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Sample records for age groups infant

  1. Infant Group Care Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Earline D.

    Children under 3 years of age who are in group care face special health risks. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control indicate the existence of a causal relationship between infant group day care and certain diseases that are spread through contact at day care centers. Children in group care who are still in diapers are especially vulnerable to…

  2. Comparative genetic variability in HIV-1 subtype C nef gene in early age groups of infants.

    PubMed

    Husain, Mohammad; Sharma, Uma; Gupta, Poonam; Singhal, Megha; Singh, Supriya; Gupta, Sunil; Venkatesh, S; Rai, Arvind

    2017-03-31

    Targeting properties of vertically transmitted viruses in early infancy is important to understand disease progression. To investigate genotypic characteristics of transmitted viruses, blood samples were obtained from infants aged 6 weeks-18 months, categorized in two age groups, acute (≤6 months) and early (>6-18 months). Nef having an important role in pathogenesis was selected to explore the viral characteristics. A total of 57 PCR positive samples, amplified by nef gene were sequenced. Analysis showed that 50 sequences belonged to subtype C. In one sequence of acute age group, a long insertion of 10 residues (AAERMRRAEP) in variable region and a 13 residues deletion (ATNNADCAWLEAQ) around proteolytic cleavage region of gene in another sequence was observed. Insertions were also observed in sequences of early age group, however, they ranged from 2-8 residues only. In one sequence of early age group, 3/4 Arginines at positions 19,21,22 of Arginine cluster were mutated to Glutamine, Alanine and Glutamine respectively. Entropy analysis of two age groups revealed presence of several residues with statistically significant differences in their variability. Among these, 15 (R18,R23,R24; A66,L68,Q71; E74,E77,E78; V87,M92; R119, P144, E167 and C176) belonged to functional motifs, out of which, 12 were in acute age group, suggesting that variability was greater in this group. Prediction of HLA binding peptide motif revealed that epitope LTFGWCFKL was present in >80% study sequences. This epitope was also present in maximum number of HLA types circulating in India and vaccine candidate sequences, suggesting that it may be helpful in designing an epitope-based vaccine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Secular trends in infant mortality by age-group and avoidable components in the State of São Paulo, 1996–2012

    PubMed Central

    Areco, Kelsy Catherina Nema; Konstantyner, Tulio; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe trends and composition of infant mortality rate in the State of São Paulo, from 1996 to 2012. Methods: An ecological study was conducted, based on official secondary data of births and infant deaths of residents in São Paulo, from 1996 to 2012. The infant mortality rate was calculated by the direct method and was analyzed by graphs and polynomial regression models for age groups (early neonatal, late neonatal and post-neonatal) and for groups of avoidable causes of death. Results: The mortality rate in the State of São Paulo tended to fall, ranging from 22.5 to 11.5 per thousand live births. Half of the infant deaths occurred in the early neonatal group. The proportion of avoidable infant deaths varied from 76.0 to 68.7%. The deaths which were avoidable by adequate attention to women during pregnancy and childbirth and newborn care accounted for 54% of infant deaths throughout the period. Conclusions: The mortality rate levels are still far from those in developed countries, which highlight the need to prioritize access and quality of healthcare services during pregnancy, childbirth and newborn care, especially in the first week of life, aiming at achieving standards of infant mortality similar to those of developed societies. PMID:27105575

  4. Groupness in Preverbal Infants: Proof of Concept

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Benjamin Sylvester; Smithson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Infant sociability is generally conceived in terms of dyadic capacities and behaviors. Recently, quantitative evidence has been published to support arguments that infants achieve a criterion for groupness: the capacity to interact simultaneously with two others. Such studies equate this capacity with alternating dyadic acts to the two other members of an interacting trio. Here we propose a stricter threefold criterion for infant groupness, of which the crux is whether the social behavior of an infant at time B is shown to be influenced by what two or more group-members were previously doing at time A. We test the viability of this conceptualization: (a) through its justification of the novel laboratory procedure of studying infant sociability in infant–peer quartets (rather than trios); and, (b) in an analysis of a pilot study of gaze-behavior recorded in 5-min interactions among two quartets of infants aged 6–9 months. We call this a ‘proof of concept’ because our aim is to show that infants are capable of groupness, when groupness is conceptualized in a supra-dyadic way—not that all infants will manifest it, nor that all conditions will produce it, nor that it is commonplace in infants’ everyday lives. We found that both quartets did achieve the minimum criterion of groupness that we propose: mutual gaze predicting coordinated gaze (where two babies, A and B, are looking at each other, and B is then looked at by C, and sometimes D) more strongly than the reverse. There was a significant absence of ‘parallel mutual gaze,’ where the four babies pair off. We conclude that, under specific conditions, preverbal infants can manifest supra-dyadic groupness. Infants’ capacities to exhibit groupness by 9 months of age, and the paucity of parallel mutual gaze in our data, run counter to the assumption that infant sociability, when in groups, is always generated by a dyadic program. Our conceptualization and demonstration of groupness in 8-month-olds thus

  5. Infant's DNA Methylation Age at Birth and Epigenetic Aging Accelerators

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weidan; Lin, Fangqin

    2016-01-01

    Knowing the biological age of the neonates enables us to evaluate and better understand the health and maturity comprehensively. However, because of dearth of biomarkers, it is difficult to quantify the neonatal biological age. Here we sought to quantify and assess the variability in biological age at birth and to better understand how the aging rates before birth are influenced by exposure in intrauterine period by employing a novel epigenetic biomarker of aging (epigenetic clock). We observed that the methylation age at birth was independent of the infant's sex but was significantly influenced by race. Partial correlation analysis showed a significant negative relationship between maternal socioeconomic status and infants' methylation age (rs = −0.48, Ps = 0.005). A significant association with the risk of fast aging was observed for prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke with OR (95% CI) of 3.17 (1.05–9.56). Both estimated cell abundance measures and lymphocyte subpopulations in cord blood showed that tobacco exposed group exhibit an altered T cell compartment, specifically substantial loss of naive T cells. Present study provides the first evidence that common perinatal exposure (such as maternal smoking and lower socioeconomic status) may be important aging accelerators and substantial loss of naive T cells may play a role in the smoking-related fast aging phenomenon. PMID:28058257

  6. Infants use relative numerical group size to infer social dominance

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Anthea; Birch, Susan A. J.; Baron, Andrew Scott

    2016-01-01

    Detecting dominance relationships, within and across species, provides a clear fitness advantage because this ability helps individuals assess their potential risk of injury before engaging in a competition. Previous research has demonstrated that 10- to 13-mo-old infants can represent the dominance relationship between two agents in terms of their physical size (larger agent = more dominant), whereas younger infants fail to do so. It is unclear whether infants younger than 10 mo fail to represent dominance relationships in general, or whether they lack sensitivity to physical size as a cue to dominance. Two studies explored whether infants, like many species across the animal kingdom, use numerical group size to assess dominance relationships and whether this capacity emerges before their sensitivity to physical size. A third study ruled out an alternative explanation for our findings. Across these studies, we report that infants 6–12 mo of age use numerical group size to infer dominance relationships. Specifically, preverbal infants expect an agent from a numerically larger group to win in a right-of-way competition against an agent from a numerically smaller group. In addition, this is, to our knowledge, the first study to demonstrate that infants 6–9 mo of age are capable of understanding social dominance relations. These results demonstrate that infants’ understanding of social dominance relations may be based on evolutionarily relevant cues and reveal infants’ early sensitivity to an important adaptive function of social groups. PMID:26884199

  7. Differences in object sharing between infants at risk for autism and typically developing infants from 9 to 15 months of age.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sudha M; Bhat, Anjana N

    2016-02-01

    Object sharing abilities of infants at risk for autism (AR infants) and typically developing (TD) infants were compared from 9 to 15 months of age. Specifically, we examined the effects of infants' locomotor abilities on their object sharing skills. 16 TD infants and 16 AR infants were observed during an "object sharing" paradigm at crawling and walking ages. Overall, AR walking infants demonstrated lower rates of object sharing with caregivers compared to TD walking infants. Specifically, AR walking infants had lower rates of giving and approaches toward caregivers compared to TD walking infants. AR walking infants also had lower step rates toward task-appropriate targets, i.e. caregivers and objects compared to TD walking infants. No group differences in object sharing were observed at crawling ages. Object sharing could be a valuable context for early identification of delays in infants at risk for developing Autism spectrum disorder.

  8. Adult brightness vs. luminance as models of infant photometry: variability, biasability, and spectral characteristics for the two age groups favor the luminance model.

    PubMed

    Teller, Davida Y; Pereverzeva, Maria; Civan, Andrea L

    2003-01-01

    When infants fail to make chromatic discriminations, do the characteristics of their performance minima coincide more closely with the properties of adult luminance matches or heterochromatic brightness matches? In addition to their spectral properties, adult luminance matches are typically characterized by relatively small individual differences, whereas brightness matches are believed to be both more variable and more biasable. Two complementary experiments were carried out on adults and 8-week-old infant subjects. Both groups were tested with small (1.5 degrees to 4 degrees ) red and blue test fields of varying luminances, embedded in a white surround. In adults, heterochromatic brightness matches were measured. Individual differences spanned about 0.5 log units, and brightness matches could be biased by as much as 0.8 log units by varying the range of test field luminances. In infants, the locations of performance minima were measured. Individual differences spanned less than 0.1 log units, the mean performance minima coincided with predictions based on V10(lambda), and the location of the performance minimum was nearly unaffected by the range of test field luminances used. Thus by all three criteria, these data suggest that infants' performance minima are mediated by luminance rather than by brightness signals. To date there remains no evidence that the infant visual system computes a brightness signal.

  9. Breastfeeding and Infant Temperament at Age Three Months

    PubMed Central

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Wijndaele, Katrien; Clark, Matthew; Acerini, Carlo L.; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Dunger, David B.; Wells, Jonathan C.; Ong, Ken K.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Methods To examine the relationship between breastfeeding and maternally-rated infant temperament at age 3 months, 316 infants in the prospective Cambridge Baby Growth Study, UK had infant temperament assessed at age 3 months by mothers using the Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire, which produces scores for three main dimensions of temperament derived from 14 subscales. Infant temperament scores were related to mode of infant milk feeding at age 3 months (breast only; formula milk only; or mixed) with adjustment for infant's age at assessment and an index of deprivation. Results Infant temperament dimension scores differed across the three infant feeding groups, but appeared to be comparable between exclusive breast-fed and mixed-fed infants. Compared to formula milk-fed infants, exclusive breast-fed and mixed-fed infants were rated as having lower impulsivity and positive responses to stimulation (adjusted mean [95% CI] “Surgency/Extraversion” in formula-fed vs. mixed-fed vs. breast-fed groups: 4.3 [4.2–4.5] vs. 4.0 [3.8–4.1] vs. 4.0 [3.9–4.1]; p-heterogeneity = 0.0006), lower ability to regulate their own emotions (“Orienting/Regulation”: 5.1 [5.0–5.2], vs. 4.9 [4.8–5.1] vs. 4.9 [4.8–5.0]; p = 0.01), and higher emotional instability (“Negative affectivity”: 2.8 [2.6–2.9] vs. 3.0 [2.8–3.1] vs. 3.0 [2.9–3.1]; p = 0.03). Conclusions Breast and mixed-fed infants were rated by their mothers as having more challenging temperaments in all three dimensions; particular subscales included greater distress, less smiling, laughing, and vocalisation, and lower soothability. Increased awareness of the behavioural dynamics of breastfeeding, a better expectation of normal infant temperament and support to cope with difficult infant temperament could potentially help to promote successful breastfeeding. PMID:22253712

  10. Differences in object sharing between infants at risk for autism and typically developing infants from 9 to 15 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sudha M.; Bhat, Anjana N.

    2016-01-01

    Object sharing abilities of infants at risk for autism (AR infants) and typically developing (TD) infants were compared from 9 to 15 months of age. Specifically, we examined the effects of infants’ locomotor abilities on their object sharing skills. 16 TD infants and 16 AR infants were observed during an “object sharing” paradigm at crawling and walking ages. Overall, AR walking infants demonstrated lower rates of object sharing with caregivers compared to TD walking infants. Specifically, AR walking infants had lower rates of giving and approaches toward caregivers compared to TD walking infants. AR walking infants also had lower step rates toward task-appropriate targets, i.e. caregivers and objects compared to TD walking infants. No group differences in object sharing were observed at crawling ages. Object sharing could be a valuable context for early identification of delays in infants at risk for developing ASD. PMID:26803417

  11. Female parity, maternal kinship, infant age and sex influence natal attraction and infant handling in a wild colobine (Colobus vellerosus).

    PubMed

    Bădescu, Iulia; Sicotte, Pascale; Ting, Nelson; Wikberg, Eva C

    2015-04-01

    Primate females often inspect, touch and groom others' infants (natal attraction) and they may hold and carry these infants in a manner resembling maternal care (infant handling). While natal attraction and infant handling occur in most wild colobines, little is known about the factors influencing the expression of these behaviors. We examined the effects of female parity, kinship, and dominance rank, as well as infant age and sex in wild Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana. We collected data via focal sampling of females in 2008 and 2009 (N = 61) and of infants in 2010 (N = 12). Accounting for the individuals who interacted with our focal subjects, this study includes 74 females and 66 infants in 8 groups. We recorded female agonistic interactions ad libitum to determine dominance ranks. We used partial pedigree information and genotypes at 17 short tandem repeat loci to determine kinship. We knew female parity, infant age and sex from demographic records. Nulliparous females showed more natal attraction and infant handling than parous females, which may suggest that interactions with infants are more adaptive for nulliparous females because they learn mothering skills through these behaviors. Compared to non-kin, maternal kin were more likely to handle infants. Maternal kin may be permitted greater access to infants because mothers are most familiar with them. Handlers may incur inclusive fitness benefits from infant handling. Dominance rank did not affect female interactions with infants. The youngest infants received the most natal attraction and infant handling, and male infants were handled more than female infants. The potential benefits of learning to mother and inclusive fitness, in combination with the relatively low costs of natal attraction and infant handling, may explain the high rates of these behaviors in many colobines.

  12. Classroom Quality in Infant and Toddler Classrooms: Impact of Age and Programme Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Elizabeth K.; Pierro, Rebekah C.; Li, Jiayao; Porterfield, Mary Lee; Rucker, Lia

    2016-01-01

    This study examined differences in classroom quality, assessed by the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ITERS-R), in 287 infant and 479 toddler classrooms. Classroom quality was compared across classroom age group (infant compared to toddler classrooms) as well as across programme type (for-profit compared to not-for-profit…

  13. Clinical evaluation of group A and group C meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines in infants.

    PubMed Central

    Gold, R; Lepow, M L; Goldschneider, I; Draper, T L; Gotschlich, E C

    1975-01-01

    Group A and group C meningoccal polysaccharide vaccines were evaluated in infants. No significant local or systemic reactions were observed with 908 doses of vaccine given to 396 infants between 3 and 12 mo of age. The antibody response varied with the age of the infant, vaccine dose, molecular weight of vaccine, prior immunization with vaccine, and prior exposure to naturally occurring cross-reactive antigens. Only 7% of 3-mo-old infants had detectable antibody responses to primary immunization with 5-200 mug of A vaccine, presumably because of suppressive effects of high concentrations of maternal anti-A. More than 90% of 7- and 12-mo-old infants responded to A vaccine, achieving geometric mean anti-A concentrations of 0.38 and 0.98 mug/ml, respectively. The dose-response curve was flat between 10 and 200 mug of A vaccine. Geometric mean anti-A concentrations of 2.51 and 4.00 mug/ml were induced in 7- and 12-mo-old infants by booster injections of A vaccine. Approximately 90% of 3-mo-old infants had detectable antibody responses to primary immunization with C vaccine. The 100-mug dose appeared to be optimal, resulting in geometric mean anti-C concentrations of 0.49, 1.55, and 2.64 mug/ml in 3-, 7-, and 12-mo-old infants, respectively. Significant booster responses were not observed with C vaccine. Indeed, except for the 10-mug dose, booster injections of C vaccine in 7- and 12-mo-old infants resulted in lower anti-C concentrations than did primary immunizations. PMID:1202084

  14. Maternal-infant mental health: postpartum group intervention.

    PubMed

    de Camps Meschino, Diane; Philipp, Diane; Israel, Aliza; Vigod, Simone

    2016-04-01

    Dyadic interactions associated with maternal depression and anxiety may perpetuate maternal mental illness and impact infant attachment. Individual and maternal-dyadic therapies are effective but resource intensive. We assessed feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a newly developed maternal-infant dyadic group therapy intervention. This was an open-label pilot study targeting mothers with mood or anxiety disorders, and their infants aged 6 to 12 months. We conducted three 12-week groups combining evidence-based maternal and mother-infant dyadic strategies to enhance mood, insight, parenting, and mentalizing capacity. We measured recruitment and retention rates, reasons for nonparticipation, and missed sessions. Acceptability of the intervention was assessed via questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Efficacy outcomes were the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDPS), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), measured pretreatment and posttreatment. The feasibility and acceptability were excellent. There was a significant reduction in mean depressive symptom scores (t 3.31; p 0.008 sig) and a trend toward decreasing anxiety scores (t 1.96; p 0.08). The total PSI score decreased, approaching statistical significance (t 2.23; p 0.057). Enhanced insight, parenting capacity, affect regulation, and positive interaction with baby were supported with self-report surveys and interviews. This resource-efficient novel mother-baby dyadic group intervention shows excellent feasibility, acceptability, and has good preliminary efficacy results. It has the potential to improve depression, anxiety, affect regulation, parenting, and maternal mentalization.

  15. Age-Related Changes in the Relationship Between Visual Stimulus Intensity and Directional Finger Movements in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Iris; Turkewitz, Gerald

    The relationship between visual stimulus intensity and directional finger movements was examined in infants of two age groups (16 infants, 10 to 15 weeks old, and 8 infants, 20 to 25 weeks old). Two hypotheses derived from Schneirla's Approach-Withdrawal Theory were examined: (1) that responses of the younger, but not of the older infants, would…

  16. The temperament of preterm infant in preschool age

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The study deals with the characteristics of temperament of preterm infants during their preschool age in order to not only investigate likely "difficult or problematic profiles", guided by impairments driven by their preterm birth, but also to provide guidelines for the activation of interventions of prevention, functional to improve the quality of preterm infant's life. Methods The study involved a group of 105 children where 50 preterm children at the average age of 5 years and 2 months, enrolled in preschools of Palermo. The research planned the child reference teachers to be administered a specific questionnaire, the QUIT, made up of 60 items investigating six specific typical dimensions of temperament (Motor control activity - related to the ability of practicing motor control activity; Attention - related to the ability of guiding and keeping the focus of attention on a certain stimulus; Inhibition to novelty - regarding with emotional reactivity in front of environmental stimuli; Social orientation - meant in terms of attention and interest towards social stimuli; Positive and negative emotionality - regarding the tendency to mainly express positive or negative emotions. Results The results show in general how preschool-aged preterm infants, identified by such a study, compared with full-term children, are characterized by "normal" temperament based on a strong inclination and orientation in mainly expressing positive feelings. Yet, an impairment of the areas most relating to attention and motor control activity seems to emerge. Conclusions The data suggest specific interventions for preterm infant development and their reference systems and, at the same time, can guide paediatrician and neonatologist dealing with preterm infants, in focalizing and monitoring, even since health status assessments, specific areas of development that, since preschool age, can highlight the presence of real forerunners of maladjustments and likely configurations of

  17. Crawling-onset age predicts visual cliff avoidance in infants.

    PubMed

    Richards, J E; Rader, N

    1981-04-01

    Two experiments are reported that tested the effects of crawling-onset age, the amount of crawling experience, and testing age on avoidance of the deep side of a visual cliff apparatus by human infants. In Experiment 1, 49 infants ranging in age from 7 to 13 mo. were tested on the visual cliff after 1 or 2 mo. of crawling experience. Discriminant analysis revealed that crawling-onset age, and not crawling experience, discriminated between those infants who crossed and those infants who avoided the apparent drop-off. Infants who crossed the deep side were infants with an early crawling-onset age. In Experiment 2, 40 infants were tested on a visual cliff apparatus, half at 9 and half at 12 mo. of age. Discriminant analysis again found that crawling-onset age discriminated between infants who crossed the infants who would not cross the deep side, whereas testing age alone did not. These results call into question the idea that experience crawling is critical in inducing visually guided avoidance behavior in infants. It is argued that the crawling-onset age effect occurs because crawling during the tactile phase of infancy interferes with later visual control of locomotion.

  18. Food groups consumed by infants and toddlers in urban areas of China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Pan; Denney, Liya; Zheng, Yingdong; Vinyes-Parés, Gerard; Reidy, Kathleen C.; Eldridge, Alison L.; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2016-01-01

    Background Food consumption patterns of young children in China are not well known. Objective Characterised food groups consumed by infants and young children in urban China using data from the Maternal Infant Nutrition Growth (MING) study. Design One 24-h dietary recall was completed for 1,350 infants and young children (436 infants aged 6–11 months and 914 young children aged 12–35 months), who were recruited from maternal and child care centres in eight cities via face-to-face interviews with the primary caregiver. All foods, beverages and supplements reported were assigned to one of 64 food groups categorised into the following: milk and milk products, grains, vegetables, fruits, protein foods and desserts/sweets. The percentage of infants and young children consuming foods from specific food groups was calculated, regardless of the amount consumed. Results Less than half of infants consumed breast milk (47%), whereas 59% of infants consumed infant formula and 53–75% of young children consumed growing-up (fortified) milk. Rice was the number one grain food consumed after 6 months (up to 88%) and the consumption of infant cereal was low. About 50% of infants did not consume any fruits or vegetables, and 38% of young children did not consume any fruits on the day of the recall. Only 40% of all children consumed dark green leafy vegetables and even fewer consumed deep yellow vegetables. Eggs and pork were the most commonly consumed protein foods. Conclusions The data provide important insight for developing detailed food consumption guidelines for this population group. Mothers of infants should be encouraged to continue breastfeeding after the first 6 months. Parents should be advised to offer a wide variety of vegetables and fruits daily, particularly dark green leafy and deep yellow vegetables and colourful fruits. The consumption of fortified infant cereal should be advocated to improve the iron intake of Chinese infants. PMID:26864648

  19. Age-Specific Preferences for Infant-Directed Affective Intent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitamura, Christine; Lam, Christa

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the developmental course of infants' attentional preferences for 3 types of infant-directed affective intent, which have been shown to be commonly used at particular ages in the first year of life. Specifically, Kitamura and Burnham (2003) found mothers' tone of voice in infant-directed speech is most comforting between birth…

  20. Infant temperament and anxious symptoms in school age children.

    PubMed

    Kagan, J; Snidman, N; Zentner, M; Peterson, E

    1999-01-01

    A group of 164 children from different infant temperament categories were seen at 7 years of age for a laboratory battery that included behavioral and physiological measurements. The major results indicated that children who had been classified as high reactive infants at 4 months of age, compared with infants classified as low reactive, (a) were more vulnerable to the development of anxious symptoms at age 7 years, (b) were more subdued in their interactions with a female examiner, (c) made fewer errors on a task requiring inhibition of a reflex, and (d) were more reflective. Further, the high reactives who developed anxious symptoms differed from the high reactives without anxious symptoms with respect to fearful behavior in the second year and, at age 7 years, higher diastolic blood pressure, a narrower facial skeleton, and greater magnitude of cooling of the temperature of the fingertips to cognitive challenge. Finally, variation in magnitude of interference to fearful or aggressive pictures on a modified Stroop procedure failed to differentiate anxious from nonanxious or high from low reactive children.

