysis and Age-Matched Control Group

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young Min; Choi, Ha Young

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare spinopelvic parameters in young adult patients with spondylolysis to those in age-matched patients without spondylolysis and investigate the clinical impact of sagittal spinopelvic parameters in patients with L5 spondylolysis. Methods From 2009 to 2012, a total of 198 young adult male patients with spondylolysis were identified. Eighty age-matched patients without spondylolysis were also selected. Standing lateral films that included both hip joints were obtained for each subject. Pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis angle, sacral inclination, lumbosacral angle, and sacral table angle were measured in both groups. A comparative study of the spinopelvic parameters of these two groups was performed using SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results Among the aforementioned spinopelvic parameters, PI, SS and STA were significantly different between patients with spondylolysis and those without spondylolysis. PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. Conclusion PI and SS were higher in the spondylolysis group than in the control group, but STA was lower in the spondylolysis group than in the control group. Patients with spondylolysis have low STA at birth, which remains constant during growth; a low STA translates into high SS. As a result, PI is also increased in accordance with SS. Therefore, we suggest that STA is an important etiologic factor in young adult patients with L5 spondylolysis. PMID:24278649

  18. Height-for-age z scores increase despite increasing height deficits among children in 5 developing countries123

    PubMed Central

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Stein, Aryeh D; Adair, Linda S; Behrman, Jere R; Bhargava, Santosh K; Dearden, Kirk A; Gigante, Denise; Norris, Shane A; Richter, Linda M; Fall, Caroline HD; Martorell, Reynaldo; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Victora, Cesar G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth failure remains a persistent challenge in many countries, and understanding child growth patterns is critical to the development of appropriate interventions and their evaluation. The interpretation of changes in mean height-for-age z scores (HAZs) over time to define catch-up growth has been a subject of debate. Most studies of child growth have been cross-sectional or have focused on children through age 5 y. Objective: The aim was to characterize patterns of linear growth among individuals followed from birth into adulthood. Design: We compared HAZs and difference in height (cm) from the WHO reference median at birth, 12 mo, 24 mo, mid-childhood, and adulthood for 5287 individuals from birth cohorts in Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. Results: Mean HAZs were <0 at birth in the 3 cohorts with data and ranged from −0.6 (Brazil) to −2.9 (Guatemala) at age 24 mo. Between 24 mo and mid-childhood, HAZ values increased by 0.3–0.5 in South Africa, Guatemala, and the Philippines and were unchanged in Brazil and India. Between mid-childhood and adulthood, mean HAZs increased in all cohorts but remained <0 in adulthood [mean range: −0.3 (Brazil) to −1.8 (Guatemala and Philippines)]. However, from 24 mo to adulthood, height differences from the reference median became greater. Conclusions: From age 2 y to adulthood, mean HAZs increased, even though height deficits relative to the reference median also increased. These 2 metrics may result in different interpretations of the potential for and the impact of catch-up growth in height. PMID:25008854

  19. Increasing the qualitative understanding of optimal functionality in older adults: a focus group based study.

    PubMed

    Algilani, Samal; Östlund-Lagerström, Lina; Schoultz, Ida; Brummer, Robert J; Kihlgren, Annica

    2016-03-23

    Decreased independence and loss of functional ability are issues regarded as inevitably connected to old age. This ageism may have negative influences on older adults' beliefs about aging, making it difficult for them to focus on their current ability to maintain a good health. It is therefore important to change focus towards promoting Optimal Functionality (OF). OF is a concept putting the older adult's perspective on health and function in focus, however, the concept is still under development. Hence, the aim was to extend the concept of optimal functionality in various groups of older adults. A qualitative study was conducted based on focus group discussions (FGD). In total 6 FGDs were performed, including 37 older adults from three different groups: group 1) senior athletes, group 2) free living older adults, group 3) older adults living in senior living homes. All data was transcribed verbatim and analyzed following the process of deductive content analysis. The principal outcome of the analysis was "to function as optimally as you possibly can", which was perceived as the core of the concept. Further, the concept of OF was described as multifactorial and several new factors could be added to the original model of OF. Additionally the findings of the study support that all three cornerstones comprising OF have to occur simultaneously in order for the older adult to function as optimal as possible. OF is a multifaceted and subjective concept, which should be individually defined by the older adult. This study further makes evident that older adults as a group are heterogeneous in terms of their preferences and views on health and should thus be approached as such in the health care setting. Therefore it is important to promote an individualized approach as a base when caring for older adults.

