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Sample records for age groups increased

  1. Increase in participation but decrease in performance in age group mountain marathoners in the 'Jungfrau Marathon': a Swiss phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Zingg, Matthias A; Rüst, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    Participation and performance trends for age group marathoners have been investigated for large city marathons such as the 'New York City Marathon' but not for mountain marathons. This study investigated participation and trends in performance and sex difference in the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' held in Switzerland from 2000 to 2014 using single and mixed effects regression analyses. Results were compared to a city marathon (Lausanne Marathon) also held in Switzerland during the same period. Sex difference was calculated using the equation ([race time in women] - [race time in men]/[race time in men] × 100). Changes in sex differences across calendar years and were investigated using linear regression models. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', participation in all female and male age groups increased with exception of women in age groups 18-24 and men in age groups 30-34, 40-44 and 60-64 years where participation remained unchanged. In 'Lausanne Marathon', participation increased in women in age groups 30-34 to 40-44 years. In men, participation increased in age groups 25-29 to 44-44 years and 50-54 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon' runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 to 70-74 years. In 'Lausanne Marathon', runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 and 30-34 to 65-69 years, but not for 25-29, 70-74 and 75-79 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', sex difference increased in age groups 25-29 (from 4 to 10 %) and 60-64 years (from 3 to 8 %) but decreased in age group 40-44 years (from 12 to 6 %). In 'Lausanne Marathon', the sex difference showed no changes. In summary, participation increased in most female and male age groups but performance decreased in most age groups for both the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' and the city marathon 'Lausanne Marathon'. The sex differences were lower in the 'Jungfrau Marathon' (~6-7 %) compared to the 'Lausanne Marathon' where the sex difference was ~10-12 % from age groups 18-24 to 55

  2. Increase in reptile-associated human salmonellosis and shift toward adulthood in the age groups at risk, the Netherlands, 1985 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Heck, Max; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-01-01

    While the contribution of the main food-related sources to human salmonellosis is well documented, knowledge on the contribution of reptiles is limited. We quantified and examined trends in reptile-associated salmonellosis in the Netherlands during a 30-year period, from 1985 to 2014. Using source attribution analysis, we estimated that 2% (95% confidence interval: 1.3–2.8) of all sporadic/domestic human salmonellosis cases reported in the Netherlands during the study period (n = 63,718) originated from reptiles. The estimated annual fraction of reptile-associated salmonellosis cases ranged from a minimum of 0.3% (corresponding to 11 cases) in 1988 to a maximum of 9.3% (93 cases) in 2013. There was a significant increasing trend in reptile-associated salmonellosis cases (+ 19% annually) and a shift towards adulthood in the age groups at highest risk, while the proportion of reptile-associated salmonellosis cases among those up to four years-old decreased by 4% annually and the proportion of cases aged 45 to 74 years increased by 20% annually. We hypothesise that these findings may be the effect of the increased number and variety of reptiles that are kept as pets, calling for further attention to the issue of safe reptile–human interaction and for reinforced hygiene recommendations for reptile owners. PMID:27589037

  3. Increase in reptile-associated human salmonellosis and shift toward adulthood in the age groups at risk, the Netherlands, 1985 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Heck, Max; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2016-08-25

    While the contribution of the main food-related sources to human salmonellosis is well documented, knowledge on the contribution of reptiles is limited. We quantified and examined trends in reptile-associated salmonellosis in the Netherlands during a 30-year period, from 1985 to 2014. Using source attribution analysis, we estimated that 2% (95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.8) of all sporadic/domestic human salmonellosis cases reported in the Netherlands during the study period (n = 63,718) originated from reptiles. The estimated annual fraction of reptile-associated salmonellosis cases ranged from a minimum of 0.3% (corresponding to 11 cases) in 1988 to a maximum of 9.3% (93 cases) in 2013. There was a significant increasing trend in reptile-associated salmonellosis cases (+ 19% annually) and a shift towards adulthood in the age groups at highest risk, while the proportion of reptile-associated salmonellosis cases among those up to four years-old decreased by 4% annually and the proportion of cases aged 45 to 74 years increased by 20% annually. We hypothesise that these findings may be the effect of the increased number and variety of reptiles that are kept as pets, calling for further attention to the issue of safe reptile-human interaction and for reinforced hygiene recommendations for reptile owners.

  4. Grouping Students for Increased Achievements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews results of four recent studies exploring the effects of various student-grouping schemes on academic achievement. Grouping plans included multiage classrooms, full-time ability grouping, and within-classroom grouping. Two studies investigated administrator attitudes toward student grouping. Several studies found that grouping plans…

  5. GUIDANCE ON SELECTING AGE GROUPS FOR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance document provides a set of early-lifestage age groups for Environmental Protection Agency scientists to consider when assessing children’s exposure to environmental contaminants and the resultant potential dose. These recommended age groups are based on current understanding of differences in behavior and physiology which may impact exposures in children. A consistent set of early-life age groups, supported by an underlying scientific rationale, is expected to improve Agency exposure and risk assessments for children by increasing the consistency and comparability of risk assessments across the Agency; by improving accuracy and transparency in assessments for those cases where current practice might too broadly combine behaviorally and physiologically disparate age groups; and by fostering a consistent approach to future exposure surveys and monitoring efforts to generate improved exposure factors for children. see description

  6. Increased participation and improved performance in age group backstroke master swimmers from 25-29 to 100-104 years at the FINA World Masters Championships from 1986 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Unterweger, Chiara M; Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2016-01-01

    Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated for different sport disciplines, but not for master swimmers. The knowledge on this topic is still missing for a particular stroke such as backstroke. Changes in participation and performance of male and female age group backstroke swimmers (≥25 years) competing in 50, 100 and 200 m pool swimming at the FINA World Masters Championships held between 1986 and 2014 were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses. The overall participation was n = 26,217 including n = 13,708 women and n = 12,509 men. In 50 m, female (age groups 85-89 years; p = 0.002) and male participation (age groups 55-59; p = 0.030 and 80-84 years; p = 0.002) increased, while female participation decreased in age groups 55-59 (p = 0.010) and 60-64 years (p = 0.050). In 100 and 200 m, participation increased in age groups 45-49, 50-54, 65-69, 70-74, 80-84 years. Swimmers in age groups 25-29 to 95-99 years improved performance over all distances. Women were slower than men in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years, but not in age groups 85-89 to 95-99 years over all distances. In 50 m and 100 m, the sex difference decreased in age groups 40-44 (p = 0.007 and p = 0.005), 45-49 (p = 0.017 and p = 0.034), 50-54 (p = 0.002 and p = 0.040), to 55-59 years (p = 0.002 and p = 0.004). In 200 m, the sex difference decreased in age groups 40-44 (p = 0.044) and 90-94 (p = 0.011), but increased in age group 25-29 years (p = 0.006). In summary, in age group backstroke swimmers, (1) participation increased or remained unchanged (except women in age groups 55-59 and 60-64 years in 50 m), (2) swimming performance improved in all age groups from 25-29 to 95-99 years over all distances, (3) men were faster than women in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years (except age groups 85-89 to 95-99 years) over time and all distances.

  7. Longitudinal comparison of a physiotherapist-led, home-based and group-based program for increasing physical activity in community-dwelling middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Freene, Nicole; Waddington, Gordon; Davey, Rachel; Cochrane, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the longer-term effects of physical activity interventions. Here we compare a 6-month physiotherapist-led, home-based physical activity program to a community group exercise program over 2 years. Healthy, sedentary community-dwelling 50-65 year olds were recruited to a non-randomised community group exercise program (G, n = 93) or a physiotherapist-led, home-based physical activity program (HB, n = 65). Outcomes included 'sufficient' physical activity (Active Australia Survey), minutes of moderate-vigorous physical activity (ActiGraph GT1M), aerobic capacity (2-min step-test), quality of life (SF-12v2), blood pressure, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Using intention-to-treat analysis, both interventions resulted in significant and sustainable increases in the number of participants achieving 'sufficient' physical activity (HB 22 v. 41%, G 22 v. 47%, P ≤ 0.001) and decreases in waist circumference (HB 90 v. 89 cm, G 93 v. 91 cm, P < 0.001) over 2 years. The home-based program was less costly (HB A$47 v. G $84 per participant) but less effective in achieving the benefits at 2 years. The physiotherapist-led, home-based physical activity program may be a low-cost alternative to increase physical activity levels for those not interested in, or unable to attend, a group exercise program.

  8. Increased sensitivity to nitrazepam in old age.

    PubMed

    Castleden, C M; George, C F; Marcer, D; Hallett, C

    1977-01-01

    The effects of a single 10 mg oral dose of nitrazepam were compared with those of a placebo in healthy young and old people. Both the young and the elderly slept better on three successive nights after nitrazepam but they felt less awake at 12 and 36 hours (P less than 0-01). Elderly people made significantly more mistakes in a psychomotor test than did the young, despite similar plasma concentrations of nitrazepam and half lives in the two groups. This difference in response to psychomotor testing is probably explained by an increased sensitivity of the ageing brain to the action of nitrazepam.

  9. Age group athletes in inline skating: decrease in overall and increase in master athlete participation in the longest inline skating race in Europe – the Inline One-Eleven

    PubMed Central

    Teutsch, Uwe; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated in endurance and ultraendurance races in swimming, cycling, running, and triathlon, but not in long-distance inline skating. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in participation, age, and performance in the longest inline race in Europe, the Inline One-Eleven over 111 km, held between 1998 and 2009. Methods The total number, age distribution, age at the time of the competition, and race times of male and female finishers at the Inline One-Eleven were analyzed. Results Overall participation increased until 2003 but decreased thereafter. During the 12-year period, the relative participation in skaters younger than 40 years old decreased while relative participation increased for skaters older than 40 years. The mean top ten skating time was 199 ± 9 minutes (range: 189–220 minutes) for men and 234 ± 17 minutes (range: 211–271 minutes) for women, respectively. The gender difference in performance remained stable at 17% ± 5% across years. Conclusion To summarize, although the participation of master long-distance inline skaters increased, the overall participation decreased across years in the Inline One-Eleven. The race times of the best female and male skaters stabilized across years with a gender difference in performance of 17% ± 5%. Further studies should focus on the participation in the international World Inline Cup races. PMID:23690697

  10. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  11. Voluntary Group Participation by Third Age Australians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Claire; Swindell, Rick

    A study investigated characteristics of retirees and types of voluntary groups they joined after retirement. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and completed questionnaires of 206 Australians over age 50. Five categories of voluntary organizations were studied: intellectually challenging, sporting/exercise, social, helping others,…

  12. [The electrocardiogram in the paediatric age group].

    PubMed

    Sanches, M; Coelho, A; Oliveira, E; Lopes, A

    2014-09-01

    A properly interpreted electrocardiogram (ECG) provides important information and is an inexpensive and easy test to perform. It continues to be the method of choice for the diagnosis of arrhythmias. Although the principles of cardiac electrophysiology are the same, there are anatomical and physiological age-dependent changes which produce specific alterations in the paediatric ECG, and which may be misinterpreted as pathological. The intention of this article is to address in a systematic way the most relevant aspects of the paediatric ECG, to propose a possible reading scheme of the ECG and to review the electrocardiograph tracings most frequently found in the paediatric age group.

  13. Changes in the incomes of age groups, 1984-89.

    PubMed

    Radner, D B

    1991-12-01

    In terms of changes in the incomes of age groups, the 1984-89 period was very different from the periods that immediately preceded it. This summary focuses on changes for aged family units. During the 1984-89 period, the rate of growth of real median income of aged units was substantially lower than in other subperiods since 1967, the first year for which comparable detailed estimates are available. During the 1984-89 period, the ratio of aged to nonaged median incomes fell for 4 consecutive years, after generally rising since about 1970. The relative medians of almost all detailed aged age groups fell at least slightly from 1984 to 1989, after a period of substantial rises. The increases in income for aged units during 1984-89 were higher for high-income units than for low-income units, producing an increase in inequality. The percentage of aged persons who were poor fell slightly from 1984 to 1989, but that percentage remained above the rates for other adult age groups. A relatively high percentage of aged persons had income that was less than 50 percent above the poverty threshold. The increase in the real mean total income of aged units from 1984 to 1989 was the net result of substantial increases in earnings and pension income and a substantial decrease in property income. In contrast, the much larger increase in real mean total income for aged units from 1979 to 1984 was characterized by a large increase in property income, substantial increases in Social Security benefits and pension income, and a small decrease in earnings.

  14. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  15. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  16. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  17. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  18. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  19. Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups.

    PubMed

    Derex, Maxime; Boyd, Robert

    2016-03-15

    Complex technologies used in most human societies are beyond the inventive capacities of individuals. Instead, they result from a cumulative process in which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population's ability to develop complex technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present a simple computer-based experiment that compares the accumulation of innovations by fully and partially connected groups of the same size in a complex fitness landscape. We find that the propensity to learn from successful individuals drastically reduces cultural diversity within fully connected groups. In comparison, partially connected groups produce more diverse solutions, and this diversity allows them to develop complex solutions that are never produced in fully connected groups. These results suggest that explanations of ancestral patterns of cultural complexity may need to consider levels of population fragmentation and interaction patterns between partially isolated groups.

  20. Partial connectivity increases cultural accumulation within groups

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Complex technologies used in most human societies are beyond the inventive capacities of individuals. Instead, they result from a cumulative process in which innovations are gradually added to existing cultural traits across many generations. Recent work suggests that a population’s ability to develop complex technologies is positively affected by its size and connectedness. Here, we present a simple computer-based experiment that compares the accumulation of innovations by fully and partially connected groups of the same size in a complex fitness landscape. We find that the propensity to learn from successful individuals drastically reduces cultural diversity within fully connected groups. In comparison, partially connected groups produce more diverse solutions, and this diversity allows them to develop complex solutions that are never produced in fully connected groups. These results suggest that explanations of ancestral patterns of cultural complexity may need to consider levels of population fragmentation and interaction patterns between partially isolated groups. PMID:26929364

  1. Age-group differences in saccadic interference.

    PubMed

    Gottlob, Lawrence R; Fillmore, Mark T; Abroms, Ben D

    2007-03-01

    We examined age-group differences in a saccadic interference task, which requires that participants execute a saccade (eye movement) toward an abrupt-onset visual target presented to the right or left of fixation. On some trials, we imposed diffuse interference by bilateral (top and bottom) flashes of light presented 20 to 210 ms after target onset. When the flashes followed the cue at shorter intervals, time to execute a saccade was slowed relative to no-flash trials. This slowing was greater and sustained over a larger cue-flash interval for older participants than for the young participants. The results indicate that, when diffuse distractors are used, older adults are more susceptible to saccade disruption than are young adults.

  2. Increasing Student Involvement in Cognitive Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkel, Linda A.

    2006-01-01

    The involvement of undergraduates in research on aging has benefits for the students and for the faculty mentors, as well as for their departments, their universities, and the field of gerontology at large. This article reports on the application of a 3-year Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) by the National Institute on Aging awarded to…

  3. Normal aging increases cognitive heterogeneity: analysis of dispersion in WAIS-III scores across age.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2007-11-01

    Individual differences in cognitive decline during normal aging need further delineation. The purpose of this study was to find the score dispersions in the WAIS-III subtests at different ages. Norms presented in the Administration and Scoring Manual [Wechsler, D. (1997). WAIS-III: Administration and scoring manual. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation] were used. The WAIS-III was standardized and normalized using 2450 American adults divided into 13 age ranges and 4 education groups. Means and standard deviations for the different WAIS-III subtests were deduced and the ratio Percentage of the mean="(standard deviation/mean)x100" was calculated. It was hypothesized that during normal aging, whereas mean scores decrease, score dispersions increase, pointing to an increased heterogeneity in intellectual abilities in older individuals. In all subtests, except Digit Span, it was found that score dispersions indeed increased during aging. However, in some subtests, increase in dispersion was less than 20% (Block Design, Object Assembly, and Information), whereas in others, increase in dispersion was over 200% (Matrix Reasoning, L-N Sequencing, Digit-Symbol, Picture Completion, and Picture Arrangement). It was proposed that cognitive heterogeneity during normal aging is related to those abilities measured with these latter subtests, basically, executive functions, attention, and selected non-verbal abilities. In other abilities (e.g., visuoconstructive abilities and fund of general information), normal aging is associated with a more homogenous pattern of decline.

  4. Social group membership increases STEM engagement among preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Master, Allison; Cheryan, Sapna; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2017-02-01

    The American educational system currently yields disappointing levels of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) engagement and achievement among students. One way to remedy this may be to increase children's motivation in STEM from an early age. This study examined whether a social cue-being part of an experimental "minimal group"-increases STEM engagement in preschoolers (N = 141; 4.5-year-olds). Using a within-subjects design, participants were assigned to a group and an individual condition (counterbalanced for order) before they worked on a math task and a spatial task. Children persisted longer on, placed more pieces correctly, reported higher self-efficacy, and were more interested in the group STEM task than the individual STEM task. In addition, we conducted a continuously cumulating meta-analysis (CCMA) to combine the results of the current experiment with two previous experiments. These findings suggest that incorporating nonacademic social factors, such as group membership, into current STEM curricula could be an effective way to boost young children's STEM motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Salmon lice increase the age of returning Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    Vollset, Knut Wiik; Barlaup, Bjørn Torgeir; Skoglund, Helge; Normann, Eirik Straume; Skilbrei, Ove Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The global increase in the production of domestic farmed fish in open net pens has created concerns about the resilience of wild populations owing to shifts in host–parasite systems in coastal ecosystems. However, little is known about the effects of increased parasite abundance on life-history traits in wild fish populations. Here, we report the results of two separate studies in which 379 779 hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon smolts were treated (or not) against salmon lice, marked and released. Adults were later recaptured, and we specifically tested whether the age distribution of the returning spawners was affected by the treatment. The estimates of parasite-induced mortality were 31.9% and 0.6% in the River Vosso and River Dale stock experiments, respectively. Age of returning salmon was on average higher in treated versus untreated fish. The percentages of fish returning after one winter at sea were 37.5% and 29.9% for the treated and untreated groups, respectively. We conclude that salmon lice increase the age of returning salmon, either by affecting their age at maturity or by disproportionately increasing mortality in fish that mature early. PMID:24478199

  6. Acute pancreatitis in the paediatric age group: a personal experience.

    PubMed

    Cosentini, A; Stranieri, G; Capillo, S; Notarangelo, L; Madonna, L; Iannini, S; Ferro, V; Defilippo, V; Defilippo, R G; Rubino, R

    2005-01-01

    Although relatively rare, acute pancreatitis is the most common disease complex involving the pancreas in the paediatric age group. The etiology of the disease is often unknown, and Italian epidemiological data on the paediatric population and, in particular, on the etiology of the disease are not available (except for studies of prevalence). Within the field of the most frequently encountered pancreatitis in the age range of our interest (i.e. 0-18 years), not only the commonly observed forms whose etiopathogenesis is ascribable to cholelithiasis must be mentioned but also those forms due to proteic-caloric malnutrition that are becoming increasingly common. The presenting clinical symptoms and signs may not be typical and the laboratory tests may not always be sensitive enough. In such age range chronic recurrent pancreatitis plays a very important epidemiologic role. Approximately 40% of children and teenagers admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of pancreatitis report a previous episode of the disease. Irreversible changes in pancreatic parenchyma develop in those patients in whom the disease progresses, leading to pancreatic insufficiency. Such a morbid condition (chronic pancreatitis) is more often observed in adolescents, in whom the disease manifests itself with a vague repetitive dyspeptic symptomatology, after alternating remissions and recrudescences, not always clinically evident. In children, the clinical picture most commonly encountered is represented by recurrent abdominal pains, in view of the fact that the patients are frequently affected by thalassaemia. The pseudocystic evolution of the disease is the most common organic damage resulting from the chronic progression of the pancreatic impairment. A few differences have been found with respect to severity, etiology, and mortality of pancreatitis in the paediatric age group as compared with older age groups. Both the general practitioner with a paediatric practice and the paediatrician

  7. Strategies to Increase Participation in Cooperative Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This action research examines how focused organization, group roles, and gender grouping impact student participation when working in a cooperative group setting. Fifty-two sixth graders were studied for a period of nine weeks. Results show when students are organized in their cooperative groups, there will be an increase in student participation.…

  8. The Subculture of the Aging, Aging Group-Conciousness, and Morale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, William C.

    The central concern of this paper is to examine the subculture of the aging theory and the relationship between aging group-consciousness and morale. Aging group-consciousness is postulated to be one of the major components of an aging subculture. A study of 81 older people was conducted in a rural, multi-story housing facility. Questionnaires…

  9. School's Out! Group Day Care for the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth; Milich, Cynthia

    This report on group day care is designed to: (1) examine the kinds of group programs for school-age children which exist in Los Angeles County, (2) describe the conditions necessary for program operation, and (3) consider the issue of quality as it relates to community expansion of day care services for children of school age. The report is…

  10. Differentiation of Occupational Perceptions Among Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Hypothesizes that occupational perceptions are more specific for older age groups than for younger age groups. Hypothesis was tested by using latent root analysis and minimum residual factor analysis to analyze intercorrelations among six Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) scales for five large and diverse samples. Both analyses supported the…

  11. Redefining meaningful age groups in the context of disease.

    PubMed

    Geifman, Nophar; Cohen, Raphael; Rubin, Eitan

    2013-12-01

    Age is an important factor when considering phenotypic changes in health and disease. Currently, the use of age information in medicine is somewhat simplistic, with ages commonly being grouped into a small number of crude ranges reflecting the major stages of development and aging, such as childhood or adolescence. Here, we investigate the possibility of redefining age groups using the recently developed Age-Phenome Knowledge-base (APK) that holds over 35,000 literature-derived entries describing relationships between age and phenotype. Clustering of APK data suggests 13 new, partially overlapping, age groups. The diseases that define these groups suggest that the proposed divisions are biologically meaningful. We further show that the number of different age ranges that should be considered depends on the type of disease being evaluated. This finding was further strengthened by similar results obtained from clinical blood measurement data. The grouping of diseases that share a similar pattern of disease-related reports directly mirrors, in some cases, medical knowledge of disease-age relationships. In other cases, our results may be used to generate new and reasonable hypotheses regarding links between diseases.

  12. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  13. Increased brain-predicted aging in treated HIV disease

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Jonathan; Caan, Matthan W.A.; De Francesco, Davide; van Zoest, Rosan A.; Leech, Robert; Wit, Ferdinand W.N.M.; Portegies, Peter; Geurtsen, Gert J.; Schmand, Ben A.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Franceschi, Claudio; Sabin, Caroline A.; Majoie, Charles B.L.M.; Winston, Alan; Reiss, Peter; Sharp, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To establish whether HIV disease is associated with abnormal levels of age-related brain atrophy, by estimating apparent brain age using neuroimaging and exploring whether these estimates related to HIV status, age, cognitive performance, and HIV-related clinical parameters. Methods: A large sample of virologically suppressed HIV-positive adults (n = 162, age 45–82 years) and highly comparable HIV-negative controls (n = 105) were recruited as part of the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) collaboration. Using T1-weighted MRI scans, a machine-learning model of healthy brain aging was defined in an independent cohort (n = 2,001, aged 18–90 years). Neuroimaging data from HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals were then used to estimate brain-predicted age; then brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD = brain-predicted brain age − chronological age) scores were calculated. Neuropsychological and clinical assessments were also carried out. Results: HIV-positive individuals had greater brain-PAD score (mean ± SD 2.15 ± 7.79 years) compared to HIV-negative individuals (−0.87 ± 8.40 years; b = 3.48, p < 0.01). Increased brain-PAD score was associated with decreased performance in multiple cognitive domains (information processing speed, executive function, memory) and general cognitive performance across all participants. Brain-PAD score was not associated with age, duration of HIV infection, or other HIV-related measures. Conclusion: Increased apparent brain aging, predicted using neuroimaging, was observed in HIV-positive adults, despite effective viral suppression. Furthermore, the magnitude of increased apparent brain aging related to cognitive deficits. However, predicted brain age difference did not correlate with chronological age or duration of HIV infection, suggesting that HIV disease may accentuate rather than accelerate brain aging. PMID:28258081

  14. Geroscience approaches to increase healthspan and slow aging

    PubMed Central

    Melov, Simon

    2016-01-01

    For decades, researchers in the biology of aging have focused on defining mechanisms that modulate aging by primarily studying a single metric, sometimes described as the “gold standard” lifespan. Increasingly, geroscience research is turning towards defining functional domains of aging such as the cardiovascular system, skeletal integrity, and metabolic health as being a more direct route to understand why tissues decline in function with age. Each model used in aging research has strengths and weaknesses, yet we know surprisingly little about how critical tissues decline in health with increasing age. Here I discuss popular model systems used in geroscience research and their utility as possible tools in preclinical studies in aging. PMID:27158475

  15. Finisher and performance trends in female and male mountain ultramarathoners by age group

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Eichenberger, Evelyn; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined changes according to age group in the number of finishers and running times for athletes in female and male mountain ultramarathoners competing in the 78 km Swiss Alpine Marathon, the largest mountain ultramarathon in Europe and held in high alpine terrain. Methods The association between age and performance was investigated using analysis of variance and both single and multilevel regression analyses. Results Between 1998 and 2011, a total of 1,781 women and 12,198 men finished the Swiss Alpine Marathon. The number of female finishers increased (r2 = 0.64, P = 0.001), whereas the number of male finishers (r2 = 0.18, P = 0.15) showed no change. The annual top ten men became older and slower, whereas the annual top ten women became older but not slower. Regarding the number of finishers in the age groups, the number of female finishers decreased in the age group 18–24 years, whereas the number of finishers increased in the age groups 30–34, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, and 70–74 years. In the age groups 25–29 and 35–39 years, the number of finishers showed no changes across the years. In the age group 70–74 years, the increase in number of finishers was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. For men, the number of finishers decreased in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, and 35–39 years. In the age groups 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 70–74, and 75–79 years, the number of finishers increased. In the age group 40–44 years, the increase was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. Female finishers in the age group 40–44 years became faster over time. For men, finishers in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, 40–44, and 45–49 years became slower. Conclusion The number of women older than 30 years and men older than 40 years increased in the Swiss Alpine Marathon. Performance improved in women aged 40–44 years but

  16. Striving for group agency: threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of agentic groups

    PubMed Central

    Stollberg, Janine; Fritsche, Immo; Bäcker, Anna

    2015-01-01

    When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups) but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93) that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects). Turning to groups people are not (yet) part of, Study 2 (N = 47) showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78) replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control. PMID:26074832

  17. Functional group diversity increases with modularity in complex food webs

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, D.; Yallop, M.L.; Memmott, J.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from patterns in the structure of the food web. PMID:26059871

  18. Functional group diversity increases with modularity in complex food webs.

    PubMed

    Montoya, D; Yallop, M L; Memmott, J

    2015-06-10

    Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from patterns in the structure of the food web.

  19. The inter-group comparison-intra-group cooperation hypothesis: comparisons between groups increase efficiency in public goods provision.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Robert; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Identifying methods to increase cooperation and efficiency in public goods provision is of vital interest for human societies. The methods that have been proposed often incur costs that (more than) destroy the efficiency gains through increased cooperation. It has for example been shown that inter-group conflict increases intra-group cooperation, however at the cost of collective efficiency. We propose a new method that makes use of the positive effects associated with inter-group competition but avoids the detrimental (cost) effects of a structural conflict. We show that the mere comparison to another structurally independent group increases both the level of intra-group cooperation and overall efficiency. The advantage of this new method is that it directly transfers the benefits from increased cooperation into increased efficiency. In repeated public goods provision we experimentally manipulated the participants' level of contribution feedback (intra-group only vs. both intra- and inter-group) as well as the provision environment (smaller groups with higher individual benefits from cooperation vs. larger groups with lower individual benefits from cooperation). Irrespective of the provision environment groups with an inter-group comparison opportunity exhibited a significantly stronger cooperation than groups without this opportunity. Participants conditionally cooperated within their group and additionally acted to advance their group to not fall behind the other group. The individual efforts to advance the own group cushion the downward trend in the above average contributors and thus render contributions on a higher level. We discuss areas of practical application.

  20. The effect of group composition and age on social behavior and competition in groups of weaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Faerevik, G; Jensen, M B; Bøe, K E

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how group composition affects behavior and weight gain of newly weaned dairy calves and how age within heterogeneous groups affects behavior and competition. Seventy-two calves were introduced into 6 groups of 12 calves, of which 3 groups were homogeneous and 3 groups were heterogeneous (including 6 young and 6 old calves). The 9.8 mx9.5 m large experimental pen had 4 separate lying areas as well as a feeding area. Behavior and subgrouping were recorded on d 1, 7, and 14 after grouping, and calves were weighed before and after the experimental period of 14 d. Analysis of the effect of group composition on behavior and weight gain included young calves in heterogeneous groups and calves in homogeneous groups within the same age range at grouping (30 to 42 d). Irrespective of group composition, time spent feeding and lying increased, whereas time spent active decreased from d 1 to 7. In homogeneous groups, calves were more explorative on d 1 after grouping. Finally, calves in homogeneous groups had a higher average daily weight gain than calves in heterogeneous groups. Analysis of the effect of age included young and old calves of heterogeneous groups. Young calves were less explorative than old calves. Young calves were more active than old calves on d 1 but less active on d 7. Time spent lying and lying alone increased over time. More displacements from the feed manger were performed by old calves than by young calves. An analysis including all calves in both homogeneous and heterogeneous groups showed that when lying, calves were evenly distributed on the 4 lying areas and formed subgroups of on average 3 calves. In conclusion, age heterogeneity leads to increased competition, which may have a negative influence on the young calves' performance.

  1. [Symptomatic and asymptomatic infections of Demodex spp. in eye lashes of patients of different age groups].

    PubMed

    Kuźna-Grygiel, Wanda; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Czepita, Damian; Sambor, Izabella

    2004-01-01

    Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis were looked for on eyelashes sampled from 481 people, aged 3 through 96. The persons studied were divided into 9 age groups. Magnitude of the infection symptoms was assessed based on macroscopic changes of eye-lid edges and on interviews with patients. An increase of the prevalence of infection and intensification of the symptoms were observed to coincide with the age increase of the persons studied. No significant differences were demonstrated between the infection frequencies of women and men. Symptoms of ocular demodecosis were more frequent only in women of group III (aged 21-30) and group V (41-50) (p < 0.05).

  2. Social Group Membership Increases STEM Engagement among Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Master, Allison; Cheryan, Sapna; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2017-01-01

    The American educational system currently yields disappointing levels of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) engagement and achievement among students. One way to remedy this may be to increase children's motivation in STEM from an early age. This study examined whether a social cue--being part of an experimental "minimal…

  3. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jonathon N; Kiesler, Sara; Bosagh Zadeh, Reza; Balakrishnan, Aruna D

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous groups are valuable, but differences among members can weaken group identification. Weak group identification may be especially problematic in larger groups, which, in contrast with smaller groups, require more attention to motivating members and coordinating their tasks. We hypothesized that as groups increase in size, productivity would decrease with greater heterogeneity. We studied the longitudinal productivity of 549 research groups varying in disciplinary heterogeneity, institutional heterogeneity, and size. We examined their publication and citation productivity before their projects started and 5 to 9 years later. Larger groups were more productive than smaller groups, but their marginal productivity declined as their heterogeneity increased, either because their members belonged to more disciplines or to more institutions. These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units.

  4. High blood pressure in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Helena; Antonio, Natália; Rodrigues, Dina; Da Silva, Marinho; Pêgo, Mariano; Providência, Luís Augusto

    2010-03-01

    The definition of hypertension (HT) in the pediatric age group is based on the normal distribution of blood pressure (BP) in healthy children. Normal BP is defined as being below the 90th percentile for gender, age and height, and hypertension as equal to or higher than the 95th percentile on at least three separate occasions. If the values are above the 90th percentile but below the 95th percentile, the child should be considered prehypertensive. Ambulatory BP monitoring is useful in the assessment of BP levels in the young. P values in children and adolescents have creased in the last decade, in parallel with increases in body mass index, and HT now has a prevalence of 2-5%. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is one of the main predictors of HT in adulthood, but it is also associated with other cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, inflammation and impaired vascular function. Left ventricular hypertrophy is the most prominent evidence of target organ damage caused by hypertension in children and adolescents. The goal for antihypertensive treatment is to reduce BP below the 95th percentile. Weight control, with regular physical activity and dietary changes, is the primary therapy for obesity-related hypertension. Weight loss decreases not only BP but also other cardiovascular risk factors. The indications for use of antihypertensive drugs are: symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, established hypertensive target organ damage, stage 2 hypertension and failure of nonpharmacologic measures.

  5. Task factor usability ratings for different age groups writing Chinese.

    PubMed

    Chan, A H S; So, J C Y

    2009-11-01

    This study evaluated how different task factors affect performance and user subjective preferences for three different age groups of Chinese subjects (6-11, 20-23, 65-70 years) when hand writing Chinese characters. The subjects copied Chinese character sentences with different settings for the task factors of writing plane angle (horizontal 0 degrees , slanted 15 degrees ), writing direction (horizontal, vertical), and line spacing (5 mm, 7 mm and no lines). Writing speed was measured and subjective preferences (effectiveness and satisfaction) were assessed for each of the task factor settings. The result showed that there was a conflict between writing speed and personal preference for the line spacing factor; 5 mm line spacing increased writing speed but it was the least preferred. It was also found that: vertical and horizontal writing directions and a slanted work surface suited school-aged children; a horizontal work surface and horizontal writing direction suited university students; and a horizontal writing direction with either a horizontal or slanted work surface suited the older adults.

  6. Prosocial Behavior Increases with Age across Five Economic Games.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoshie; Yamagishi, Toshio; Li, Yang; Kiyonari, Toko

    2016-01-01

    Ontogenic studies of human prosociality generally agree on that human prosociality increases from early childhood through early adulthood; however, it has not been established if prosociality increases beyond early adulthood. We examined a sample of 408 non-student residents from Tokyo, Japan, who were evenly distributed across age (20-59) and sex. Participants played five economic games each separated by a few months. We demonstrated that prosocial behavior increased with age beyond early adulthood and this effect was shown across all five economic games. A similar, but weaker, age-related trend was found in one of three social value orientation measures of prosocial preferences. We measured participants' belief that manipulating others is a wise strategy for social success, and found that this belief declined with age. Participants' satisfaction with the unilateral exploitation outcome of the prisoner's dilemma games also declined with age. These two factors-satisfaction with the DC outcome in the prisoner's dilemma games and belief in manipulation-mediated the age effect on both attitudinal and behavioral prosociality. Participants' age-related socio-demographic traits such as marriage, having children, and owning a house weakly mediated the age effect on prosociality through their relationships with satisfaction with the DC outcome and belief in manipulation.

  7. Aging increases the susceptibility of hepatic inflammation, liver fibrosis and aging in response to high-fat diet in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Hee; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xiao; Koyama, Yukinori; Ma, Hsiao-Yen; Diggle, Karin; You, Young-Hyun; Schilling, Jan M; Jeste, Dilip; Sharma, Kumar; Brenner, David A; Kisseleva, Tatiana

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to investigate whether aging increases the susceptibility of hepatic and renal inflammation or fibrosis in response to high-fat diet (HFD) and explore the underlying genetic alterations. Middle (10 months old) and old (20 months old) aged, male C57BL/6N mice were fed either a low-fat diet (4 % fat) or HFD (60 % fat) for 4 months. Young (3 months old) aged mice were included as control group. HFD-induced liver and kidney injuries were analyzed by serum and urine assay, histologic staining, immunohistochemistry, and reverse-transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Total RNA sequencing with next-generation technology was done with RNA extracted from liver tissues. With HFD feeding, aged was associated with higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels, marked infiltration of hepatic macrophages, and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17A). Importantly, aged mice showed more advanced hepatic fibrosis and increased expression of fibrogenic markers (Col-I-α1, αSMA, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGFβRII, PDGF, PDGFRβII, TIMP1) in response to HFD. Aged mice fed on HFD also showed increased oxidative stress and TLR4 expression. In the total RNA seq and gene ontology analysis of liver, old-aged HFD group showed significant up-regulation of genes linked to innate immune response, immune response, defense response, inflammatory response compared to middle-aged HFD group. Meanwhile, aging and HFD feeding showed significant increase in glomerular size and mesangial area, higher urine albumin/creatinine ratio, and advanced renal inflammation or fibrosis. However, the difference of HFD-induced renal injury between old-aged group and middle-aged group was not significant. The susceptibility of hepatic fibrosis as well as hepatic inflammation in response to HFD was significantly increased with aging. In addition, aging was associated with glomerular alterations and increased renal inflammation or

  8. Increase in the age of Olympic swimmers in modern times.

    PubMed

    Mazzilli, Facundo

    2016-11-25

    Mazzilli, F. Increase in the age of Olympic swimmers in modern times. Anecdotal data suggest an increase in the age of Olympic swimmers, but scientific studies in this regard are scarce, despite the importance for coaches of the confirmation of this increase in different styles. To ascertain the reality of this increase, the present study focused on the analysis of the data contained in the reports of the Internal Olympic Games Association, covering different events and styles throughout the history of the Games. Starting with the 1908 Games, a total of 806 swimmers (436 men and 370 women) were included in the study. Of them 137 men and 135 women had won two or more medals. Plots of the age of the swimmer at the time a gold, silver or bronze medal was granted versus year of competition elicited statistical significant increases in 3 events in men and 9 events in women. Interestingly, significant increases were regularly observed in the styles introduced in the sixties and a kind of V-shaped distribution was observed in some of the long established competitions, namely in the 100, 400 and 1500 m freestyle in men, where the point of inflexion seems to occur around 1960. Overall there is a continuing increase in the age of swimmers of ages over 24 years old mirrored by a decrease of those below 20 years and this is accompanied by the increased presence of swimmers that have won medals in 2 or 3 different Games.

  9. Cold hardiness increases with age in juvenile Rhododendron populations

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chon-Chong; Krebs, Stephen L.; Arora, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Winter survival in woody plants is controlled by environmental and genetic factors that affect the plant’s ability to cold acclimate. Because woody perennials are long-lived and often have a prolonged juvenile (pre-flowering) phase, it is conceivable that both chronological and physiological age factors influence adaptive traits such as stress tolerance. This study investigated annual cold hardiness (CH) changes in several hybrid Rhododendron populations based on Tmax, an estimate of the maximum rate of freezing injury (ion leakage) in cold-acclimated leaves from juvenile progeny. Data from F2 and backcross populations derived from R. catawbiense and R. fortunei parents indicated significant annual increases in Tmax ranging from 3.7 to 6.4°C as the seedlings aged from 3 to 5 years old. A similar yearly increase (6.7°C) was observed in comparisons of 1- and 2-year-old F1 progenies from a R. catawbiense × R. dichroanthum cross. In contrast, CH of the mature parent plants (>10 years old) did not change significantly over the same evaluation period. In leaf samples from a natural population of R. maximum, CH evaluations over 2 years resulted in an average Tmax value for juvenile 2- to 3-year-old plants that was 9.2°C lower than the average for mature (~30 years old) plants. A reduction in CH was also observed in three hybrid rhododendron cultivars clonally propagated by rooted cuttings (ramets)—Tmax of 4-year-old ramets was significantly lower than the Tmax estimates for the 30- to 40-year-old source plants (ortets). In both the wild R. maximum population and the hybrid cultivar group, higher accumulation of a cold-acclimation responsive 25 kDa leaf dehydrin was associated with older plants and higher CH. The feasibility of identifying hardy phenotypes at juvenile period and research implications of age-dependent changes in CH are discussed. PMID:25360138

  10. Marginal effect of increasing ageing drivers on injury crashes.

    PubMed

    Tay, Richard

    2008-11-01

    The safety effects of the ageing driving population have been a topic of research interests in health and transportation economics in recent years due to the ageing of the baby boomers. This study adds to the current knowledge by examining the marginal effects of changing the driver mix on injury crashes using data from the Canadian Province of Alberta between 1990 and 2004. Results from a Poisson regression model reveal that increasing the number of young and ageing drivers will result in an increase in the number of injury crashes whereas increasing the number of middle-aged drivers will result in a reduction. These results are in contrast to those obtained in a previous study on the marginal effects of changing the driver mix on fatal crashes in the Australian State of Queensland and some possible explanations for the differing results are provided.

  11. Increasing Awareness of Group Privilege with College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark-Rose, Rose M.; Lokken, Jayne M.; Zarghami, Fatemeh

    2009-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted with 850 participants in 36 different classes including Child and Family Studies, Human Relations, Aviation, and Community Studies in a university in the Midwest. The study conducted was based on a simulated discrimination exercise to increase awareness of group privilege and preferential treatment among college…

  12. Methamphetamine increases basal ganglia iron to levels observed in aging.

    PubMed

    Melega, William P; Laćan, Goran; Harvey, Dennis C; Way, Baldwin M

    2007-10-29

    Increases in basal ganglia iron are well documented for neurodegenerative diseases but have not been associated with methamphetamine (METH). In this study, vervet monkeys that received two doses of METH (2 mg/kg, intramuscularly, 6 h apart) showed at 1 month, iron increases in substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus, with concurrent increases of ferritin-immunoreactivity and decreases of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity in substantia nigra. At 1.5 years, substantia nigra tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity had recovered while iron and ferritin-immunoreactivity increases persisted. Globus pallidus and substantia nigra iron levels of the adult METH-exposed animals (age 5-9 years) were now comparable with those of drug-naive, aged animals (19-22 years), suggesting an aging-related condition that might render those regions more vulnerable to oxidative stress.

  13. Age-group differences in inhibiting an oculomotor response.

    PubMed

    Gottlob, Lawrence R; Fillmore, Mark T; Abroms, Ben D

    2007-11-01

    Age-group differences were examined in the delayed oculomotor response task, which requires that observers delay the execution of a saccade (eye movement) toward an abrupt-onset visual cue. This task differs from antisaccade and attentional capture in that inhibition causes saccades to be postponed, not redirected. Older adults executed more premature saccades than young adults, but there were no age-group differences in latency or accuracy of saccades executed at the proper time. The results suggest that older adults are less capable of inhibiting a prepotent saccadic response, but that other aspects of visual working memory related to the task are preserved.

  14. Performance trends in age group breaststroke swimmers in the FINA World Championships 1986-2014.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2016-10-31

    Performance trends in breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level in pool competitions are well investigated for elite swimmers, but not for age group swimmers. This study investigated trends in participation, performance and sex difference in performance in a total of 35,143 (16,160 women and 18,983 men) age group breaststroke swimmers aged 25-29 to 95-99 years competing in the Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) World Masters Championships between 1986 and 2014. Trends in participation were analysed using linear regression analyses and trends in performance were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses with sex, distance and calendar year as fixed variables. Women and men improved performance in all age groups. For age groups 25-29 to 85-89 years, men were faster than women. For age groups 90-94 to 95-99 years, men were not faster than women. Sex and distance showed a significant interaction for all distances in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years. In 50 m, women reduced the gap to men in age groups 40-44 to 70-74 years and in 100 m and 200 m, women reduced the gap in age groups 50-54 to 60-64 years. In summary, (i) women and men improved performance in all race distances and in all age groups, (ii) men were faster than women from 25 to 89 years, but not from 90 to 99 years, and (iii), women reduced the gap to men between ~40 and ~75 years, but not in younger (<40 years) or older (>75 years) age groups. Based on these findings for a time period of nearly 30 years, we may assume a further increase in participation and a further improvement in performance in the near future in age group breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level.

  15. Aging increases CCN1 expression leading to muscle senescence.

    PubMed

    Du, Jie; Klein, Janet D; Hassounah, Faten; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Cong; Wang, Xiaonan H

    2014-01-01

    Using microarray analysis, we found that aging sarcopenia is associated with a sharp increase in the mRNA of the matricellular protein CCN1 (Cyr61/CTGF/Nov). CCN1 mRNA was upregulated 113-fold in muscle of aged vs. young rats. CCN1 protein was increased in aging muscle in both rats (2.8-fold) and mice (3.8-fold). When muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) were treated with recombinant CCN1, cell proliferation was decreased but there was no change in the myogenic marker myoD. However, the CCN1-treated MPCs did express a senescence marker (SA-βgal). Interestingly, we found CCN1 increased p53, p16(Ink4A), and pRP (hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma protein) protein levels, all of which can arrest cell growth in MPCs. When MPCs were treated with aged rodent serum CCN1 mRNA increased by sevenfold and protein increased by threefold suggesting the presence of a circulating regulator. Therefore, we looked for a circulating regulator. Wnt-3a, a stimulator of CCN1 expression, was increased in serum from elderly humans (2.6-fold) and aged rodents (2.0-fold) compared with young controls. We transduced C2C12 myoblasts with wnt-3a and found that CCN1 protein was increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We conclude that in aging muscle, the circulating factor wnt-3a acts to increase CCN1 expression, prompting muscle senescence by activating cell arrest proteins.

  16. Age-related hearing loss increases cross-modal distractibility.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Sandmann, Pascale; Bendixen, Alexandra; Thiel, Christiane M

    2014-10-01

    Recent electrophysiological studies have provided evidence that changes in multisensory processing in auditory cortex cannot only be observed following extensive hearing loss, but also in moderately hearing-impaired subjects. How the reduced auditory input affects audio-visual interactions is however largely unknown. Here we used a cross-modal distraction paradigm to investigate multisensory processing in elderly participants with an age-related high-frequency hearing loss as compared to young and elderly subjects with normal hearing. During the experiment, participants were simultaneously presented with independent streams of auditory and visual input and were asked to categorize either the auditory or visual information while ignoring the other modality. Unisensory sequences without any cross-modal input served as control conditions to assure that all participants were able to perform the task. While all groups performed similarly in these unisensory conditions, hearing-impaired participants showed significantly increased error rates when confronted with distracting cross-modal stimulation. This effect could be observed in both the auditory and the visual task. Supporting these findings, an additional regression analysis indicted that the degree of high-frequency hearing loss significantly modulates cross-modal visual distractibility in the auditory task. These findings provide new evidence that already a moderate sub-clinical hearing loss, a common phenomenon in the elderly population, affects the processing of audio-visual information.

  17. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention.

  18. Increasing efficiency of preclinical research by group sequential designs.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Konrad; Grittner, Ulrike; Piper, Sophie K; Rex, Andre; Florez-Vargas, Oscar; Karystianis, George; Schneider, Alice; Wellwood, Ian; Siegerink, Bob; Ioannidis, John P A; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    Despite the potential benefits of sequential designs, studies evaluating treatments or experimental manipulations in preclinical experimental biomedicine almost exclusively use classical block designs. Our aim with this article is to bring the existing methodology of group sequential designs to the attention of researchers in the preclinical field and to clearly illustrate its potential utility. Group sequential designs can offer higher efficiency than traditional methods and are increasingly used in clinical trials. Using simulation of data, we demonstrate that group sequential designs have the potential to improve the efficiency of experimental studies, even when sample sizes are very small, as is currently prevalent in preclinical experimental biomedicine. When simulating data with a large effect size of d = 1 and a sample size of n = 18 per group, sequential frequentist analysis consumes in the long run only around 80% of the planned number of experimental units. In larger trials (n = 36 per group), additional stopping rules for futility lead to the saving of resources of up to 30% compared to block designs. We argue that these savings should be invested to increase sample sizes and hence power, since the currently underpowered experiments in preclinical biomedicine are a major threat to the value and predictiveness in this research domain.

  19. Increasing efficiency of preclinical research by group sequential designs

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Sophie K.; Rex, Andre; Florez-Vargas, Oscar; Karystianis, George; Schneider, Alice; Wellwood, Ian; Siegerink, Bob; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of sequential designs, studies evaluating treatments or experimental manipulations in preclinical experimental biomedicine almost exclusively use classical block designs. Our aim with this article is to bring the existing methodology of group sequential designs to the attention of researchers in the preclinical field and to clearly illustrate its potential utility. Group sequential designs can offer higher efficiency than traditional methods and are increasingly used in clinical trials. Using simulation of data, we demonstrate that group sequential designs have the potential to improve the efficiency of experimental studies, even when sample sizes are very small, as is currently prevalent in preclinical experimental biomedicine. When simulating data with a large effect size of d = 1 and a sample size of n = 18 per group, sequential frequentist analysis consumes in the long run only around 80% of the planned number of experimental units. In larger trials (n = 36 per group), additional stopping rules for futility lead to the saving of resources of up to 30% compared to block designs. We argue that these savings should be invested to increase sample sizes and hence power, since the currently underpowered experiments in preclinical biomedicine are a major threat to the value and predictiveness in this research domain. PMID:28282371

  20. Menopausal age in various ethnic groups in Israel.

    PubMed

    Neri, A; Bider, D; Lidor, Y; Ovadia, J

    1982-12-01

    The effects of various parameters on age at menopause have been investigated in five ethnic groups in Israel comprising East European, West European, North African, Israeli and other Middle Eastern (Mediterranean) women, respectively. The data were acquired by means of anonymous questionnaires and were programmed for 1770 women. Correlation coefficients between various variables and age at menopause revealed three variables which have a straight correlation, vis. obesity index, number of children, and years of amenorrhoea (during the reproductive years). The years-of-smoking variable has an inverse correlation with age at menopause. East Europeans have the highest age at menarche. Two-way analysis of variance has shown that the obesity index, years of amenorrhoea, number of children and years-of-smoking parameters are individually more important than ethnic origin. The finding that the age at menopause is highest in the North African group is explained by the higher incidence in this group of high parity, a greater number of amenorrhoea, obesity, and low cigarette consumption. Since many habits (such as smoking, diet, use of contraceptive pills, multiple partners and marital obligations) are subject to frequent change in the modern world, it is of the utmost importance to repeat such a study every few years.

  1. Maximum Bite Force Analysis in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Patricia; Vieira, Marilena; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF) is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI), using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo), and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil), on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups. PMID:25992105

  2. An Adolescent Age Group Approach to Examining Youth Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…

  3. Youth Assets and Delayed Coitarche across Developmental Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that assets are associated with youth abstinence, but whether these relationships are constant across developmental age groups has not been shown. Data for this study were obtained from two independent datasets collected across a 2-year period using in-person, in-home interviews of youth (52% female; 44% Caucasian,…

  4. Increases in Cognitive and Linguistic Processing Primarily Account for Increases in Speaking Rate with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 ("N" = 7), 7 ("N" = 10), 10…

  5. Vestibular Perceptual Thresholds Increase above the Age of 40

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez Rey, María Carolina; Clark, Torin K.; Wang, Wei; Leeder, Tania; Bian, Yong; Merfeld, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    We measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in 105 healthy humans (54F/51M) ranging from 18 to 80 years of age. Direction-recognition thresholds were measured using standard methods. The motion consisted of single cycles of sinusoidal acceleration at 0.2 Hz for roll tilt and 1.0 Hz for yaw rotation about an earth-vertical axis, inter-aural earth-horizontal translation (y-translation), inferior–superior earth-vertical translation (z-translation), and roll tilt. A large subset of this population (99 of 105) also performed a modified Romberg test of standing balance. Despite the relatively large population (54F/51M), we found no difference between thresholds of male and female subjects. After pooling across sex, we found that thresholds increased above the age of 40 for all five motion directions investigated. The data were best modeled by a two-segment age model that yielded a constant baseline below an age cutoff of about 40 and a threshold increase above the age cutoff. For all subjects who passed all conditions of the balance test, the baseline thresholds were 0.97°/s for yaw rotation, 0.66°/s for 1-Hz roll tilt, 0.35°/s for 0.2-Hz roll tilt, 0.58 cm/s for y-translation, and 1.24 cm/s for z-translation. As a percentage of the baseline, the fitted slopes (indicating the threshold increase each decade above the age cutoff) were 83% for z-translation, 56% for 1-Hz roll tilt, 46% for y-translation, 32% for 0.2-Hz roll tilt, and 15% for yaw rotation. Even taking age and other factors into consideration, we found a significant correlation of balance test failures with increasing roll-tilt thresholds. PMID:27752252

  6. Vestibular Perceptual Thresholds Increase above the Age of 40.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez Rey, María Carolina; Clark, Torin K; Wang, Wei; Leeder, Tania; Bian, Yong; Merfeld, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    We measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in 105 healthy humans (54F/51M) ranging from 18 to 80 years of age. Direction-recognition thresholds were measured using standard methods. The motion consisted of single cycles of sinusoidal acceleration at 0.2 Hz for roll tilt and 1.0 Hz for yaw rotation about an earth-vertical axis, inter-aural earth-horizontal translation (y-translation), inferior-superior earth-vertical translation (z-translation), and roll tilt. A large subset of this population (99 of 105) also performed a modified Romberg test of standing balance. Despite the relatively large population (54F/51M), we found no difference between thresholds of male and female subjects. After pooling across sex, we found that thresholds increased above the age of 40 for all five motion directions investigated. The data were best modeled by a two-segment age model that yielded a constant baseline below an age cutoff of about 40 and a threshold increase above the age cutoff. For all subjects who passed all conditions of the balance test, the baseline thresholds were 0.97°/s for yaw rotation, 0.66°/s for 1-Hz roll tilt, 0.35°/s for 0.2-Hz roll tilt, 0.58 cm/s for y-translation, and 1.24 cm/s for z-translation. As a percentage of the baseline, the fitted slopes (indicating the threshold increase each decade above the age cutoff) were 83% for z-translation, 56% for 1-Hz roll tilt, 46% for y-translation, 32% for 0.2-Hz roll tilt, and 15% for yaw rotation. Even taking age and other factors into consideration, we found a significant correlation of balance test failures with increasing roll-tilt thresholds.

  7. Increased mobilization of aged carbon to rivers by human disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butman, David E.; Wilson, Henry F.; Barnes, Rebecca T.; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A.; Raymond, Peter A.

    2015-02-01

    Approximately 8% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are estimated to come from land-use change, but this estimate excludes fluxes of terrestrial carbon to aquatic ecosystems from human disturbance. Carbon fluxes from land to rivers have probably increased by 0.1 to 0.2 petagrams of carbon per year as a result of disturbances such as deforestation, agricultural intensification and the injection of human wastewater. Most dissolved organic carbon in rivers originates from young organic carbon from soils and vegetation, but aged carbon removed from the modern carbon cycle is also exported in many systems. Here we analyse a global data set of radiocarbon ages of riverine dissolved organic carbon and spatial data on land cover, population and environmental variables. We find that the age of dissolved organic carbon in rivers increases with population density and the proportion of human-dominated landscapes within a watershed, and decreases with annual precipitation. We reason that disturbance reintroduces aged soil organic matter into the modern carbon cycle, although fossil carbon in fertilizer or petroleum products may also be a source of aged carbon in disturbed watersheds. The total export from the terrestrial environment to freshwater systems remains unknown; nevertheless, our results suggest that 3-9% of dissolved organic carbon in rivers is aged carbon mobilized by human disturbance.

  8. Increases in cognitive and linguistic processing primarily account for increases in speaking rate with age.

    PubMed

    Nip, Ignatius S B; Green, Jordan R

    2013-01-01

    Age-related increases of speaking rate are not fully understood, but have been attributed to gains in biologic factors and learned skills that support speech production. This study investigated developmental changes in speaking rate and articulatory kinematics of participants aged 4 (N = 7), 7 (N = 10), 10 (N = 9), 13 (N = 7), 16 (N = 9) years, and young adults (N = 11) in speaking tasks varying in task demands. Speaking rate increased with age, with decreases in pauses and articulator displacements but not increases in articulator movement speed. Movement speed did not appear to constrain the speaking. Rather, age-related increases in speaking rate are due to gains in cognitive and linguistic processing and speech motor control.

  9. Delirium in the elderly: Current problems with increasing geriatric age.

    PubMed

    Kukreja, Deepti; Günther, Ulf; Popp, Julius

    2015-12-01

    Delirium is an acute disorder of attention and cognition seen relatively commonly in people aged 65 yr or older. The prevalence is estimated to be between 11 and 42 per cent for elderly patients on medical wards. The prevalence is also high in nursing homes and long term care (LTC) facilities. The consequences of delirium could be significant such as an increase in mortality in the hospital, long-term cognitive decline, loss of autonomy and increased risk to be institutionalized. Despite being a common condition, it remains under-recognised, poorly understood and not adequately managed. Advanced age and dementia are the most important risk factors. Pain, dehydration, infections, stroke and metabolic disturbances, and surgery are the most common triggering factors. Delirium is preventable in a large proportion of cases and therefore, it is also important from a public health perspective for interventions to reduce further complications and the substantial costs associated with these. Since the aetiology is, in most cases, multifactorial, it is important to consider a multi-component approach to management, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Detection and treatment of triggering causes must have high priority in case of delirium. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of delirium in the elderly population, given the increasing numbers of ageing people as well as increasing geriatric age.

  10. Increased NGF proforms in aged sympathetic neurons and their targets.

    PubMed

    Bierl, Michael A; Isaacson, Lori G

    2007-01-01

    Target-derived neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) regulate sympathetic neuron survival. Here, NGF and NT-3 protein and transcript were examined in sympathetic neurons and targets in order to determine their role in age-related neuronal atrophy. One obvious alteration was a dramatic increase (up to 50-fold) in NGF protein forms, corresponding to proNGF-B, in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) and targets where sympathetic innervation shows atrophy. In the iris, where sympathetic innervation is protected into old age, proNGF-B was decreased. Alterations in NGF transcript paralleled changes in NGF protein, albeit to a lesser degree. Though significantly increased in aged SCG, NT-3 protein, found primarily as the 'mature' form, showed only minor changes in most tissues, though NT-3 mRNA generally was decreased. In contrast, both NT-3 transcript and NT-3 precursors were increased in iris. The dramatic increases in proNGF, together with minimal changes in NT-3, suggest that alterations in NGF regulation may contribute to the loss of sympathetic innervation observed in many aged peripheral targets.

  11. Coupling of Temperament with Mental Illness in Four Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament.

  12. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong-Liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-Jun; Wang, Yu-Long; Ji, Qing-Hai

    2016-06-08

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were built to analyze the outcomes and risk factors. Increasing age gradient with a 10-year interval was associated with the trend of higher proportions for male gender, grade III/IV and summary stage of distant metastases. Both CSS and OS continued to worsen with increasing age, being poorest in in the oldest age group (≥71); multivariate analysis confirmed that CSS continued to fall with each age decade, significantly starting at 60 years (HR = 7.5, 95% 1.0-54.1, p = 0.047) compared to the young group (≤20). Similarly, multivariate analysis suggested that OS continued worsening with increasing age, but starting at 40 years (HR = 3.7, 95% 1.4-10.1, p = 0.009) compared to the young group. The current study suggests that an age exceeding 60 years itself represents an unfavorable prognostic factor and high risk for cancer-specific death in DTC.

  13. Cost analysis can help a group practice increase revenues.

    PubMed

    Migliore, Sherry

    2002-02-01

    Undertaking a cost analysis to determine the cost of providing specific services can help group practices negotiate increased payment and identify areas for cost reduction. An OB/GYN practice in Pennsylvania undertook a cost analysis using the resource-based relative value system. Using data from the cost analysis, the practice was able to negotiate increased payment for some of its services. The practice also was able to target some of its fixed costs for reduction. Another result of the analysis was that the practice was able to focus marketing efforts on some of its most profitable, elective services, thereby increasing revenues. In addition, the practice was able to reduce the provision of unprofitable services.

  14. Age-Associated Increase in BMP Signaling Inhibits Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Hanadie; Morgenthaler, Adam; Schlesinger, Christina; Bugaj, Lukasz; Conboy, Irina M; Schaffer, David V

    2015-05-01

    Hippocampal neurogenesis, the product of resident neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation, persists into adulthood but decreases with organismal aging, which may contribute to the age-related decline in cognitive function. The mechanisms that underlie this decrease in neurogenesis are not well understood, although evidence in general indicates that extrinsic changes in an aged stem cell niche can contribute to functional decline in old stem cells. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family members are intercellular signaling proteins that regulate stem and progenitor cell quiescence, proliferation, and differentiation in various tissues and are likewise critical regulators of neurogenesis in young adults. Here, we establish that BMP signaling increases significantly in old murine hippocampi and inhibits neural progenitor cell proliferation. Furthermore, direct in vivo attenuation of BMP signaling via genetic and transgenic perturbations in aged mice led to elevated neural stem cell proliferation, and subsequent neurogenesis, in old hippocampi. Such advances in our understanding of mechanisms underlying decreased hippocampal neurogenesis with age may offer targets for the treatment of age-related cognitive decline.