  1. Integration of a hand-reared chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) infant into a social group of conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Thunström, Maria; Persson, Tomas; Björklund, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Rejections of infants among non-human primates occasionally occur in the wild as well as in captive settings. Controlled adoptions of orphans and introductions of individuals into new groups are therefore sometimes necessary in captivity. Consequently, behavioral research on integration procedures and on the acceptance of infants by adoptive mothers is much needed. In this study, the introduction and subsequent adoption were examined in an 18-month-old hand-reared chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The infant was introduced into an age/sex-diversified social group of conspecifics at Furuvik Zoo, Gävle, Sweden, and continuous focal data was collected during the final stage of integration, including infant care exhibited by the group members and the infant's secure base behavior. The infant was successfully integrated into the group and engaged in positive social interactions with all group members. An adult primiparous female chimpanzee formed a bond resembling a mother-infant relationship with the infant, which continues to be maintained at publication. However, the female initially showed very limited interest in the infant. It was, in fact, two other younger female group members that exhibited most infant care. The infant's secure base behavior patterns indicate that she adapted well to the new circumstances in the chimpanzee group as the integration progressed. This provides evidence that a final adopter does not necessarily initially show maternal interest and that there can be flexibility in maternal behavior in adult chimpanzee females. Moreover, the methods applied employing gradual familiarization with all the group members and the use of an integration enclosure, may have contributed to a successful result. These findings extend our knowledge of introduction procedures in captivity as well as provide information on foster mother-infant attachment in chimpanzees.

  2. Crawling-Onset Age Predicts Visual Cliff Avoidance in Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, John E.; Rader, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Two experiments tested the effects of crawling-onset age, amount of crawling experience, and testing age on avoidance of the deep side of a visual cliff apparatus by human infants. Crawling-onset age disciminated between infants because crawling during the tactile phase interferes with later visual control of locomotion. (Author/RD)

  3. Effects of developmental music groups for parents and premature or typical infants under two years on parental responsiveness and infant social development.

    PubMed

    Walworth, Darcy D

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of music therapy intervention on premature infants' and full term infants' developmental responses and parents' responsiveness. Subjects (n=56) were parent-infant dyads who attended developmental music groups or a control condition assessing responsiveness during toy play. All subjects were matched according to developmental age and were also matched by group for socioeconomic status and for maternal depression. Types of infant play and parent responsiveness were measured using observation of a standardized toy play for parent-infant dyads. Observations were coded with the number of seconds spent in each behavior using the SCRIBE observation program. Parents completed a questionnaire on the perception of their infant's general development, interpretations of their child's needs, the purpose of using music with their child, and their child's response to music. The infants attending the developmental music groups with their parents demonstrated significantly more social toy play (p < .05) during the standardized parent-infant toy play than infants who did not attend the music groups. While not significant, graphic analysis of parent responsiveness showed parents who attended the developmental music groups engaged in more positive and less negative play behaviors with their infants than parents who did not attend the music groups. This study demonstrates the first findings of positive effects of developmental music groups on social behaviors for both premature and full term infants under 2 years old.

  4. Teaching Chilean mothers to massage their full-term infants: effects on maternal breast-feeding and infant weight gain at age 2 and 4 months.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Maria Sylvia Campos; Doren, Francisca Márquez; Wilson, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of massage on infant weight gain and exclusive maternal breast-feeding of an intervention that involved teaching mothers to massage their full-term infants. The sample included 100 healthy newborn infants who were receiving primary healthcare at 3 health centers in a low-income neighborhood of Santiago, Chile. The control group included 65 infants and the massage group included 35 infants. During their second well-child clinic visit, clinic nurses provided instruction to massage-group mothers about how to massage their infants, based on the methods of the Baby's First Massage program (http://www.babysfirstmassage.com/Scripts/default.asp). Mothers were encouraged to massage their infants for 10 to 15 minutes at least once a day, starting when their infants were 15 days old. There was no difference in the mean weights of the infants between the massage and control groups at baseline, but at age 2 months, massage group infants weighed significantly more than control-group infants. There were no weight differences between the 2 groups at age 4 months. There were no differences between the 2 groups on the incidence of exclusive maternal breast-feeding at age 2 or 4 months. The findings suggest that teaching mothers to massage their newborn infants may have a beneficial effect on the infant's early weight gain. There is a need for additional studies to evaluate the effect of maternal massage on other health and welfare outcomes for both mothers and infants.

  5. Faecal chymotrypsin in small for gestational age infants: effects of nucleotides and breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, M; Losty, H; Jenkins, H R; Davies, D P

    1997-05-01

    The effect of diet on pancreatic exocrine function, measured by faecal chymotrypsin activity (FCA), was studied longitudinally in three groups of small for gestational age (SGA) infants in the first six months of life. The three groups comprised breastfed infants (group B), those randomly allocated to receive a standard infant formula (group S), or the same formula supplemented with nucleotides (group N). The three groups did not differ in their birthweight or gestational age. Nucleotide supplementation of infant formula improves catchup growth in SGA infants but whether this is due to effects on the gastrointestinal mucosa or the exocrine pancreas is not known. There were no differences in FCA at study entry but by one month group B had significantly lower values than the other groups, and this was maintained at 2, 4, and 6 months. Groups N and S did not differ significantly at any time point. Nucleotide supplementation of infant formula does not influence pancreatic exocrine function and its effect on growth is unlikely, therefore, to be mediated through the pancreas. This study shows that breast feeding is associated with lower FCA which may be related to the lower protein content of human milk. Reliable interpretation of FCA in young infants requires information about their diet.

  6. Patterns of developmental change in infants' nighttime sleep awakenings from 6 through 36 months of age.

    PubMed

    Weinraub, Marsha; Bender, Randall H; Friedman, Sarah L; Susman, Elizabeth J; Knoke, Bonnie; Bradley, Robert; Houts, Renate; Williams, Jason

    2012-11-01

    Nighttime sleep awakenings and infant and family characteristics were measured longitudinally in more than 1,200 infants when the infants were 6, 15, 24, and 36 months old. By 6 months of age, the majority of children slept through the night, awakening their mothers only about once or twice per week. However, not all children followed this predominant developmental pattern. Using growth mixture modeling, we identified 2 distinct developmental patterns. One group, labeled Sleepers, included 66% of the children. These children showed a flat trajectory of sleep awakenings from 6 through 36 months, with mothers reporting their infant awakening from sleep about 1 night per week. The second group, labeled Transitional Sleepers, included 34% of the infants. These children had 7 reported nights of awakenings per week at 6 months, dropping to 2 nights per week at 15 months and to 1 night per week by 24 months. Compared with Sleepers, Transitional Sleepers were more likely to be boys, score higher on the 6-month difficult temperament assessment, be breastfed at 6 and 15 months old, and have more depressed mothers at 6 months old. Using 2-group structural equation modeling, we examined individual differences at different points on the individual infants' sleep trajectories. For infants in both groups, reported sleep awakenings were associated with difficult temperament measured at 6 months, breastfeeding, infant illness, maternal depression, and greater maternal sensitivity. Infant-mother attachment measures were not related to these sleep awakenings.

  7. Postnatal growth and development in the preterm and small for gestational age infant.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    A clear relationship exists between undernutrition, poorer growth and poor development in term and preterm infants. However, preterm infants are at greater risk than term infants. Undernutrition is more common and 'programmed' growth rates are almost six times faster. Thus, even short periods of nutritional deprivation may have significant effects. Recent advances have led to an improvement in early growth but very low birthweight infants remain small for gestational age at hospital discharge. Studies suggest that a 'window of opportunity' exists after hospital discharge, in that better growth between discharge and 2-3 months corrected age is paralleled by better development, and poorer growth is associated with poorer development. However, interventions aimed at improving growth and development have yielded varying results. This may partly be related to differences in study design as well as the composition of the nutrient-enriched formulas. Irrespective, one point is concerning, i.e. infant boys appear to be at a developmental disadvantage when fed a term infant formula after discharge. A single study has also suggested that dietary intervention can improve brain growth in term and preterm infants with perinatal brain injury. However, concern has been expressed about rapid 'catch-up' growth in preterm infants and the development of insulin resistance and visceral adiposity. Data from our group do not support the idea of increased or altered adiposity in preterm infants fed a nutrient-enriched formula after hospital discharge.

  8. Age determination from central incisors of fetuses and infants.

    PubMed

    Aka, P Sema; Canturk, Nergis; Dagalp, Rukiye; Yagan, Murat

    2009-01-30

    Age at time of death for a fetus or infant is an important issue in the field of forensic science. Dental development can give an accurate measure of infant and fetal age and current literature does not include any studies of dental age from central incisor development. The objective of this study is to determine the age of deceased fetuses and infants by examining metric tooth development of central incisors in deceased fetuses and infants. Five dimensions of 76 maxillary and mandibular central incisors were measured: mesio-distal (MD), bucco-lingual (BL), crown height (CH), crown thickness (CT), and root height (RH). The results showed that 44.45+/-0-2 weeks is a sectional time for age calculations, which corresponds to 40 weeks from conception plus 4 to 5 weeks after birth. Four ATA entitled age formulas are derived to give the relation of age with tooth dimensions before and after 44.45 weeks [ATA is the special name given to the honor of the great Turkish leader Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938)]. Age estimation can be calculated from these formulas with an accuracy of the age +/-0-2 weeks. Also, calcification time can be determined from ATA formulas. In conclusion, the age of fetuses and infants can be assessed by the measurements of a single central incisor. According to this research, when estimating age during identification studies, forensic researchers must take into consideration the period of embryonic human growth and development.

  9. Differences in mortality and morbidity according to gestational ages and birth weights in infants with trisomy 18

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Atsushi; Okamura, Tomoka; Ago, Mako; Suenaga, Hideyo; Sugita, Eri; Ono, Hideko; Shuri, Kyoko; Masumoto, Kenichi; Totsu, Satsuki; Nakanishi, Hidehiko; Kusuda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of gestational age and birth weight on outcomes of the infants. Medical records of 36 infants with trisomy 18 admitted to Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital from 1991 to 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. We compared clinical characteristics between term infants (n = 15) and preterm infants (n = 21). There were one very‐low‐birth‐weight (VLBW) term infant (5%) and 12 VLBW preterm infants (80%). Although there were no significant differences in clinical characteristics and provided management between the two groups, none of the preterm infants achieved survival to discharge. On the other hand, 6 of 21 term infants (29%) achieved survival to discharge (P < 0.05). Similar results were obtained for comparisons between the VLBW infants and non‐VLBW infants. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that shorter gestational age had a more negative impact than lower birth weight to survival to discharge in infants with trisomy 18. In both preterm and term groups, the infants who died before 30 days commonly died of respiratory failure or apnea. Whereas, the infants who survived more than 30 days mostly died of heart failure. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26307940

  10. Differences in mortality and morbidity according to gestational ages and birth weights in infants with trisomy 18.

    PubMed

    Imai, Ken; Uchiyama, Atsushi; Okamura, Tomoka; Ago, Mako; Suenaga, Hideyo; Sugita, Eri; Ono, Hideko; Shuri, Kyoko; Masumoto, Kenichi; Totsu, Satsuki; Nakanishi, Hidehiko; Kusuda, Satoshi

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of gestational age and birth weight on outcomes of the infants. Medical records of 36 infants with trisomy 18 admitted to Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital from 1991 to 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. We compared clinical characteristics between term infants (n = 15) and preterm infants (n = 21). There were one very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) term infant (5%) and 12 VLBW preterm infants (80%). Although there were no significant differences in clinical characteristics and provided management between the two groups, none of the preterm infants achieved survival to discharge. On the other hand, 6 of 21 term infants (29%) achieved survival to discharge (P < 0.05). Similar results were obtained for comparisons between the VLBW infants and non-VLBW infants. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that shorter gestational age had a more negative impact than lower birth weight to survival to discharge in infants with trisomy 18. In both preterm and term groups, the infants who died before 30 days commonly died of respiratory failure or apnea. Whereas, the infants who survived more than 30 days mostly died of heart failure.

  11. [Tuberculosis in infants less than 3 months of age].

    PubMed

    Del Rosal Rabes, Teresa; Baquero-Artigao, Fernando; Méndez-Echevarría, Ana María; Mellado Peña, María José

    2015-04-29

    A review was conducted on infants less than 3 months of age diagnosed with tuberculosis between 1978 and 2014. Eight patients were diagnosed (1.4% of paediatric tuberculosis cases): 3 confirmed congenital tuberculosis, 3 suspected (endometrial biopsy was not performed), and 2 postnatal tuberculosis. Tuberculin skin test was negative in two patients. Diagnostic performance of culture (7/7, 100%) and PCR (3/3, 100%) of gastric aspirates was higher than that of acid-fast bacilli smears (5/8, 62%) and IGRA test (1/3, 33%). Three patients developed miliary disease, and one died. In conclusion, tuberculosis in this age group is rare, severe, and difficult to diagnose. In cases lacking known postnatal contacts, maternal genital tuberculosis should be ruled out by endometrial biopsy.

  12. Infants with Down Syndrome: Percentage and Age for Acquisition of Gross Motor Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Karina; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Lindquist, Ana Raquel Rodrigues; da Silva, Louise Gracelli Pereira; Tudella, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    The literature is bereft of information about the age at which infants with Down syndrome (DS) acquire motor skills and the percentage of infants that do so by the age of 12 months. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the difference in age, in relation to typical infants, at which motor skills were acquired and the percentage of infants with DS…

  13. Low-Dose Chemoreduction for Infants Diagnosed with Retinoblastoma before 6 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Jesse L.; Jubran, Rima; Lee, Thomas C.; Murphree, A. Linn; Lee, Diana; Kim, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of infants diagnosed with retinoblastoma before 6 months of age, including the need for chemoreduction (CRD). In this age group, dosage of CRD was reduced due to its potential for toxicity. Methods This is a retrospective review from 2000 to 2009 that includes 126 eyes of 72 infants (18 unilateral, 54 bilateral). Systemic CRD was administered when local modalities failed or were considered inadequate. Primary outcome measures were the need for CRD and globe salvage. Results Of the 72 infants diagnosed before 6 months of age, 48 (67%) ultimately required CRD for globe salvage, 40 (56%) patients before 6 months of age. Globe salvage was achieved in 62% (78/126) of eyes overall and in 93% (68/73) of eyes with Group A-C disease. No patient was hospitalized for CRD-related illness; survival was 100%. The mean follow-up was 52.9 months (range 1-148 months). Conclusion Utilizing a combination of focal modalities and reduced-dose CRD, children diagnosed with retinoblastoma before 6 months of age attain globe salvage rates comparable to those of older age groups. Two thirds of the infants ultimately required CRD for globe salvage. Bilateral disease as well as Group D and E classification in at least one eye at presentation increased the chance of requiring CRD (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.016, respectively). PMID:27172253

  14. Nucleotide supplementation and the growth of term small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, M; Davies, D P; Jenkins, H R

    1996-03-01

    A double blind randomised controlled trial in small for gestational age (SGA) infants, whose intestinal mucosa was shown to be functionally impaired as a result of intrauterine undernutrition, was carried out to investigate the hypothesis that nucleotide supplementation of a milk formula could improve catchup growth. Anthropometric data were collected on 74 infants, 39 randomly allocated to the nucleotide supplemented group (group N) and 35 to a standard formula group (group S). From study entry to 2 months of age, infants in group N had significantly higher mean rates of weight gain (106.3 compared with 94.7 g/kg baseline weight/week) and length gain (21.8 v 19.7 mm/m baseline length/week). Over the whole six months for which the trial formula was provided group N had significantly higher mean rates of gain of weight (80.1 compared with 71.8 g/kg baseline weight/week), length (16.2 compared with 15.0 mm/m baseline length/week), and head circumference (11.8 compared with 10.8 mm/m baseline head circumference/week). Catchup growth in SGA infants is therefore improved by nucleotide supplementation of infant formula.

  15. Exposure to any antenatal corticosteroids and outcomes in preterm infants by gestational age: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Travers, Colm P; Clark, Reese H; Spitzer, Alan R; Das, Abhik; Garite, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine whether exposure to any antenatal corticosteroids is associated with a lower rate of death at each gestational age at which administration is currently recommended. Design Prospective cohort study. Settings 300 participating neonatal intensive care units of the Pediatrix Medical Group in the United States. Participants 117 941 infants 23 0/7 to 34 6/7 weeks’ gestational age born between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2013. Exposure Any antenatal corticosteroids. Main outcomes measures Death or major hospital morbidities analyzed by gestational age and exposure to antenatal corticosteroids with models adjusted for birth weight, sex, mode of delivery, and multiple births. Results Infants exposed to antenatal corticosteroids (n=81 832) had a significantly lower rate of death before discharge at each gestation 29 weeks or less, 31 weeks, and 33-34 weeks compared with infants without exposure (range of adjusted odds ratios 0.32 to 0.55). The number needed to treat with antenatal corticosteroids to prevent one death before discharge increased from six at 23 and 24 weeks’ gestation to 798 at 34 weeks’ gestation. The rate of survival without major hospital morbidity was higher among infants exposed to antenatal corticosteroids at the lowest gestations. Infants exposed to antenatal corticosteroids had lower rates of severe intracranial hemorrhage or death, necrotizing enterocolitis stage 2 or above or death, and severe retinopathy of prematurity or death compared with infants without exposure at all gestations less than 30 weeks and most gestations for infants born at 30 weeks’ gestation or later. Conclusion Among infants born from 23 to 34 weeks’ gestation, antenatal exposure to corticosteroids compared with no exposure was associated with lower mortality and morbidity at most gestations. The effect size of exposure to antenatal corticosteroids on mortality seems to be larger in infants born at the lowest gestations. PMID

  16. Development of category formation for faces differing by age in 9- to 12-month-olds: An effect of experience with infant faces.

    PubMed

    Damon, Fabrice; Quinn, Paul C; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    We examined category formation for faces differing in age in 9- and 12-month-olds, and the influence of exposure to infant faces on such ability. Infants were familiarized with adult or infant faces, and then tested with a novel exemplar from the familiarized category paired with a novel exemplar from a novel category (Experiment 1). Both age groups formed discrete categories of adult and infant faces, but exposure to infant faces in everyday life did not modulate performance. The same task was conducted with child versus infant faces (Experiment 2). Whereas 9-month-olds preferred infant faces after familiarization with child faces, but not child faces after familiarization with infant faces, 12-month-olds formed discrete categories of child and infant faces. Moreover, more exposure to infant faces correlated with higher novel category preference scores when infants were familiarized with infant faces in 12-month-olds, but not 9-month-olds. The 9-month-old asymmetry did not reflect spontaneous preference for infant over child faces (Experiment 3). These findings indicate that 9- and 12-month-olds can form age-based categories of faces. The ability of 12-month-olds to form separate child and infant categories suggests that they have a more exclusive representation of face age, one that may be influenced by prior experience with infant faces.

  17. Nap Schedules and Sleep Practices in Infant-Toddler Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siren-Tiusanen, Helena; Robinson, Helja Antola

    2001-01-01

    Analyzed sleep-wake schedules and nap times in multiage infant-toddler groups through three case studies in Finnish day care centers. Found complex interactions among family daily patterns, day care patterns, and young children's sleep disturbances. Identified major differences in day care practices regarding sleep quality related to timing,…

  18. [Feeding, morbidity, and growth in infants born to a a group of primiparous mothers].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Guerra, F; Román-Pérez, R

    1994-01-01

    This study describes the feeding pattern, morbidity and the growth of an infant group from birth to six months old. A sample of 14 primiparous mother-infant dyads were selected in three public hospitals of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. The design included the "study case" technique. The planned feeding pattern at 24 hours post-delivery was different from the one practiced at home. Frequency of mixed-feeding was higher in the first three months. Half of the participants weaned gradually before the recommended period, with high consumption of industrialized cereals and pap of natural fruits at the beginning. Incidence and prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders and respiratory illness were high since the first 15 days of life. The weight/length, weight/age and length/age values were within the 50th percentile of the NCHS standard (1977). In spite of the difference in the feeding and morbidity patterns among the infants, their growth patterns were considered normal.

  19. Handicap in the Preterm Small-for-Gestational Age Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commey, J. O. O.; Fitzhardinge, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    A prospective study of growth and development during the first 2 years of life was performed on 71 preterm SGA (small-for-gestational-age) infants. Journal Availability: C.V. Mosby Company, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63141. (Author/SBH)

  20. Invasive group B streptococcal disease in infants: a 19-year nationwide study. Serotype distribution, incidence and recurrent infection.

    PubMed Central

    Ekelund, K.; Konradsen, H. B.