  20. Structural equation models of memory performance across noise conditions and age groups.

    PubMed

    Enmarker, Ingela; Boman, Eva; Hygge, Staffan

    2006-12-01

    Competing models of declarative memory were tested with structural equation models to analyze whether a second-order latent variable structure for episodic and semantic memory was invariant across age groups and across noise exposure conditions. Data were taken from three previous experimental noise studies that were performed with the same design, procedure, and dependent measures, and with participants from four age groups (13-14, 18-20, 35-45, and 55-65 years). Two noise conditions, road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech, were compared to a quiet control group. The structural models put to the test were taken from Nyberg et al. (2003), which employed several memory tests that were the same as ours and studied age-groups that partly overlapped with our groups. In addition we also varied noise exposure conditions. Our analyses replicated and supported the second-order semantic-episodic memory models in Nyberg et al. (2003). The latent variable structures were invariant across age groups, with the exception of our youngest group, which by itself showed a less clear latent structure. The obtained structures were also invariant across noise exposure conditions. We also noted that our text memory items, which did not have a counterpart in the study by Nyberg et al. (2003), tend to form a separate latent variable loading on episodic memory.

  1. Rat parotid gland amylase: evidence for alterations in an exocrine protein with increased age.

    PubMed

    Baum, B J; Levine, R L; Kuyatt, B L; Sogin, D B

    1982-05-01

    The content of alpha-amylase, the major exocrine secretory protein from rat parotid glands, was studied in young adult and aged rat tissue. alpha-Amylase protein was determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This employed antisera, produced against alpha-amylase purified from young adult rats, but which recognized and precipitated alpha-amylase enzyme activity equally well from both age groups. The parotid gland content of alpha-amylase was reduced about 50% in aged rats. Furthermore, the percentage of total gland protein which was alpha-amylase was decreased about 40% in aged animals. The data suggest that a somewhat specific alteration in alpha-amylase production (synthesis and/or degradation) occurs in parotid glands from aged rats. In addition, alpha-amylase functional activity was followed. The specific enzyme activity (U amylase activity per mg immunoreactive amylase) was about 35% higher in extracts from aged rat parotid glands compared to that of young adult glands.

  2. Horizontal transfer of fipronil is enhanced with increased group size in Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Cai; Henderson, Gregg; Chen, Xuan; Gautam, Bal K

    2013-12-01

    Fipronil is a widely used insecticide for termite control. Although transfer of fipronil among termite cohorts has been investigated in previous studies, no study has yet focused on the influence of termite group size (density) on horizontal transfer. In this study, the mortality of donor and recipient Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) was compared among groups of 10, 25, and 50 workers. Most donor termites were dead within 20 h. There was a significantly higher mortality of recipient termites starting at 44 h when in bigger groups. LT50 and LT90 of recipient termites decreased with increase in group size, being significantly shorter in groups of 50 termites compared with groups of 10 termites. Moreover, the variance (within-group difference) of recipient mortality and lethal time estimations was lowest in the groups of 50 termites, indicating a more uniform horizontal transfer of fipronil by termites in bigger groups. Our findings suggest that group size has an influence on fipronil transfer among C. formosanus workers and should be considered as a variable of importance.

  3. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity.

    PubMed

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  4. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  5. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of cadaveric human pinealocytes in various age groups.

    PubMed

    Rabia, Ansa; Tahir, Mohammad; Munir, Bushra; Sami, Waqas

    2011-07-01

    To determine age-related quantitative and qualitative changes in human pinealocytes using cadaveric material. Analytical cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, from January to December 2008. Thirty pineal glands from human cadavers ranging from 16-80 years of age were collected from mortuary of King Edward Medical University, Lahore, using purposive non-probability sampling. These were divided into three different age groups: I, II and III each between 16 to 30, 31 to 45 and 46 to 80 years of age respectively. Pinealocytes were counted; their mean diameter and that of their nuclei was calculated from a total of 30 cells per slide, using 4 μm thick H and E stained histological sections. Mean ± S.E.M. was calculated for quantitative variables. One-way ANOVA was applied to observe group mean differences among three groups. The number of pinealocytes decreased with aging but the difference was statistically insignificant when compared between groups (p=0.234). There was no change in size of pinealocyte soma and its nucleus (p=0.889 and 0.898 respectively). The number and size of pinealocytes, and their nuclei remained unaltered with advancing age.