  15. CKD increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin; Iyengar, Sudha K; Wang, Jie Jin

    2008-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the United States and often coexists with chronic kidney disease. Both conditions share common genetic and environmental risk factors. A total of 1183 participants aged 54+ were examined in the population-based, prospective cohort Blue Mountains Eye Study (Australia) to determine if chronic kidney disease increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Moderate chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) based on the Cockcroft-Gault equation) was present in 24% of the population (286 of 1183). The 5-yr incidence of early age-related macular degeneration was 3.9% in participants with no/mild chronic kidney disease (35 of 897) and 17.5% in those with moderate chronic kidney disease (50 of 286). After adjusting for age, sex, cigarette smoking, hypertension, complement factor H polymorphism, and other risk factors, persons with moderate chronic kidney disease were 3 times more likely to develop early age-related macular degeneration than persons with no/mild chronic kidney disease (odds ratio = 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 5.7, P < 0.0001). Each SD (14.8 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) decrease in Cockcroft-Gault estimated glomerular filtration rate was associated with a doubling of the adjusted risk for early age-related macular degeneration (odds ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 2.8, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, persons with chronic kidney disease have a higher risk of early age-related macular degeneration, suggesting the possibility of shared pathophysiologic mechanisms between the two conditions.

  16. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  17. Reliability of Tethered Swimming Evaluation in Age Group Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Nuno; Marinho, Daniel A; Batalha, Nuno; Marques, Mário C; Morouço, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability of tethered swimming in the evaluation of age group swimmers. The sample was composed of 8 male national level swimmers with at least 4 years of experience in competitive swimming. Each swimmer performed two 30 second maximal intensity tethered swimming tests, on separate days. Individual force-time curves were registered to assess maximum force, mean force and the mean impulse of force. Both consistency and reliability were very strong, with Cronbach’s Alpha values ranging from 0.970 to 0.995. All the applied metrics presented a very high agreement between tests, with the mean impulse of force presenting the highest. These results indicate that tethered swimming can be used to evaluate age group swimmers. Furthermore, better comprehension of the swimmers ability to effectively exert force in the water can be obtained using the impulse of force. PMID:25114742

  18. Learning science in small multi-age groups: the role of age composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-06-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by pre-primary children aged 4-6. The second part included one primary class attended by students aged 6-8 in addition to the pre-primary classes. Students were involved in inquiry-based science activities. Two sources of data were used: Lesson recordings and children's assessments. The data from both sources were separately analyzed and the findings plotted. The resulting graphs indicate a linear relationship between the overall performance of the younger children in a class and the number of older ones participating in the groups in each class. It seems that the age composition of the groups can significantly affect the overall cognitive achievements of the younger children and preferentially determines the time within which this factor reaches its maximum value. The findings can be utilized in deciding the age composition of small groups in a class with the aim of facilitating the younger children's learning in science.

  19. A ketogenic diet increases succinic dehydrogenase activity in aging cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Balietti, Marta; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Giorgetti, Belinda; Casoli, Tiziana; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Solazzi, Moreno; Platano, Daniela; Aicardi, Giorgio; Bertoni-Freddari, Carlo

    2009-08-01

    Impairment of energy metabolism and an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production seem to play a major role in age-related apoptotic loss of cardiomyocytes. Succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) is an important marker of the mitochondrial capability to provide an adequate amount of ATP. Moreover, because of its unique redox properties, SDH activity contributes to maintain the reduced state of the ubiquinone pool. Recent reports have shown that ketone body intake improves cardiac metabolic efficiency and exerts a cardioprotective antioxidant action, we therefore performed a cytochemical investigation of SDH activity in cardiomyocytes of late-adult (19-month-old) rats fed for 8 weeks with a medium-chain triglycerides ketogenic diet (MCT-KD). Young, age-matched and old animals fed with a standard chow were used as controls. The overall area of the precipitates (PA) from SDH activity and the area of the SDH-positive mitochondria (MA) were measured. The percent ratios PA/MA and MA/total myocardial tissue area (MA/TA) were the parameters taken into account. We found that PA/MA was significantly higher in young control rats and in MCT-KD-fed rats versus late-adult and old control rats and in young control versus MCT-KD-fed rats. MA/TA of MCT-KD-fed rats was significantly higher versus age-matched and old control rats and tended to be higher versus young control rats; this parameter was significantly higher in young versus old control rats. Thus, MCT-KD intake partially recovers age-related decrease of SDH activity and increases the myocardial area occupied by metabolically active mitochondria. These effects might counteract metabolic alterations leading to apoptosis-induced myocardial atrophy and failure during aging.

  20. A developmental increase in allostatic load from ages 3 to 11 years is associated with increased schizotypal personality at age 23 years.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Melissa; Raine, Adrian; Gao, Yu; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2011-11-01

    Although allostatic load has been investigated in mood and anxiety disorders, no prior study has investigated developmental change in allostatic load as a precursor to schizotypal personality. This study employed a multilevel developmental framework to examine whether the development of increased allostatic load, as indicated by impaired sympathetic nervous system habituation from ages 3 to 11 years, predisposes to schizotypal personality at age 23 years. Electrodermal activity to six aversive tones was recorded in 995 subjects at age 3 years and again at 11 years. Habituation slopes at both ages were used to create groups who showed a developmental increase in habituation (decreased allostatic load), and those who showed a developmental decrease in habituation (increased allostatic load). Children who showed a developmental increase in allostatic load from ages 3 to 11 years had higher levels of schizotypal personality at 23 years. A breakdown of total schizotypy scores demonstrated specificity of findings to cognitive-perceptual features of schizotypy. Findings are the first to document a developmental abnormality in allostasis in relation to adult schizotypal personality. The relative failure to develop normal habituation to repeated stressors throughout childhood is hypothesized to result in an accumulation of allostatic load and consequently increased positive symptom schizotypy in adulthood.

  1. Hypermaintenance and hypofunction of aged spermatogonia: insight from age-related increase of Plzf expression.

    PubMed

    Ferder, Ianina C; Wang, Ning

    2015-06-30

    Like stem cells in other tissues, spermatogonia, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) at the foundation of differentiation hierarchy, undergo age-related decline in function. The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (Plzf) protein plays an essential role in spermatogonia maintenance by preventing their differentiation. To evaluate whether there is an age-related change in Plzf expression, we found that aged mouse testes exhibited a robust "Plzf overexpression" phenotype, in that they showed not only a higher frequency of Plzf-expressing cells but also an increased level of Plzf expression in these cells. Moreover, some Plzf-expressing cells in aged testes even aberrantly appeared in the differentiating spermatogonia compartment, which is usually low or negative for Plzf expression. Importantly, ectopic Plzf expression in F9 cells suppressed retinoic acid (RA)-induced Stra8 activation, a gene required for meiosis initiation. These data, together with our observation of a lack of meiosis-initiating spermatocytes associated with high Plzf-expressing spermatogonia in the aged testes, particularly in the degenerative seminiferous tubules, suggest that age-related increase in Plzf expression represents a novel molecular signature of spermatogonia aging by functionally arresting their differentiation.

  2. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  3. Diabetes technology and treatments in the paediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Shalitin, S; Peter Chase, H

    2011-02-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases and its incidence has doubled during the last decade. The goals of intensive management of diabetes were established in 1993 by the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) (1). Children with T1D and their caregivers continue to face the challenge to maintain blood glucose levels in the near-normal range. It is important to prevent sustained hyperglycaemia which is associated with long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications and to avoid recurrent episodes of hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia, especially in young children, which may have adverse effects on cognitive function and impede efforts to achieve the recommended glycaemic targets. Advances in the use of technology that may help maintain the metabolic control goals for young people with T1D were centred on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) (2-4), continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) (5-7), and combining both technologies into a closed-loop system (8-10). The dilemma in paediatrics of patient selection for insulin pump therapy was found to be most successful in those with more frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and younger age prior to pump initiation (2). Similarly, those who used a dual-wave bolus probably paid closer attention to their management and had lower HbA1c levels (3). The advantage of using a pre-meal bolus to improve postprandial glucose levels was shown to offer another potential method to improve glycaemic control (4). SMBG is an important component of therapy in patients with diabetes, especially in the paediatric age group. Standard use of glucose meters for SMBG provides only intermittent single blood glucose levels, without giving the 'whole picture' of glucose variability during the 24 h, and especially during the night, when blood glucose levels are seldom measured. Therefore, the use of a device such as real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) that provides

  4. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  5. Are age-based strategies effective in increasing influenza vaccination coverage?: the Spanish experience.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Herńndez-Barrera, Valentín; Rodríguez-Rieiro, Cristina; de Andrés, Ana López; Miguel-Diez, Javier de; Trujillo, Isabel Jimenez; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of applying age-based strategies to improve influenza vaccination coverage in Spain. We described and compared influenza vaccination coverage from 2003 to 2010 between those Spanish autonomous regions (AR) that lowered the age limit to 60 y and those regions that maintained the limit at 65 y. We used data collected from two surveys covering a representative sample of the Spanish population aged ≥ 16 y [Spanish National Health Survey (SNHS) 2003/2004 and the European Health Survey for Spain (EHSS) 2009/2010]. The study population (persons aged ≥ 60 y) comprised 7,496 persons in the SNHS and 7,686 in the EHSS. In 2010, those AR which had reduced the age limit had higher coverage for all age groups analyzed-regardless of the presence of associated chronic conditions-than AR which continued vaccination for those ≥ 65 y. The greatest differences appeared in individuals aged 60 to 64 y (36.9% vs. 24.4% for individuals without chronic conditions, 59.1% vs. 52.9% for those with chronic conditions, and 43.3% vs. 32.3% for the entire age group). Multivariate analysis showed that those AR which lowered the age limit increased total coverage for all age groups, specifically among individuals with chronic conditions aged 60 to 64 y (IRR 1.18; 95% CI, 1.01-1.54) and ≥ 65 y (IRR 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00-1.14). No significant changes were observed over time for the AR that continued vaccinating people aged ≥ 65 y. Our results suggest that age-based strategies are effective for improving influenza vaccination coverage in Spain.

  6. Increasing Social Presence in Online Learning through Small Group Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcaoglu, Mete; Lee, Eunbae

    2016-01-01

    Social presence is difficult to achieve, but an imperative component of online learning. In this study, we investigated the effect of group size on students' perceptions of social presence in two graduate-level online courses, comparing small group versus whole class discussions. Our results indicated that when in small group discussions, students…

  7. Annual age-grouping and athlete development: a meta-analytical review of relative age effects in sport.

    PubMed

    Cobley, Stephen; Baker, Joseph; Wattie, Nick; McKenna, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Annual age-grouping is a common organizational strategy in sport. However, such a strategy appears to promote relative age effects (RAEs). RAEs refer both to the immediate participation and long-term attainment constraints in sport, occurring as a result of chronological age and associated physical (e.g. height) differences as well as selection practices in annual age-grouped cohorts. This article represents the first meta-analytical review of RAEs, aimed to collectively determine (i) the overall prevalence and strength of RAEs across and within sports, and (ii) identify moderator variables. A total of 38 studies, spanning 1984-2007, containing 253 independent samples across 14 sports and 16 countries were re-examined and included in a single analysis using odds ratios and random effects procedures for combining study estimates. Overall results identified consistent prevalence of RAEs, but with small effect sizes. Effect size increased linearly with relative age differences. Follow-up analyses identified age category, skill level and sport context as moderators of RAE magnitude. Sports context involving adolescent (aged 15-18 years) males, at the representative (i.e. regional and national) level in highly popular sports appear most at risk to RAE inequalities. Researchers need to understand the mechanisms by which RAEs magnify and subside, as well as confirm whether RAEs exist in female and more culturally diverse contexts. To reduce and eliminate this social inequality from influencing athletes' experiences, especially within developmental periods, direct policy, organizational and practitioner intervention is required.

  8. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated.

  9. Climate control of decadal-scale increases in apparent ages of eogenetic karst spring water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Kurz, Marie J.; Khadka, Mitra B.

    2016-09-01

    Water quantity and quality in karst aquifers may depend on decadal-scale variations in recharge or withdrawal, which we hypothesize could be assessed through time-series measurements of apparent ages of spring water. We tested this hypothesis with analyses of various age tracers (3H/3He, SF6, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and selected solute concentrations [dissolved oxygen (DO), NO3, Mg, and SO4] from 6 springs in a single spring complex (Ichetucknee springs) in northern Florida over a 16-yr period. These springs fall into two groups that reflect shallow short (Group 1) and deep long (Group 2) flow paths. Some tracer concentrations are altered, with CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations yielding the most robust apparent ages. These tracers show a 10-20-yr monotonic increase in apparent age from 1997 to 2013, including the flood recession that followed Tropical Storm Debby in mid-2012. This increase in age indicates most water discharged during the study period recharged the aquifer within a few years of 1973 for Group 2 springs and 1980 for Group 1 springs. Inverse correlations between apparent age and DO and NO3 concentrations reflect reduced redox state in older water. Positive correlations between apparent age and Mg and SO4 concentrations reflect increased water-rock reactions. Concentrated recharge in the decade around 1975 resulted from nearly 2 m of rain in excess of the monthly average that fell between 1960 and 2014, followed by a nearly 4 m deficit to 2014. This excess rain coincided with two major El Niño events during the maximum cool phase in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Although regional water withdrawal increased nearly 5-fold between 1980 and 2005, withdrawals represent only 2-5% of Ichetucknee River flow and are less important than decadal-long variations in precipitation. These results suggest that groundwater management should consider climate cycles as predictive tools for future water resources.

  10. Increased Exploration Capacity Promotes Group Fission in Gregarious Foraging Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Lardy, Sophie; Fortin, Daniel; Pays, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Many gregarious species display rapid fission-fusion dynamics with individuals frequently leaving their groups to reunite or to form new ones soon after. The adaptive value of such ephemeral associations might reflect a frequent tilt in the balance between the costs and benefits of maintaining group cohesion. The lack of information on the short-term advantages of group fission, however, hampers our understanding of group dynamics. We investigated the effect of group fission on area-restricted search, a search tactic that is commonly used when food distribution is spatially autocorrelated. Specifically, we determine if roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) improve key aspects of their extensive search mode immediately after fission. We found that groups indeed moved faster and farther over time immediately after than before fission. This gain was highest for the smallest group that resulted from fission, which was more likely to include the fission’s initiator. Sex of group members further mediated the immediate gain in search capacity, as post-fission groups moved away at farthest rate when they were only comprised of males. Our study suggests that social conflicts during the extensive search mode can promote group fission and, as such, can be a key determinant of group fission-fusion dynamics that are commonly observed in gregarious herbivores. PMID:27907143

  11. Increased Exploration Capacity Promotes Group Fission in Gregarious Foraging Herbivores.

    PubMed

    Lardy, Sophie; Fortin, Daniel; Pays, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Many gregarious species display rapid fission-fusion dynamics with individuals frequently leaving their groups to reunite or to form new ones soon after. The adaptive value of such ephemeral associations might reflect a frequent tilt in the balance between the costs and benefits of maintaining group cohesion. The lack of information on the short-term advantages of group fission, however, hampers our understanding of group dynamics. We investigated the effect of group fission on area-restricted search, a search tactic that is commonly used when food distribution is spatially autocorrelated. Specifically, we determine if roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) improve key aspects of their extensive search mode immediately after fission. We found that groups indeed moved faster and farther over time immediately after than before fission. This gain was highest for the smallest group that resulted from fission, which was more likely to include the fission's initiator. Sex of group members further mediated the immediate gain in search capacity, as post-fission groups moved away at farthest rate when they were only comprised of males. Our study suggests that social conflicts during the extensive search mode can promote group fission and, as such, can be a key determinant of group fission-fusion dynamics that are commonly observed in gregarious herbivores.

  12. Non-fatal self-poisoning across age groups, in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning in common in Sri Lanka, but little is known about variation of psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent across differing ages. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka across three different age groups (namely 14-24 years, 25-34 years and ≥ 35 years). It was anticipated that the findings of the study would inform and guide development of preventive interventions for non-fatal self-poisoning in this country. 935 participants were interviewed within one week of admission to hospital for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning, over a consecutive 14-month period. Socio-demographic factors, types of poison ingested, triggers and psychiatric morbidity was examined as a function of age. Results showed that a majority (83%) of participants were aged below 35 years. Younger participants aged <25 years were significantly more likely to ingest medicinal overdoses, compared to older persons (aged 25-34 years, and ≥ 35 years), who were more likely to ingest pesticides. Recent interpersonal conflict was a proximal trigger seen in all age groups, but suicidal intent, depression and alcohol use disorders increased with age. The overall study findings indicate that most who carry out acts of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka are young (aged <35 years). Interpersonal conflict as a trigger is common to all age groups, but psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent is higher in the older age groups, as is pesticide ingestion. Age specific interventions may be efficacious in the prevention of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka.

  13. Differentiated effects of social participation components on suicidal ideation across age groups in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide among adults in the Korean population merits study to improve the understanding of the salient risk and protective factors because suicide rates in Korea have increased dramatically over the past 20 years. However, the association between social participation and suicidal ideation is poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to identify the components of social participation in Korean society and to examine the processes through which the components of social participation influence the degree of suicidal ideation people experience across age groups. Methods This study used survey data from the 2010 Seoul Welfare Panel Study. The sample population was restricted to adults aged 20 or older and was categorised into three groups by respondents’ ages. The groups were defined as 'young adults’ (aged 20–39), 'middle-aged adults’ (aged 40–64) and 'the elderly’ (age 65 or more). Three dimensions of social participation were identified by factor analysis – friendship network and hobby group, religious involvement, and instrumental social participation. Results In the young adult group, only instrumental participation was statistically significant (-0.10, p = 0.06). In the middle-aged adult group, only friendship network and hobby group had a strong association with suicidal ideation (-0.11, p = 0.01). Interestingly, for the elderly, religious involvement was related to suicidal ideation, but in a positive way (0.26, p = 0.02). Conclusion The study results supported the theory that different components of social participation are associated with a lower risk of suicidal ideation in different stages of adulthood. PMID:24067075

  14. Scurvy in pediatric age group – A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009–2014) with search terms “scurvy” “vitamin C deficiency” “ascorbic acid deficiency” “scurvy and children” “scurvy and pediatric age group”. There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  15. Population Analysis of Adverse Events in Different Age Groups Using Big Clinical Trials Data

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Christina; Cho, Chi C; Cisler, Ron A

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding adverse event patterns in clinical studies across populations is important for patient safety and protection in clinical trials as well as for developing appropriate drug therapies, procedures, and treatment plans. Objectives The objective of our study was to conduct a data-driven population-based analysis to estimate the incidence, diversity, and association patterns of adverse events by age of the clinical trials patients and participants. Methods Two aspects of adverse event patterns were measured: (1) the adverse event incidence rate in each of the patient age groups and (2) the diversity of adverse events defined as distinct types of adverse events categorized by organ system. Statistical analysis was done on the summarized clinical trial data. The incident rate and diversity level in each of the age groups were compared with the lowest group (reference group) using t tests. Cohort data was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov, and 186,339 clinical studies were analyzed; data were extracted from the 17,853 clinical trials that reported clinical outcomes. The total number of clinical trial participants was 6,808,619, and total number of participants affected by adverse events in these trials was 1,840,432. The trial participants were divided into eight different age groups to support cross-age group comparison. Results In general, children and older patients are more susceptible to adverse events in clinical trial studies. Using the lowest incidence age group as the reference group (20-29 years), the incidence rate of the 0-9 years-old group was 31.41%, approximately 1.51 times higher (P=.04) than the young adult group (20-29 years) at 20.76%. The second-highest group is the 50-59 years-old group with an incidence rate of 30.09%, significantly higher (P<.001) when compared with the lowest incidence in the 20-29 years-old group. The adverse event diversity also increased with increase in patient age. Clinical studies that recruited older

  16. Transient Elastography-Based Liver Stiffness Age-Dependently Increases in Children

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhara, Daisuke; Cho, Yuki; Shintaku, Haruo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Pediatric use of liver transient elastography (TE) is attractive for its non-invasiveness, but reference values have not been established. We aimed to determine reference values for TE in children. Methods In pediatric patients (1 to 18 years), TE (FibroScan®) with an M probe was used for both liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and measurement of hepatic fat deposition by using a controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). The patients were divided into three relevant age groups: preschoolers (1 to 5 years), elementary school children (6 to 11 years), and adolescents (12 to 18 years). Overweight or obese patients or those with known liver disease, elevated serum liver enzymes, or hepatic echogenic abnormality were excluded from the study. Results Among 139 children, 123 (88.5%; 62 male; median age, 11.7 years; age range, 1.3 to 17.2 years) were successfully subjected to M-probe TE without anesthesia. Median LSM increased with age: it was 3.4 kPa (2.3 to 4.6 kPa, 5th to 95th percentiles) at ages 1 to 5 years; 3.8 (2.5 to 6.1) kPa at ages 6 to 11; and 4.1 (3.3 to 7.9) kPa at ages 12 to 18 (P = 0.001). Median CAP was not age dependent: it was 183 (112 to 242) for ages 1 to 18 years. Conclusions M-probe TE is suitable in a wide age range of children from age 1 year up. In children without evidence of liver disease, LSM has an age-dependent increase, whereas CAP does not differ between ages 1 and 18. PMID:27861607

  17. Increasing the Athletic Group Play of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Catherine A.; Charlop, Marjorie H.

    2014-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across three children with autism and within child across activity was used to assess the effects of interventions designed to teach children with autism to play two common athletic group games, handball and 4-square. Treatment consisted of two phases. In Phase I, athletic skills training, the children participated in…

  18. Study: California Ethnic Groups Seeing Increased Cancer Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A statewide study on cancer and ethnicity hints that cancer rates among immigrant groups may be tied to their degree of assimilation into American culture. The study, released by the University of Southern California's Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, marks the first statewide look at cancer rates among Vietnamese and South Asians and provides…

  19. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in Great Britain, 1976-2005: age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J Q; Blakey, Karen; James, Peter W; Gomez Pozo, Basilio; Basta, Nermine O; Hale, Juliet

    2012-08-01

    Increases in the incidence of thyroid cancer have been previously reported. The purpose of the present study was to examine temporal trends in the incidence of primary thyroid cancer diagnosed in 0-49 year olds in parts of Great Britain during 1976-2005. Data on 4,337 cases of thyroid cancer were obtained from regional cancer registries. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) were calculated. Negative binomial regression was used to examine effects of age, sex, drift (linear trend), non-linear period and non-linear cohort. The best fitting negative binomial regression model included age (P < 0.001), sex (P < 0.001) and drift (P < 0.001). Non-linear period (P = 0.648) and non-linear cohort (P = 0.788) were not statistically significant. For males aged 0-14, the ASR increased from 0.2 per million persons per year in 1976-1986 to 0.6 in 1997-2005. For males aged 15-29 and 30-49 the ASRs increased from 1.9 to 3.3 and from 7.4 to 12.7, respectively. For females aged 0-14, the corresponding ASR increased from 0.3 to 0.5. For females aged 15-29 and 30-49 the ASRs increased from 6.9 to 12.4 and from 21.2 to 42.3, respectively. For all age groups, there has been a linear increase in incidence of thyroid cancer, which has led to a doubling of the number of cases diagnosed over a twenty year span. The reasons for this increase are not well understood, but it is consistent with findings from other countries.

  20. Alliance for aging research AD biomarkers work group: structural MRI.

    PubMed

    Jack, Clifford R

    2011-12-01

    Biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are increasingly important. All modern AD therapeutic trials employ AD biomarkers in some capacity. In addition, AD biomarkers are an essential component of recently updated diagnostic criteria for AD from the National Institute on Aging--Alzheimer's Association. Biomarkers serve as proxies for specific pathophysiological features of disease. The 5 most well established AD biomarkers include both brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measures--cerebrospinal fluid Abeta and tau, amyloid positron emission tomography (PET), fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This article reviews evidence supporting the position that MRI is a biomarker of neurodegenerative atrophy. Topics covered include methods of extracting quantitative and semiquantitative information from structural MRI; imaging-autopsy correlation; and evidence supporting diagnostic and prognostic value of MRI measures. Finally, the place of MRI in a hypothetical model of temporal ordering of AD biomarkers is reviewed.

  1. Effect of Age Group on Technical-Tactical Performance Profile of the Serve in Men's Volleyball.

    PubMed

    García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical-tactical performance profile of the serve for various age groups and categories of competition in men's volleyball. The sample comprised 13,262 serves performed by 986 players in 299 sets observed in various categories of competition (U-14, U-16, U-19, national senior, and international senior). An observational design was used. The variables studied were category of competition, type of execution, and serve performance. The results showed that for higher age groups (senior categories), there were significantly fewer jump serves and poorer serve performance, regardless of players' maturity and training development. The use of the jump serves increased the serve risk while attempting to hinder the organization of the opponent attack. This paper discusses the serve evolution and the implications on the training process at the different age groups in men's volleyball.

  2. Minimal Groups Increase Young Children's Motivation and Learning on Group-Relevant Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments ("N" = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the…

  3. Increasing influenza vaccination coverage in recommended population groups in Europe.

    PubMed

    Blank, Patricia R; Szucs, Thomas D

    2009-04-01

    The clinical and economic burden of seasonal influenza is frequently underestimated. The cornerstone of controlling and preventing influenza is vaccination. National and international guidelines aim to implement immunization programs and targeted vaccination-coverage rates, which should help to enhance the vaccine uptake, especially in the at-risk population. This review purposes to highlight the vaccination guidelines and the actual vaccination situation in four target groups (the elderly, people with underlying chronic conditions, healthcare workers and children) from a European point of view.

  4. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  5. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  6. Population biology of intestinal enterococcus isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Tedim, Ana P; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  7. Population Biology of Intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Individuals in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  8. Metabolomic profiling reveals severe skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of metabolism in aged FBN rats.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Sean M; Dugle, Janis E; Kennedy, Adam D; McDunn, Jonathan E; Kline, William; Guo, Lining; Guttridge, Denis C; Pereira, Suzette L; Edens, Neile K

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles exhibit age-related adaptive and pathological remodeling. Several muscles in particular undergo progressive atrophy and degeneration beyond median lifespan. To better understand myocellular responses to aging, we used semi-quantitative global metabolomic profiling to characterize trends in metabolic changes between 15-month-old adult and 32-month-old aged Fischer 344 × Brown Norway (FBN) male rats. The FBN rat gastrocnemius muscle exhibits age-dependent atrophy, whereas the soleus muscle, up until 32 months, exhibits markedly fewer signs of atrophy. Both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were analyzed, as well as plasma and urine. Compared to adult gastrocnemius, aged gastrocnemius showed evidence of reduced glycolytic metabolism, including accumulation of glycolytic, glycogenolytic, and pentose phosphate pathway intermediates. Pyruvate was elevated with age, yet levels of citrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide were reduced, consistent with mitochondrial abnormalities. Indicative of muscle atrophy, 3-methylhistidine and free amino acids were elevated in aged gastrocnemius. The monounsaturated fatty acids oleate, cis-vaccenate, and palmitoleate also increased in aged gastrocnemius, suggesting altered lipid metabolism. Compared to gastrocnemius, aged soleus exhibited far fewer changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but did show reductions in several glycolytic intermediates, fumarate, malate, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Plasma biochemicals showing the largest age-related increases included glycocholate, heme, 1,5-anhydroglucitol, 1-palmitoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine, palmitoleate, and creatine. These changes suggest reduced insulin sensitivity in aged FBN rats. Altogether, these data highlight skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of glucose and lipid metabolism consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction in aged FBN rats.

  9. Prehistorical climate change increased diversification of a group of butterflies.

    PubMed

    Peña, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2008-06-23

    Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and grasses (Poaceae) are very diverse and distributed worldwide. Most Satyrinae use grasses as host plants, but the temporal scale of this tight association is not known. Here, we present a phylogenetic study of Satyrinae butterflies and related groups, based on 5.1 kilobases from six gene regions and 238 morphological characters for all major lineages in the 'satyrine clade'. Estimates of divergence times calibrated using a fossil from the Late Oligocene indicate that the species-rich tribe Satyrini diversified to its current 2200 species simultaneously with the expansion and radiation of grasses during the dramatic cooling and drying up of the Earth in the Oligocene. We suggest that the adaptive radiation of grass feeders in Satyrini has been facilitated by the ubiquitousness of grasses since 25Myr ago, which was triggered by a change in global climate.

  10. Evaluation of human antibody responses to diphtheria toxin subunits A and B in various age groups.

    PubMed

    Karakus, R; Caglar, K; Aybay, C

    2007-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate human antibody responses to diphtheria toxin subunits in various age groups. Antibodies against the intact diphtheria toxin and the diphtheria toxin subunits A and B were evaluated in 1319 individuals using a double-antigen ELISA. Although high levels of protection (83.6%, 95% CI 79.2-87.4) were found in children and adolescents, the middle-aged adult population was less protected (28.8%, 95% CI 24.3-33.6). An increase in age was associated with a decrease in the frequency of protected individuals in the 0-39-year age group (p <0.001). Anti-subunit B levels correlated well (p <0.01) with levels of antibodies against the intact toxin. In children aged < or =16 years, the intervals at which the peaks in geometric mean titres of anti-subunit B antibodies were observed were found to correlate with the ages at which booster doses are administered. Overall, males appeared to be more protected than females (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.34-2.08, p <0.001). A small group of individuals had antibody levels of > or =0.1 IU/mL against the intact toxin, but did not have protective antibody against subunit B. Determination of anti-subunit B antibody levels should help in evaluating the effectiveness of diphtheria boosters and other aspects of diphtheria immunity.

  11. Grouping for Achievement Gains: For Whom Does Achievement Grouping Increase Kindergarten Reading Growth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelson, Jill L.; Carpenter, Brittany D.

    2011-01-01

    With ever-present budget cuts, teachers often use within-class achievement grouping to meet the needs of students of all ability levels but particularly high-ability students. Using a national database, this study examined the relationship between achievement grouping and the size of achievement groups on kindergarten reading growth. Additionally,…

  12. Evidence for a major gene influencing 7-year increases in diastolic blood pressure with age

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shu-Chuan Cheng; Carmelli, D.; Hunt, S.C.

    1995-11-01

    The contribution of genetic factors to blood pressure levels is well established. The contribution of genes to the longitudinal change in blood pressure has been less well studied, because of the lack of longitudinal family data. The present study investigated a possible major-gene effect on the observed increase with age in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels. Subjects included 965 unmedicated adults (age {ge}18 years) in 73 pedigrees collected in Utah as part of a longitudinal cardiovascular family study. Segregation analysis of DBP change over 7.2 years of follow-up identified a recessive major-gene effect with a gene frequency of p = .23. There was also a significant age effect on the genotypic means, which decreased expression of the major gene at older ages. For those inferred to have the genotype responsible for large DBP increases, DBP increased 32.3%, compared with a 1.5% increase in the nonsusceptible group (P < .0001). The relative risk of developing hypertension between the susceptible and nonsusceptible groups after 7.2 years was 2.4 (P = .006). Baseline DBP reactivities to mental arithmetic (P < .0001) and isometric hand-grip (P < .0001) stress tests were greatest in those assigned to the susceptible genotype. We conclude that age-related changes in DBP are influenced by a major gene. Characteristics of this major-gene effect for greater age-related blood pressure increases include greater reactivity to mental and physical stressors. The present study thus provides evidence for genetic control of changes in blood pressure, in addition to the previously suggested genetic control of absolute blood pressure level. 28 refs., 6 tabs.

  13. Multistrategy health education program to increase mammography use among women ages 65 and older.

    PubMed Central

    Rimer, B K; Resch, N; King, E; Ross, E; Lerman, C; Boyce, A; Kessler, H; Engstrom, P F

    1992-01-01

    Mammography use decreases with age although the risk of breast cancer increases with age. Medicare now provides biennial coverage for screening mammography. This study was designed to simulate the Medicare condition by subsidizing mammography among women in eight retirement communities in the metropolitan Philadelphia area. The study also measured the impact of health education interventions and the presence of a mobile mammography van on increased use of mammography. Retirement communities were assigned randomly to the control (cost subsidy alone) or experimental group (cost subsidy, mammography van, and tailored health education interventions). A total of 412 women ages 65 and older who had not had mammograms in the previous year were surveyed at baseline and 3 months later. Analytic techniques reflected the cluster nature of the randomization. Women in the experimental group were significantly more likely than the control group women to have obtained mammograms. Forty-five percent of the experimental group women compared with 12 percent of the control group women subsequently had mammograms in the 3 months after the baseline interview (P less than .001). Logistic regression analysis for mammography use indicated an odds ratio of 6.1 associated with being in the experimental group. For women in the experimental group, a separate logistic regression for mammography use showed an odds ratio of 7.8 associated with attendance at the educational presentation. The results suggest that Medicare coverage alone will not increase mammography use sufficiently to achieve year 2000 objectives. However, the addition of access enhancing and health education interventions boosts utilization dramatically. PMID:1641432

  14. Minimal groups increase young children's motivation and learning on group-relevant tasks.

    PubMed

    Master, Allison; Walton, Gregory M

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments (N = 130) used a minimal group manipulation to show that just perceived membership in a social group boosts young children's motivation for and learning from group-relevant tasks. In Experiment 1, 4-year-old children assigned to a minimal "puzzles group" persisted longer on a challenging puzzle than children identified as the "puzzles child" or children in a control condition. Experiment 2 showed that this boost in motivation occurred only when the group was associated with the task. In Experiment 3, children assigned to a minimal group associated with word learning learned more words than children assigned an analogous individual identity. The studies demonstrate that fostering shared motivations may be a powerful means by which to shape young children's academic outcomes.

  15. Age-related increases in right frontal activation during task switching are mediated by reaction time and white matter microstructure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Z; Hakun, J G; Johnson, N F; Gold, B T

    2014-10-10

    Age-related increases in right frontal cortex activation are a common finding in the neuroimaging literature. However, neurocognitive factors contributing to right frontal over-recruitment remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the influence of age-related reaction time (RT) slowing and white matter (WM) microstructure reductions as potential explanatory factors for age-related increases in right frontal activation during task switching. Groups of younger (N=32) and older (N=33) participants completed a task switching paradigm while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed, and rested while diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed. Two right frontal regions of interest (ROIs), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and insula, were selected for further analyses from a common network of regions recruited by both age groups during task switching. Results demonstrated age-related activation increases in both ROIs. In addition, the older adult group showed longer RT and decreased fractional anisotropy in regions of the corpus callosum with direct connections to the fMRI ROIs. Subsequent mediation analyses indicated that age-related increases in right insula activation were mediated by RT slowing and age-related increases in right DLPFC activation were mediated by WM microstructure. Our results suggest that age-related RT slowing and WM microstructure declines contribute to age-related increases in right frontal activation during cognitive task performance.

  16. Younger age increases the risk of early prosthesis failure following primary total knee replacement for osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Total knee replacements (TKRs) are being increasingly performed in patients aged ≤ 65 years who often have high physical demands. We investigated the relation between age of the patient and prosthesis survival following primary TKR using nationwide data collected from the Finnish Arthroplasty Register. Materials From Jan 1, 1997 through Dec 31, 2003, 32,019 TKRs for primary or secondary osteoarthritis were reported to the Finnish Arthroplasty Register. The TKRs were followed until the end of 2004. During the follow-up, 909 TKRs were revised, 205 (23%) due to infection and 704 for other reasons. Results Crude overall implant survival improved with increasing age between the ages of 40 and 80. The 5-year survival rates were 92% and 95% in patients aged ≤ 55 and 56–65 years, respectively, compared to 97% in patients who were > 65 years of age (p < 0.001). The difference was mainly attributable to reasons other than infections. Sex, diagnosis, type of TKR (condylar, constrained, or hinge), use of patellar component, and fixation method were also associated with higher revision rates. However, the differences in prosthesis survival between the age groups ≤ 55, 56–65, and > 65 years remained after adjustment for these factors (p < 0.001). Interpretation Young age impairs the prognosis of TKR and is associated with increased revision rates for non-infectious reasons. Diagnosis, sex, type of TKR, use of patellar component, and fixation method partly explain the differences, but the effects of physical activity, patient demands, and obesity on implant survival in younger patients warrant further research. PMID:20809740

  17. Obesity-induced oxidative stress, accelerated functional decline with age and increased mortality in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Fischer, Kathleen E.; Soto, Vanessa; Liu, Yuhong; Sosnowska, Danuta; Richardson, Arlan; Salmon, Adam B.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a serious chronic disease that increases the risk of numerous co-morbidities including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and cancer as well as increases risk of mortality leading some to suggest this represents accelerated aging. Obesity is associated with significant increases in oxidative stress in vivo and, despite the well-explored relationship between oxidative stress and aging, the role this plays in the increased mortality of obese subjects remains an unanswered question. Here, we addressed this by undertaking a comprehensive, longitudinal study of a group of high fat-fed obese mice and assessed both their changes in oxidative stress and in their performance in physiological assays known to decline with aging. In female C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet starting in adulthood, mortality was significantly increased in high fat-fed mice as was oxidative damage in vivo. High fat-feeding significantly accelerated the decline in performance in several assays, including activity, gait, and rotarod. However, we also found that obesity had little effect on other markers and actually improved performance in grip strength, a marker of muscular function. Together, this first comprehensive assessment of longitudinal functional changes in high fat-fed mice suggests that obesity may induce segmental acceleration of some of the aging process. PMID:25558793

  18. Malaria in school-age children in Africa: an increasingly important challenge

    PubMed Central

    Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Brooker, Simon J; Clarke, Sian E; Fernando, Deepika; Gitonga, Caroline W; Schellenberg, David; Greenwood, Brian

    2014-01-01

    School-age children have attracted relatively little attention as a group in need of special measures to protect them against malaria. However, increasing success in lowering the level of malaria transmission in many previously highly endemic areas will result in children acquiring immunity to malaria later in life than has been the case in the past. Thus, it can be anticipated that in the coming years there will be an increase in the incidence of both uncomplicated and severe malaria in school-age children in many previously highly endemic areas. In this review, which focuses primarily on Africa, recent data on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and on the incidence of clinical malaria in African school-age children are presented and evidence that malaria adversely effects school performance is reviewed. Long-lasting insecticide treated bednets (LLIN) are an effective method of malaria control but several studies have shown that school-age children use LLINs less frequently than other population groups. Antimalarial drugs are being used in different ways to control malaria in school-age children including screening and treatment and intermittent preventive treatment. Some studies of chemoprevention in school-age children have shown reductions in anaemia and improved school performance but this has not been the case in all trials and more research is needed to identify the situations in which chemoprevention is likely to be most effective and, in these situations, which type of intervention should be used. In the longer term, malaria vaccines may have an important role in protecting this important section of the community from malaria. Regardless of the control approach selected, it is important this is incorporated into the overall programme of measures being undertaken to enhance the health of African school-age children. PMID:25145389

  19. Malaria in school-age children in Africa: an increasingly important challenge.

    PubMed

    Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Brooker, Simon J; Clarke, Sian E; Fernando, Deepika; Gitonga, Caroline W; Schellenberg, David; Greenwood, Brian

    2014-11-01

    School-age children have attracted relatively little attention as a group in need of special measures to protect them against malaria. However, increasing success in lowering the level of malaria transmission in many previously highly endemic areas will result in children acquiring immunity to malaria later in life than has been the case in the past. Thus, it can be anticipated that in the coming years there will be an increase in the incidence of both uncomplicated and severe malaria in school-age children in many previously highly endemic areas. In this review, which focuses primarily on Africa, recent data on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and on the incidence of clinical malaria in African school-age children are presented and evidence that malaria adversely effects school performance is reviewed. Long-lasting insecticide treated bednets (LLIN) are an effective method of malaria control but several studies have shown that school-age children use LLINs less frequently than other population groups. Antimalarial drugs are being used in different ways to control malaria in school-age children including screening and treatment and intermittent preventive treatment. Some studies of chemoprevention in school-age children have shown reductions in anaemia and improved school performance but this has not been the case in all trials and more research is needed to identify the situations in which chemoprevention is likely to be most effective and, in these situations, which type of intervention should be used. In the longer term, malaria vaccines may have an important role in protecting this important section of the community from malaria. Regardless of the control approach selected, it is important this is incorporated into the overall programme of measures being undertaken to enhance the health of African school-age children.

  20. Posterior scleritis in pediatric age group: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Radha; Suryawanshi, Milind; Isaac, Roshini; Philip, Santhosh K.

    2016-01-01

    Posterior scleritis is rare in both the adult and pediatric age groups. Increased awareness and availability of advanced diagnostic facilities aid in early diagnosis and management. Visual recovery is possible with systemic steroids and immunosuppression. We report the case of a 12-year-old male child who presented with poor vision in his right eye and was found to have retinal striae and disc edema due to posterior scleritis. PMID:27013832

  1. Hepatitis B virus infection among different sex and age groups in Pakistani Punjab

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious health problem in the developing countries including Pakistan. Various risk factors are responsible for the spread of this infectious disease. Prevalence of HBV infection in apparently suspected individual of Punjab province of Pakistan was analyzed during January 2008 to December 2010. Current study was aimed to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of HBV infection. Methodology Four thousand eight hundred and ninety patients suffering from chronic liver disease were screened for the presence of HBV DNA using qualitative Real Time PCR methodology to confirm their status of infection. A predesigned standard questionnaire was filled for all the patients that included information about the possible risk factors. Results A total of 4890 ELISA positive patients were screened for Hepatitis B virus infection. Of these 3143 were positive for HBV, includes 68.15% males and 31.85% females. Male were observed to be more frequently infected as compared to the female with a positivity ratio of 2.14: 1. The rate of infection increases with the passage of time in the course of three years. Highest frequency of infection was found in the age of 21-30 was 34.93% followed by 23.83% in 31-40. Only (13.39%) were belonging to the age group 11-20 year. The rate of infection declines with increasing age as shown by age groups 41-50 (16.13%) and 51-60 (7.09%). While children aged 0-10 and very old >60 age groups were very less frequently 1.49% and 1.65% infected respectively. Important risk factors contributing to HBV spread include barber risk (23.60%), blood transfusion (4.04%), History of injection 26.19%, Reuse of syringes 26.60%, dental risk (11.20%) and surgical procedure (4.26%). Among the entire respondents trend sharing personal items was very common. History of injection, barber risk, surgery and dental procedure and reuse of syringes appear as major risk factors for the transmission. Conclusion Male were more

  2. Age Differences and Changes of Coping Behavior in Three Age Groups: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Rott, Christoph; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With increasing age, older adults are more likely to be challenged by an increasing number of physical, functional and social losses. As a result, coping with losses becomes a central theme in very late life. This study investigated age differences and age changes in active behavioral, active cognitive and avoidance coping and related coping to…

  3. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751

  4. The Name-Letter-Effect in Groups: Sharing Initials with Group Members Increases the Quality of Group Work

    PubMed Central

    Polman, Evan; Pollmann, Monique M. H.; Poehlman, T. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Although the name-letter-effect has been demonstrated reliably in choice contexts, recent research has called into question the existence of the name-letter-effect–the tendency among people to make choices that bear remarkable similarity with the letters in their own name. In this paper, we propose a connection between the name-letter-effect and interpersonal, group-level behavior that has not been previously captured in the literature. Specifically, we suggest that sharing initials with other group members promotes positive feelings toward those group members that in turn affect group outcomes. Using both field and laboratory studies, we found that sharing initials with group members cause groups to perform better by demonstrating greater performance, collective efficacy, adaptive conflict, and accuracy (on a hidden-profile task). Although many studies have investigated the effects of member similarity on various outcomes, our research demonstrates how minimal a degree of similarity among members is sufficient to influence quality of group outcomes. PMID:24236087

  5. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  6. The Pros and Cons of Mixed-Age Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodish, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Recently, numerous larger schools have tried to capture the potential advantages of a wide age range in their classrooms. The nongraded organizational system recognizes and plans for varied student abilities, provides for different rates of progress, and adjusts to individual emotional and social needs. Both advantages and disadvantages are…

  7. BDNF increases with behavioral enrichment and an antioxidant diet in the aged dog.

    PubMed

    Fahnestock, Margaret; Marchese, Monica; Head, Elizabeth; Pop, Viorela; Michalski, Bernadeta; Milgram, William N; Cotman, Carl W

    2012-03-01

    The aged canine (dog) is an excellent model for investigating the neurobiological changes that underlie cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration in humans, as canines and humans undergo similar pathological and behavioral changes with aging. Recent evidence indicates that a combination of environmental enrichment and antioxidant-fortified diet can be used to reduce the rate of age-dependent neuropathology and cognitive decline in aged dogs, although the mechanisms underlying these changes have not been established. We examined the hypothesis that an increase in levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the factors underlying improvements in learning and memory. Old, cognitively impaired animals that did not receive any treatment showed a significant decrease in BDNF mRNA in the temporal cortex when compared with the young group. Animals receiving either an antioxidant diet or environmental enrichment displayed intermediate levels of BDNF mRNA. However, dogs receiving both an antioxidant diet and environmental enrichment showed increased levels of BDNF mRNA when compared with untreated aged dogs, approaching levels measured in young animals. BDNF receptor TrkB mRNA levels did not differ between groups. BDNF mRNA levels were positively correlated with improved cognitive performance and inversely correlated with cortical Aβ((1-42)) and Aβ((1-40)) levels. These findings suggest that environmental enrichment and antioxidant diet interact to maintain brain levels of BDNF, which may lead to improved cognitive performance. This is the first demonstration in a higher animal that nonpharmacological changes in lifestyle in advanced age can upregulate BDNF to levels approaching those in the young brain.

  8. Estimation of the amount of telomere molecules in different human age groups and the telomere increasing effect of acupuncture and shiatsu on St.36, using synthesized basic units of the human telomere molecules as reference control substances for the bi-digital O-ring test resonance phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Omura, Y; Shimotsura, Y; Ooki, M; Noguchi, T

    1998-01-01

    It is well established that the telomeres at the ends of chromosomes are composed of long arrays of (TTAGGG)n x (CCCTAA)n that form a nucleoprotein complex required for the replication and protection of chromosome ends. Throughout the cell cycle, telomeres also contain a protein component related to the proto-oncogene Myb that is known as TRF1 (telomere TTAGGG repeat binding factor 1) that binds to the duplex array of TTAGGG repeats in the telomere. Previous studies have shown that TRF1 appears to play a role in controlling the length of telomeres by acting as an inhibitor of telomerase. The amount of each of the TRF1(C-19) & TRF1(N-19) was identical to the amount of telomere of the same organ of the same apparently normal individual. Using synthesized basic unit of TTAGGG, as well as CCCTAA, as separate reference control substances for the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test of Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical substances, we were able to non-invasively measure the approximate amount of TTAGGG and CCCTAA units, in both normal and cancerous human cells. We examined about 30 apparently normal subjects (both Asian and Caucasian in both sex). The subjects' ages ranged from infancy to 76 years. Each subject was first examined using TTAGGG as a control substance and then examined using CCCTAA as a control substance. The amount of telomere in various cancer tissues are almost always higher than that of normal tissue of the same organ. The measured amounts of both TTAGGG and CCCTAA were found to be in an average of 1500-1600 ng for human fetus or infancy and decreased with the advance of age in both sex with the exception of the heart, brain, eyes (retina), testes, and ovaries, which usually remain at the level of the infant, or reduced very little. Individuals in the same age group had a similar range of amounts of both TTAGGG and CCCTAA in the same organ of the same individual, (except for those with unusually low telomeres often had chronic degenerative diseases, and those

  9. Mild eccentric exercise increases Hsp72 content in skeletal muscles from adult and late middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Evan J H; Ramsook, Andrew H; Locke, Marius; Amara, Catherine E

    2013-09-01

    The loss of muscle mass with age or sarcopenia contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Thus, preventing muscle loss with age is important for maintaining health. Hsp72, the inducible member of the Hsp70 family, is known to provide protection to skeletal muscle and can be increased by exercise. However, ability to increase Hsp72 by exercise is intensity-dependent and appears to diminish with advanced age. Thus, other exercise modalities capable of increasing HSP content and potentially preventing the age related loss of muscle need to be explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if the stress from one bout of mild eccentric exercise was sufficient to elicit an increase in Hsp72 content in the vastus intermedius (VI) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles, and if the Hsp72 response differed between adult and late middle-aged rats. To do this, 30 adult (6 months) and late middle-aged (24 months) F344BN rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6/group): control (C), level exercise (16 m x min(-1)) and eccentric exercise (16 m x min(-1), 16 degree decline). Exercised animals were sacrificed immediately post-exercise or after 48 hours. Hematoxylin and Eosin staining was used to assess muscle damage, while Western Blotting was used to measure muscle Hsp72 content. A nested ANOVA with Tukey post hoc analysis was performed to determine significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups. Hsp72 content was increased in the VI for both adult and late middle-aged rats 48 hours after eccentric exercise when compared to level and control groups but no differences between age groups was observed. Hsp72 was not detected in the WG following any type of exercise. In conclusion, mild eccentric exercise can increase Hsp72 content in the rat VI muscle and this response is maintained into late middle-age.

  10. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  11. Loss of Catecholaminergic Neuromodulation of Persistent Forms of Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity with Increasing Age

    PubMed Central

    Twarkowski, Hannah; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Neuromodulation by means of the catecholaminergic system is a key component of motivation-driven learning and behaviorally modulated hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In particular, dopamine acting on D1/D5 receptors and noradrenaline acting on beta-adrenergic receptors exert a very potent regulation of forms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity that last for very long-periods of time (>24 h), and occur in conjunction with novel spatial learning. Antagonism of these receptors not only prevents long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), but prevents the memory of the spatial event that, under normal circumstances, leads to the perpetuation of these plasticity forms. Spatial learning behavior that normally comes easily to rats, such as object-place learning and spatial reference learning, becomes increasingly impaired with aging. Middle-aged animals display aging-related deficits of specific, but not all, components of spatial learning, and one possibility is that this initial manifestation of decrements in learning ability that become apparent in middle-age relate to changes in motivation, attention and/or the regulation by neuromodulatory systems of these behavioral states. Here, we compared the regulation by dopaminergic D1/D5 and beta-adrenergic receptors of persistent LTP in young (2–4 month old) and middle-aged (8–14 month old) rats. We observed in young rats, that weak potentiation that typically lasts for ca. 2 h could be strengthened into persistent (>24 h) LTP by pharmacological activation of either D1/D5 or beta-adrenergic receptors. By contrast, no such facilitation occurred in middle-aged rats. This difference was not related to an ostensible learning deficit: a facilitation of weak potentiation into LTP by spatial learning was possible both in young and middle-aged rats. It was also not directly linked to deficits in LTP: strong afferent stimulation resulted in equivalent LTP in both age groups. We postulate that this change in

  12. Chromosome numbers in three species groups of freshwater flatworms increase with increasing latitude.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Sven; Zeuss, Dirk; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Polyploidy in combination with parthenogenesis offers advantages for plasticity and the evolution of a broad ecological tolerance of species. Therefore, a positive correlation between the level of ploidy and increasing latitude as a surrogate for environmental harshness has been suggested. Such a positive correlation is well documented for plants, but examples for animals are still rare. Species of flatworms (Platyhelminthes) are widely distributed, show a remarkably wide range of chromosome numbers, and offer therefore good model systems to study the geographical distribution of chromosome numbers. We analyzed published data on counts of chromosome numbers and geographical information of three flatworm "species" (Phagocata vitta, Polycelis felina and Crenobia alpina) sampled across Europe (220 populations). We used the mean chromosome number across individuals of a population as a proxy for the level of ploidy within populations, and we tested for relationships of this variable with latitude, mode of reproduction (sexual, asexual or both) and environmental variables (annual mean temperature, mean diurnal temperature range, mean precipitation and net primary production). The mean chromosome numbers of all three species increased with latitude and decreased with mean annual temperature. For two species, chromosome number also decreased with mean precipitation and net primary production. Furthermore, high chromosome numbers within species were accompanied with a loss of sexual reproduction. The variation of chromosome numbers within individuals of two of the three species increased with latitude. Our results support the hypothesis that polyploid lineages are able to cope with harsh climatic conditions at high latitudes. Furthermore, we propose that asexual reproduction in populations with high levels of polyploidization stabilizes hybridization events. Chromosomal irregularities within individuals tend to become more frequent at the extreme environments of high

  13. Diversity, Group Identity, and Citizenship Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide immigration and quests for rights by minority groups have caused social scientists and educators to raise serious questions about liberal assimilationist conceptions of citizenship that historically have dominated citizenship education in nation-states. The author of this article challenges liberal assimilationist conceptions of…

  14. Faster Increases in Human Life Expectancy Could Lead to Slower Population Aging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Counterintuitively, faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging. The conventional view that faster increases in human life expectancy would lead to faster population aging is based on the assumption that people become old at a fixed chronological age. A preferable alternative is to base measures of aging on people’s time left to death, because this is more closely related to the characteristics that are associated with old age. Using this alternative interpretation, we show that faster increases in life expectancy would lead to slower population aging. Among other things, this finding affects the assessment of the speed at which countries will age. PMID:25876033

  15. Faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Warren C; Scherbov, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Counterintuitively, faster increases in human life expectancy could lead to slower population aging. The conventional view that faster increases in human life expectancy would lead to faster population aging is based on the assumption that people become old at a fixed chronological age. A preferable alternative is to base measures of aging on people's time left to death, because this is more closely related to the characteristics that are associated with old age. Using this alternative interpretation, we show that faster increases in life expectancy would lead to slower population aging. Among other things, this finding affects the assessment of the speed at which countries will age.

  16. Initiation of calorie restriction in middle-aged male rats attenuates aging-related motoric decline and bradykinesia without increased striatal dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Michael F.; Terrebonne, Jennifer; Fields, Victoria; Nodurft, Danielle; Runfalo, Cori; Latimer, Brian; Ingram, Donald K.

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related bradykinesia affects ~15% of those reaching age 65 and 50% of those reaching their 80s. Given this high risk and lack of pharmacological therapeutics, non-invasive lifestyle strategies should be identified to diminish its risk and identify the neurobiological targets to reduce aging-related bradykinesia. Early-life, long-term calorie restriction (CR) attenuates aging-related bradykinesia in rodents. Here, we addressed whether CR initiation at middle age could attenuate aging-related bradykinesia and motoric decline measured as rotarod performance. A 30% CR regimen was implemented for 6 months duration in 12-month old male Brown-Norway Fischer 344 F1 hybrid rats after establishing individual baseline locomotor activities. Locomotor capacity was assessed every 6 weeks thereafter. The ad libitum (AL) group exhibited predictably decreased locomotor activity, except movement speed, out to 18 months of age. In contrast, in the CR group, movement number and horizontal activity did not decrease during the 6-month trial and aging-related decline in rotarod performance was attenuated. The response to CR was influenced by baseline locomotor activity. The lower the locomotor activity level at baseline, the greater the response to CR. Rats in the lower 50th percentile surpassed their baseline level of activity, whereas rats in the top 50th percentile decreased at 6 weeks and then returned to baseline by 12 weeks of CR. We hypothesized that nigrostriatal dopamine tissue content would be greater in the CR group and observed a modest increase only in substantia nigra with no group differences in striatum, nucleus accumbens, or ventral tegmental area. These results indicate initiation of CR at middle age may reduce aging-related bradykinesia and, furthermore, subjects with below average locomotor activity may increase baseline activity. Sustaining nigral DA neurotransmission may be one component of preserving locomotor capabilities during aging. PMID:26610387

  17. Susceptibility to varicella in childbearing age women, Central Italy: is there a need for vaccinating this population group?

    PubMed

    Alfonsi, Valeria; Montomoli, Emanuele; Manini, Ilaria; Alberini, Isabella; Gentile, Chiara; Rota, Maria Cristina; Ciofi degli Atti, Marta Luisa

    2007-08-10

    We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antibodies in childbearing age women aged 17-42 years. Sera were collected in Central Italy in years 2001-2002 and were tested by a commercial VZV IgG enzyme immunoassay. Overall VZV seroprevalence was 80.9% and it showed a significant increase by age, confirming a considerable circulation of VZV also in the older age groups not commonly considered at high risk. This study further supports the importance of vaccinating susceptible adolescents and women of childbearing age in order to reduce both maternal and foetal complications associated with varicella in pregnancy.

  18. Increasing the Value of Age: Guidance in Employers' Age Management Strategies. Research Paper No 44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The European active population is ageing. In the face of growing skills shortages, both national States and employers need to prolong the working lives of their most experienced workers. While enterprises strive to respond to this challenge, most still have not fully explored the potential of guidance activities in addressing age-related issues in…

  19. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  20. Cortisol responses to a group public speaking task for adolescents: variations by age, gender, and race.

    PubMed

    Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development.

  1. Absence of DJ-1 causes age-related retinal abnormalities in association with increased oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, Vera L; Bell, Brent A; Rayborn, Mary E; Samuels, Ivy S; King, Anna; Hollyfield, Joe G; Xie, Chengsong; Cai, Huaibin

    2017-03-01

    Oxidative stress alters physiological function in most biological tissues and can lead to cell death. In the retina, oxidative stress initiates a cascade of events leading to focal loss of RPE and photoreceptors, which is thought to be a major contributing factor to geographic atrophy. Despite these implications, the molecular regulation of RPE oxidative stress under normal and pathological conditions remains largely unknown. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in regulating RPE and photoreceptors oxidative stress response is greatly needed. To this end we evaluated photoreceptor and RPE changes in mice deficient in DJ-1, a protein that is thought to be important in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Young (3 months) and aged (18 months) DJ-1 knockout (DJ-1 KO) and age-matched wild-type mice were examined. In both group of aged mice, scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) showed the presence of a few autofluorescent foci. The 18 month-old DJ-1 KO retinas were also characterized by a noticeable increase in RPE fluorescence to wild-type. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging demonstrated that all retinal layers were present in the eyes of both DJ-1 KO groups. ERG comparisons showed that older DJ-1 KO mice had reduced sensitivity under dark- and light-adapted conditions compared to age-matched control. Histologically, the RPE contained prominent vacuoles in young DJ-1 KO group with the appearance of enlarged irregularly shaped RPE cells in the older group. These were also evident in OCT and in whole mount RPE/choroid preparations labeled with phalloidin. Photoreceptors in the older DJ-1 KO mice displayed decreased immunoreactivity to rhodopsin and localized reduction in cone markers compared to the wild-type control group. Lower levels of activated Nrf2 were evident in retina/RPE lysates in both young and old DJ-1 KO mouse groups compared to wild-type control levels. Conversely, higher levels of protein carbonyl derivatives and i

  2. Age-related decline in cardiac autonomic function is not attenuated with increased physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Njemanze, Hugo; Warren, Charlotte; Eggett, Christopher; MacGowan, Guy A.; Bates, Matthew G D; Siervo, Mario; Ivkovic, Srdjan; Trenell, Michael I.; Jakovljevic, Djordje G.