    2004-01-01

    During the period 1984-2002, 472 cases of invasive group B streptococcal (GBS) disease in infants aged 0-90 days in Denmark were registered. The overall incidence was 0.4/1000 live births. Most infants (73%) had early-onset GBS infection with 53% registered within the first day. Serotype III predominated (59%) with other serotypes as follows: Ia (16%), Ib (8%), NT (7%), II (6%), other serotypes (5%). Recurrence of GBS infection was registered in six infants, and the interval with no antibiotic therapy varied from 2 to 39 days. The serotypes of the isolates obtained from first and second episodes were identical (serotype III in five, and serotype Ia in one infant). Paired isolates were indistinguishable by PFGE and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Invasive GBS infections in infants are still a problem in Denmark, and recurrent infections are registered in 1% of these infants. PMID:15635965

  1. Lean body mass in small for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age infants

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.; Gotfredsen, A.; Knudsen, F.U.

    1988-11-01

    Dual photon absorptiometry using /sup 153/Gd in a whole-body scanner was used to measure lean body mass (LBM) in 51 newborn infants. LBM% decreased exponentially with increasing gestational age in both small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. In preterm SGA and AGA infants LBM was 104% and 103%, respectively, indicating that no fat was detectable. In term SGA infants LBM was 98%, which corresponded to 48 gm fat on average, and in term AGA infants LBM was 87%, which corresponded to 452 gm fat on average. The LBM%, ponderal index, and skinfold thickness were significantly different between AGA and SGA infants. Infants with clinical signs of intrauterine wastage had significantly higher LBM% than did infants without signs of weight loss. Our results on LBM% by dual photon absorptiometry agree with earlier dissection data; the clinically applicable methods of (1) height combined with weight (i.e., ponderal index), (2) skinfold thickness, and (3) scoring by clinical observations are useful for the estimation of lack of fat as an indicator of intrauterine growth retardation.

  2. Cohort study of growth patterns by gestational age in preterm infants developing morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Klevebro, S; Lundgren, P; Hammar, U; Smith, L E; Bottai, M; Domellöf, M; Löfqvist, C; Hallberg, B; Hellström, A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine differences in growth patterns in preterm infants developing major morbidities including retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH). Study design Cohort study of 2521 infants born at a gestational age (GA) of 23–30 weeks from 11 level III neonatal intensive care units in USA and Canada, and 3 Swedish population-based cohorts. Outcomes Birth weight and postnatal weight gain were examined relative to birth GA and ROP, BPD, NEC and IVH development. Results Among infants with a birth GA of 25–30 weeks, birth weight SD score and postnatal weight were lower in those developing ROP and BPD. Infants developing ROP showed lower growth rates during postnatal weeks 7–9 in the 23–24 weeks GA group, during weeks 4–6 in the 25–26 weeks GA group and during weeks 1–5 in the 27–30 weeks GA group. Infants with BPD born at 27–30 weeks GA showed lower growth rates during postnatal weeks 3–5. Infants with NEC had lower growth rates after postnatal week 6 in all GA groups, with no significant differences in birth weight SD score. IVH was not associated with prenatal or postnatal growth. Conclusions In this cohort study of extremely preterm infants, we found that the postnatal growth pattern was associated with morbidities such as ROP, BPD and NEC as well as with gestational age at birth. PMID:27856479

  3. Academic, social, and behavioral outcomes at age 12 of infants born preterm.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Suzy Barcelos; Sullivan, Mary C; Marks, Amy Kerivan; Doyle, Thomas; DePalma, Jennifer; McGrath, Margaret M

    2009-11-01

    The effects of gradient levels of perinatal morbidity on school outcomes have been investigated at age 12 in four preterm groups, classified as healthy (no medical or neurological illness), medical morbidity, neurological morbidity, and small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and a full-term comparison group. Teachers report on academic competence, social skills, and problem behaviors. Data on school type, classroom setting, and school service use are gathered from school records. Preterm groups are found to be equivalent to full-term peers in social skills and problem behavior. Preterm groups with neurological and SGA morbidity have the lowest academic competence scores. Unexpectedly, preterm infants with medical morbidity have higher academic competence scores compared with the other preterm groups. School service use increases with greater perinatal morbidity and is contingent on multiple rather than single indicators of perinatal morbidity. Continued monitoring of preterm infants through early adolescence will ensure that appropriate school services and resources are available to maximize their school success.

  4. OTC Cough and Cold Products: Not for Infants and Children Under 2 Years of Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cold Products: Not For Infants and Children Under 2 Years of Age Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... and cold products for infants and children under 2 years of age? A. FDA strongly recommends that ...

  5. Postnatal Growth and Psychomotor Development in Small for Gestational Age Brazilian Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paine, Patricia Ann; Pasquali, Luiz

    1984-01-01

    The early psychomotor development (DQ) of 29 term small-for-gestational-age Brazilian infants was shown to be more dependent on postnatal growth than the DQ of 51 term appropriate-for-gestational-age infants. (Author/RH)

  6. Increased Microbial Translocation in ≤180 Days Old Perinatally Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Infants as Compared with Human Immunodeficiency Virus -Exposed/Uninfected Infants of Similar Age

    PubMed Central

    PAPASAVVAS, EMMANOUIL; AZZONI, LIVIO; FOULKES, ANDREA; VIOLARI, AVY; COTTON, MARK F.; PISTILLI, MAXWELL; REYNOLDS, GRIFFIN; YIN, XIANGFAN; GLENCROSS, DEBORAH K.; STEVENS, WENDY S.; MCINTYRE, JAMES A.; MONTANER, LUIS J.

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated the effect of early versus deferred antiretroviral treatment (ART) on plasma concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and host LPS-binding molecules in HIV-infected infants up to 1 year of age. Methods We evaluated 54 perinatally HIV-infected and 22 HIV-exposed/uninfected infants (controls) at the first and second semester of life. All HIV-infected infants had a baseline CD4≥25%, participated in the CIPRA-SA Children with HIV Early Antiretroviral Therapy (CHER) trial in South Africa and were randomized in: Group 1 (n=20), ART deferred until CD4<25% or severe HIV disease, and Group 2 (n=34), ART initiation within 6-12 weeks of age. LPS, endotoxin-core antibodies (EndoCAb), soluble (s)CD14, and LPS-binding protein (LBP) were measured in cryopreserved plasma. T cell activation was measured in fresh whole blood. Results At the first semester, LPS concentration was higher in HIV-infected infants than in controls; sCD14, LBP and T cell activation were higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 and controls. While LPS was not correlated with study variables, viral load was positively associated with sCD14, LBP or EndoCAb. At the second semester, LPS was not detectable and elevated host LPS-control molecules values were sustained, in all groups and in conjunction with ART in all HIV-infected infants. Conclusions While plasma concentration of LPS is higher in perinatally HIV-infected infants 0-6 months of age than in controls independent of ART initiation strategy, LPS-control molecules concentration is higher in infants with deferred ART, suggesting the presence of increased microbial translocation in HIV-infected infants with sustained early viral replication. PMID:21552185

  7. 42 CFR 435.118 - Infants and children under age 19.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.118 Infants and children under age... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Infants and children under age 19. 435.118 Section... infants under age 1, such higher income standard up to 185 percent FPL, if any, as the State...

  8. Regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Olafsen, Kåre S; Rønning, John A; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Dahl, Lauritz Bredrup; Kaaresen, Per Ivar

    2012-02-01

    Temperamental regulatory competence and social communication in term and preterm infants at 12 months corrected age was studied in a randomized controlled intervention trial aimed at enhancing maternal sensitive responsiveness. Surviving infants <2000 g from a geographically defined area were randomized to an intervention (71) or a control group (69), and compared with term infants (74). The intervention was a modified version of the "Mother-Infant Transaction Program". Regulatory competence was measured with the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, and social communication with the Early Social Communication Scales. Preterm intervention infants with low regulatory competence had higher responding to joint attention than preterm control infants. A sensitizing intervention may moderate the association between temperament and social communication, and thus allow an alternative functional outlet for preterm infants low in regulatory competence. The finding may have implications for conceptualizations of the role of early sensitizing interventions in promoting important developmental outcomes for premature infants.

  9. The prediction of later neurodevelopmental status of preterm infants at ages 7 to 10 years using the Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener.

    PubMed

    Soysal, A Sebnem; Gucuyener, Kivilcim; Ergenekon, Ebru; Turan, Özden; Koc, Esin; Turkyılmaz, Canan; Önal, Esra; Atalay, Yıldız

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to see whether the scores of the Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener of 45 high-risk preterm infants (gestational age 26-37 wk) between the ages of 3 and 24 months predicted neurodevelopmental status at 7 to 10 years of age. Neurodevelopmental status of 45/122 preterm infants, grouped according to their gestational ages of 26 to 29, 30 to 32, and 33 to 37 weeks, were previously evaluated by Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener. The scores were categorized as low or high-moderate. Verbal and performance scores of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) of those patients were assessed between 7 and 10 years. The patients with high-moderate-risk scores of Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener at all times, regardless of their gestational age, had lower performance, verbal, and total scores of WISC-R than those of who had low Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener risk scores. High-moderate risk score of Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener at 7 to 10, and 16 to 20 months, of all patients especially showed good prediction for identifying lower verbal and performance scales. For 7 to 10 months, verbal scale: positive predictive value = 92.3%, negative predictive value = 44.4%, sensitivity = 70.58%, and specificity = 80%; performance scale: positive predictive value = 100%, negative predictive value = 30%, sensitivity = 68.18%, and specificity = 100%. For 16 to 20 months, verbal scale: positive predictive value = 90%, negative predictive value = 37.5%, sensitivity = 64.3%, and specificity = 80%; performance scale: positive predictive value = 90%, negative predictive value = 12.5%, sensitivity = 56.3%, and specificity = 50%. Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener shows good prediction of later verbal and performance scores of Wechsler Intelligence Scale-Revised for Children as early as 7 to 10 months, which gives us the opportunity to start early intervention.

  10. 42 CFR 435.118 - Infants and children under age 19.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.118 Infants and children under age 19. (a) Basis. This... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Infants and children under age 19. 435.118 Section... standard is the higher of— (i) 133 percent FPL for the applicable family size; or (ii) For infants...

  11. 42 CFR 435.118 - Infants and children under age 19.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.118 Infants and children under age 19. (a) Basis. This... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Infants and children under age 19. 435.118 Section... standard is the higher of— (i) 133 percent FPL for the applicable family size; or (ii) For infants...

  12. Small-for-gestational age infants: perinatal, physical and social factors in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Watt, J

    1989-09-13

    Perinatal factors and physical development in the first year were studied in a group of 30 small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants and matched controls. Mothers of small-for-gestational age infants were significantly lighter (p less than 0.01), had shorter labours (p less than 0.01), had higher reported caffeine intake (p less than 0.01) and were more likely to have smoked in pregnancy than mothers of control infants (p less than 0.05). Small-for-gestational age infants had lower ponderal indices (p less than 0.001), were more likely to exhibit head sparing at birth (p less than 0.02) and to be short-for-dates (p less than 0.001), and to have had hypoglycaemia in the first 24 hours (p less than 0.02). Their growth trajectories exhibited growth catchup in the first 3 months but at 12 months they remained lighter, shorter and had smaller head circumferences than the control infants (p less than 0.001) with mean weight and length percentiles of 23% each in small-for-gestational age infants and 50% and 57% in appropriately grown infants.

  13. Implications of infant cognition for executive functions at age 11.

    PubMed

    Rose, Susan A; Feldman, Judith F; Jankowski, Jeffery J

    2012-01-01

    Recent work suggests that executive functions, the cornerstone of higher-level cognitive operations, are driven by basic information processing abilities. Using structural equation modeling, with latent variables, the present study provides the first evidence that this driving force begins in infancy, such that abilities in infancy predict executive functions at age 11. Information processing abilities in three domains (attention, processing speed, and memory) were assessed when participants were infants (7 and 12 months) and toddlers (24 and 36 months) and were used to predict three executive functions (working memory, inhibition, and shifting) when participants were 11 years old. A model relating infant abilities to age-11 executive functions fit well, and accounted for 9% to 19% of the variance in the executive functions. Paths from both speed and memory in infancy to age-11 working memory were significant, as was the path from Speed in infancy to age-11 Shifting. A model using abilities in toddlerhood as predictors fit similarly. These findings implicate early basic cognitive abilities in the development of executive functions.

  14. Assessment of cardiorespiratory stability using the infant car seat challenge before discharge in preterm infants (<37 weeks’ gestational age)

    PubMed Central

    Narvey, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants younger than 37 weeks corrected gestational age are at increased risk for abnormal control of respiration. The infant car seat challenge has been used as a screening tool to ensure cardiorespiratory stability before discharging preterm infants from many hospitals in Canada. While it is clear that infants placed in a car seat are more likely to experience oxygen desaturation and/or bradycardia than when they are supine, neither positioning predicts an adverse neurodevelopmental outcome or mortality post-discharge. A review of the literature yielded insufficient evidence to recommend routine use of the infant car seat challenge as part of discharge planning for preterm infants. This finding has prompted a change in recommendation from a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement published in 2000. PMID:27398056

  15. Teachers' Roles in Infants' Play and Its Changing Nature in a Dynamic Group Care Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Jeesun

    2013-01-01

    Using a qualitative research approach, this article explores teachers' roles in infants' play and its changing nature in an infant group care setting. Three infant teachers in a child care center were followed over three months. Observations, interviews, ongoing conversations, emails, and reflective notes were used as data sources. Findings…

  16. [The introduction of gluten into the infant diet. Expert group recommendations].

    PubMed

    Ribes Koninckx, C; Dalmau Serra, J; Moreno Villares, J M; Diaz Martín, J J; Castillejo de Villasante, G; Polanco Allue, I

    2015-11-01

    At present there is a degree of uncertainty regarding when, how and in what form gluten should be introduced into the infant diet. For years the recommendations of the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition have prevailed, which include avoiding early introduction, before 4 months, and late, after 7 months, and gradually introducing gluten into the diet while the infant is being breastfed, with the aim of reducing the risk of celiac disease, diabetes and gluten allergy. However, 2 independent studies published in The New England Journal of Medicine in October 2014 reached the conclusion that the age of introduction of gluten does not modify the risk of developing celiac disease, and that breastfeeding at any age does not confer protection against celiac disease development. On the other hand, according to available scientific evidence, the introduction of foods other than breast milk or formula into the infants diet is generally recommended around 6 months of age, since the introduction before 4 months could be associated with an increased risk of food allergy and autoimmune diseases, and delaying it beyond 7 months would not have a protective effect. In this context, a group of experts has considered it appropriate to produce a consensus document based on the current scientific evidence and present general recommendations for daily clinical practice on the introduction of gluten into the diet.

  17. Influence of Gestational Age and Postnatal Age on Speech Sound Processing in NICU infants

    PubMed Central

    Key, Alexandra P.F.; Lambert, E. Warren; Aschner, Judy L.; Maitre, Nathalie L.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effect of gestational (GA) and postnatal (PNA) age on speech sound perception in infants. Auditory ERPs were recorded in response to speech sounds (CV syllables) in 50 infant NICU patients (born at 24–40 weeks gestation) prior to discharge. Efficiency of speech perception was quantified as absolute difference in mean amplitudes of ERPs in response to vowel (/a/–/u/) and consonant (/b/–/g/, /d/–/g/) contrasts within 150–250, 250–400, 400–700 ms after stimulus onset. Results indicated that both GA and PNA affected speech sound processing. These effects were more pronounced for consonant than vowel contrasts. Increasing PNA was associated with greater sound discrimination in infants born at or after 30 weeks GA, while minimal PNA-related changes were observed for infants with GA less than 30 weeks. Our findings suggest that a certain level of brain maturity at birth is necessary to benefit from postnatal experience in the first 4 months of life, and both gestational and postnatal ages need to be considered when evaluating infant brain responses. PMID:22332725

  18. A probabilistic estimation of fluoride intake by infants up to the age of 4 months from infant formula reconstituted with tap water in the fluoridated regions of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Anderson, W A; Pratt, I; Ryan, M R; Flynn, A

    2004-01-01

    Two probabilistic models were developed to estimate the acute and chronic exposure to fluoride of exclusively formula-fed infants aged 0-4 months as a result of the consumption of infant formula reconstituted with fluoridated tap water in Ireland. The estimates were based on calculated infant formula consumption and accepted body weight standards, together with reported concentrations of fluoride in infant formula powder and measured values for the fluoride content of water in Ireland. The mean acute exposure of infants to fluoride on any single day in areas served by 387 fluoridated water supplies was estimated to be between 0.11 and 0.14 mg/kg body weight depending on age group (95th percentiles 0.2 and 0.26 mg/kg b.w., respectively). These predicted intakes were well below the intake of fluoride associated with acute toxic effects, which is considered to be 5 mg fluoride (F(-))/kg body weight. The mean chronic exposure of infants to fluoride was estimated to be between 0.106 and 0.170 mg/kg b.w./day depending on body weight (95th percentiles 0.108 and 0.172 mg/kg b.w./day, respectively). This estimate described the average daily fluoride intake of infants during the first 4 months of life residing in the areas served by 226 water supplies that achieved an average yearly fluoride concentration below 1.03 mg/l. Dental fluorosis may be considered to be the only risk at these low doses and from our work it is estimated that there is a very low risk of moderate dental fluorosis of the permanent dentition in infants exposed to fluoride at these levels.

  19. Patterns of Developmental Change in Infants' Nighttime Sleep Awakenings from 6 through 36 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinraub, Marsha; Bender, Randall H.; Friedman, Sarah L.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Knoke, Bonnie; Bradley, Robert; Houts, Renate; Williams, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Nighttime sleep awakenings and infant and family characteristics were measured longitudinally in more than 1,200 infants when the infants were 6, 15, 24, and 36 months old. By 6 months of age, the majority of children slept through the night, awakening their mothers only about once or twice per week. However, not all children followed this…

  20. Adults' Responses to Infants Varying in Appearance of Age and Attractiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Jean M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Relations among age appearance, facial attractiveness, and adult expectations of infants' developmental maturity were examined in three studies. Adults judged unattractive infants to be older and capable of more specific developmental skills than attractive infants but rated their general competence to be lower. (BC)

  1. Comparisons of infant mortality using a percentile-based method of standardization for birthweight or gestational age.

    PubMed

    Hertz-Picciotto, I; Din-Dzietham, R

    1998-01-01

    Comparisons of infant, perinatal, or neonatal mortality across populations with different birthweight or gestational age distributions are problematic. Summary measures with adjustment for birthweight or gestational age frequently are invalid or lack interpretability. We propose a percentile-based method of standardization for comparing infant, perinatal, or neonatal mortality across populations that have different distributions of birthweight and/or gestational age. The underlying concept is a simple one: comparable health for two population groups will be expressed as equal rates of disease or mortality at equal quantiles in the two distributions of birthweight or gestational age. We describe this method mathematically and present an example comparing mortality rates for African-American vs European-American infants in North Carolina. When gestational age is transformed to its rank, the well-known crossover in mortality rates, in which preterm African-American infants die at lower rates but term infants at higher rates, disappears: African-Americans show higher mortality rates at any percentile of gestational age. With homogeneous mortality rate ratios, a summary statistic becomes meaningful. We also demonstrate adjustment for percentile-transformed gestational age or birthweight in multiple logistic regression models. Percentile standardization is easily implemented, has advantages over other methods of internal standardization such as that of Wilcox and Russell, and communicates an intuitive public health-based concept of equality of mortality across populations.

  2. Litter size and infant survivorship in wild groups of cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Savage, A; Soto, L; Medina, F; Emeris, G; Soltis, J

    2009-08-01

    Cotton-top tamains (Saguinus oedipus) are a critically endangered primate found only in Colombia. Efforts to conserve this species are centered on developing effective management plans that integrate biological information regarding population dynamics and factors that influence their survival. This study documented infants born to wild cotton-top tamarin females from 1994-2008 at two distinct field sites in northern Colombia. Our studies have shown that wild cotton-top tamarins typically give birth to one litter each year and infant survival to 6 months of age was greater in the wild than has been reported in captive colonies. However, similar to reports from captive colonies, litter size of wild cotton-top tamarins ranges from 1-3 infants, with twin litters most common. Here we report the first occurrence of triplet litters in nearly 20 years of observing wild cotton-top tamarin groups. Over the first 3 months of life, wild-born infants exhibited highest mortality during the first week of life, similar to reports from captive colonies. Infant survival in the wild also increases with successive litters as it does in captivity. However, inter-birth interval, group size, and the number of adult males in the group did not appear to influence infant survival in the wild. The value of such long-term data from field studies aids in the information that can be used to model future population trends and develop effective conservation plans for this critically endangered primate.

  3. Mother-preterm infant interactions at 3 months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Erica; Agostini, Francesca; Salvatori, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan

  4. Care of Infants in Groups: A Resource Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flamholz, Mindie Lazinsky; And Others

    The aims of this paper are to document the need for quality infant day care, to encourage the formation of a statewide policy for infant day care in Maryland, and to recommend specific components of that policy. Discussion refers to both family day care and center-based day care. After the first section's introductory presentation of data…

  5. Infants and Toddlers (Ages 0-3) - Raising Healthy Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... will help you raise a healthy baby. Topics Breastfeeding Developmental Milestones Fruits & Vegetables Hand Washing Hearing Screening Infant & Toddler Health Maternal and Infant Health Newborn Screening Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Parenting Tips Perchlorate in ...