  6. Lack of increase in DNA crosslinking in Drosophila melanogaster with age.

    PubMed

    Massie, H R; Baird, M B; Williams, T R

    1975-01-01

    Adult Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies ranging in age from 2 to 7.5 weeks with a median colony survival time of 6.4 weeks at 25 degrees C showed no increase in DNA crosslinking with age. The purified denatured DNA used for crosslink determinations varied in molecular weight from 2.02 to 3.84 times 10(5) daltons and was crosslinked to the extent of 6.2-8.8% with no age-related trend.

  7. Increasing age is a major risk factor for susceptibility to heat stress during physical activity.

    PubMed

    McGinn, Ryan; Poirier, Martin P; Louie, Jeffrey C; Sigal, Ronald J; Boulay, Pierre; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-08-24

    We evaluated the extent to which age, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body fat can independently determine whole-body heat loss (WBHL) in 87 otherwise healthy adults. We show that increasing age is a major predictor for decreasing WBHL in otherwise healthy adults (aged 20-70 years), accounting for 40% of the variation in the largest study to date. While greater body fat also had a minor detrimental impact on WBHL, there was no significant role for cardiorespiratory fitness.

  8. Angiostatin production increases in response to decreased nitric oxide in aging rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Minoru; Kidokoro, Kengo; Ozeki, Masahito; Nagasu, Hajime; Nishi, Yuko; Ihoriya, Chieko; Fujimoto, Sohachi; Sasaki, Tamaki; Kashihara, Naoki

    2013-03-01

    The development of interstitial fibrosis occurs with aging. Impaired angiogenesis, associated with progressive loss of the renal microvasculature, is thought to be a cause of age-related nephropathy. However, the mechanism of capillary loss in aging kidney has not been fully elucidated. Angiostatin is a kringle-containing fragment of plasminogen and is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in vivo. Whether angiostatin generation is increased in the aging kidney has not been investigated. We examined 4, 10, 16, and 24-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats for angiostatin production and found that angiostatin generation was increased in aged rats. The protein expression and the activity of cathepsin D-the enzyme for angiostatin production--were increased in aged rats. In the aging kidney, nitric oxide (NO) availability is decreased. To investigate the role of NO in angiostatin production, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME). L-NAME-treated cells showed increased cathepsin D activity and angiostatin production. For in vivo experiments, 16- to 18-month-old rats were treated with L-NAME or molsidomine for 3 months. Angiostatin production was increased in L-NAME-treated kidney, accompanied by increased cathepsin D activity. In contrast, angiostatin production was decreased in molsidomine-treated kidney, accompanied by decreased cathepsin D activity. In conclusion, angiostatin generation by cathepsin D was increased in the aging rat kidney. Decreased NO production activated cathepsin D activity. Increased angiostatin production may be related to capillary loss and interstitial damage in the aging rat kidney.

  9. Paternal aging and increased risk of congenital disease, psychiatric disorders, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Simon L; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    As couples are increasingly delaying parenthood, the effect of the aging men and women on reproductive outcomes has been an area of increased interest. Advanced paternal age has been shown to independently affect the entire spectrum of male fertility as assessed by reductions in sperm quality and fertilization (both assisted and unassisted). Moreover, epidemiological data suggest that paternal age can lead to higher rates of adverse birth outcomes and congenital anomalies. Mounting evidence also suggests increased risk of specific pediatric and adult disease states ranging from cancer to behavioral traits. While disease states associated with advancing paternal age have been well described, consensus recommendations for neonatal screening have not been as widely implemented as have been with advanced maternal age. PMID:26975491

  10. Justice between age groups: an objection to the prudential lifespan approach.

    PubMed

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2013-01-01

    Societal aging raises challenging ethical questions regarding the just distribution of health care between young and old. This article considers a proposal for age-based rationing of health care, which is based on the prudential life span account of justice between age groups. While important objections have been raised against the prudential life span account, it continues to dominate scholarly debates. This article introduces a new objection, one that develops out of the well-established disability critique of social contract theories. I show the implications of this critique for the prudential life span account and for the special case of age-group justice. The result is that age-based rationing based on the prudential life span approach is not supported, and that the prudential life span approach itself is not the best way to think about allocating health care between age groups. I propose an alternative approach that avoids the disability objection, and consider its implications for specific proposals for age-based rationing of health care.