    2016-01-01

    Age and physical inactivity are important risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. Heart rate response to exercise (HRRE) and heart rate recovery (HRR), measures of cardiac autonomic function, are strong predictors of mortality. The present study defined the effect of age and physical activity on HRRE and HRR. Healthy women (N=72) grouped according to age (young, 20-30 years; middle, 40-50 years; and older, 65-81 years) and daily physical activity (low active <7500, high active >12,500 steps/day) performed a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. The HRRE was defined as an increase in heart rate from rest to 1, 3 and 5 minutes of exercise and at 1/3 of total exercise time, and HRR as the difference in heart rate between peak exercise and 1, 2, and 3 minutes later. Age was associated with a significant decline in HRRE at 1 min and 1/3 of exercise time (r= − 0.27, p=0.04, and r=−0.39, p=0.02) and HRR at 2 min and 3 min (r=−0.35, p=0.01, and r=−0.31, p=0.02). There was no significant difference in HRRE and HRR between high and low-active middle-age and older women (p>0.05). Increased level of habitual physical activity level appears to have a limited effect on age-related decline in cardiac autonomic function in women. PMID:27705949

  3. Increased low back pain prevalence in females than in males after menopause age: evidences based on synthetic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wáng, Jùn-Qīng; Káplár, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    Female sex hormones play an important role in the etiology and pathophysiology of a variety of musculoskeletal degenerative diseases. Postmenopausal women show accelerated disc degeneration due to relative estrogen deficiency. This literature review aims to validate or falsify this hypothesis, i.e., while overall females have higher prevalence of low back pain (LBP) across all age groups, this male vs. female difference in LBP prevalence further increases after female menopause age. The literature search was performed on PubMed on January 2, 2016. The search word combination was (low back pain) AND prevalence AND [(males OR men) AND (females OR women)]. The following criteria were taken to include the papers for synthetic analysis: (I) only English primary literatures on nonspecific pain; (II) only prospective studies on general population, but not population with occupational LBP causes, of both males and female subjects studied using the same LBP criterion, ages-specific information available, and males and female subjects were age-matched; (III) studies without major quality flaws. In total 98 studies with 772,927 subjects were analyzed. According to the information in the literature, participant subjects were divided into four age groups: (I) school age children group: 6–19 years; (II) young and middle aged group: 20–50 years; (III) mixed age group: data from studies did not differentiate age groups; (IV) elderly group: ≥50 years old. When individual studies were not weighted by participant number and each individual study is represented as one entry regardless of their sample size, the median LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.310, 1.140, 1.220, and 1.270 respectively for the four age groups. When individual studies were weighted by participant number, the LBP prevalence ratio of female vs. males was 1.360, 1.127, 1.185, and 1.280 respectively for the four groups. The higher LBP prevalence in school age girls than in school age boys is likely

  4. No evidence of age-related increases in unconscious plagiarism during free recall.

    PubMed

    Perfect, Timothy John; Defeldre, Anne-Catherine; Elliman, Rachel; Dehon, Hedwige

    2011-07-01

    In three experiments younger and older participants took part in a group generation task prior to a delayed recall task. In each, participants were required to recall the items that they had generated, avoiding plagiarism errors. All studies showed the same pattern: older adults did not plagiarise their partners any more than younger adults did. However, older adults were more likely than younger adults to intrude with entirely novel items not previously generated by anyone. These findings stand in opposition to the single previous demonstration of age-related increases in plagiarism during recall.

  5. Onset of mortality increase with age and age trajectories of mortality from all diseases in the four Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Dolejs, Josef; Marešová, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Background The answer to the question “At what age does aging begin?” is tightly related to the question “Where is the onset of mortality increase with age?” Age affects mortality rates from all diseases differently than it affects mortality rates from nonbiological causes. Mortality increase with age in adult populations has been modeled by many authors, and little attention has been given to mortality decrease with age after birth. Materials and methods Nonbiological causes are excluded, and the category “all diseases” is studied. It is analyzed in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden during the period 1994–2011, and all possible models are screened. Age trajectories of mortality are analyzed separately: before the age category where mortality reaches its minimal value and after the age category. Results Resulting age trajectories from all diseases showed a strong minimum, which was hidden in total mortality. The inverse proportion between mortality and age fitted in 54 of 58 cases before mortality minimum. The Gompertz model with two parameters fitted as mortality increased with age in 17 of 58 cases after mortality minimum, and the Gompertz model with a small positive quadratic term fitted data in the remaining 41 cases. The mean age where mortality reached minimal value was 8 (95% confidence interval 7.05–8.95) years. The figures depict an age where the human population has a minimal risk of death from biological causes. Conclusion Inverse proportion and the Gompertz model fitted data on both sides of the mortality minimum, and three parameters determined the shape of the age–mortality trajectory. Life expectancy should be determined by the two standard Gompertz parameters and also by the single parameter in the model c/x. All-disease mortality represents an alternative tool to study the impact of age. All results are based on published data. PMID:28176929

  6. Frontal Lobe Morphometry with MRI in a Normal Age Group of 6-17 Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    İlkay Koşar, M; Otağ, İlhan; Sabancıoğulları, Vedat; Atalar, Mehmet; Tetiker, Hasan; Otağ, Aynur; Çimen, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Background Morphometric data of the frontal lobe are important for surgical planning of lesions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide suitable data for this purpose. Objectives In our study, the morphometric data of mid-sagittal MRI of the frontal lobe in certain age and gender groups of children have been presented. Patients and Methods In a normal age group of 6-17-year-old participants, the length of the line passing through predetermined different points, including the frontal pole (FP), commissura anterior (AC), commissura posterior (PC), the outermost point of corpus callosum genu (AGCC), the innermost point of corpus callosum genu (IGCC), tuberculum sella (TS), AGCC and IGCC points parallel to AC-PC line and the point such line crosses at the frontal lobe surface (FCS) were measured in three age groups (6-9, 10-13 and 14-17 years) for each gender. Results The frontal lobe morphometric data were higher in males than females. Frontal lobe measurements peak at the age group of 10-13 in the male and at the age group of 6-13 in the female. In boys, the length of FP-AC increases 4.1% in the 10-13 age group compared with the 6-9-year-old group, while this increase is 2.3% in girls. Conclusion Differences in age and gender groups were determined. While the length of AGCC-IGCC increases 10.4% in adults, in children aged 6-17, the length of AC-PC is 11.5% greater than adults. These data will contribute to the preliminary assessment for developing a surgical plan in fine interventions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings in children. PMID:23599707

  7. Churg-strauss syndrome in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    El-Gamal, Yehia

    2008-02-01

    The rate of reporting of childhood Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) has increased lately because of either increased awareness to the disease or a real increase in incidence. It is defined as one of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides, but the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positivity is less reported in pediatric cases. The cause of CSS remains unknown. Several lines of evidence suggest genetic predisposition, which may entail inherited tendency to dysregulation of the cellular immune system. With the addition of leukotriene receptor antagonists to the treatment regimen of asthma, an association to CSS was presumed. However, the nature of this relationship remains to be elucidated. In addition, some environmental factors seem to provoke transient effects that resemble the disease. Patients' symptoms are defined by various degrees of eosinophilic inflammation and necrotizing vasculitis, which may affect any organ. Three clinical stages have been described in the clinical evolution of CSS: prodromal phase involving allergic rhinitis and asthma (usually without family history of atopy), a second phase that involves peripheral eosinophilia and eosinophilic tissue infiltration, and the hallmark of the final phase is systemic vasculitis. Pulmonary disease is a central feature of pediatric CSS, but other manifestations include skin lesions, testicular pain, hypertension, seizures, and nephropathy. More subtle presentations in children include cervical lymphadenopathy, acute abdominal pain, deep venous thrombosis, oral ulceration, multiple colonic ulcers, chorea, bilateral optic neuropathy, and retinal artery occlusions. Churg-Strauss syndrome patients usually respond well to corticosteroid therapy. Several trials reported additional benefit from cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, and methotrexate, whereas the therapeutic effects of etanercept, plasma exchange, and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy are controversial. The relapse rate is

  8. Increased Waist-to-height Ratio May Contribute to Age-related Increase in Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Masoumeh; Kamali, Majid; Dastsouz, Farideh; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Amanat, Sassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) increases with age. The objective was to determine whether lifestyle and dietary behaviors and anthropometric measures, which are affected by these behaviors, contribute to the increase of CVD risk factors across age categories of 20–50-year-old. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 437 adults aged 20–50-year-old were selected from households living in Shiraz. Risk factors of CVD, including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively) as well as lifestyle behaviors (physical activity and smoking), dietary habits, and food intakes were assessed across the age categories of 20–29, 30–39, and 40–50 years. Linear regression was used to examine the contribution of different variables to the age-related increase of CVD risk factors. Results: All CVD risk factors, except for HDL-C, significantly increased across age categories. Older subjects had healthier dietary habits and food intakes, but they possessed nonsignificantly lower physical activity and higher smoking rate compared to younger adults. Adjusting for physical activity, smoking, and BMI did not change the significant positive association between age and CVD risk factors but adjusting for WHtR disappeared associations for blood pressure, triglycerides, and metabolic syndrome although significant associations remained for FBG and total and LDL-C. Conclusions: Age-related increase of CVD risk factors occurred independent of lifestyle habits. WHtR, but not BMI, may partially contribute to the age-related increase in CVD risk factors. PMID:27195100

  9. Effect of Training on Physiological and Biochemical Variables of Soccer Players of Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Indranil; Khanna, Gulshan Lal; Chandra Dhara, Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To find out the effect of training on selected physiological and biochemical variables of Indian soccer players of different age groups. Methods A total of 120 soccer players volunteered for the study, were divided (n = 30) into 4 groups: (i) under 16 years (U16), (ii) under 19 years (U19), (iii) under 23 years (U23), (iv) senior (SR). The training sessions were divided into 2 phases (a) Preparatory Phase (PP, 8 weeks) and (b) Competitive Phase (CP, 4 weeks). The training program consisted of aerobic, anaerobic and skill development, and were completed 4 hrs/day; 5 days/week. Selected physiological and biochemical variables were measured at zero level (baseline data, BD) and at the end of PP and CP. Results A significant increase (P < 0.05) in lean body mass (LBM), VO2max, anaerobic power, grip and back strength, urea, uric acid and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C); and a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in body fat, hemoglobin (Hb), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected in some groups in PP and CP phases of the training when compare to BD. However, no significant change was found in body mass and maximal heart rate of the players after the training program. Conclusion This study would provide useful information for training and selection of soccer players of different age groups. PMID:22375187

  10. GROUP COUNSELING-PLUS--INCREASING SCHOOL SUCCESS OF JUNIOR COLLEGE STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DESSENT, SHIRLEY C.

    TO TEST THE HYPOTHESIS THAT STUDENTS ON ACADEMIC PROBATION WHO RECEIVED SUPPORT AND INSIGHT FROM A GROUP WOULD OBTAIN HIGHER GRADE POINT AVERAGES THAN THOSE WITHOUT SUCH AN EXPERIENCE, THE RECORDS OF AN EXPERIMENTAL GROUP OF 30 PROBATIONARY STUDENTS WERE MATCHED ON THE BASIS OF AGE, SEX, AND NUMBER OF UNITS TAKEN, MARITAL STATUS OF PARENTS,…

  11. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years) and older (64-85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  12. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  13. Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Stiffness as a Mechanism for Increased Aortic Stiffness with Aging

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Hongyu; Zhu, Yi; Sun, Zhe; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P.; Gansner, Meredith; Depre, Christophe; Resuello, Ranillo R.G.; Natividad, Filipinas F.; Hunter, William C.; Genin, Guy M.; Elson, Elliot L.; Vatner, Dorothy E.; Meininger, Gerald A.; Vatner, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Increased aortic stiffness, an important feature of many vascular diseases, e.g., aging, hypertension, atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysms, is assumed due to changes in extracellular matrix (ECM). Objective We tested the hypothesis that the mechanisms also involve intrinsic stiffening of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Methods and Results Stiffness was measured in vitro both by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and in a reconstituted tissue model, using VSMCs from aorta of young versus old male monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, n=7/group), where aortic stiffness increases by 200 % in vivo. The apparent elastic modulus was increased (P<0.05) in old VSMCs (41.7±0.5 kPa) versus young (12.8±0.3 kPa), but not after disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D. Stiffness of the VSMCs in the reconstituted tissue model was also higher (P<0.05) in old (23.3±3.0 kPa) than in young (13.7±2.4 kPa). Conclusions These data support the novel concept, not appreciated previously, that increased vascular stiffness with aging is due not only to changes in ECM, but also to intrinsic changes in VSMCs. PMID:20634486

  14. Effects of increased paternal age on sperm quality, reproductive outcome and associated epigenetic risks to offspring.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ashok; Rohra, Vikram K; Assidi, Mourad; Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Turki, Rola F

    2015-04-19

    Over the last decade, there has been a significant increase in average paternal age when the first child is conceived, either due to increased life expectancy, widespread use of contraception, late marriages and other factors. While the effect of maternal ageing on fertilization and reproduction is well known and several studies have shown that women over 35 years have a higher risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, spontaneous abortion, congenital anomalies, and perinatal complications. The effect of paternal age on semen quality and reproductive function is controversial for several reasons. First, there is no universal definition for advanced paternal ageing. Secondly, the literature is full of studies with conflicting results, especially for the most common parameters tested. Advancing paternal age also has been associated with increased risk of genetic disease. Our exhaustive literature review has demonstrated negative effects on sperm quality and testicular functions with increasing paternal age. Epigenetics changes, DNA mutations along with chromosomal aneuploidies have been associated with increasing paternal age. In addition to increased risk of male infertility, paternal age has also been demonstrated to impact reproductive and fertility outcomes including a decrease in IVF/ICSI success rate and increasing rate of preterm birth. Increasing paternal age has shown to increase the incidence of different types of disorders like autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and childhood leukemia in the progeny. It is thereby essential to educate the infertile couples on the disturbing links between increased paternal age and rising disorders in their offspring, to better counsel them during their reproductive years.

  15. Accelerated tissue aging and increased oxidative stress in broiler chickens fed allopurinol.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Rathore, D S; Iqbal, M; Shi, X; Van Dyke, K

    2001-06-01

    Uric acid has been hypothesized as being one of the more important antioxidants in limiting the accumulation of glycosylated endproducts in birds. Study 1 was designed to quantitatively manipulate the plasma concentrations of uric acid using hemin and allopurinol while study 2 determined their effects on skin pentosidine, the shear force value of Pectoralis major muscle, plasma glucose, body weight and chemiluminescence monitored oxidative stress in broiler chickens. Hemin was hypothesized to raise uric acid concentrations thereby lowering oxidative stress whereas allopurinol was hypothesized to lower uric acid concentrations and raise measures of oxidative stress. In study 1 feeding allopurinol (10 mg/kg body weight) to 8-week-old broiler chicks (n=50) for 10 days decreased plasma uric acid by 57%. However, hemin (10 mg/kg body weight) increased uric acid concentrations 20%. In study 2, 12-week-old broiler chicks (n=90) were randomly assigned to either an ad libitum (AL) diet or a diet restricted (DR) group. Each group was further divided into three treatments (control, allopurinol or hemin fed). Unexpectedly, hemin did not significantly effect uric acid concentrations but increased (P<0.05) measures of chemiluminescence dependent oxidative stress in both the DR and AL birds probably due to the ability of iron to generate oxygen radicals. Allopurinol lowered concentrations of uric acid and increased (P<0.05) the oxidative stress in the AL birds at week 22, reduced (P<0.05) body weight in both the AL and DR fed birds at 16 and 22 weeks of age, and markedly increased (P<0.001) shear force values of the pectoralis major muscle. Skin pentosidine levels increased (P<0.05) in AL birds fed allopurinol or hemin fed birds, but not in the diet restricted birds at 22 weeks. The significance of these studies is that concentrations of plasma uric acid can be related to measures of oxidative stress, which can be linked to tissue aging.

  16. Endoparasite prevalence and recurrence across different age groups of dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Gates, Maureen C; Nolan, Thomas J

    2009-12-03

    The apparent prevalence of endoparasite infections across different age groups was calculated from 6555 dogs and 1566 cats that had a fecal examination performed upon presentation to the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 1997 and 2007. Based on notations from the medical history indicating prior parasite infections, estimates of recurrence were generated for each common group of parasites, including Trichuris, Giardia, ascarids, hookworms, Cystoisospora, and tapeworms. Endoparasitism was predominantly a disease of younger animals, with peak prevalence observed almost uniformly in dogs under 6 months old, with the exception of Trichuris with its longer pre-patent period, and in cats less than 18 months old. Furthermore, nearly 50% of dogs under 6 months old with a history of parasites, were diagnosed with at least one species of parasite on subsequent fecal examination. The percentage dropped to 18.4% in animals aged 1-4 years, but again increased to 31.5% in animals over 10 years old. There was no reported recurrence of Giardia or Cystoisospora from canine or feline patients older than 1 year. The recurrence of whipworm rose steadily with age, while hookworm and roundworm recurrence peaked in patients 1-4 years old. Findings from the study emphasize the importance of follow up fecal examinations and treatments in patients diagnosed with endoparasites.

  17. Endoparasite prevalence and recurrence across different age groups of dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Maureen C.; Nolan, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The apparent prevalence of endoparasite infections across different age groups was calculated from 6,555 dogs and 1,566 cats that had a fecal examination performed upon presentation to the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 1997 and 2007. Based on notations from the medical history indicating prior parasite infections, estimates of recurrence were generated for each common group of parasites, including Trichuris, Giardia, ascarids, hookworms, Cystoisospora, and tapeworms. Endoparasitism was predominantly a disease of younger animals, with peak prevalence observed almost uniformly in dogs under 6 months old, with the exception of Trichuris with its longer pre-patent period, and in cats less than 18 months old. Furthermore, nearly 50% of dogs under 6 months old with a history of parasites, were diagnosed with at least one species of parasite on subsequent fecal examination. The percentage dropped to 18.4% in animals aged 1 – 4 years, but again increased to 31.5% in animals over 10 years old. There was no reported recurrence of Giardia or Cystoisospora from canine or feline patients older than 1 year. The recurrence of whipworm rose steadily with age, while hookworm and roundworm recurrence peaked in patients 1 - 4 years old. Findings from the study emphasize the importance of follow up fecal examinations and treatments in patients diagnosed with endoparasites. PMID:19709815

  18. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  19. Age-related increase in brain activity during task-related and -negative networks and numerical inductive reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Qi, Zhigang; Li, Kuncheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that elderly adults exhibit increased and decreased activation on various cognitive tasks, yet little is known about age-related changes in inductive reasoning. Methods: To investigate the neural basis for the aging effect on inductive reasoning, 15 young and 15 elderly subjects performed numerical inductive reasoning while in a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. Results: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis revealed that numerical inductive reasoning, relative to rest, yielded multiple frontal, temporal, parietal, and some subcortical area activations for both age groups. In addition, the younger participants showed significant regions of task-induced deactivation, while no deactivation occurred in the elderly adults. Direct group comparisons showed that elderly adults exhibited greater activity in regions of task-related activation and areas showing task-induced deactivation (TID) in the younger group. Conclusions: Our findings suggest an age-related deficiency in neural function and resource allocation during inductive reasoning. PMID:25337240

  20. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  1. Blood pressure categories and long-term risk of cardiovascular disease according to age group in Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Akira; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2012-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) categories defined by systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) are commonly used. However, the BP category-specific risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been thoroughly investigated in different age groups. The aim of this study was to assess long-term CVD risk and its impact according to BP categories and age group. Pooling individual data from 10 cohorts, we studied 67 309 Japanese individuals (40-89 years old) who were free of CVD at baseline: we categorized them as belonging to three age groups: 'middle-aged' (40-64 years), 'elderly' (65-74 years) and 'very elderly' (75-89 years). BP was classified according to the 2009 Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Cox models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for CVD deaths. We observed 1944 CVD deaths over a mean follow-up of 10.2 years. In all age groups, the overall relationship between BP category and CVD risk was positive, with a greater strength observed for younger age groups. We observed a trend of increased risk from SBP/DBP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg in the very elderly, and a significant increase from SBP/DBP ≥ 120/80 mm Hg in the other age groups. The population attributable fractions (PAFs) of CVD death in reference to the SBP/DBP<120/80 mm Hg category ranged from 23.4% in the very elderly to 60.3% in the middle-aged. We found an overall graded increase in CVD risk with higher BP category in the very elderly. The PAFs suggest that keeping BP levels low is an important strategy for primary CVD prevention, even in an elderly population.

  2. Benefits of gregarious feeding by aposematic caterpillars depend on group age structure.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stuart A; Stastny, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Gregarious feeding is a common feature of herbivorous insects and can range from beneficial (e.g. dilution of predation risk) to costly (e.g. competition). Group age structure should influence these costs and benefits, particularly when old and young larvae differ in their feeding mode or apparency to predators. We investigated the relative value of gregarious feeding by aposematic larvae of Uresiphita reversalis that we observed feeding in groups of mixed ages and variable densities on wild Lupinus diffusus. In a manipulative field experiment, the survivorship and growth of young larvae were enhanced in the presence of older conspecifics, but not in large groups of similarly aged larvae. Estimates of insect damage and induced plant responses suggest that mixed-age groups enhance plant quality for young larvae while avoiding competition. We conclude that benefits of gregariousness in this species are contingent on group age structure, a finding of significance for the ecology and evolution of gregariousness and other social behaviours.

  3. Perceptions of mental workload in Dutch university employees of different ages: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As academic workload seems to be increasing, many studies examined factors that contribute to the mental workload of academics. Age-related differences in work motives and intellectual ability may lead to differences in experienced workload and in the way employees experience work features. This study aims to obtain a better understanding of age differences in sources of mental workload. 33 academics from one faculty discussed causes of workload during focus group interviews, stratified by age. Findings Among our participants, the influence of ageing seems most evident in employees’ actions and reactions, while the causes of workload mentioned seemed largely similar. These individual reactions to workload may also be driven by differences in tenure. Most positively assessed work characteristics were: interaction with colleagues and students and autonomy. Aspects most often indicated as increasing the workload, were organisational aspects as obstacles for ‘getting the best out of people’ and the feeling that overtime seems unavoidable. Many employees indicated to feel stretched between the ‘greediness’ of the organisation and their own high working standards, and many fear to be assigned even less time for research if they do not meet the rigorous output criteria. Moreover, despite great efforts on their part, promotion opportunities seem limited. A more pronounced role for the supervisor seems appreciated by employees of all ages, although the specific interpretation varied between individuals and career stages. Conclusions To preserve good working conditions and quality of work, it seems important to scrutinize the output requirements and tenure-based needs for employee supervision. PMID:23506458

  4. The age-related increase in arterial stiffness is augmented in phases according to the severity of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Arai, Tomio; Koji, Yutaka; Yambe, Minoru; Motobe, Kohki; Zaydun, Glunisa; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Hori, Saburoh; Yamashina, Akira

    2004-07-01

    Although blood pressure and age are major determinants of arterial stiffness, it is still unclear whether age-related changes in arterial stiffness are similar among subjects with different degrees of severity of hypertension. The present study examined the association between age and pulse wave velocity in subjects with different degrees of hypertension stratified according to the JNC-7 classification (Normal, Prehypertensive, and Stage I or II Hypertensive subjects). A number of 5,312 subjects (age range, 30-79 years) with no atherosclerotic risk factors other than high blood pressure were selected from two cohorts who regularly underwent annual health checkups, including the measurement of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). baPWV was increased according to the severity of hypertension in all age groups. The association between age and baPWV formed a quadratic curve in each stage in both genders. The steepness of the slope of the quadratic curve increased according to the severity of hypertension. In each stage of hypertension, age and the baPWV were divided into tertiles. After adjustment for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the odds ratio of having an increased baPWV in the 3rd age tertile (the highest-age group) was found to increase according to the severity of hypertension. In conclusion, the age-related increase of baPWV was shown to be augmented in phases according to the severity of hypertension, and this augmentation occurred even between the Normal and Prehypertensive stages. These results support the JNC-7 recommendations for a strict control of blood pressure even in the elderly.

  5. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  6. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  7. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-06-04

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively.

  8. The changing national policy system: complexity, Medicare, and implications for aging groups.

    PubMed

    Hill, B S; Hinckley, K A

    1991-01-01

    Changes in congressional processes, health agendas, and competitive positions of physician and hospital groups in the 1980s have produced important setbacks for such group interests within Medicare. Though united and successful in opposing Carter's 1977-79 hospital cost-containment proposals, these groups were subjected to severe new limits on hospital reimbursements under the 1982 budget reconciliation act. Thereafter, problems in protecting their interests continued or increased. Disagreements among hospital groups (e.g., the American Hospital Association and the former Federation of American Hospitals) surfaced over the Prospective Payment System introduced in 1983. In 1984, Congress instituted a freeze on physicians' Medicare fees despite AMA opposition. This projected narrow self-interest, thus decreasing the AMA's credibility. Further cost restrictions were imposed in 1985-86 budget acts. The problems of these organizations indicate that if aging groups are to protect their own stake in Medicare in the new political context, they must be particularly concerned with unity, credibility, and long-term perspectives.

  9. Increase of α-Secretase ADAM10 in Platelets Along Cognitively Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Florian; Wolf, Dominik; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Endres, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    ADAM10 is one of the key players in ectodomain-shedding of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP). Previous research with postmortem tissue has shown reduced expression and activity of ADAM10 within the central nervous system (CNS) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Determination of cerebral ADAM10 in living humans is hampered by its transmembrane property; only the physiological AβPP cleavage product generated by ADAM10, sAβPPα, can be assessed in cerebrospinal fluid. Establishment of surrogate markers in easily accessible material therefore is crucial. It has been demonstrated that ADAM10 is expressed in platelets and that platelet amount is decreased in AD patients. Just recently it has been shown that platelet ADAM10 and cognitive performance of AD patients positively correlate. In contrast to AD patients, to our knowledge almost no information has been published regarding ADAM10 expression during normal aging. We investigated ADAM10 amount and activity in platelets of cognitively healthy individuals from three different age groups ranging from 22-85 years. Interestingly, we observed an age-dependent increase in ADAM10 levels and activity in platelets.

  10. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of middle-aged vs. aged vastus lateralis reveals increased levels of carbonic anhydrase isoform 3 in senescent human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Staunton, Lisa; Zweyer, Margit; Swandulla, Dieter; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2012-10-01

    The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and associated progressive decline in contractile strength is a serious pathophysiological issue in the elderly. In order to investigate global changes in the skeletal muscle proteome after the fifth decade of life, this study analysed total extracts from human vastus lateralis muscle by fluorescence difference in-gel electrophoresis. Tissue specimens were derived from middle-aged (47-62 years) vs. aged (76-82 years) individuals and potential changes in the protein expression profiles were compared between these two age groups by a comprehensive gel electrophoresis-based survey. Age-dependent alterations in the concentration of 19 protein spots were revealed and mass spectrometry identified these components as being involved in the excitation-contraction-relaxation cycle, muscle metabolism, ion handling and the cellular stress response. This indicates a generally perturbed protein expression pattern in senescent human muscle. Increased levels of mitochondrial enzymes and isoform switching of the key contractile protein, actin, support the idea of glycolytic-to-oxidative and fast-to-slow transition processes during muscle aging. Importantly, the carbonic anhydrase (CA)3 isoform displayed an increased abundance during muscle aging, which was independently verified by immunoblotting of differently aged human skeletal muscle samples. Since the CA3 isoform is relatively muscle-specific and exhibits a fibre type-specific expression pattern, this enzyme may represent an interesting new biomarker of sarcopenia. Increased levels of CA are indicative of an increased demand of CO₂-removal in senescent muscle, and also suggest age-related fibre type shifting to slower-contracting muscles during human aging.

  11. Polyphenols decreased liver NADPH oxidase activity, increased muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and decreased gastrocnemius age-dependent autophagy in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Caroline; Chabi, Beatrice; Fouret, Gilles; Py, Guillaume; Sairafi, Badie; Elong, Cecile; Gaillet, Sylvie; Cristol, Jean Paul; Coudray, Charles; Feillet-Coudray, Christine

    2012-09-01

    This study explored major systems of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and their consequences on oxidative stress, mitochondriogenesis and muscle metabolism in aged rats, and evaluated the efficiency of 30-day oral supplementation with a moderate dose of a red grape polyphenol extract (RGPE) on these parameters. In the liver of aged rats, NADPH oxidase activity was increased and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities were altered, while xanthine oxidase activity remained unchanged. In muscles, only mitochondrial activity was modified with aging. The oral intake of RGPE decreased liver NADPH oxidase activity in the aged rats without affecting global oxidative stress, suggesting that NADPH oxidase was probably not the dominant detrimental source of production of O(2)·(-) in the liver. Interestingly, RGPE supplementation increased mitochondrial biogenesis and improved antioxidant status in the gastrocnemius of aged rats, while it had no significant effect in soleus. RGPE supplementation also decreased age-dependent autophagy in gastrocnemius of aged rats. These results extended existing findings on the beneficial effects of RGPE on mitochondriogenesis and muscle metabolism in aged rats.

  12. Electronic paper display preferred viewing distance and character size for different age groups.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Chieh

    2011-09-01

    This study explores the preferred viewing distance and character size for an electronic paper display for three age groups. Proofreading speed and accuracy ratio were measured during Chinese proofreading tests using the preferred character size and minimum acceptable character size. Data analysis showed that the mean preferred viewing distance for young, middle-aged and older groups was 503, 455 and 444 mm, respectively. The mean preferred character size determined by young, middle-aged and older groups was 42.0, 50.0 and 55.2 min arc, respectively. The proofreading test results indicated that the older group proofread significantly more slowly (1.25 word/sec) than the young (1.76 word/sec) and middle-aged groups (1.74 word/sec). Further, the participants proofread more correctly with their preferred character size (73.3%) than with their minimum acceptable character size (65.4%). This study provides valuable information for the design of Chinese text presentations for various age groups. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study confirmed the preferred viewing distance and character size for E-paper display were influenced by age. The preferred Chinese character size for young, middle-aged and older people was 42, 50 and 55 min arc, respectively. Therefore, the age factor should be considered for E-paper displays design and video display terminal (VDT) guidelines.

  13. Increasing Career Self-Efficacy for Women: Evaluating a Group Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kate Roy; Mahalik, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates whether women participating in a career group designed to increase career-related self-efficacy would make gains on career decision-making self-efficacy and vocational exploration and commitment compared with women in a control group. Results indicate that women in the treatment group improved on career decision-making self-efficacy and…

  14. Other age groups than children need to be considered as carriers of Streptococcal pneumoniae serotypes.

    PubMed

    Slotved, Hans-Christian

    2016-10-02

    We need to raise the issue that focus on children as the only carriage group for pneumococci is not optimal; we need to consider that other age groups might also be carriers of pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in unvaccinated age groups. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have successfully removed IPD from vaccinated children. Studies have shown an effect of PCV reducing the pneumococcal carriage of PCV serotypes in children. The status for several countries having used PCV for many years is that they do not see PCV serotypes neither carried nor as a cause of IPD in children. PCV vaccination of children has shown a herd protection effect in unvaccinated groups as a reduction in IPD cases caused by PCV serotypes. However, not all PCV serotypes have disappeared as the cause of IPD in the unvaccinated age groups. The author therefore believes that if we are to see PCV serotypes disappear as a cause of IPD in unvaccinated age groups, we need to perform further carriage studies to examine carriage in other age groups. Alternatively, all age groups should be vaccinated against pneumococci to eliminate IPD caused by PCV serotypes from possible hidden carriers.

  15. Quantifying the impact of expanded age group campaigns for polio eradication.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bradley G; Behrend, Matthew R; Klein, Daniel J; Upfill-Brown, Alexander M; Eckhoff, Philip A; Hu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    A priority of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) 2013-2018 strategic plan is to evaluate the potential impact on polio eradication resulting from expanding one or more Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs) to children beyond age five-years in polio endemic countries. It has been hypothesized that such expanded age group (EAG) campaigns could accelerate polio eradication by eliminating immunity gaps in older children that may have resulted from past periods of low vaccination coverage. Using an individual-based mathematical model, we quantified the impact of EAG campaigns in terms of probability of elimination, reduction in polio transmission and age stratified immunity levels. The model was specifically calibrated to seroprevalence data from a polio-endemic region: Zaria, Nigeria. We compared the impact of EAG campaigns, which depend only on age, to more targeted interventions which focus on reaching missed populations. We found that EAG campaigns would not significantly improve prospects for polio eradication; the probability of elimination increased by 8% (from 24% at baseline to 32%) when expanding three annual SIAs to 5-14 year old children and by 18% when expanding all six annual SIAs. In contrast, expanding only two of the annual SIAs to target hard-to-reach populations at modest vaccination coverage-representing less than one tenth of additional vaccinations required for the six SIA EAG scenario-increased the probability of elimination by 55%. Implementation of EAG campaigns in polio endemic regions would not improve prospects for eradication. In endemic areas, vaccination campaigns which do not target missed populations will not benefit polio eradication efforts.

  16. The communication of "pure" group-based anger reduces tendencies toward intergroup conflict because it increases out-group empathy.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Bart; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gordijn, Ernestine H; Postmes, Tom

    2013-08-01

    The communication of group-based anger in intergroup conflict is often associated with destructive conflict behavior. However, we show that communicating group-based anger toward the out-group can evoke empathy and thus reduce intergroup conflict. This is because it stresses the value of maintaining a positive long-term intergroup relationship, thereby increasing understanding for the situation (in contrast to the communication of the closely related emotion of contempt). Three experiments demonstrate that the communication of group-based anger indeed reduces destructive conflict intentions compared with (a) a control condition (Experiments 1-2), (b) the communication of group-based contempt (Experiment 2), and (c) the communication of a combination of group-based anger and contempt (Experiments 2-3). Moreover, results from all three experiments reveal that empathy mediated the positive effect of communicating "pure" group-based anger. We discuss the implications of these findings for the theory and practice of communicating emotions in intergroup conflicts.

  17. Paleontological evidence of Paleozoic age for the Walden Creek Group, Ocoee Supergroup, Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unrug, Raphael; Unrug, Sophia

    1990-11-01

    A newly discovered fossil assemblage including trilobite, ostracod, bryozoan, and microcrinoid fragments and agglutinated foraminifers has been found in the Wilhite Formation, Walden Creek Group, Ocoee Supergroup, in the foothills of the Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee. These fossils prove a Paleozoic age for the Walden Creek Group, which had been interpreted to be of Late Proterozoic age. The foraminiferal assemblage indicaes the Silurian as the older age limit for the Walden Creek Group. These findings make necessary a redefinition of the Ocoee sedimentary basin and reinterpretation of models of the evolution of the Blue Ridge structural province.

  18. Hydroacoustic separation of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Stetter S.L.; Rudstam, L. G.; Stritzel, Thomson J.L.; Parrish, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Separate assessment of young-of-year (YOY) and yearling-and-older (YAO) fish is desirable from both ecological and management perspectives. Acoustic assessments provide information on fish population size structure in the target strength (TS) distribution, but interpretation of TS distributions must be done carefully, as single age groups can produce multiple TS modes. We assessed the ability of in situ TS distributions to identify Lake Champlain rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in June, July, and September of 2001 using mobile and stationary surveys, knowledge of vertical distribution preferences, and predicted TS from trawl catches. YAO rainbow smelt (93-179 mm total length) had wide TS distributions between -60 and -35 dB in all 3 months with two modes at approximately -50 and -40 dB. Most stationary survey single-fish tracks attributed to YAO had targets in both TS modes and a wide TS range often over 15 dB. Between June and September, YOY rainbow smelt TS increased, but single-fish tracks were unimodal, and the TS range was smaller (6 dB). Overlap in TS attributed to YOY and YAO increased from no overlap in June (YOY TS -76 to -61 dB, 15-25 mm) to moderate overlap in July (-76 to -50 dB, 25-63 mm) to considerable overlap in September (-68 to -45 dB, 33-80 mm). In June and July, the TS distribution changed abruptly at the thermocline, indicating almost complete separation of the two groups. A more gradual TS transition was evident in September, indicating substantial overlap between YOY and YAO. Separate estimates can be obtained in September by decomposing TS overlap into components attributed to YOY and YAO rainbow smelt. However, this decomposition introduces additional uncertainty and an assessment in July or possibly August is preferable to obtain separate abundance estimates of YOY and YAO. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  20. A self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young moving groups in the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2015-11-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young ( ≲ 200 Myr), nearby ( ≲ 100 pc) moving groups in the solar neighbourhood based on homogeneous fitting of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones using the τ2 maximum-likelihood fitting statistic of Naylor & Jeffries in the MV, V - J colour-magnitude diagram. The final adopted ages for the groups are as follows: 149^{+51}_{-19} {Myr} for the AB Dor moving group, 24 ± 3 Myr for the β Pic moving group (BPMG), 45^{+11}_{-7} {Myr} for the Carina association, 42^{+6}_{-4} {Myr} for the Columba association, 11 ± 3 Myr for the η Cha cluster, 45 ± 4 Myr for the Tucana-Horologium moving group (Tuc-Hor), 10 ± 3 Myr for the TW Hya association and 22^{+4}_{-3} {Myr} for the 32 Ori group. At this stage we are uncomfortable assigning a final, unambiguous age to the Argus association as our membership list for the association appears to suffer from a high level of contamination, and therefore it remains unclear whether these stars represent a single population of coeval stars. Our isochronal ages for both the BPMG and Tuc-Hor are consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary (LDB) ages, which unlike isochronal ages, are relatively insensitive to the choice of low-mass evolutionary models. This consistency between the isochronal and LDB ages instils confidence that our self-consistent, absolute age scale for young, nearby moving groups is robust, and hence we suggest that these ages be adopted for future studies of these groups. Software implementing the methods described in this study is available from http://www.astro.ex.ac.uk/people/timn/tau-squared/.

  1. Dermatological disease in the older age group: a cross-sectional study in aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Maneka S; Vandal, Alain C; Jarrett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of dermatological disease in aged care facilities, and the relationship between cognitive or physical disability and significant disease. Setting 2 large aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand, each providing low and high level care. Participants All 161 residents of the facilities were invited to participate. The only exclusion criterion was inability to obtain consent from the individual or designated guardian. 88 participants were recruited—66 females (75%), 22 males (25%) with average age 87.1 years (SD 5.5 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary—presence of significant skin disease (defined as that which in the opinion of the investigators needed treatment or was identified as a patient concern) diagnosed clinically on full dermatological examination by a dermatologist or dermatology trainee. Secondary—functional and cognitive status (Rehabilitation Complexity Scale and Abbreviated Mental Test Score). Results 81.8% were found to have at least one significant condition. The most common disorders were onychomycosis 42 (47.7%), basal cell carcinoma 13 (14.8%), asteototic eczema 11 (12.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ 9 (10.2%). Other findings were invasive squamous cell carcinoma 7 (8%), bullous pemphigoid 2 (2.3%), melanoma 2 (2.3%), lichen sclerosus 2 (2.3%) and carcinoma of the breast 1 (1.1%). Inflammatory disease was more common in those with little physical disability compared with those with serious physical disability (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6, p=0.04). No significant association was found between skin disease and cognitive impairment. Conclusions A high rate of dermatological disease was found. Findings ranged from frequent but not life-threatening conditions (eg, onychomycosis), to those associated with a significant morbidity (eg, eczema, lichen sclerosus and bullous pemphigoid), to potentially life-threatening (eg, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and breast cancer

  2. Associative conditioning can increase liking for and consumption of brussels sprouts in children aged 3 to 5 years.

    PubMed

    Capaldi-Phillips, Elizabeth D; Wadhera, Devina

    2014-08-01

    Pairing foods with liked flavors repeatedly can increase preferences for those foods. We compared the effectiveness of associative conditioning (pairing vegetables with sweetened and unsweetened cream cheese) and exposure (presenting vegetables alone) in increasing liking and consumption of bitter and nonbitter vegetables. Twenty-nine children (aged 3 to 5 years) participated in the study. One group of children received brussels sprouts (bitter) with sweetened cream cheese and cauliflower (nonbitter) with unsweetened cream cheese and a second group received the reverse pairing. A third group received brussels sprouts and cauliflower with no cream cheese. Pairing brussels sprouts with cream cheese increased liking and consumption more than exposure, whereas cauliflower was liked by all groups regardless of presence of cream cheese. Associative conditioning was more effective than exposure in increasing liking for a novel, bitter vegetable-brussels sprouts-whereas exposure alone was effective for a nonbitter, more familiar vegetable-cauliflower.

  3. Guidance on Selecting Age Groups for Monitoring and Assessing Childhood Exposures to Environmental Contaminants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document recommends a set of age groupings based on current understanding of differences in lifestage behavior and anatomy and physiology that can serve as a starting set for consideration by Agency risk assessors and researchers.

  4. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Performance in Subelite Gaelic Football Players From Under Thirteen to Senior Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Roe, Mark; Malone, Shane

    2016-11-01

    Roe, M and Malone, S. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance in subelite Gaelic football players from under thirteen to senior age groups. J Strength Cond Res 30 (11): 3187-3193, 2016-Gaelic football is indigenous to Ireland and has similar locomotion profiles to soccer and Australian Football. Given the increasing attention on long-term player development, investigations on age-related variation in Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) performance may provide useful information in talent identification, program design, and player monitoring. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate Yo-YoIR1 performance across Gaelic football age groups. Male participants (n = 355) were recruited from division one, Gaelic football teams. Participants were allocated to one of the 7 groups according to respective age groups from under 13 (U13), under 14, under 15 (U15), under 16 (U16), minor, under 21 (U21), to senior age groups. Total Yo-YoIR1 distance (m) increased progressively from U13 (885 ± 347 m) to U16 (1,595 ± 380 m) equating to a rate of change of 180.2%. In comparison to U13, total distance at minor (1,206 ± 327 m) increased by 136.4%. Subsequent increases were observed in U21 (1,585 ± 445 m) and senior players (2,365 ± 489). Minimum (800-880 m) and maximum (2,240-2,280 m) total distances were comparable for U15, U16, and U21 players. Differences in total distance (m) for all age groups were statistically significant when compared to U13 players (p < 0.002). In comparison to U13 players, the magnitude of differences between age groups for total distance was deemed to be large (effect size > 0.8). Similar trends were observed for maximum velocity and estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. The evolution of Yo-YoIR1 performance in Gaelic football players from adolescents to adulthood highlights how maturation may influence sport-related running ability. Changes in Yo-YoIR1 performance should be closely monitored to optimize interventions for

  5. Cenomanian-? early Turonian minimum age of the Chubut Group, Argentina: SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Manuel; Márquez, Marcelo; De La Cruz, Rita; Navarrete, César; Fanning, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Four new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages older than 93 Ma from samples of the two uppermost formations accumulated in two different depocenters (Golfo de San Jorge and Cañadón Asfalto basins) of the Chubut Group in central Argentinean Patagonia, establish a pre-late Cenomanian-? early Turonian age for the group. It also confirms a coeval and comparable evolution of the two depocenters, where distal pyroclastic material was deposited together with fluvial and lacustrine facies.

  6. Vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours across different age groups in Swedish Adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13–14, 15–16 and 17–18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15–16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in

  7. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  8. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive memories…

  9. The Effects of Music on Age Group Swimmers' Motivation and Practice Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckel, Bryan D.

    This study examined the effects of music on the motivation of 22 female and 5 male swimmers ages 10-13 years. These age-group swimmers practiced 2.0-2.5 hours per day and had six training sessions per week. Using observation logs, surveys, and open-ended questions, the study analyzed swimmers' perceptions of, and behavior when, listening to music…

  10. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  11. Age Group Differences in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Functional Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.; Kim, Johnny S.

    2007-01-01

    This study used data from the 2000 interview wave of the Health and Retirement Study to examine age group differences in the likelihood of self-reported depressive symptomatology among a nationally representative sample of 3,035 adults age 55 years or older who had at least one activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily…

  12. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak.

    PubMed

    Worby, Colin J; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-08-17

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic's peak. We found children aged 11-12y, 13-14y and 8-10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak's ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11-12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak's ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8-10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8-14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation.

  13. Near-infrared light increases ATP, extends lifespan and improves mobility in aged Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Rana; Calaza, Karin; Kam, Jaimie Hoh; Salt, Thomas E.; Hogg, Chris; Jeffery, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Ageing is an irreversible cellular decline partly driven by failing mitochondrial integrity. Mitochondria accumulate DNA mutations and reduce ATP production necessary for cellular metabolism. This is associated with inflammation. Near-infrared exposure increases retinal ATP in old mice via cytochrome c oxidase absorption and reduces inflammation. Here, we expose fruitflies daily to 670 nm radiation, revealing elevated ATP and reduced inflammation with age. Critically, there was a significant increase in average lifespan: 100–175% more flies survived into old age following 670 nm exposure and these had significantly improved mobility. This may be a simple route to extending lifespan and improving function in old age. PMID:25788488

  14. Near-infrared light increases ATP, extends lifespan and improves mobility in aged Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Begum, Rana; Calaza, Karin; Kam, Jaimie Hoh; Salt, Thomas E; Hogg, Chris; Jeffery, Glen

    2015-03-01

    Ageing is an irreversible cellular decline partly driven by failing mitochondrial integrity. Mitochondria accumulate DNA mutations and reduce ATP production necessary for cellular metabolism. This is associated with inflammation. Near-infrared exposure increases retinal ATP in old mice via cytochrome c oxidase absorption and reduces inflammation. Here, we expose fruitflies daily to 670 nm radiation, revealing elevated ATP and reduced inflammation with age. Critically, there was a significant increase in average lifespan: 100-175% more flies survived into old age following 670 nm exposure and these had significantly improved mobility. This may be a simple route to extending lifespan and improving function in old age.

  15. Increased human AP endonuclease 1 level confers protection against the paternal age effect in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Jamila R.; Reddick, Traci L.; Perez, Marissa; Centonze, Victoria E.; Mitra, Sankar; Izumi, Tadahide; McMahan, C. Alex; Walter, Christi A.

    2015-01-01

    Increased paternal age is associated with a greater risk of producing children with genetic disorders originating from de novo germline mutations. Mice mimic the human condition by displaying an age-associated increase in spontaneous mutant frequency in spermatogenic cells. The observed increase in mutant frequency appears to be associated with a decrease in the DNA repair protein, AP endonuclease1 (APEX1) and Apex1 heterozygous mice display an accelerated paternal age effect as young adults. In this study, we directly tested if APEX1 over-expression in cell lines and transgenic mice could prevent increases in mutagenesis. Cell lines with ectopic expression of APEX1 had increased APEX1 activity and lower spontaneous and induced mutations in the lacI reporter gene relative to the control. Spermatogenic cells obtained from mice transgenic for human APEX1 displayed increased APEX1 activity, were protected from the age-dependent increase in spontaneous germline mutagenesis, and exhibited increased apoptosis in the spermatogonial cell population. These results directly indicate that increases in APEX1 level confer protection against the murine paternal age effect, thus highlighting the role of APEX1 in preserving reproductive health with increasing age and in protection against genotoxin-induced mutagenesis in somatic cells. PMID:26201249

  16. Increased hepatic CD36 expression with age is associated with enhanced susceptibility to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Sheedfar, Fareeba; Sung, Miranda MY; Aparicio-Vergara, Marcela; Kloosterhuis, Niels J; Miquilena-Colina, Maria Eugenia; Vargas-Castrillón, Javier; Febbraio, Maria; Jacobs, René L; de Bruin, Alain; Vinciguerra, Manlio; García-Monzón, Carmelo; Hofker, Marten H; Dyck, Jason RB; Koonen, Debby PY

    2014-01-01

    CD36 has been associated with obesity and diabetes in human liver diseases, however, its role in age-associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is unknown. Therefore, liver biopsies were collected from individuals with histologically normal livers (n=30), and from patients diagnosed with simple steatosis (NAS; n=26). Patients were divided into two groups according to age and liver biopsy samples were immunostained for CD36. NAFLD parameters were examined in young (12-week) and middle-aged (52-week) C57BL/6J mice, some fed with chow-diet and some fed with low-fat (LFD; 10% kcal fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal fat) for 12-weeks. CD36 expression was positively associated with age in individuals with normal livers but not in NAS patients. However, CD36 was predominantly located at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes in aged NAS patients as compared to young. In chow-fed mice, aging, despite an increase in hepatic CD36 expression, was not associated with the development of NAFLD. However, middle-aged mice did exhibit the development of HFD-induced NAFLD, mediated by an increase of CD36 on the membrane. Enhanced CD36-mediated hepatic fat uptake may contribute to an accelerated progression of NAFLD in mice and humans. Therapies to prevent the increase in CD36 expression and/or CD36 from anchoring at the membrane may prevent the development of NAFLD. PMID:24751397

  17. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) increase human mesangial foam cell formation by increasing Golgi SCAP glycosylation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yang; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Yaxi; Moorhead, John F; Varghese, Zac; Powis, Stephen H; Minogue, Shane; Sun, Zilin; Ruan, Xiong Z

    2011-07-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is one of the causative factors of diabetic nephropathy, which is associated with lipid accumulation in glomeruli. This study was designed to investigate whether N(ε)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML; a member of the AGEs family) increases lipid accumulation by impairing the function of sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) in human mesangial cells (HMCs). Intracellular cholesterol content was assessed by Oil Red O staining and quantitative assay. The expression of molecules controlling cholesterol homeostasis was examined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. The activity of Golgi-processing enzymes was determined using enzyme-based methods, and the translocation of SCAP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi was detected by confocal microscopy. CML increased cholesterol accumulation in HMCs. Exposure to CML increased expression and abnormal translocation of SCAP from the ER to the Golgi even in the presence of a high concentration of LDL. The increased SCAP translocation carried more SREBP-2 to the Golgi for activation by proteolytic cleavages, enhancing transcription of 3-hydroxy-3-methylclutaryl-CoA reductase and the LDL receptor. CML increased Golgi mannosidase activity, which may enhance glycosylation of SCAP. This prolonged the half-life and enhanced recycling of SCAP between the ER and the Golgi. The effects of CML were blocked by inhibitors of Golgi mannosidases. AGEs (CML) increased lipid synthesis and uptake, thereby causing foam cell formation via increasing transcription and protein glycosylation of SCAP in HMCs. These data imply that inhibitors of Golgi-processing enzymes might have a potential renoprotective role in prevention of mesangial foam cell formation.

  18. Resveratrol prevents age-related memory and mood dysfunction with increased hippocampal neurogenesis and microvasculature, and reduced glial activation.

    PubMed

    Kodali, Maheedhar; Parihar, Vipan K; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Mishra, Vikas; Shuai, Bing; Shetty, Ashok K

    2015-01-28

    Greatly waned neurogenesis, diminished microvasculature, astrocyte hypertrophy and activated microglia are among the most conspicuous structural changes in the aged hippocampus. Because these alterations can contribute to age-related memory and mood impairments, strategies efficacious for mitigating these changes may preserve cognitive and mood function in old age. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in the skin of red grapes having angiogenic and antiinflammatory properties, appears ideal for easing these age-related changes. Hence, we examined the efficacy of resveratrol for counteracting age-related memory and mood impairments and the associated detrimental changes in the hippocampus. Two groups of male F344 rats in late middle-age having similar learning and memory abilities were chosen and treated with resveratrol or vehicle for four weeks. Analyses at ~25 months of age uncovered improved learning, memory and mood function in resveratrol-treated animals but impairments in vehicle-treated animals. Resveratrol-treated animals also displayed increased net neurogenesis and microvasculature, and diminished astrocyte hypertrophy and microglial activation in the hippocampus. These results provide novel evidence that resveratrol treatment in late middle age is efficacious for improving memory and mood function in old age. Modulation of the hippocampus plasticity and suppression of chronic low-level inflammation appear to underlie the functional benefits mediated by resveratrol.

  19. NIH Study Offers Insight into Why Cancer Incidence Increases with Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... increases cancer risk remains unclear. Researchers suspect that DNA methylation, or the binding of chemical tags, called methyl groups, onto DNA, may be involved. Methyl groups activate or silence ...

  20. Lack of increase in DNA crosslinking in Drosophila melanogaster with age.

    PubMed

    Massie, H R; Baird, M B; Williams, T R

    1975-01-01

    Adult Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies ranging in age from 2 to 7.5 weeks with a median colony survival time of 6.4 weeks at 25 degrees C showed no increase in DNA crosslinking with age. The purified denatured DNA used for crosslink determinations varied in molecular weight from 2.02 to 3.84 times 10(5) daltons and was crosslinked to the extent of 6.2-8.8% with no age-related trend.

  1. Anthropometric difference of the knee on MRI according to gender and age groups.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyuksoo; Oh, Sohee; Chang, Chong Bum; Kang, Seung-Baik

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data from MRI images that were obtained from the non-arthritic knees in Asian adults, and to identify the existence of morphologic differences between age groups. This cross-sectional study included knee MR images of 535 patients (273 males, 262 females) taken for the evaluation of soft-tissue injuries, excluding cases with cartilage defect and malalignment. The age, gender, height, and BMI were also assessed. The patients were grouped into three different 20-year age groups (20-39, 40-59, and 60-79). The MRI analysis was performed on the anthropometric parameters of distal femur and posterior tibial slope. Age-related differences were found in femoral width, distance from the distal and posterior cartilage surface to the medial/lateral epicondyle, medial posterior condylar offset (PCO), and posterior condylar angle (PCA) (all P < 0.001), but not in lateral PCO, and medial/lateral tibial slopes. In the analysis of covariance analyses, significant interaction between gender and age groups was found in most parameters, but not in PCA, distance from the posterior cartilage surface to the medial epicondyle, or medial tibial slope. We found anthropometric differences among age groups exist in most of distal femoral parameters, but not in posterior tibial slope. The results of this study can be used by manufacturers to modify prostheses to be suitable for the future Asian elderly population.

  2. The Effects of Multi-Age Grouping on Young Children and Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Melanie K.; Green, Virginia P.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review on the effects of multiage groupings (MAGs) in the primary grades supports their use and argues that children in MAGs perform as well academically as children in single-age groupings (SAGs) and develop better self-concept and school attitudes than children in SAGs. Expresses concerns over lack of training and support for…

  3. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  4. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  5. Prevalence, Formation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of Interdisciplinary Student Aging Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine J.; Vandenberg, Edward V.; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and…

  6. Growing with Your Baby: A Facilitator's Manual for Use with School-Age Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Patricia

    This facilitator's manual, produced by the Family Developmental Center of the Family Service Agency of San Francisco, is designed for use with groups of school-age mothers. Included are meeting-by-meeting instructions for the group leader and some curriculum materials for students. The introduction indicates that the leader should be sensitive to…

  7. Paternal aging and increased risk of congenital disease, psychiatric disorders, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Simon L; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    As couples are increasingly delaying parenthood, the effect of the aging men and women on reproductive outcomes has been an area of increased interest. Advanced paternal age has been shown to independently affect the entire spectrum of male fertility as assessed by reductions in sperm quality and fertilization (both assisted and unassisted). Moreover, epidemiological data suggest that paternal age can lead to higher rates of adverse birth outcomes and congenital anomalies. Mounting evidence also suggests increased risk of specific pediatric and adult disease states ranging from cancer to behavioral traits. While disease states associated with advancing paternal age have been well described, consensus recommendations for neonatal screening have not been as widely implemented as have been with advanced maternal age. PMID:26975491

  8. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  9. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity.

    PubMed

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  10. Chronic Pyruvate Supplementation Increases Exploratory Activity and Brain Energy Reserves in Young and Middle-Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Koivisto, Hennariikka; Leinonen, Henri; Puurula, Mari; Hafez, Hani Sayed; Barrera, Glenda Alquicer; Stridh, Malin H.; Waagepetersen, Helle S.; Tiainen, Mika; Soininen, Pasi; Zilberter, Yuri; Tanila, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of pyruvate when given in systemic injections. Impaired glucose uptake and metabolism are found in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and in AD mouse models. We tested whether dietary pyruvate supplementation is able to provide added energy supply to brain and thereby attenuate aging- or AD-related cognitive impairment. Mice received ~800 mg/kg/day Na-pyruvate in their chow for 2–6 months. In middle-aged wild-type mice and in 6.5-month-old APP/PS1 mice, pyruvate facilitated spatial learning and increased exploration of a novel odor. However, in passive avoidance task for fear memory, the treatment group was clearly impaired. Independent of age, long-term pyruvate increased explorative behavior, which likely explains the paradoxical impairment in passive avoidance. We also assessed pyruvate effects on body weight, muscle force, and endurance, and found no effects. Metabolic postmortem assays revealed increased energy compounds in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as increased brain glycogen storages in the pyruvate group. Pyruvate supplementation may counteract aging-related behavioral impairment, but its beneficial effect seems related to increased explorative activity rather than direct memory enhancement. PMID:27014054

  11. Advancing age increases sperm chromatin damage and impairs fertility in peroxiredoxin 6 null mice

    PubMed Central

    Ozkosem, Burak; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Fisher, Aron B.; O’Flaherty, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Due to socioeconomic factors, more couples are choosing to delay conception than ever. Increasing average maternal and paternal age in developed countries over the past 40 years has raised the question of how aging affects reproductive success of males and females. Since oxidative stress in the male reproductive tract increases with age, we investigated the impact of advanced paternal age on the integrity of sperm nucleus and reproductive success of males by using a Prdx6−/− mouse model. We compared sperm motility, cytoplasmic droplet retention sperm chromatin quality and reproductive outcomes of young (2-month-old), adult (8-month-old), and old (20-month-old) Prdx6−/− males with their age-matched wild type (WT) controls. Absence of PRDX6 caused age-dependent impairment of sperm motility and sperm maturation and increased sperm DNA fragmentation and oxidation as well as decreased sperm DNA compaction and protamination. Litter size, total number of litters and total number of pups per male were significantly lower in Prdx6−/− males compared to WT controls. These abnormal reproductive outcomes were severely affected by age in Prdx6−/− males. In conclusion, the advanced paternal age affects sperm chromatin integrity and fertility more severely in the absence of PRDX6, suggesting a protective role of PRDX6 in age-associated decline in the sperm quality and fertility in mice. PMID:25796034

  12. Elevated Mutagenesis Does Not Explain the Increased Frequency of Antibiotic Resistant Mutants in Starved Aging Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Sophia; Hershberg, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The frequency of mutants resistant to the antibiotic rifampicin has been shown to increase in aging (starved), compared to young colonies of Eschierchia coli. These increases in resistance frequency occur in the absence of any antibiotic exposure, and similar increases have also been observed in response to additional growth limiting conditions. Understanding the causes of such increases in the frequency of resistance is important for understanding the dynamics of antibiotic resistance emergence and spread. Increased frequency of rifampicin resistant mutants in aging colonies is cited widely as evidence of stress-induced mutagenesis (SIM), a mechanism thought to allow bacteria to increase mutation rates upon exposure to growth-limiting stresses. At the same time it has been demonstrated that some rifampicin resistant mutants are relatively fitter in aging compared to young colonies, indicating that natural selection may also contribute to increased frequency of rifampicin resistance in aging colonies. Here, we demonstrate that the frequency of mutants resistant to both rifampicin and an additional antibiotic (nalidixic-acid) significantly increases in aging compared to young colonies of a lab strain of Escherichia coli. We then use whole genome sequencing to demonstrate conclusively that SIM cannot explain the observed magnitude of increased frequency of resistance to these two antibiotics. We further demonstrate that, as was previously shown for rifampicin resistance mutations, mutations conferring nalidixic acid resistance can also increase fitness in aging compared to young colonies. Our results show that increases in the frequency of antibiotic resistant mutants in aging colonies cannot be seen as evidence of SIM. Furthermore, they demonstrate that natural selection likely contributes to increases in the frequency of certain antibiotic resistance mutations, even when no selection is exerted due to the presence of antibiotics. PMID:24244205

  13. Increased centrosome amplification in aged stem cells of the Drosophila midgut

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joung-Sun; Pyo, Jung-Hoon; Na, Hyun-Jin; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Kim, Young-Shin; Arking, Robert; Yoo, Mi-Ae

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs of aged Drosophila midguts. • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs of oxidative stressed Drosophila midguts. • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs by overexpression of PVR, EGFR, and AKT. • Supernumerary centrosomes can be responsible for abnormal ISC polyploid cells. • Supernumerary centrosomes can be a useful marker for aging stem cells. - Abstract: Age-related changes in long-lived tissue-resident stem cells may be tightly linked to aging and age-related diseases such as cancer. Centrosomes play key roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Supernumerary centrosomes are known to be an early event in tumorigenesis and senescence. However, the age-related changes of centrosome duplication in tissue-resident stem cells in vivo remain unknown. Here, using anti-γ-tubulin and anti-PH3, we analyzed mitotic intestinal stem cells with supernumerary centrosomes in the adult Drosophila midgut, which may be a versatile model system for stem cell biology. The results showed increased centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells of aged and oxidatively stressed Drosophila midguts. Increased centrosome amplification was detected by overexpression of PVR, EGFR, and AKT in intestinal stem cells/enteroblasts, known to mimic age-related changes including hyperproliferation of intestinal stem cells and hyperplasia in the midgut. Our data show the first direct evidence for the age-related increase of centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells and suggest that the Drosophila midgut is an excellent model for studying molecular mechanisms underlying centrosome amplification in aging adult stem cells in vivo.