  6. GUIDANCE ON SELECTING AGE GROUPS FOR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance document provides a set of early-lifestage age groups for Environmental Protection Agency scientists to consider when assessing children’s exposure to environmental contaminants and the resultant potential dose. These recommended age groups are based on current understanding of differences in behavior and physiology which may impact exposures in children. A consistent set of early-life age groups, supported by an underlying scientific rationale, is expected to improve Agency exposure and risk assessments for children by increasing the consistency and comparability of risk assessments across the Agency; by improving accuracy and transparency in assessments for those cases where current practice might too broadly combine behaviorally and physiologically disparate age groups; and by fostering a consistent approach to future exposure surveys and monitoring efforts to generate improved exposure factors for children. see description

  7. Development of lung function in very low birth weight infants with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Longitudinal assessment during the first 15 months of corrected age

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (< 1,500 g) with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) develop lung damage caused by mechanical ventilation and maturational arrest. We compared functional lung development after discharge from hospital between VLBW infants with and without BPD. Methods Comprehensive lung function assessment was performed at about 50, 70, and 100 weeks of postmenstrual age in 55 sedated VLBW infants (29 with former BPD [O2 supplementation was given at 36 weeks of gestational age] and 26 VLBW infants without BPD [controls]). Mean gestational age (26 vs. 29 weeks), birth weight (815 g vs. 1,125 g), and the proportion of infants requiring mechanical ventilation for ≥7 d (55% vs. 8%), differed significantly between BPD infants and controls. Results Both body weight and length, determined over time, were persistently lower in former BPD infants compared to controls, but no significant between-group differences were noted in respiratory rate, respiratory or airway resistance, functional residual capacity as determined by body plethysmography (FRCpleth), maximal expiratory flow at the FRC (V'max FRC), or blood gas (pO2, pCO2) levels. Tidal volume, minute ventilation, respiratory compliance, and FRC determined by SF6 multiple breath washout (representing the lung volume in actual communication with the airways) were significantly lower in former BPD infants compared to controls. However, these differences became non-significant after normalization to body weight. Conclusions Although somatic growth and the development of some lung functional parameters lag in former BPD infants, the lung function of such infants appears to develop in line with that of non-BPD infants when a body weight correction is applied. Longitudinal lung function testing of preterm infants after discharge from hospital may help to identify former BPD infants at risk of incomplete recovery of respiratory function; such infants are at risk of later respiratory problems. PMID

  8. Effects of age, gender and holding on pain response during infant immunization.

    PubMed

    Ipp, Moshe; Taddio, Anna; Goldbach, Morton; Ben David, Shlomit; Stevens, Bonnie; Koren, Gideon

    2004-01-01

    Determinants of infant pain responses are important when assessing the efficacy of analgesics. In a randomized controlled trial, 106 infants aged 2 to 6 months were positioned either supine (SUP) on the examination table or held (HLD) by a parent during routine immunization in a community pediatric office. There was no difference between the SUP and HLD infants in duration of crying, facial grimacing or visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores. Similarly gender did not affect pain response. In contrast, 2-month-old infants displayed more pain during immunization than did 4 or 6-month-old infants.

  9. Vocal Development of Infants with Very Low Birth Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rvachew, Susan; Creighton, Dianne; Feldman, Naida; Sauve, Reg

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the vocal development of infants born with very low birth weights (VLBW). Samples of vocalizations were recorded from three groups of infants when they were 8, 12 and 18 months of age: preterm VLBW infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), preterm VLBW infants without BPD, and healthy full-term infants. Infants with BPD…

  10. Maternal Chronological Age, Prenatal and Perinatal History, Social Support, and Parenting of Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Gini, Motti

    2006-01-01

    The role of maternal chronological age in prenatal and perinatal history, social support, and parenting practices of new mothers (N=335) was examined. Primiparas of 5-month-old infants ranged in age from 13 to 42 years. Age effects were zero, linear, and nonlinear. Nonlinear age effects were significantly associated up to a certain age with little…

  11. Transfer and scaffolding of perceptual grouping occurs across organizing principles in 3- to 7-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Paul C; Bhatt, Ramesh S

    2009-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that organizational principles become functional over different time courses of development: Lightness similarity is available at 3 months of age, but form similarity is not readily in evidence until 6 months of age. We investigated whether organization would transfer across principles and whether perceptual scaffolding can occur from an already functional principle to a not-yet-operational principle. Six- to 7-month-old infants (Experiment 1) and 3- to 4-month-old infants (Experiment 2) who were familiarized with arrays of elements organized by lightness similarity displayed a subsequent visual preference for a novel organization defined by form similarity. Results with the older infants demonstrate transfer in perceptual grouping: The organization defined by one grouping principle can direct a visual preference for a novel organization defined by a different grouping principle. Findings with the younger infants suggest that learning based on an already functional organizational process enables an organizational process that is not yet functional through perceptual scaffolding.

  12. Infant Abuse Runs in Families of Group-Living Pigtail Macaques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestripieri, Dario; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Infant abuse and neglect were investigated in five families of group-living pigtail macaques over five generations. Neglect was mostly limited to first-born and newborns; closely related rather than distantly related females were more prone to abuse; and infants with siblings previously abused were at highest risk. Results provide evidence of…

  13. [Characteristics of paroxysmal atrial tachycardia in infants according to the age of onset].

    PubMed

    Campa, M A; Vaksmann, G; Fournier, A; Minassian, V; Fouron, J C; Davignon, A

    1990-01-01

    Seventy consecutive patients hospitalized before 1 year of age for reentrant paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (PAT) were studied according to the age of onset of arrhythmia making 3 distinctive groups: group I: 10 patients in whom onset of the arrhythmia occurred during foetal life; group II: 39 infants whose arrhythmia appeared during the first month of life and group III consisting of 21 patients in whom tachycardia began between 1 and 12 months of age. The characteristics and the consequences of the arrhythmia as well as the patients' course and the different treatments used were analysed. Foetal tachycardias were characterized by a slower heart rate. Episodes were most often short and repetitive as opposed to post-natal tachycardias which were often prolonged but somewhat unfrequent. Before the age of 3 months the occurrence of heart failure was more frequent. Independently of the age of onset, 43% of patients presented Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), which disappeared spontaneously in 1 out of 3 cases. The existence of WPW syndrome was correlated with late relapses.

  14. Immunologic Aging in Adults with Congenital Heart Disease: Does Infant Sternotomy Matter?

    PubMed

    Elder, Robert W; George, Roshan P; McCabe, Nancy M; Rodriguez, Fred H; Book, Wendy M; Mahle, William T; Kirk, Allan D

    2015-10-01

    Thymectomy is performed routinely in infants undergoing cardiothoracic surgery. Children post-sternotomy have decreased numbers of T lymphocytes, although the mechanisms involved and long-term consequences of this have not been defined. We hypothesized that lymphopenia in patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) would be reflective of premature T cell maturation and exhaustion. Adults with ACHD who had sternotomy to repair congenital heart disease as infants (<1 year) and age-matched ACHD patients without prior sternotomy were studied using polychromatic flow cytometry interrogating markers of lymphocyte maturation, exhaustion and senescence. Group differences were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests. Eighteen ACHD patients aged 21-40 years participated: 10 cases and 8 controls. Median age at sternotomy for cases was 52 days. Cases and controls were matched for age (28.9 vs. 29.1 years; p = 0.83), gender (p = 0.15) and race (p = 0.62) and had similar case complexity. Cases had a lower mean percentage of cytotoxic CD8 lymphocytes compared to controls (26.8 vs. 33.9 %; p = 0.016), with fewer naive, undifferentiated CD8 T cells (31.0 vs. 53.6 %; p = 0.027). CD8 cells expressing PD1, a marker of immune exhaustion, trended higher in cases versus controls (25.6 vs. 19.0 %; p = 0.083). Mean percentage of CD4 cells was higher in cases versus controls (65.6 vs. 59.6 %; p = 0.027), without differences in CD4 T cell maturation subtype. In summary, ACHD patients who undergo sternotomy as infants exhibit differences in T lymphocyte composition compared to ACHD controls, suggesting accelerated immunologic exhaustion. Investigation is warranted to assess the progressive nature and clinical impact of this immune phenotypic change.

  15. Maternal zinc status is associated with breast milk zinc concentration and zinc status in breastfed infants aged 4-6 months.

    PubMed

    Dumrongwongsiri, Oraporn; Suthutvoravut, Umaporn; Chatvutinun, Suthida; Phoonlabdacha, Phanphen; Sangcakul, Areeporn; Siripinyanond, Artitaya; Thiengmanee, Usana; Chongviriyaphan, Nalinee

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk provides adequate nutrients during the first 6 months of life. However, there are some reports of zinc deficiency in breastfed infants. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency in infants aged 4-6 months and the associated factors. Healthy infants aged 4-6 months and their mothers were enrolled. They were classified by feeding types as breastfed (BF), formula-fed (FF), and mixed groups (MF). Data collection included demographic data, perinatal data, given diets, and anthropometric measurement. Blood from infants and lactating mothers, and breast milk samples were collected to assess plasma and breast milk zinc concentrations. From 158 infants, the prevalence of zinc deficiency (plasma level below 10.7 mol/L) was 7.6%, and according to feeding groups 14.9%, 5.3%, and 2.9% in the BF, the FF, and the MF groups, respectively. Breastfed infants with zinc deficiency had significantly lower maternal zinc concentrations compared with those without zinc deficiency. There was a higher proportion of maternal zinc deficiency in zinc-deficient infants than those without zinc deficiency (66.7% vs 16.2%, p=0.02). There was a positive correlation between zinc concentrations in breast milk and plasma zinc concentrations of infants (r=0.62, p=0.01) and plasma zinc concentrations of lactating mothers (r=0.56, p=0.016). Using the regression analysis, infant zinc status was associated with maternal plasma zinc concentrations among breastfed infants. The results of this study suggest that breastfed infants aged 4-6 months may have a risk of zinc deficiency and that risk is associated with maternal zinc status and breast milk zinc concentrations.

  16. The effect of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on infants' response to the Still Face Task from newborn to three months of age.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Ann E; Power, Michelle

    2012-04-01

    The effect of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on infants' developing social expectations for maternal behavior was investigated longitudinally over infants' first 3 months. Infants with and without skin-to-skin contact engaged with their mothers in the Still Face Task at ages 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months. Infants with skin-to-skin contact began responding to changes in their mothers' behavior with their affect at 1 month; infants without skin-to-skin contact did so at 2 months. At 3 months, infants with skin-to-skin contact increased their non-distress vocalizations during the still face phase, suggesting social bidding to their mothers. Skin-to-skin contact accelerated infants' social expectations for their mothers' behavior and enhanced infants' awareness of themselves as active agents in social interactions.

  17. A Factor-Analytic Study of Mother-Infant Interaction at Ages Twelve and Twenty-Four Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaskir, John; Lewis, Michael

    In order to specify the factor structure and stability of infant and maternal behavior, mother/infant interaction was observed when infants were 12 and 24 months of age. Mothers and infants observed in dyadic interaction in a playroom during a 15-minute free play period represented a heterogeneous sample across gender, socioeconomic status, and…

  18. The Flint Infant Security Scale for Infants Aged 3 to 24 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Betty M.

    The Flint Infant Security Scale measures an infant's behavior in order to establish the child's ability to accept dependence upon their caretaker and to put forth effort when the occasion calls for it. Both these aspects of behavior are reflections of the child's sense of security and feeling of self-worth. The Scale, consisting of the Manual and…

  19. Risk factors for small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    McCowan, Lesley; Horgan, Richard P

    2009-12-01

    There are many established risk factors for babies who are small for gestational age (SGA) by population birth weight centiles (usually defined as <10th centile). The confirmed maternal risk factors include short stature, low weight, Indian or Asian ethnicity, nulliparity, mother born SGA, cigarette smoking and cocaine use. Maternal medical history of: chronic hypertension, renal disease, anti-phospholipid syndrome and malaria are associated with increased SGA. Risk factors developing in pregnancy include heavy bleeding in early pregnancy, placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension. A short or very long inter-pregnancy interval, previous SGA infant or previous stillbirth are also risk factors. Paternal factors including changed paternity, short stature and father born SGA also contribute. Factors associated with reduced risk of SGA or increased birth weight include high maternal milk consumption and high intakes of green leafy vegetables and fruit. Future studies need to investigate risk factors for babies SGA by customised centiles as these babies have greater morbidity and mortality than babies defined as SGA by population centiles.

  20. Voluntary Group Participation by Third Age Australians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Claire; Swindell, Rick

    A study investigated characteristics of retirees and types of voluntary groups they joined after retirement. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and completed questionnaires of 206 Australians over age 50. Five categories of voluntary organizations were studied: intellectually challenging, sporting/exercise, social, helping others,…

  1. Reliability of Neurobehavioral Assessments from Birth to Term Equivalent Age in Preterm and Term Born Infants.

    PubMed

    Eeles, Abbey L; Olsen, Joy E; Walsh, Jennifer M; McInnes, Emma K; Molesworth, Charlotte M L; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Spittle, Alicia J

    2017-02-01

    Neurobehavioral assessments provide insight into the functional integrity of the developing brain and help guide early intervention for preterm (<37 weeks' gestation) infants. In the context of shorter hospital stays, clinicians often need to assess preterm infants prior to term equivalent age. Few neurobehavioral assessments used in the preterm period have established interrater reliability.

  2. Age-related outcomes of sleep apnea surgery in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, J S; Cohen, S R; Burstein, F D; Simms, C

    1997-05-01

    This study was designed to determine whether age at the time of surgery is an important influencing factor on outcomes following surgical correction of severe refractory obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in infants and children. Data were collected prospectively on 55 children, all with severe OSA refractory to conservative medical and surgical measures, who underwent combinations of soft-tissue and skeletal procedures aimed at relieving their airway obstruction. The study population was subdivided for analysis into three groups based on age at the time of surgery (> 36 months, > 12 to < 36 months, and < or = 12 months). Each child was assessed for clinical outcomes, polysomnography results, and complications. Children in the > 36 months group demonstrated a significant improvement in respiratory disturbance index (RDI), apnea index, and lowest overnight oxygen saturation postoperatively. Only RDI improved significantly in the > 12 to < 36 months group. Although there was a trend toward improvement in the respiratory indices for the children < or = 12 months of age, they had a significantly longer intensive care and hospital stay, a greater mean number of extubation attempts, and the highest surgical failure rate (29%). Other complications such as infection, atelectasis, or temporary postoperative nasopharyngeal tube dependence occurred most frequently in the > 36 months group. Surgical management of severe refractory OSA in children age < or = 12 months is more difficult and less likely to succeed. The reasons for this are discussed and recommendations for management are given.

  3. [The electrocardiogram in the paediatric age group].

    PubMed

    Sanches, M; Coelho, A; Oliveira, E; Lopes, A

    2014-09-01

    A properly interpreted electrocardiogram (ECG) provides important information and is an inexpensive and easy test to perform. It continues to be the method of choice for the diagnosis of arrhythmias. Although the principles of cardiac electrophysiology are the same, there are anatomical and physiological age-dependent changes which produce specific alterations in the paediatric ECG, and which may be misinterpreted as pathological. The intention of this article is to address in a systematic way the most relevant aspects of the paediatric ECG, to propose a possible reading scheme of the ECG and to review the electrocardiograph tracings most frequently found in the paediatric age group.

  4. Risk factors for Group B Streptococcus colonisation and disease in Gambian women and their infants

    PubMed Central

    Le Doare, K.; Jarju, S.; Darboe, S.; Warburton, F.; Gorringe, A.; Heath, P.T.; Kampmann, B.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives To determine risk factors for GBS colonisation in Gambian mothers and in their infants from birth to day 60–89 of age. Methods Swabs and breastmilk from mothers/infant pairs were collected and cultured on selective agar. Negative samples were analysed for GBS DNA via real-time PCR. Positive isolates were serotyped using multiplex PCR and gel-agarose electrophoresis. Results Seven hundred and fifty women/infant pairs were recruited. 253 women (33.7%) were GBS-colonised at delivery. The predominant serotypes were: V (55%), II (16%), III (10%), Ia (8%) and Ib (8%). 186 infants were colonised (24.8%) at birth, 181 (24.1%) at 6 days and 96 at day 60–89 (14%). Infants born before 34 weeks of gestation and to women with rectovaginal and breastmilk colonisation at delivery had increased odds of GBS colonisation at birth. Season of birth was associated with increased odds of persistent infant GBS colonisation (dry season vs. wet season AOR 2.9; 95% CI 1.6–5.2). Conclusion GBS colonisation is common in Gambian women at delivery and in their infants to day 60−89 and is dominated by serotype V. In addition to maternal colonisation, breastmilk and season of birth are important risk factors for infant GBS colonisation. PMID:26763186

  5. Effect of the INSIGHT Responsive Parenting Intervention on Rapid Infant Weight Gain and Overweight Status at Age 1 Year

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jennifer S.; Birch, Leann L.; Marini, Michele; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Paul, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Rapid infant weight gain is associated with later obesity, but interventions to prevent rapid infant growth and reduce risk for overweight status in infancy are lacking. OBJECTIVE To examine the effect of a responsive parenting (RP) intervention on infant weight gain between birth and 28 weeks and overweight status at age 1 year. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) study is an ongoing randomized clinical trial comparing an RP intervention designed to prevent childhood obesity with a safety control. The study includes primiparous mother-newborn dyads (n = 291) and was conducted at the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania, in addition to home visits. Enrollment was initiated in January 2012, and evaluable population analyses for this study were conducted between April 2015 and November 2015. INTERVENTIONS At 2 weeks post partum, initial intervention materials appropriate to the assigned treatment group were mailed to the participant’s home. Research nurses conducted home visits at 3 weeks, 16 weeks, 28 weeks, and 40 weeks, and a research center visit occurred at 1 year. The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories curriculum included messages about infant feeding, sleep hygiene, active social play, emotion regulation, and growth record education. The control group received a developmentally appropriate home safety intervention also delivered by nurse home visitors. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Conditional weight gain from birth to 28 weeks was calculated. General linear models examined intervention effect on conditional weight gain. The intervention’s effect on infant weight-for-length percentiles was tested using analysis of variance. Logistic regression compared the odds of overweight status (weight for length ≥95th percentile) at 1 year as a function of conditional weight gain. RESULTS Of the mothers included in the

  6. The economic costs of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease: prospective cohort study of infants with GBS disease in England.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Elizabeth-Ann; Petrou, Stavros; Balfour, Gail; Edamma, Oya; Heath, Paul T

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the economic costs over the first 2 years of life of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease occurring in infants less than 90 days of age. A cost analysis was conducted using a prospective cohort of children born between 2000 and 2003 in the Greater London, Oxford, Portsmouth and Bristol areas of England. Unit costs were applied to estimates of the health and social resource use made by 138 infants diagnosed with GBS disease and 305 non-GBS controls matched for birth weight and hospital stay and time of birth. The health and social care costs for infants exposed to GBS disease were analysed in a multiple linear regression model. The mean health and social care cost over the first 2 years of life was estimated at pound11,968.9 for infants with GBS, compared to pound6,260.7 for the non-GBS controls; a mean cost difference of pound5,708.1 (bootstrap 95% CI pound2,977.1, pound8,391.2, P=0.03). After adjusting for gestational age and other potential confounders in a multiple linear regression, mean societal costs was pound6,144.7 higher among GBS cases than among non-GBS controls (P<0.001). This study shows that the health and social care costs for infants with GBS disease is, on average, two-fold higher during the first 2 years of life than for infants without GBS disease. These data should be used to inform policy decisions regarding the cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment strategies for GBS disease during early childhood.

  7. Former Very Preterm Infants Show an Unfavorable Cardiovascular Risk Profile at a Preschool Age

    PubMed Central

    Posod, Anna; Odri Komazec, Irena; Kager, Katrin; Pupp Peglow, Ulrike; Griesmaier, Elke; Schermer, Elisabeth; Würtinger, Philipp; Baumgartner, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Evidence points towards an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile of former preterm infants in adolescence and adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiovascular risk predictors are detectable in former very preterm infants at a preschool age. Five- to seven-year-old children born at <32 weeks’ gestational age were included in the study. Same-aged children born at term served as controls. Basic data of study participants were collected by means of follow-up databases and standardized questionnaires. At study visit, anthropometric data, blood pressure readings and aortic intima-media thickness were assessed. Blood samples were obtained after an overnight fast. In comparison to children born at term, former preterm infants had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] per 1-SD higher blood pressure level 3.2 [2.0–5.0], p<0.001 and 1.6 [1.1–1.2], p = 0.008), fasting glucose levels (OR [95% CI] 5.2 [2.7–10.1], p<0.001), homeostasis model assessment index (OR [95% CI] 1.6 [1.0–2.6], p = 0.036), and cholesterol levels (OR [95% CI] 2.1 [1.3–3.4], p = 0.002). Systolic prehypertension (23.7% vs. 2.2%; OR [95% CI] 13.8 [3.1–60.9], p = 0.001), elevated glucose levels (28.6% vs. 5.9%; OR [95% CI] 6.4 [1.4–28.8], p = 0.016), and hypercholesterolemia (77.4% vs. 52.9%; OR [95% CI] 3.0 [1.3–7.1], p = 0.010) were significantly more prevalent in the preterm group. As former very preterm infants display an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile already at a preschool age, implementation of routine cardiovascular follow-up programs might be warranted. PMID:27959909

  8. A Progress Report: The Relationship Between Mother-Infant Interaction and Sensory-Motor Development According to Age, Sex and Social Class Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curcio, Frank; And Others

    This paper describes the purposes and procedures of a longitudinal study designed to: (1) relate mother-infant interaction patterns to infant age, sex, and social class; (2) relate mother-infant interaction patterns to infant sensory-motor development; and (3) to examine the relationship between infant sensory-motor development and infant sex and…

  9. Maternal exposure to household chemicals and risk of infant leukemia: A report from the Children's Oncology Group1

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Megan E.; Linabery, Amy M.; Spector, Logan G.; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Hilden, Joanne M.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Robison, Leslie L.; Ross, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Utilizing data from the largest study to date, we examined associations between maternal preconception/prenatal exposure to household chemicals and infant acute leukemia. Methods We present data from a Children's Oncology Group case-control study of 443 infants (<1 year of age) diagnosed with acute leukemia (including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML)) between 1996-2006 and 324 population controls. Mothers recalled household chemical use one month before and throughout pregnancy. We used unconditional logistic regression adjusted for birth year, maternal age, and race/ethnicity to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results We did not find evidence for an association between infant leukemia and eight of nine chemical categories. However, exposure to petroleum products during pregnancy was associated with AML (OR=2.54; 95% CI:1.40-4.62) and leukemia without mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene rearrangements (“MLL-”) (OR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.47-4.93). No associations were observed for exposure in the month before pregnancy. Conclusions Gestational exposure to petroleum products was associated with infant leukemia, particularly AML and MLL- cases. Benzene is implicated as a potential carcinogen within this exposure category, but a clear biological mechanism has yet to be elucidated. PMID:21691732

  10. Single priming dose of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine (NeisVac-C®) in infants.

    PubMed

    Poellabauer, Eva-Maria; Pavlova, Borislava G; Fritsch, Sandor; Singer, Julia; Neubauer, Christian; Doralt, Jennifer; Valenta-Singer, Barbara; Ehrlich, Hartmut J

    2013-08-02

    Since the introduction of the meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) vaccine in the pediatric population in 1999, numerous clinical studies have confirmed the immunogenicity and safety of the NeisVac-C(®) vaccine, and several have observed a strong immune response after a single priming dose, which could be successfully boosted. Maximizing protection of infants with as few vaccine doses as possible would increase the general acceptability of the immunization strategies and support broader coverage without increasing vaccination costs. This was a randomized feasibility study of a single priming NeisVac-C(®) vaccine dose administered at 4 or 6 months of age, compared to the currently licensed two dose priming at 2 and 4 months of age, followed by a booster vaccination at 12-13 months of age. High seroprotection rates and serum bactericidal antibody (rSBA) titers were observed in all study groups, whether a single or two dose priming vaccination was administered, at all time points investigated: one month after the priming vaccination(s) (>99% of subjects rSBA≥8), prior to booster vaccination (>65% of subjects with rSBA≥8, with the lowest titers and GMTs seen in the two dose priming group), as well as after booster vaccination administration (99% with rSBA≥128 in all three study groups, with the highest GMT of 2472 seen in the 4 month single dose group). This study confirmed trends seen in previous reports that a single-dose priming vaccination at 4 or 6 months of age can be considered a valuable alternative to the currently licensed two-dose priming vaccination schedule.