  11. Elevated Mutagenesis Does Not Explain the Increased Frequency of Antibiotic Resistant Mutants in Starved Aging Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Sophia; Hershberg, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The frequency of mutants resistant to the antibiotic rifampicin has been shown to increase in aging (starved), compared to young colonies of Eschierchia coli. These increases in resistance frequency occur in the absence of any antibiotic exposure, and similar increases have also been observed in response to additional growth limiting conditions. Understanding the causes of such increases in the frequency of resistance is important for understanding the dynamics of antibiotic resistance emergence and spread. Increased frequency of rifampicin resistant mutants in aging colonies is cited widely as evidence of stress-induced mutagenesis (SIM), a mechanism thought to allow bacteria to increase mutation rates upon exposure to growth-limiting stresses. At the same time it has been demonstrated that some rifampicin resistant mutants are relatively fitter in aging compared to young colonies, indicating that natural selection may also contribute to increased frequency of rifampicin resistance in aging colonies. Here, we demonstrate that the frequency of mutants resistant to both rifampicin and an additional antibiotic (nalidixic-acid) significantly increases in aging compared to young colonies of a lab strain of Escherichia coli. We then use whole genome sequencing to demonstrate conclusively that SIM cannot explain the observed magnitude of increased frequency of resistance to these two antibiotics. We further demonstrate that, as was previously shown for rifampicin resistance mutations, mutations conferring nalidixic acid resistance can also increase fitness in aging compared to young colonies. Our results show that increases in the frequency of antibiotic resistant mutants in aging colonies cannot be seen as evidence of SIM. Furthermore, they demonstrate that natural selection likely contributes to increases in the frequency of certain antibiotic resistance mutations, even when no selection is exerted due to the presence of antibiotics. PMID:24244205

  12. Increased hepatic CD36 expression with age is associated with enhanced susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Sheedfar, Fareeba; Sung, Miranda MY; Aparicio-Vergara, Marcela; Kloosterhuis, Niels J; Miquilena-Colina, Maria Eugenia; Vargas-Castrillón, Javier; Febbraio, Maria; Jacobs, René L; de Bruin, Alain; Vinciguerra, Manlio; García-Monzón, Carmelo; Hofker, Marten H; Dyck, Jason RB; Koonen, Debby PY

    2014-01-01

    CD36 has been associated with obesity and diabetes in human liver diseases, however, its role in age-associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unknown. Therefore, liver biopsies were collected from individuals with histologically normal livers (n=30), and from patients diagnosed with simple steatosis (NAS; n=26). Patients were divided into two groups according to age and liver biopsy samples were immunostained for CD36. NAFLD parameters were examined in young (12-week) and middle-aged (52-week) C57BL/6J mice, some fed with chow-diet and some fed with low-fat (LFD; 10% kcal fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal fat) for 12-weeks. CD36 expression was positively associated with age in individuals with normal livers but not in NAS patients. However, CD36 was predominantly located at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes in aged NAS patients as compared to young. In chow-fed mice, aging, despite an increase in hepatic CD36 expression, was not associated with the development of NAFLD. However, middle-aged mice did exhibit the development of HFD-induced NAFLD, mediated by an increase of CD36 on the membrane. Enhanced CD36-mediated hepatic fat uptake may contribute to an accelerated progression of NAFLD in mice and humans. Therapies to prevent the increase in CD36 expression and/or CD36 from anchoring at the membrane may prevent the development of NAFLD. PMID:24751397