  14. On the Increasing Fragility of Human Teeth with Age: ADeep-Ultraviolet Resonance Raman Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ager III, J.W.; Nalla, R.K.; Balooch, G.; Kim, G.; Pugach, M.; Habelitz, S.; Marshall, G.W.; Kinney, J.H.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2006-07-14

    Ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy (UVRRS) using 244nm excitation was used to investigate the impact of aging on humandentin. The intensity of a spectroscopic feature from the peptide bondsin the collagen increases with tissue age, similar to a finding reportedpreviously for human cortical bone.

  15. THYROID HORMONE REVERSES AGING-INDUCED MYOCARDIAL FATTY ACID OXIDATION DEFECTS AND IMPROVES THE RESPONSE TO ACUTELY INCREASED AFTERLOAD

    SciTech Connect

    Ledee, Dolena; Portman, Michael A.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron

    2013-06-07

    Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism occurs during aging in humans and mice and may contribute to development of heart failure. Aging also impairs myocardial fatty acid oxidation, causing increased reliance on flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) to maintain function. We hypothesize that the metabolic changes in aged hearts make them less tolerant to acutely increased work and that thyroid hormone reverses these defects. Methods: Studies were performed on young (Young, 4-6 months) and aged (Old, 22-24 months) C57/BL6 mice at standard (50 mmHg) and high afterload (80 mmHg). Another aged group received thyroid hormone for 3 weeks (Old-TH, high afterload only). Function was measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle (CAC) using perfusate with 13C labeled lactate, pyruvate, glucose and unlabeled palmitate and insulin. Results: Cardiac function was similar between Young and Old mice at standard afterload. Palmitate Fc was reduced but no individual carbohydrate contributions differed. CAC and individual substrate fluxes decreased in aged. At high afterload, -dP/dT was decreased in Old versus Young. Similar to low afterload, palmitate Fc was decreased in Old. Thyroid hormone reversed aging-induced changes in palmitate Fc and flux while significantly improving cardiac function. Conclusion: The aged heart shows diminished ability to increase cardiac work due to substrate limitations, primarily impaired fatty acid oxidation. The heart accommodates slightly by increasing efficiency through oxidation of carbohydrate substrates. Thyroid hormone supplementation in aged mice significantly improves cardiac function potentially through restoration of fatty acid oxidation.

  16. Comparative genetic variability in HIV-1 subtype C nef gene in early age groups of infants.

    PubMed

    Husain, Mohammad; Sharma, Uma; Gupta, Poonam; Singhal, Megha; Singh, Supriya; Gupta, Sunil; Venkatesh, S; Rai, Arvind

    2017-03-31

    Targeting properties of vertically transmitted viruses in early infancy is important to understand disease progression. To investigate genotypic characteristics of transmitted viruses, blood samples were obtained from infants aged 6 weeks-18 months, categorized in two age groups, acute (≤6 months) and early (>6-18 months). Nef having an important role in pathogenesis was selected to explore the viral characteristics. A total of 57 PCR positive samples, amplified by nef gene were sequenced. Analysis showed that 50 sequences belonged to subtype C. In one sequence of acute age group, a long insertion of 10 residues (AAERMRRAEP) in variable region and a 13 residues deletion (ATNNADCAWLEAQ) around proteolytic cleavage region of gene in another sequence was observed. Insertions were also observed in sequences of early age group, however, they ranged from 2-8 residues only. In one sequence of early age group, 3/4 Arginines at positions 19,21,22 of Arginine cluster were mutated to Glutamine, Alanine and Glutamine respectively. Entropy analysis of two age groups revealed presence of several residues with statistically significant differences in their variability. Among these, 15 (R18,R23,R24; A66,L68,Q71; E74,E77,E78; V87,M92; R119, P144, E167 and C176) belonged to functional motifs, out of which, 12 were in acute age group, suggesting that variability was greater in this group. Prediction of HLA binding peptide motif revealed that epitope LTFGWCFKL was present in >80% study sequences. This epitope was also present in maximum number of HLA types circulating in India and vaccine candidate sequences, suggesting that it may be helpful in designing an epitope-based vaccine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased susceptibility of aging gastric mucosa to injury: the mechanisms and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Tarnawski, Andrzej S; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Jones, Michael K

    2014-04-28

    This review updates the current views on aging gastric mucosa and the mechanisms of its increased susceptibility to injury. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that gastric mucosa of aging individuals-"aging gastropathy"-has prominent structural and functional abnormalities vs young gastric mucosa. Some of these abnormalities include a partial atrophy of gastric glands, impaired mucosal defense (reduced bicarbonate and prostaglandin generation, decreased sensory innervation), increased susceptibility to injury by a variety of damaging agents such as ethanol, aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), impaired healing of injury and reduced therapeutic efficacy of ulcer-healing drugs. Detailed analysis of the above changes indicates that the following events occur in aging gastric mucosa: reduced mucosal blood flow and impaired oxygen delivery cause hypoxia, which leads to activation of the early growth response-1 (egr-1) transcription factor. Activation of egr-1, in turn, upregulates the dual specificity phosphatase, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) resulting in activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and caspase-9 and reduced expression of the anti-apoptosis protein, survivin. The imbalance between pro- and anti-apoptosis mediators results in increased apoptosis and increased susceptibility to injury. This paradigm has human relevance since increased expression of PTEN and reduced expression of survivin were demonstrated in gastric mucosa of aging individuals. Other potential mechanisms operating in aging gastric mucosa include reduced telomerase activity, increase in replicative cellular senescence, and reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and importin-α-a nuclear transport protein essential for transport of transcription factors to nucleus. Aging gastropathy is an important and clinically relevant issue because of: (1) an aging world population due to prolonged life span; (2) older

  18. Features of severe asthma in school-age children: Atopy and increased exhaled nitric oxide

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Gaston, Benjamin M.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Teague, W. Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Background Children with severe asthma have persistent symptoms despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs). The differentiating features of severe asthma in children are poorly defined. Objective To identify features of severe versus mild-to-moderate asthma in school-age children using noninvasive assessments of lung function, atopy, and airway inflammation. Methods A total of 75 children (median age, 10 years) with asthma underwent baseline characterization including spirometry and lung volume testing, methacholine bronchoprovocation, allergy evaluation, and offline measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO). Twenty-eight were followed longitudinally over 6 months. Participants were assigned to the severe asthma subgroup if they required high-dose ICS plus 2 or more minor criteria. Results Children with severe versus mild-to-moderate asthma had more symptoms, greater airway obstruction, more gas trapping, and increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine. Subjects with severe asthma also had higher concentrations of FENO and significantly greater sensitization to aeroallergens. With long-term study, both the reduction in FEV1 and increase in FENO persisted in the severe versus mild-to-moderate group. Furthermore, despite adjustments in ICS doses, the frequency of exacerbations was significantly higher in subjects with severe (83%) versus mild-to-moderate asthma (43%). Conclusion Severe asthma in childhood is characterized by poor symptom control despite high-dose ICS treatment and can be differentiated from mild-to-moderate asthma by measurement of lung function and FENO. Clinical implications Clinicians should suspect severe asthma in children with poor response to ICS, airway obstruction, and high FENO. PMID:17157650

  19. Emergency department visits related to functional abdominal pain in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Pant, Chaitanya; Deshpande, Abhishek; Sferra, Thomas J; Olyaee, Mojtaba

    2017-01-10

    To analyze visits to and admissions from the emergency department (ED) in children with a primary diagnosis of functional abdominal pain (FAP). This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (HCUP-NEDS 2008-2012). FAP-related ED visits were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. The most frequent secondary diagnoses associated with FAP-related ED visits were also extracted. In 2012, a total of 796,665 children presented to the ED with a primary diagnosis of FAP. This correlated to a rate of 11.5 ED visits/1000 population. The highest incidence of ED visits was observed for children in the 10-14-year age group; median (IQR) age of 11 (8) years. In analyzing the temporal trends associated with FAP-related ED visits, we observed an increase in both the overall number of visits (14.0%) as well as the population-adjusted incidence (16.0%) during the period 2008-2012. This coincided with a decreasing trend in hospital admissions from the ED; from 1.4% in 2008 to 1.0% in 2012 (-28.5%). The overwhelming majority (96.7%) of patients with FAP who presented to the ED were treated and released. On multivariate analysis, the leading factor associated with an increased likelihood of admission from the ED was teaching hospital status (aOR 2.07; 95% CI 1.97 to 2.18). The secondary diagnosis most commonly associated with FAP-related ED visits was nausea and/or emesis (19.8%). Pediatric FAP-related ED visits increased significantly from the period 2008 to 2012. However, the incidence of hospital admissions from the ED declined during the same period.

  20. Detection of an aging-related increase in advanced glycation end products in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, B; Larsson, L

    2013-06-01

    Glycation, a non-enzymatic addition of reducing sugars to ε-amino groups of proteins, is a post-translational modification that results in the formation of irreversible advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Ageing related decline in myofibrillar protein function is effected by a number of structural and functional modifications including glycation. Functional properties of skeletal muscles, such as maximum velocity of unloaded shortening, are known to be profoundly affected by ageing at the motor unit, cellular and tissue levels. However, the contribution of protein modifications to a decline in muscle function is not well understood. In this study we measured AGEs of intracellular and sarcolemmal proteins, using an anti-AGE antibody in soleus (SOL) and extensor digiotorum longus (EDL) muscles of male and female rats of five different age groups. Using a fluorescent secondary antibody to visualize AGEs in the confocal microscope, we found that myosin is glycated in both fiber types in all age groups; an ageing related increase in AGEs was observed in both intracellular and sarcolemmal regions in all age groups, with the exception of sarcolemma of SOL (unchanged) and EDL (reduced) in female rats; the greatest concentration of AGEs was found intracellularly in the SOL of the oldest age group (27-30) of females. While an ageing related decline in motor properties can be partially attributed to the observed increase in myofibrillar protein glycation, our results also indicate that intracellular and the less well studied sarcolemmal protein modification likely contribute to an aging-related decline in muscle function. Further studies are required to establish a link between the observed ageing related increase in glycation and muscle function at the motor unit, cellular and tissue levels.

  1. Balint Groups as a Means to Increase Job Satisfaction and Prevent Burnout Among General Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Kjeldmand, Dorte; Holmström, Inger

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE General practitioners (GPs) occupy a central position in health care and often have demanding working situations. This corps shows signs of exhaustion, and many consider quitting their job or plan to retire early. It is therefore urgent to find ways of improving GP’s satisfaction with their work. One approach might be Balint group participation. The aim of this study was to explore GPs’ experience of participating in Balint groups and its influence on their work life. METHODS We conducted a descriptive, qualitative study. Nine GPs who had participated in Balint groups for 3 to 15 years were interviewed. A phenomenologic analysis was carried out to describe the phenomenon of Balint group participation. RESULTS The GPs perceived that their Balint group participation influenced their work life. Analyses revealed several interrelating themes: competence, professional identity, and a sense of security, which increased through parallel processes, creating a base of endurance and satisfaction, thus enabling the GPs to rediscover the joy of being a physician. CONCLUSIONS The GPs in this study described their Balint group participation as beneficial and essential to their work life as physicians in several ways. It seemed to increase their competence in patient encounters and enabled them to endure in their job and find joy and challenge in their relationships with patients. Balint groups might thus help GPs handle a demanding work life and prevent burnout. These groups might not suit all GPs, however, and additional ways to reduce stress and increase job satisfaction should be offered. PMID:18332406

  2. In-Group Ostracism Increases High-Fidelity Imitation in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Watson-Jones, Rachel E; Whitehouse, Harvey; Legare, Cristine H

    2016-01-01

    The Cyberball paradigm was used to examine the hypothesis that children use high-fidelity imitation as a reinclusion behavior in response to being ostracized by in-group members. Children (N = 176; 5- to 6-year-olds) were either included or excluded by in- or out-group members and then shown a video of an in-group or an out-group member enacting a social convention. Participants who were excluded by their in-group engaged in higher-fidelity imitation than those who were included by their in-group. Children who were included by an out-group and those who were excluded by an out-group showed no difference in imitative fidelity. Children ostracized by in-group members also displayed increased anxiety relative to children ostracized by out-group members. The data are consistent with the proposal that high-fidelity imitation functions as reinclusion behavior in the context of in-group ostracism.

  3. Surface L-type Ca2+ channel expression levels are increased in aged hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Núñez-Santana, Félix Luis; Oh, Myongsoo Matthew; Antion, Marcia Diana; Lee, Amy; Hell, Johannes Wilhelm; Disterhoft, John Francis

    2014-01-01

    Age-related increase in L-type Ca2+ channel (LTCC) expression in hippocampal pyramidal neurons has been hypothesized to underlie the increased Ca2+ influx and subsequent reduced intrinsic neuronal excitability of these neurons that lead to age-related cognitive deficits. Here, using specific antibodies against Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 subunits of LTCCs, we systematically re-examined the expression of these proteins in the hippocampus from young (3 to 4 month old) and aged (30 to 32 month old) F344xBN rats. Western blot analysis of the total expression levels revealed significant reductions in both Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 subunits from all three major hippocampal regions of aged rats. Despite the decreases in total expression levels, surface biotinylation experiments revealed significantly higher proportion of expression on the plasma membrane of Cav1.2 in the CA1 and CA3 regions and of Cav1.3 in the CA3 region from aged rats. Furthermore, the surface biotinylation results were supported by immunohistochemical analysis that revealed significant increases in Cav1.2 immunoreactivity in the CA1 and CA3 regions of aged hippocampal pyramidal neurons. In addition, we found a significant increase in the level of phosphorylated Cav1.2 on the plasma membrane in the dentate gyrus of aged rats. Taken together, our present findings strongly suggest that age-related cognitive deficits cannot be attributed to a global change in L-type channel expression nor to the level of phosphorylation of Cav1.2 on the plasma membrane of hippocampal neurons. Rather, increased expression and density of LTCCs on the plasma membrane may underlie the age-related increase in L-type Ca2+ channel activity in CA1 pyramidal neurons. PMID:24033980

  4. In vivo levels of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide increase with age in mtDNA mutator mice.

    PubMed

    Logan, Angela; Shabalina, Irina G; Prime, Tracy A; Rogatti, Sebastian; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Hartley, Richard C; Budd, Ralph C; Cannon, Barbara; Murphy, Michael P

    2014-08-01

    In mtDNA mutator mice, mtDNA mutations accumulate leading to a rapidly aging phenotype. However, there is little evidence of oxidative damage to tissues, and when analyzed ex vivo, no change in production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide and hydrogen peroxide by mitochondria has been reported, undermining the mitochondrial oxidative damage theory of aging. Paradoxically, interventions that decrease mitochondrial ROS levels in vivo delay onset of aging. To reconcile these findings, we used the mitochondria-targeted mass spectrometry probe MitoB to measure hydrogen peroxide within mitochondria of living mice. Mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide was the same in young mutator and control mice, but as the mutator mice aged, hydrogen peroxide increased. This suggests that the prolonged presence of mtDNA mutations in vivo increases hydrogen peroxide that contributes to an accelerated aging phenotype, perhaps through the activation of pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory redox signaling pathways.

  5. Interventions for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged 5 years and under

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenden, Luke; Wyse, Rebecca J; Britton, Ben I; Campbell, Karen J; Hodder, Rebecca K; Stacey, Fiona G; McElduff, Patrick; James, Erica L

    2014-01-01

    the review. Two trials examined the impact of specific feeding practices (e.g. repeated food exposure) in increasing child intake of a target vegetable. Two trials assessed the effectiveness of home visiting programs implemented in disadvantaged communities and one trial investigated the effect of a preschool-based intervention in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. Risk of bias of included studies was low although three of the five trials were judged to be at high risk of performance bias. Meta-analysis of two trials examining repeated food exposure versus a no intervention comparison found no significant difference in target vegetable consumption in the short term (mean difference (MD) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) −2.78 to 5.52). Coupling repeated food exposure with a tangible non-food or social reward, was effective in increasing targeted vegetable consumption in the short term based on one trial. Home visiting programs provided to disadvantaged groups did not significantly increase overall fruit intake in the short term (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.01, 95% CI −0.09 to 0.11). Similarly, a multi-component preschool-based intervention failed to significantly increase child consumption of vegetables, but did report a small significant increase in mean child consumption of fruit, six months following baseline assessment. None of the trials investigated intervention cost-effectiveness or reported information regarding any adverse events or unintended adverse consequences of the intervention. Authors’ conclusions Despite the importance of encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption among children aged five years and under, this review identified few randomised controlled trials investigating interventions to achieve this. PMID:23152262

  6. Sociocultural influences on strategies to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles among ten cultural groups.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Busija, Lucy; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Mussap, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This study determined how sociocultural messages to change one's body are perceived by adolescents from different cultural groups. In total, 4904 adolescents, including Australian, Chilean, Chinese, Indo-Fijian, Indigenous Fijian, Greek, Malaysian, Chinese Malaysian, Tongans in New Zealand, and Tongans in Tonga, were surveyed about messages from family, peers, and the media to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles. Groups were best differentiated by family pressure to gain weight. Girls were more likely to receive the messages from multiple sociocultural sources whereas boys were more likely to receive the messages from the family. Some participants in a cultural group indicated higher, and others lower, levels of these sociocultural messages. These findings highlight the differences in sociocultural messages across cultural groups, but also that adolescents receive contrasting messages within a cultural group. These results demonstrate the difficulty in representing a particular message as being characteristic of each cultural group.

  7. Preferential retrotransposition in aging yeast mother cells is correlated with increased genome instability.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Melissa N; Scannapieco, Alison E; Au, Pak Ho; Dorsey, Savanna; Royer, Catherine A; Maxwell, Patrick H

    2015-10-01

    Retrotransposon expression or mobility is increased with age in multiple species and could promote genome instability or altered gene expression during aging. However, it is unclear whether activation of retrotransposons during aging is an indirect result of global changes in chromatin and gene regulation or a result of retrotransposon-specific mechanisms. Retromobility of a marked chromosomal Ty1 retrotransposon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was elevated in mother cells relative to their daughter cells, as determined by magnetic cell sorting of mothers and daughters. Retromobility frequencies in aging mother cells were significantly higher than those predicted by cell age and the rate of mobility in young populations, beginning when mother cells were only several generations old. New Ty1 insertions in aging mothers were more strongly correlated with gross chromosome rearrangements than in young cells and were more often at non-preferred target sites. Mother cells were more likely to have high concentrations and bright foci of Ty1 Gag-GFP than their daughter cells. Levels of extrachromosomal Ty1 cDNA were also significantly higher in aged mother cell populations than their daughter cell populations. These observations are consistent with a retrotransposon-specific mechanism that causes retrotransposition to occur preferentially in yeast mother cells as they begin to age, as opposed to activation by phenotypic changes associated with very old age. These findings will likely be relevant for understanding retrotransposons and aging in many organisms, based on similarities in regulation and consequences of retrotransposition in diverse species.

  8. Effect of age increase on metabolism and toxicity of ethanol in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young C; Kim, Sung Y; Sohn, Young R

    2003-12-12

    Age-dependent change in the effects of acute ethanol administration on female rat liver was investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats, each aged 4, 12, or 50 weeks, received ethanol (2 g/kg) via a catheter inserted into a jugular vein. Ethanol elimination rate (EER), most rapid in the 4 weeks old rats, was decreased as the age advanced. Hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase activity was not altered by age, but microsomal p-nitrophenol hydroxylase activity was significantly greater in the 4 weeks old rats. Relative liver weight decreased with age increase in proportion to reduction of EER. Hepatic triglyceride and malondialdehyde concentrations increased spontaneously in the 50 weeks old nai;ve rats. Ethanol administration (3 g/kg, ip) elevated malondialdehyde and triglyceride contents only in the 4 and the 12 weeks old rats. Hepatic glutathione concentration was increasingly reduced by ethanol with age increase. Ethanol decreased cysteine concentration in the 4 weeks old rats, but elevated it significantly in the older rats. Inhibition of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity by ethanol was greater with age increase, which appeared to be responsible for the increase in hepatic cysteine. The results indicate that age does not affect the ethanol metabolizing capacity of female rat liver, but the overall ethanol metabolism is decreased in accordance with the reduction of relative liver size. Accordingly induction of acute alcoholic fatty liver is less significant in the old rats. However, progressively greater depletion of glutathione by ethanol in older rats suggests that susceptibility of liver to oxidative damage would be increased as animals grow old.

  9. Horizontal transfer of fipronil is enhanced with increased group size in Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Cai; Henderson, Gregg; Chen, Xuan; Gautam, Bal K

    2013-12-01

    Fipronil is a widely used insecticide for termite control. Although transfer of fipronil among termite cohorts has been investigated in previous studies, no study has yet focused on the influence of termite group size (density) on horizontal transfer. In this study, the mortality of donor and recipient Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) was compared among groups of 10, 25, and 50 workers. Most donor termites were dead within 20 h. There was a significantly higher mortality of recipient termites starting at 44 h when in bigger groups. LT50 and LT90 of recipient termites decreased with increase in group size, being significantly shorter in groups of 50 termites compared with groups of 10 termites. Moreover, the variance (within-group difference) of recipient mortality and lethal time estimations was lowest in the groups of 50 termites, indicating a more uniform horizontal transfer of fipronil by termites in bigger groups. Our findings suggest that group size has an influence on fipronil transfer among C. formosanus workers and should be considered as a variable of importance.

  10. A Note on Sex Differences in Mental Rotation in Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Eid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A large number of studies have reported average performance differences in favor of males in mental rotation tasks. However, it is still unclear to what extent the magnitude of the sex differences varies across age, and whether the differences increase with age. In this study, we reanalyzed data from a cross-sectional investigation of N = 1624…

  11. [Measles outbreak in the adult age group: evaluation of 28 cases].

    PubMed

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Akın, Hicran; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Kalkan, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the age group affected from measles has widened and the disease has become more common among adolescents and young adults. The number of measles case reports have increased in our country, particularly from 2010-2011, and measles outbreaks occurred in various regions in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographical and epidemiological characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, and complications of adult patients with measles who were affected during the outbreak. A total of 28 patients (25 male, 3 female; age range: 19-39 years, median age: 24) who were hospitalized and followed-up in our clinic between January 2013 and June 2013, were evaluated. In the serum sample of the index case, measles-specific IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA, and measles virus RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then genotyping was performed to detect the epidemiological relationship. In all of the other cases, measles IgM and IgG antibodies were screened by ELISA. The most common symptoms on admission included high fever (n= 28, 100%), malaise (n= 25, 89%), sore throat (n= 25, 89%), headache (n= 20, 71%) and cough (n= 18, 64%). At physical examination, rash (n= 28, 100%), lymphadenopathy (n= 11, 39%) and conjunctivitis (n= 10, 36%) were in the foreground, and Koplik spots were detected in five (18%) cases. The most common laboratory findings were; increased level of C-reactive protein (n= 15, 54%), leukopenia (n= 12, 43%) and increased serum levels of aminotransferases (n= 12, 43%), and thrombocytopenia was detected in five (18%) patients. One or more complications (secondary bacterial pneumonia in 5, diarrhea in 4, hepatitis in 3 and otitis in 2 cases) developed in the eight (29%) patients. Measles RT-PCR and IgM tests yielded positive results for the index case, and the isolate was identified as D8 strain by genotyping. Measles lgM antibodies were also positive in all of the other cases. The hospitalization period was

  12. The increase of the functional entropy of the human brain with age.

    PubMed

    Yao, Y; Lu, W L; Xu, B; Li, C B; Lin, C P; Waxman, D; Feng, J F

    2013-10-09

    We use entropy to characterize intrinsic ageing properties of the human brain. Analysis of fMRI data from a large dataset of individuals, using resting state BOLD signals, demonstrated that a functional entropy associated with brain activity increases with age. During an average lifespan, the entropy, which was calculated from a population of individuals, increased by approximately 0.1 bits, due to correlations in BOLD activity becoming more widely distributed. We attribute this to the number of excitatory neurons and the excitatory conductance decreasing with age. Incorporating these properties into a computational model leads to quantitatively similar results to the fMRI data. Our dataset involved males and females and we found significant differences between them. The entropy of males at birth was lower than that of females. However, the entropies of the two sexes increase at different rates, and intersect at approximately 50 years; after this age, males have a larger entropy.

  13. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method: Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results: (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion: Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436

  14. The Influence of Older Age Groups to Sustainable Product Design Research of Urban Public Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen-juan, Zhang; Hou-peng, Song

    2017-01-01

    Through summarize the status quo of public facilities design to older age groups in China and a variety of factors what influence on them, the essay, from different perspective, is designed to put forward basic principle to sustainable design of public facilities for the aged in the city, and thus further promote and popularize the necessity of sustainable design applications in the future design of public facilities for elderly people.

  15. Age-induced protein modifications and increased proteolysis in potato seed-tubers

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, G.N.M.; Knowles, N.R.; Houtz, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Long-term aging of potato (Solanum tuberosum) seed-tubers resulted in a loss of patatin and a cysteine-proteinase inhibitor, potato multicystatin (PMC), as well as in increase in the activities of 84-, 95-, and 125-kD proteinases. Highly active, additional proteinases appeared in the oldest tubers. Over 90% of the total proteolytic activity in aged tubers was sensitive to trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido (4-guanidino) butane or leupeptin, whereas pepstatin was the most effective inhibitor of proteinases in young tubers. Proteinases in aged tubers were also inhibited by crude extracts or purified PMC from young tubers, suggesting that the loss of PMC was responsible for the age-induced increase in proteinase activity. Nonenzymatic oxidation, glycation, and deamidation of proteins were enhanced by aging. Aged tubers developed daughter tubers that contained 3-fold more protein than mother tubers, with a polypeptide profile consistent with that of young tubers. Although PMC and patatin were absent from the older mother tubers, both proteins were expressed in the daughter tubers, indicating that aging did not compromise the efficacy of genes encoding PMC and patatin. Unlike the mother tubers, proteinase activity in daughter tubers was undetectable. Their results indicate that tuber aging nonenzymatically modifies proteins, which enhances their susceptibility to breakdown; the authors also identify a role for PMC in regulating protein turnover in potato tubers.

  16. Increased epigenetic age and granulocyte counts in the blood of Parkinson's disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Steve; Ritz, Beate R.

    2015-01-01

    It has been a long standing hypothesis that blood tissue of PD Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may exhibit signs of accelerated aging. Here we use DNA methylation based biomarkers of aging (“epigenetic clock”) to assess the aging rate of blood in two ethnically distinct case-control data sets. Using n=508 Caucasian and n=84 Hispanic blood samples, we assess a) the intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration of blood (IEAA), which is independent of blood cell counts, and b) the extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration rate of blood (EEAA) which is associated with age dependent changes in blood cell counts. Blood of PD subjects exhibits increased age acceleration according to both IEAA (p=0.019) and EEAA (p=6.1×10−3). We find striking differences in imputed blood cell counts between PD cases and controls. Compared to control subjects, PD subjects contains more granulocytes (p=1.0×10−9 in Caucasians, p=0.00066 in Hispanics) but fewer T helper cells (p=1.4×10−6 in Caucasians, p=0.0024 in Hispanics) and fewer B cells (p=1.6×10−5 in Caucasians, p=4.5×10−5 in Hispanics). Overall, this study shows that the epigenetic age of the immune system is significantly increased in PD patients and that granulocytes play a significant role. PMID:26655927

  17. Dynamics of telomere length in different age groups in a Latvian population.

    PubMed

    Zole, Egija; Pliss, Liana; Ranka, Renate; Krumina, Astrida; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2013-12-01

    The shortening of telomeres with ageing is a well-documented observation; however, the reported number of nucleotides in telomeres varies between different laboratories and studies. Such variability is likely caused by ethnic differences between the populations studied. Until now, there were no studies that investigated the variability of telomere length in a senescent Latvian population of the most common mitochondrial haplogroups, defined as H (45%), U (25%), Y chromosomal N1c (40%) and R1a1 (40%). Telomere length was determined in 121 individuals in different age groups, including a control group containing individuals of 20-40 years old and groups of individuals between 60-70 years old, 71-80 years old, 81-90 years old, and above 90 years old. Telomere length was determined using the Southern blot telomeric restriction fragment assay (TRF). Decreased telomere length with ageing was confirmed, but a comparison of centenarians and individuals between 60-90 years of age did not demonstrate a significant difference in telomere length. However, significant variability in telomere length was observed in the control group, indicating probable rapid telomere shortening in some individuals that could lead up to development of health status decline appearing with ageing. Telomere length measured in mononuclear blood cells (MNC) was compared with the telomere length measured in whole peripheral white blood cells (WBC) using TRF. Telomere length in MNC was longer than in WBC for the control group with individuals 20 to 40 years old; in contrast, for the group of individuals aged 65 to 85 years old, measured telomere length was shorter in MNC when compared to WBC.

  18. Age-Related Differences in Functional Nodes of the Brain Cortex – A High Model Order Group ICA Study

    PubMed Central

    Littow, Harri; Elseoud, Ahmed Abou; Haapea, Marianne; Isohanni, Matti; Moilanen, Irma; Mankinen, Katariina; Nikkinen, Juha; Rahko, Jukka; Rantala, Heikki; Remes, Jukka; Starck, Tuomo; Tervonen, Osmo; Veijola, Juha; Beckmann, Christian; Kiviniemi, Vesa J.

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI measured with blood oxygen dependent (BOLD) contrast in the absence of intermittent tasks reflects spontaneous activity of so-called resting state networks (RSN) of the brain. Group level independent component analysis (ICA) of BOLD data can separate the human brain cortex into 42 independent RSNs. In this study we evaluated age-related effects from primary motor and sensory, and, higher level control RSNs. One hundred sixty-eight healthy subjects were scanned and divided into three groups: 55 adolescents (ADO, 13.2 ± 2.4 years), 59 young adults (YA, 22.2 ± 0.6 years), and 54 older adults (OA, 42.7 ± 0.5 years), all with normal IQ. High model order group probabilistic ICA components (70) were calculated and dual-regression analysis was used to compare 21 RSN's spatial differences between groups. The power spectra were derived from individual ICA mixing matrix time series of the group analyses for frequency domain analysis. We show that primary sensory and motor networks tend to alter more in younger age groups, whereas associative and higher level cognitive networks consolidate and re-arrange until older adulthood. The change has a common trend: both spatial extent and the low frequency power of the RSN's reduce with increasing age. We interpret these result as a sign of normal pruning via focusing of activity to less distributed local hubs. PMID:20953235

  19. The Importance of Properly Compensating for Head Movements During MEG Acquisition Across Different Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric; Taulu, Samu

    2017-03-01

    Unlike EEG sensors, which are attached to the head, MEG sensors are located outside the head surface on a fixed external device. Subject head movements during acquisition thus distort the magnetic field distributions measured by the sensors. Previous studies have looked at the effect of head movements, but no study has comprehensively looked at the effect of head movements across age groups, particularly in infants. Using MEG recordings from subjects ranging in age from 3 months through adults, here we first quantify the variability in head position as a function of age group. We then combine these measured head movements with brain activity simulations to determine how head movements bias source localization from sensor magnetic fields measured during movement. We find that large amounts of head movement, especially common in infant age groups, can result in large localization errors. We then show that proper application of head movement compensation techniques can restore localization accuracy to pre-movement levels. We also find that proper noise covariance estimation (e.g., during the baseline period) is important to minimize localization bias following head movement compensation. Our findings suggest that head position measurement during acquisition and compensation during analysis is recommended for researchers working with subject populations or age groups that could have substantial head movements. This is especially important in infant MEG studies.

  20. Age-related increases in F344 rat intestine microsomal quercetin glucuronidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to establish the extent age modifies intestinal quercetin glucuronidation capacity. Pooled microsomal fractions of three equidistant small intestine (SI) segments from 4, 12, 18, and 28 mo male F344 rats (n=8/group) were employed to model the enzyme kinetics of UDP-gl...

  1. Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

  2. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among High-Risk Age Groups in South Korea, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ju; Cha, Go-Woon; Ju, Young Ran; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Jeong, Young Eui

    2016-01-01

    After an extensive vaccination policy, Japanese encephalitis (JE) was nearly eliminated since the mid-1980s in South Korea. Vaccination in children shifted the affected age of JE patients from children to adults. However, an abrupt increase in JE cases occurred in 2010, and this trend has continued. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the JE virus (JEV) among high-risk age groups (≥40 years) in South Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to JEV in 945 subjects within four age groups (30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years) in 10 provinces. Of the 945 enrolled subjects, 927 (98.1%) exhibited antibodies against JEV. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies according to sex, age, or occupation. However, there were significant differences in the plaque reduction rate according to age and occupation; oldest age group had a higher reduction rate, and subjects who were employed in agriculture or forestry also had a higher value than the other occupations. We also found that three provinces (Gangwon, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam) had a relatively lower plaque reduction rate than the other locations. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were conducted to determine recent viral infections and 12 (1.3%) subjects were found to have been recently infected by the virus [corrected]. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicated that the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies has been maintained at very high levels among adult age groups owing to vaccination or natural infections, or both. In the future, serosurveillance should be conducted periodically using more representative samples to better understand the population-level immunity to JE in South Korea.

  3. Axial Length, Anterior Chamber Depth-A Study in Different Age Groups and Refractive Errors

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Veena; Rajeshbhai, Gandhi Parth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Axial length and anterior chamber depth play an important role in refractive status of the eye in different age groups. Material and Methods: The present study has been done on 240 patients (480 eyes) who attended eye OPD of Department of Ophthalmology at NIMS Medical College & Hospital Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. The patients attending eye OPD between July 2011 to December 2012 of different ages groups were without significant history of any ocular disease. The axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured and compared. Conclusion: Hypermetropic eyes have shallow anterior chamber depth and shorter axial length as compared to myopic and emmtropic eyes. PMID:24298478

  4. Ageing increases reliance on sensorimotor prediction through structural and functional differences in frontostriatal circuits.

    PubMed

    Wolpe, Noham; Ingram, James N; Tsvetanov, Kamen A; Geerligs, Linda; Kievit, Rogier A; Henson, Richard N; Wolpert, Daniel M; Rowe, James B

    2016-10-03

    The control of voluntary movement changes markedly with age. A critical component of motor control is the integration of sensory information with predictions of the consequences of action, arising from internal models of movement. This leads to sensorimotor attenuation-a reduction in the perceived intensity of sensations from self-generated compared with external actions. Here we show that sensorimotor attenuation occurs in 98% of adults in a population-based cohort (n=325; 18-88 years; the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience). Importantly, attenuation increases with age, in proportion to reduced sensory sensitivity. This effect is associated with differences in the structure and functional connectivity of the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. The results suggest that ageing alters the balance between the sensorium and predictive models, mediated by the pre-SMA and its connectivity in frontostriatal circuits. This shift may contribute to the motor and cognitive changes observed with age.

  5. Empirical evidence for various evolutionary hypotheses on species demonstrating increasing mortality with increasing chronological age in the wild.

    PubMed

    Libertini, Giacinto

    2008-02-19

    Many species show a significant increase in mortality with increasing chronological age in the wild. For this phenomenon, three possible general hypotheses are proposed, namely that: (1) it has no adaptive meaning; (2) it has an adaptive meaning; (3) the ancestry is the pivotal determinant. These hypotheses are evaluated according to their consistency with the empirical evidence. In particular, (1) the existence of many species with a constant, or almost constant, mortality rate, especially the so-called "animals with negligible senescence"; (2) the inverse correlation, observed in mammals and birds in the wild, between extrinsic mortality and the proportion of deaths due to intrinsic mortality; (3) the existence of highly sophisticated, genetically determined, and regulated mechanisms that limit and modulate cell duplication capacities and overall cell functionality. On the whole, the hypothesis of an adaptive meaning appears to be consistent with the empirical evidence, while the other two hypotheses hardly appear compatible.

  6. Inhibition of autophagy increased AGE/ROS-mediated apoptosis in mesangial cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Fan, Qiuling; Wang, Xu; Zhao, Xue; Wang, Lining

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the role of autophagy, a homeostatic process involved in the lysosomal degradation of damaged cell organelles and proteins, in regulating the survival of mesangial cells treated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In the present study, AGEs induced mitochondrial depolarization and led to mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in mesangial cells, as shown by the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential; increased Bax processing; increased Caspase-9, Caspase-3 and PARP cleavage; and decreased Bcl-2 expression. Meanwhile, AGEs also triggered autophagy flux in mesangial cells, as confirmed by the presence of autophagic vesicles, the conversion of LC3II/LC3I and the increase/decrease in Beclin-1/p62 expression. Interestingly, this study reported apparent apoptosis and autophagy that were dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Scavenging ROS with N-acetyl-l-cysteine could prevent the appearance of the autophagic features and reverse AGE-induced apoptosis. Moreover, AGE-triggered mitophagy, which was confirmed by the colocalization of autophagosomes and mitochondria and Parkin translocation to mitochondria, played a potential role in reducing ROS production in mesangial cells. Additionally, inhibition of autophagy significantly enhanced AGE-induced cell apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that ROS were the mediators of AGE-induced mesangial cell apoptosis and that autophagy was likely to be the mechanism that was triggered to repair the ROS-induced damage in the AGE-treated cells and thereby promote cell survival. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanism of autophagy involved in AGE-induced apoptosis in mesangial cells. PMID:27809300

  7. Effect of age on aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) and comparison of screening accuracy of ARR plus elevated serum aldosterone concentration for primary aldosteronism screening in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guoshu; Zhang, Shaoling; Yan, Li; Wu, Muchao; Xu, Mingtong; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hua

    2012-08-01

    The serum aldosterone concentration (SAC)/plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio (ARR) is considered a useful screening test in the differential diagnosis of essential hypertension (EH) and primary aldosteronism (PA). The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on ARR and compare the screening accuracy of ARR plus elevated SAC for PA screening in different age groups. Thirty-nine patients with PA, 274 patients with EH, and 153 healthy volunteers were recruited. Blood was sampled for SAC and PRA measuring under keeping upright posture for 1 h. Levels of SAC, PRA, and ARR were compared at different ages range for the respective three groups of subjects. The screening accuracy of ARR plus elevated SAC was compared in different age groups and PA patients served as the same positive subjects. In the EH group, logarithmically transformed ARR (Log-ARR) increased with advancing age and reached its peak in the ≥ 60 years group; in the normotensives group, Log-ARR reached its peak in the 40-49 years group and slightly declined with advancing age. In the PA group, Log-ARR was not age dependent. Screening accuracy increased when combined index of ARR and SAC was used in the ≥ 40 years group but not in the <40 years group. Although the number of EH patients with elevated ARR increased with advancing age, but the screening accuracy and cutoff values of ARR were not affected by age. Using the combined index of ARR and SAC increased the screening accuracy for the patients older than 40 years, but not necessary for the patients younger than 40 years.

  8. Increased bone morphogenetic protein signaling contributes to age-related declines in neurogenesis and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Emily A.; Gobeske, Kevin T.; Bond, Allison M.; Jarrett, Jennifer C.; Peng, Chian-Yu; Kessler, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus and diminished hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) increases with age by more than 10-fold in the mouse dentate gyrus while levels of the BMP inhibitor, noggin, decrease. This results in a profound 30-fold increase in phosphorylated-SMAD1/5/8, the effector of canonical BMP signaling. Just as observed in mice, a profound increase in expression of BMP4 is observed in the dentate gyrus of humans with no known cognitive abnormalities. Inhibition of BMP signaling either by overexpression of noggin or transgenic manipulation not only increases neurogenesis in aging mice, but remarkably, is associated with a rescue of cognitive deficits to levels comparable to young mice. Additive benefits are observed when combining inhibition of BMP signaling and environmental enrichment. These findings indicate that increased BMP signaling contributes significantly to impairments in neurogenesis and to cognitive decline associated with aging, and identify this pathway as a potential druggable target for reversing age-related changes in cognition. PMID:26827654

  9. Age-related increase of thromboxane B2 and risk of cardiovascular disease in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Farcomeni, Alessio; Nocella, Cristina; Bartimoccia, Simona; Carnevale, Roberto; Violi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Aging is strictly associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events (CVEs) in the general population. Mechanisms underlying the risk of CVEs are still unclear. Platelet activation contributes to the onset of cardiovascular complications. The incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) increases with age, and the natural history of AF is often complicated by CVEs. We prospectively investigated the relationship between age, urinary thromboxane (Tx) B2, which reflects platelet activation, and CVEs in 833 AF patients. Median TxB2 level was 120 [66-200] ng/mg of urinary creatinine. At multivariable linear regression analysis, age (B: 0.097, p=0.005) and previous MI/CHD (B: 0.069, p=0.047) were associated with log-TxB2 levels. When we divided our population into age classes (i.e. < 60, 60-69, 70-79, ≥ 80 years), we found a significant difference in TxB2 levels across classes (p=0.005), with a significant elevation at 74.6 years. During a mean follow-up of 40.9 months, 128 CVEs occurred; the rate of CVEs significantly increased with age classes (Log-rank test, p < 0.001). TxB2 levels were higher in patients with, compared to those without, CVEs in patients aged 70-79 (p < 0.001) and ≥ 80 (p = 0.020) years. In conclusion, TxB2 levels enhance by increasing age, suggesting that platelet activation contributes to CVEs in elderly patients with AF. PMID:27270651

  10. Human actuarial aging increases faster when background death rates are lower: a consequence of differential heterogeneity?

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Kristen; Smith, Ken R; Blevins, James K

    2012-01-01

    Many analyses of human populations have found that age-specific mortality rates increase faster across most of adulthood when overall mortality levels decline. This contradicts the relationship often expected from Williams' classic hypothesis about the effects of natural selection on the evolution of senescence. More likely, much of the within-species difference in actuarial aging is not due to variation in senescence, but to the strength of filters on the heterogeneity of frailty in older survivors. A challenge to this differential frailty hypothesis was recently posed by an analysis of life tables from historical European populations and traditional societies that reported variation in actuarial aging consistent with Williams' hypothesis after all. To investigate the challenge, we reconsidered those cases and aging measures. Here we show that the discrepancy depends on Ricklefs' aging rate measure, ω, which decreases as mortality levels drop because it is an index of mortality level itself, not the rate of increase in mortality with age. We also show unappreciated correspondence among the parameters of Gompertz-Makeham and Weibull survival models. Finally, we compare the relationships among mortality parameters of the traditional societies and the historical series, providing further suggestive evidence that differential heterogeneity has strong effects on actuarial aging.

  11. Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marmontel, M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Kochman, H.I.; Humphrey, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Growth layers were observed in histological preparations of bones of known-age, known minimum-age, and tetracycline-marked free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), substantiating earlier preliminary findings of other studies. Detailed analysis of 17 new case histories showed that growth-layer group (GLG) counts in the periotic bone were consistent with known age, or time since tetracycline administration, but were less reliable in other bones. GLG counts were also made in periotic bones of 1,196 Florida manatees of unknown age found dead from 1974 through 1991. These counts were conducted in order to assess variability and to determine relationships among estimated age, size, sex, and degree of bone resorption. Resorption can interfere with accuracy of GLG counts. This effect does not occur until ages greater than about 15 yr and body lengths greater than 300 cm are attained. GLGs were also observed in periotic bones of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) but were not validated against known-age specimens. Use of GLG counts in the periotic bone is suitable for application to studies of population dynamics and other age-related aspects of manatee biology.

  12. Modeling Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Increased Efforts to Attract Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Clients Ages 20–29 in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Katharine; Hatzold, Karin; Mugurungi, Owen; Ncube, Gertrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Gold, Elizabeth; Ahanda, Kim Seifert; Kruse-Levy, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Background Zimbabwe aims to increase circumcision coverage to 80% among 13- to 29-year-olds. However, implementation data suggest that high coverage among men ages 20 and older may not be achievable without efforts specifically targeted to these men, incurring additional costs per circumcision. Scale-up scenarios were created based on trends in implementation data in Zimbabwe, and the cost-effectiveness of increasing efforts to recruit clients ages 20–29 was examined. Methods Zimbabwe voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) program data were used to project trends in male circumcision coverage by age into the future. The projection informed a base scenario in which, by 2018, the country achieves 80% circumcision coverage among males ages 10–19 and lower levels of coverage among men above age 20. The Zimbabwe DMPPT 2.0 model was used to project costs and impacts, assuming a US$109 VMMC unit cost in the base scenario and a 3% discount rate. Two other scenarios assumed that the program could increase coverage among clients ages 20–29 with a corresponding increase in unit cost for these age groups. Results When circumcision coverage among men ages 20–29 is increased compared with a base scenario reflecting current implementation trends, fewer VMMCs are required to avert one infection. If more than 50% additional effort (reflected as multiplying the unit cost by >1.5) is required to double the increase in coverage among this age group compared with the base scenario, the cost per HIV infection averted is higher than in the base scenario. Conclusions Although increased investment in recruiting VMMC clients ages 20–29 may lead to greater overall impact if recruitment efforts are successful, it may also lead to lower cost-effectiveness, depending on the cost of increasing recruitment. Programs should measure the relationship between increased effort and increased ability to attract this age group. PMID:27783637

  13. Memorizing while walking: increase in dual-task costs from young adulthood to old age.

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, U; Marsiske, M; Baltes, P B

    2000-09-01

    The dual task of memorizing word lists while walking was predicted to become more difficult with age because balance and gait are in greater need of "attentional resources." Forty-seven young (ages 20-30 years), 45 middle-aged (40-50), and 48 old (60-70) adults were trained to criterion in a mnemonic technique and instructed to walk quickly and accurately on 2 narrow tracks of different path complexity. Then. participants encoded the word lists while sitting, standing, or walking on either track; likewise, speed and accuracy of walking performance were assessed with and without concurrent memory encoding. Dual-task costs increased with age in both domains; relative to young adults, the effect size of the overall increase was 0.98 standard deviation units for middle-aged and 1.47 standard deviation units for old adults. It is argued that sensory and motor aspects of behavior are increasingly in need of cognitive control with advancing age.

  14. A 1000-year increase in deep Pacific ventilation age during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, D. C.; Mix, A. C.; Southon, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    The rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide during the last deglaciation may have been driven by release of carbon sequestered in the abyssal ocean. This mechanism requires a poorly ventilated deep Pacific during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and enhanced ventilation during the deglaciation. Here we present planktonic and benthic foraminiferal radiocarbon data from a high-sedimentation rate core collected at 2.7 km water depth in the Northeast Pacific, a site that monitors the oldest watermass in the modern ocean. We estimate ventilation age (i.e. the time elapsed since water was last at the surface) using the projection age (Adkins and Boyle, 1997) and TTD-ETD methods (DeVries and Primeau, 2010). We show that both methods yield LGM ventilation ages similar to today, suggesting this depth horizon in the NE Pacific was not an important carbon reservoir at the LGM. During the deglaciation, both projection and TTD-ETD ages increased by ~1 kyr, indicating that either the 1) ventilation rate decreased, 2) the surface water reservoir age in the Southern Ocean increased, or 3) there was an influx of 14C-depleted carbon from another source into the deep Pacific. The available paleoceanographic evidence is inconsistent with the first two options, implying that another source of old carbon may have been responsible for the apparent increase in ventilation age during the last deglaciation.

  15. Risk of inhibitor development in mild haemophilia A increases with age.

    PubMed

    Mauser-Bunschoten, E P; Den Uijl, I E M; Schutgens, R E G; Roosendaal, G; Fischer, K

    2012-03-01

    Mild haemophilia A is a rare disease with a relatively mild phenotype. Treatment with factor VIII (FVIII) is indicated after trauma or for surgery only. FVIII infusion may result in the development of inhibiting antibodies against FVIII. This study describes the relation between age and other risk factors for inhibitor development in mild haemophilia. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among all patients with mild haemophilia (FVIII 0.05-0.40 IU mL(-1)) registered at the van Creveldkliniek, University Medical Centre Utrecht, The Netherlands. Data on peak treatment with FVIII, gene mutation and history of inhibitor development were obtained from patient files from the period between 1st January 1970 and 31st December 2009. A total of 231 out of 297 (78%) patients had at least one exposure to FVIII, of whom 14 (6.1%) developed an inhibitor to FVIII at a median age of 66 years after a median of 50 exposure days (ED). Age at first exposure, age at peak treatment, number of peak treatments and Arg593Cys mutation were significantly associated with the development of an inhibitor, while continuous infusion with FVIII was not. Although the incidence of inhibitors in mild haemophilia is low, it increases with age and peak treatments. With increasing age patients with mild haemophilia will suffer from co-morbidity more frequently, requiring surgical interventions and exposing them to an increased risk of inhibitor development. Especially patients with a change of arginine in cysteine at 593 are at risk for inhibitor development.

  16. Brain SERT Expression of Male Rats Is Reduced by Aging and Increased by Testosterone Restitution

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Pérez, José Jaime; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso; Martínez-Mota, Lucía

    2013-01-01

    In preclinical and clinical studies aging has been associated with a deteriorated response to antidepressant treatment. We hypothesize that such impairment is explained by an age-related decrease in brain serotonin transporter (SERT) expression associated with low testosterone (T) levels. The objectives of this study were to establish (1) if brain SERT expression is reduced by aging and (2) if the SERT expression in middle-aged rats is increased by T-restitution. Intact young rats (3–5 months) and gonad-intact middle-aged rats with or without T-restitution were used. The identification of the brain SERT expression was done by immunofluorescence in prefrontal cortex, lateral septum, hippocampus, and raphe nuclei. An age-dependent reduction of SERT expression was observed in all brain regions examined, while T-restitution recovered the SERT expression only in the dorsal raphe of middle-aged rats. This last action seems relevant since dorsal raphe plays an important role in the antidepressant action of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. All data suggest that this mechanism accounts for the T-replacement usefulness to improve the response to antidepressants in the aged population. PMID:26317087

  17. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Katharine; Thambinayagam, Ananthy; Pillay, Yogan; Loykissoonlal, Dayanund; Bonnecwe, Collen; Barron, Peter; Kiwango, Eva; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15–49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa’s efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC. Methods and Findings The study team populated the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0) with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM), as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20–34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15–24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15–29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15–34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program’s cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections. Conclusion The VMMC program’s impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15–34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25–34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them

  18. An evaluation of selective feeding by three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beck, K.; Neves, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    A tri-algal diet was fed to three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris: ages 2-3 d, 50-53 d, and 3-6 years. Changes in the relative abundance of each algal species were determined in 5-h feeding trials from feeding chambers and by gut content analyses. All age-groups rejected Scenedesmus quadricauda and preferentially selected Nannochloropsis oculata and Selenastrum capricornutum, principally on the basis of size. Changes in the relative abundance of algae in feeding chambers did not differ significantly among age-groups. Observed differences in the ingested quantities of the similar-sized N. oculata and S. capricornutum were attributed to other particle-related characteristics. Results indicate that the rainbow mussel can be fed similar-sized algae at ali ages in captive propagation facilities. When developing a suitable algal diet for rearing juvenile mussels, one probably need not investigate different species at each stage of development if the algae used are in the 2.8-8.5-??m size range.

  19. Use of maxillary tooth development to estimate age in a group of Hereford cross Friesian steers.

    PubMed

    Andrews, A H

    1981-11-01

    Visual and radiographic examination of maxillary tooth development was undertaken in a group of 76 Hereford cross Friesian steers, all but one slaughtered at the same weight (464 kg). Differences were found in the stages of second molar intraoral development between the various age groups. Radiographic inspection showed that stages of resorption of the temporary premolar roots and crown and root formation of the permanent cheek teeth varied with age. The maximum age range before animals could be differentiated into age groups using radiographic examination of maxillary tooth development was three months (one year from one year three months, one year three months from one year six months, one year four months from one year seven months, one year five months from one year eight months). In the carcase, radiography of the maxillary teeth provided a useful estimate of age. The first two maxillary molars were more advanced in crown and root formation than the permanent premolars. Except for the second permanent premolar all maxillary teeth were less advanced in development than their mandibular counterparts.

  20. Increase of posterior connectivity in aging within the Ventral Attention Network: A functional connectivity analysis using independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Deslauriers, Johnathan; Ansado, Jennyfer; Marrelec, Guillaume; Provost, Jean-Sébastien; Joanette, Yves

    2017-02-15

    Multiple studies have found neurofunctional changes in normal aging in a context of selective attention. Furthermore, many articles report intrahemispheric alteration in functional networks. However, little is known about age-related changes within the Ventral Attention Network (VAN), which underlies selective attention. The aim of this study is to examine age-related changes within the VAN, focusing on connectivity between its regions. Here we report our findings on the analysis of 27 participants' (13 younger and 14 older healthy adults) BOLD signals as well as their performance on a letter-matching task. We identified the VAN independently for both groups using spatial independent component analysis. Three main findings emerged: First, younger adults were faster and more accurate on the task. Second, older adults had greater connectivity among posterior regions (right temporoparietal junction, right superior parietal lobule, right middle temporal gyrus and left cerebellum crus I) than younger adults but lower connectivity among anterior regions (right anterior insula, right medial superior frontal gyrus and right middle frontal gyrus). Older adults also had more connectivity between anterior and posterior regions than younger adults. Finally, correlations between connectivity and response time on the task showed a trend toward connectivity in posterior regions for the older group and in anterior regions for the younger group. Thus, this study shows that intrahemispheric neurofunctional changes in aging also affect the VAN. The results suggest that, in contexts of selective attention, posterior regions increased in importance for older adults, while anterior regions had reduced centrality.

  1. Age Group and Sex of Students: Fall 1989. Report No. 8-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    The major tables of this annual report on student characteristics array four major characteristics: age group; sex; level (undergraduate/graduate); and load (full-time/part-time). The main body of the report is divided into five sections: Part I contains data for the entire system as well as each institution and institutional type; Part II…

  2. Locus of Control and Other Psycho-Social Parameters in Successful American Age-Group Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Edmund J., Jr.; Straub, William F.

    Psycho-social factors in successful age-group swimmers were explored in this study. The subjects were 50 female and 39 male participants in the 1975 Amateur Athletic Union National Junior Olympics who were asked to answer a set of questions from an open-ended questionnaire. The results support a picture of young persons who invest a great deal of…

  3. Outcome Differences Across Age Groups. Data Notes. Volume 3, Number 2, March/April 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clery, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Using data from Achieving the Dream: Community College Count, this issue examines the differing developmental needs and enrollment and persistence patterns of Achieving the Dream students across different age groups. The data show older students in Achieving the Dream colleges tended to achieve higher grades and perform better academically than…

  4. Metabolic Effects of Chronic Heavy Physical Training on Male Age Group Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, Garret P.; And Others

    This study attempts to appraise the effectiveness of chronic heavy exercise on 13 male swimmers from 10 to 17 years of age. The experimental group trained six days a week, often with more than one workout per day. During this period, the principles of interval training were employed in conjunction with high-intensity swimming. At the completion of…

  5. 78 FR 75905 - Credit for Increasing Research Activities: Intra-Group Gross Receipts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BE14 Credit for Increasing Research Activities: Intra-Group Gross Receipts AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... under section 41 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) relating to the treatment of qualified...

  6. Increasing International and Domestic Student Interaction through Group Work: A Case Study from the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshank, Ken; Chen, Honglin; Warren, Stan

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the use of group work strategies to increase student interaction and learning. Despite the growing linguistic and cultural diversity in tertiary institutions, there is strong evidence of minimal interaction between "domestic" and "international" students in classrooms and in wider university contexts. This study investigates…

  7. Sex differences over age groups in self-posed smiling in photographs.

    PubMed

    Otta, E

    1998-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate self-posed smiling behavior in photographs as a function of both sex and age. The photographs of 1,171 Brazilian middle-class people, taken in a wide variety of informal social settings were examined. Only 25.7% of the girls and 25.0% of the boys of 2- to 5-yrs-age group were seen smiling in the photographs. Older children, adolescents, and adults were much more expressive than young children. Furthermore, significantly more females were seen smiling than males. Females also smiled more expansively than males. Finally, smiling was less frequent among middle-aged and older groups, especially among males. The present study replicated the sex difference in self-posed smiling behavior consistently reported by American researchers examining college yearbook photographs. Further, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that, besides being associated with emotional experience, smiling has a strong social motivation.

  8. Modifying the ECC-based grouping-proof RFID system to increase inpatient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wen-Tsai; Chiou, Shin-Yan; Lu, Erl-Huei; Chang, Henry Ker-Chang

    2014-09-01

    RFID technology is increasingly used in applications that require tracking, identification, and authentication. It attaches RFID-readable tags to objects for identification and execution of specific RFID-enabled applications. Recently, research has focused on the use of grouping-proofs for preserving privacy in RFID applications, wherein a proof of two or more tags must be simultaneously scanned. In 2010, a privacy-preserving grouping proof protocol for RFID based on ECC in public-key cryptosystem was proposed but was shown to be vulnerable to tracking attacks. A proposed enhancement protocol was also shown to have defects which prevented proper execution. In 2012, Lin et al. proposed a more efficient RFID ECC-based grouping proof protocol to promote inpatient medication safety. However, we found this protocol is also vulnerable to tracking and impersonation attacks. We then propose a secure privacy-preserving RFID grouping proof protocol for inpatient medication safety and demonstrate its resistance to such attacks.

  9. Out-Group Mating Threat and Disease Threat Increase Implicit Negative Attitudes Toward the Out-Group Among Men

    PubMed Central

    Klavina, Liga; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated if perceiving an out-group as a threat to one's mating opportunities enhanced the implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In addition, we examined the moderating effect of disease threat on the relationship between an out-group mating threat and implicit negative attitudes toward that out-group. In Experiment 1, an out-group mating threat led to stronger implicit negative out-group attitudes as measured by the Implicit Association Test, but only for men with high chronic perceived vulnerability to disease. No such effects were found among women. In Experiment 2, men in the out-group mating threat condition who were primed with disease prevalence showed significantly stronger implicit negative attitudes toward the out-group than controls. Findings are discussed with reference to the functional approach to prejudice and sex-specific motivational reactions to different out-group threats. PMID:21687447

  10. Dry versus wet aging of beef: Retail cutting yields and consumer sensory attribute evaluations of steaks from ribeyes, strip loins, and top sirloins from two quality grade groups.

    PubMed

    Laster, M A; Smith, R D; Nicholson, K L; Nicholson, J D W; Miller, R K; Griffin, D B; Harris, K B; Savell, J W

    2008-11-01

    Top Choice (n=48) and Select (n=48) paired bone-in ribeye rolls, bone-in strip loins, and boneless top sirloin butts were assigned randomly to one of two aging treatments, dry or wet, and were aged for 14, 21, 28 or 35d. Cutting tests, performed to determine retail yields and processing times, showed dry-aged subprimals had lower total saleable yield percentages and increased processing times compared to wet-aged subprimals. Sensory and Warner-Bratzler shear evaluation was conducted to determine palatability characteristics. For the most part, aging treatment and aging period did not affect consumer sensory attributes. However, ribeye and top loin steaks from the Top Choice quality grade group received higher sensory ratings than their Select counterparts. For top sirloin steaks, no consumer sensory attributes were affected by aging treatment, aging period, or quality grade group.

  11. Influence of the age and sex of human hosts on the distribution of Escherichia coli ECOR groups and virulence traits.