  11. Stereopsis Results at 4.5 Years of Age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Stout, Ann U.; Lynn, Michael J.; Yen, Kimberly G.; Kruger, Stacey J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether stereopsis of infants treated for monocular cataracts varies with the type of optical correction used. Design Randomized prospective clinical trial Methods The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study randomized 114 patients with unilateral cataracts at age 1 to 7 months to either primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens correction. At 4.5 years of age a masked examiner assessed stereopsis on these patients using three different tests: 1) Frisby; 2) Randot Preschool; and 3) Titmus fly. Results Twenty-eight patients (25%) had a positive response to at least one of the stereopsis tests. There was no statistically significant difference in stereopsis between the two treatment groups. Frisby (contact lens, 6 (11%); IOL, 7 (13%); p=0.99), Randot (contact lens, 3 (6%); IOL, 1 (2%); p=0.62) or Titmus: (contact lens, 8 (15%); IOL, 13 (23%); p=0.34). The median age at surgery for patients with stereopsis was younger than for those without stereopsis (1.2 versus 2.4 months; p=0.002). The median visual acuity for patients with stereopsis was better than for those without stereopsis (20/40 vs. 20/252; p=0.0003). Conclusion The type of optical correction did not influence stereopsis outcomes. However, two other factors did: age at surgery and visual acuity in the treated eye at age 4.5 years. Early surgery for unilateral congenital cataract and the presence of visual acuity better than or equal to 20/40 appear to be more important than the type of initial optical correction used for the development of stereopsis. PMID:25261241

  12. Do Infant Temperament Characteristics Predict Core Academic Abilities in Preschool-Aged Children?

    PubMed Central

    Gartstein, Maria A.; Putnam, Sam; Kliewer, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Examined relationships between temperament, measured via parent report at 4 months and structures laboratory observations at 12 months of age, and a school readiness battery administered at about 4 years of age (N=31). Scores on the School Readiness Assessment of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) were related to infant Positive Affectivity/Surgency (PAS), with infants described as demonstrating higher levels of PAS at 4 months of age later demonstrating greater school readiness in the domains of color, letter, and number skills. Regulatory Capacity/Orienting (RCO) at 4 months also predicted color skills, with more regulated infants demonstrating superior pre-academic functioning in this area. Analyses involving laboratory observations of temperament provided additional information concerning the importance of infant Positive Affectivity/Surgency, predictive of overall letter skills and overall school-readiness scores later in childhood. Results are discussed in the context of implications for theory and research, as well as early education settings. PMID:26949323

  13. Association of RNA Biosignatures With Bacterial Infections in Febrile Infants Aged 60 Days or Younger

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Prashant; Kuppermann, Nathan; Mejias, Asuncion; Suarez, Nicolas; Chaussabel, Damien; Casper, T. Charles; Smith, Bennett; Alpern, Elizabeth R.; Anders, Jennifer; Atabaki, Shireen M.; Bennett, Jonathan E.; Blumberg, Stephen; Bonsu, Bema; Borgialli, Dominic; Brayer, Anne; Browne, Lorin; Cohen, Daniel M.; Crain, Ellen F.; Cruz, Andrea T.; Dayan, Peter S.; Gattu, Rajender; Greenberg, Richard; Hoyle, John D.; Jaffe, David M.; Levine, Deborah A.; Lillis, Kathleen; Linakis, James G.; Muenzer, Jared; Nigrovic, Lise E.; Powell, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, Alexander J.; Roosevelt, Genie; Ruddy, Richard M.; Saunders, Mary; Tunik, Michael G.; Tzimenatos, Leah; Vitale, Melissa; Dean, J. Michael; Ramilo, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Young febrile infants are at substantial risk of serious bacterial infections; however, the current culture-based diagnosis has limitations. Analysis of host expression patterns (“RNA biosignatures”) in response to infections may provide an alternative diagnostic approach. OBJECTIVE To assess whether RNA biosignatures can distinguish febrile infants aged 60 days or younger with and without serious bacterial infections. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective observational study involving a convenience sample of febrile infants 60 days or younger evaluated for fever (temperature >38° C) in 22 emergency departments from December 2008 to December 2010 who underwent laboratory evaluations including blood cultures. A random sample of infants with and without bacterial infections was selected for RNA biosignature analysis. Afebrile healthy infants served as controls. Blood samples were collected for cultures and RNA biosignatures. Bioinformatics tools were applied to define RNA biosignatures to classify febrile infants by infection type. EXPOSURE RNA biosignatures compared with cultures for discriminating febrile infants with and without bacterial infections and infants with bacteremia from those without bacterial infections. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Bacterial infection confirmed by culture. Performance of RNA biosignatures was compared with routine laboratory screening tests and Yale Observation Scale (YOS) scores. RESULTS Of 1883 febrile infants (median age, 37 days; 55.7%boys), RNA biosignatures were measured in 279 randomly selected infants (89 with bacterial infections—including 32 with bacteremia and 15 with urinary tract infections—and 190 without bacterial infections), and 19 afebrile healthy infants. Sixty-six classifier genes were identified that distinguished infants with and without bacterial infections in the test set with 87%(95%CI, 73%-95%) sensitivity and 89% (95%CI, 81%-93%) specificity. Ten classifier genes distinguished

  14. Group structure predicts variation in proximity relationships between male-female and male-infant pairs of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, S; Maldonado-Chaparro, A A; Stoinski, T S

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between conspecifics are influenced by both ecological factors and the social organization they live in. Systematic variation of both--consistent with predictions derived from socioecology models--is well documented, but there is considerable variation within species and populations that is poorly understood. The mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei) is unusual because, despite possessing morphology associated with male contest competition (e.g., extreme sexual dimorphism), they are regularly observed in both single-male and multimale groups. Both male-female and male-infant bonds are strong because males provide protection against infanticide and/or predation. Risk of these threats varies with social structure, which may influence the strength of social relationships among group members (including females and offspring, if females with lower infant mortality risk are less protective of infants). Here, we investigate the relationship between group structure and the strength of proximity relationships between males and females, males and infants, and females and offspring. Data come from 10 social groups containing 1-7 adult males, monitored by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund's Karisoke Research Center in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. After controlling for group size and infant age, association strength was similar for male-female pairs across group types with both dominant and nondominant males, but male-infant relationships were strongest in single-male groups where paternity certainty was high and animals had fewer social partners to choose from. The male:female and male:infant ratios better predicted both male-female and male-infant associations than the absolute number of males, females, or infants did. The fewer the number of males per female or infant, the more both pair types associated. Dominant males in groups containing fewer males had higher eigenvector centrality (a measure of importance in a social network) than dominant males in groups

  15. Neutral oligosaccharides in feces of breastfed and formula-fed infants at different ages.

    PubMed

    Dotz, Viktoria; Adam, Rüdiger; Lochnit, Günter; Schroten, Horst; Kunz, Clemens

    2016-12-01

    Beneficial effects have been proposed for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), as deduced from in vitro and animal studies. To date, in vivo evidence of the link between certain oligosaccharide structures in milk and their consumption by infant gut microbiota is still missing, although likely. Whereas many studies have described HMO patterns in human milk from larger cohorts, data on the excretion of HMO and possible metabolites produced in the infant gut are still very limited. From smaller-scale studies, an age-dependency according to infant gut maturation and microbiota adaptation has previously been hypothesized. To further investigate this, we profiled neutral fecal oligosaccharides from term-born infants who were exclusively breastfed, formula-fed or mixed-fed at the age of 2 months, and from a follow-up of a subgroup at 7 months of age (INFABIO study). Data on maternal antibiotic exposure was also included. Automated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of HMO and metabolites in the feces of most, but not all breastfed infants at 2 months, with highly varying patterns that appeared not to differ with maternal antibiotics exposure. Formula-fed infants at 2 months and most of the breastfed infants at 7 months did not excrete HMO-like structures in their feces, the latter corresponding to the hypothesis of age-dependency. Together with our previous results that were partly contradictory to what has been proposed by others, here, we suggest alternative explanations for the described association of oligosaccharide excretion with age and feeding type in infants below 7 months of age.

  16. Gestational age, sex and maternal parity correlate with bone turnover in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Aly, Hany; Moustafa, Mohamed F; Amer, Hanna A; Hassanein, Sahar; Keeves, Christine; Patel, Kantilal

    2005-05-01

    Factors affecting bone turnover in premature infants are not entirely clear but certainly are different from those influencing bones of adults and children. To identify fetal and maternal factors that might influence bone turnover, we prospectively studied 50 infants (30 preterm and 20 full-term) born at Ain Shams University Obstetric Hospital in Cairo, Egypt. Maternal parity and medical history and infant's weight, gestational age, gender and anthropometrical measurements were recorded. Cord blood samples were collected and serum type I collagen C-terminal propeptide (PICP) was assessed as a marker for fetal bone formation. First morning urine samples were collected and pyridinoline cross-links of collagen (Pyd) were measured as an index for bone resorption. Serum PICP was higher in premature infants when compared with full-term infants (73.30 +/- 15.1 versus 64.3 +/- 14.7, p = 0.022) and was higher in male premature infants when compared with females (81.64 +/- 9.06 versus 66.0 +/- 15.7, p = 0.018). In a multiple regression model using PICP as the dependent variable and controlling for different infant and maternal conditions, PICP significantly correlated with infant gender (r = 8.26 +/- 4.1, p = 0.05) maternal parity (r = -2.106 +/- 0.99, p = 0.041) and diabetes (r = 22.488 +/- 8.73, p = 0.041). Urine Pyd tended to increase in premature infants (612 +/- 308 versus 434 +/- 146, p = 0.057) and correlated significantly with gestational age (r = -63.93 +/- 19.55, p = 0.002). Therefore, bone formation (PICP) is influenced by fetal age and gender, as well as maternal parity and diabetes. Bone resorption (Pyd) is mostly dependent on gestational age only. Further in-depth studies are needed to enrich management of this vulnerable population.

  17. The Importance of Properly Compensating for Head Movements During MEG Acquisition Across Different Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric; Taulu, Samu

    2017-03-01

    Unlike EEG sensors, which are attached to the head, MEG sensors are located outside the head surface on a fixed external device. Subject head movements during acquisition thus distort the magnetic field distributions measured by the sensors. Previous studies have looked at the effect of head movements, but no study has comprehensively looked at the effect of head movements across age groups, particularly in infants. Using MEG recordings from subjects ranging in age from 3 months through adults, here we first quantify the variability in head position as a function of age group. We then combine these measured head movements with brain activity simulations to determine how head movements bias source localization from sensor magnetic fields measured during movement. We find that large amounts of head movement, especially common in infant age groups, can result in large localization errors. We then show that proper application of head movement compensation techniques can restore localization accuracy to pre-movement levels. We also find that proper noise covariance estimation (e.g., during the baseline period) is important to minimize localization bias following head movement compensation. Our findings suggest that head position measurement during acquisition and compensation during analysis is recommended for researchers working with subject populations or age groups that could have substantial head movements. This is especially important in infant MEG studies.

  18. The Amount of Language Exposure Determines Nonlinguistic Tone Grouping Biases in Infants from a Bilingual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Monika; Lallier, Marie; Carreiras, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Duration-based auditory grouping preferences are presumably shaped by language experience in adults and infants, unlike intensity-based grouping that is governed by a universal bias of a loud-soft preference. It has been proposed that duration-based rhythmic grouping preferences develop as a function of native language phrasal prosody.…

  19. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  20. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  1. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  2. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  3. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  4. Dose of house dust mite antigen (P1) inhaled by infants aged one month

    SciTech Connect

    Carswell, F.; Clark, J.; Robinson, P.; Platts-Mills, T.A.

    1983-11-01

    A survey of the habitats occupied by 12 infants of one month of age revealed that approximately 10% of their day was spent in conditions of potential exposure to the major (P1) allergen of the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. A respiratory pump which reproduced the minute ventilation of an infant was placed in representative infant habitats. The P1 allergen trapped by the filter in this pump was measured as an estimate of infants' allergen intake. Detectable P1 intake was only present when there was active air disturbance (bed making and vacuuming). The average P1 intake was approximately 3 ng P1/24 hours. Comparison of this P1 intake with that which sensitizes in other situations suggests that it is usually inadequate to sensitize infants.

  5. Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Infant Size for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Sneha B.; Xu, Fei; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain is known to influence fetal growth. However, it is unclear whether the associations between gestational weight gain and fetal growth vary by trimester. In a diverse cohort of 8,977 women who delivered a singleton between 2011 and 2013, we evaluated the associations between trimester-specific gestational weight gain and infant size for gestational age. Gestational weight gain was categorized per the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; meeting the recommendations was the referent. Large for gestational age and small for gestational age were defined as birthweight > 90th percentile or <10th percentile, respectively, based on a national reference standard birthweight distribution. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of having a large or small for gestational age versus an appropriate for gestational age infant. Only gestational weight gain exceeding the IOM recommendations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters independently increased the odds of delivering a large for gestational age infant (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 1st: 1.17 [0.94, 1.44], 2nd: 1.47 [1.13, 1.92], 3rd: 1.70 [1.30, 2.22]). Gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester only (1.76 [1.23, 2.52]). There was effect modification, and gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester and only among women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index from 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 (2.06 [1.35, 3.15]). These findings indicate that gestational weight gain during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters is more strongly associated with infant growth. Interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain may optimize infant size at birth. PMID:27442137

  6. Cerebellar Volume and Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at Term, and Neurodevelopment at 2 Years of Age in Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kooij, Britt J. M.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Anbeek, Petronella; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; de Vries, Linda S.; Groenendaal, Floris

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess the relation between cerebellar volume and spectroscopy at term equivalent age, and neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age in preterm infants. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed around term equivalent age in 112 preterm infants (mean gestational age 28wks 3d [SD 1wk 5d]; birthweight 1129g [SD 324g]).…

  7. New versus old meningococcal Group B vaccines: How the new ones may benefit infants & toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Panatto, D.; Amicizia, D.; Lai, PL.; Cristina, ML.; Domnich, A.; Gasparini, R.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis is associated with high mortality and high disability rates and mainly affects children under one year of age. Vaccination is the best way to prevent meningococcal disease, especially in infants and toddlers. The introduction of massive meningococcal serogroup C vaccination has drastically reduced the incidence of disease caused by this serogroup, and serogroup B has now become the main causative agent in several industrialized countries. The first serogroup B vaccines, which were used for more than two decades, were based on outer membrane vesicles and proved to be protective only against specific epidemic strains in Cuba, Norway, Brazil and New Zealand. Moreover, these often elicited a scant immune response in young children. Innovative genomics-based reverse vaccinology subsequently enabled researchers to identify genes encoding for surface proteins that are able to elicit a strong immune response against several B strains. This important discovery led to the development and recent approval in Europe of the four-component meningococcal serogroup B (4CMenB) vaccine. Large clinical trials have shown high immunogenicity and tolerability and acceptable safety levels of 4CMenB in infants and toddlers. This vaccine is expected to cover a large number of circulating invasive strains and may also be efficacious against other serogroups. Young children are particularly vulnerable to the devastating consequences of meningococcal disease. Given the high performance of 4CMenB and its non-interference with routine vaccinations, this age-group will be the first to benefit from the introduction of this vaccine. PMID:24521624

  8. Schistosoma mansoni in infants (aged < 3 years) along the Ugandan shoreline of Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Odogwu, S E; Ramamurthy, N K; Kabatereine, N B; Kazibwe, F; Tukahebwa, E; Webster, J P; Fenwick, A; Stothard, J R

    2006-06-01

    In two complementary epidemiological surveys of villages on the Ugandan shoreline of Lake Victoria, the putative occurrence of intestinal schistosomiasis in the local infants (children aged < 3 years) was investigated. When, during the first survey, 136 mother-and-infant pairs from a total of 12 villages were studied, only 7% of the infants but 45% of the mothers were found to be egg-patent for Schistosoma mansoni infection. The use of dipstick tests for urine-circulating cathodic antigen indicated, however, a much higher prevalence, of approximately 40%, among the infants. In the second survey, urine samples and multiple, not single, stool samples were collected from another 19 mother-and-infant pairs in two of the 12 study villages (Bugoto and Bwondha), and a standardized questionnaire was implemented. The prevalence of egg-patent infection was then found to be markedly higher in the study infants from Bugoto (86%) than in those from Bwondha (25%). A greater level of mother-and-infant water contact, a higher abundance of (infected) Biomphalaria choanomphala, and an unusual lakeshore topology may explain why S. mansoni infection was so much more common in the Bugoto subjects than in the Bwondha. All but one of the infants studied in the second survey were found to be anaemic (with <110 g haemoglobin/litre). Taken together, these children were less likely to be found infected with hookworm (16%), Hymenolepis nana (11%) or Trichuris trichiura (5%) than with S. mansoni (47%). Infection with the parasites causing intestinal schistosomiasis can be common among the infants living in these lakeshore villages. Although the immediate and later-life clinical impacts of such infection have yet to be elucidated, such infants would probably benefit from regular de-worming. Mothers should be strongly encouraged to visit the nearest health-services clinic, with their infants, for any necessary anthelmintic treatment.

  9. Incidence and Burden of Pertussis Among Infants Less Than 1 Year of Age

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Carolyn K.; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Becker, Laura K.; Buikema, Ami; Tan, Tina Q.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Infant-specific pertussis data, especially among neonates, are limited and variable. This study (NCT01890850) provides overall and age-specific pertussis incidence and associated health care utilization and costs among commercially insured infants in the US. Methods: Nearly 1.2 million infants born from 2005 to 2010 with commercial health plan coverage were followed during their first 12 months of life. Pertussis cases were identified from medical claims (International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification code: 033.0, 033.9, 484.3), and incidence rates were calculated. Each pertussis case was then matched to 10 comparators, so pertussis-related health care utilization and costs before and after the index date could be assessed. Results: The overall pertussis incidence rate among infants <12 months of age was 117.7/100,000 person-years; infants 3 months of age had the highest incidence rate (247.7/100,000 person-years). Infants diagnosed with pertussis were significantly more likely to have prior diagnoses of upper respiratory infection, cough and wheezing-related illnesses than comparators (P < 0.001). Pertussis cases were more likely to be hospitalized within 14 days after the index date (31.8% vs. 0.5%; P < 0.001) and their adjusted health care costs during follow-up were 2.82 times higher than comparators (P < 0.001; 95% confidence interval: 2.08–3.81). The incremental cost of pertussis during the 12-month follow-up period averaged $8271 (P < 0.001). The average incremental cost varied substantially by age, ranging from $18,781 (P < 0.001) to $3772 (P = 0.02) among infants 1 month and 7–12 months of age, respectively. Conclusions: The health burden of pertussis, particularly in the youngest infants, remains substantial, highlighting the need to intensify efforts to protect this most vulnerable population. PMID:27902648

  10. Overnight Polysomnographic Characteristics and Oxygen Saturation of Healthy Infants, 1 to 18 Months of Age, Born and Residing At High Altitude (2,640 Meters)

    PubMed Central

    Bazurto-Zapata, María A.; Gozal, David; González-García, Mauricio; Durán-Cantolla, Joaquín; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 8% of the world population resides above 1,600 m, with about 10 million people living above 2,500 m in Colombia. However, reference values for polysomnography (PSG) and oxygen saturation (Spo2) of children < 2 years old residing at high altitude are currently unavailable. METHODS: Healthy infants aged 1 to 18 months born and residing at high altitude (Bogotá: 2,640 m) underwent overnight PSG. Four age groups were defined: group 1, < 45 days; group 2, 3 to 4 months; group 3, 6 to 7 months; and group 4, 10 to 18 months. Of 122 children enrolled, 50 had three consecutive PSG tests and were analyzed as a longitudinal subcohort. RESULTS: A total of 281 PSG tests were performed in 122 infants (56% girls): group 1, 106 PSG tests; group 2, 89 PSG tests; group 3, 61 PSG tests; and group 4, 25 PSG tests. Active sleep diminished and quiet sleep increased with maturation. Apnea-hypopnea indexes (total, central, and obstructive) were highest in group 1 (21.4, 12.4, and 6.8/h total sleep time, respectively) and diminished with age (P < .001). Mean Spo2 during waking and sleep increased with age (P < .001). Nadir Spo2 values during respiratory events were lower in younger infants. Longitudinal assessments of 50 infants confirmed the temporal trends described for the cross-sectional dataset. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy infants (≤ 18 months old) born and residing at high altitude show preserved sleep architecture but higher apnea-hypopnea indexes and more prominent desaturation with respiratory events than do those living at low altitude. The current study findings can be used as reference values for infants at high altitude. PMID:25811138

  11. Age-associated effect of kestose on Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and symptoms in the atopic dermatitis infants

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Yasuhiro; Tokunaga, Shouji; Nagano, Jun; Sato, Fuyuhiko; Konishi, Kenta; Tochio, Takumi; Murakami, Youko; Masumoto, Natsuko; Tezuka, Jun-ichirou; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Kubo, Chiharu; Shibata, Rumiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a major bacterium in the intestine of adults, which is known to have anti-inflammatory effects, the development in infants or the response to prebiotics remains unclear. Methods: The counts of F. prausnitzii in the feces were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fecal samples were obtained from 65 atopic dermatitis (AD) infants who participated in a randomized controlled clinical trial to investigate the therapeutic effect of kestose, the smallest fructooligosaccharide. Results: Although the F. prausnitzii count was undetectable level in most 0- to 1-y-old infants, the count reached a level comparable to that in adults in 2- to 5-y-old infants. The bacterial number increased about 10-fold by oral administration of kestose every day for 12 wk in the younger infants, but not so much in the older infants. This bacterial increase was significantly correlated with an improvement in the AD symptoms in the older infants. Conclusion: The F. prausnitzii population in the intestine reaches a level comparable to that in adult at approximately 2 y of age. Kestose efficiently stimulates the growth of this bacterium in the intestine, which might lead to an improvement in AD symptoms in infants. PMID:27537603

  12. Does Human Milk Modulate Body Composition in Late Preterm Infants at Term-Corrected Age?

    PubMed Central

    Giannì, Maria Lorella; Consonni, Dario; Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Morlacchi, Laura; Piemontese, Pasqua; Menis, Camilla; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2) Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography. The effect of human milk feeding on fat-free mass and fat mass content was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis; (3) Results: Human milk was fed to 68% of the infants. According to multiple regression analysis, being fed any human milk at discharge and at  term-corrected and being fed exclusively human milk at term-corrected age were positively associated with fat-free mass content(β = −47.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = −95.7; −0.18; p = 0.049; β = −89.6, 95% CI = −131.5; −47.7; p < 0.0001; β = −104.1, 95% CI = −151.4; −56.7, p < 0.0001); (4) Conclusion: Human milk feeding appears to be associated with fat-free mass deposition in late preterm infants. Healthcare professionals should direct efforts toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding in these vulnerable infants. PMID:27782098

  13. Does Human Milk Modulate Body Composition in Late Preterm Infants at Term-Corrected Age?

    PubMed

    Giannì, Maria Lorella; Consonni, Dario; Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Morlacchi, Laura; Piemontese, Pasqua; Menis, Camilla; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-10-23

    (1) Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2) Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography. The effect of human milk feeding on fat-free mass and fat mass content was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis; (3) Results: Human milk was fed to 68% of the infants. According to multiple regression analysis, being fed any human milk at discharge and at  term-corrected and being fed exclusively human milk at term-corrected age were positively associated with fat-free mass content(β = -47.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -95.7; -0.18; p = 0.049; β = -89.6, 95% CI = -131.5; -47.7; p < 0.0001; β = -104.1, 95% CI = -151.4; -56.7, p < 0.0001); (4) Conclusion: Human milk feeding appears to be associated with fat-free mass deposition in late preterm infants. Healthcare professionals should direct efforts toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding in these vulnerable infants.