  13. Advancing age increases sperm chromatin damage and impairs fertility in peroxiredoxin 6 null mice

    PubMed Central

    Ozkosem, Burak; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Fisher, Aron B.; O’Flaherty, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Due to socioeconomic factors, more couples are choosing to delay conception than ever. Increasing average maternal and paternal age in developed countries over the past 40 years has raised the question of how aging affects reproductive success of males and females. Since oxidative stress in the male reproductive tract increases with age, we investigated the impact of advanced paternal age on the integrity of sperm nucleus and reproductive success of males by using a Prdx6−/− mouse model. We compared sperm motility, cytoplasmic droplet retention sperm chromatin quality and reproductive outcomes of young (2-month-old), adult (8-month-old), and old (20-month-old) Prdx6−/− males with their age-matched wild type (WT) controls. Absence of PRDX6 caused age-dependent impairment of sperm motility and sperm maturation and increased sperm DNA fragmentation and oxidation as well as decreased sperm DNA compaction and protamination. Litter size, total number of litters and total number of pups per male were significantly lower in Prdx6−/− males compared to WT controls. These abnormal reproductive outcomes were severely affected by age in Prdx6−/− males. In conclusion, the advanced paternal age affects sperm chromatin integrity and fertility more severely in the absence of PRDX6, suggesting a protective role of PRDX6 in age-associated decline in the sperm quality and fertility in mice. PMID:25796034

  14. Increased centrosome amplification in aged stem cells of the Drosophila midgut

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joung-Sun; Pyo, Jung-Hoon; Na, Hyun-Jin; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Kim, Young-Shin; Arking, Robert; Yoo, Mi-Ae

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs of aged Drosophila midguts. • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs of oxidative stressed Drosophila midguts. • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs by overexpression of PVR, EGFR, and AKT. • Supernumerary centrosomes can be responsible for abnormal ISC polyploid cells. • Supernumerary centrosomes can be a useful marker for aging stem cells. - Abstract: Age-related changes in long-lived tissue-resident stem cells may be tightly linked to aging and age-related diseases such as cancer. Centrosomes play key roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Supernumerary centrosomes are known to be an early event in tumorigenesis and senescence. However, the age-related changes of centrosome duplication in tissue-resident stem cells in vivo remain unknown. Here, using anti-γ-tubulin and anti-PH3, we analyzed mitotic intestinal stem cells with supernumerary centrosomes in the adult Drosophila midgut, which may be a versatile model system for stem cell biology. The results showed increased centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells of aged and oxidatively stressed Drosophila midguts. Increased centrosome amplification was detected by overexpression of PVR, EGFR, and AKT in intestinal stem cells/enteroblasts, known to mimic age-related changes including hyperproliferation of intestinal stem cells and hyperplasia in the midgut. Our data show the first direct evidence for the age-related increase of centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells and suggest that the Drosophila midgut is an excellent model for studying molecular mechanisms underlying centrosome amplification in aging adult stem cells in vivo.

  15. [Evaluation of oral midazolam conscious sedation in different age groups in pediatric dentistry].

    PubMed

    Jing, Quan; Wan, Kuo; Ma, Lin; Chen, Xi; Tong, Ya-li

    2010-12-01

    To summarize the effect of oral midazolam sedation in a group of uncooperative patients in pediatric dentistry and analyze the influence of age on treatment results and safety. Oral midazolam conscious sedation (dosages range: 0.50 - 0.75 mg/kg) was applied to 109 uncooperative pediatric patients in outpatient department. The patients were divided into two age groups: group A (under 3 years) and group B (over 3 years). Treatment results and safety were statistically analyzed. The mean success rate was 71% (77/109), which was higher in group B [78% (54/69)] than in group A [58% (23/40)]. The incidence of adverse reactions was 17% (19/109), which was higher in group A [28% (11/40)] than in group B [12% (8/69)]. Oral midazolam conscious sedation at a dosage range of 0.50 - 0.75 mg/kg is more effective and safe in pediatric dental patients over 3 years of age.

  16. [Measles outbreak in the adult age group: evaluation of 28 cases].