    PubMed

    Gordon, David M; Stern, Steven E; Collignon, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli were isolated from the faeces of 266 individuals living in the Canberra region of Australia. The isolates were characterized for their ECOR group membership (A, B1, B2 or D) and for the presence of 29 virulence-associated traits. Overall, 19.5 % of the strains were members of group A, 12.4 % B1, 45.1 % B2 and 22.9 % D. The frequency with which strains belonging to the four ECOR groups were observed varied with the age and sex of the hosts from which they were isolated. In males, the probability of isolating A or D strains increased with host age, whilst the probability of detecting a group B2 strain declined. In females, the probability of recovering A or B2 strains increased with increasing host age and there was a concomitant decline in the likelihood of isolating B1 or D strains. Of the 29 virulence-associated traits examined, 24 were detected in more than one strain. The likelihood of detecting most traits varied with a strain's ECOR membership, with the exception of afa/draBC, astA, cvaC, eaeA, iss and iutA, for which there was no statistically significant evidence of an association with ECOR group. The frequency with which fimH, iha, eaeA, iroN, hlyD, iss, ompT and K1 were detected in a strain depended on the age or sex of the host from which the strain was isolated. In group B2 strains many of the virulence traits were non-randomly associated, with some co-occurring in a strain less often than expected by chance, whilst others were co-associated. In 17 cases, the extent to which two virulence traits were co-associated was found to depend on host sex and age. The results of this study suggest that the morphological, physiological and dietary differences that occur among human individuals of different sex or age may influence the distribution of E. coli genotypes.

  12. Lens opacity based modelling of the age-related straylight increase.

    PubMed

    Rozema, Jos J; Sanchez, Victoria; Artal, Natalia; Gramajo, Ana L; Torres, Eduardo; Luna, Jose D; Iribarren, Rafael; Tassignon, Marie-José; Juarez, Claudio P

    2015-12-01

    This work studies ethnic and geographical differences in the age-related straylight increase by means of a stochastic model and unpublished lens opacity data of 559 residents of Villa Maria (Argentina), as well as data of 912 Indonesian subjects published previously by Husain et al. For both cohorts the prevalence of each type and grade of lens opacity was determined as a function of age, from which a stochastic model was derived capable of simulating the lens opacity prevalence for both populations. These simulated lens opacity data were then converted to estimated straylight by means of an equation derived from previously recorded data of 107 eyes with varying degrees of cataract. Based on these opacity templates 2500 random sets of subject age and lens opacity data were generated by the stochastic model for each dataset, from which estimated straylight could be calculated. For the Argentinian data the estimated straylight was found to closely resemble the published models for age-related straylight increase. For younger eyes the straylight variation of the model was the same as what was previously published (in both cases ±0.200logunits), which doubled in size for older eyes. For the Indonesian data, however, this age-related straylight increase was found to be fundamentally different from the published age model. This suggests that current normative curves for age-related straylight increase may not always be appropriate for non-European populations, and that the inter-individual straylight variations in young, healthy eyes may possibly be due to variations in lens opacities.

  13. GPs’ perspectives on secondary cardiovascular prevention in older age: a focus group study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van Peet, Petra G; Drewes, Yvonne M; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; de Ruijter, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Background Although guidelines recommend secondary cardiovascular prevention irrespective of age, in older age the uptake of treatment is lower than in younger age groups. Aim To explore the dilemmas GPs in the Netherlands encounter when implementing guidelines for secondary cardiovascular prevention in older age. Design and setting Qualitative study in four focus groups consisting of GPs (n = 23, from the northern part of the province South Holland) and a fifth focus group consisting of GP trainees (n = 4, from the Leiden University Medical Center). Method Focus group discussions were organised to elicit perspectives on the implementation of secondary cardiovascular prevention for older people. The 14 theoretical domains of the refined Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) were used for (deductive) coding of the focus group discussions. The coded texts were analysed, content was discussed, and barriers and facilitators were identified for each domain of the TDF. Results The main theme that emerged was ‘uncertainty’. Identified barriers were guideline-related, patient-related, and organisation-related. Identified facilitators were doctor-related, patient-related, and organisation-related. The main aim of secondary preventive treatment was improvement in quality of life. Conclusion GPs in the Netherlands are uncertain about many aspects of secondary cardiovascular prevention in older age; the guidelines themselves, their own role, patient factors, and the organisation of care. In view of this uncertainty, GPs consciously weigh all aspects of the situation in close dialogue with the individual patient, with the ultimate aim of improving quality of life. This highly-individualised care may largely explain the reduced prescription rates. PMID:26500321

  14. Increasing opportunistic oral cancer screening examinations: findings from focus groups with general dentists in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Psoter, Walter J; Morse, Douglas E; Sánchez-Ayendez, Melba; Vega, Carmen M Vélez; Aguilar, Maria L; Buxó-Martinez, Carmen J; Psoter, Jodi A; Kerr, Alexander R; Lane, Christina M; Scaringi, Vincent J; Elias, Augusto

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to identify educational and training modalities that dentists in Puerto Rico (PR) believe will increase the quality and quantity of opportunistic oral cancer screening examinations (OCS) in dental offices on the island. The study was conducted in three phases: a systematic search of relevant literature, an expert review and consensus panel, and focus groups (FG) involving PR general dentists. To increase OCS by dentists in PR, the FG participants proposed a small group, hands-on OCS training, an integrated oral cancer course, and readily available videos, photographs, and computer simulations to further demonstrate OCS performance and facilitate differential diagnosis. OCS training requirements for licensure and re-licensure, improving OCS dentist-patient communication skills, and establishment of an oral lesion referral center were also viewed favorably. In conclusion, general dentists in our FGs believed the quality and quantity of OCS in Puerto Rico can be increased through the application of specific continuing education and training modalities.

  15. Caloric restriction increases ketone bodies metabolism and preserves blood flow in aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiaoli; Watts, Lora

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase the life span and health span of a broad range of species. However, CR effects on in vivo brain functions are far from explored. In this study, we used multimetric neuroimaging methods to characterize the CR-induced changes of brain metabolic and vascular functions in aging rats. We found that old rats (24 months of age) with CR diet had reduced glucose uptake and lactate concentration, but increased ketone bodies level, compared with the age-matched and young (5 months of age) controls. The shifted metabolism was associated with preserved vascular function: old CR rats also had maintained cerebral blood flow relative to the age-matched controls. When investigating the metabolites in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, we found that citrate and α-ketoglutarate were preserved in the old CR rats. We suggest that CR is neuroprotective; ketone bodies, cerebral blood flow, and α-ketoglutarate may play important roles in preserving brain physiology in aging. PMID:25896951

  16. Increased acetyl group availability enhances contractile function of canine skeletal muscle during ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, J A; Poucher, S M; Constantin-Teodosiu, D; Worrall, V; Macdonald, I A; Greenhaff, P L

    1996-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contractile function is impaired during acute ischemia such as that experienced by peripheral vascular disease patients. We therefore, examined the effects of dichloroacetate, which can alter resting metabolism, on canine gracilis muscle contractile function during constant flow ischemia. Pretreatment with dichloroacetate increased resting pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity and resting acetylcarnitine concentration by approximately 4- and approximately 10-fold, respectively. After 20-min contraction the control group had demonstrated an approximately 40% reduction in isomeric tension whereas the dichloroacetate group had fatigued by approximately 25% (P < 0.05). Dichloroacetate resulted in less lactate accumulation (10.3 +/- 3.0 vs 58.9 +/- 10.5 mmol.kg-1 dry muscle [dm], P < 0.05) and phosphocreatine hydrolysis (15.6 +/- 6.3 vs 33.8 +/- 9.0 mmol.kg-1 dm, P < 0.05) during contraction. Acetylcarnitine concentration fell during contraction by 5.4 +/- 1.8 mmol.kg-1 dm in the dichloroacetate group but increased by 10.0 +/- 1.9 mmol.kg-1 dm in the control group. In conclusion, dichloroacetate enhanced contractile function during ischemia, independently of blood flow, such that it appears oxidative ATP regeneration is limited by pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity and acetyl group availability. PMID:8609248

  17. Rate increase disclosure and review: definitions of "individual market" and "small group market." Final rule.

    PubMed

    2011-09-06

    This final rule amends a May 23, 2011, final rule entitled "Rate Increase Disclosure and Review". The final rule provided that, for purposes of rate review only, definitions of "individual market" and "small group market" under State rate filing laws would govern even if those definitions departed from the definitions that otherwise apply under title XXVII of the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act). The preamble to the final rule requested comments on whether this policy should apply in cases in which State rate filing law definitions of "individual market" and "small group market" exclude association insurance policies that would be included in these definitions for other purposes under the PHS Act. In response to comments, this final rule amends the definitions of "individual market" and "small group market" that apply for rate review purposes to include coverage sold to individuals and small groups through associations even if the State does not include such coverage in its definitions of individual and small group market. This final rule also updates standards for health insurance issuers regarding disclosure and review of unreasonable premium increases under section 2794 of the Public Health Service Act.

  18. Increase in group II excitation from ankle muscles to thigh motoneurones during human standing

    PubMed Central

    Marchand-Pauvert, Véronique; Nicolas, Guillaume; Marque, Philippe; Iglesias, Caroline; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    In standing subjects, we investigated the excitation of quadriceps (Q) motoneurones by muscle afferents from tibialis anterior (TA) and the excitation of semitendinosus (ST) motoneurones by muscle afferents from gastrocnemius medialis (GM). Standing with a backward lean stretches the anterior muscle pair (TA and Q) and they must be cocontracted to maintain balance. Equally, forward lean stretches the posterior muscle pair (GM and ST) and they must be cocontracted. We used these conditions of enhanced lean to increase the influence of γ static motoneurones on muscle spindle afferents, which enhances the background input from these afferents to extrafusal motoneurones. The effects of the conditioning volleys on motoneurone excitability was estimated using the modulation of the on-going rectified EMG and of the H reflex. Stimulation of afferents from TA in the deep peroneal nerve at 1.5–2 × MT (motor threshold) evoked early group I and late group II excitation of Q motoneurones. Stimulation of afferents in the GM nerve at 1.3–1.8 MT evoked only late group II excitation of ST motoneurones. The late excitation produced by the group II afferents was significantly greater when subjects were standing and leaning than when they voluntarily cocontracted the same muscle pairs at the same levels of activation. The early effect produced by the group I afferents was unchanged. We propose that this increase in excitation by group II afferents reflects a posture-related withdrawal of a tonic inhibition that is exerted by descending noradrenergic control and is specific to the synaptic actions of group II afferents. PMID:15860524

  19. Capturing Age-group Differences and Developmental Change with the BASC Parent Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Baptiste; Hein, Sascha; Luthar, Suniya S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of age-group differences and intra-individual change across distinct developmental periods is often challenged by the use of age-appropriate (but non-parallel) measures. We present a short version of the Behavior Assessment System (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1998), Parent Rating Scales for Children (PRS-C) and Adolescents (PRS-A), which uses only their common-items to derive estimates of the initial constructs optimized for developmental studies. Measurement invariance of a three-factor model (Externalizing, Internalizing, Adaptive Skills) was tested across age-groups (161 mothers using PRS-C; 200 mothers using PRS-A) and over time (115 mothers using PRS-C at baseline and PRS-A five years later) with the original versus short PRS. Results indicated that the short PRS holds a sufficient level of invariance for a robust estimation of age-group differences and intra-individual change, as compared to the original PRS, which held only weak invariance leading to flawed developmental inferences. Importance of test-content parallelism for developmental studies is discussed. PMID:25045196

  20. [Morpho-functional peculiarities of autoimmune gastritis in different age groups].

    PubMed

    Novikova, V P; Sidorkin, A O; Anichkov, N M; Azanchevskaia, S V

    2011-01-01

    In 98 patients with chronic gastritis clinical-morphologic analysis was performed. The analysis included: the examination of gastric biopsy specimens, determination of HP-status by means of a group of methods, determination of antibodies to H+/K+ -ATPase of parietal cells of the gastric wall, IgG-EA-EBV and IgM-NA-EBN antibodies in the blood serum by means of IFA method, pepsinogene I, pepsinogene II, gastrin and antibodies to Hp with the use of Biohit gastric panel, 24-hour monitoring of intragastric pH with the use of Gastroscan-24 machine. Comparison of all parameters was performed in 4 groups: 27 children aged 6-17 with non-autoimmune gastritis and 119 children with gastritis of other etiology, 34 patients aged 18-80 with autoimmune gastritis and 43 patients of the same age group with non-autoimmune gastritis were described. Age-specific peculiarities of autoimmune gastritis in children were determined; and a diagnostic algorithm for its early diagnosis in the latter was developed.

  1. Methylglyoxal alters glucose metabolism and increases AGEs content in C6 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Fernanda; de Souza, Daniela Fraga; Silveira, Simone da Luz; Hoefel, Ana Lúcia; Fontoura, Júlia Bijoldo; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; Bobermin, Larissa Daniele; Leite, Marina Concli; Perry, Marcos Luiz Santos; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto

    2012-12-01

    Methylglyoxal is a dicarbonyl compound that is physiologically produced by enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. It can lead to cytotoxicity, which is mainly related to Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) formation. Methylglyoxal and AGEs are involved in the pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Diseases (ND) and, in these situations, can cause the impairment of energetic metabolism. Astroglial cells play critical roles in brain metabolism and the appropriate functioning of astrocytes is essential for the survival and function of neurons. However, there are only a few studies evaluating the effect of methylglyoxal on astroglial cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methylglyoxal exposure, over short (1 and 3 h) and long term (24 h) periods, on glucose, glycine and lactate metabolism in C6 glioma cells, as well as investigate the glyoxalase system and AGEs formation. Glucose uptake and glucose oxidation to CO(2) increased in 1 h and the conversion of glucose to lipids increased at 3 h. In addition, glycine oxidation to CO(2) and conversion of glycine to lipids increased at 1 h, whereas the incorporation of glycine in proteins decreased at 1 and 3 h. Methylglyoxal decreased glyoxalase I and II activities and increased AGEs content within 24 h. Lactate oxidation and lactate levels were not modified by methylglyoxal exposure. These data provide evidence that methylglyoxal may impair glucose metabolism and can affect glyoxalase activity. In periods of increased methylglyoxal exposure, such alterations could be exacerbated, leading to further increases in intracellular methylglyoxal and AGEs, and therefore triggering and/or worsening ND.

  2. Myosteatosis increases with aging and is associated with incident diabetes in African ancestry men

    PubMed Central

    Miljkovic, I; Kuipers, AL; Cvejkus, R; Bunker, CH; Patrick, AL; Gordon, CL; Zmuda, JM

    2015-01-01

    Objective Skeletal muscle fat infiltration (known as myosteatosis) is greater in African compared with European ancestry men and may play an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, prospective studies examining the magnitude of changes in myosteatosis with aging and their metabolic consequences are sparse. Methods We examined longitudinal changes in peripheral quantitative computed tomography measured calf myosteatosis [inter-muscular fat (mm2) and skeletal muscle density as a measure of intra-muscular fat (mg/cm3)] in 1,515 Afro-Caribbean men aged 40+ years recruited without regard to their health status. Results During an average of 6.2 years of follow-up, we observed an age-related increase in inter-muscular fat and a decrease in skeletal muscle density (all P<0.0001), which remained significant in those who lost weight, gained weight, or remained weight-stable (all P<0.0001). In addition, muscle density loss accelerated with increasing age (P<0.0001). Increased inter-muscular fat during follow-up was associated with an increased incident risk of T2D independent of factors known to be associated with T2D (Odds ratios per 1-SD increase in inter-muscular fat=1.29; 95% CI=1.08-1.53). Conclusions Our findings suggest that both inter- and intra- muscular fat increase with advancing age and that inter-muscular fat contributes to development of T2D among African ancestry men. PMID:26694517

  3. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Cameron J; McGregor, Robin A; D'Souza, Randall F; Thorstensen, Eric B; Markworth, James F; Fanning, Aaron C; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-10-21

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring (13)C₆ phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h(-1) in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h(-1) in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein.

  4. Consumption of Milk Protein or Whey Protein Results in a Similar Increase in Muscle Protein Synthesis in Middle Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; McGregor, Robin A.; D’Souza, Randall F.; Thorstensen, Eric B.; Markworth, James F.; Fanning, Aaron C.; Poppitt, Sally D.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    The differential ability of various milk protein fractions to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) has been previously described, with whey protein generally considered to be superior to other fractions. However, the relative ability of a whole milk protein to stimulate MPS has not been compared to whey. Sixteen healthy middle-aged males ingested either 20 g of milk protein (n = 8) or whey protein (n = 8) while undergoing a primed constant infusion of ring 13C6 phenylalanine. Muscle biopsies were obtained 120 min prior to consumption of the protein and 90 and 210 min afterwards. Resting myofibrillar fractional synthetic rates (FSR) were 0.019% ± 0.009% and 0.021% ± 0.018% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively. For the first 90 min after protein ingestion the FSR increased (p < 0.001) to 0.057% ± 0.018% and 0.052% ± 0.024% h−1 in the milk and whey groups respectively with no difference between groups (p = 0.810). FSR returned to baseline in both groups between 90 and 210 min after protein ingestion. Despite evidence of increased rate of digestion and leucine availability following the ingestion of whey protein, there was similar activation of MPS in middle-aged men with either 20 g of milk protein or whey protein. PMID:26506377

  5. Age-Associated Increases in Pulmonary Artery Systolic Pressure in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Carolyn S. P.; Borlaug, Barry A.; Kane, Garvan C.; Enders, Felicity T.; Rodeheffer, Richard J.; Redfield, Margaret M.

    2009-01-01

    Background In contrast to the wealth of data on isolated systolic hypertension involving the systemic circulation in the elderly, much less is known about age-related change in pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) and its prognostic impact in the general population. We sought to define the relationship between PASP and age, evaluate which factors influence PASP and determine if PASP is independently predictive of mortality in the community. Methods and Results A random sample of Olmsted County, MN general population (N=2042) underwent echocardiography and spirometry and was followed for a median of 9 years. PASP was measured from the tricuspid regurgitation velocity. Left ventricular diastolic pressure was estimated using Doppler echocardiography (E/e' ratio) and arterial stiffening was assessed using the brachial artery pulse pressure. Among 1413 (69%) subjects with measurable PASP (63±11y; 43% male), PASP (median, 25th-75th percentile) was 26 (24-30) mmHg and increased with age (r=0.31; p<0.001). Independent predictors of PASP were age, pulse pressure and mitral E/e' (all p≤0.003). Increasing PASP was associated with higher mortality (hazard ratio 2.73 per 10 mmHg; p<0.001). In subjects without cardiopulmonary disease (any heart failure, coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or chronic obstructive lung disease), the age-adjusted hazard ratio was 2.74 per 10 mmHg (p=0.016). Conclusions We provide the first population-based evidence of age-related increase in pulmonary artery pressure, its association with increasing left heart diastolic pressures and systemic vascular stiffening, as well as its negative impact on survival. Pulmonary artery pressure may serve as a novel cardiovascular risk factor and potential therapeutic target. PMID:19433755

  6. Excess body weight increases the burden of age-associated chronic diseases and their associated health care expenditures

    PubMed Central

    Atella, Vincenzo; Kopinska, Joanna; Medea, Gerardo; Belotti, Federico; Tosti, Valeria; Mortari, Andrea Piano; Cricelli, Claudio; Fontana, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Aging and excessive adiposity are both associated with an increased risk of developing multiple chronic diseases, which drive ever increasing health costs. The main aim of this study was to determine the net (non‐estimated) health costs of excessive adiposity and associated age‐related chronic diseases. We used a prevalence‐based approach that combines accurate data from the Health Search CSD‐LPD, an observational dataset with patient records collected by Italian general practitioners and up‐to‐date health care expenditures data from the SiSSI Project. In this very large study, 557,145 men and women older than 18 years were observed at different points in time between 2004 and 2010. The proportion of younger and older adults reporting no chronic disease decreased with increasing BMI. After adjustment for age, sex, geographic residence, and GPs heterogeneity, a strong J‐shaped association was found between BMI and total health care costs, more pronounced in middle‐aged and older adults. Relative to normal weight, in the 45‐64 age group, the per‐capita total cost was 10% higher in overweight individuals, and 27 to 68% greater in patients with obesity and very severe obesity, respectively. The association between BMI and diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease largely explained these elevated costs. PMID:26540605

  7. Outcomes of 847 childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients in three age groups.

    PubMed

    Lopes, S R M; Gormezano, N W S; Gomes, R C; Aikawa, N E; Pereira, R M R; Terreri, M T; Magalhães, C S; Ferreira, J C; Okuda, E M; Sakamoto, A P; Sallum, A M E; Appenzeller, S; Ferriani, V P L; Barbosa, C M; Lotufo, S; Jesus, A A; Andrade, L E C; Campos, L M A; Bonfá, E; Silva, C A

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess outcomes of childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) in three different age groups evaluated at last visit: group A early-onset disease (<6 years), group B school age (≥6 and <12 years) and group C adolescent (≥12 and <18 years). Methods An observational cohort study was performed in ten pediatric rheumatology centers, including 847 cSLE patients. Results Group A had 39 (4%), B 395 (47%) and C 413 (49%). Median disease duration was significantly higher in group A compared to groups B and C (8.3 (0.1-23.4) vs 6.2 (0-17) vs 3.3 (0-14.6) years, p < 0.0001). The median Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SLICC/ACR-DI) (0 (0-9) vs 0 (0-6) vs 0 (0-7), p = 0.065) was comparable in the three groups. Further analysis of organ/system damage revealed that frequencies of neuropsychiatric (21% vs 10% vs 7%, p = 0.007), skin (10% vs 1% vs 3%, p = 0.002) and peripheral vascular involvements (5% vs 3% vs 0.3%, p = 0.008) were more often observed in group A compared to groups B and C. Frequencies of severe cumulative lupus manifestations such as nephritis, thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia were similar in all groups ( p > 0.05). Mortality rate was significantly higher in group A compared to groups B and C (15% vs 10% vs 6%, p = 0.028). Out of 69 deaths, 33/69 (48%) occurred within the first two years after diagnosis. Infections accounted for 54/69 (78%) of the deaths and 38/54 (70%) had concomitant disease activity. Conclusions This large multicenter study provided evidence that early-onset cSLE group had distinct outcomes. This group was characterized by higher mortality rate and neuropsychiatric/vascular/skin organ damage in spite of comparable frequencies of severe cumulative lupus manifestations. We also identified that overall death in cSLE patients was an early event mainly attributed to infection associated

  8. Increased aggression during human group contests when competitive ability is more similar

    PubMed Central

    Stulp, Gert; Kordsmeyer, Tobias; Buunk, Abraham P.; Verhulst, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical analyses and empirical studies have revealed that conflict escalation is more likely when individuals are more similar in resource-holding potential (RHP). Conflicts can also occur between groups, but it is unknown whether conflicts also escalate more when groups are more similar in RHP. We tested this hypothesis in humans, using data from two professional sports competitions: football (the Bundesliga, the German first division of football) and basketball (the NBA, the North American National Basketball Association). We defined RHP based on the league ranks of the teams involved in the competition (i.e. their competitive ability) and measured conflict escalation by the number of fouls committed. We found that in both sports the number of fouls committed increased when the difference in RHP was smaller. Thus, we provide what is to our best knowledge the first evidence that, as in conflicts between individuals, conflicts escalate more when groups are more similar in RHP. PMID:22896272

  9. Analysis of participation and performance in athletes by age group in ultramarathons of more than 200 km in length

    PubMed Central

    Zingg, Matthias A; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph A; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background Participation and performance trends for athletes by age group have been investigated for marathoners and ultramarathoners competing in races up to 161 km, but not for longer distances of more than 200 km. Methods Participation and performance trends in athletes by age group in the Badwater (217 km) and Spartathlon (246 km) races were compared from 2000 to 2012. Results The number of female and male finishers increased in both races across years (P < 0.05). The age of the annual five fastest men decreased in Badwater from 42.4 ± 4.2 years to 39.8 ± 5.7 years (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.04). For women, the age remained unchanged at 42.3 ± 3.8 years in Badwater (P > 0.05). In Spartathlon, the age of the annual five fastest finishers was unchanged at 39.7 ± 2.4 years for men and 44.6 ± 3.2 years for women (P > 0.05). In Badwater, running speed increased in men from 7.9 ± 0.7 km/hour to 8.7 ± 0.6 km/hour (r2 = 0.51, P < 0.01) and in women from 5.4 ± 1.1 km/hour to 6.6 ± 0.5 km/hour (r2 = 0.61, P < 0.01). In Spartathlon, running speed remained unchanged at 10.8 ± 0.7 km/hour in men and 8.7 ± 0.5 km/hour in women (P > 0.05). In Badwater, the number of men in age groups 30–34 years (r2 = 0.37, P = 0.03) and 40–44 years (r2 = 0.75, P < 0.01) increased. In Spartathlon, the number of men increased in the age group 40–44 years (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.04). Men in age groups 30–34 (r2 = 0.64, P < 0.01), 35–39 (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.04), 40–44 (r2 = 0.34, P = 0.04), and 55–59 years (r2 = 0.40, P = 0.02) improved running speed in Badwater. In Spartathlon, no change in running speed was observed. Conclusion The fastest finishers in ultramarathons more than 200 km in distance were 40–45 years old and have to be classified as “master runners” by definition. In contrast to reports of marathoners and ultramarathoners competing in races of 161 km in distance, the increase in participation and the improvement in performance by age group were less pronounced in

  10. Child maltreatment in Taiwan for 2004-2013: A shift in age group and forms of maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Tsai; Yang, Nan-Ping; Chou, Pesus

    2016-02-01

    Cases of child maltreatment are being increasingly reported in Taiwan. However, the trend or changes of child maltreatment in Taiwan are fragmentary and lack empirical evidence. This study analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of substantiated child maltreatment cases from the previous decade, using mortality as an indicator to investigate the care of children who experienced substantiated maltreatment in the past to determine any new developments. Data for analysis and estimates were retrieved from the Department of Statistics in the Ministry of the Interior from 2004 to 2013. Trend analyses were conducted using the Joinpoint Regression Program. The child maltreatment rate in Taiwan was found to have nearly tripled from 2004 to 2013. A greater increase in the maltreatment of girls than boys and the maltreatment of aboriginal children than non-aboriginal children was noted from 2004 to 2013. When stratified by age group, the increase in maltreatment was most pronounced in children aged 12-17 years, and girls aged 12-17 years experienced the greatest increase in maltreatment. In terms of the proportional changes of different maltreatment forms among substantiated child maltreatment cases, child neglect was decreasing. The increase in sexual abuse was higher than for any other form of maltreatment and surpassed neglect by the end of 2013. Furthermore, the mortality rate of children with substantiated maltreatment record is increasing in Taiwan, whereas the mortality rate among children without any substantiated maltreatment record is decreasing. The results of this study highlight the need for policy reform in Taiwan regarding child maltreatment.

  11. Immigrant differences in school-age children's verbal trajectories: a look at four racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Tama; Xue, Yange; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    This study explored inter- and intraindividual immigrant group differences in children's English verbal ability over ages 6-16 in 4 racial/ethnic groups-White Americans, Black Americans, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans (N=2,136). Although all children's mean verbal scores increased with age, immigrant children (except for Black Americans) had lower scores than respective nonimmigrant children. In contrast, immigrant children (except for Mexican Americans) had more persistent verbal growth into adolescence than respective nonimmigrant children. Family resources moderately accounted for immigrant differences in children's mean verbal scores only. The findings support different theoretical models for understanding inter- and intraindividual immigrant differences in achievement. Mexican-American immigrants and Black American nonimmigrants were struggling and merit policy attention.

  12. Population aging and emergency departments: visits will not increase, lengths-of-stay and hospitalizations will.

    PubMed

    Pallin, Daniel J; Allen, Matthew B; Espinola, Janice A; Camargo, Carlos A; Bohan, J Stephen

    2013-07-01

    With US emergency care characterized as "at the breaking point," we studied how the aging of the US population would affect demand for emergency department (ED) services and hospitalizations in the coming decades. We applied current age-specific ED visit rates to the population structure anticipated by the Census Bureau to exist through 2050. Our results indicate that the aging of the population will not cause the number of ED visits to increase any more than would be expected from population growth. However, the data do predict increases in visit lengths and the likelihood of hospitalization. As a result, the aggregate amount of time patients spend in EDs nationwide will increase 10 percent faster than population growth. This means that ED capacity will have to increase by 10 percent, even without an increase in the number of visits. Hospital admissions from the ED will increase 23 percent faster than population growth, which will require hospitals to expand capacity faster than required by raw population growth alone.

  13. Correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and chronological age in a group of Iranian females

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients. PMID:26604958

  14. Aging of whiskey increases 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity.

    PubMed

    Aoshima, Hitoshi; Tsunoue, Hideaki; Koda, Hirofumi; Kiso, Yoshinobu

    2004-08-11

    1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of Japanese whiskey after various aging periods in oak barrels was measured to evaluate the antioxidative effects of whiskey. The activity of the whiskey increased with the aging period with high correlation. The activity of various types of whiskey was measured and shown to be correlated to the potentiation of the GABAA receptor response measured in a previous paper. However, the fragrant compounds in the whiskey which potentiated the GABAA receptor response had low DPPH radical scavenging activity, while phenol derivatives had high radical scavenging activity. The whiskey was extracted by pentane. The aqueous part showed the scavenging activity, whereas the pentane part did not. Thus, both the DPPH radical scavenging activity and the potentiation of the GABAA receptor response increased during whiskey aging in oak barrels, but were due to different components. The whiskey protected the H2O2-induced death of E. coli more than ethanol at the same concentration as that of the whiskey. The changes that occurred in the whiskey during aging may be the reason aged whiskies are so highly valued.

  15. Intake of melatonin increases tryptophan hydroxylase type 1 activity in aged rats: Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Moranta, D; Barceló, P; Aparicio, S; Garau, C; Sarubbo, F; Ramis, M; Nicolau, C; Esteban, S

    2014-01-01

    Pineal melatonin is important not only for synchronization of biological rhythms, but also in the ageing process as a potential drug to relieve oxidative damage. During ageing, the nocturnal melatonin production decreases resulting in an increased incidence of disorders. Present in vivo experiments were performed to study the effects of exogenous melatonin chronically administered to old rats on the pineal biosynthesis of melatonin and the precursor serotonin (5-HT) mediated by tryptophan hydroxylase type 1 (TPH-1). Accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) after decarboxylase inhibition was used as a measure of the TPH-1 activity. 5-HT and its metabolite 5-HIAA were also quantified by HPLC-ED. As expected, ageing resulted in worsening of different neurochemical parameters. However, chronic intake of melatonin (1mg/kg/day, diluted in drinking water, 4 weeks) increased TPH-1 activity and significantly improved the age-induced deficits in nocturnal melatonin content in the pineal gland. Results suggest that melatonin intake (or melatonin rich foods) may contribute to recover the pineal function preventing the nocturnal descent of 5-HT and melatonin biosynthesis that normally occur in pineal gland as a consequence of ageing.

  16. Mitochondrial proteomic profiling reveals increased carbonic anhydrase II in aging and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Amelia; Shephard, Freya; Freed, James; Liddell, Susan; Chakrabarti, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used to treat glaucoma and cancers. Carbonic anhydrases perform a crucial role in the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into bicarbonate and protons. However, there is little information about carbonic anhydrase isoforms during the process of ageing. Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicit in ageing brain and muscle. We have interrogated isolated mitochondrial fractions from young adult and middle aged mouse brain and skeletal muscle. We find an increase of tissue specific carbonic anhydrases in mitochondria from middle-aged brain and skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase II was measured in the Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd5J) mouse model. In pcd5J we find mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase II is also elevated in brain from young adults undergoing a process of neurodegeneration. We show C.elegans exposed to carbonic anhydrase II have a dose related shorter lifespan suggesting that high CAII levels are in themselves life limiting. We show for the first time that the mitochondrial content of brain and skeletal tissue are exposed to significantly higher levels of active carbonic anhydrases as early as in middle-age. Carbonic anhydrases associated with mitochondria could be targeted to specifically modulate age related impairments and disease. PMID:27743511

  17. Increased ghrelin signaling prolongs survival in mouse models of human aging through activation of sirtuin1

    PubMed Central

    Fujitsuka, N; Asakawa, A; Morinaga, A; Amitani, M S; Amitani, H; Katsuura, G; Sawada, Y; Sudo, Y; Uezono, Y; Mochiki, E; Sakata, I; Sakai, T; Hanazaki, K; Yada, T; Yakabi, K; Sakuma, E; Ueki, T; Niijima, A; Nakagawa, K; Okubo, N; Takeda, H; Asaka, M; Inui, A

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is known to retard aging and delay functional decline as well as the onset of diseases in most organisms. Ghrelin is secreted from the stomach in response to CR and regulates energy metabolism. We hypothesized that in CR ghrelin has a role in protecting aging-related diseases. We examined the physiological mechanisms underlying the ghrelin system during the aging process in three mouse strains with different genetic and biochemical backgrounds as animal models of accelerated or normal human aging. The elevated plasma ghrelin concentration was observed in both klotho-deficient and senescence-accelerated mouse prone/8 (SAMP8) mice. Ghrelin treatment failed to stimulate appetite and prolong survival in klotho-deficient mice, suggesting the existence of ghrelin resistance in the process of aging. However, ghrelin antagonist hastened death and ghrelin signaling potentiators rikkunshito and atractylodin ameliorated several age-related diseases with decreased microglial activation in the brain and prolonged survival in klotho-deficient, SAMP8 and aged ICR mice. In vitro experiments, the elevated sirtuin1 (SIRT1) activity and protein expression through the cAMP–CREB pathway was observed after ghrelin and ghrelin potentiator treatment in ghrelin receptor 1a-expressing cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, rikkunshito increased hypothalamic SIRT1 activity and SIRT1 protein expression of the heart in the all three mouse models of aging. Pericarditis, myocardial calcification and atrophy of myocardial and muscle fiber were improved by treatment with rikkunshito. Ghrelin signaling may represent one of the mechanisms activated by CR, and potentiating ghrelin signaling may be useful to extend health and lifespan. PMID:26830139

  18. Transient rapamycin treatment can increase lifespan and healthspan in middle-aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Bitto, Alessandro; Ito, Takashi K; Pineda, Victor V; LeTexier, Nicolas J; Huang, Heather Z; Sutlief, Elissa; Tung, Herman; Vizzini, Nicholas; Chen, Belle; Smith, Kaleb; Meza, Daniel; Yajima, Masanao; Beyer, Richard P; Kerr, Kathleen F; Davis, Daniel J; Gillespie, Catherine H; Snyder, Jessica M; Treuting, Piper M; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The FDA approved drug rapamycin increases lifespan in rodents and delays age-related dysfunction in rodents and humans. Nevertheless, important questions remain regarding the optimal dose, duration, and mechanisms of action in the context of healthy aging. Here we show that 3 months of rapamycin treatment is sufficient to increase life expectancy by up to 60% and improve measures of healthspan in middle-aged mice. This transient treatment is also associated with a remodeling of the microbiome, including dramatically increased prevalence of segmented filamentous bacteria in the small intestine. We also define a dose in female mice that does not extend lifespan, but is associated with a striking shift in cancer prevalence toward aggressive hematopoietic cancers and away from non-hematopoietic malignancies. These data suggest that a short-term rapamycin treatment late in life has persistent effects that can robustly delay aging, influence cancer prevalence, and modulate the microbiome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16351.001 PMID:27549339

  19. Spontaneous calcium waves in Bergman glia increase with age and hypoxia and may reduce tissue oxygen.

    PubMed

    Mathiesen, Claus; Brazhe, Alexey; Thomsen, Kirsten; Lauritzen, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Glial calcium (Ca(2+)) waves constitute a means to spread signals between glial cells and to neighboring neurons and blood vessels. These waves occur spontaneously in Bergmann glia (BG) of the mouse cerebellar cortex in vivo. Here, we tested three hypotheses: (1) aging and reduced blood oxygen saturation alters wave activity; (2) glial Ca(2+) waves change cerebral oxygen metabolism; and (3) neuronal and glial wave activity is correlated. We used two-photon microscopy in the cerebellar cortexes of adult (8- to 15-week-old) and aging (48- to 80-week-old) ketamine-anesthetized mice after bolus loading with OGB-1/AM and SR101. We report that the occurrence of spontaneous waves is 20 times more frequent in the cerebellar cortex of aging as compared with adult mice, which correlated with a reduction in resting brain oxygen tension. In adult mice, spontaneous glial wave activity increased on reducing resting brain oxygen tension, and ATP-evoked glial waves reduced the tissue O(2) tension. Finally, although spontaneous Purkinje cell (PC) activity was not associated with increased glia wave activity, spontaneous glial waves did affect intracellular Ca(2+) activity in PCs. The increased wave activity during aging, as well as low resting brain oxygen tension, suggests a relationship between glial waves, brain energy homeostasis, and pathology.

  20. Group-based differences in anti-aging bias among medical students.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jorge G; Andrade, Allen D; Anam, Ramanakumar; Taldone, Sabrina; Karanam, Chandana; Hogue, Christie; Mintzer, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Medical students (MS) may develop ageist attitudes early in their training that may predict their future avoidance of caring for the elderly. This study sought to determine MS' patterns of explicit and implicit anti-aging bias, intent to practice with older people and using the quad model, the role of gender, race, and motivation-based differences. One hundred and three MS completed an online survey that included explicit and implicit measures. Explicit measures revealed a moderately positive perception of older people. Female medical students and those high in internal motivation showed lower anti-aging bias, and both were more likely to intend to practice with older people. Although the implicit measure revealed more negativity toward the elderly than the explicit measures, there were no group differences. However, using the quad model the authors identified gender, race, and motivation-based differences in controlled and automatic processes involved in anti-aging bias.

  1. Are vocabulary tests measurement invariant between age groups? An item response analysis of three popular tests.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mark C; Berry, Jane M; Freeman, Sara P

    2014-12-01

    Relatively high vocabulary scores of older adults are generally interpreted as evidence that older adults possess more of a common ability than younger adults. Yet, this interpretation rests on empirical assumptions about the uniformity of item-response functions between groups. In this article, we test item response models of differential responding against datasets containing younger-, middle-aged-, and older-adult responses to three popular vocabulary tests (the Shipley, Ekstrom, and WAIS-R) to determine whether members of different age groups who achieve the same scores have the same probability of responding in the same categories (e.g., correct vs. incorrect) under the same conditions. Contrary to the null hypothesis of measurement invariance, datasets for all three tests exhibit substantial differential responding. Members of different age groups who achieve the same overall scores exhibit differing response probabilities in relation to the same items (differential item functioning) and appear to approach the tests in qualitatively different ways that generalize across items. Specifically, younger adults are more likely than older adults to leave items unanswered for partial credit on the Ekstrom, and to produce 2-point definitions on the WAIS-R. Yet, older adults score higher than younger adults, consistent with most reports of vocabulary outcomes in the cognitive aging literature. In light of these findings, the most generalizable conclusion to be drawn from the cognitive aging literature on vocabulary tests is simply that older adults tend to score higher than younger adults, and not that older adults possess more of a common ability.

  2. The Spatio-temporal Distribution of Japanese Encephalitis Cases in Different Age Groups in Mainland China, 2004 – 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huanyu; Song, Miao; Li, Minghua; Fu, Shihong; Lv, Zhi; He, Ying; Lei, Wenwen; Wang, Bin; Lu, Xiaoqing; Liang, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis (JE) is very prevalent in China, but the incidence of JE among children has been greatly reduced by extensive promotion of vaccinations. The incidence of JE among adults, however, has increased in some parts of China. Methods/Principal Findings Data on JE in mainland China, in terms of incidence, gender, and age, were collected between 2004 and 2014. We conducted spatial and temporal analyses on data from different age groups. Generally, children aged 0–15 years still represent the major population of JE cases in China, despite the gradual decrease in incidence over years. However, the incidence of JE among adults in several provinces is notably higher than the national average, especially during the epidemic waves in 2006, 2009, and 2013. The JE cases in the 0–15-year-old group are distributed mainly in the area south of the Yangtze River, with peak incidence occurring from July to September. In the adult group, especially for those over 40 years old, the JE cases are concentrated mainly in the area north of the Yangtze River. JE incidence in the adult group in September and October is significantly greater compared to the other groups. Further analysis using Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) reveals that the distribution of adult JE cases in the six provinces north of the Yangtze River, between north 30–35° latitude and east 110–130° longitude, is a hotspot for adult JE cases. Conclusions/Significance The rate of JE case increase for adults is much greater than for children and has become a public health issue. Therefore, studies on the necessity and feasibility of vaccinating adults who live in JE-endemic areas, but have never been vaccinated for JE, should become a new focus of JE prevention in the future. PMID:27050414

  3. PROGRESSIVE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF HUMAN CORTICAL BONE IN TENSION FOR TWO AGE GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Jeffry S.; Roy, Anuradha; Reyes, Michael J.; Wang, Xiaodu

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of bone for post-yield energy dissipation decreases with age. To gain information on the cause of such changes, we examined the mechanical behavior of human cadaveric bone as a function of progressive deformation. In this study, tensile specimens from tibiae of 9 middle aged and 8 elderly donors were loaded till failure in an incremental and cyclic (load-dwell-unload-dwell-reload) scheme. The elastic modulus, maximum stress, permanent strain, stress relaxation, viscoelastic time constant, plastic strain energy, elastic release strain energy, and hysteresis energy were determined at incremental strains of each loading cycle. Experimental results showed that elderly bone failed at much lower strains compared to middle aged bone, but little age-related differences were observed in the mechanical behavior of bone until the premature failure of elderly bone. Energy dissipation and permanent strain appeared to linearly increase with increasing strain, while non-linear changes occurred in the modulus loss and stress relaxation/time constant with increasing strain. Such changes suggest that two distinct stages may exist in the progressive deformation of bone. In Stage I, rapid damage accumulation and increased involvement of collagen in load bearing appeared to dominate the mechanical behavior of bone with limited energy dissipation (<20% of total energy dissipated), whereas Stage II is dominated by continuous plastic deformation, accompanied by major energy dissipation through all three pathways till failure. This study suggests that damaging mechanisms in bone vary with deformation and age affects the post-yield mechanisms causing a significant decline in the capacity of aged bone to dissipate energy. PMID:18437693

  4. A School-Based Intervention to Increase Lyme Disease Preventive Measures Among Elementary School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Zibit, Melanie J.; Nardone, Elizabeth; DeMaria, Alfred; Iannaccone, Christine K.; Cui, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Educational interventions to reduce Lyme disease (LD) among at-risk school children have had little study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a short in-class LD education program based on social learning theory and the Health Belief Model (HBM) impacted a child's knowledge, attitude, and preventive behavior. Methods: Students in grades 2–5 in 19 elementary schools were selected in an area that was highly endemic for LD. The children received an educational intervention or were on a wait list as controls. Their knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported preventive behaviors were surveyed before implementing the program and 1 year later. General linear regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, and baseline variables were used to measure the impact of the intervention. Results: There were 3570 participants in the study: 1562 received the intervention, and 2008 were controls. The mean age for both groups was 9.1 years, with 53% women in the intervention group and 50% women in the control group. The children in the intervention group increased their overall knowledge of LD more than the children in the control group (overall knowledge score improvement, mean difference (SD) 1.38 (1.3) vs. 0.36 (1.3) p < 0.0001). All children in classes receiving the intervention reported an increase in precautionary behavior, positive attitude toward taking precautions, and self-efficacy compared with the wait list controls. Two LD cases were confirmed during the follow-up period, one in the intervention group and one in the controls. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that a short in-class educational program that includes elements of the HBM, including: (1) awareness and knowledge about the disease, (2) benefits of preventive behavior, and (3) confidence in ability to perform preventive behaviors can improve knowledge, attitude, and self-reported precautionary behavior among at-risk children. www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00594997 PMID

  5. Aging services or services to the aging?focus of a university-community curriculum development partnership to increase awareness of aging issues in social work practice.

    PubMed

    Diwan, Sadhna; Wertheimer, Mindy R

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a partnership between social work faculty and community practitioners to develop gerontological curricula to increase awareness of aging issues among social work students. We describe steps taken to identify learning needs of students by examining gaps in the core curriculum and surveying community-based agencies that serve older persons who face a variety of problems. We also describe a unique field education assignment designed to increase awareness of how well community service agencies meet the needs of older clients and provide quantitative and qualitative data on students' overall learning experiences. The project highlights the role of community partners in developing relevant curricula for future social work practitioners.

  6. Incidence of Ichthyophonus hoferi in Puget Sound fishes and its increase with age of Pacific herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Stick, K.; Bui, B.; Carroll, C.; Fall, B.; Mork, C.; Perry, J.A.; Sweeney, E.; Wittouck, J.; Winton, J.; Kocan, R.

    2002-01-01

    A recent decrease in the mean age of adult Pacific herring Clupea pallasi in Puget Sound was associated with a high prevalence of Ichthyophonus hoferi, a protistan parasite that can be highly pathogenic to Pacific herring. In Puget Sound, high intensities of I. hoferiinfection may be maintained in older cohorts of Pacific herring because the prevalence ofI. hoferi increased with age from 12% among juveniles to 58% among the oldest, age-6 and older cohorts. Low intensities of I. hoferi infection in the region may be maintained in alternative fish hosts, such as surf smelt Hypomesus pretiosus, Puget Sound rockfishSebastes emphaeus, Pacific tomcod Microgadus proximus, and speckled sanddabCithanichthys stigmaeus.

  7. Increase in bioavailability of aged phenanthrene in soils by competitive displacement with pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C.; Hunter, M.; Pignatello, J.J.; Alexander, M.

    1999-08-01

    Competitive sorption to natural solids among mixtures of organic compounds has been documented in the literature. This study was conducted to determine co-solute competitive effects on the biological and physical availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils after long contact periods (aging). Sterile suspensions of Mount Pleasant silt loam (Mt. Pleasant, NY, USA) and Pahokee peat soils were spiked with phenanthrene and allowed to age for 3 or 123 d before inoculation with a phenanthrene-degrading bacterium in the presence or absence of the nonbiodegradable co-solute pyrene. As expected, mineralization decreased with aging in the samples not amended with pyrene. However, addition of pyrene just prior to inoculation at 123 d significantly mitigated this decrease; that is, the extent of mineralization was greater in the 123-d pyrene-amended samples than in the 123-d nonamended samples. Parallel experiments on sterile soils showed that pyrene increased the physical availability of phenanthrene by competitive displacement of phenanthrene from sorption sites. First, the addition of pyrene increased recovery of 123-d-aged phenanthrene by mild solvent extraction. Second, addition of pyrene (at three concentrations) dramatically reduced the apparent distribution coefficient (K{sub d}{sup app}) of several concentrations of 60-, 95-, and 111-d-aged phenanthrene. At the lowest phenanthrene and highest pyrene concentrations, reductions in the K{sub d}{sup app} of phenanthrene in the peat soil reached 83%. The competitive displacement effect observed in this study adds further support to the dual mode model of sorption to soil organic matter. The displacement of an aged contaminant by a nonaged co-solute might also prove useful in the development of novel remediation strategies.

  8. Age, Tumor Characteristics, and Treatment Regimen as Event Predictors in Ewing: A Children's Oncology Group Report

    PubMed Central

    Marina, Neyssa; Granowetter, Linda; Grier, Holcombe E.; Womer, Richard B.; Randall, R. Lor; Marcus, Karen J.; McIlvaine, Elizabeth; Krailo, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To associate baseline patient characteristics and relapse across consecutive COG studies. Methods. We analyzed risk factors for LESFT patients in three randomized COG trials. We evaluated age at enrollment, primary site, gender, tumor size, and treatment (as randomized). We estimated event-free survival (EFS, Kaplan-Meier) and compared risk across groups (log-rank test). Characteristics were assessed by proportional hazards regression with the characteristic of interest as the only component. Confidence intervals (CI) for RR were derived. Factors related to outcome at level 0.05 were included in a multivariate regression model. Results. Between 12/1988 and 8/2005, 1444 patients were enrolled and data current to 2001, 2004, or 2008 were used. Patients were with a median age of 12 years (0–45), 55% male and 88% Caucasian. The 5-year EFS was 68.3% ± 1.3%. In univariate analysis age, treatment, and tumor location were identified for inclusion in the multivariate model, and all remained significant (p < 0.01). Since tumor size was not collected in the last study, the other two were reanalyzed. This model identified age, treatment, tumor location, and tumor size as significant predictors. Conclusion. Age > 18 years, pelvic tumor, size > 8 cms, and chemotherapy without ifosfamide/etoposide significantly predict worse outcome. AEWS0031 is NCT00006734, INT0091 and INT0054 designed before 1993 (unregistered). PMID:26508901

  9. Overexpression of MMP-7 increases collagen 1A2 in the aging kidney

    PubMed Central

    Ślusarz, Anna; Nichols, LaNita A; Grunz-Borgmann, Elizabeth A; Chen, Gang; Akintola, Adebayo D; Catania, Jeffery M; Burghardt, Robert C; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Parrish, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    The percentage of the U.S. population over 65 is rapidly increasing, as is the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The kidney is susceptible to age-dependent alterations in structure, specifically tubulointerstitial fibrosis that leads to CKD. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were initially characterized as extracellular matrix (ECM) proteinases; however, it is clear that their biological role is much larger. We have observed increased gene expression of several MMPs in the aging kidney, including MMP-7. MMP-7 overexpression was observed starting at 16 months, with over a 500-fold upregulation in 2-year-old animals. Overexpression of MMP-7 is not observed in age-matched, calorically restricted controls that do not develop fibrosis and renal dysfunction, suggesting a role in the pathogenesis. In order to delineate the contributions of MMP-7 to renal dysfunction, we overexpressed MMP-7 in NRK-52E cells. High-throughput sequencing of the cells revealed that two collagen genes, Col1a2 and Col3a1, were elevated in the MMP-7 overexpressing cells. These two collagen genes were also elevated in aging rat kidneys and temporally correlated with increased MMP-7 expression. Addition of exogenous MMP-7, or conditioned media from MMP-7 overexpressing cells also increased Col1A2 expression. Inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA), src, and MAPK signaling at p38 and ERK was able to attenuate the MMP-7 upregulation of Col1a2. Consistent with this finding, increased phosphorylation of PKA, src, and ERK was seen in MMP-7 overexpressing cells and upon exogenous MMP-7 treatment of NRK-52E cells. These data suggest a novel mechanism by which MMP-7 contributes to the development of fibrosis leading to CKD. PMID:24273653

  10. Ageing increases reliance on sensorimotor prediction through structural and functional differences in frontostriatal circuits

    PubMed Central

    Wolpe, Noham; Ingram, James N.; Tsvetanov, Kamen A.; Geerligs, Linda; Kievit, Rogier A.; Henson, Richard N.; Wolpert, Daniel M.; Tyler, Lorraine K.; Brayne, Carol; Bullmore, Edward; Calder, Andrew; Cusack, Rhodri; Dalgleish, Tim; Duncan, John; Matthews, Fiona E.; Marslen-Wilson, William; Shafto, Meredith A.; Campbell, Karen; Cheung, Teresa; Davis, Simon; McCarrey, Anna; Mustafa, Abdur; Price, Darren; Samu, David; Taylor, Jason R.; Treder, Matthias; van Belle, Janna; Williams, Nitin; Bates, Lauren; Emery, Tina; Erzinçlioglu, Sharon; Gadie, Andrew; Gerbase, Sofia; Georgieva, Stanimira; Hanley, Claire; Parkin, Beth; Troy, David; Auer, Tibor; Correia, Marta; Gao, Lu; Green, Emma; Henriques, Rafael; Allen, Jodie; Amery, Gillian; Amunts, Liana; Barcroft, Anne; Castle, Amanda; Dias, Cheryl; Dowrick, Jonathan; Fair, Melissa; Fisher, Hayley; Goulding, Anna; Grewal, Adarsh; Hale, Geoff; Hilton, Andrew; Johnson, Frances; Johnston, Patricia; Kavanagh-Williamson, Thea; Kwasniewska, Magdalena; McMinn, Alison; Norman, Kim; Penrose, Jessica; Roby, Fiona; Rowland, Diane; Sargeant, John; Squire, Maggie; Stevens, Beth; Stoddart, Aldabra; Stone, Cheryl; Thompson, Tracy; Yazlik, Ozlem; Barnes, Dan; Dixon, Marie; Hillman, Jaya; Mitchell, Joanne; Villis, Laura; Rowe, James B.

    2016-01-01

    The control of voluntary movement changes markedly with age. A critical component of motor control is the integration of sensory information with predictions of the consequences of action, arising from internal models of movement. This leads to sensorimotor attenuation—a reduction in the perceived intensity of sensations from self-generated compared with external actions. Here we show that sensorimotor attenuation occurs in 98% of adults in a population-based cohort (n=325; 18–88 years; the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience). Importantly, attenuation increases with age, in proportion to reduced sensory sensitivity. This effect is associated with differences in the structure and functional connectivity of the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. The results suggest that ageing alters the balance between the sensorium and predictive models, mediated by the pre-SMA and its connectivity in frontostriatal circuits. This shift may contribute to the motor and cognitive changes observed with age. PMID:27694879

  11. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  12. Alfacalcidol increases cancellous bone in low turnover, fatty marrow sites in aged, orchidectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, X Y; Chen, H Y; Setterberg, R B; Li, M; Jee, W S S

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the responses of cancellous bone in the distal tibial metaphysis (DTM), a low turnover, fatty (yellow) marrow site, to sham-aged, orchidectomy (ORX) and alfacalcidol treatment in sham-aged and ORX rats. Eighteen-month-old male sham and ORX rats were treated with 0.1 and 0.2 microg/kg alfacalcidol 5 days/wk p.o. for 12 weeks, double fluorescent labeled, and the DTM were processed for bone histomorphometry analyses. The current study found the DTM in sham-aged male rats were resistant to age-related and ORX-induced cancellous bone loss and alfacalcidol-induced bone gain, findings that differ from that in the proximal tibial metaphysis (PTM) and lumbar vertebral body (LVB), two high turnover, red marrow bone sites. However, alfacalcidol treatment increased DTM bone mass in ORX rats where bone turnover was elevated by androgen deficiency. These results in concert with the previously positive findings in red marrow bone sites following alfacalcidol treatment suggest that alfacalcidol is more effective in increasing cancellous bone mass in the skeletal sites with higher bone turnover.

  13. Better stay together: pair bond duration increases individual fitness independent of age-related variation

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Macouzet, Oscar; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged pair bonds have the potential to improve reproductive performance of socially monogamous animals by increasing pair familiarity and enhancing coordination and cooperation between pair members. However, this has proved very difficult to test robustly because of important confounds such as age and reproductive experience. Here, we address limitations of previous studies and provide a rigorous test of the mate familiarity effect in the socially monogamous blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, a long-lived marine bird with a high divorce rate. Taking advantage of a natural disassociation between age and pair bond duration in this species, and applying a novel analytical approach to a 24 year database, we found that those pairs which have been together for longer establish their clutches five weeks earlier in the season, hatch more of their eggs and produce 35% more fledglings, regardless of age and reproductive experience. Our results demonstrate that pair bond duration increases individual fitness and further suggest that synergistic effects between a male and female's behaviour are likely to be involved in generating a mate familiarity effect. These findings help to explain the age- and experience-independent benefits of remating and their role in life-history evolution. PMID:24827435

  14. The implications of increased survivorship for mortality variation in aging populations.

    PubMed

    Engelman, Michal; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Agree, Emily M

    2010-01-01

    The remarkable growth in life expectancy during the twentieth century inspired predictions of a future in which all people, not just a fortunate few, will live long lives ending at or near the maximum human life span. We show that increased longevity has been accompanied by less variation in ages at death, but survivors to the oldest ages have grown increasingly heterogeneous in their mortality risks. These trends are consistent across countries, and apply even to populations with record-low variability in the length of life. We argue that as a result of continuing improvements in survival, delayed mortality selection has shifted health disparities from early to later life, where they manifest in the growing inequalities in late-life mortality.

  15. Diversity of gut microbiota increases with aging and starvation in the desert locust.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Rod J; Webster, Gordon; Weightman, Andrew J; Keith Charnley, A

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the effects of starvation and insect age on the diversity of gut microbiota of adult desert locusts, Schistocerca gregaria, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic (DGGE) analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Sequencing of excised DGGE bands revealed the presence of only one potentially novel uncultured member of the Gammaproteobacteria in the guts of fed, starved, young or old locusts. Most of the 16S rRNA gene sequences were closely related to known cultured bacterial species. DGGE profiles suggested that bacterial diversity increased with insect age and did not provide evidence for a characteristic locust gut bacterial community. Starved insects are often more prone to disease, probably because they compromise on immune defence. However, the increased diversity of Gammaproteobacteria in starved locusts shown here may improve defence against enteric threats because of the role of gut bacteria in colonization resistance.

  16. [Parameters of controlled mechanical lung ventilation and external respiratory function during thoracoscopic surgeries in children of different age groups].

    PubMed

    Ovcharenko, N M; Tsypin, L E; Geodakian, O S; Demakhin, A A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to estimate the parameters of mechanical ventilation and respiratory function during videotorachoscopic surgeries in children. 73 anesthesias were conducted in children aged 5 to 16 years of age. During the study, a detailed monitoring of respiratory function and parameters of mechanical ventilation was carried out. Indicators reflecting the lung function remained stable in all phases of the study. Parameters of mechanical ventilation during the study varied. Changes in PIP and MAP were similar in all age groups. The maximum changes of compliance were in the third group. One-lung ventilation is safe under certain conditions: increasing FiO2 from 0.5 to 1, the reduction of tidal volume up to 5-5.3 ml/kg, the use of a size or a half size smaller cuffed endotracheal tubes for intubation of the right and left main bronchus compared to those for tracheal intubation. For the intubation of the right main bronchus the endotracheal tube with the Murphy eye should be used, for the means ventilation of the upper lobe of the right lung. If the minute volume of breathing is adequate and there is no preoperative hypercapnia, the elimination of CO2 for one-lung ventilation is not disrupted and the tension of CO2 in arterial blood increases.

  17. Patterns of Adverse Drug Reactions in Different Age Groups: Analysis of Spontaneous Reports by Community Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yun Mi; Shin, Wan Gyoon; Lee, Ju-Yeun; Choi, Soo An; Jo, Yun Hee; Youn, So Jung; Lee, Mo Se; Choi, Kwang Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) spontaneously reported by community pharmacists and to compare the ADRs by age. Methods ADRs reported to the Regional Pharmacovigilance Center of the Korean Pharmaceutical Association by community pharmacists from January 2013 to June 2014 were included. Causality was assessed using the WHO-Uppsala Monitoring Centre system. The patient population was classified into three age groups. We analyzed 31,398 (74.9%) ADRs from 9,705 patients, identified as having a causal relationship, from a total pool of 41,930 ADRs from 9,873 patients. Median patient age was 58.0 years; 66.9% were female. Results Gastrointestinal system (34.4%), nervous system (14.4%), and psychiatric (12.1%) disorders were the most frequent symptoms. Prevalent causative drugs were those for acid-related disorders (11.4%), anti-inflammatory products (10.5%), analgesics (7.2%), and antibacterials (7.1%). Comparisons by age revealed diarrhea and antibacterials to be most commonly associated with ADRs in children (p < 0.001), whereas dizziness was prevalent in the elderly (p < 0.001). Anaphylactic reaction was the most frequent serious event (19.7%), mainly associated with cephalosporins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Among 612 ADRs caused by nonprescription drugs, the leading symptoms and causative drugs were skin disorders (29.6%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (16.2%), respectively. Conclusions According to the community pharmacist reports, the leading clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with ADRs in outpatients differed among age groups. PMID:26172050

  18. Platinum group element incorporation into human bones resulting from increased anthropogenic utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrah, T. H.; Hannigan, R. E.; Campbell, E.; Prutsman-Pfeiffer, J.