  14. The special status of sad infant faces: age and valence differences in adults' cortical face processing.

    PubMed

    Colasante, Tyler; Mossad, Sarah I; Dudek, Joanna; Haley, David W

    2016-12-20

    Understanding the relative and joint prioritization of age- and valence-related face characteristics in adults' cortical face processing remains elusive because these two characteristics have not been manipulated in a single study of neural face processing. We used electroencephalography to investigate adults' P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses to infant and adult faces with happy and sad facial expressions. Viewing infant vs adult faces was associated with significantly larger P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses, with hemisphere and/or participant gender moderating this effect in select cases. Sad faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses than happy faces. Sad infant faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses in the right hemisphere than all other combinations of face age and face valence characteristics. We discuss the relative and joint neural prioritization of infant face characteristics and negative facial affect, and their biological value as distinct caregiving and social cues.

  15. Infant temperament: stability by age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (< 9 months) interassessment intervals and small to medium for longer (> 10 months) intervals.

  16. Infant Temperament: Stability by Age, Gender, Birth Order, Term Status, and SES

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O’Connor, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the first year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time-points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (<9 months) inter-assessment intervals and small to medium for longer (>10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034

  17. Age-group differences in saccadic interference.

    PubMed

    Gottlob, Lawrence R; Fillmore, Mark T; Abroms, Ben D

    2007-03-01

    We examined age-group differences in a saccadic interference task, which requires that participants execute a saccade (eye movement) toward an abrupt-onset visual target presented to the right or left of fixation. On some trials, we imposed diffuse interference by bilateral (top and bottom) flashes of light presented 20 to 210 ms after target onset. When the flashes followed the cue at shorter intervals, time to execute a saccade was slowed relative to no-flash trials. This slowing was greater and sustained over a larger cue-flash interval for older participants than for the young participants. The results indicate that, when diffuse distractors are used, older adults are more susceptible to saccade disruption than are young adults.

  18. Parenting beliefs and behaviors in northern and southern groups of Italian mothers of young infants.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, M H; Cote, L R; Venuti, P

    2001-12-01

    Similarities and differences in northern and southern Italian mothers' social and didactic parenting beliefs and behaviors, and relations between their beliefs and behaviors, are reported. Both groups of mothers reported that they engaged more in social than didactic interactions with their infants, whereas in actuality both groups engaged in didactic behaviors with their infants for longer periods of time than they engaged in social behaviors. In addition, northern mothers engaged in more social interactions with their infants than did southern mothers. No correlations between beliefs and behaviors emerged in either group. These data speak to issues of intracultural variation and cross-cultural similarities in family psychology and parenting, belief-behavior relations in parenting, and the importance of methodology (parental report or observation) in the study of parenting and family functioning.

  19. Plasmodium falciparum infection and age influence parasite growth inhibition mediated by IgG in Beninese infants.

    PubMed

    Adamou, Rafiou; Chénou, Francine; Sadissou, Ibrahim; Sonon, Paulin; Dechavanne, Célia; Djilali-Saïah, Abdelkader; Cottrell, Gilles; Le Port, Agnès; Massougbodji, Achille; Remarque, Edmond J; Luty, Adrian J F; Sanni, Ambaliou; Garcia, André; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Milet, Jacqueline; Courtin, David

    2016-07-01

    Antibodies that impede the invasion of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) merozoites into erythrocytes play a critical role in anti-malarial immunity. The Growth Inhibition Assay (GIA) is an in vitro measure of the functional capacity of such antibodies to limit erythrocyte invasion and/or parasite growth. Up to now, it is unclear whether growth-inhibitory activity correlates with protection from clinical disease and there are inconsistent results from studies performed with GIA. Studies that have focused on the relationship between IgGs and their in vitro parasite Growth Inhibition Activity (GIAc) in infants aged less than two years old are rare. Here, we used clinical and parasitological data to precisely define symptomatic or asymptomatic infection with P. falciparum in groups of infants followed-up actively for 18 months post-natally. We quantified the levels of IgG1 and IgG3 directed to a panel of candidate P. falciparum vaccine antigens (AMA-1, MSP1, 2, 3 and GLURP) using ELISA and the functional activity of IgG was quantified using GIA. Data were then correlated with individuals' infection status. At 18 months of age, infants harbouring infections at the time of blood sampling had an average 19% less GIAc than those not infected (p=0.004, multivariate linear regression). GIAc decreased from 12 to 18 months of age (p=0.003, Wilcoxon matched pairs test). Antibody levels quantified at 18 months in infants were strongly correlated with their exposure to malarial infection, however GIAc was not correlated with malaria infectious status (asymptomatic and symptomatic groups). In conclusion, both infection status at blood draw and age influence parasite growth inhibition mediated by IgG in the GIA. Both factors must be taken into account when correlations between GIAc and anti-malarial protection or vaccine efficacy have to be made.

  20. Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease in Otherwise Healthy Infants: Failure of Specific Neonatal Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Borghesi, Alessandro; Stronati, Mauro; Fellay, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Only a small proportion of newborn infants exposed to a pathogenic microorganism develop overt infection. Susceptibility to infection in preterm infants and infants with known comorbidities has a likely multifactorial origin and can be often attributed to the concurrence of iatrogenic factors, environmental determinants, underlying pathogenic processes, and probably genetic predisposition. Conversely, infection occurring in otherwise healthy full-term newborn infants is unexplained in most cases. Microbial virulence factors and the unique characteristics of the neonatal immune system only partially account for the interindividual variability in the neonatal immune responses to pathogens. We here suggest that neonatal infection occurring in otherwise healthy infants is caused by a failure of the specific protective immunity to the microorganism. To explain infection in term and preterm infants, we propose an extension of the previously proposed model of the genetic architecture of infectious diseases in humans. We then focus on group B streptococcus (GBS) disease, the best characterized neonatal infection, and outline the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the selective failure of the immune responses against GBS. In light of the recent discoveries of pathogen-specific primary immunodeficiencies and of the role of anticytokine autoantibodies in increasing susceptibility to specific infections, we hypothesize that GBS disease occurring in otherwise healthy infants could reflect an immunodeficiency caused either by rare genetic defects in the infant or by transmitted maternal neutralizing antibodies. These hypotheses are consistent with available epidemiological data, with clinical and epidemiological observations, and with the state of the art of neonatal physiology and disease. Studies should now be designed to comprehensively search for genetic or immunological factors involved in susceptibility to severe neonatal infections. PMID:28326082

  1. Age at Weaning and Infant Growth: Primary Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vail, Brennan; Prentice, Philippa; Dunger, David B.; Hughes, Ieuan A.; Acerini, Carlo L.; Ong, Ken K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test whether earlier age at weaning (age 3-6 months) may promote faster growth during infancy. Study design Weaning at age 3.0-7.0 months was reported by 571 mothers of term singletons in a prospective birth cohort study conducted in Cambridge, UK. Infant weight and length were measured at birth and at age 3 months and 12 months. Anthropometric values were transformed into age- and sex-adjusted z-scores. Three linear regression models were performed, including adjustment for confounders in a stepwise manner. Measurements at age 3 months, before weaning, were used to consider reverse causality. Results Almost three-quarters (72.9%) of infants were weaned before age 6 months. Age at weaning of 3.0-7.0 months was inversely associated with weight and length (but not with body mass index) at 12 months (both P ≤ .01, adjusted for maternal and demographic factors). These associations were attenuated after adjustment for type of milk feeding and weight or length at age 3 months (before weaning). Rapid weight gain between 0 and 3 months predicted subsequent earlier age at weaning (P = .01). Our systematic review identified 2 trials, both reporting null effects of age at weaning on growth, and 15 observational studies, with 10 reporting an inverse association between age at weaning and infant growth and 4 reporting evidence of reverse causality. Conclusion In high-income countries, weaning between 3 and 6 months appears to have a neutral effect on infant growth. Inverse associations are likely related to reverse causality. PMID:26073105

  2. Early blood pressure, anti-hypotensive therapy and outcomes at 18 to 22 month corrected age in extremely preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Batton, Beau; Li, Lei; Newman, Nancy S.; Das, Abhik; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Yoder, Bradley A.; Faix, Roger G.; Laughon, Matthew M.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Walsh, Michele C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Investigate relationships between early blood pressure (BP) changes, receipt of anti-hypotensive therapy, and 18 – 22 month corrected age (CA) outcomes for extremely preterm infants. Design Prospective observational study of infants 230/7 – 266/7 weeks gestational age (GA). Hourly BP values and anti-hypotensive therapy exposure in the first 24 hours were recorded. Four groups were defined: infants who did or did not receive anti-hypotensive therapy in whom BP did or did not rise at the expected rate (defined as an increase in the mean arterial BP of ≥5 mmHg/day). Random-intercept logistic modeling controlling for center clustering, GA, and illness severity was used to investigate the relationship between BP, anti-hypotensive therapies, and infant outcomes. Setting Sixteen academic centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Main Outcome Measures Death or neurodevelopmental impairment / developmental delay (NIDD) at 18 – 22 months CA. Results Of 367 infants, 203 (55%) received an anti-hypotensive therapy, 272 (74%) survived to discharge, and 331 (90%) had a known outcome at 18 – 22 months CA. With logistic regression, there was an increased risk of death/NIDD with anti-hypotensive therapy versus no treatment (odds ratio: 1.836, 95% confidence interval: 1.092 – 3.086), but not NIDD alone (odds ratio: 1.53, 95% confidence interval: 0.708 – 3.307). Conclusion Independent of early BP changes, anti-hypotensive therapy exposure was associated with an increased risk of death/NIDD at 18 to 22 months CA when controlling for risk factors known to affect survival and neurodevelopment. PMID:26567120

  3. Gestational Age and Neonatal Brain Microstructure in Term Born Infants: A Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Broekman, Birit F. P.; Wang, Changqing; Li, Yue; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Saw, Seang Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D.; Fortier, Marielle V.; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Understanding healthy brain development in utero is crucial in order to detect abnormal developmental trajectories due to developmental disorders. However, in most studies neuroimaging was done after a significant postnatal period, and in those studies that performed neuroimaging on fetuses, the quality of data has been affected due to complications of scanning during pregnancy. To understand healthy brain development between 37–41 weeks of gestational age, our study assessed the in utero growth of the brain in healthy term born babies with DTI scanning soon after birth. Methods A cohort of 93 infants recruited from maternity hospitals in Singapore underwent diffusion tensor imaging between 5 to 17 days after birth. We did a cross-sectional examination of white matter microstructure of the brain among healthy term infants as a function of gestational age via voxel-based analysis on fractional anisotropy. Results Greater gestational age at birth in term infants was associated with larger fractional anisotropy values in early developing brain regions, when corrected for age at scan. Specifically, it was associated with a cluster located at the corpus callosum (corrected p<0.001), as well as another cluster spanning areas of the anterior corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule, and external capsule (corrected p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings show variation in brain maturation associated with gestational age amongst ‘term’ infants, with increased brain maturation when born with a relatively higher gestational age in comparison to those infants born with a relatively younger gestational age. Future studies should explore if these differences in brain maturation between 37 and 41 weeks of gestational age will persist over time due to development outside the womb. PMID:25535959

  4. Poly-LacNAc as an Age-Specific Ligand for Rotavirus P[11] in Neonates and Infants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Huang, Pengwei; Jiang, Baoming; Tan, Ming; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Jiang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) P[11] is an unique genotype that infects neonates. The mechanism of such age-specific host restriction remains unknown. In this study, we explored host mucosal glycans as a potential age-specific factor for attachment of P[11] RVs. Using in vitro binding assays, we demonstrated that VP8* of a P[11] RV (N155) could bind saliva of infants (60.3%, N = 151) but not of adults (0%, N = 48), with a significantly negative correlation between binding of VP8* and ages of infants (P<0.01). Recognition to the infant saliva did not correlate with the ABO, secretor and Lewis histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) but with the binding of the lectin Lycopersicon esculentum (LEA) that is known to recognize the oligomers of N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc), a precursor of human HBGAs. Direct evidence of LacNAc involvement in P[11] binding was obtained from specific binding of VP8* with homopolymers of LacNAc in variable lengths through a glycan array analysis of 611 glycans. These results were confirmed by strong binding of VP8* to the Lec2 cell line that expresses LacNAc oligomers but not to the Lec8 cell line lacking the LacNAc. In addition, N155 VP8* and authentic P[11] RVs (human 116E and bovine B223) hemagglutinated human red blood cells that are known to express poly-LacNAc. The potential role of poly-LacNAc in host attachment and infection of RVs has been obtained by abrogation of 116E replication by the PAA-conjugated poly-LacNAc, human milk, and LEA positive infant saliva. Overall, our results suggested that the poly-LacNAc could serve as an age-specific receptor for P[11] RVs and well explained the epidemiology that P[11] RVs mainly infect neonates and young children. PMID:24244290

  5. Correlation Between Mothers’ Depression and Developmental Delay in Infants Aged 6-18 Months

    PubMed Central

    Vameghi, Roshanak; Akbari, Sedigheh Amir Ali; Sajjadi, Homeira; Sajedi, Firoozeh; Alavimajd, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Regarding the importance of children’s developmental status and various factors that delay their development, this study was conducted to examine the correlation between mothers’ depression levels and the developmental delay in infants. Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 1053 mothers and their infants’ age 6 to18 month-old in medical centers affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2014-2015. The participants were selected through multi-stage random sampling. The following instruments were used in this study: A demographic and obstetric specification questionnaire, infant specification questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire to determine the status of the children’s development. The data were analyzed using SPSS19 software, Mann-Whitney; independent T-test and logistic-Regression tests were used. Results: The results showed that 491 mothers (46.7%) suffered mild to extremely severe depression. The delay in infant development was 11.8%. The Mann–Whitney test showed a correlation between mothers’ depression levels and developmental delay in infants (P=0.001). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between mothers’ depression and developmental delays in gross-motor and problem-solving skills (P<0/05). In logistic model age of infants showed significant correlation with developmental delay (P=0.004 OR=1.07), but unwanted pregnancy, gender of infants, type of delivery and socioeconomic status had no correlation with developmental delay. Conclusion: Given the correlation between mothers’ depression and infant development, it is recommended to screen mothers for depression in order to perform early interventions in developmental delay. PMID:26652078

  6. Delivery of a Small for Gestational Age Infant and Greater Maternal Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Radek; Davis, Karen E.; Wilson, Peter W. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Delivery of a small for gestational age (SGA) infant has been associated with increased maternal risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). It is uncertain whether giving birth to SGA infant is a specific determinant of later IHD, independent of other risk factors, or a marker of general poor health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between delivery of a SGA infant and maternal risk for IHD in relation to traditional IHD risk factors. Methods and Findings Risk of maternal IHD was evaluated in a population based cross-sectional study of 6,608 women with a prior live term birth who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2006), a probability sample of the U.S. population. Sequence of events was determined from age at last live birth and at diagnosis of IHD. Delivery of a SGA infant is strongly associated with greater maternal risk for IHD (age adjusted OR; 95% CI: 1.8; 1.2, 2.9; p = 0.012). The association was independent of the family history of IHD, stroke, hypertension and diabetes (family history-adjusted OR; 95% CI: 1.9; 1.2, 3.0; p = 0.011) as well as other risk factors for IHD (risk factor-adjusted OR; 95% CI: 1.7; 1.1, 2.7; p = 0.025). Delivery of a SGA infant was associated with earlier onset of IHD and preceded it by a median of 30 (interquartile range: 20, 36) years. Conclusions Giving birth to a SGA infant is strongly and independently associated with IHD and a potential risk factor that precedes IHD by decades. A pregnancy that produces a SGA infant may induce long-term cardiovascular changes that increase risk for IHD. PMID:22431995

  7. Invasive Group B Streptococcal Infections in Infants, France

    PubMed Central

    Réglier-Poupet, Hélène; Tazi, Asmaa; Billoët, Annick; Dmytruk, Nicolas; Bidet, Philippe; Bingen, Edouard; Raymond, Josette; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Clinical features and molecular characterization of 109 group B streptococci causing neonatal invasive infections were determined over an 18-month period in France. Sixty-four percent of the strains were from late-onset infections, and 75% were capsular type III. The hypervirulent clone ST-17 was recovered in 80% of meningitis cases. PMID:18826837

  8. Invasive group B streptococcal infections in infants, France.

    PubMed

    Poyart, Claire; Réglier-Poupet, Hélène; Tazi, Asmaa; Billoët, Annick; Dmytruk, Nicolas; Bidet, Philippe; Bingen, Edouard; Raymond, Josette; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick

    2008-10-01

    Clinical features and molecular characterization of 109 group B streptococci causing neonatal invasive infections were determined over an 18-month period in France. Sixty-four percent of the strains were from late-onset infections, and 75% were capsular type III. The hypervirulent clone ST-17 was recovered in 80% of meningitis cases.

  9. Infant-Toddler Group Day Care: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Sally

    Research conducted in the United States and Canada on the effects of group care outside of family settings for 20 or more hours per week on a regular basis shows few differences between day care and home reared children on four major variables: attachment, social interactions, cognitive development, and physical health. Of nine studies of…

  10. The Organization of Group Care Environments: The Infant Day Care Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cataldo, Michael F.; Risley, Todd R.

    In designing group day care for infants, special attention has been given to efficient care practices, so that all the children's health needs can be met and so that the staff will have ample time to interact with the children. One efficient method is to assign each staff member the responsibility of a particular area rather than a particular…

  11. Patterns and Predictors of Father-Infant Engagement across Race/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Natasha J.; Hofferth, Sandra L.; Chae, Soo

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether levels of father engagement (e.g., verbal stimulation, caregiving, and physical play) vary by race/ethnicity using a model that controls for fathers' human capital, mental health, and family relationships. It also tests whether the models work similarly across race/ethnic groups. Its sample of N = 5089 infants and their…

  12. Maternal Exposure to Polybrominated and Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Infant Birth Weight and Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Givens, Marjory L.; Small, Chanley M.; Terrell, Metrecia L.; Cameron, Lorraine L.; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Tolbert, Paige E.; Rubin, Carol; Henderson, Alden K.; Marcus, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the influence of maternal exposures on gestational age and birth weight is essential given that pre-term and/or low birth weight infants are at risk for increased mortality and morbidity. We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) through accidental contamination of cattle feed and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) through residual contamination in the geographic region. Our study population consisted of 444 mothers and their 899 infants born between 1975 and 1997. Using restricted maximum likelihood estimation, no significant association was found between estimated maternal serum PBB at conception or enrollment PCB levels and gestational age or infant birth weight in unadjusted models or in models that adjusted for maternal age, smoking, parity, infant gender, and decade of birth. For enrollment maternal serum PBB, no association was observed for gestational age. However, a negative association with high levels of enrollment maternal serum PBB and birth weight was suggested. We also examined the birth weight and gestational age among offspring of women with the highest (10%) PBB or PCB exposure, and observed no significant association. Because brominated compounds are currently used in consumer products and therefore, are increasingly prevalent in the environment, additional research is needed to better understand the potential relationship between in utero exposure to brominated compounds and adverse health outcomes. PMID:17617441

  13. Influence of age and fall type on head injuries in infants and toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nicole G.; Wood, Joanne; Margulies, Susan S.; Christian, Cindy W.