    PubMed

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Akın, Hicran; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Kalkan, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the age group affected from measles has widened and the disease has become more common among adolescents and young adults. The number of measles case reports have increased in our country, particularly from 2010-2011, and measles outbreaks occurred in various regions in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographical and epidemiological characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, and complications of adult patients with measles who were affected during the outbreak. A total of 28 patients (25 male, 3 female; age range: 19-39 years, median age: 24) who were hospitalized and followed-up in our clinic between January 2013 and June 2013, were evaluated. In the serum sample of the index case, measles-specific IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA, and measles virus RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then genotyping was performed to detect the epidemiological relationship. In all of the other cases, measles IgM and IgG antibodies were screened by ELISA. The most common symptoms on admission included high fever (n= 28, 100%), malaise (n= 25, 89%), sore throat (n= 25, 89%), headache (n= 20, 71%) and cough (n= 18, 64%). At physical examination, rash (n= 28, 100%), lymphadenopathy (n= 11, 39%) and conjunctivitis (n= 10, 36%) were in the foreground, and Koplik spots were detected in five (18%) cases. The most common laboratory findings were; increased level of C-reactive protein (n= 15, 54%), leukopenia (n= 12, 43%) and increased serum levels of aminotransferases (n= 12, 43%), and thrombocytopenia was detected in five (18%) patients. One or more complications (secondary bacterial pneumonia in 5, diarrhea in 4, hepatitis in 3 and otitis in 2 cases) developed in the eight (29%) patients. Measles RT-PCR and IgM tests yielded positive results for the index case, and the isolate was identified as D8 strain by genotyping. Measles lgM antibodies were also positive in all of the other cases. The hospitalization period was

  17. Increasing Latency Age Children's Sensitivity to Racial and Ethnic Differences through Enhancing their Awareness and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Alvin D.

    This practicum addressed the needs of latency age children who were insensitive to racial and ethnic differences. These needs were met by designing and developing a Cultural Awareness Program, so as to increase latency age children's sensitivity to racial and ethnic differences. The program's focus was on helping the children gain an appreciation…

  18. On the Increasing Fragility of Human Teeth with Age: ADeep-Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ager III, J.W.; Nalla, R.K.; Balooch, G.; Kim, G.; Pugach, M.; Habelitz, S.; Marshall, G.W.; Kinney, J.H.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2006-07-14

    Ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy (UVRRS) using 244nm excitation was used to investigate the impact of aging on humandentin. The intensity of a spectroscopic feature from the peptide bondsin the collagen increases with tissue age, similar to a finding reportedpreviously for human cortical bone.

  19. Short-term calorie restriction protects against renal senescence of aged rats by increasing autophagic activity and reducing oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Ning, Yi-Chun; Cai, Guang-Yan; Zhuo, Li; Gao, Jian-Jun; Dong, Dan; Cui, Shaoyuan; Feng, Zhe; Shi, Suo-Zhu; Bai, Xue-Yuan; Sun, Xue-Feng; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2013-01-01

    To explore the effect of short-term calorie restriction (CR) on renal aging, 8-week CR with 60% of the food intake of the ad libitum group was administered in 25-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Aged rats subjected to short-term CR had lower body weight, level of triglycerides and ratio of urine protein to urine creatinine, respectively. Short-term CR blunted the increased glomerular volume, the degree of fibrosis, p16 and the positive rate of senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining of the kidneys in old ad libitum group. Light chain 3/Atg8 as an autophagy marker exhibited a marked decline in aged kidneys, which was increased by short-term CR. The levels of p62/SQSTM1 and polyubiquitin aggregates, which were increased in older kidneys, were blunted by short-term CR. Short-term CR retarded the level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a marker of mitochondrial DNA oxidative damage. Moreover, we found an increased level of SIRT1 and AMPK, and a decreased level of mTOR in aged kidneys after short-term CR. These results suggested that short-term CR could be considered as a potential intervention for retardation of renal senescence by increasing autophagy and subsequently reducing oxidative damage. Three master regulators of energy metabolism, SIRT1, AMPK and mTOR are associated with these effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic Pyruvate Supplementation Increases Exploratory Activity and Brain Energy Reserves in Young and Middle-Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Koivisto, Hennariikka; Leinonen, Henri; Puurula, Mari; Hafez, Hani Sayed; Barrera, Glenda Alquicer; Stridh, Malin H.; Waagepetersen, Helle S.; Tiainen, Mika; Soininen, Pasi; Zilberter, Yuri; Tanila, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of pyruvate when given in systemic injections. Impaired glucose uptake and metabolism are found in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and in AD mouse models. We tested whether dietary pyruvate supplementation is able to provide added energy supply to brain and thereby attenuate aging- or AD-related cognitive impairment. Mice received ~800 mg/kg/day Na-pyruvate in their chow for 2–6 months. In middle-aged wild-type mice and in 6.5-month-old APP/PS1 mice, pyruvate facilitated spatial learning and increased exploration of a novel odor. However, in passive avoidance task for fear memory, the treatment group was clearly impaired. Independent of age, long-term pyruvate increased explorative behavior, which likely explains the pa