    2009-12-01

    Platinum group elements (including Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Os, Ir) are rare precious metals that occur at exceedingly low concentrations in the Earth’s crust (~0.02-0.5 ng/g). Utilization of PGEs in the catalytic converter of automobiles, medical treatments, electronics, and as a catalyst, has rapidly increased since the early 20th century, leading to increased anthropogenic PGE emissions and consequently increasing concentrations in the environment. Recent reports indicate that environmental PGE concentrations are increasing in urban air, roadside soils, and aquatic environments (Rauch and Morrison, 2008). As a result, there is an increased potential for PGE uptake into the biosphere. To evaluate bio-incorporation of PGEs into the human body we use ICP-MS to analyze for PGE concentration in human bones. Human bone minerals serve as a reservoir for the majority of the body’s trace metals and provide a measure of PGE incorporation into the human body from various environmental sources. We compare PGE concentrations in femoral heads of 30 present-day modern humans to those in femurs of 10 humans exhumed from 18th and 19th century burial sites, whose metal exposures predate extensive anthropogenic use of PGEs.

  19. Low LDL cholesterol and increased risk of Parkinson's disease: prospective results from Honolulu-Asia Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuemei; Abbott, Robert D; Petrovitch, Helen; Mailman, Richard B; Ross, G Webster

    2008-05-15

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are suggested to be associated inversely with Parkinson's disease (PD). To test the hypothesis that LDL-C levels may increase PD risk, we studied a prospective cohort of 3,233 men (Honolulu-Asia Aging Study) for whom the LDL-C from fasting lipid profiles was obtained during 1991 to 1993. The cohort was followed longitudinally until 2001 for incident Parkinson's cases. During follow-up, 41 men developed PD (18.4/10,000 person-years). Although the incidence of PD increased with decreasing LDL-C in a dose-dependent manner, the association was only significant for men aged 71 to 75 years. In the latter group, risk of PD declined from 38.5/10,000 person-years in men with LDL-C levels <80 mg/dl to less than 9/10,000 person-years for concentrations that were > or =140 mg/dl. After adjustment for age, smoking, coffee intake, and other factors, the relative odds of PD for men at the 80th versus the 20th percentile of LDL-C (135 vs. 85 mg/dl) was 0.4 (95% confidence interval: 0.2, 0.9). This prospective study supports the hypothesis that low LDL-C is associated with an increased risk of PD. Although confirmation is required, the underlying mechanisms may be useful in understanding key aspects of PD.

  20. Increased gene dosage of Ink4a/Arf results in cancer resistance and normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Matheu, Ander; Pantoja, Cristina; Efeyan, Alejo; Criado, Luis M.; Martín-Caballero, Juan; Flores, Juana M.; Klatt, Peter; Serrano, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian genes frequently present allelic variants that differ in their expression levels and that, in the case of tumor suppressor genes, can be of relevance for cancer susceptibility and aging. We report here the characterization of a novel mouse model with increased activity for the Ink4a and Arf tumor suppressors. We have generated a “super Ink4a/Arf” mouse strain carrying a transgenic copy of the entire Ink4a/Arf locus. Cells derived from super Ink4a/Arf mice have increased resistance to in vitro immortalization and oncogenic transformation. Importantly, super Ink4a/Arf mice manifest higher resistance to cancer compared to normal, nontransgenic, mice. Finally, super Ink4a/Arf mice have normal aging and lifespan. Together, these results indicate that modest increases in the activity of the Ink4a/Arf tumor suppressor result in a beneficial cancer-resistant phenotype without affecting normal viability or aging. PMID:15520276

  1. beta. -adrenergic receptor-mediated hepatic glycogenolysis is increased in aged male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, P.A.; Graham, S.M.; Arinze, I.J.

    1986-03-05

    The effect of age on catecholamine-stimulated glycogenolysis was studied in isolated hepatocytes prepared from 3, 12, and 24 month-old rats. Glucose release was stimulated by epinephrine and norepinephrine, this was inhibited by phentolamine and prazosin. Isoproterenol (ISO) stimulated glycogenolysis only in cells from 24 month-old rats, this was blocked by propranolol. In liver plasma membranes, binding of (/sup 3/H)yohimbine (100-130 fmol/mg protein) did not change with age, whereas (/sup 3/H)prazosin binding decreased from 870 fmol/mg at 3 months to 435 fmol/mg at 12 months, but subsequently rose to 656 fmol/mg at 24 months. (/sup 125/I)Cyanopindolol binding increased from 8 fmol/mg at 3 months to 19 fmol/mg at 24 months. The proportion of ..beta..-receptors in the high affinity state increased from 28% at 3 months to 42% at 24 months. ISO stimulated adenylate cyclase at 24 months but not at 3 months. Basal, fluoride-, GTP-, and Gpp(NH)p-stimulated activities were 1.4- to 2.4-fold greater at 24 months than at 3 months. These results suggest an age-related increase in the sensitivity of adenylate cyclase to ..beta..-receptor stimulation.

  2. Intrinsic stiffness of extracellular matrix increases with age in skeletal muscles of mice.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lauren K; Kayupov, Erdan; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Mendias, Christopher L; Claflin, Dennis R; Brooks, Susan V

    2014-08-15

    Advanced age is associated with increases in muscle passive stiffness, but the contributors to the changes remain unclear. Our purpose was to determine the relative contributions of muscle fibers and extracellular matrix (ECM) to muscle passive stiffness in both adult and old animals. Passive mechanical properties were determined for isolated individual muscle fibers and bundles of muscle fibers that included their associated ECM, obtained from tibialis anterior muscles of adult (8-12 mo old) and old (28-30 mo old) mice. Maximum tangent moduli of individual muscle fibers from adult and old muscles were not different at any sarcomere length tested. In contrast, the moduli of bundles of fibers from old mice was more than twofold greater than that of fiber bundles from adult muscles at sarcomere lengths >2.5 μm. Because ECM mechanical behavior is determined by the composition and arrangement of its molecular constituents, we also examined the effect of aging on ECM collagen characteristics. With aging, muscle ECM hydroxyproline content increased twofold and advanced glycation end-product protein adducts increased threefold, whereas collagen fibril orientation and total ECM area were not different between muscles from adult and old mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that the ECM of tibialis anterior muscles from old mice has a higher modulus than the ECM of adult muscles, likely driven by an accumulation of densely packed extensively crosslinked collagen.

  3. Synchrotron-based XRD from rat bone of different age groups.

    PubMed

    Rao, D V; Gigante, G E; Cesareo, R; Brunetti, A; Schiavon, N; Akatsuka, T; Yuasa, T; Takeda, T

    2017-05-01

    Synchrotron-based XRD spectra from rat bone of different age groups (w, 56 w and 78w), lumber vertebra at early stages of bone formation, Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp) [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] bone fill with varying composition (60% and 70%) and bone cream (35-48%), has been acquired with 15keV synchrotron X-rays. Experiments were performed at Desy, Hamburg, Germany, utilizing the Resonant and Diffraction beamline (P9), with 15keV X-rays (λ=0.82666 A(0)). Diffraction data were quantitatively analyzed using the Rietveld refinement approach, which allowed us to characterize the structure of these samples in their early stages. Hydroxyapatite, received considerable attention in medical and materials sciences, since these materials are the hard tissues, such as bone and teeth. Higher bioactivity of these samples gained reasonable interest for biological application and for bone tissue repair in oral surgery and orthopedics. The results obtained from these samples, such as phase data, crystalline size of the phases, as well as the degree of crystallinity, confirm the apatite family crystallizing in a hexagonal system, space group P63/m with the lattice parameters of a=9.4328Å and c=6.8842Å (JCPDS card #09-0432). Synchrotron-based XRD patterns are relatively sharp and well resolved and can be attributed to the hexagonal crystal form of hydroxyapatite. All the samples were examined with scanning electron microscope at an accelerating voltage of 15kV. The presence of large globules of different sizes is observed, in small age groups of the rat bone (8w) and lumber vertebra (LV), as distinguished from, large age groups (56 and 78w) in all samples with different magnification, reflects an amorphous phase without significant traces of crystalline phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the morphology and crystalline properties of Hap, for all the samples, from 2 to 100μm resolution.

  4. Food restriction increases long-term memory persistence in adult or aged mice.

    PubMed

    Talhati, F; Patti, C L; Zanin, K A; Lopes-Silva, L B; Ceccon, L M B; Hollais, A W; Bizerra, C S; Santos, R; Tufik, S; Frussa-Filho, R

    2014-04-03

    Food restriction (FR) seems to be the unique experimental manipulation that leads to a remarkable increase in lifespan in rodents. Evidences have suggested that FR can enhance memory in distinct animal models mainly during aging. However, only few studies systemically evaluated the effects FR on memory formation in both adult (3-month-old) and aged (18-24-month-old) mice. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute (12h) or repeated (12h/day for 2days) FR protocols on learning and memory of adult and aged mice evaluated in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT), an animal model that concurrently (but independently) evaluates learning and memory, anxiety and locomotion. We also investigated the possible role of FR-induced stress by the corticosterone concentration in adult mice. Male mice were kept at home cage with food ad libitum (CTRL-control condition) or subjected to FR during the dark phase of the cycle for 12h/day or 12h/2days. The FR protocols were applied before training, immediately after it or before testing. Our results demonstrated that only FR for 2days enhanced memory persistence when applied before training in adults and before testing in aged mice. Conversely, FR for 2days impaired consolidation and exerted no effects on retrieval irrespective of age. These effects do not seem to be related to corticosterone concentration. Collectively, these results indicate that FR for 2days can promote promnestic effects not only in aged mice but also in adults.

  5. covR Mediated Antibiofilm Activity of 3-Furancarboxaldehyde Increases the Virulence of Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Ashwinkumar Subramenium, Ganapathy; Viszwapriya, Dharmaprakash; Iyer, Prasanth Mani; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy; Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

    2015-01-01

    Background Group A streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes), a multi-virulent, exclusive human pathogen responsible for various invasive and non-invasive diseases possesses biofilm forming phenomenon as one of its pathogenic armaments. Recently, antibiofilm agents have gained prime importance, since inhibiting the biofilm formation is expected to reduce development of antibiotic resistance and increase their susceptibility to the host immune cells. Principal Findings The current study demonstrates the antibiofilm activity of 3Furancarboxaldehyde (3FCA), a floral honey derived compound, against GAS biofilm, which was divulged using crystal violet assay, light microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The report is extended to study its effect on various aspects of GAS (morphology, virulence, aggregation) at its minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (132μg/ml). 3FCA was found to alter the growth pattern of GAS in solid and liquid medium and increased the rate of auto-aggregation. Electron microscopy unveiled the increase in extra polymeric substances around cell. Gene expression studies showed down-regulation of covR gene, which is speculated to be the prime target for the antibiofilm activity. Increased hyaluronic acid production and down regulation of srtB gene is attributed to the enhanced rate of auto-aggregation. The virulence genes (srv, mga, luxS and hasA) were also found to be over expressed, which was manifested with the increased susceptibility of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to 3FCA treated GAS. The toxicity of 3FCA was ruled out with no adverse effect on C. elegans. Significance Though 3FCA possess antibiofilm activity against GAS, it was also found to increase the virulence of GAS. This study demonstrates that, covR mediated antibiofilm activity may increase the virulence of GAS. This also emphasizes the importance to analyse the acclimatization response and virulence of the pathogen in the presence of antibiofilm compounds

  6. Early maternal undernutrition programs increased feed intake, altered glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and liver function in aged female offspring

    PubMed Central

    George, Lindsey A.; Zhang, Liren; Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Ma, Yan; Long, Nathan M.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Smith, Derek T.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are components of the metabolic syndrome that includes development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes with advancing age. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis suggests that offspring of poorly nourished mothers are predisposed to the various components of the metabolic syndrome due to adaptations made during fetal development. We assessed the effects of maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation on feeding behavior, insulin and glucose dynamics, body composition, and liver function in aged female offspring of ewes fed either a nutrient-restricted [NR 50% National Research Council (NRC) recommendations] or control (C: 100% NRC) diet from 28 to 78 days of gestation, after which both groups were fed at 100% of NRC from day 79 to lambing and through lactation. Female lambs born to NR and C dams were reared as a single group from weaning, and thereafter, they were fed 100% NRC recommendations until assigned to this study at 6 yr of age. These female offspring were evaluated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test, followed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition analysis prior to and after ad libitum feeding of a highly palatable pelleted diet for 11 wk with automated monitoring of feed intake (GrowSafe Systems). Aged female offspring born to NR ewes demonstrated greater and more rapid feed intake, greater body weight gain, and efficiency of gain, lower insulin sensitivity, higher insulin secretion, and greater hepatic lipid and glycogen content than offspring from C ewes. These data confirm an increased metabolic “thriftiness” of offspring born to NR mothers, which continues into advanced age, possibly predisposing these offspring to metabolic disease. PMID:22277936

  7. Domestic central heating radiators: a cause for concern in all age groups.

    PubMed

    Harper, R D; Dickson, W A

    1996-05-01

    A retrospective analysis of all burns admitted to the Welsh Regional Burns and Plastic Surgery Unit, Chepstow, in the period 1 January 1990 to 1 October 1993, highlighted a group of 50 patients who had sustained contact burns from the radiators of domestic central heating systems. There was a male prevalence, with an average age of 43.4 years (range 6 months to 100 years). The mean TBSA burned was 1.58 per cent (range 0.13-6.0 per cent) and half of the injuries were full thickness depth. The forearm and hand were predominantly injured. Although the literature has indicated that the incidence of contact burns peaks at the extremes of the age spectrum, this study has shown that contact radiator burns can be sustained by all age groups. The aim of the audit was to investigate the mechanism of injury and link precipitating factors. The contribution of the high surface temperature of the radiator to the burn injury is alluded to. The various methods available to reduce this risk are discussed and the use of the low surface temperature radiator, already routinely used in health care premises, is advocated.

  8. Schwannoma of Upper Lip: Report of a Rare Case in a Rare Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Hajong, Debobratta; Naku, Narang; Sharma, Girish; Boruah, Manash

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma is a benign, encapsulated perineural tumour originating from the schwann cells of the neural sheath of peripheral motor and sensory nerves. It may develop at any age but is extremely rare in paediatric age group. The tumour is frequently located on the head and neck region, the tongue being the most common site followed by the palate, floor of mouth, buccal mucosa, lips and jaws. Schwannomas rarely occur in the lip area and it is exceedingly rare in the upper lip. The lesion is usually solitary but can be multiple when associated with neurofibromatosis. The diagnosis is usually confirmed after biopsy and anti-S100 protein immuno-histochemical staining is usually used to identify the tumour. In the present study the patient was a 14-year-old young girl with the schwannoma on the upper lip which is probably the third such case in a paediatric age group being reported and was excised without any recurrence at 2 year after excision. PMID:27656503

  9. Rapamycin increases grip strength and attenuates age-related decline in maximal running distance in old low capacity runner rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qian-Li; Yang, Huanle; Li, Hui-Fen; Abadir, Peter M; Burks, Tyesha N; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Carlson, Joshua; Chen, Laura; Walston, Jeremy D; Leng, Sean X

    2016-04-01

    Rapamycin is known to extend lifespan. We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled study of enteric rapamycin-treatment to evaluate its effect on physical function in old low capacity runner (LCR) rats, a rat model selected from diverse genetic background for low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity without genomic manipulation and characterized by increased complex disease risks and aging phenotypes. The study was performed in 12 male and 16 female LCR rats aged 16-22 months at baseline. The treatment group was fed with rapamycin-containing diet pellets at approximately 2.24mg/kg body weight per day and the placebo group with the same diet without rapamycin for six months. Observation was extended for additional 2 months. Physical function measurements include grip strength measured as maximum tensile force using a rat grip strength meter and maximum running distance (MRD) using rat physical treadmill test. The results showed that rapamycin improved grip strength by 13% (p=.036) and 60% (p=.001) from its baseline in female and male rats, respectively. Rapamycin attenuated MRD decline by 66% (p=.001) and 46% (p=.319) in females and males, respectively. These findings provide initial evidence for beneficial effect of rapamycin on physical functioning in an aging rat model of high disease risks with significant implication in humans.

  10. Group in-course assessment promotes cooperative learning and increases performance.

    PubMed

    Pratten, Margaret K; Merrick, Deborah; Burr, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe and evaluate a method to motivate medical students to maximize the effectiveness of dissection opportunities by using In-Course-Assessments (ICAs) to encourage teamwork. A student's final mark was derived by combining the group dissection mark, group mark for questions, and their individual question mark. An analysis of the impact of the ICA was performed by comparing end of module practical summative marks in student cohorts who had, or had not, participated in the ICAs. Summative marks were compared by two-way ANOVA followed by Dunnets test, or by repeated measures ANOVA, as appropriate. A cohort of medical students was selected that had experienced both practical classes without (year one) and with the new ICA structure (year two). Comparison of summative year one and year two marks illustrated an increased improvement in year two performance in this cohort. A significant increase was also noted when comparing this cohort with five preceding year two cohorts who had not experienced the ICAs (P <0.0001). To ensure that variation in the practical summative examination was not impacting on the data, a comparison was made between three cohorts who had performed the same summative examination. Results show that students who had undertook weekly ICAs showed significantly improved summative marks, compared with those who did not (P <0.0001). This approach to ICA promotes engagement with learning resources in an active, team-based, cooperative learning environment.

  11. Increased choroidal mast cells and their degranulation in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bhutto, Imran A; McLeod, D Scott; Jing, Tian; Sunness, Janet S.; Seddon, Johanna M.; Lutty, Gerard A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Inflammation has been implicated in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study investigates the association of mast cells (MCs), a resident choroidal inflammatory cell, with pathological changes in AMD. Methods Human donor eyes included aged controls (n=10), clinically diagnosed with early AMD (n=8), geographic atrophy (GA, n=4), and exudative AMD (n=11). The choroids were excised and incubated alkaline phosphatase (APase; blood vessels) and nonspecific esterase activities (MCs). Degranulated (DG) and nondegranulated (NDG) MCs in four areas of posterior choroid (nasal, nonmacular, paramacular, and submacular) were counted in flat mounts (4∼6 fields/area). Choroids were subsequently embedded in JB-4 and sectioned for histological analyses. Results The number of MCs was significantly increased in all choroidal areas in early AMD (p=0.0006) and in paramacular area in exudative AMD (139.44±55.3 cells/mm2; p=0.0091) and GA (199.08±82.0 cells/mm2; p=0.0019) compared to the aged controls. DG MCs was also increased in paramacular (p=0.001) and submacula choroid (p=0.02) in all forms of AMD. Areas with the greatest numbers of DG MC had loss of choriocapillaris (CC). Sections revealed that the MCs were widely distributed in Sattler's and Haller's layer in the choroidal stroma in aged controls, whereas MCs were frequently found in close proximity to CC in GA and exudative AMD and in choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Conclusion Increased MC numbers and degranulation were observed in all AMD choroids. These results suggest that MC degranulation may contribute to the pathogenesis of AMD: death of CC and RPE and CNV formation. The proteolytic enzymes released from MC granules may result in thinning of AMD choroid. PMID:26931413

  12. Increases in norepinephrine release and ovarian cyst formation during ageing in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Acuña, Eric; Fornes, Romina; Fernandois, Daniela; Garrido, Maritza P; Greiner, Monika; Lara, Hernan E; Paredes, Alfonso H

    2009-01-01

    Background Depletion of ovarian follicles is associated with the end of reproductive function in ageing females. Recently, it has been described that this process parallels increases in the concentration of norepinephrine (NE) in the rat ovary. In sexually mature rats, experimentally-induced increases in the sympathetic tone of the ovary is causally related to ovarian cyst formation and deranged follicular development. Thus, there is a possibility that increased ovarian NE concentrations represent changes in the activity of sympathetic nerves, which consequently participate in the process of ovarian cyst formation observed during ageing in the human and experimental animal models. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats between 6 and 14 months old were used to analyse the capacity of the ovary to release 3H-NE recently incorporated under transmural depolarisation in relation to changes in the ovarian follicular population. Morphometric analysis of ovarian follicles and real time PCR for Bcl2 and Bax mRNA were used to assess follicular atresia. Results From 8 months old, the induced release of recently incorporated 3H-norepinephrine (3H-NE) from the ovary and ovarian NE concentrations increased, reaching their peak values at 12 months old and remained elevated up to 14 months old. Increases in sympathetic nerve activity paralleled changes in the follicular population, as well as disappearance of the corpus luteum. In contrast, luteinised follicles, precystic follicles, and cystic follicles increased. During this period, the relationship between Bax and Bcl2 mRNAs (the proapoptotic/antiapoptotic signals) increased, suggesting atresia as the principal mechanism contributing to the decreased follicular population. When NE tone was increased, the mRNA ratio favoured Bcl2 to Bax and antiapoptotic signals dominated this period of development. Thus, these changing ratios could be responsible for the increase in luteinised follicles, as well as precystic and cystic follicles

  13. Increase of oxidation and inflammation in nervous and immune systems with aging and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Vida, Carmen; González, Eva M; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    According to the oxidation-inflammation theory of aging, chronic oxidative stress and inflammatory stress situations (with higher levels of oxidant and inflammatory compounds and lower antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defenses) are the basis of the agerelated impairment of organism functions, including those of the nervous and immune systems, as well as of the neuroimmune communication, which explains the altered homeostasis and the resulting increase of morbidity and mortality. Overproduction of oxidant compounds can induce an inflammatory response, since oxidants are inflammation effectors. Thus, oxidation and inflammation are interlinked processes and have many feedback loops. However, the nature of their potential interactions, mainly in the brain and immune cells, and their key involvement in aging remain unclear. Moreover, in the context of the neuroimmune communication, it has been described that an oxidative-inflammatory situation occurs in subjects with anxiety, and this situation contributes to an immunosenescence, alteration of survival responses and shorter life span. As an example of this, a model of premature aging in mice, in which animals show a poor response to stress and high levels of anxiety, an oxidative stress in their immune cells and tissues, as well as a premature immunosenescence and a shorter life expectancy, will be commented in the present review. This model supports the hypothesis that anxiety can be a situation of chronic oxidative stress and inflammation, especially in brain and immune cells, and this accelerates the rate of aging.

  14. Does male reproductive effort increase with age? Courtship in fiddler crabs

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Catherine L.; Booksmythe, Isobel; Jennions, Michael D.; Backwell, Patricia R. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that reproductive effort generally increases with age, but life-history models indicate that other outcomes are possible. Empirical data are needed to quantify variation in actual age-dependence. Data are readily attainable for females (e.g. clutch per egg size), but not for males (e.g. courtship effort). To quantify male effort one must: (i) experimentally control for potential age-dependent changes in female presence; and, crucially, (ii) distinguish between the likelihood of courtship being initiated, the display rate, and the total time invested in courting before stopping (‘courtship persistence’). We provide a simple experimental protocol, suitable for many taxa, to illustrate how to obtain this information. We studied courtship waving by male fiddler crabs, Uca annulipes. Given indeterminate growth, body size is correlated with age. Larger males were more likely to wave at females and waved more persistently. They did not, however, have a higher courtship rate (waves per second). A known female preference for males with higher display rates explains why, once waving is initiated, all males display at the same rate. PMID:23325736

  15. Does male reproductive effort increase with age? Courtship in fiddler crabs.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Catherine L; Booksmythe, Isobel; Jennions, Michael D; Backwell, Patricia R Y

    2013-04-23

    Theory suggests that reproductive effort generally increases with age, but life-history models indicate that other outcomes are possible. Empirical data are needed to quantify variation in actual age-dependence. Data are readily attainable for females (e.g. clutch per egg size), but not for males (e.g. courtship effort). To quantify male effort one must: (i) experimentally control for potential age-dependent changes in female presence; and, crucially, (ii) distinguish between the likelihood of courtship being initiated, the display rate, and the total time invested in courting before stopping ('courtship persistence'). We provide a simple experimental protocol, suitable for many taxa, to illustrate how to obtain this information. We studied courtship waving by male fiddler crabs, Uca annulipes. Given indeterminate growth, body size is correlated with age. Larger males were more likely to wave at females and waved more persistently. They did not, however, have a higher courtship rate (waves per second). A known female preference for males with higher display rates explains why, once waving is initiated, all males display at the same rate.

  16. 2-Nonenal newly found in human body odor tends to increase with aging.

    PubMed

    Haze, S; Gozu, Y; Nakamura, S; Kohno, Y; Sawano, K; Ohta, H; Yamazaki, K

    2001-04-01

    Human body odor consists of various kinds of odor components. Here, we have investigated the changes in body odor associated with aging. The body odor of subjects between the ages of 26 and 75 was analyzed by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. 2-Nonenal, an unsaturated aldehyde with an unpleasant greasy and grassy odor, was detected only in older subjects (40 y or older). Furthermore, analysis of skin surface lipids revealed that omega7 unsaturated fatty acids and lipid peroxides also increased with aging and that there were positive correlations between the amount of 2-nonenal in body odor and the amount of omega7 unsaturated fatty acids or lipid peroxides in skin surface lipids. 2-Nonenal was generated only when omega7 unsaturated fatty acids were degraded by degradation tests in which some main components of skin surface lipids were oxidatively decomposed using lipid peroxides as initiator of an oxidative chain reaction. The results indicate that 2-nonenal is generated by the oxidative degradation of omega7 unsaturated fatty acids, and suggest that 2-nonenal may be involved in the age-related change of body odor.

  17. Two hypotheses of dense breasts and viral infection for explaining incidence of breast cancer by age group in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer, the second leading type of cancer in Korean women, has shown increasing incidence over the past 10 years. However, the curves of incidence by age group cast doubt on the birth cohort effect hypothesis. To explain the curves, here I suggest two alternative hypotheses of breast density and viral infection based on pre-existing evidences. Evaluating these hypotheses would require important clues to find unknown risk factors of breast cancer and to plan more effective strategies for breast cancer control in Korean women.

  18. Building Bridges for Innovation in Ageing: Synergies between Action Groups of the EIP on AHA.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Bewick, M; Cano, A; Eklund, P; Fico, G; Goswami, N; Guldemond, N A; Henderson, D; Hinkema, M J; Liotta, G; Mair, A; Molloy, W; Monaco, A; Monsonis-Paya, I; Nizinska, A; Papadopoulos, H; Pavlickova, A; Pecorelli, S; Prados-Torres, A; Roller-Wirnsberger, R E; Somekh, D; Vera-Muñoz, C; Visser, F; Farrell, J; Malva, J; Andersen Ranberg, K; Camuzat, T; Carriazo, A M; Crooks, G; Gutter, Z; Iaccarino, G; Manuel de Keenoy, E; Moda, G; Rodriguez-Mañas, L; Vontetsianos, T; Abreu, C; Alonso, J; Alonso-Bouzon, C; Ankri, J; Arredondo, M T; Avolio, F; Bedbrook, A; Białoszewski, A Z; Blain, H; Bourret, R; Cabrera-Umpierrez, M F; Catala, A; O'Caoimh, R; Cesari, M; Chavannes, N H; Correia-da-Sousa, J; Dedeu, T; Ferrando, M; Ferri, M; Fokkens, W J; Garcia-Lizana, F; Guérin, O; Hellings, P W; Haahtela, T; Illario, M; Inzerilli, M C; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Kardas, P; Keil, T; Maggio, M; Mendez-Zorrilla, A; Menditto, E; Mercier, J; Michel, J P; Murray, R; Nogues, M; O'Byrne-Maguire, I; Pappa, D; Parent, A S; Pastorino, M; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Siciliano, P; Teixeira, A M; Tsartara, S I; Valiulis, A; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Wickman, M; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Barbagallo, M; Canonica, G W; Klimek, L; Maggi, S; Aberer, W; Akdis, C; Adcock, I M; Agache, I; Albera, C; Alonso-Trujillo, F; Angel Guarcia, M; Annesi-Maesano, I; Apostolo, J; Arshad, S H; Attalin, V; Avignon, A; Bachert, C; Baroni, I; Bel, E; Benson, M; Bescos, C; Blasi, F; Barbara, C; Bergmann, K C; Bernard, P L; Bonini, S; Bousquet, P J; Branchini, B; Brightling, C E; Bruguière, V; Bunu, C; Bush, A; Caimmi, D P; Calderon, M A; Canovas, G; Cardona, V; Carlsen, K H; Cesario, A; Chkhartishvili, E; Chiron, R; Chivato, T; Chung, K F; d'Angelantonio, M; De Carlo, G; Cholley, D; Chorin, F; Combe, B; Compas, B; Costa, D J; Costa, E; Coste, O; Coupet, A-L; Crepaldi, G; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Demoly, P; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Du Toit, G; Dubakiene, R; Dupeyron, A; Emuzyte, R; Fiocchi, A; Wagner, A; Fletcher, M; Fonseca, J; Fougère, B; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, G; Garcia-Aymeric, J; Garcia-Zapirain, B; Gemicioğlu, B; Gouder, C; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Hermosilla-Gimeno, I; Héve, D; Holland, C; Humbert, M; Hyland, M; Johnston, S L; Just, J; Jutel, M; Kaidashev, I P; Khaitov, M; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keijser, W; Kerstjens, H; Knezović, J; Kowalski, M; Koppelman, G H; Kotska, T; Kovac, M; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lepore, V; MacNee, W; Maggio, M; Magnan, A; Majer, I; Manning, P; Marcucci, M; Marti, T; Masoli, M; Melen, E; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Millot-Keurinck, J; Mlinarić, H; Momas, I; Montefort, S; Morais-Almeida, M; Moreno-Casbas, T; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nadif, R; Nalin, M; Navarro-Pardo, E; Nekam, K; Ninot, G; Paccard, D; Pais, S; Palummeri, E; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N K; Papanikolaou, C; Passalacqua, G; Pastor, E; Perrot, M; Plavec, D; Popov, T A; Postma, D S; Price, D; Raffort, N; Reuzeau, J C; Robine, J M; Rodenas, F; Robusto, F; Roche, N; Romano, A; Romano, V; Rosado-Pinto, J; Roubille, F; Ruiz, F; Ryan, D; Salcedo, T; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Scichilone, N; Siciliano, P; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Sourdet, S; Sousa-Costa, E; Spranger, O; Sooronbaev, T; Sruk, V; Sterk, P J; Todo-Bom, A; Touchon, J; Tramontano, D; Triggiani, M; Tsartara, S I; Valero, A L; Valovirta, E; van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; van den Berge, M; Vandenplas, O; Ventura, M T; Vergara, I; Vezzani, G; Vidal, D; Viegi, G; Wagemann, M; Whalley, B; Wickman, M; Wilson, N; Yiallouros, P K; Žagar, M; Zaidi, A; Zidarn, M; Hoogerwerf, E J; Usero, J; Zuffada, R; Senn, A; de Oliveira-Alves, B

    2017-01-01

    The Strategic Implementation Plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) proposed six Action Groups. After almost three years of activity, many achievements have been obtained through commitments or collaborative work of the Action Groups. However, they have often worked in silos and, consequently, synergies between Action Groups have been proposed to strengthen the triple win of the EIP on AHA. The paper presents the methodology and current status of the Task Force on EIP on AHA synergies. Synergies are in line with the Action Groups' new Renovated Action Plan (2016-2018) to ensure that their future objectives are coherent and fully connected. The outcomes and impact of synergies are using the Monitoring and Assessment Framework for the EIP on AHA (MAFEIP). Eight proposals for synergies have been approved by the Task Force: Five cross-cutting synergies which can be used for all current and future synergies as they consider overarching domains (appropriate polypharmacy, citizen empowerment, teaching and coaching on AHA, deployment of synergies to EU regions, Responsible Research and Innovation), and three cross-cutting synergies focussing on current Action Group activities (falls, frailty, integrated care and chronic respiratory diseases).

  19. The prevalence of anticitrullinated protein antibodies increases with age in healthy individuals at risk for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Alpizar-Rodriguez, D; Brulhart, Laure; Mueller, Ruediger B; Möller, Burkhard; Dudler, Jean; Ciurea, Adrian; Walker, Ulrich A; Von Mühlenen, Ines; Kyburz, Diego; Zufferey, Pascal; Mahler, Michael; Bas, Sylvette; Gascon, Danielle; Lamacchia, Céline; Roux-Lombard, Pascale; Lauper, Kim; Nissen, Michael J; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Gabay, Cem; Finckh, Axel

    2017-03-01

    Transition from genetic risk to the development of systemic autoimmunity associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered a key step for the development of RA and often referred to as the immune onset of the disease. The aim of this study is to identify predictors for the presence of anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) as a marker of systemic autoimmunity associated with RA in a high-risk population, an ongoing cohort of first-degree relatives of patients with RA. We assessed the presence of ACPA in individuals without clinical evidence of RA. We examined characteristics associated with ACPA positivity using general estimation equations to account for multiple observations per individual. A total of 1159 serum samples from 1025 subjects were analyzed, 69 samples (6%) were ACPA-positive, and 227 (20%) positive for rheumatoid factor. Participants had a median age of 45 years (interquartile range (IQR): 33-55) at baseline and 76% were women. Overall, ACPA positivity increased with age (p < 0.001). Among women, ACPA positivity was particularly associated with the age group 45 to 55 years (p = 0.003), but not among men (p = 0.7). In multivariable adjusted analyses, age older than 45, female sex and tobacco smoking were independently associated with ACPA positivity. In our cohort, the presence of ACPA was associated with older age and peaked in women around age 45 to 55 years, the perimenopausal period, suggesting that the development of ACPA may be favored by the decline in ovarian function.

  20. Prevalence of insomnia-related symptoms continues to increase in the Finnish working-age population.

    PubMed

    Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Härmä, Mikko; Hublin, Christer; Lallukka, Tea; Peltonen, Markku; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2016-08-01

    In 2008, we published epidemiological data from 1972 to 2005 that suggested an increase in insomnia-related symptoms among the working-age population. The results were based on the National FINRISK (FR) Study samples of the Finnish adult population aged 25-64, and on the Finnish Quality of Work Life Surveys (FQWLS), carried out among Finnish salary earners. Both of these ongoing studies have since provided two new estimates of insomnia-related symptoms. Chronic insomnia-related symptoms were 9.0% (95% CI 8.3-9.7), 9.6% (95% CI 8.8-10.4) in FR 2007 and 2012, respectively; and 9.1% (95% CI 8.3-10.0), 9.2% (95% CI 8.4-10.1) in FQWLS 2008 and 2013, respectively. Occasional insomnia-related symptoms were 45.3% (95% CI 44.1-46.6), 42.5% (95% CI 41.1-43.9) in FR 2007 and 2012, respectively; and 40.3% (95% CI 38.8-41.7), 44.8% (95% CI 41.1-43.9) in FQWLS 2008 and 2013, respectively. The new estimates further strengthen the interpretation of the ongoing increase in occasional insomnia-related symptoms among the Finnish general adult population. The increase in occasional symptoms was most prominent among employees. However, chronic insomnia symptoms showed no further increase.

  1. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  2. The effects and mechanism of estrogen on rats with Parkinson’s disease in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Zhong; Sui, Chen-Yan; Chen, Qiang; Zhuang, Yuan-Su; Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In order to investigate the effect and mechanism of estrogen in rotenone-induced Parkinson’s disease (PD) rats in different age groups. Methods: we established rat models of PD by rotenone at different interventions. Then, behavioral tests, immunohistochemistry, western blot, high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD) and electron microscopy were performed. Results: Results revealed the following: (1) Rotenone significantly reduced rotarod latencies in senile rats, prolonged their climbing pole time, and decreased TH positive cells, DA and its metabolite, DOPAC. Estrogen ameliorated this effect, in which weaker effects were observed in younger rats compared with older rats. (2) Rotenone increased the expression of LC3-II in older rats, but estrogen and tamoxifen did not show the same effect. (3) Rotenone increased the number of autophagosomes, but estrogen increased the proportion of autolysosomes/autophagosomes in the rotenone-treated group. (4) U0126 could reduce the number of autophagosomes in the rotenone-treated group, but this did not change the proportion of autolysosome/autophagosome in combining rotenone with the estrogen group. Rapamycin did not increase the number of autophagosomes in the rotenone-treated group, but combining rapamycin with estrogen and rotenone was able to further increase the proportion of autolysome/autophagosomes. Therefore, we speculate that the senile rat model of PD was more reliable than that in young rats. Conclusions: In addition, estrogen could promote autophagy maturation through the ERK pathway, and had an obvious therapeutic effect on the rat model of PD. PMID:27829998

  3. Carcinogenically relevant split dose repair increased with age in rat skin model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Fredric; Tang, Moon-Shong Eric; Wu, Feng; Uddin, Ahmed

    2012-07-01

    These experiments utilize cancer induction to evaluate cancer-relevant repair during the interval between dose fractions. Low LET electron radiation(LET ~ 0.34 keV/u) were utilized in experiments that involved exposing rat dorsal skin to 2 equal 8 Gy dose fractions separated at various intervals from 0.25 h to 24 h. Cancer onset was established for 80 weeks after the exposures and only histologically verified cancers were included in the analysis. This experiment involved a total of 540 rats and 880 induced cancers. In the youngest rats (irradiated at 28 days of age) the cancer yield declined with a halftime of approximately 3.5 hrs. In 113 day old rats the cancer yield halftime was shortened to 1.3 hrs. In the oldest rats (182 days of age), the halftime could not be established quantitatively, because it was less than the shortest interval (15 min) utilized in the protocol (best estimate ~5 min). In the oldest rats the cancer yields for all fractionated exposures dropped essentially to the expected level of 2 single fractions, below which theoretically no further reduction is possible. The follow-up times for obtaining cancer yields were the same for all exposure groups in spite of the differing ages at exposure. These results indicate that repair of carcinogenically-relevant damage accelerates with age of the rat. No information is available on the possible mechanistic basis for this finding, although the model might be useful for delineating which of the many postulated split dose repair pathways is the correct one. The finding indicates that older rats should be less susceptible to the carcinogenic action of single doses of low LET radiation in comparison to younger rats, which has been verified in separate studies.

  4. ABDOMINAL MUSCLE ACTIVATION INCREASES LUMBAR SPINAL STABILITY: ANALYSIS OF CONTRIBUTIONS OF DIFFERENT MUSCLE GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Ian A.F.; Gardner-Morse, Mack G.; Henry, Sharon M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Antagonistic activation of abdominal muscles and raised intra-abdominal pressure are associated with both spinal unloading and spinal stabilization. Rehabilitation regimens have been proposed to improve spinal stability via selective recruitment of certain trunk muscle groups. This biomechanical study used an analytical model to address whether lumbar spinal stability is increased by selective activation of abdominal muscles. Methods The biomechanical model included anatomically realistic three-layers of curved abdominal musculature connected by fascia, rectus abdominis and 77 symmetrical pairs of dorsal muscles. The muscle activations were calculated with the model loaded with either flexion, extension, lateral bending or axial rotation moments up to 60 Nm, along with intra-abdominal pressure up to 5 or 10 kPa (37.5 or 75 mm Hg) and partial bodyweight. After solving for muscle forces, a buckling analysis quantified spinal stability. Subsequently, different patterns of muscle activation were studied by forcing activation of selected abdominal muscles to at least 10% or 20% of maximum. Findings The spinal stability increased by an average factor of 1.8 with doubling of intra-abdominal pressure. Forced activation of obliques or transversus abdominis muscles to at least 10% of maximum increased stability slightly for efforts other than flexion, but forcing at least 20% activation generally did not produce further increase in stability. Forced activation of rectus abdominis did not increase stability. Interpretation Based on predictions from an analytical spinal buckling model, the degree of stability was not substantially influenced by selective forcing of muscle activation. This casts doubt on the supposed mechanism of action of specific abdominal muscle exercise regimens that have been proposed for low back pain rehabilitation. PMID:21571410

  5. The incidence of cervical spondylosis decreases with aging in the elderly, and increases with aging in the young and adult population: a hospital-based clinical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuanling; Tian, Fuming; Zhou, Yingjun; He, Wenbo; Cai, Zhiyou

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Cervical spondylosis is well accepted as a common degenerative change in the cervical spine. Compelling evidence has shown that the incidence of cervical spondylosis increases with age. However, the relationship between age and the incidence of cervical spondylosis remains obscure. It is essential to note the relationship between age and the incidence of cervical spondylosis through more and more clinical data. Methods In the case-controlled study reported here, retrospective clinical analysis of 1,276 cases of cervical spondylosis has been conducted. We analyzed the general clinical data, the relationship between age and the incidence of cervical spondylosis, and the relationship between age-related risk factors and the incidence of cervical spondylosis. A chi-square test was used to analyze the associations between different variables. Statistical significance was defined as a P-value of less than 0.05. Results The imaging examination demonstrated the most prominent characteristic features of cervical spondylosis: bulge or herniation at C3-C4, C4-C5, and C5-C6. The incidence of cervical spondylosis increased with aging before age 50 years and decreased with aging after age 50 years, especially in the elderly after 60 years old. The occurrence rate of bulge or herniation at C3-C4, C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7 increased with aging before age 50 years and decreased with aging after age 50 years, especially after 60 years. Moreover, the incidence of hyperosteogeny and spinal stenosis increased with aging before age 60 years and decreased with aging after age 60 years, although there was no obvious change in calcification. The age-related risk factors, such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, cerebral infarct, cardiovascular diseases, smoking, and drinking, have no relationship with the incidence of cervical spondylosis. Conclusion A decreasing proportion of cervical spondylosis with aging occurs in the elderly, while the proportion of

  6. Soil carbon stock increases in the organic layer of boreal middle-aged stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häkkinen, M.; Heikkinen, J.; Mäkipää, R.

    2011-02-01

    Changes in the soil carbon stock can potentially have a large influence on global carbon balance between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere. Since carbon sequestration of forest soils is influenced by human activities, reporting of the soil carbon pool is a compulsory part of the national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. Various soil carbon models are applied in GHG inventories, however, the verification of model-based estimates is lacking. In general, the soil carbon models predict accumulation of soil carbon in the middle-aged stands, which is in good agreement with chronosequence studies and flux measurements of eddy sites, but they have not been widely tested with repeated measurements of permanent plots. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil carbon changes in the organic layer of boreal middle-aged forest stands. Soil carbon changes on re-measured sites were analyzed by using soil survey data that was based on composite samples as a first measurement and by taking into account spatial variation on the basis of the second measurement. By utilizing earlier soil surveys, a long sampling interval, which helps detection of slow changes, could be readily available. The range of measured change in the soil organic layer varied from -260 to 1260 g m-2 over the study period of 16-19 years and 23 ± 2 g m-2 per year, on average. The increase was significant in 6 out of the 38 plots from which data were available. Although the soil carbon change was difficult to detect at the plot scale, the overall increase measured across the middle-aged stands agrees with predictions of the commonly applied soil models. Further verification of the soil models is needed with larger datasets that cover wider geographical area and represent all age classes, especially young stands with potentially large soil carbon source.

  7. Soil carbon stock increases in the organic layer of boreal middle-aged stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häkkinen, M.; Heikkinen, J.; Mäkipää, R.

    2011-05-01

    Changes in the soil carbon stock can potentially have a large influence on global carbon balance between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere. Since carbon sequestration of forest soils is influenced by human activities, reporting of the soil carbon pool is a compulsory part of the national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. Various soil carbon models are applied in GHG inventories, however, the verification of model-based estimates is lacking. In general, the soil carbon models predict accumulation of soil carbon in the middle-aged stands, which is in good agreement with chronosequence studies and flux measurements of eddy sites, but they have not been widely tested with repeated measurements of permanent plots. The objective of this study was to evaluate soil carbon changes in the organic layer of boreal middle-aged forest stands. Soil carbon changes on re-measured sites were analyzed by using soil survey data that was based on composite samples as a first measurement and by taking into account spatial variation on the basis of the second measurement. By utilizing earlier soil surveys, a long sampling interval, which helps detection of slow changes, could be readily available. The range of measured change in the soil organic layer varied from -260 to 1260 g m-2 over the study period of 16-19 years and 23 ± 2 g m-2 per year, on average. The increase was significant in 6 out of the 38 plots from which data were available. Although the soil carbon change was difficult to detect at the plot scale, the overall increase measured across the middle-aged stands agrees with predictions of the commonly applied soil models. Further verification of the soil models is needed with larger datasets that cover wider geographical area and represent all age classes, especially young stands with potentially large soil carbon source.

  8. Increases of M2a macrophages and fibrosis in aging muscle are influenced by bone marrow aging and negatively regulated by muscle-derived nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Wehling-Henricks, Michelle; Samengo, Giuseppina; Tidball, James G

    2015-08-01

    Muscle aging is associated with changes in myeloid cell phenotype that may influence age-related changes in muscle structure. We tested whether preventing age-related reductions in muscle neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) would obviate age-related changes in myeloid cells in muscle. Our findings show that muscle aging is associated with elevations of anti-inflammatory M2a macrophages that can increase muscle fibrosis. Expression of a muscle-specific nNOS transgene in mice prevented age-related increases in M2a macrophages. Transgene expression also reduced expression of collagens and decreased muscle fibrosis. The nNOS transgene prevented age-related increases in arginase-1 but did not influence TGFβ expression, indicating that the transgene may prevent age-related muscle fibrosis by inhibiting the arginase-dependent profibrotic pathway. Although aged satellite cells or fibro-adipogenic precursor (FAPs) cells also promote fibrosis, transgene expression had no effect on the expression of key signaling molecules that regulate fibrogenic activity of those cells. Finally, we tested whether increases in M2a macrophages and the associated increase in fibrosis were attributable to aging of myeloid lineage cells. Young bone marrow cells (BMCs) were transplanted into young or old mice, and muscles were collected 8 months later. Muscles of young mice receiving young BMCs showed no effect on M2a macrophage number or collagen accumulation compared to age-matched, nontransplanted controls. However, muscles of old mice receiving young BMCs showed fewer M2a macrophages and less accumulation of collagen. Thus, the age-related increase in M2a macrophages in aging muscle and the associated muscle fibrosis are determined in part by the age of bone marrow cells.

  9. Increased telomere length and proliferative potential in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of adults of different ages stimulated with concanavalin A

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, a direct correlation with telomere length, proliferative potential and telomerase activity has been found in the process of aging in peripheral blood cells. The objective of the study was to evaluate telomere length and proliferative potential in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after stimulation with Concanavalin A (ConA) of young adults compared with older adults. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 20 healthy young males (20–25 years old) (group Y) and 20 males (60–65 years old) (group O). We compared PBMC proliferation before and after stimulation with ConA. DNA was isolated from cells separated before and after culture with ConA for telomeric measurement by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results In vitro stimulation of PBMCs from young subjects induced an increase of telomere length as well as a higher replicative capacity of cell proliferation. Samples from older adults showed higher loss of telomeric DNA (p = 0.03) and higher levels of senescent (≤6.2 kb) telomeric DNA (p = 0.02) and displayed a marked decrease of proliferation capacity. Viability cell counts and CFSE tracking in 72-h-old cell cultures indicated that group O PBMCs (CD8+ and CD4+ T cells) underwent fewer mitotic cycles and had shorter telomeres than group Y (p = 0.04). Conclusions Our findings confirm that telomere length in older-age adults is shorter than in younger subjects. After stimulation with ConA, cells are not restored to the previous telomere length and undergo replicative senescence. This is in sharp contrast to the response observed in young adults after ConA stimulation where cells increase in telomere length and replicative capacity. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are not yet clear and merit further investigation. PMID:24063536

  10. Determinants of caregivers’ vaccination intention with respect to child age group: a cross-sectional survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Shin, Kyung-Ah; Park, Kisoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined how knowledge, risk perception, health beliefs and multidimensional health locus of control (HLC) were associated with caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their child, and how these associations varied across child age groups. Setting South Korea. Methods The cross-sectional survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview among 1017 nationally representative caregivers who had children aged 12 or younger. The outcome variable was caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their children. Results Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that risk perception was negatively associated with vaccination intention only among the age group 4–6 (β=−0.127, p<0.05). Perceived benefit was the only significant predictor of the outcome variables for all three age groups. In contrast, perceived barrier was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=−0.104, p<0.05). Internal HLC was positively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=0.151, p<0.001), while chance HLC was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 0–3 (β=−0.121, p<0.05). Conclusions This study identifies key vaccination intention determinants that are differentially associated with caregivers’ children's age groups. To improve vaccination rates, it suggests the need for strategies tailored to children's age. PMID:26408283

  11. Strawberry or blueberry supplementation may protect against increased oxidative stress vulnerability from both irradiation and aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A.; Rabin, B. M.

    In several studies we have now shown that there are some interesting parallels between aging and the effects of heavy particle irradiation (56Fe) in a rat model. Interestingly this research also has shown that, much as has been seen in aged animals, dietary supplementation with high antioxidant-strawberry (SB) or blueberry (BB) extracts (2% of the diet) reversed many of the age-related changes. Similarly, supplementing the diets of young rats with SBs or BBs (2% of diet as in the aged animals) for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to 56Fe (1 GeV/n), using the AGS or NSRL at Brookhaven National Laboratory, prevented the deleterious effects of the radiation exposure on the motor, cognitive and neuronal parameters described above. In the present experiment we examined whether striatal tissue obtained from BB- or SB-supplemented or control-fed, irradiated or non-radiated, young rats would show differential sensitivity (as assessed via decrements in mAChR stimulation of dopamine release) to hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating agent. The results indicated that, just as we had seen previously with respect to radiation protection in the parameters described above, the tissue from the SB or BB-supplemented irradiated or non-radiated animals showed increased mAChR-stimulated DA release from the striatal tissue following hydrogen peroxide exposure compared to that seen in non-supplemented irradiated or non-radiated animals (e.g., DA rels. p moles/mg protein, rad + H202 non-supplemented = 90, SB = 260, BB = 360). These results show that aging and irradiation may produce similar decrements in dopamine release and that, much as we have seen previously with age, radiation enhances the vulnerability to oxidative stressors, but these are reduced with SB or BB supplementation. They are discussed in-terms of protection against the effects of exposure to heavy particles and aging via nutritional supplementation with foods that are high in antioxidant activity

  12. Tracking 10-year competitive winning performance of judo athletes across age groups.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Takito, Monica Y; Mazzei, Leandro; Miarka, Bianca; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-08-01

    Little information is available concerning early specialization and competitive success in judo across the early training years. Thus, the present objective was to verify the stability of individual competitive performance of a state-level championship for judo athletes who had been previously successful. For this, 406 athletes from six age groups (9 to 20+ years old) of each sex were followed for 10 years. Using recorded data from the São Paulo State Judo Federation beginning in 1999, the scores and standings for these judo players were analyzed. The proportion of medal winners during this period was not constant, differing from the grand mean in all groups of both 204 males and 202 females. At the end of this period, only 7% of the male and 5% of the female athletes had maintained their competitive levels. Successful competitive performance in early judo competition was not associated with success later in adulthood.

  13. Host age, social group, and habitat type influence the gut microbiota of wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Genevieve; Malone, Matthew; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; White, Bryan; Nelson, Karen E; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Knight, Rob; Leigh, Steven R; Amato, Katherine R

    2016-08-01

    The gut microbiota contributes to host health by maintaining homeostasis, increasing digestive efficiency, and facilitating the development of the immune system. The composition of the gut microbiota can change dramatically within and between individuals of a species as a result of diet, age, or habitat. Therefore, understanding the factors determining gut microbiota diversity and composition can contribute to our knowledge of host ecology as well as to conservation efforts. Here we use high-throughput sequencing to describe variation in the gut microbiota of the endangered ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR) in southwestern Madagascar. Specifically, we measured the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota in relation to social group, age, sex, tooth wear and loss, and habitat disturbance. While we found no significant variation in the diversity of the ring-tailed lemur gut microbiota in response to any variable tested, the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota was influenced by social group, age, and habitat disturbance. However, effect sizes were small and appear to be driven by the presence or absence of relatively low abundance taxa. These results suggest that habitat disturbance may not impact the lemur gut microbiota as strongly as it impacts the gut microbiota of other primate species, highlighting the importance of distinct host ecological and physiological factors on host-gut microbe relationships. Am. J. Primatol. 78:883-892, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Integrated Analysis and Visualization of Group Differences in Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity: Applications in Typical Ageing and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Langen, Carolyn D.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Vernooij, Meike W.

    2015-01-01

    Structural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uni- and bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of significantly different connections comparing multiple metrics are presented. On the global level, “bi-modal comparison plots” show the distribution of uni- and bi-modal group differences and the relationship between structure and function. Differences between brain lobes are visualized using “worm plots”. Group differences in connections are examined with an existing visualization, the “connectogram”. These visualizations were evaluated in two proof-of-concept studies: (1) middle-aged versus elderly subjects; and (2) patients with schizophrenia versus controls. Each included two measures derived from diffusion weighted images and two from functional magnetic resonance images. The structural measures were minimum cost path between two anatomical regions according to the “Statistical Analysis of Minimum cost path based Structural Connectivity” method and the average fractional anisotropy along the fiber. The functional measures were Pearson’s correlation and partial correlation of mean regional time series. The relationship between structure and function was similar in both studies. Uni-modal group differences varied greatly between connectivity types. Group differences were identified in both studies globally, within brain lobes and between regions. In the aging study, minimum cost path was highly effective in identifying group differences on all levels; fractional anisotropy and mean correlation showed smaller differences on the brain lobe and regional levels. In the schizophrenia study, minimum cost path and fractional anisotropy showed differences on the global level and within brain lobes; mean correlation showed small differences on the lobe level. Only

  15. Teachers Observe to Learn: Differences in Social Behavior of Toddlers and Preschoolers in Same-Age and Multiage Groupings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Mary Ellin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an action research conducted by a group of teachers comparing multiage with same-age interactions of children, especially among toddlers. The research involving 31 children ranging in age from two through five-and-a-half was conducted under optimal conditions, with small groups, low teacher-child ratios, and highly trained…

  16. Vitamin D deficiency induces early signs of aging in human bone, increasing the risk of fracture.

    PubMed

    Busse, Björn; Bale, Hrishikesh A; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Panganiban, Brian; Barth, Holly D; Carriero, Alessandra; Vettorazzi, Eik; Zustin, Josef; Hahn, Michael; Ager, Joel W; Püschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael; Ritchie, Robert O

    2013-07-10

    Vitamin D deficiency is a widespread medical condition that plays a major role in human bone health. Fracture susceptibility in the context of low vitamin D has been primarily associated with defective mineralization of collagenous matrix (osteoid). However, bone's fracture resistance is due to toughening mechanisms at various hierarchical levels ranging from the nano- to the microstructure. Thus, we hypothesize that the increase in fracture risk with vitamin D deficiency may be triggered by numerous pathological changes and may not solely derive from the absence of mineralized bone. We found that the characteristic increase in osteoid-covered surfaces in vitamin D-deficient bone hampers remodeling of the remaining mineralized bone tissue. Using spatially resolved synchrotron bone mineral density distribution analyses and spectroscopic techniques, we observed that the bone tissue within the osteoid frame has a higher mineral content with mature collagen and mineral constituents, which are characteristic of aged tissue. In situ fracture mechanics measurements and synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography of the crack path indicated that vitamin D deficiency increases both the initiation and propagation of cracks by 22 to 31%. Thus, vitamin D deficiency is not simply associated with diminished bone mass. Our analyses reveal the aged nature of the remaining mineralized bone and its greatly decreased fracture resistance. Through a combination of characterization techniques spanning multiple size scales, our study expands the current clinical understanding of the pathophysiology of vitamin D deficiency and helps explain why well-balanced vitamin D levels are essential to maintain bone's structural integrity.

  17. Frontotemporal Network Connectivity during Memory Encoding Is Increased with Aging and Disrupted by Beta-Amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Jagust, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of cognitively normal older adults harbor brain β-amyloid (Aβ), a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease associated with neural alterations and episodic memory decline. We examined how aging and Aβ deposition affect neural function during memory encoding of visual scenes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans. Thirty-six cognitively normal older people underwent fMRI scanning, and positron emission tomography with [11C] Pittsburgh compound B to measure fibrillar brain Aβ; 15 young subjects were studied with fMRI. Older adults without Aβ deposition showed reduced regional brain activation (compared with young subjects) with decreased task-independent functional connectivity between parahippocampal gyrus and prefrontal cortex. In this network, task-related connectivity was increased compared with young subjects, and the degree of connectivity was related to memory performance. In contrast, older individuals with Aβ deposition showed no such increased task-related network connectivity, but did display increased regional activity unassociated with performance. These findings suggest that network connectivity plays a significant role in compensating for reduced regional activity during successful memory encoding in aging without Aβ deposition, while in those with Aβ this network compensation fails and is accompanied by inefficient regional hyperactivation. PMID:24259567

  18. What it Takes to Successfully Implement Technology for Aging in Place: Focus Groups With Stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Eveline JM; Luijkx, Katrien G; Vrijhoef, Hubertus JM

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in empowering older adults to age in place by deploying various types of technology (ie, eHealth, ambient assisted living technology, smart home technology, and gerontechnology). However, initiatives aimed at implementing these technologies are complicated by the fact that multiple stakeholder groups are involved. Goals and motives of stakeholders may not always be transparent or aligned, yet research on convergent and divergent positions of stakeholders is scarce. Objective To provide insight into the positions of stakeholder groups involved in the implementation of technology for aging in place by answering the following questions: What kind of technology do stakeholders see as relevant? What do stakeholders aim to achieve by implementing technology? What is needed to achieve successful implementations? Methods Mono-disciplinary focus groups were conducted with participants (n=29) representing five groups of stakeholders: older adults (6/29, 21%), care professionals (7/29, 24%), managers within home care or social work organizations (5/29, 17%), technology designers and suppliers (6/29, 21%), and policy makers (5/29, 17%). Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Stakeholders considered 26 different types of technologies to be relevant for enabling independent living. Only 6 out of 26 (23%) types of technology were mentioned by all stakeholder groups. Care professionals mentioned fewer different types of technology than other groups. All stakeholder groups felt that the implementation of technology for aging in place can be considered a success when (1) older adults’ needs and wishes are prioritized during development and deployment of the technology, (2) the technology is accepted by older adults, (3) the technology provides benefits to older adults, and (4) favorable prerequisites for the use of technology by older adults exist. While stakeholders seemed to have identical aims, several underlying

  19. Lunch is in the bag: increasing fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in sack lunches of preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Sweitzer, Sara J; Briley, Margaret E; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Harrist, Ronald B; Staskel, Deanna M; Almansour, Fawaz D

    2010-07-01

    Fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are important sources of nutrients for healthy growth and development of young children. Recent evidence suggests that sack lunches packed by parents for children to consume at child-care centers do not regularly meet the goal of one serving of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. Lunch Is In The Bag is a child-care center-based nutrition education program targeted at parents of preschool-aged children to increase the number of servings of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in sack lunches sent from home that was pilot tested in fall 2008. In a quasiexperimental design, six child-care centers were paired by size before being randomly assigned to intervention (n=3) and comparison (n=3) groups. The parents of caregivers with primary responsibility for preparing the sack lunches of the 3- to 5-year-old children attending the centers were enrolled as parent-child dyads. The intervention included parent handouts, classroom activities, education stations, and teacher training. The contents of the lunch sacks for both the intervention group and comparison group were recorded for 3 nonconsecutive days before and immediately after the intervention period to measure the number of servings of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. A total of 132 parent-child dyads completed the study, 81 in the intervention group and 51 in the comparison group. Direct observation of children's lunches from the intervention group showed an increase in predicted mean number of servings of vegetables, from 0.41 to 0.65 (P<0.001) and whole grains, from 0.54 to 1.06 (P<0.001). No significant difference was observed in the mean number of servings of fruit. Lunch Is In The Bag, which is designed to fit in the child-care environment and targets parents of 3- to 5-year-old children, is a feasible intervention for improving the nutritional quality of sack lunches.