    2011-01-01

    Age-based differences in fall type and neuroanatomy in infants and toddlers may affect clinical presentations and injury patterns. Objective Our goal is to understand the influence of fall type and age on injuries to help guide clinical evaluation. Design/Setting/Participants Retrospectively, 285 children 0–48 months with accidental head injury from a fall and brain imaging between 2000–2006 were categorized by age (infant=<1 year and toddler=1–4 years) and fall type: low (≤3 ft), intermediate (>3 and <10 ft), high height falls (≥10 ft) and stair falls. Outcome Measures Clinical manifestations were noted and head injuries separated into primary (bleeding) and secondary (hypoxia, edema). The influence of age and fall type on head injuries sustained was evaluated. Results Injury patterns in children <4 yrs varied with age. Despite similar injury severity scores, infants sustained more skull fractures than toddlers (71% v. 39%). Of children with skull fractures, 11% had no evidence of scalp/facial soft tissue swelling. Of the patients with primary intracranial injury, 30% had no skull fracture and 8% had neither skull fracture nor cranial soft tissue injury. Low height falls resulted in primary intracranial injury without soft tissue or skull injury in infants (6%) and toddlers (16%). Conclusions Within a given fall type, age-related differences in injuries exist between infants and toddlers. When interpreting a fall history, clinicians must consider the fall type and influence of age on resulting injury. For young children, intracranial injury is not always accompanied by external manifestations of their injury. PMID:22079853

  14. Early-Childhood Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Are Not Improving for Infants Born at <25 Weeks' Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, Douglas E.; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E.; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F.; Vohr, Betty R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We compared neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 22 months' corrected age of infants born with extremely low birth weight at an estimated gestational age of <25 weeks during 2 periods: 1999–2001 (epoch 1) and 2002–2004 (epoch 2). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective analysis of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Perinatal and neonatal variables and outcomes were compared between epochs. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 22 months' corrected age were evaluated with neurologic exams and Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Logistic regression analyses determined the independent risk of epoch for adverse outcomes. RESULTS: Infant survival was similar between epochs (epoch 1, 35.4%, vs epoch 2, 32.3%; P = .09). A total of 411 of 452 surviving infants in epoch 1 and 405 of 438 surviving infants in epoch 2 were evaluated at 18 to 22 months' corrected age. Cesarean delivery (P = .03), surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (P = .004), and late sepsis (P = .01) were more common in epoch 2, but postnatal steroid use was dramatically reduced (63.5% vs 32.8%; P < .0001). Adverse outcomes at 18 to 22 months' corrected age were common in both epochs. Moderate-to-severe cerebral palsy was diagnosed in 11.1% of surviving infants in epoch 1 and 14.9% in epoch 2 (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.52 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86–2.71]; P = .15), the Mental Developmental Index was <70 in 44.9% in epoch 1 and 51% in epoch 2 (OR: 1.30 [95% CI: 0.91–1.87]; P = .15), and neurodevelopmental impairment was diagnosed in 50.1% of surviving infants in epoch 1 and 58.7% in epoch 2 (OR: 1.4 [95% CI: 0.98–2.04]; P = .07). CONCLUSIONS: Early-childhood outcomes for infants born at <25 weeks' estimated gestational age were unchanged between the 2 periods. PMID:21187312

  15. A comparison of outcomes of asymmetry in infants with congenital muscular torticollis according to age upon starting treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, KyeongSoo; Chung, EunJung; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of asymmetry in infants with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) according to the age when treatment was started. [Subjects and Methods] 102 infant CMT patients under the age of 6 months were selected. The subjects were divided into a group that started treatment before six weeks (n=55) and a group that started treatment after six weeks (n=47). Asymmety was evaluated by determining the difference in the thickness of the two sternocleidomastoid muscles (DTSM) using ultrasonography, head tilt (HT) based on a physical examination, and the torticollis overall assessment (TOA). Patients received ultrasound and massage therapy for 30 minutes, in conjunction with passive stretching exercises, 3 times a week. [Results] Following the intervention, the DTSM, HT and TOA showed significant differences in the two groups. The DTSM of the group that started treatment before six weeks was significantly better than that of the group that started treatment after six weeks. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that early intervention is more effective than later intervention. PMID:28356651

  16. Breast-Milk Iodine Concentrations, Iodine Status, and Thyroid Function of Breastfed Infants Aged 2-4 Months and Their Mothers Residing in a South African Township

    PubMed Central

    Osei, Jennifer; Andersson, Maria; van der Reijden, Olivia; Dold, Susanne; Smuts, Cornelius M.; Baumgartner, Jeannine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lactating women and their infants are susceptible to iodine deficiency and iodine excess. In South Africa, no data exist on the iodine status and thyroid function of these vulnerable groups. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, urinary iodine concentrations (UIC), thyroid function, and breast-milk iodine concentrations (BMIC) were assessed in 100 lactating women from a South African township and their 2-4-month-old breastfed infants. Potential predictors of UIC, thyroid function, and BMIC, including household salt iodine concentrations (SIC) and maternal sodium excretion, were also investigated. Results: The median (25th-75th percentile) UIC was 373 (202-627) μg/L in infants and 118 (67-179) μg/L in mothers. Median household SIC was 44 (27-63) ppm. Household SIC and maternal urinary sodium excretion predicted UIC of lactating mothers. Median BMIC was 179 (126-269) μg/L. Age of infants, SIC, and maternal UIC predicted BMIC. In turn, infant age and BMIC predicted UIC of infants. Forty-two percent of SIC values were within the South African recommended salt iodine fortification level at production of 35-65 ppm, whilst 21% of SIC were >65 ppm. Thyroid-stimulating hormone, total thyroxine, and thyroglobulin concentrations in the dried whole blood spot specimens from the infants were 1.3 (0.8-1.9) mU/L, 128±33 mmol/L, and 77.1 (56.3-105.7) μg/L, respectively, and did not correlate with infant UIC or BMIC. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the salt fortification program in South Africa provides adequate iodine to lactating women and indirectly to their infants via breast milk. However, monitoring of salt iodine content of the mandatory salt iodization program in South Africa is important to avoid over-iodization of salt. PMID:27217155

  17. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalographic activity and middle cerebral artery Doppler flow measurements in preterm small for gestational age infants.

    PubMed

    Kolsuz, Leyla Daban; Topcuoglu, Sevilay; Gursoy, Tugba; Karatekin, Güner; Ovali, H Fahri

    2015-03-01

    Amplitude-integrated encephalography (EEG) is frequently used in neonatal intensive care units to monitor brain functions. Its bedside application and easy interpretation are the most important features. Brain development of small for gestational age infants can be affected by intrauterine chronic hypoxia. The current study aimed to evaluate cerebral functions of small for gestational age infants by means of amplitude-integrated EEG. Thirty- to 34-week-old 22 small for gestational age and 27 appropriate for gestational age preterm infants were included in the study. The mode of delivery, gender, birth weight, and Apgar scores of the patients were recorded. Following middle cerebral artery mean velocity measurement with cranial Doppler at the 24th hour of birth, an amplitude-integrated EEG recording was performed on all infants, for a period of 4 to 24 hours. Small for gestational age infants had significantly higher middle cerebral artery mean velocity than appropriate for gestational age infants (21.09 ± 4.25 vs 17.8 ± 4.07; P = .029). The amplitude-integrated EEG recordings showed lower "lower border of quiet sleep" and total Burdjalov score in small for gestational age infants when compared with appropriate for gestational age infants (2.5 [1-3.25] µV vs 3 [2.75-4] µV; P = .04, 8 [6-10], 9 [9-11]; P = .04, respectively). Increased middle cerebral artery blood flow observed in small for gestational age infants might be a marker of chronic intrauterine hypoxia to which these infants were exposed. These infants demonstrated a more immature pattern of amplitude-integrated EEG.

  18. Maternal Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides during Pregnancy and Infant Development at 18 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Hisada, Aya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Kato, Takahiko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Ariki, Nagako; Komine, Yoko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Noda, Yumiko; Kato, Nobumasa

    2017-01-08

    The possible association between maternal exposure to pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) during pregnancy and infant development was explored. Levels of exposure to PYRs was assessed by metabolite (3-phenoybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) concentration in maternal spot urine sampled in the first trimester of index pregnancy, and infant development was assessed at 18 months of age using the Kinder Infants Development Scale (KIDS), which is based on a questionnaire to the caretaker. The relationship between KIDS score and maternal urinary 3-PBA levels was examined by a stepwise multiple regression analysis using biological attributes of the mother and infant, breast feeding, and nursing environment as covariates. The analysis extracted 3-PBA and the nursing environment as significant to explain the KIDS score at 18 months of age with positive partial regression coefficients. Inclusion of fish consumption frequency of the mother during pregnancy as an independent variable resulted in the selection of fish consumption as significant, while the two variables were marginally insignificant but still with a positive coefficient with the KIDS score. The result suggested a positive effect of maternal PYR exposure on infant development, the reason for which is not clear, but an unknown confounding factor is suspected.

  19. Object engagement and manipulation in extremely preterm and full term infants at 6 months of age.

    PubMed

    Zuccarini, Mariagrazia; Sansavini, Alessandra; Iverson, Jana M; Savini, Silvia; Guarini, Annalisa; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Aureli, Tiziana

    2016-08-01

    Delays in the motor domain have been frequently observed in preterm children, especially those born at an extremely low gestational age (ELGA;<28 weeks GA). However, early motor exploration has received relatively little attention despite its relevance for object knowledge and its impact on cognitive and language development. The present study aimed at comparing early object exploration in 20 ELGA and 20 full-term (FT) infants at 6 months of age during a 5-minute mother-infant play interaction. Object engagement (visual vs manual), visual object engagement (no act vs reach), manual object engagement (passive vs active), and active object manipulation (mouthing, transferring, banging, turn/rotating, shaking, fingering) were analyzed. Moreover, the Griffiths Mental Development Scales 0-2 years (1996) were administered to the infants. Relative to FT peers, ELGA infants spent more time in visual engagement, and less time in manual engagement, active manipulation, mouthing, and turning/rotating. Moreover, they had lower scores on general psychomotor development, eye & hand coordination, and performance abilities. Close relationships emerged between manual object engagement and psychomotor development. Clinical implications of these results in terms of early evaluation of action schemes in ELGA infants and the provision of intervention programs for supporting these abilities are discussed.

  20. Maternal Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides during Pregnancy and Infant Development at 18 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hisada, Aya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Katoh, Takahiko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Ariki, Nagako; Komine, Yoko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Noda, Yumiko; Kato, Nobumasa

    2017-01-01

    The possible association between maternal exposure to pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) during pregnancy and infant development was explored. Levels of exposure to PYRs was assessed by metabolite (3-phenoybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) concentration in maternal spot urine sampled in the first trimester of index pregnancy, and infant development was assessed at 18 months of age using the Kinder Infants Development Scale (KIDS), which is based on a questionnaire to the caretaker. The relationship between KIDS score and maternal urinary 3-PBA levels was examined by a stepwise multiple regression analysis using biological attributes of the mother and infant, breast feeding, and nursing environment as covariates. The analysis extracted 3-PBA and the nursing environment as significant to explain the KIDS score at 18 months of age with positive partial regression coefficients. Inclusion of fish consumption frequency of the mother during pregnancy as an independent variable resulted in the selection of fish consumption as significant, while the two variables were marginally insignificant but still with a positive coefficient with the KIDS score. The result suggested a positive effect of maternal PYR exposure on infant development, the reason for which is not clear, but an unknown confounding factor is suspected. PMID:28075338

  1. Physiological Regulation at 9 Months of Age in Infants Prenatally Exposed to Cigarettes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, Pamela; Eiden, Rina D.; Colder, Craig R.; Gray, Teresa R.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the association between prenatal cigarette exposure and physiological regulation at 9 months of age. Specifically, we explored the possibility that any association between prenatal cigarette exposure and infant physiological regulation was moderated by postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)…

  2. Infants' Attention to Patterned Stimuli: Developmental Change from 3 to 12 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courage, Mary L.; Reynolds, Greg D.; Richards, John E.

    2006-01-01

    To examine the development of look duration as a function of age and stimulus type, 14- to 52-week-old infants were shown static and dynamic versions of faces, Sesame Street material, and achromatic patterns for 20 s of accumulated looking. Heart rate was recorded during looking and parsed into stimulus orienting, sustained attention, and…

  3. Do Infant Vocabulary Skills Predict School-Age Language and Literacy Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Fiona J.; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background: Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for…

  4. Anthropometry of Infants, Children, and Youths to Age 18 for Product Safety Design. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Richard G.; And Others

    A total of 87 traditional and functional body measurements were taken on a sample of 4,127 infants, children, and youths representing the U.S. population aged two weeks through 18 years. Measurements were taken throughout the United States by two teams of anthropometrists using an automated anthropometric data acquisition system. Standard…

  5. Normative Data for Bone Mass in Healthy Term Infants from Birth to 1 Year of Age

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Sina; Vanstone, Catherine A.; Weiler, Hope A.

    2012-01-01

    For over 2 decades, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been the gold standard for estimating bone mineral density (BMD) and facture risk in adults. More recently DXA has been used to evaluate BMD in pediatrics. However, BMD is usually assessed against reference data for which none currently exists in infancy. A prospective study was conducted to assess bone mass of term infants (37 to 42 weeks of gestation), weight appropriate for gestational age, and born to healthy mothers. The group consisted of 33 boys and 26 girls recruited from the Winnipeg Health Sciences Center (Manitoba, Canada). Whole body (WB) as well as regional sites of the lumbar spine (LS 1–4) and femur was measured using DXA (QDR 4500A, Hologic Inc.) providing bone mineral content (BMC) for all sites and BMD for spine. During the year, WB BMC increased by 200% (76.0 ± 14.2 versus 227.0 ± 29.7 g), spine BMC by 130% (2.35 ± 0.42 versus 5.37 ± 1.02 g), and femur BMC by 190% (2.94 ± 0.54 versus 8.50 ± 1.84 g). Spine BMD increased by 14% (0.266 ± 0.044 versus 0.304 ± 0.044 g/cm2) during the year. This data, representing the accretion of bone mass during the first year of life, is based on a representative sample of infants and will aid in the interpretation of diagnostic DXA scans by researchers and health professionals. PMID:23091773

  6. Light and maternal influence in the entrainment of activity circadian rhythm in infants 4-12 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert L; Spieker, Susan

    2016-07-01

    The influence of light and maternal activity on early infant activity rhythm were studied in 43 healthy, maternal-infant pairs. Aims included description of infant and maternal circadian rhythm of environmental light, assessing relations among of activity and light circadian rhythm parameters, and exploring the influence of light on infant activity independent of maternal activity. Three-day light and activity records were obtained using actigraphy monitors at infant ages 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Circadian rhythm timing, amplitude, 24-hour fit, rhythm center, and regularity were determined using cosinor and nonparametric circadian rhythm analyses (NPCRA). All maternal and infant circadian parameters for light were highly correlated. When maternal activity was controlled, the partial correlations between infant activity and light rhythm timing, amplitude, 24-hour fit, and rhythm center demonstrated significant relation (r = .338 to .662) at infant age 12 weeks, suggesting entrainment. In contrast, when maternal light was controlled there was significant relation between maternal and infant activity rhythm (r = 0.470, 0.500, and 0.638 at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively) suggesting the influence of maternal-infant interaction independent of photo entrainment of cycle timing over the first 12 weeks of life. Both light and maternal activity may offer avenues for shaping infant activity rhythm during early infancy.

  7. Routine Magnetic Resonance Imaging at Term-Equivalent Age Detects Brain Injury in 25% of a Contemporary Cohort of Very Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Djurdjevic, Tanja; Griesmaier, Elke; Biermayr, Marlene; Gizewski, Elke Ruth; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, significant investigation has been undertaken by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an attempt to identify preterm infants at risk for adverse outcome. The primary objective is to provide a comprehensive characterization of cerebral injury detected by conventional MRI at term-equivalent age in an unselected, consecutive, contemporary cohort of preterm infants born <32 gestational weeks. Secondly, this study aims to identify risk factors for the different injury types in this population. Methods Data for all preterm infants born <32 gestational weeks and admitted to Innsbruck Medical University Hospital were prospectively collected (October 2010 to December 2015). Cerebral MRI was evaluated retrospectively using a validated scoring system that incorporates intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), white matter disease (WMD) and cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH). Results 300 infants were included in the study. MRI showed 24.7% of all infants to have some form of brain injury. The most common injury type was IVH (16.0%). WMD and CBH were seen in 10.0% and 8.0%. The prevalence of common neonatal risk factors was greater within the group of infants with CBH. In particular indicators for respiratory disease were observed more often: longer ventilation duration, more frequent need for supplemental oxygen at day 28, higher rates of hydrocortisone treatment. Catecholamine treatment was the only neonatal risk factor that was overrepresented in infants with WMD Discussion Cerebral MRI at term-equivalent age, as addition to cranial ultrasound, detected brain injury in 25% of preterm survivors. The diagnosis of IVH was already made by neonatal ultrasound in most cases. In contrast, only a minority of the CBH and none of the non-cystic WMD have been detected prior to MRI. Decreasing gestational age and neonatal complications involved with immaturity have been identified as risk factors for CBH, whereas WMD was found in relatively mature infants with

  8. Fructose in Breast Milk Is Positively Associated with Infant Body Composition at 6 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Goran, Michael I.; Martin, Ashley A.; Alderete, Tanya L.; Fujiwara, Hideji; Fields, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary sugars have been shown to promote excess adiposity among children and adults; however, no study has examined fructose in human milk and its effects on body composition during infancy. Twenty-five mother–infant dyads attended clinical visits to the Oklahoma Health Sciences Center at 1 and 6 months of infant age. Infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and sugars in breast milk (i.e., fructose, glucose, lactose) were measured by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and glucose oxidase. Infant body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 1 and 6 months. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between breast milk sugars and infant body composition at 6 months of age. Fructose, glucose, and lactose were present in breast milk and stable across visits (means = 6.7 μg/mL, 255.2 μg/mL, and 7.6 g/dL, respectively). Despite its very low concentration, fructose was the only sugar significantly associated with infant body composition. A 1-μg/mL higher breast milk fructose was associated with a 257 g higher body weight (p = 0.02), 170 g higher lean mass (p = 0.01), 131 g higher fat mass (p = 0.05), and 5 g higher bone mineral content (p = 0.03). In conclusion, fructose is detectable in human breast milk and is positively associated with all components of body composition at 6 months of age. PMID:28212335

  9. Fructose in Breast Milk Is Positively Associated with Infant Body Composition at 6 Months of Age.

    PubMed

    Goran, Michael I; Martin, Ashley A; Alderete, Tanya L; Fujiwara, Hideji; Fields, David A

    2017-02-16

    Dietary sugars have been shown to promote excess adiposity among children and adults; however, no study has examined fructose in human milk and its effects on body composition during infancy. Twenty-five mother-infant dyads attended clinical visits to the Oklahoma Health Sciences Center at 1 and 6 months of infant age. Infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and sugars in breast milk (i.e., fructose, glucose, lactose) were measured by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and glucose oxidase. Infant body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 1 and 6 months. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between breast milk sugars and infant body composition at 6 months of age. Fructose, glucose, and lactose were present in breast milk and stable across visits (means = 6.7 μg/mL, 255.2 μg/mL, and 7.6 g/dL, respectively). Despite its very low concentration, fructose was the only sugar significantly associated with infant body composition. A 1-μg/mL higher breast milk fructose was associated with a 257 g higher body weight (p = 0.02), 170 g higher lean mass (p = 0.01), 131 g higher fat mass (p = 0.05), and 5 g higher bone mineral content (p = 0.03). In conclusion, fructose is detectable in human breast milk and is positively associated with all components of body composition at 6 months of age.

  10. Global standard for the composition of infant formula: recommendations of an ESPGHAN coordinated international expert group.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Baker, Susan; Cleghorn, Geoff; Neto, Ulysses Fagundes; Gopalan, Sarath; Hernell, Olle; Hock, Quak Seng; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Lonnerdal, Bo; Pencharz, Paul; Pzyrembel, Hildegard; Ramirez-Mayans, Jaime; Shamir, Raanan; Turck, Dominique; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Zong-Yi, Ding

    2005-11-01

    The Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) develops food standards, guidelines and related texts for protecting consumer health and ensuring fair trade practices globally. The major part of the world's population lives in more than 160 countries that are members of the Codex Alimentarius. The Codex Standard on Infant Formula was adopted in 1981 based on scientific knowledge available in the 1970s and is currently being revised. As part of this process, the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses asked the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition to initiate a consultation process with the international scientific community to provide a proposal on nutrient levels in infant formulae, based on scientific analysis and taking into account existing scientific reports on the subject. ESPGHAN accepted the request and, in collaboration with its sister societies in the Federation of International Societies on Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, invited highly qualified experts in the area of infant nutrition to form an International Expert Group (IEG) to review the issues raised. The group arrived at recommendations on the compositional requirements for a global infant formula standard which are reported here.