  20. Altered conformation and increased strand breaks in neuronal and astroglial DNA of aging rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, M S; Rao, K S

    1994-05-01

    Melting temperatures (Tm) of the DNA isolated from young, adult, and old rat brain neurons and astrocytes were recorded under different conditions. There was a rise in Tm and decrease in hyperchromicity in the old when compared to the young and adult. Single and double strand breaks were assessed by using nick translation type incubation of DNA with E. coli Pol I and addition of nucleotides at the terminal 3'-OH by calf thymus terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Results show that DNA from old brain cells is more compact in conformation. However, there is also an increase in the number of single and double strand breaks with age in both neuronal and astroglial DNA.

  1. Use of a physiological profile to document motor impairment in ageing and in clinical groups.

    PubMed

    Lord, S R; Delbaere, K; Gandevia, S C

    2016-08-15

    Ageing decreases exercise performance and is frequently accompanied by reductions in cognitive performance. Deterioration in the physiological capacity to stand, locomote and exercise can manifest itself as falling over and represents a significant deterioration in sensorimotor control. In the elderly, falling leads to serious morbidity and mortality with major societal costs. Measurement of a suite of physiological capacities that are required for successful motor performance (including vision, muscle strength, proprioception and balance) has been used to produce a physiological profile assessment (PPA) which has been tracked over the age spectrum and in different diseases (e.g. multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease). As well as measures of specific physiological capacities, the PPA generates an overall 'score' which quantitatively measures an individual's cumulative risk of falling. The present review collates data from the PPA (and the physiological capacities it measures) as well as its use in strategies to reduce falls in the elderly and those with different diseases. We emphasise that (i) motor impairment arises via reductions in a wide range of sensorimotor abilities; (ii) the PPA approach not only gives a snapshot of the physiological capacity of an individual, but it also gives insight into the deficits among groups of individuals with particular diseases; and (iii) deficits in seemingly restricted and disparate physiological domains (e.g. vision, strength, cognition) are funnelled into impairments in tasks requiring upright balance. Motor impairments become more prevalent with ageing but careful physiological measurement and appropriate interventions offer a way to maximise health across the lifespan.

  2. Review of tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in the South African paediatric age group

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Tamer Ali

    2016-01-01

    Children, and in particular young children under the age of three, are the most vulnerable for aspiration and ingestion of foreign bodies (FBs). The Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital in Cape Town is the only children’s hospital in South Africa and is unique in having a dedicated trauma unit for children under the age of 13 as part of its institution. Core activities of Childsafe South Africa (CSA), located at the hospital, are data accumulation and interpretation, development of educational programmes, health inculcation and advising in legislation involving child health. To achieve this task, CSA works in close co-operation with government, industry, non-governmental and community predicated organisations, community groups and individuals. A database of all children treated for trauma at CSA has been maintained since 1991; it currently contains detailed information of over 170,000 injuries in children under the age of 13. This review consists of a literature review combined with data from our database and aims to provide information on our experiences with tracheobronchial aspiration of FBs in children. PMID:28149578

  3. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sundheim, Leif; Lillegaard, Inger Therese; Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Brodal, Guro; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl

    2017-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group. PMID:28165414

  4. Sternal Gland Scent-Marking Signals Sex, Age, Rank, and Group Identity in Captive Mandrills.

    PubMed

    Vaglio, Stefano; Minicozzi, Pamela; Romoli, Riccardo; Boscaro, Francesca; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Moneti, Gloriano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2016-02-01

    Mandrills are one of the few Old World primates to show scent-marking. We combined ethological and chemical approaches to improve our understanding of this behavior in 3 zoo-managed groups. We observed the olfactory behavior performed by adults and adolescents (N = 39) for 775h. We investigated the volatile components of sternal scent-marks using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared volatile profiles with traits of the signaler. Males marked more than females and within each sex the frequency of scent-marking was related to age and dominance status, but alpha males scent-marked most frequently and particularly in specific areas at the enclosure boundaries. We identified a total of 77 volatile components of sternal gland secretion, including compounds functioning as male sex pheromones in other mammals, in scent-marks spontaneously released on filter paper by 27 male and 18 female mandrills. We confirmed our previous findings that chemical profiles contain information including sex, male age and rank, and we also found that odor may encode information about group membership in mandrills. Our results support the hypotheses that scent-marking signals the status of the dominant male as well as playing territorial functions but also suggest that it is part of sociosexual communication.

  5. Effects of a native parasitic plant on an exotic invader decrease with increasing host age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junmin; Yang, Beifen; Yan, Qiaodi; Zhang, Jing; Yan, Min; Li, Maihe

    2015-01-01

    Understanding changes in the interactions between parasitic plants and their hosts in relation to ontogenetic changes in the hosts is crucial for successful use of parasitic plants as biological controls. We investigated growth, photosynthesis and chemical defences in different-aged Bidens pilosa plants in response to infection by Cuscuta australis. We were particularly interested in whether plant responses to parasite infection change with changes in the host plant age. Compared with the non-infected B. pilosa, parasite infection reduced total host biomass and net photosynthetic rates, but these deleterious effects decreased with increasing host age. Parasite infection reduced the concentrations of total phenolics, total flavonoids and saponins in the younger B. pilosa but not in the older B. pilosa. Compared with the relatively older and larger plants, younger and smaller plants suffered from more severe damage and are likely less to recover from the infection, suggesting that C. australis is only a viable biocontrol agent for younger B. pilosa plants. PMID:25838325

  6. Being overweight in early adulthood is associated with increased mortality in middle age

    PubMed Central

    Carslake, David; Jeffreys, Mona; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    Observational analyses of the association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality often suggest that overweight is neutral or beneficial, but such analyses are potentially confounded by smoking or by reverse causation. The use of BMI measured in early adulthood offers one means of reducing the latter problem. We used a cohort who were first measured while 16–24 year old students at Glasgow University in 1948–1968 and subsequently re-measured in 2000–2003, offering a rare opportunity to compare BMI measured at different ages as a predictor of mortality. Analysis of the later BMI measurements suggested that overweight was beneficial to survival, while analysis of BMI measured in early adulthood suggested that overweight was harmful and that the optimum BMI lay towards the lower end of the recommended range of 18.5–25 kg m−2. We interpret the association with later BMI as being probably distorted by reverse causality, although it remains possible instead that the optimum BMI increases with age. Differences when analyses were restricted to healthy non-smokers also suggested some residual confounding by smoking. These results suggest that analyses of BMI recorded in middle or old age probably over-estimate the optimum BMI for survival and should be treated with caution. PMID:27782178

  7. Somatic, Endurance Performance and Heart Rate Variability Profiles of Professional Soccer Players Grouped According to Age

    PubMed Central

    Botek, Michal; McKune, Andrew J.; Klimešová, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional study compared somatic, endurance performance determinants and heart rate variability (HRV) profiles of professional soccer players divided into different age groups: GI (17–19.9 years; n = 23), GII (20–24.9 years; n = 45), GIII (25–29.9 years; n = 30), and GIV (30–39 years; n = 26). Players underwent somatic and HRV assessment and maximal exercise testing. HRV was analyzed by spectral analysis of HRV, and high (HF) and low (LF) frequency power was transformed by a natural logarithm (Ln). Players in GIV (83 ± 7 kg) were heavier (p < 0.05) compared to both GI (73 ± 6 kg), and GII (78 ± 6 kg). Significantly lower maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, ml•kg-1•min-1) was observed for GIV (56.6 ± 3.8) compared to GI (59.6 ± 3.9), GII (59.4 ± 4.2) and GIV (59.7 ± 4.1). All agegroups, except for GII, demonstrated comparable relative maximal power output (Pmax). For supine HRV, significantly lower Ln HF (ms2) was identified in both GIII (7.1 ± 0.8) and GIV (6.9 ± 1.0) compared to GI (7.9 ± 0.6) and GII (7.7 ± 0.9). In conclusion, soccer players aged >25 years showed negligible differences in Pmax unlike the age group differences demonstrated in VO2max. A shift towards relative sympathetic dominance, particularly due to reduced vagal activity, was apparent after approximately 8 years of competing at the professional level. PMID:28031758

  8. Group-based and personalized care in an age of genomic and evidence-based medicine: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Maglo, Koffi N

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the philosophical and moral foundations of group-based and individualized therapy in connection with population care equality. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently modified its public health policy by seeking to enhance the efficacy and equality of care through the approval of group-specific prescriptions and doses for some drugs. In the age of genomics, when individualization of care increasingly has become a major concern, investigating the relationship between population health, stratified medicine, and personalized therapy can improve our understanding of the ethical and biomedical implications of genomic medicine. I suggest that the need to optimize population health through population substructure-sensitive research and the need to individualize care through genetically targeted therapies are not necessarily incompatible. Accordingly, the article reconceptualizes a unified goal for modern scientific medicine in terms of individualized equal care.

  9. Association of polymorphisms of the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F gene with increased glioma risk.

    PubMed

    Zhou, W K; Huang, L Y; Hui, L; Wang, Z W; Jin, B Z; Zhao, X L; Zhang, X Z; Wang, J X; Wang, J C; Wang, R Z

    2014-05-16

    We aimed to investigate the role of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms of the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F (XPF) gene (rs3136038, rs1799798, rs1800067, and rs2276466) in glioma, and the roles of gene-gene interactions in the risk of developing this type of cancer. We collected samples from 225 glioma cases and 262 controls and genotyped the rs3136038, rs1799798, rs1800067, and rs2276466 polymorphisms using a 384-well plate format with the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Individuals carrying the rs1800067 GG genotype were more likely to have an increased risk of glioma when compared with carriers of the A/A genotype in a co-dominant model, with an odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] of 2.85 (1.14-7.76). However, we did not find an association with increased risk of glioma for the polymorphisms rs3136038, rs1799798, and rs2276466 in XPF. The combination genotype of the rs1800067 G allele and the rs2276466 G allele was associated with a moderate risk of glioma (OR = 1.71, 95%CI = 1.02-2.87). Our study suggests that the rs1800067 genetic variant of XPF functions in the development of glioma.

  10. Increase of a group of PTC(+) transcripts by curcumin through inhibition of the NMD pathway.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dairong; Su, Ruey-Chyi; Zou, Liping; Triggs-Raine, Barbara; Huang, Shangzhi; Xie, Jiuyong

    2015-08-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), an mRNA surveillance mechanism, eliminates premature termination codon-containing (PTC⁺) transcripts. For instance, it maintains the homeostasis of splicing factors and degrades aberrant transcripts of human genetic disease genes. Here we examine the inhibitory effect on the NMD pathway and consequent increase of PTC+ transcripts by the dietary compound curcumin. We have found that several PTC⁺ transcripts including that of serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 (SRSF1) were specifically increased in cells by curcumin. We also observed a similar curcumin effect on the PTC⁺ mutant transcript from a Tay-Sachs-causing HEXA allele or from a beta-globin reporter gene. The curcumin effect was accompanied by significantly reduced expression of the NMD factors UPF1, 2, 3A and 3B. Consistently, in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, curcumin specifically reduced the occupancy of acetyl-histone H3 and RNA polymerase II at the promoter region (-376 to -247nt) of human UPF1, in a time- and dosage-dependent way. Importantly, knocking down UPF1 abolished or substantially reduced the difference of PTC(+) transcript levels between control and curcumin-treated cells. The disrupted curcumin effect was efficiently rescued by expression of exogenous Myc-UPF1 in the knockdown cells. Together, our data demonstrate that a group of PTC⁺ transcripts are stabilized by a dietary compound curcumin through the inhibition of UPF factor expression and the NMD pathway.

  11. Conjugation of β-glucan markedly increase the immunogencity of meningococcal group Y polysaccharide conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Weilin; Ji, Shaoyang; Zhao, Yubao; Hu, Tao

    2015-04-21

    Meningococcal disease is a fatal illness of sudden onset caused by Neisseria meningitides. Meningococcal capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is a major virulence factor that generally does not induce immunological memory. Conjugation with a carrier protein can significantly increase the immunogenicity of CPS and induce immunological memory. However, it is highly desired to optimize the CPS-specific immunogenicity of the conjugate vaccine. Although adjuvant has been widely used to improve the immunogenicity of antigens, co-administration and conjugation of adjuvant with the conjugate vaccine has rarely been investigated. As a stimulator of humoral and cellular immunity, β-glucan can activate macrophages and trigger intracellular processes to secrete cytokines initiating inflammatory reactions. In the present study, a conjugate vaccine (CPS-TT) was generated by conjugation of tetanus toxoid (TT) with meningococcal group Y CPS. CPS-TT was further conjugated with β-glucan to generate CPS-TT-G. Immunization with CPS-TT-G led to an 8.2-fold increase in the CPS-specific IgG titers as compared with CPS-TT. Presumably, conjugation of β-glucan ensured the two components to simultaneously reach the antigen presenting cells and stimulate the immune response. In contrast, co-administration of β-glucan suppressed the CPS-specific immunogenicity of CPS-TT. Thus, conjugation of β-glucan is an effective strategy to markedly improve the CPS-specific immunogenicity of the conjugate vaccine.

  12. Adaptive responses of cardiac function to fetal postural change as gestational age increases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Jin; Choi, Hye Jin; Yang, Sun Young; Koo, Boo Hae; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Hong, Soon Cheol; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, Hai-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The cardiovascular system maintains homeostasis through a series of adaptive responses to physiological requirements. However, little is known about the adaptation of fetal cardiac function to gravity, according to gestational age. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the adaptive responses of cardiac function to postural changes, using Tei index measurements. Methods Fetal echocardiography and Doppler examination were performed on 114 women with vertex singleton pregnancies at 19 to 40 weeks' gestation. Participants were placed in an upright seated position, and the Tei index for fetal left ventricular cardiac function was measured. The women were then moved into a supine position and the Tei index was re-measured. Results The mean Tei index when measured in an upright seated position was significantly lower than that measured in a supine positioning for all fetuses (0.528±0.103 vs. 0.555±0.106, P=0.014, respectively). This difference was also noted in fetuses with a gestational age of 28–40 weeks (0.539±0.107 vs. 0.574±0.102, P=0.011, respectively). However, there was no difference in the Tei index between an upright seated and a supine position among fetuses with a gestational age of <28 weeks (0.505±0.091 vs. 0.516±0.103, P=0.571, respectively). Conclusion Postural changes from an upright seated to a supine position result in an increased Tei index after a gestational age of 28 weeks. This appears to reflect maturation in the adaptive responses of the fetal cardiovascular system to postural changes. PMID:27896244

  13. Group-Level Selection Increases Cooperation in the Public Goods Game

    PubMed Central

    Eckel, Catherine C.; Fatas, Enrique; Godoy, Sara

    2016-01-01

    When groups compete for resources, some groups will be more successful than others, forcing out less successful groups. Group-level selection is the most extreme form of group competition, where the weaker group ceases to exist, becoming extinct. We implement group-level selection in a controlled laboratory experiment in order to study its impact on human cooperation. The experiment uses variations on the standard linear public goods game. Group-level selection operates through competition for survival: the least successful, lowest-earning groups become extinct, in the sense that they no longer are able to play the game. Additional control treatments include group comparison without extinction, and extinction of the least successful individuals across groups. We find that group-level extinction produces very high contributions to the provision of the public good, while group comparison alone or individual extinction fail to cause higher contributions. Our results provide stark evidence that group-level selection enhances within-group cooperation. PMID:27574971

  14. Factors Associated with Dental Caries in a Group of American Indian Children at age 36 Months

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John J.; Blanchette, Derek; Dawson, Deborah V.; Marshall, Teresa A.; Phipps, Kathy R.; Starr, Delores; Drake, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Early childhood caries (ECC) is rampant among American Indian children, but there has been relatively little study of this problem. This paper reports on risk factors for caries for a group of American Indian children at age 36 months as part of a longitudinal study. Methods Pregnant women from a Northern Plains Tribal community were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study of caries and caries risk factors. Standardized dental examinations were completed on children and questionnaires were completed by mothers at baseline and when children were 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 28 and 36 months of age. Examinations were surface-specific for dental caries, and the questionnaires collected data on demographic, dietary and behavioral factors. Non-parametric bivariate tests and logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for caries at 36 months, and negative binomial regression was used to identify factors related to caries severity (dmf counts). Results Among the 232 children, and caries prevalence for cavitated lesions was 80%, with an additional 15% having only non-cavitated lesions. The mean dmfs was 9.6, and of the total dmfs, nearly 62% of affected surfaces were decayed, 31% were missing, and 7% were filled. Logistic regression identified higher added sugar beverage consumption, younger maternal age at baseline, higher maternal DMFS at baseline, and greater number of people in the household as significant (p<0.05) risk factors. Negative binomial regression found that only maternal DMFS was associated with child dmf counts. Conclusions By the age of 36 months, dental caries is nearly universal in this population of American Indian children. Caries risk factors included sugared beverage consumption, greater household size and maternal factors, but further analyses are needed to better understand caries in this population. PMID:26544674

  15. Selective increase in posterior corpus callosum thickness between the age of 4 and 11years.

    PubMed

    Westerhausen, René; Fjell, Anders M; Krogsrud, Stine K; Rohani, Darius A; Skranes, Jon S; Håberg, Asta K; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2016-06-07

    Establishing an efficient functional and structural connectivity between the two cerebral hemispheres is an important developmental task during childhood, and alterations in this development have accordingly been linked to a series of neurodevelopmental and pediatric disorders. The corpus callosum, the major white-matter structure connecting the hemispheres, has been shown to increase in size throughout the three first decades of life. However, behavioral studies indicate that adult-like performance levels of functional hemispheric interaction are already reached during middle and late childhood. Thus, here we specifically examine the structural development of the corpus callosum during the functionally relevant time period by for the first time (a) selectively addressing prospective childhood development and (b) analyzing a sample in which also younger children are well represented. Corpus callosum anatomy was assessed from 732 T1-weighted MRI datasets acquired from 428 children (213 boys, 215 girls) aged of 4.1 and 10.9years, of which 304 were scanned at two time points. Regional callosal thickness was determined from an outline-based segmentation of the mid-sagittal cross-sectional surface area. Linear-mixed model analyses revealed a significant increase in thickness with age (effect size: up to 15% explained variance) equivalent to a growth in callosal thickness of up to 0.19mm per year in the posterior corpus callosum. The age effect was found to be stronger in posterior segments (i.e., splenium) than in other callosal subregions. Also, the age effect was found to be comparable between boys and girls, and was detected irrespective of whether developmental or individual differences in overall brain size where accounted for or not. Our results demonstrate a selective increase in posterior corpus-callosum thickness during middle and late childhood. Since axons crossing the midline in the splenium mainly connect occipital and parietal cortices, the accentuated

  16. Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Bhattathiry, Malini M.; Ethirajan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP), which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of “unmet need for FP” and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed. PMID:24696634

  17. Self-Reported Traumatic Brain Injury and Mild Cognitive Impairment: Increased Risk and Earlier Age of Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    LoBue, Christian; Denney, David; Hynan, Linda S.; Rossetti, Heidi C.; Lacritz, Laura H.; Hart, John; Womack, Kyle B.; Woon, Fu L.; Cullum, DC. Munro

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with increased risk and earlier onset of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Subjects with MCI (n =3,187) and normal cognition (n=3,244) were obtained from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center database. TBI was categorized based on lifetime reported TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) without chronic deficit. Logistic regression was used to examine TBI history as a predictor of MCI, adjusted for demographics, apolipoprotein E-e4 (Apoe4), a composite vascular risk score, and history of psychiatric factors. ANCOVA was used to examine whether age at MCI diagnosis and estimated age of onset differed between those with (TBI+) and without (TBI-) a history of TBI. TBI history was a significant predictor (p<.01) and associated with increased odds of MCI diagnosis in unadjusted (OR=1.25; 95% CI =1.05 – 1.49) and adjusted models, accounting for age, education, Apoe4, and a composite vascular score (OR=1.32; 95% CI=1.10 – 1.58). This association, however, was largely attenuated (OR=1.14; 95% CI=0.94 – 1.37; p=.18) after adjustment for reported history of depression. MCI was diagnosed a mean of 2.3 years earlier (p<.001) in the TBI+ group, and although TBI+ subjects had an estimated mean of decline 1.7 years earlier, clinician-estimated age of onset failed to differ (p =.13) when sex and psychiatric factors were controlled. This is the first report of a possible role for TBI as a risk factor in MCI, but its association may be related to other factors such as sex and depression and requires further investigation. PMID:26890760

  18. Ultra-sensitive sequencing reveals an age-related increase in somatic mitochondrial mutations that are inconsistent with oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Scott R; Salk, Jesse J; Schmitt, Michael W; Loeb, Lawrence A

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is believed to be highly vulnerable to age-associated damage and mutagenesis by reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, somatic mtDNA mutations have historically been difficult to study because of technical limitations in accurately quantifying rare mtDNA mutations. We have applied the highly sensitive Duplex Sequencing methodology, which can detect a single mutation among >10(7) wild type molecules, to sequence mtDNA purified from human brain tissue from both young and old individuals with unprecedented accuracy. We find that the frequency of point mutations increases ~5-fold over the course of 80 years of life. Overall, the mutation spectra of both groups are comprised predominantly of transition mutations, consistent with misincorporation by DNA polymerase γ or deamination of cytidine and adenosine as the primary mutagenic events in mtDNA. Surprisingly, G → T mutations, considered the hallmark of oxidative damage to DNA, do not significantly increase with age. We observe a non-uniform, age-independent distribution of mutations in mtDNA, with the D-loop exhibiting a significantly higher mutation frequency than the rest of the genome. The coding regions, but not the D-loop, exhibit a pronounced asymmetric accumulation of mutations between the two strands, with G → A and T → C mutations occurring more often on the light strand than the heavy strand. The patterns and biases we observe in our data closely mirror the mutational spectrum which has been reported in studies of human populations and closely related species. Overall our results argue against oxidative damage being a major driver of aging and suggest that replication errors by DNA polymerase γ and/or spontaneous base hydrolysis are responsible for the bulk of accumulating point mutations in mtDNA.

  19. Increased expression of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome truncated lamin A transcript during cell aging.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Sofia; Coppedè, Fabio; Sagelius, Hanna; Eriksson, Maria

    2009-07-01

    Most cases of the segmental progeroid syndrome, Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS), are caused by a de novo dominant mutation within a single codon of the LMNA gene. This mutation leads to the increased usage of an internal splice site that generates an alternative lamin A transcript with an internal deletion of 150 nucleotides, called lamin A Delta 150. The LMNA gene encodes two major proteins of the inner nuclear lamina, lamins A and C, but not much is known about their expression levels. Determination of the overall expression levels of the LMNA gene transcripts is an important step to further the understanding of the HGPS. In this study, we have performed absolute quantification of the lamins A, C and A Delta 150 transcripts in primary dermal fibroblasts from HGPS patients and unaffected age-matched and parent controls. We show that the lamin A Delta 150 transcript is present in unaffected controls but its expression is >160-fold lower than that in samples from HGPS patients. Analysis of transcript expression during in vitro aging shows that although the levels of lamin A and lamin C transcripts remain unchanged, the lamin A Delta 150 transcript increases in late passage cells from HGPS patients and parental controls. This study provides a new method for LMNA transcript analysis and insights into the expression of the LMNA gene in HGPS and normal cells.

  20. Quest for Cells Responsible for Age-related Increase of Salivary Glycine and Proline.

    PubMed

    Hino, Shunsuke; Nishiyama, Akira; Matsuta, Tomohiko; Horie, Norio; Shimoyama, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Shoji; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that salivary glycine and proline levels are increased to nearly butanoate level in elderly people. In order to identify the source of glycine and proline, we performed high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of amino acid production to a total of seven oral cells before and after stimulation with inflammation inducers. We found that production of amino acids (per a given number of cells) by normal oral mesenchymal cells (gingival fibroblast, pulp cell, periodontal ligament fibroblast) was approximately three-fold that of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, HSC-4, Ca9-22), and that production of glycine and especially proline by all these seven cells was much lower than that of glutamine and glutamic acid. Treatment of three oral mesenchymal cells with interleukin (IL)-1β or lipopoly-saccharide (LPS) reproducibly increased the production of glutamic acid and glutamine, but not that of glycine and proline. Glycine and proline only marginally stimulated the IL-8 production by IL-1β-stimulated gingival fibroblast, whereas glycine dose-dependently inhibited the nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. These data demonstrated that normal oral mesenchymal cells are not the major source of glycine and proline that accumulates in the saliva of aged people, suggesting the involvement of the deregulation of collagen metabolism during aging.

  1. AGED PLASMA TRANSFUSION INCREASES MORTALITY IN A RAT MODEL OF UNCONTROLLED HEMORRHAGE

    PubMed Central

    Letourneau, Phillip A.; McManus, Madonna; Sowards, Kendell; Wang, Weiwei; Wang, Yao-wei; Matijevic, Nena; Pati, Shibani; Wade, Charles E.; Holcomb, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Recent data has associated improved survival after hemorrhagic shock with the early use of plasma based resuscitation. Our lab has shown that FFP5 has decreased hemostatic potential compared to freshly thawed plasma (FFP0). We hypothesized that FFP5 would increase bleeding and mortality compared to FFP0 in a rodent bioassay model of uncontrolled liver hemorrhage. Methods Hemostatic potential of plasma was assessed with the Calibrated Automated Thrombogram (CAT) assay. Rats underwent isovolemic hemodilution by 15% of blood volume with the two human plasma groups (FFP0 and FFP5) and two controls (sham and lactated Ringers). A liver injury was created by excising a portion of liver resulting in uncontrolled hemorrhage. Rats that lived for 30 minutes after liver injury were resuscitated to their baseline blood pressure and followed for 6 hours. Hemostasis was assessed by thromboelastography. Results Hemostatic potential of FFP5 decreased significantly in all areas measured in the CAT assay as compared to FFP0 (p<0.01). In the FFP5 group overall survival was 54%, compared to 100% in the FFP0 and sham group (p=0.03). For animals that survived 30 minutes and were resuscitated, there was no difference in bleeding and/or coagulopathy between groups. Irrespective of treatment, animals that died following resuscitation demonstrated increased intraperitoneal fluid volume (14.85 ± 1.9 mL vs. 7.02 ± 0.3 mL, p<0.001). Conclusion In this model of mild pre-injury hemodilution with plasma, rats that received FFP5 had decreased survival after uncontrolled hemorrhage from hepatic injury. There were no differences in coagulation function or intraperitoneal fluid volume between the two plasma groups. PMID:22071917

  2. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications. PMID:26892834

  3. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Z B; Luan, J H; Miller, M K; Yu, C Y; Liu, C T

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  4. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    DOE PAGES

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; ...

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for twomore » interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. Lastly, the co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.« less

  5. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. Lastly, the co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  6. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  7. Aging increases the susceptibility to motor memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Roig, Marc; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-08-01

    Declines in the ability to learn motor skills in older adults are commonly attributed to deficits in the encoding of sensorimotor information during motor practice. We investigated whether aging also impairs motor memory consolidation by assessing the susceptibility to memory interference and off-line gains in motor skill learning after practice in children, young, and older adults. Subjects performed a ballistic task (A) followed by an accuracy-tracking task (B) designed to disrupt the consolidation of A. Retention tests of A were performed immediately and 24 hours after B. Older adults showed greater susceptibility to memory interference and no off-line gains in motor skill learning. Performing B produced memory interference and reduced off-line gains only in the older group. However, older adults also showed deficits in memory consolidation independent of the interfering effects of B. Age-related declines in motor skill learning are not produced exclusively by deficits in the encoding of sensorimotor information during practice. Aging also increases the susceptibility to memory interference and reduces off-line gains in motor skill learning after practice.

  8. Increased dietary protein in the second trimester of gestation increases live weight gain and carcass composition in weaner calves to 6 months of age.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Pacheco, G G; Curtain, L D; Rutland, C; Knott, L; Norman, S T; Phillips, N J; Perry, V E A

    2016-11-08

    Genetically similar nulliparous Polled Hereford heifers from a closed pedigree herd were used to evaluate the effects of dietary protein during the first and second trimester of gestation upon foetal, placental and postnatal growth. Heifers were randomly allocated into two groups at 35 days after artificial insemination (35 days post conception (dpc)) to a single bull and fed high (15.7% CP) or low (5.9% CP) protein in the first trimester (T1). At 90 dpc, half of each nutritional treatment group changed to a high- or low-protein diet for the second trimester until 180 dpc (T2). High protein intake in the second trimester increased birth weight in females (P=0.05), but there was no effect of treatment upon birth weight when taken over both sexes. Biparietal diameter was significantly increased by high protein in the second trimester with the effect being greater in the female (P=0.02), but also significant overall (P=0.05). Placental weight was positively correlated with birth weight, fibroblast volume and relative blood vessel volume (P<0.05). Placental fibroblast density was increased and trophoblast volume decreased in the high-protein first trimester treatment group (P<0.05). There was a trend for placental weight to be increased by high protein in the second trimester (P=0.06). Calves from heifers fed the high-protein treatment in the second trimester weighed significantly more on all occasions preweaning (at 1 month (P=0.0004), 2 months (P=0.006), 3 months (P=0.002), 4 months (P=0.01), 5 months (P=0.03), 6 months (P=0.001)), and grew at a faster rate over the 6-month period. By 6 months of age, the calves from heifers fed high nutrition in the second trimester weighed 33 kg heavier than those fed the low diet in the second trimester. These results suggest that dietary protein in early pregnancy alters the development of the bovine placenta and calf growth to weaning.

  9. Swimming Training Assessment: The Critical Velocity and the 400-m Test for Age-Group Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Zacca, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Ricardo Jorge P; Pyne, David B; Castro, Flávio Antônio de S

    2016-05-01

    To verify the metabolic responses of oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentrations [La], and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) when swimming at an intensity corresponding to the critical velocity (CV) assessed by a 4-parameter model (CV4par), and to check the reliability when using only a single 400-m maximal front crawl bout (T400) for CV4par assessment in age-group swimmers. Ten age-group swimmers (14-16 years old) performed 50-, 100-, 200-, 400- (T400), 800-, and 1,500-m maximal front crawl bouts to calculate CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured immediately after bouts. Swimmers then performed 3 × 10-minute front crawl (45 seconds rest) at CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured after 10 minutes of rest (Rest), warm-up (Pre), each 10-minute repetition, and at the end of the test (Post). CV4par was 1.33 ± 0.08 m·s. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were similar between first 10-minute and Post time points in the 3 × 10-minute protocol. CV4par was equivalent to 92 ± 2% of the mean swimming speed of T400 (v400) for these swimmers. CV4par calculated through a single T400 (92%v400) showed excellent agreement (r = 0.30; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.05 m·s, p = 0.39), low coefficient of variation (2%), and root mean square error of 0.02 ± 0.01 m·s when plotted against CV4par assessed through a 4-parameter model. These results generated the equation CV4par = 0.92 × v400. A single T400 can be used reliably to estimate the CV4par typically derived with 6 efforts in age-group swimmers.

  10. Increased CaVbeta1A expression with aging contributes to skeletal muscle weakness.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jackson R; Zheng, Zhenlin; Wang, Zhong-Min; Payne, Anthony M; Messi, María L; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2009-09-01

    Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) into the cytosol is a crucial part of excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. Excitation-contraction uncoupling, a deficit in Ca2+ release from the SR, is thought to be responsible for at least some of the loss in specific force observed in aging skeletal muscle. Excitation-contraction uncoupling may be caused by alterations in expression of the voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha1s (CaV1.1) and beta1a (CaVbeta1a) subunits, both of which are necessary for E-C coupling to occur. While previous studies have found CaV1.1 expression declines in old rodents, CaVbeta1a expression has not been previously examined in aging models. Western blot analysis shows a substantial increase of CaVbeta1a expression over the full lifespan of Friend Virus B (FVB) mice. To examine the specific effects of CaVbeta1a overexpression, a CaVbeta1a-YFP plasmid was electroporated in vivo into young animals. The resulting increase in expression of CaVbeta1a corresponded to decline of CaV1.1 over the same time period. YFP fluorescence, used as a measure of CaVbeta1a-YFP expression in individual fibers, also showed an inverse relationship with charge movement, measured using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Specific force was significantly reduced in young CaVbeta1a-YFP electroporated muscle fibers compared with sham-electroporated, age-matched controls. siRNA interference of CaVbeta1a in young muscles reduced charge movement, while charge movement in old was restored to young control levels. These studies imply CaVbeta1a serves as both a positive and negative regulator CaV1.1 expression, and that endogenous overexpression of CaVbeta1a during old age may play a role in the loss of specific force.

  11. Mindfulness Group Work: Preventing Stress and Increasing Self-Compassion among Helping Professionals in Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsome, Sandy; Waldo, Michael; Gruszka, Clare

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects a 6-week mindfulness group had on 31 college students who were intending to enter helping professions (e.g., nursing, social work, counseling, psychology, and teaching). Group activities included meditation, yoga, a body scan exercise, and qi gong. The group members completed the Perceived Stress Scale, the…

  12. "Who Did What?": A Participatory Action Research Project to Increase Group Capacity for Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Iriarte, E.; Kramer, J. C.; Kramer, J. M.; Hammel, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This participatory action research (PAR) project involved a collaboration with a self-advocacy group of people with intellectual disabilities that sought to build group capacity for advocacy. Materials and Methods: This study used a focus group, sustained participatory engagement and a reflexive process to gather qualitative and…

  13. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?

    PubMed

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-12-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percentage points among women. The employment response was largest among high-wage and healthy workers, while low-wage and less healthy workers either continued to retire early via disability benefits or bridged the gap to the ERA via unemployment benefits. Taking spillover effects and additional tax revenues into account, we find that for a typical birth-year cohort a one year increase in the ERA resulted in a reduction of net government expenditures of 107 million euros for men and of 122 million euros for women.

  14. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?*

    PubMed Central

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percentage points among women. The employment response was largest among high-wage and healthy workers, while low-wage and less healthy workers either continued to retire early via disability benefits or bridged the gap to the ERA via unemployment benefits. Taking spillover effects and additional tax revenues into account, we find that for a typical birth-year cohort a one year increase in the ERA resulted in a reduction of net government expenditures of 107 million euros for men and of 122 million euros for women. PMID:24319299

  15. The challenge of "teaching" large groups of learners: strategies to increase active participation and learning.

    PubMed

    Nierenberg, D W

    1998-01-01

    While teaching in a tutorial, seminar, or problem-based learning group format may be the most fun and most active/interactive for both learner and faculty mentor, there are situations in medical student education in which various constraints require the use of the "lecture" format. Similar constraints may occur in the field of continuing medical education, or graduate medical education, as well. When this occurs, the faculty mentor can increase the active participation of the learners in the audience by continuously stressing seven key pedagogical (androgogical) principles. These include: 1) begin the learning exercise with a clinical example or anecdote to show the relevance of the material to the student; 2) frequently ask the students whether they have ever seen examples of what you describe in their previous experience with patients, personal experience, experience with relatives, etc.; 3) ask students frequently whether they have heard similar material presented differently in other courses; 4) recruit students to help solve "mystery cases"; 5) show examples of similar material from real life (e.g., patient descriptions, or even excerpts from favorite TV shows); 6) ask students to help summarize key points at the end of the session; and 7) allow, or even encourage, whispering during the class. Using some or all of these techniques can help turn a "lecture format" into a much more fun, interactive, and valuable session that emphasizes "learning" rather than "teaching."

  16. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in pediatric age group: Assessment of effectiveness and complications

    PubMed Central

    Ozden, Ender; Mercimek, Mehmet Necmettin

    2016-01-01

    Management of kidney stone disease in pediatric population is a challenging condition in urology practice. While the incidence of kidney stone is increasing in those group, technological innovations have conrtibuted to the development of minimally invasive treatment of urinary stone disease such as mini-percutenous nephrolitotomy (mini-PCNL), micro-PCNL, ultra mini-PCNL. In this review we tried to evaluate the effect of new teratment techniques on pediatric kidney stones. PMID:26788467

  17. The Feasibility of a Group Bender-Gestalt Test for Preschool and Primary School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Denis P.

    1975-01-01

    Study devised and tested a method for group administration of the Bender-Gestalt Test that would be feasible for screening large groups of beginning school-age children. Results indicate that the group method of presentation can yield results as valid and reliable as the traditional individual method of administration. (Author)

  18. NO-Synthase Activity in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease Associated with Hypertension of Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for the development of CHD. Abnormalities in NO generation or activity have been proposed as a major mechanism of CHD. The purpose of this article is to determine the activity of eNOS and iNOS in patients with isolated CHD and CHD associated with HT of different age groups. Methods Fifty patients with isolated CHD and 42 patients with CHD associated with HT were enrolled in this study. NOS activity was determined by nitrite anion formed in the reaction. Results A statistically significant increase in iNOS activity is observed in elderly donors. In patients with isolated coronary heart disease cNOS activity is statistically significantly reduced with respect to the control group. The reduction of enzymatic activity of cNOS is more expressed in elderly patients than in middle-aged patients with coronary heart disease. Alterations in eNOS activity are more expressed in patients with coronary heart disease associated with hypertension than in patients with isolated coronary heart disease. Against the background of cNOS inhibition in the patients, a sharp increase in iNOS activity is observed. Conclusions It has been shown that disturbance of endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease associated with hypertension is characterized by reduced endothelial NO synthesis by cNOS and increased systemic NO synthesis due to increased iNOS activity. It has been found that the lack of endothelial NO and hyperproduction of »harmful« NO by iNOS are more expressed in elderly patients. PMID:28356863

  19. [Peculiarities of cardiovascular system pathology depending on psychological profile in patients of senior age groups].

    PubMed

    Prokhorenko, I O

    2013-01-01

    Interrelations between peculiarities of psychological profile of patients of senior age groups (according to Cattel), level of stress hormones in blood and background pathology of cardiovascular system were studied. Levels of catecholamine and corticosteroids in dynamics, rate of magnesium in erythrocytes and calcium in plaques of coronary arteries as well as fats, Holter ECG, daily profiles of blood pressure, vasomotor function of endothelium and microcirculation were analysed. It is established that stress hormones indirectly determine original form of stress reaction depending on patients' psychological profile. This contributes to the development of one or another form of cardiovascular system pathology. Excessive alcohol intake also promotes progression of cardiovascular system pathology. Depression, being a reflection of disbalance of stress hormones levels, can be used as a marker of unfavourable course of cardiovascular pathology.

  20. SPECTRUM: A Training and Treatment Program for Continuous Glucose Monitoring for All Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Gehr, Bernhard; Holder, Martin; Kulzer, Bernhard; Lange, Karin; Liebl, Andreas; Sahm, Claudia; von Sengbusch, Simone; Schlüter, Sandra; Siegmund, Thorsten; Thurm, Ulrike; Ziegler, Ralph; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz

    2016-08-10

    Optimal usage of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) requires adequate preparation and training. Patients using a CGM system without special training often do not achieve their intended improvement of metabolic control or even stop using the system due to disappointing results. For this reason a structured training program called "SPECTRUM" was developed in Germany to ensure a high-quality standard for the use of CGM systems. This program is suitable for patients of all age groups and is applicable to all CGM systems and all forms of insulin therapy. Structured curricula (adults, parents of young children, adolescents) have been developed enabling diabetes centers with less experience to offer comprehensive CGM training. Key requirements of SPECTRUM were independency of manufacturers and product neutrality enabling certification for reimbursement after formal evaluation within the framework of a large clinical trial. SPECTRUM was published in January 2016 in German, and translations into other languages are planned.

  1. Analysis of normal human eye with different age groups using infrared images.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Ng, E Y K; Yee, Gerk Chang; Hua, Tan Jian; Kagathi, Manjunath

    2009-06-01

    The human body temperature is a good health indicator. All objects emit thermal radiation as a function temperature and wavelength for all wavelengths. The wavelength of infrared rays lies between visible and microwave radiations ranging between 700 nm to 0.1 mm. Infrared (IR) imaging is relatively inexpensive, noninvasive and harmless. Nowadays, it is widely used in the medical field for diagnosis. In this work, we have applied image processing techniques on the IR images of the eye for the analysis of the ocular surface temperature (OST) of the normal subjects of three categories (young, middle and old ages). In our study, 67 IR normal images were analyzed. Two parameters, average ocular temperature and the temperature deviation were proposed to study the variability of OST in different normal category subjects. Our study shows that, the two parameters proposed, show distinct ranges for different groups with 'p' values less than 0.05.

  2. Nutritional deficiencies in the pediatric age group in a multicultural developed country, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Haimi, Motti; Lerner, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide. Diseases and morbid conditions have been described to result from nutritional deficiencies. It is essential to address nutrient deficiencies as these may lead to chronic long-term health problems such as rickets, iron deficiency anemia, goiter, obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, cancer and osteoporosis. In the present review we surveyed the extent and severity of nutritional deficiencies in Israel through a selective and comprehensive Medline review of previous reports and studies performed during the last 40 years. Israeli populations have multiple nutritional deficiencies, including iron, calcium, zinc, folic acid, and vitamins B12, C, D and E, spanning all age groups, several minorities, and specific regions. In Israel, some of the nutrients are mandatorily implemented and many of them are implemented voluntarily by local industries. We suggest ways to prevent and treat the nutritional deficiencies, as a step to promote food fortification in Israel. PMID:24868510

  3. Voluntary aerobic exercise increases arterial resilience and mitochondrial health with aging in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gioscia-Ryan, Rachel A.; Battson, Micah L.; Cuevas, Lauren M.; Zigler, Melanie C.; Sindler, Amy L.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysregulation and associated excessive reactive oxygen species (mtROS) production is a key source of oxidative stress in aging arteries that reduces baseline function and may influence resilience (ability to withstand stress). We hypothesized that voluntary aerobic exercise would increase arterial resilience in old mice. An acute mitochondrial stressor (rotenone) caused greater (further) impairment in peak carotid EDD in old (~27 mo., OC, n=12;−32.5±-10.5%) versus young (~7 mo., YC n=11;−5.4±- 3.7%) control male mice, whereas arteries from young and old exercising (YVR n=10 and OVR n=11, 10-wk voluntary running;−0.8±-2.1% and −8.0±4.9%, respectively) mice were protected. Ex-vivo simulated Western diet (WD, high glucose and palmitate) caused greater impairment in EDD in OC (-28.5±8.6%) versus YC (-16.9±5.2%) and YVR (-15.3±2.3%), whereas OVR (-8.9±3.9%) were more resilient (not different versus YC). Simultaneous ex-vivo treatment with mitochondria-specific antioxidant MitoQ attenuated WD-induced impairments in YC and OC, but not YVR or OVR, suggesting that exercise improved resilience to mtROS-mediated stress. Exercise normalized age-related alterations in aortic mitochondrial protein markers PGC-1α, SIRT-3 and Fis1 and augmented cellular antioxidant and stress response proteins. Our results indicate that arterial aging is accompanied by reduced resilience and mitochondrial health, which are restored by voluntary aerobic exercise. PMID:27875805

  4. Scappoose Formation, Columbia County, Oregon: new evidence of age and relation to Columbia River basalt group

    SciTech Connect

    VanAtta, R.O.; Kelty, K.B.

    1985-05-01

    The Scappoose Formation, considered to be late Oligocene to early Miocene in age, was originally believed to be disconformably separated from both the underlying Pittsburg Bluff Formation and the overlying Yakima subgroup of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Recent mapping and petrography show that it lies disconformably on both the Keasey and Pittsburg Bluff Formations, and interfingers with the Yakima Basalt. The Scappoose is composed of fluvial sandstone, conglomerate, and carbonaceous to coal-bearing mud rock, intertongued with shallow neritic to estuarine siltstone, mud rock, and minor sandstone. Chemistry of basalt clasts from fluvial conglomerates reveals that they are derived from the Yakima subgroup. Basalt conglomerate and palagonitic sediments in the upper part of the formation are intercalated with Grande Ronde basalt (Yakima subgroup) flows at many localities. Flows of Yakima Basalt are also invasive into originally wet, unconsolidated Scappoose sediment. Grande Ronde basalt and the Frenchman Springs Member of the Wanapum basalt overlie conglomerate of the Scappoose. In places, the Scappoose Formation is absent, and Yakima Basalt lies directly on the Pittsburg Bluff and Keasey Formations. The thickness of both the Scappoose Formation and the Columbia River Basalt Group varies widely, indicating that both were deposited over a paleotopography with a relief up to 800 ft (245 m). The definition of the boundaries of the Scappoose Formation should be revised, owing to the disconformable relation of the Scappoose to both the underlying Keasey and Pittsburg Bluff Formations and to the Scappoose's intercalation with the overlying Yakima Basalt. Definition of age must also be revised, inasmuch as sedimentation of the formation was coeval with Columbia River Basalt volcanism.

  5. Rheumatic mitral regurgitation. The case for annuloplasty in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J G; Kawabori, I; Morgan, B C; Dillard, D H; Merendino, K A; Guntheroth, W G

    1975-08-01

    Eight youngsters (five female, three male, ages 10 to 19 years, mean 15 years) with isolated severe rheumatic mitral regurgitation have been subjected to mitral annuloplasty because of limiting symptoms and prominent ECG and X-ray changes. They have been followed for up to 11 years (mean 3.7 years), and 7 have had excellent results. An early (1961) patient had a small annulus and was not a favorable candidate; he had only transient improvement. Seven are greatly improved, have decreased cardiac size (often dramatic), and have improved ECG's. One has undergone successful pregnancy, and none has been limited in activities. The extent and duration of improvement, lack of mortality, and resumption of normal activities by these youngsters indicate surgical success. The essence of childhood and youth is activity and the future life span hopefully long; hence, annuloplasty would appear to be the procedure of choice for severe rheumatic mitral regurgitation in the pediatric age group, avoiding the usual need for anticoagulation and uncertain long-term results associated with mitral valve replacement.

  6. Inhibition of Adenylyl Cyclase Type 5 Increases Longevity and Healthful Aging through Oxidative Stress Protection

    PubMed Central

    Vatner, Stephen F.; Pachon, Ronald E.; Vatner, Dorothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Mice with disruption of adenylyl cyclase type 5 (AC5 knockout, KO) live a third longer than littermates. The mechanism, in part, involves the MEK/ERK pathway, which in turn is related to protection against oxidative stress. The AC5 KO model also protects against diabetes, obesity, and the cardiomyopathy induced by aging, diabetes, and cardiac stress and also demonstrates improved exercise capacity. All of these salutary features are also mediated, in part, by oxidative stress protection. For example, chronic beta adrenergic receptor stimulation induced cardiomyopathy was rescued by AC5 KO. Conversely, in AC5 transgenic (Tg) mice, where AC5 is overexpressed in the heart, the cardiomyopathy was exacerbated and was rescued by enhancing oxidative stress resistance. Thus, the AC5 KO model, which resists oxidative stress, is uniquely designed for clinical translation, since it not only increases longevity and exercise, but also protects against diabetes, obesity, and cardiomyopathy. Importantly, inhibition of AC5's action to prolong longevity and enhance healthful aging, as well as its mechanism through resistance to oxidative stress, is unique among all of the nine AC isoforms. PMID:25945149

  7. Beaver ponds increase methylmercury concentrations in Canadian shield streams along vegetation and pond-age gradients.

    PubMed

    Roy, Virginie; Amyot, Marc; Carignan, Richard

    2009-08-01

    Beaver impoundments flood forested areas and may be important production sites for methylmercury (MeHg) because of the resulting enhanced microbial activity and oxygen depletion. The influence of 17 beaver impoundments on streamwater chemistry (total mercury (THg), MeHg, nutrients, cations, and anions)] was investigated by sampling sites located along vegetation and pond-age gradients in southwestern Quebec (Canada). Recently inundated beaver ponds (< 10 years old) and those located in coniferous watersheds had the highest MeHg concentrations (range, 0.10-4.53 ng L(-1)) and greatest methylation efficiencies (% THg as MeHg; range, 10-74%). High heterotrophic activity likely occurred in the beaver ponds as suggested by depletions of dissolved oxygen, sulfate and nitrite-nitrate concentrations, and increases in nutrients (e.g., dissolved organic carbon, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen) in outlets compared to inlets. Acidic waters at coniferous sites may have stimulated more MeHg production than in mixed woodland regions. Lower methylation efficiencies in older ponds (> 20 years old) may be due to the degradation of less labile organic matter as ponds age. Beavers actively alter watersheds by building impoundments, and our findings indicate that this landscape disturbance may be a significant source of MeHg to downstream water bodies.

  8. Increase in penguin populations during the Little Ice Age in the Ross Sea, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qi-Hou; Sun, Li-Guang; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Emslie, Steven D; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Penguins are an important seabird species in Antarctica and are sensitive to climate and environmental changes. Previous studies indicated that penguin populations increased when the climate became warmer and decreased when it became colder in the maritime Antarctic. Here we determined organic markers in a sediment profile collected at Cape Bird, Ross Island, high Antarctic, and reconstructed the history of Adélie penguin colonies at this location over the past 700 years. The region transformed from a seal to a penguin habitat when the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1500-1800 AD) began. Penguins then became the dominant species. Penguin populations were the highest during ca. 1490 to 1670 AD, a cold period, which is contrary to previous results in other regions much farther north. Different responses to climate change may occur at low latitudes and high latitudes in the Antarctic, even if for same species.

  9. Financial strain is associated with increased oxidative stress levels: the Women's Health and Aging Studies.

    PubMed

    Palta, Priya; Szanton, Sarah L; Semba, Richard D; Thorpe, Roland J; Varadhan, Ravi; Fried, Linda P

    2015-01-01

    Elevated oxidative stress levels may be one mechanism contributing to poor health outcomes. Financial strain and oxidative stress are each predictors of morbidity and mortality, but little research has investigated their relationship. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 728) from the Women's Health and Aging Studies I and II were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Financial strain was ascertained as an ordinal response to: "At the end of the month, do you have more than enough money left over, just enough, or not enough?" Oxidative stress was measured using serum protein carbonyl concentrations. Linear regression was used to quantify the relationship between financial strain and oxidative stress. Participants who reported high financial strain exhibited 13.4% higher protein carbonyl concentrations compared to individuals who reported low financial strain (p = 0.002). High financial strain may be associated with increased oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress could mediate associations between financial strain and poor health.

  10. Axone, an ethnic probiotic containing food, reduces age of sexual maturity and increases poultry production.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhoj Raj; Singh, R K

    2014-06-01

    Axone (Akhuni) is a homemade synbiotic (Nagamese fermented soybean product) served as side dish in North Eastern India. In this study, effects of Axone feeding on growth, weight gain, sexual maturity and egg production on Vanaraja birds (a strain of poultry bird developed at PDP Hyderabad for villages and backyard poultry) were evaluated. Axone incorporation in commercial poultry feed at the rate of 5% (W/W) significantly improved growth rate (weight gain) both in male (p 0.001) and female (p 0.05) chicks, reduced age by 13 days at first egg laying (p 0.01), increased egg production (p ≤ 0.001) and improved egg weight (p ≤ 0.01). Microbiological analysis of Axone sample revealed that the major bacteria in Axone samples were Bacillus coagulans, well known for their probiotic value.

  11. Increase in density and accumulation of serotonin by human aging platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Mezzano, D.; Aranda, E.; Rodriguez, S.; Foradori, A.; Lira, P.

    1984-07-01

    /sup 51/Cr-labeled autologous platelets were infused into splenectomized subjects and the specific radioactivities of high-density (HD) and low-density (LD) platelet subpopulations were determined sequentially in postinfusion samples. These findings confirm previous observations in eusplenic individuals and support the hypothesis that human LD platelets are, on the average, younger than HD platelets. LD platelets contain 33.8 +/- 13.5 ng serotonin (5HT)/10(8) platelets and HD platelets 76.8 +/- 9.5 ng 5HT/10(8) platelets. Sequential measurements of 5HT in PRP platelets were performed during the recovery phase of thrombocytopenia following splenectomy in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), a condition associated with aging of platelets in circulation. Presplenectomy platelet 5HT was 17.7 ng/10(8) platelets and on days 1, 6, and 12 after surgery it increased to 18.1, 37.8, and 61.0 ng/10(8) platelets. When three healthy volunteers were given aspirin (500 mg/day) for up to 15 days, no significant change in the 5HT content of circulating platelets was observed. The observation that human HD platelets, enriched with older cells, contain more 5HT than LD platelets taken together with the parallel increase in platelet 5HT and age during the recovery from thrombocytopenia in ITP patients and the lack of effect of aspirin on platelet 5HT content, provides initial evidence that human platelets accumulate 5HT during their life-span in circulation.

  12. Environmental exposure of the pediatric age groups in Cairo City and its suburbs to cadmium pollution.

    PubMed

    Hossny, E; Mokhtar, G; El-Awady, M; Ali, I; Morsy, M; Dawood, A

    2001-06-12

    In a trial to assess the exposure of subjects in the pediatric age group to cadmium (Cd) pollution, serum Cd was estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry in 405 subjects, birth-18 years old, from Cairo City and its suburbs. Serum Cd mean concentrations were: 0.92 microg/l in 32 neonates (birth-4 weeks); 1.33 microg/l in 70 infants (4 weeks-2 years); 1.11 microg/l in 100 children in the preschool period (2-6 years); 1.34 microg/l in 103 primary school children (6-12 years); and 1.24 microg/l in 100 adolescents (12-18 years). In neonates, serum Cd was higher in babies with weights and heights that remained below the 5th percentile for age. Breast-fed infants had a serum Cd geometric mean level (1.25 microg/l) that was not in accordance to that of their mothers' milk (0.52 microg/l, P < 0.001), suggesting alternative routes of exposure. Environmental tobacco-smoke exposure was the most important determinant of Cd status in the school-aged children, the geometric mean being 1.42 microg/l in passive smokers vs. 1.2 microg/l in non-exposed children (P < 0.05). Moreover, adolescents who were active smokers had a significantly higher serum Cd level (1.7 microg/l) as compared to non-smokers (1.2 microg/l). Gender did influence the Cd status in adolescents, being higher among males, probably related to smoking, or to the difference in lifestyle of adolescents according to gender in the community. Alpha-1-microglobulinuria was accompanied by a higher serum Cd concentration in the group of adolescents only, suggesting a subclinical renal effect after several years of cumulative exposure. The residential classification, whether urban or suburban, did not influence the serum Cd status; neither did the present or past history of bronchial asthma. These findings certainly justify further evaluation of the problem of Cd pollution among Cairene individuals, knowing the long-term consequences of exposure to it. Systematic efforts for the proper disposal of Cd wastes and prevention

  13. Increased risk for age-related impairment in visual attention associated with mild traumatic brain injury: Evidence from saccadic response times

    PubMed Central

    Barry, David M.; Ettenhofer, Mark L.

    2017-01-01

    It was hypothesized that risk for age-related impairment in attention would be greater among those with remote history of mild TBI than individuals without history of head injury. Twenty-seven adults with remote history of mild TBI and a well-matched comparison group of 54 uninjured controls completed a computerized test of visual attention while saccadic and manual response times were recorded. Within the mild TBI group only, older age was associated with slower saccadic responses and poorer saccadic inhibition. Saccadic slowing was mitigated in situations where the timing and location of attention targets was fully predictable. Mild TBI was not associated with age-related increases in risk for neuropsychological impairment or neurobehavioral symptoms. These results provide preliminary evidence that risk for age-related impairment in visual attention may be higher among those with a history of mild TBI. Saccadic measures may provide enhanced sensitivity to this subtle form of cognitive impairment. PMID:28166259

  14. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in Brazilian Samples of Different Age Groups: Findings from Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Brietzke, Elisa; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Kristensen, Christian Haag; Arteche, Adriane Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is internationally accepted as a key tool for the assessment of childhood abuse and neglect experiences. However, there are relative few psychometric studies available and some authors have proposed two different factor solutions. We examined the dimensional structure and internal consistency of the Brazilian version of the CTQ. A total of 1,925 participants from eight different clinical and non-clinical samples including adolescents, adults and elders were considered in this study. First, we performed Confirmatory Factor Analysis to investigate the goodness of fit of the two proposed competitive factor structure models for the CTQ. We also investigated the internal consistency of all factors. Second, multi-group analyses were used to investigate measurement invariance and population heterogeneity across age groups and sex. Our findings revealed that the alternative factor structure as opposed to the original factor structure was the most appropriate model within adolescents and adults Brazilian samples. We provide further evidence for the validity and reliability of the CTQ within the Brazilian samples and report that the alternative model showed an improvement in fit indexes and may be a better alternative over the original model. PMID:24475237

  15. Increasing Students' Empathy and Counseling Self-Efficacy through a Mindfulness Experiential Small Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohecker, Lynn; Doughty Horn, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Solomon 4-group design to examine the relationship between a mindfulness experiential small group (MESG) and mindfulness skills, empathy, counseling self-efficacy, and perceived stress for counselors in training (CITs). Understanding how the MESG affects these characteristics provides essential information to inform the…

  16. Group In-Course Assessment Promotes Cooperative Learning and Increases Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratten, Margaret K.; Merrick, Deborah; Burr, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe and evaluate a method to motivate medical students to maximize the effectiveness of dissection opportunities by using In-Course-Assessments (ICAs) to encourage teamwork. A student's final mark was derived by combining the group dissection mark, group mark for questions, and their individual question mark. An analysis of the…

  17. Increasing subtropical North Pacific Ocean nitrogen fixation since the Little Ice Age.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Owen A; Guilderson, Thomas P; Batista, Fabian C; Schiff, John T; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2014-01-02

    The North Pacific subtropical gyre (NPSG) plays a major part in the export of carbon and other nutrients to the deep ocean. Primary production in the NPSG has increased in recent decades despite a reduction in nutrient supply to surface waters. It is thought that this apparent paradox can be explained by a shift in plankton community structure from mostly eukaryotes to mostly nitrogen-fixing prokaryotes. It remains uncertain, however, whether the plankton community domain shift can be linked to cyclical climate variability or a long-term global warming trend. Here we analyse records of bulk and amino-acid-specific (15)N/(14)N isotopic ratios (δ(15)N) preserved in the skeletons of long-lived deep-sea proteinaceous corals collected from the Hawaiian archipelago; these isotopic records serve as a proxy for the source of nitrogen-supported export production through time. We find that the recent increase in nitrogen fixation is the continuation of a much larger, centennial-scale trend. After a millennium of relatively minor fluctuation, δ(15)N decreases between 1850 and the present. The total shift in δ(15)N of -2 per mil over this period is comparable to the total change in global mean sedimentary δ(15)N across the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, but it is happening an order of magnitude faster. We use a steady-state model and find that the isotopic mass balance between nitrate and nitrogen fixation implies a 17 to 27 per cent increase in nitrogen fixation over this time period. A comparison with independent records suggests that the increase in nitrogen fixation might be linked to Northern Hemisphere climate change since the end of the Little Ice Age.

  18. Increasing subtropical North Pacific Ocean nitrogen fixation since the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Owen A.; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Batista, Fabian C.; Schiff, John T.; McCarthy, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    The North Pacific subtropical gyre (NPSG) plays a major part in the export of carbon and other nutrients to the deep ocean. Primary production in the NPSG has increased in recent decades despite a reduction in nutrient supply to surface waters. It is thought that this apparent paradox can be explained by a shift in plankton community structure from mostly eukaryotes to mostly nitrogen-fixing prokaryotes. It remains uncertain, however, whether the plankton community domain shift can be linked to cyclical climate variability or a long-term global warming trend. Here we analyse records of bulk and amino-acid-specific 15N/14N isotopic ratios (δ15N) preserved in the skeletons of long-lived deep-sea proteinaceous corals collected from the Hawaiian archipelago; these isotopic records serve as a proxy for the source of nitrogen-supported export production through time. We find that the recent increase in nitrogen fixation is the continuation of a much larger, centennial-scale trend. After a millennium of relatively minor fluctuation, δ15N decreases between 1850 and the present. The total shift in δ15N of -2 per mil over this period is comparable to the total change in global mean sedimentary δ15N across the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, but it is happening an order of magnitude faster. We use a steady-state model and find that the isotopic mass balance between nitrate and nitrogen fixation implies a 17 to 27 per cent increase in nitrogen fixation over this time period. A comparison with independent records suggests that the increase in nitrogen fixation might be linked to Northern Hemisphere climate change since the end of the Little Ice Age.

  19. Age constraints for Paleoproterozoic glaciation in the Lake Superior Region: Detrital zircon and hydrothermal xenotime ages for the Chocolay Group, Marquette Range Supergroup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallini, D.A.; Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    A geochronological study of the Chocolay Group at the base of the Paleoproterozoic Marquette Range Supergroup in Michigan, Lake Superior Region, is attempted for the first time, Age data from detrital zircon grains and hydrothermal xenotime from the basal glaciogenic formation, the Enchantment Lake Formation, and the stratigraphically higher Sturgeon Quartzite and its equivalent, the Sunday Quartzite, provide maximum and minimum age constraints for the Chocolay Group. The youngest detrital zircon population in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2317 ?? 6 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2306 ?? 9 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2647 ?? 5 Ma. The oldest hydrothermal xenotime age in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2133 ?? 11 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2115 ?? 5 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2207 ?? 5 Ma. The radiometric age data in this study implies the depositional age of the Chocolay Group is constrained to ???2.3-2.2 Ga, which proves its correlation with part of the Huronian Supergroup in the Lake Huron Region, Ontario, and reveals the unconformity that separates the Chocolay Group from the overlying Menominee Group is up to 325 million years in duration. The source(s) of the ??? 2.3 Ga detrital zircon populations in the Enchantment Lake Formation and Sturgeon Quartzite remains an enigma because no known rock units of this age are known in the Michigan area. It is speculated that once widespread volcano-sedimentary cover sequences in Michigan were removed or concealed prior to Chocolay Group deposition. The hydrothermal xenotime ages probably reflect basinal hydrothermal fluid flow associated with the period of extension involving rifting and major dyke formation, that affected the North American provinces between 2.2 and 2.1 Ga. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  20. Progesterone Increases Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Induces Neural Regeneration after Traumatic Brain Injury in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhanying; Wang, Bin; Kan, Zhisheng; Zhang, Baoliang; Yang, Zhuo; Chen, Jieli; Wang, Dong; Wei, Huijie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vascular remodeling plays a key role in neural regeneration in the injured brain. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a mediator of the vascular remodeling process. Previous studies have found that progesterone treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) decreases cerebral edema and cellular apoptosis and inhibits inflammation, which in concert promote neuroprotective effects in young adult rats. However, whether progesterone treatment regulates circulating EPC level and fosters vascular remodeling after TBI have not been investigated. In this study, we hypothesize that progesterone treatment following TBI increases circulating EPC levels and promotes vascular remodeling in the injured brain in aged rats. Male Wistar 20-month-old rats were subjected to a moderate unilateral parietal cortical contusion injury and were treated with or without progesterone (n=54/group). Progesterone was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 16mg/kg at 1 h post-TBI and was subsequently injected subcutaneously daily for 14 days. Neurological functional tests and immnunostaining were performed. Circulating EPCs were measured by flow cytometry. Progesterone treatment significantly improved neurological outcome after TBI measured by the modified neurological severity score, Morris Water Maze and the long term potentiation in the hippocampus as well as increased the circulating EPC levels compared to TBI controls (p<0.05). Progesterone treatment also significantly increased CD34 and CD31 positive cell number and vessel density in the injured brain compared to TBI controls (p<0.05). These data indicate that progesterone treatment of TBI improves multiple neurological functional outcomes, increases the circulating EPC level, and facilitates vascular remodeling in the injured brain after TBI in aged rats. PMID:21534727

  1. Age-dependent increase in the expression of antioxidant-like protein-1 in the gerbil hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-A; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Jong-Dai; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Choong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant-like protein-1 (AOP-1) reduces the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species. In the present study, the age-related change in AOP-1 expression in the hippocampus among young, adult and aged gerbils was compared using western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that the protein expression of AOP-1 was gradually and significantly increased in the hippocampus during the normal aging process. In addition, the age-dependent increase in AOP-1 immunoreactivity was also observed in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus proper; however, in the dentate gyrus, AOP-1 immunoreactivity was not altered during the normal aging process. These results indicated that the expression of AOP-1 is significantly increased in the hippocampus proper, but not in the dentate gyrus, during the normal aging process. PMID:27511601

  2. Increased Aβ pathology in aged Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Nizari, Shereen; Carare, Roxana O; Hawkes, Cheryl A

    2016-02-25

    Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developing diabetes, obesity and premature death in adult offspring. Mid-life diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia are risk factors for the development of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). A key pathogenic feature of AD is the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high fat diet feeding during early life on Aβ pathology in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Female mice were fed a standard (C) or high fat (HF) diet before mating and during gestation and lactation. At weaning, male offspring were fed a C diet. Significantly higher levels of guanidine-soluble Aβ and plaque loads were observed in the hippocampi of 11-month old Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a HF diet. Changes in the extracellular matrix led to increased retention of Aβ within the parenchyma. These data support a role for maternal and gestational health on the health of the aged brain and pathologies associated with AD and may provide a novel target for both the prevention and treatment of AD.

  3. Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children Aged 2-5 Years: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B; Wen, Fujun; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of prior interventions designed to increase preschoolers' physical activity is lacking. This systematic review aimed to examine the effect of interventions on objectively measured physical activity in children aged 2-5 years. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. In May 2014, we searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane, and Embase. Two reviewers independently identified and appraised the studies. Twenty-four articles describing 23 independent studies and 20 unique interventions met inclusion criteria. Of the 8 interventions resulting in a significant effect in objectively measured physical activity, all were center-based and included a structured physical activity component, 6 included multiple components, 5 integrated theories or models, and 4 actively involved parents. Seven of the 8 were randomized controlled trials. Due to the heterogeneity of the study designs, physical activity measures, and interventions, drawing definitive conclusions was difficult. Although the overall intervention effect was less than optimal, the review indicated that theory-driven, multicomponent interventions including a structured physical activity component and targeting both parents and their children may be a promising approach for increasing preschoolers' physical activity and warrant continued investigation using rigorous designs to identify those that are most effective.

  4. Increased Aβ pathology in aged Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Nizari, Shereen; Carare, Roxana O.; Hawkes, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developing diabetes, obesity and premature death in adult offspring. Mid-life diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia are risk factors for the development of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A key pathogenic feature of AD is the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high fat diet feeding during early life on Aβ pathology in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Female mice were fed a standard (C) or high fat (HF) diet before mating and during gestation and lactation. At weaning, male offspring were fed a C diet. Significantly higher levels of guanidine-soluble Aβ and plaque loads were observed in the hippocampi of 11-month old Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a HF diet. Changes in the extracellular matrix led to increased retention of Aβ within the parenchyma. These data support a role for maternal and gestational health on the health of the aged brain and pathologies associated with AD and may provide a novel target for both the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:26911528

  5. Age-Related Changes to Speech Breathing with Increased Vocal Loudness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Jessica E.; Spruill, John, III

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examines the effect of normal aging on respiratory support for speech when utterance length is controlled. Method: Fifteen women (M = 71 years of age) and 10 men (M = 73 years of age) produced 2 sentences of different lengths in 4 loudness conditions while respiratory kinematics were measured. Measures included those…

  6. Relationship between menopausal symptoms and sexual dysfunction among married Turkish women in 40-65 age group.

    PubMed

    Senturk Erenel, Ayten; Golbasi, Zehra; Kavlak, Tulay; Dilbaz, Serdar

    2015-10-01

    This was a cross-sectional study to analyse the relationship between menopausal symptoms and sexual dysfunction among 229 married Turkish women in the 40-65 age group. The study was carried out at a menopause clinic of a state hospital between 1 October and 31 December 2010. Data were collected with Personal Characteristics Form, Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX). The average age of the women was 52.33 (SD = 4.80) years. The average MRS total score was 20.13(SD = 9.20). The ASEX mean score was 19.97 (SD = 5.44). It was determined that there is a positive meaningful relationship between ASEX mean score, MRS total mean score and the sub-score of women. From the results obtained from this study, it can be said that women have differing levels of menopausal symptoms, and as the severity of menopausal symptoms increases, there is an increase in sexual dysfunction.

  7. Clinical features of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in Taiwan: differences between young and senior age groups.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chung-Lan; Hsieh, Wan-Ling; Chern, Chang-Ming; Chen, Liang-Kung; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Chan, Rai-Chi

    2009-12-01

    BPPV is a common cause of vertigo. Several treatment procedures can facilitate recovery. In this study, we aimed to identify the demographic features, resolution and recurrence rates and impacts on daily activities in BPPV patient between young and senior age groups in Taiwan. This retrospective study recruited 218 patients of BPPV. Medical history, canal involvement, treatment required for complete resolution, symptom free period and recurrence rates were evaluated between the two age groups. Up to 80.7% of patients were successfully treated by a single treatment. For patients aged more than 65 years, the recurrence rate was 1.7 times higher than that in the younger age group (p = 0.07). The symptom-free period before recurrence was nearly 2.2 times longer in the senior age group (p = 0.03). Work-related activities were influenced more by BPPV in the younger age group (p = 0.03). We conclude that BPPV is prone to occur and recur in people of senior age. Clinicians should have the knowledge to diagnose different types of BPPV and treat it accordingly to prevent further complications.

  8. Psychosocial stress but not exercise increases cortisol and reduces state anxiety levels in school classes - results from a stressor applicable in large group settings.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Mirko; Müller-Alcazar, Anett; Jäger, Anika; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Both, psychosocial stress and exercise in the past have been used as stressors to elevate saliva cortisol and change state anxiety levels. In the present study, high-school students at the age of 14 were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: (1) an exercise group (n = 18), that was running 15 minutes at a medium intensity level of 65-75% HRmax, (2) a psychosocial stress group (n = 19), and (3) a control group (n = 18). The psychosocial stress was induced to the students by completing a standardized intelligence test under the assumption that their IQ scores would be made public in class. Results display that only psychosocial stress but not exercise was able to significantly increase cortisol levels but decreased cognitive state anxiety in adolescents. The psychosocial stress protocol applied here is proposed for use in future stress studies with children or adolescents in group settings, e.g., in school.

  9. Sonar sound groups and increased terminal buzz duration reflect task complexity in hunting bats.

    PubMed

    Hulgard, Katrine; Ratcliffe, John M

    2016-02-09

    More difficult tasks are generally regarded as such because they demand greater attention. Echolocators provide rare insight into this relationship because biosonar signals can be monitored. Here we show that bats produce longer terminal buzzes and more sonar sound groups during their approach to prey under presumably more difficult conditions. Specifically, we found Daubenton's bats, Myotis daubentonii, produced longer buzzes when aerial-hawking versus water-trawling prey, but that bats taking revolving air- and water-borne prey produced more sonar sound groups than did the bats when taking stationary prey. Buzz duration and sonar sound groups have been suggested to be independent means by which bats attend to would-be targets and other objects of interest. We suggest that for attacking bats both should be considered as indicators of task difficulty and that the buzz is, essentially, an extended sonar sound group.

  10. Sonar sound groups and increased terminal buzz duration reflect task complexity in hunting bats

    PubMed Central

    Hulgard, Katrine; Ratcliffe, John M.

    2016-01-01

    More difficult tasks are generally regarded as such because they demand greater attention. Echolocators provide rare insight into this relationship because biosonar signals can be monitored. Here we show that bats produce longer terminal buzzes and more sonar sound groups during their approach to prey under presumably more difficult conditions. Specifically, we found Daubenton’s bats, Myotis daubentonii, produced longer buzzes when aerial-hawking versus water-trawling prey, but that bats taking revolving air- and water-borne prey produced more sonar sound groups than did the bats when taking stationary prey. Buzz duration and sonar sound groups have been suggested to be independent means by which bats attend to would-be targets and other objects of interest. We suggest that for attacking bats both should be considered as indicators of task difficulty and that the buzz is, essentially, an extended sonar sound group. PMID:26857019

  11. A Brief Group Counseling Model To Increase Resiliency of Students with Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arman, John F.

    2002-01-01

    School counselors often provide counseling services for special education students. The author presents a model for a brief counseling group that focuses on the development of resiliency in middle school students with mild disabilities. (Contains 25 references.) (Author)

  12. Increase in Trx2/Prx3 redox system immunoreactivity in the spinal cord and hippocampus of aged dogs.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Choi, Jung Hoon; Song, Ju Min; Lee, Choong Hyun; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Jin Sang; Shin, Hyung-Cheul; Won, Moo-Ho

    2011-11-01

    We previously reported that no distinct neuronal loss occurred in the aged dog spinal cord, although oxidative stress was increased in the aged dog spinal cord. Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2)/peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx3) redox system is a major route for removing H(2)O(2) in the central nervous system. In the present study, we compared the distribution and immunoreactivity of thioredoxin reductase 2 (TrxR2), Trx2 and Prx3 and their protein levels in the spinal cord and hippocampus between the adult (2-3 years) and aged (10-12 years) dogs. The number of TrxR2-immunoreactive neurons was slightly increased; however, its immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the aged spinal cord compared to that in the adult spinal cord. On the other hand, the number and immunoreactivity of both Trx2- and Prx3-immunoreactive neurons were significantly increased in the spinal cord of the aged dog. Similarly, in the hippocampus of the aged dog, TrxR2, Trx2 and Prx3 immunoreactivity and protein levels were markedly increased compared to those in the adult dog. These results indicate that the increases of TrxR2, Trx2 and Prx3 immunoreactivity and their protein levels in the aged spinal cord and hippocampus may contribute to reducing neuronal damage against oxidative stresses during normal aging.

  13. Stuttering on function and content words across age groups of German speakers who stutter.

    PubMed

    Dworzynski, Katharina; Howell, Peter; Au-Yeung, James; Rommel, Dieter

    2004-07-01

    Recent research into stuttering in English has shown that function word disfluency decreases with age whereas content words disfluency increases. Also function words that precede a content word are significantly more likely to be stuttered than those that follow content words (Au-Yeung, Howell and Pilgrim, 1998; Howell, Au-Yeung and Sackin, 1999). These studies have used the concept of the phonological word as a means of investigating these phenomena. Phonological words help to determine the position of function words relative to content words and to establish the origin of the patterns of disfluency with respect to these two word classes. The current investigation analysed German speech for similar patterns. German contains many long compound nouns; on this basis, German content words are more complex than English ones. Thus, the patterns of disfluency within phonological words may differ between German and English. Results indicated three main findings. Function words that occupy an early position in a PW have higher rates of disfluency than those that occur later in a PW, this being most apparent for the youngest speakers. Second, function words that precede the content word in a PW have higher rates of disfluency than those that follow the content word. Third, young speakers exhibit high rates of disfluency on function words, but this drops off with age and, correspondingly, disfluency rate on content words increases. The patterns within phonological words may be general to German and English and can be accounted for by the EXPLAN model, assuming lexical class operates equivalently across these languages or that lexical categories contain some common characteristic that is associated with fluency across the languages.

  14. Stuttering on function and content words across age groups of German speakers who stutter

    PubMed Central

    DWORZYNSKI, KATHARINA; HOWELL, PETER; AU-YEUNG, JAMES; ROMMEL, DIETER

    2007-01-01

    Recent research into stuttering in English has shown that function word disfluency decreases with age whereas content words disfluency increases. Also function words that precede a content word are significantly more likely to be stuttered than those that follow content words (Au-Yeung, Howell and Pilgrim, 1998; Howell, Au-Yeung and Sackin, 1999). These studies have used the concept of the phonological word as a means of investigating these phenomena. Phonological words help to determine the position of function words relative to content words and to establish the origin of the patterns of disfluency with respect to these two word classes. The current investigation analysed German speech for similar patterns. German contains many long compound nouns; on this basis, German content words are more complex than English ones. Thus, the patterns of disfluency within phonological words may differ between German and English. Results indicated three main findings. Function words that occupy an early position in a PW have higher rates of disfluency than those that occur later in a PW, this being most apparent for the youngest speakers. Second, function words that precede the content word in a PW have higher rates of disfluency than those that follow the content word. Third, young speakers exhibit high rates of disfluency on function words, but this drops off with age and, correspondingly, disfluency rate on content words increases. The patterns within phonological words may be general to German and English and can be accounted for by the EXPLAN model, assuming lexical class operates equivalently across these languages or that lexical categories contain some common characteristic that is associated with fluency across the languages. PMID:18270544

  15. Patients' preferences for video cassette recorded information: effect of age, sex and ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Deary, A; Kaminski, E; Stockton, D; De Zueew, N

    1999-06-01

    The emotional turmoil patients endure following a diagnosis of cancer can impair their ability to retain complex treatment-related information. Manoeuvres which increase the intensity of information have been shown to increase the amount retained. Providing details of treatment in a video format is one method of intensifying information provision, but the attitudes of patients to this format have not previously been evaluated. In this pilot study, the attitudes of 300 patients to video directed information were evaluated via questionnaires, of which 210 (70%) were returned. Eighty-nine per cent had easy access to a video cassette player. A highly significant number felt that the video would be very helpful or helpful (78%) compared to not helpful, worrying or equivocal 21% (P < 0.0001). This trend was particularly strong in patients < 60 years (83% versus 17%) (P < 0.0001) and those from ethnic groups (95% versus 5%) (P < 0.0001). As a result of this trial, a 20-min film (HEP) has been commissioned. It describes details of the two main treatments for cancer after surgery, namely chemotherapy and radiotherapy, shows patients actually having treatment, and explains the common side-effects and ways to alleviate them. Patients satisfaction with the film and its effect on anxiety and depression are currently being evaluated in an international prospective randomized trial. If it proves advantageous for patients--in view of the ethnic group bias in this study--it will be translated into the ethnic languages of the UK.

  16. Will increasing alcohol availability by lowering the minimum legal drinking age decrease drinking and related consequences among youths?

    PubMed

    Wechsler, Henry; Nelson, Toben F

    2010-06-01

    Alcohol use health consequences are considerable; prevention efforts are needed, particularly for adolescents and college students. The national minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is a primary alcohol-control policy in the United States. An advocacy group supported by some college presidents seeks public debate on the minimum legal drinking age and proposes reducing it to 18 years. We reviewed recent trends in drinking and related consequences, evidence on effectiveness of the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years, research on drinking among college students related to the minimum legal drinking age, and the case to lower the minimum legal drinking age. Evidence supporting the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is strong and growing. A wide range of empirically supported interventions is available to reduce underage drinking. Public health professionals can play a role in advocating these interventions.

  17. Prevalence and Distribution of Abdominal Aortic Calcium by Sex and Age-Group in a Community-based Cohort (From The Framingham Heart Study)

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Michael L.; Massaro, Joseph M.; Levitzky, Yamini S.; Fox, Caroline S.; Manders, Emily S.; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) is associated with incident cardiovascular disease but the age and sex-related distribution of AAC in a community-dwelling population free of standard cardiovascular disease risk factors has not been described. A total of 3285 participants (aged 50.2±9.9 years) in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts underwent abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanning during 1998-2005. The presence and amount of AAC was quantified (Agatston score) by an experienced reader using standardized criteria. A healthy referent subsample (N=1656, 803 men) free of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity and smoking was identified, and participants were stratified by sex and age group (<45, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, ≥75 years). The prevalence and burden of AAC increased monotonically and supralinearly with age in both sexes but was greater in men than women in each age group. Below age 45 <16% of referent-subsample participants had any quantifiable AAC, while above age 65 nearly 90% of referent participants had >0 AAC. Across the entire study sample, AAC prevalence and burden similarly increased with greater age. Defining the 90th percentile of referent group AAC as “high,” the prevalence of high AAC was 19% for each sex in the overall study sample. AAC also increased across categories of 10-year coronary heart disease risk, as calculated using the Framingham Risk Score, in the entire study sample. We found AAC to be widely prevalent, with the burden of AAC associated with 10-year coronary risk, in a white, free-living adult cohort. PMID:22727181

  18. Diminished acute phase response and increased hepatic inflammation of aged rats in response to intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Christian R; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Pérez, Claudio; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Riquelme, Denise M; Ordenes, Gamaliel; Oshima, Kiyoko; Aravena, Mauricio; Pérez, Viviana I; Nishimura, Sumiyo; Sabaj, Valeria; Walter, Robin; Sierra, Felipe

    2008-12-01

    Aging is associated with a deterioration of the acute phase response to inflammatory challenges. However, the nature of these defects remains poorly defined. We analyzed the hepatic inflammatory response after intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) given to Fisher 344 rats aged 6, 15, and 22-23 months. Induction of the acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, and T-kininogen was reduced and/or retarded with aging. Initial induction of interleukin-6 in aged rats was normal, but the later response was increased relative to younger counterparts. An exacerbated hepatic injury was observed in aged rats receiving LPS, as evidenced by the presence of multiple microabscesses in portal tracts, confluent necrosis, higher neutrophil accumulation, and elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, relative to younger animals. Our results suggest that aged rats displayed a reduced expression of APPs and increased hepatic injury in response to the inflammatory insult.

  19. Labor force participation and human capital increases in an aging population and implications for U.S. research investment.

    PubMed

    Manton, Kenneth G; Lowrimore, Gene R; Ullian, Arthur D; Gu, Xiliang; Tolley, H Dennis

    2007-06-26

    The proportion of the United States labor force >/=65 years of age is projected to increase between 2004 and 2014 by the passing of age 65 of the large post-World War II baby boom cohorts starting in 2010 and their greater longevity, income, education, and health [Toossi M (2005) Mon Labor Rev 128(11):25-44]. The aging of the U.S. labor force will continue to at least 2034, when the largest of the baby boom cohorts reaches age 70. Thus, the average health and functional capacity of persons age 65+ must improve for sufficient numbers of elderly persons to be physically and cognitively capable of work. This will require greater investments in research, public health, and health care. We examine how disability declines and improved health may increase human capital at later ages and stimulate the growth of gross domestic product and national wealth.

  20. Labor force participation and human capital increases in an aging population and implications for U.S. research investment

    PubMed Central

    Manton, Kenneth G.; Lowrimore, Gene R.; Ullian, Arthur D.; Gu, XiLiang; Tolley, H. Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The proportion of the United States labor force ≥65 years of age is projected to increase between 2004 and 2014 by the passing of age 65 of the large post-World War II baby boom cohorts starting in 2010 and their greater longevity, income, education, and health [Toossi M (2005) Mon Labor Rev 128(11):25–44]. The aging of the U.S. labor force will continue to at least 2034, when the largest of the baby boom cohorts reaches age 70. Thus, the average health and functional capacity of persons age 65+ must improve for sufficient numbers of elderly persons to be physically and cognitively capable of work. This will require greater investments in research, public health, and health care. We examine how disability declines and improved health may increase human capital at later ages and stimulate the growth of gross domestic product and national wealth. PMID:17573526

  1. Increased reservoir ages and poorly ventilated deep waters inferred in the glacial Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Maria; Skinner, Luke; Calvo, Eva; Pelejero, Carles; Cacho, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Consistent evidence for a poorly ventilated deep Pacific Ocean that could have released its radiocarbon-depleted carbon stock to the atmosphere during the last deglaciation has long been sought. Such evidence remains lacking, in part due to a paucity of surface reservoir age reconstructions required for accurate deep-ocean ventilation age estimates. Here we combine new radiocarbon data from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) with chronostratigraphic calendar age constraints to estimate shallow sub-surface reservoir age variability, and thus provide estimates of deep-ocean ventilation ages. Both shallow- and deep-water ventilation ages drop across the last deglaciation, consistent with similar reconstructions from the South Pacific and Southern Ocean. The observed regional fingerprint linking the Southern Ocean and the EEP is consistent with a dominant southern source for EEP thermocline waters and suggests relatively invariant ocean interior transport pathways but significantly reduced air–sea gas exchange in the glacial southern high latitudes. PMID:26137976

  2. INCREASING SAVING BEHAVIOR THROUGH AGE-PROGRESSED RENDERINGS OF THE FUTURE SELF

    PubMed Central

    HERSHFIELD, HAL E.; GOLDSTEIN, DANIEL G.; SHARPE, WILLIAM F.; FOX, JESSE; YEYKELIS, LEO; CARSTENSEN, LAURA L.; BAILENSON, JEREMY N.

    2014-01-01

    Many people fail to save what they need to for retirement (Munnell, Webb, and Golub-Sass 2009). Research on excessive discounting of the future suggests that removing the lure of immediate rewards by pre-committing to decisions, or elaborating the value of future rewards can both make decisions more future-oriented. In this article, we explore a third and complementary route, one that deals not with present and future rewards, but with present and future selves. In line with thinkers who have suggested that people may fail, through a lack of belief or imagination, to identify with their future selves (Parfit 1971; Schelling 1984), we propose that allowing people to interact with age-progressed renderings of themselves will cause them to allocate more resources toward the future. In four studies, participants interacted with realistic computer renderings of their future selves using immersive virtual reality hardware and interactive decision aids. In all cases, those who interacted with virtual future selves exhibited an increased tendency to accept later monetary rewards over immediate ones. PMID:24634544

  3. INCREASING SAVING BEHAVIOR THROUGH AGE-PROGRESSED RENDERINGS OF THE FUTURE SELF.

    PubMed

    Hershfield, Hal E; Goldstein, Daniel G; Sharpe, William F; Fox, Jesse; Yeykelis, Leo; Carstensen, Laura L; Bailenson, Jeremy N

    2011-11-01

    Many people fail to save what they need to for retirement (Munnell, Webb, and Golub-Sass 2009). Research on excessive discounting of the future suggests that removing the lure of immediate rewards by pre-committing to decisions, or elaborating the value of future rewards can both make decisions more future-oriented. In this article, we explore a third and complementary route, one that deals not with present and future rewards, but with present and future selves. In line with thinkers who have suggested that people may fail, through a lack of belief or imagination, to identify with their future selves (Parfit 1971; Schelling 1984), we propose that allowing people to interact with age-progressed renderings of themselves will cause them to allocate more resources toward the future. In four studies, participants interacted with realistic computer renderings of their future selves using immersive virtual reality hardware and interactive decision aids. In all cases, those who interacted with virtual future selves exhibited an increased tendency to accept later monetary rewards over immediate ones.

  4. Aging of whiskey increases the potentiation of GABA(A) receptor response.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hirofumi; Hossain, Sheikh Julfikar; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Aoshima, Hitoshi

    2003-08-27

    It is known that the target of most mood-defining compounds such as ethanol is an ionotropic gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA(A) receptor). The potentiation of the response of these inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors induces anxiolytic, sedative, and anesthetic activities in the human brain. Because both extracts of whiskey by pentane and fragrant components in whiskey potentiate the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response, GABA(A) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocyte by injecting cRNAs prepared from the cloned cDNA for the alpha(1) and beta(1) subunits of the bovine receptors in order to study the effects of whiskey itself on the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response. Whiskey itself also potentiated the electrical responses of GABA(A) receptors generally more than ethanol at the same concentration as that of the whiskey. The potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response increased with the aging period of the whiskey. Inhalation of whiskey to mice increased the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital more than that of the same concentration of ethanol as the whiskey. These results suggest that not only ethanol but also minor components in whiskey play an important role in the potentiation of GABA(A) receptor-mediated response and possibly the sedative effect of whiskey. Although the minor components are present in extremely small quantities compared with ethanol in alcoholic beverages, they may modulate the mood or consciousness of humans through the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor response after absorption into the brain, because these hydrophobic compounds are easily absorbed into the brain across the blood-brain barrier and are several thousands times as potent as ethanol in the potentiation of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response.

  5. Median infectious dose of human norovirus GII.4 in gnotobiotic pigs is decreased by simvastatin treatment and increased by age

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Tammy; Kocher, Jacob; Li, Yanru; Wen, Ke; Li, Guohua; Liu, Fangning; Yang, Xingdong; LeRoith, Tanya; Tan, Ming; Xia, Ming; Zhong, Weiming; Jiang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Human noroviruses (NoVs), a major cause of viral gastroenteritis, are difficult to study due to the lack of a cell-culture and a small-animal model. Pigs share with humans the types A and H histo-blood group antigens on the intestinal epithelium and have been suggested as a potential model for studies of NoV pathogenesis, immunity and vaccines. In this study, the effects of age and a cholesterol-lowering drug, simvastatin, on the susceptibility of pigs to NoV infection were evaluated. The median infectious dose (ID50) of a genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII.4) 2006b variant was determined. The ID50 in neonatal (4–5 days of age) pigs was ≤2.74×103 viral RNA copies. In older pigs (33–34 days of age), the ID50 was 6.43×104 but decreased to <2.74×103 in simvastatin-fed older pigs. Evidence of NoV infection was obtained by increased virus load in the intestinal contents, cytopathological changes in the small intestine, including irregular microvilli, necrosis and apoptosis, and detection of viral antigen in the tip of villi in duodenum. This GII.4 variant was isolated in 2008 from a patient from whom a large volume of stool was collected. GII.4 NoVs are continuously subjected to selective pressure by human immunity, and antigenically different GII.4 NoV variants emerge every 1–2 years. The determination of the ID50 of this challenge virus is valuable for evaluation of protection against different GII.4 variants conferred by NoV vaccines in concurrence with other GII.4 variants in the gnotobiotic pig model. PMID:23804568

  6. The effect of obesity and increasing age on operative time and length of stay in primary hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Ben M; Griffiths, Shelly N; Stewart, Kyle J; Higgins, Gordon A; Hockings, Michael; Isaac, David L

    2014-10-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 589 patients undergoing lower-limb arthroplasty, recording age, body mass index (BMI) and co-morbidities. The effect of these on operative duration and length of stay (LOS) was analysed. For a 1 point increase in BMI we expect LOS to increase by a factor of 2.9% and mean theatre time to increase by 1.46minutes. For a 1-year increase in age, we expect LOS to increase by a factor of 1.2%. We have calculated the extra financial costs associated. The current reimbursement system underestimates the financial impact of BMI and age. The results have been used to produce a chart that allows prediction of LOS following lower limb arthroplasty based on BMI and age. These data are of use in planning operating lists.

  7. The Effect of Reminiscence Group Work on Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem and Mood of Ageing People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Puyenbroeck, Joris; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the effects of reminiscence group work on the subjective well-being of ageing people with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The content of the successive group work sessions was manipulated as follows: a control-phase with three "current topics" sessions, an experimental phase with six "reminiscence" sessions and…

  8. Does whom you work with matter? Effects of referent group gender and age composition on managers' compensation.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, Cheri; Atwater, Leanne E

    2003-08-01

    Much research has examined gender and age effects on compensation, concluding that a wage gap exists favoring men and negative stereotypes against older workers persist. Although the effect of an employee's gender or age has been widely studied, little work has examined the impact of the demographic characteristics of a focal employee's immediate referent groups (e.g., subordinates, peers, or supervisors) on pay. The effect of the gender and age composition of a focal manager's subordinates, peers, and supervisor on the manager's compensation levels was investigated in a sample of 2,178 managers across a wide range of organizations and functional areas. After controlling for a number of human capital variables, results indicated that not only does a wage gap favoring men exist, but also managerial pay is lower when managers' referent groups are largely female, when subordinates are outside the prime age group, and when peers and supervisors are younger.

  9. Age-related deficits in selective attention during encoding increase demands on episodic reconstruction during context retrieval: An ERP study

    PubMed Central

    James, Taylor; Strunk, Jonathan; Arndt, Jason; Duarte, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) and neuroimaging evidence suggests that directing attention toward single item-context associations compared to intra-item features at encoding improves context memory performance and reduces demands on strategic retrieval operations in young and older adults. In everyday situations, however, there are multiple event features competing for our attention. It is not currently known how selectively attending to one contextual feature while attempting to ignore another influences context memory performance and the processes that support successful retrieval in the young and old. We investigated this issue in the current ERP study. Young and older participants studied pictures of objects in the presence of two contextual features: a color and a scene, and their attention was directed to the object’s relationship with one of those contexts. Participants made context memory decisions for both attended and unattended contexts and rated their confidence in those decisions. Behavioral results showed that while both groups were generally successful in applying selective attention during context encoding, older adults were less confident in their context memory decisions for attended features and showed greater dependence in context memory accuracy for attended and unattended contextual features (i.e., hyper-binding). ERP results were largely consistent between age groups but older adults showed a more pronounced late posterior negativity (LPN) implicated in episodic reconstruction processes. We conclude that age-related suppression deficits during encoding result in reduced selectivity in context memory, thereby increasing subsequent demands on episodic reconstruction processes when sought after details are not readily retrieved. PMID:27094851

  10. Using Group Projects as a Strategy to Increase Cooperation among Low- and High-Achieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanh Pham, Thi Hong

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the perceptions, interactions and behaviours of different-ability college students when they worked on different types of assessments. Two classes of 145 Vietnamese college students participated in this three-month study. The students were assigned to mixed-ability groups, each of which consisted of five students.…

  11. Increasing the Degrees of Freedom in Future Group Randomized Trials: The "df*" Method Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, David M.; Blitstein, Jonathan L.; Hannan, Peter J.; Shadish, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This article revisits an article published in Evaluation Review in 2005 on sample size estimation and power analysis for group-randomized trials. With help from a careful reader, we learned of an important error in the spreadsheet used to perform the calculations and generate the results presented in that article. As we studied the…

  12. 14 Week Group Counselling Proposal for Increasing Self-Esteem in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Katherine; Mills, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    This psychoeducational counselling group is designed to explore the many facets of the emerging female adolescent identity and foster a high level of self-esteem. According to Powell (2004) adolescence is a time, and even more so for females, which can be marked by many identity conflicts and low levels of self-esteem. As such, this 14 week…

  13. The Science Advancement through Group Engagement Program: Leveling the Playing Field and Increasing Retention in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Donna M.; Curtin-Soydan, Amanda J.; Canelas, Dorian A.

    2014-01-01

    How can colleges and universities keep an open gateway to the science disciplines for the least experienced first-year science students while also maintaining high standards that challenge the students with the strongest possible high school backgrounds? The Science Advancement through Group Engagement (SAGE) project targets cohorts of less…

  14. Supervision of Group Work: A Model to Increase Supervisee Cognitive Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granello, Darcy Haag; Underfer-Babalis, Jean

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a model for supervisors of group counselors to use to promote cognitive complexity in their supervisees. Counselor cognitive complexity has been linked to many positive counseling skills, including greater flexibility, empathy, confidence, and client conceptualization. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives provides a…

  15. Strategic priorities for increasing physical activity among adults age 50 and older: the national blueprint consensus conference summary report.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2003-12-01

    On May 1, 2001, a coalition of national organizations released a major planning document designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was developed with input from 46 organizations with expertise in health, medicine, social and behavioral sciences, epidemiology, gerontology/geriatrics, clinical science, public policy, marketing, medical systems, community organization, and environmental issues. The Blueprint notes that, despite a wealth of evidence about the benefits of physical activity for mid-life and older persons, there has been little success in convincing age 50+ Americans to adopt physically active lifestyles. The Blueprint identifies barriers in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical systems, public policy and advocacy, and marketing and communications. In addition to identifying barriers, the Blueprint proposes a number of concrete strategies that could be employed in order to overcome the barriers to physical activity in society at large. This report summarizes the outcome of the National Blueprint Consensus Conference that was held in October 2002. In this conference, representatives of more than 50 national organizations convened in Washington, D.C. with the goal of identifying high priority and high feasibility strategies which would advance the National Blueprint and which could be initiated within the next 12 to 24 months. Participants in the consensus conference were assigned to one of five breakout groups: home and community, marketing, medical systems, public policy, and research. Each breakout group was charged with identifying the three highest priority strategies within their area for effectively increasing physical activity levels in the mid-life and older adult population. In addition to the 15 strategies identified by the breakout groups, three

  16. Old age at diagnosis increases risk of tumor progression in nasopharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Yao-Xuan; Chen, Xiao-Di; Zhang, Guo-Ye; Li, Zhi-Kun; Hong, Jing; Xie, Dan; Cai, Mu-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Age at diagnosis has been found to be a prognostic factor of outcomes in various cancers. However, the effect of age at diagnosis on nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) progression has not been explored. We retrospectively evaluated the relationship between age and disease progression in 3,153 NPC patients who underwent radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or chemoradiotherapy between 2007 and 2009. Patients were randomly assigned to either a testing cohort or a validation cohort by computer-generated random assignment. X-tile plots determined the optimal cut-point of age based on survival status to be ≤61 vs. >61 years. Further correlation analysis showed that age >61 years was significantly correlated with the tumor progression and therapeutic regimen in both testing and validation cohorts (P <0.05). In the present study, we observed that older age (>61 years) was a strong and independent predictor of poor disease-free survival (DFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS), in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Age was also found to be a significant prognostic predictor as well (P <0.05) when evaluating patients with the same disease stage. ROC analysis confirmed the predictive value of age on NPC-specific survival in both cohorts (P <0.001) and suggested that age may improve the ability to discriminate outcomes in NPCs, especially regarding tumor progression. In conclusion, our study suggests that older age at NPC diagnosis is associated with a higher incidence of tumor progression and cancer-specific mortality. Age is a strong and independent predictor of poor outcomes and may allow for more tailored therapeutic decision-making and individualized patient counseling. PMID:27463012

  17. Lipid domains in intact fiber-cell plasma membranes isolated from cortical and nuclear regions of human eye lenses of donors from different age groups.

    PubMed

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2015-03-01

    The results reported here clearly document changes in the properties and the organization of fiber-cell membrane lipids that occur with age, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of lens membranes of clear lenses from donors of age groups from 0 to 20, 21 to 40, and 61 to 80 years. The physical properties, including profiles of the alkyl chain order, fluidity, hydrophobicity, and oxygen transport parameter, were investigated using EPR spin-labeling methods, which also provide an opportunity to discriminate coexisting lipid domains and to evaluate the relative amounts of lipids in these domains. Fiber-cell membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments: bulk lipid domain, which appears minimally affected by membrane proteins, and two domains that appear due to the presence of membrane proteins, namely boundary and trapped lipid domains. In nuclear membranes the amount of boundary and trapped phospholipids as well as the amount of cholesterol in trapped lipid domains increased with the donors' age and was greater than that in cortical membranes. The difference between the amounts of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins in nuclear and cortical membranes increased with the donors' age. It was also shown that cholesterol was to a large degree excluded from trapped lipid domains in cortical membranes. It is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes was greater than that of cortical membranes for all age groups. The amount of lipids in domains of low oxygen permeability, mainly in trapped lipid domains, were greater in nuclear than cortical membranes and increased with the age of donors. These results indicate that the nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes were less permeable to oxygen than cortical membranes and become less permeable to oxygen with age. In clear lenses, age-related changes in the lens lipid and protein composition and organization appear to occur in ways that increase fiber

  18. Lipid Domains in Intact Fiber-Cell Plasma Membranes Isolated from Cortical and Nuclear Regions of Human Eye Lenses of Donors from Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O’Brien, William J.; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2015-01-01

    The results reported here clearly document changes in the properties and the organization of fiber-cell membrane lipids that occur with age, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of lens membranes of clear lenses from donors of age groups from 0 to 20, 21 to 40, and 61 to 80 years. The physical properties, including profiles of the alkyl chain order, fluidity, hydrophobicity, and oxygen transport parameter, were investigated using EPR spin-labeling methods, which also provide an opportunity to discriminate coexisting lipid domains and to evaluate the relative amounts of lipids in these domains. Fiber-cell membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments: bulk lipid domain, which appears minimally affected by membrane proteins, and two domains that appear due to the presence of membrane proteins, namely boundary and trapped lipid domains. In nuclear membranes the amount of boundary and trapped phospholipids as well as the amount of cholesterol in trapped lipid domains increased with the donors’ age and was greater than that in cortical membranes. The difference between the amounts of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins in nuclear and cortical membranes increased with the donors’ age. It was also shown that cholesterol was to a large degree excluded from trapped lipid domains in cortical membranes. It is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes was greater than that of cortical membranes for all age groups. The amount of lipids in domains of low oxygen permeability, mainly in trapped lipid domains, were greater in nuclear than cortical membranes and increased with the age of donors. These results indicate that the nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes were less permeable to oxygen than cortical membranes and become less permeable to oxygen with age. In clear lenses, age-related changes in the lens lipid and protein composition and organization appear to occur in ways that increase fiber

  19. The Effects of Two Self-Regulation Interventions to Increase Self-Efficacy and Group Exercise Behavior in Fitness Clubs

    PubMed Central

    Middelkamp, Jan; van Rooijen, Maaike; Wolfhagen, Peter; Steenbergen, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited and randomly assigned to one control and two experimental groups. The control group was limited to participate in one virtual group exercise program only (group 1). The first experimental group was able to self-set their activities and participate in multiple group exercise programs (group 2). The second experimental group received an additional monthly coaching protocol to manage self-set goals (group 3). A validated scale for barrier self-efficacy was used, group exercise sessions were measured and drop-out rates were registered. An ANOVA indicated that mean amount of sessions of group 1 and 3, and 2 and 3 differed significantly (p < 0.05) in 12 weeks. Descriptive statistics demonstrate mean group exercise sessions over the total of 12 weeks of 2.74 (SD 4.65) in the control group; 4.75 (SD 6.08) in the first experimental group, and 12.25 (SD 9.07) for the second experimental group. Regression analysis indicated that self-efficacy at 8-weeks explained the highest variance in overall group exercise sessions (R2 = 0.18; p < 0.05). Overall drop-out rates were 88% in group 1, 78% in group 2 and 48% in group 3. The results showed that group exercise behavior can significantly be improved by a coaching protocol on self-set goals. Future research should address the effectiveness of self-set activities and self-set goals for a longer period of time and in other types of exercise programs. Key points Approximately 144 million individuals exercise in fitness clubs worldwide. About 50% participate in at least one group exercise program and 23% participate only in group exercise classes with instructor. Research on attendance and exercise behavior in fitness clubs is limited but

  20. The Effects of Two Self-Regulation Interventions to Increase Self-Efficacy and Group Exercise Behavior in Fitness Clubs.

    PubMed

    Middelkamp, Jan; van Rooijen, Maaike; Wolfhagen, Peter; Steenbergen, Bert

    2016-06-01

    Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited and randomly assigned to one control and two experimental groups. The control group was limited to participate in one virtual group exercise program only (group 1). The first experimental group was able to self-set their activities and participate in multiple group exercise programs (group 2). The second experimental group received an additional monthly coaching protocol to manage self-set goals (group 3). A validated scale for barrier self-efficacy was used, group exercise sessions were measured and drop-out rates were registered. An ANOVA indicated that mean amount of sessions of group 1 and 3, and 2 and 3 differed significantly (p < 0.05) in 12 weeks. Descriptive statistics demonstrate mean group exercise sessions over the total of 12 weeks of 2.74 (SD 4.65) in the control group; 4.75 (SD 6.08) in the first experimental group, and 12.25 (SD 9.07) for the second experimental group. Regression analysis indicated that self-efficacy at 8-weeks explained the highest variance in overall group exercise sessions (R(2) = 0.18; p < 0.05). Overall drop-out rates were 88% in group 1, 78% in group 2 and 48% in group 3. The results showed that group exercise behavior can significantly be improved by a coaching protocol on self-set goals. Future research should address the effectiveness of self-set activities and self-set goals for a longer period of time and in other types of exercise programs. Key pointsApproximately 144 million individuals exercise in fitness clubs worldwide.About 50% participate in at least one group exercise program and 23% participate only in group exercise classes with instructor.Research on attendance and exercise behavior in fitness clubs is limited but

  1. Meta-analysis of Gene Expression in the Mouse Liver Reveals Biomarkers Associated with Inflammation Increased Early During Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aging is associated with a predictable loss of cellular homeostasis, a decline in physiological function and an increase in various diseases. We hypothesized that similar age-related gene expression profiles would be observed in mice across independent studies. Employing a metaan...

  2. Serotonin Mediates a Learned Increase in Attraction to High Concentrations of Benzaldehyde in Aged "C. elegans"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, David; van der Kooy, Derek

    2008-01-01

    We utilized olfactory-mediated chemotaxis in "Caenorhabditis elegans" to examine the effect of aging on information processing and animal behavior. Wild-type (N2) young adults (day 4) initially approach and eventually avoid a point source of benzaldehyde. Aged adult animals (day 7) showed a stronger initial approach and a delayed avoidance to…

  3. Exercise-Mediated Increase in Nigral Tyrosine Hydroxylase Is Accompanied by Increased Nigral GFR-α1 and EAAC1 Expression in Aging Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Jennifer C.; Salvatore, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise may alleviate locomotor impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) or aging. Identifying molecular responses immediately engaged by exercise in the nigrostriatal pathway and allied tissue may reveal critical targets associated with its long-term benefits. In aging, there is loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) receptor, GFR-α1, in the substantia nigra (SN). Exercise can increase GDNF expression, but its effect on GFR-α1 expression is unknown. Infusion of GDNF into striatum or GFR-α1 in SN, respectively, can increase locomotor activity and TH function in SN but not striatum in aged rats. GDNF may also increase glutamate transporter expression, which attenuates TH loss in PD models. We utilized a footshock-free treadmill exercise regimen to determine the immediate impact of short-term exercise on GFR-α1 expression, dopamine regulation, glutamate transporter expression, and glutamate uptake in 18 month old male Brown-Norway/Fischer 344 F1 hybrid rats. GFR-α1 and TH expression significantly increased in SN but not striatum. This exercise regimen did not affect glutamate uptake or glutamate transporter expression in striatum. However, EAAC1 expression increased in SN. These results indicate that nigral GFR-α1 and EAAC1 expression increased in conjunction with increased nigral TH expression following short-term exercise. PMID:26599339

  4. Impact of extreme temperatures on daily mortality in Madrid (Spain) among the 45-64 age-group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio

    2006-07-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between extreme temperatures and mortality among persons aged 45-64 years. Daily mortality in Madrid was analysed by sex and cause, from January 1986 to December 1997. Quantitative analyses were performed using generalised additive models, with other covariables, such as influenza, air pollution and seasonality, included as controls. Our results showed that impact on mortality was limited for temperatures ranging from the 5th to the 95th percentiles, and increased sharply thereafter. During the summer period, the effect of heat was detected solely among males in the target age group, with an attributable risk (AR) of 13.3% for circulatory causes. Similarly, NO2 concentrations registered the main statistically significant associations in females, with an AR of 15% when circulatory causes were considered. During winter, the impact of cold was exclusively observed among females having an AR of 7.7%. The magnitude of the AR indicates that the impact of extreme temperature is by no means negligible.

  5. Accuracy of Cameriere, Haavikko, and Willems radiographic methods on age estimation on Bosnian-Herzegovian children age groups 6-13.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Cameriere, Roberto; Nakaš, Enita; Galić, Elizabeta; Selimović, Edin; Brkić, Hrvoje

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the accuracy of the Cameriere European formula (Cameriere), adopted Haavikko method from 1974 (Haavikko), and revisited Demirjian method by Willems (Willems) for age estimation on orthopantomograms (OPGs) of Bosnian-Herzegovian (BH) children age groups 6-13 years. The accuracy was determined as difference between estimated dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA) and the absolute accuracy (absolute difference) was assessed by analyzing OPGs of 591 girls and 498 boys. The Cameriere method overestimated the mean age by 0.09 year for girls and underestimated by -0.02 year for boys. The Haavikko method underestimated the mean age by -0.29 year for girls and -0.09 year for boys. The Willems method overestimated the mean age by 0.24 year in girls and by 0.42 year in boys. The absolute accuracies were 0.53 year for girls and 0.55 year for boys for Cameriere method; for Haavikko method, 0.59 year for girls and 0.62 year for boys; and for Willems method 0.69 year for girls and 0.67 year for boys. In conclusion, Cameriere method is the most accurate for estimating the age of BH children age groups 6-13 years using OPGs, following adopted Haavikko method and Willems method.

  6. Behavioral decay in aging male C. elegans correlates with increased cell excitability

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoyan; Navetta, Andrew; Gualberto, Daisy G.; García, L. René

    2012-01-01

    Deteriorative changes in behavioral functions are natural processes that accompany aging. In advanced aged C. elegans nematodes, gross decline in general behaviors, such as locomotion and feeding, is correlated with degeneration of muscle structure and contractile function. In this study, we characterized the age-related changes in C. elegans male mating behavior to determine possible causes that ultimately lead to age-related muscle frailty. Unlike the kinetics of general behavioral decline, we found that mating behavior deteriorates early in adulthood, with no obvious muscle fiber disorganization or sperm dysfunction. Through direct mating behavior observations, Ca2+ imaging and pharmacological tests, we found that the muscular components used for mating become more excitable as the males age. Interestingly, manipulating either the expression of AChR genes or dietary-mediated ether-a-go-go family K+ channel function can reduce the muscle excitability of older males and concurrently improve mating behavior, suggesting a correlation between these biological processes. PMID:22285759

  7. Increasing the Use of Group Interventions in a Pediatric Rehabilitation Program: Perceptions of Administrators, Therapists, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camden, Chantal; Tetreault, Sylvie; Swaine, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore perceptions related to increased utilization of group interventions as a part of the service reorganization within a pediatric rehabilitation program. Methods: Individual interviews with program administrators (n = 13) and focus groups with therapists (n = 19) and parents of children with disabilities (n = 5) were conducted.…

  8. Increased Age-Dependent Risk of Death Associated With lukF-PV-Positive Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Trine A.; Skov, Robert; Petersen, Andreas; Larsen, Anders R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Panton-Valentine leucocidin is a Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor encoded by lukF-PV and lukS-PV that is infrequent in S aureus bacteremia (SAB), and, therefore, little is known about risk factors and outcome of lukF-PV/lukS-PV-positive SAB. Methods. This report is a register-based nationwide observational cohort study. lukF-PV was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Factors associated with the presence of lukF-PV were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Adjusted 30-day hazard ratios of mortality associated with lukF-PV status were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results. Of 9490 SAB cases, 129 were lukF-PV-positive (1.4%), representing 14 different clonal complexes. lukF-PV was associated with younger age, absence of comorbidity, and methicillin-resistant S aureus. In unadjusted analysis, mortality associated with lukF-PV-positive SAB was comparable to SAB. However, lukF-PV-positive SAB nonsurvivors were significantly older and had more comorbidity. Consequently, by adjusted analysis, the risk of 30-day mortality was increased by 70% for lukF-PV-positive SAB compared with SAB (hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.20–2.42; P = .003). Conclusions. lukF-PV-positive SAB is rare in Denmark but associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality. Although the risk of lukF-PV-positive SAB was highest in the younger age groups, >80% of deaths associated with lukF-PV-positive SAB occurred in individuals older than 55 years. PMID:27957504

  9. [Are loss of glistening of normal colour and increased friability normal aspects of the oesophagus in old age? (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Leu, H; Schüle, A; Brändli, H; Pelloni, S; Blum, L

    1978-07-01

    Friability of the esophageal mucosq increases with old age. Old patients without esophageal disease also show loss of glistening and of the normal pink color of the mucosa. These findings on their own are therefore no signs of esophagitis,

  10. A survey of the causes of sudden cardiac death in the under 35-year-age group.

    PubMed

    Quigley, F; Greene, M; O'Connor, D; Kelly, F

    2005-09-01

    CRY (Cardiac Risk in the Young) is a registered Irish charity established by parents who are bereaved as a result of sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study is to establish the incidence and causes of sudden cardiac death in Dublin city in the 10-year period from 1st January 1993 to 31st December 2002. All sudden cardiac deaths in the under 35-year age group which were reported to the city coroner in the study period were examined. Details regarding age, sex, previous symptoms, investigations, circumstances of death and main pathological finding were recorded in each case. A total of 72 cases of sudden cardiac death in the under-35 year age group were reported. 52 were men. The median age was 26.5 years (range 12-34 years). The cause of death in 20 cases was reported as atherosclerotic Coronary Artery Disease. The second commonest cause of death (24% cases) was Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy was the commonest cause of death under the age of 25 years. Overall atherosclerotic coronary artery disease was the commonest cause of death in this group. The importance of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is highlighted by the fact it was the commonest cause of death in the under 25-year age group. Screening those at high risk of sudden cardiac death especially the relatives of those affected by Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy need to be discussed and implemented.

  11. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Increased Blood Pressure in School-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Barr, Dana; Bellinger, David C.; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. Objectives In northern Ecuador, where floriculture is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children’s neurobehavioral functions at 6–8 years of age. Methods We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children’s current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. Results Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed to pesticides during pregnancy via maternal occupational exposure, and 23 had indirect exposure from paternal work. Twenty-two children had detectable current exposure irrespective of their prenatal exposure status. Only children with prenatal exposure from maternal greenhouse work showed consistent deficits after covariate adjustment, which included stunting and socioeconomic variables. Exposure-related deficits were the strongest for motor speed (Finger Tapping Task), motor coordination (Santa Ana Form Board), visuospatial performance (Stanford-Binet Copying Test), and visual memory (Stanford-Binet Copying Recall Test). These associations corresponded to a developmental delay of 1.5–2 years. Prenatal pesticide exposure was also significantly associated with an average increase of 3.6 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in body mass index of 1.1 kg/m2. Inclusion of the pilot data strengthened these results. Conclusions These findings support the notion that prenatal exposure to pesticides—at levels not producing adverse health outcomes in the mother

  12. Rapid increase in human life expectancy: will it soon be limited by the aging of elastin?

    PubMed

    Robert, L; Robert, A M; Fülöp, T

    2008-04-01

    The postponement of the most frequent age-related diseases stimulated speculations of the possibility of "dying of old age". The selective decline of individual physiological functions-aging in spare-parts-indicates however the potential limitation of the life-span by the rapid decline of some of the vital parameters. We explored a possibility of such a limitation of maximal life-span by the age-related alteration of elastin, consisting in Ca-accumulation, lipid deposition and elastolytic degradation. The quantitative evaluation of these processes suggests an approximative upper limit for the elastic properties of the cardio-respiratory system of about 100-120 years, at least, as far as elastin is involved. This process, age-related alterations of elastic fibers, is however not the only one limiting the functional value of the cardiovascular system. Crosslinking of collagen fibers by advanced glycation end-products certainly contributes also to the age-dependent rigidification of the cardiovascular system. Therefore the answer to the initial question, can age-dependent alterations of a single matrix macromolecule be limiting such vital functions as the cardio-respiratory system-is a cautious yes, with however the caveat that other, independent mechanisms, such as the Maillard reaction, can also interfere with and limit further the functional value of such vital physiological functions.

  13. Tethering telomerase to telomeres increases genome instability and promotes chronological aging in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; He, Ming-Hong; Peng, Jing; Duan, Yi-Min; Lu, Yi-Si; Wu, Zhenfang; Gong, Ting; Li, Hong-Tao; Zhou, Jin-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Chronological aging of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is attributed to multi-faceted traits especially those involving genome instability, and has been considered to be an aging model for post-mitotic cells in higher organisms. Telomeres are the physical ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, and are essential for genome integrity and stability. It remains elusive whether dysregulated telomerase activity affects chronological aging. We employed the CDC13-EST2 fusion gene, which tethers telomerase to telomeres, to examine the effect of constitutively active telomerase on chronological lifespan (CLS). The expression of Cdc13-Est2 fusion protein resulted in overlong telomeres (2 to 4 folds longer than normal telomeres), and long telomeres were stably maintained during long-term chronological aging. Accordingly, genome instability, manifested by accumulation of extra-chromosomal rDNA circle species, age-dependent CAN1 marker-gene mutation frequency and gross chromosomal rearrangement frequency, was significantly elevated. Importantly, inactivation of Sch9, a downstream kinase of the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1), suppressed both the genome instability and accelerated chronological aging mediated by CDC13-EST2 expression. Interestingly, loss of the CDC13-EST2 fusion gene in the cells with overlong telomeres restored the regular CLS. Altogether, these data suggest that constitutively active telomerase is detrimental to the maintenance of genome stability, and promotes chronological aging in yeast. PMID:27855118

  14. Increased myogenic repressor Id mRNA and protein levels in hindlimb muscles of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Alway, Stephen E; Degens, Hans; Lowe, Dawn A; Krishnamurthy, Gururaj

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if levels of repressors to myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) differ between muscles from young adult and aged animals. Total RNA from plantaris, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles of Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats aged 9 mo (young adult, n = 10) and 37 mo (aged, n = 10) was reverse transcribed and then amplified by PCR. To obtain a semiquantitative measure of the mRNA levels, PCR signals were normalized to cyclophilin or 18S signals from the corresponding reverse transcription product. Normalization to cyclophilin and 18S gave similar results. The mRNA levels of MyoD and myogenin were approximately 275-650% (P < 0.001) and approximately 500-1,100% (P < 0.001) greater, respectively, in muscles from aged compared with young adults. In contrast, the protein levels were lower in plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles and similar in the soleus muscle of aged vs. young adult rats. Id repressor mRNA levels were approximately 300-900% greater in fast and slow muscles of aged animals (P < or = 0.02), and Mist 1 mRNA was approximately 50% greater in the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles (P < 0.01). The mRNA level of Twist mRNA was not significantly affected by aging. Id-1, Id-2, and Id-3 protein levels were approximately 17-740% greater (P < 0.05) in hindlimb muscles of aged rats compared with young adult rats. The elevated levels of Id mRNA and protein suggest that MRF repressors may play a role in gene regulation of fast and slow muscles in aged rats.

  15. Diaphragmatic pathology: a cause of clinically unexplained death in the perinatal/paediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, S; Ostojic, N S; Rushton, D I; Cox, P M; Acland, P

    2005-04-01

    Sudden unexpected death in infancy and childhood requires a 'full' post-mortem investigation. Guidance from the Royal College of Pathologists recommends sampling of all the major organs. However, the diaphragm does not feature in this or in most lists of routine histology. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of sampling the diaphragm for histological examination during autopsy. We describe three autopsy cases of clinically unexplained death in the perinatal and paediatric age group that showed significant pathology of the diaphragm. In Case 1, a previously healthy five-year-old girl collapsed suddenly and died four days later. In Case 2, an eight-month-old infant had repeated episodes of respiratory arrest that culminated in death. Autopsy demonstrated a predominantly diaphragmatic myositis. In Case 3 a female neonate had a respiratory arrest three days after birth and died less than a month later. Autopsy showed multiple large calcified necrotic fibres in the diaphragm. The diaphragm is seldom sampled at autopsy. In the first two cases a predominantly diaphragmatic myositis was either the direct or underlying cause of death. In the third case long-standing diaphragmatic pathology of uncertain cause may have contributed to the original respiratory arrest. Had the diaphragm not been examined histologically, the cause of death would have remained unascertained in these cases. In cases of sudden death in infancy and childhood, failure to reach a diagnosis may lead to undue suspicion falling upon the child's carers. This underscores the need for full histology at post-mortem in child deaths, including diaphragmatic sampling.

  16. Increased level of reactive oxygen species persuades postovulatory aging-mediated spontaneous egg activation in rat eggs cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Karuppanan V; Chaube, Shail K

    2016-05-01

    The present study was aimed to find out whether increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) particularity hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) could persuade postovulatory aging-mediated abortive spontaneous egg activation (SEA) in rat eggs cultured in vitro. For this purpose, ROS and H2O2 levels, mitochondria distribution and its membrane potential, p286-CaMK-II, Emi2, Thr-161 phophorylated cyclin-dependent protein kinase1 (Cdk1) as well as cyclin B1 levels, in vitro effects of 3-tert-butyl-4 hydroxy anisole (BHA), pentoxifylline and dibutyryl-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (db-cAMP) were analyzed during postovulatory aging-induced abortive SEA in vitro. Data of the present study suggest that postovulatory aging increased H2O2 levels, disturbed mitochondrial distribution pattern and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in eggs. There was an significant increase of p286-CaMK-II level, while Emi2 level reduced significantly during egg aging in vitro. The reduced Emi2 level was associated with decreased Thr-161 phosphorylated cyclin-dependent kinase-1 (Cdk1) as well as cyclin B1 level in aged eggs that underwent abortive SEA. Further, supplementation of pentoxifylline, db-cAMP, and BHA protected postovulatory aging-mediated abortive SEA in concentration-dependent manner. These data suggest that postovulatory aging increased H2O2 levels, reduced MMP, and increased p286-CaMK-II. The increased