  11. The Importance of Small for Gestational Age in the Risk Assessment of Infants with Critical Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sochet, Anthony A; Ayers, Mark; Quezada, Emilio; Braley, Katherine; Leshko, Jennifer; Amankwah, Ernest K.; Jacobs, Jeffrey; Dadlani, Gul

    2014-01-01

    Background Infants with critical congenital heart disease who require cardiothoracic surgical intervention may have significant postoperative mortality and morbidity. Infants who are small for gestational age (SGA) <10th percentile with foetal growth restriction may have end-organ dysfunction that may predispose them to increased morbidity or mortality. Methods A single institution retrospective review was performed in 230 infant with congenital heart disease who had cardiothoracic surgical intervention <60 days of age. Pre-, peri-, and post-operative morbidity and mortality markers were collected along with demographics and anthropometric measurements. Results There were 230 infants 57 (23.3%) small for gestational age and 173 (70.6%) appropriate for gestational age (AGA). No significant difference was noted in pre-operative markers - gestational age, age at surgery, corrected gestational age, Society for Thoracic Surgeons and –European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery mortality score; or post-operative factors - length of stay, ventilation days, arrhythmias, need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, vocal cord dysfunction, hearing loss; or end-organ dysfunction - gastro-intestinal, renal, central nervous system, or genetic. Small for gestational age infants were more likely to have failed vision tests (p=0.006). Small for gestational age infants were more likely to have increased 30-day (p=0.005) and discharge mortality (p=0.035). Small for gestational age infants with normal birth weight (>2500 grams) were also at increased risk of 30-day mortality compared to AGA infants (p=0.045). Conclusions Small for gestational age infants with congenital heart disease who undergo cardiothoracic surgery <60days of age have increased risk of mortality and failed vision screening. Assessment of foetal growth restriction as part of routine preoperative screening may be beneficial. PMID:24401264

  12. Association Between Low Dairy Intake During Pregnancy and Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants.

    PubMed

    Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Luna-Del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Mozas-Moreno, Juan; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2016-06-01

    Background Inadequate maternal nutrition is regarded as one of the most important indicators of fetal growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the associated risk of having a small for gestational age (SGA) infant according to the mother's dairy intake during the first half of pregnancy. Methods A prospective cohort study was performed using 1175 healthy pregnant women selected from the catchment area of Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada (Spain). SGA was defined as neonates weighing less than the 10th percentile, adjusted for gestational age. Factors associated with SGA were analyzed using logistic regression models. Population attributable fractions of SGA according to dairy intake were estimated. Results Dairy intake among women who gave birth to SGA infants was 513.9, versus 590.3 g/day for women with appropriate size for gestational age infants (P = 0.003). An increased intake of dairy products by 100 g/day during the first half of pregnancy decreased the risk of having a SGA infant by 11.0 %, aOR = 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). A dose-response gradient between dairy intake and SGA was observed. Conclusions An inadequate intake of dairy products is associated with a higher risk of SGA. Our results suggest a possible causal relation between dairy intake during pregnancy and the weight of the newborn, although we cannot discard residual confounding. These results should be further supported by properly designed studies.

  13. The impact of early age at first childbirth on maternal and infant health.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Cassandra M; Wendt, Amanda; Peters, Stacey; Hogue, Carol J

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this review was to assess whether early age at first childbirth is associated with increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Early age at childbirth is variously defined in studies of its effect on maternal and infant health. In this systematic review, we limit analysis to studies of at least moderate quality that examine first births among young mothers, where young maternal age is defined as low gynaecological age (≤ 2 years since menarche) or as a chronological age ≤ 16 years at conception or delivery. We conduct meta-analyses for specific maternal or infant health outcomes when there are at least three moderate quality studies that define the exposure and outcome in a similar manner and provide odds ratios or risk ratios as their effect estimates. We conclude that the overall evidence of effect for very young maternal age (<15 years or <2 years post-menarche) on infant outcomes is moderate; that is, future studies are likely to refine the estimate of effect or precision but not to change the conclusion. Evidence points to an impact of young maternal age on low birthweight and preterm birth, which may mediate other infant outcomes such as neonatal mortality. The evidence that young maternal age increases risk for maternal anaemia is also fairly strong, although information on other nutritional outcomes and maternal morbidity/mortality is less clear. Many of the differences observed among older teenagers with respect to infant outcomes may be because of socio-economic or behavioural differences, although these may vary by country/setting. Future, high quality observational studies in low income settings are recommended in order to address the question of generalisability of evidence. In particular, studies in low income countries need to consider low gynaecological age, rather than simply chronological age, as an exposure. As well, country-specific studies should measure the minimum age at which childbearing for teens has similar

  14. The birth of an infant decreases group spacing in a zoo-housed lowland gorilla group (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Kurtycz, Laura M; Shender, Marisa A; Ross, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Changes in group composition can alter the behavior of social animals such as gorillas. Although gorilla births are presumed to affect group spacing patterns, there is relatively little data about how these events affect gorilla group cohesion. We investigated how members of a western lowland gorilla group (n = 6) at Lincoln Park Zoo (Chicago, IL, USA) spaced themselves prior to and after the birth of an infant, to investigate changes in group cohesion. Gorillas were housed in an indoor-outdoor enclosure in which access to the outdoors was permitted when temperatures exceeded 5°C. We recorded spatial locations of each group member using 30-min group scans on tablet computers with an electronic map interface, as well as noting their access to outdoor areas. Data from the 4 months following the birth was compared to a control period corresponding to early pregnancy. We measured distances between all possible group dyads for each scan and subsequently calculated a mean distance between all group members. An ANOVA revealed that access to the outdoors had no effect on group spacing (F(1,56) = 0.066, P = 0.799). However, the presence of an infant resulted in a significant reduction in inter-individual distance (F(1,56) = 23.988, P = 0.000), decreasing inter-individual spacing by 12.5%. This information helps characterize the behavioral impact of a new birth on captive gorilla social structure and could potentially inform future management of breeding gorilla groups.

  15. Body Composition and Circulating High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin and IGF-I in Infants Born Small for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    de Zegher, Francis; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponectin, and IGF-I were assessed at birth and 4 months in BRF infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 72) and SGA infants receiving BRF (n = 46) or FOF (n = 56), the latter being randomized to receive a standard (FOF1) or protein-rich formula (FOF2). Compared with AGA-BRF infants, the catchup growth of SGA infants was confined to lean mass, independently of nutrition. Compared with AGA-BRF infants, SGA-BRF infants had normal HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels at 4 months, whereas SGA-FOF infants had elevated levels of HMW adiponectin (particularly SGA-FOF1) and IGF-I (particularly SGA-FOF2). In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes. PMID:22648385

  16. Zinc Supplementation Sustained Normative Neurodevelopment in a Randomized, Controlled Trial of Peruvian Infants Aged 6–18 Months12

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, John; Zavaleta, Nelly; Kannass, Kathleen N.; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Kapa, Leah L.; Caulfield, Laura E.

    2014-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effects of prevention of zinc deficiency on cognitive and sensorimotor development during infancy. At 6 mo of age, infants were randomly assigned to be administered a daily liquid supplement containing 10 mg/d of zinc (zinc sulfate), 10 mg/d of iron (ferrous sulfate), and 0.5 mg/d of copper (copper oxide), or an identical daily liquid supplement containing only 10 mg/d of iron and 0.5 mg/d of copper. Various controls were implemented to ensure adherence to the supplement protocol. A battery of developmental assessments was administered from 6 to 18 mo of age that included a visual habituation/recognition memory task augmented with heart rate at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age; the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID2) at 6, 12, and 18 mo; the A-not-B error task at 9 and 12 mo; and free-play attention tasks at 12 and 18 mo. Only infants supplemented with zinc had the normative decline in look duration from 6 to 12 mo during habituation and a normative decline in shifting between objects on free-play multiple-object attention tasks from 12 to 18 mo of age. The 2 groups did not differ on any of the psychophysiologic indices, the BSID2, or the A-not-B error task. The findings are consistent with zinc supplementation supporting a profile of normative information processing and active attentional profiles during the first 2 y of life. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00589264. PMID:24850625

  17. Zinc supplementation sustained normative neurodevelopment in a randomized, controlled trial of Peruvian infants aged 6-18 months.

    PubMed

    Colombo, John; Zavaleta, Nelly; Kannass, Kathleen N; Lazarte, Fabiola; Albornoz, Carla; Kapa, Leah L; Caulfield, Laura E

    2014-08-01

    A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effects of prevention of zinc deficiency on cognitive and sensorimotor development during infancy. At 6 mo of age, infants were randomly assigned to be administered a daily liquid supplement containing 10 mg/d of zinc (zinc sulfate), 10 mg/d of iron (ferrous sulfate), and 0.5 mg/d of copper (copper oxide), or an identical daily liquid supplement containing only 10 mg/d of iron and 0.5 mg/d of copper. Various controls were implemented to ensure adherence to the supplement protocol. A battery of developmental assessments was administered from 6 to 18 mo of age that included a visual habituation/recognition memory task augmented with heart rate at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age; the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID2) at 6, 12, and 18 mo; the A-not-B error task at 9 and 12 mo; and free-play attention tasks at 12 and 18 mo. Only infants supplemented with zinc had the normative decline in look duration from 6 to 12 mo during habituation and a normative decline in shifting between objects on free-play multiple-object attention tasks from 12 to 18 mo of age. The 2 groups did not differ on any of the psychophysiologic indices, the BSID2, or the A-not-B error task. The findings are consistent with zinc supplementation supporting a profile of normative information processing and active attentional profiles during the first 2 y of life. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00589264.

  18. Mother-Infant Group Psychotherapy as an Intensive Treatment in Early Interaction among Mothers with Substance Abuse Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belt, Ritva; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

    2007-01-01

    In this article we present a novel method of outpatient care: brief, dynamic mother-infant group psychotherapy with mothers who have substance use problems. In this therapy, substance abuse treatment is part of mental health and parenting interventions. The focus is on preventing disturbance in the mother-infant relationship in this high-risk…

  19. Psychophysiological Responses to an Infant Cry: Comparison of Groups of Women in Different Phases of the Maternal Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleichfeld, Bruce; Moely, Barbara E.

    1984-01-01

    Investigates psychophysiological reactions of 60 women to an infant's cry and to a control sound. The 30-second pain cry evoked greater cardiac and electrodermal activity than did the control stimulus, although selected groups varied in the nature and extent of their reactions. Both maternal state and experience with infants affected reactions.…

  20. Respiratory syncytial virus group-specific antibody response in nasopharyngeal secretions from infants and children after primary infection.

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, H; Tsutsumi, H; Matsuda, K; Nagai, K; Ogra, P L; Chiba, S

    1994-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) group-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody and neutralizing antibody responses were determined for nasopharyngeal secretions (NPS) from 27 infants and children (6 to 18 months of age) undergoing primary infection with RSV group A or B strain. IgA and IgG antibody responses against RSV envelope glycoproteins (fusion [F] and large [G] glycoprotein) in NPS were also analyzed. Most subjects examined developed moderate levels of NPS IgA and IgG antibodies and neutralizing antibody activity to both group A and B strains in convalescent phase; however, the levels of antibodies to homologous strains were significantly higher than to the heterologous strains. Patients infected with group A developed antibodies in both F and G glycoproteins of A2 strains (group A). Patients infected with group B developed levels of antibody activity to F glycoprotein of A2 strain similar to those of patients infected with group A. However, these subjects developed little or no antibody response to G glycoprotein of A2 strain. These data suggest that the IgA and IgG antibody responses to G glycoprotein in the respiratory tract are group specific. It is suggested that lack of antibody response to the G glycoprotein of the heterologous group in the respiratory tract may determine the outcome of reinfection with other RSV strains. PMID:8556486

  1. Phonetic Modification of Vowel Space in Storybook Speech to Infants up to 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Evamarie B.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Kondaurova, Maria V.; McAuley, J. Devin; Bergeson, Tonya R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A large body of literature has indicated vowel space area expansion in infant-directed (ID) speech compared with adult-directed (AD) speech, which may promote language acquisition. The current study tested whether this expansion occurs in storybook speech read to infants at various points during their first 2 years of life. Method In 2 studies, mothers read a storybook containing target vowels in ID and AD speech conditions. Study 1 was longitudinal, with 11 mothers recorded when their infants were 3, 6, and 9 months old. Study 2 was cross-sectional, with 48 mothers recorded when their infants were 3, 9, 13, or 20 months old (n = 12 per group). The 1st and 2nd formants of vowels /i/, /ɑ/, and /u/ were measured, and vowel space area and dispersion were calculated. Results Across both studies, 1st and/or 2nd formant frequencies shifted systematically for /i/ and /u/ vowels in ID compared with AD speech. No difference in vowel space area or dispersion was found. Conclusions The results suggest that a variety of communication and situational factors may affect phonetic modifications in ID speech, but that vowel space characteristics in speech to infants stay consistent across the first 2 years of life. PMID:25659121

  2. Randomised controlled trial of postnatal sodium supplementation on oxygen dependency and body weight in 25-30 week gestational age infants

    PubMed Central

    Hartnoll, G.; Betremieux, P.; Modi, N.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To compare the effects of early against delayed sodium supplementation on oxygen dependency and body weight, in preterm infants of 25-30 weeks of gestational age.
METHODS—Infants were stratified by gender and gestation and randomly assigned to receive a sodium intake of 4 mmol/kg/day starting on either the second day after birth or when weight loss of 6% of birthweight was achieved. Daily sodium intake, serum sodium concentration, total fluid intake, energy intake, clinical risk index for babies (CRIB) score and duration of ventilatory support and additional oxygen therapy were recorded. Infants were weighed daily. Weights at 36 weeks and six months of postmenstrual age were also recorded.
RESULTS—Twenty four infants received early, and 22 delayed, sodium supplementation. There were no significant differences in total fluid and energy intake between the two groups. There was a significant difference in oxygen requirement at the end of the first week, with 9% of the early group in air in contrast to 35% of the delayed group (difference 26%, 95% confidence interval 2, 50). At 28 days after birth the proportions were 18% of the early group and 40% of the delayed group (difference 22%, 95% CI −5, 49). Proportional hazards modelling showed early sodium supplementation and lower birthweight to be significantly associated with increased risk of continuing oxygen requirement. The delayed sodium group had a greater maximum weight loss (delayed 16.1%; early 11.4%, p=0.02), but there were no significant differences in time to maximum weight loss, time to regain birthweight, and weight at 36 weeks and 6months of postmenstrual age.
CONCLUSION—In infants below 30 weeks of gestation, delaying sodium supplementation until at least 6% of birthweight is lost has a beneficial effect on the risk of continuing oxygen requirement and does not compromise growth.

 PMID:10634836

  3. Effect of breast milk lead on infant blood lead levels at 1 month of age.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Adrienne S; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra; Bellinger, David; Peterson, Karen; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2004-10-01

    Nursing infants may be exposed to lead from breast milk, but relatively few data exist with which to evaluate and quantify this relationship. This route of exposure constitutes a potential infant hazard from mothers with current ongoing exposure to lead as well as from mothers who have been exposed previously due to the redistribution of cumulative maternal bone lead stores. We studied the relationship between maternal breast milk lead and infant blood lead levels among 255 mother-infant pairs exclusively or partially breast-feeding through 1 month of age in Mexico City. A rigorous, well-validated technique was used to collect, prepare, and analyze the samples of breast milk to minimize the potential for environmental contamination and maximize the percent recovery of lead. Umbilical cord and maternal blood lead were measured at delivery; 1 month after delivery (+/- 5 days) maternal blood, bone, and breast milk and infant blood lead levels were obtained. Levels of lead at 1 month postpartum were, for breast milk, 0.3-8.0 microg/L (mean +/- SD, 1.5 +/- 1.2); maternal blood lead, 2.9-29.9 microg/dL (mean +/- SD, 9.4 +/- 4.5); and infant blood lead, 1.0-23.1 microg/dL (mean +/- SD, 5.5 +/- 3.0). Infant blood lead at 1 month postpartum was significantly correlated with umbilical cord (Spearman correlation coefficient rS = 0.40, p < 0.0001) and maternal (rS= 0.42, p < 0.0001) blood lead at delivery and with maternal blood (rS= 0.67, p < 0.0001), patella rS = 0.19, p = 0.004), and breast milk (rS = 0.32, p < 0.0001) lead at 1 month postpartum. Adjusting for cord blood lead, infant weight change, and reported breast-feeding status, a difference of approximately 2 microg/L (ppb; from the midpoint of the lowest quartile to the midpoint of the highest quartile) breast milk lead was associated with a 0.82 microg/dL increase in blood lead for breast-feeding infants at 1 month of age. Breast milk lead accounted for 12% of the variance of infant blood lead levels, whereas

  4. Successful immunization of infants at 6 months of age with high dose Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine. Cite Soleil/JHU Project Team.

    PubMed

    Job, J S; Halsey, N A; Boulos, R; Holt, E; Farrell, D; Albrecht, P; Brutus, J R; Adrien, M; Andre, J; Chan, E

    1991-04-01

    A group of 2097 Haitian infants 6 to 11 months of age were randomized to receive Schwarz or Edmonston-Zagreb strain measles vaccines containing 10- to 500-fold more vaccine viral particles than standard potency vaccines. No unusual adverse reactions were noted. Edmonston-Zagreb vaccines were more effective than equivalent doses of Schwarz vaccines as measured by the proportion of vaccinated children with measles antibody concentrations greater than or equal to 200 mIU/ml 2 months after vaccination and the persistence of antibody at 18 to 24 months of age. High titer Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine administered at 6 months of age induced antibody concentrations greater than or equal to 200 mIU/ml in 83% of infants by plaque reduction neutralization and 93% of infants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with high rates of antibody persistence at 12 to 24 months of age. The World Health Organization recommends high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines for routine use at 6 months of age in areas where measles is an important cause of mortality in young infants.

  5. Preference for infant-directed speech in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Butler, Samantha C; O'Sullivan, Laura P; Shah, Bhavesh L; Berthier, Neil E

    2014-11-01

    The current study explores the effects of exposure to maternal voice on infant sucking in preterm infants. Twenty-four preterm infants averaging 35 weeks gestational age were divided randomly into two groups. A contingency between high-amplitude sucking and presentation of maternal voice was instituted for one group while the other group served as a yoked control. No significant differences were observed in sucking of the two groups, but the degree of pitch modulation of the maternal voice predicted an increase in the rate of infant sucking.

  6. Maternal but not paternal fat mass is positively associated with infant fat mass at age 2 weeks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal programming of fetal metabolism has been demonstrated in animal studies, while clinical studies have shown an association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures in infants. Here we report on the association between infant body composition at age 2 weeks and ...

  7. Validity of the Fine Motor Area of the 12-Month Ages and Stages Questionnaire in Infants Following Major Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cally; Wallen, Margaret; Walker, Karen; Bundy, Anita; Rolinson, Rachel; Badawi, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) are parent-report screening tools to identify infants at risk of developmental difficulties. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and internal reliability of the fine motor developmental area of the ASQ, 2nd edition (ASQ2-FM) for screening 12-month-old infants following major surgery. The…

  8. The Associations of Prenatal Substance Use To Birth Outcomes and Infant Death: Do They Vary by Maternal Age and Race?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellerstedt, Wendy L.; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Oswald, John W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether associations between prenatal substance use and birth and infant outcomes varied by maternal age and race. Data on all singleton live births in Minnesota from 1990-98 indicated that poor birth outcomes and infant death were generally lower for whites than for African Americans and American Indians. Prenatal substance use varied by…

  9. From Golden Age Mexican Cinema to Transnational Border Feminism: The Community of Spectators in "Loving Pedro Infante"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heredia, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    The novel "Loving Pedro Infante" by Chicana writer Denise Chavez provides an insightful transcultural feminist critique of Golden Age Mexican cinema culture through a careful examination of gender roles. In the novel, the reception of Pedro Infante's films by spectators bridges generations and national spaces and leads to the formation…

  10. Very Pre-Term Infants' Behaviour at 1 and 2 Years of Age and Parental Stress Following Basic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Pal, Sylvia M.; Maguire, Celeste M.; Bruil, Jeanet; le Cessie, Saskia; van Zwieten, Paul; Veen, Sylvia; Wit, Jan M.; Walther, Frans J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the effects of basic developmental care on the behaviour of very pre-term infants and parental stress at 1 and 2 years of corrected age. A randomized controlled trial was done to compare basic Developmental Care (standardized nests and incubator covers) and controls (standard care). Parents of infants born less than 32 weeks of…

  11. Video Analysis of Sensory-Motor Features in Infants with Fragile X Syndrome at 9-12 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranek, Grace T.; Danko, Cassandra D.; Skinner, Martie L.; Donald B., Jr.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Roberts, Jane E.; Mirrett, Penny L.

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized retrospective video analysis to distinguish sensory-motor patterns in infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS) (n=11) from other infants [i.e., autism (n=11), other developmental delay (n=10), typical (n=11)] at 9-12 months of age. Measures of development, autistic features, and FMRP were assessed at the time of entry into the…

  12. Following the World Health Organization’s Recommendation of Exclusive Breastfeeding to 6 Months of Age Does Not Impact the Growth of Rural Gambian Infants123

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Kamilla G; Johnson, William; Sonko, Bakary; Prentice, Andrew M; Darboe, Momodou K; Moore, Sophie E

    2017-01-01

    Background: The WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first 6 mo of life. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the benefit of EBF to age 6 mo on growth in a large sample of rural Gambian infants at high risk of undernutrition. Methods: Infants with growth monitoring from birth to 2 y of age (n = 756) from the ENID (Early Nutrition and Immune Development) trial were categorized as exclusively breastfed if only breast milk and no other liquids or foods were given. EBF status was entered into confounder-adjusted multilevel models to test associations with growth trajectories by using >11,000 weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-length (WLZ) z score observations. Results: Thirty-two percent of infants were exclusively breastfed to age 6 mo. The mean age of discontinuation of EBF was 5.2 mo, and growth faltering started at ∼3.5 mo of age. Some evidence for a difference in WAZ and WHZ was found between infants who were exclusively breastfed to age 6 mo (EBF-6) and those who were not (nEBF-6), at 6 and 12 mo of age, with EBF-6 children having a higher mean z score. The differences in z scores between the 2 groups were small in magnitude (at 6 mo of age: 0.147 WAZ; 95% CI: −0.001, 0.293 WAZ; 0.189 WHZ; 95% CI: 0.038, 0.341 WHZ). No evidence for a difference between EBF-6 and nEBF-6 infants was observed for LAZ at any time point (6, 12, and 24 mo of age). Furthermore, a higher mean WLZ at 3 mo of age was associated with a subsequent higher mean age at discontinuation of EBF, which implied reverse causality in this setting (coefficient: 0.060; 95% CI: 0.008, 0.120). Conclusion: This study suggests that EBF to age 6 mo has limited benefit to the growth of rural Gambian infants. This trial was registered at http://www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN49285450. PMID:28003540

  13. Associations between infant feeding practice prior to six months and body mass index at six years of age.

    PubMed

    Imai, Cindy Mari; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Thorisdottir, Birna; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2014-04-17

    Rapid growth during infancy is associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity and differences in weight gain are at least partly explained by means of infant feeding. The aim was to assess the associations between infant feeding practice in early infancy and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years of age. Icelandic infants (n = 154) were prospectively followed from birth to 12 months and again at age 6 years. Birth weight and length were gathered from maternity wards, and healthcare centers provided the measurements made during infancy up to 18 months of age. Information on breastfeeding practices was documented 0-12 months and a 24-h dietary record was collected at 5 months. Changes in infant weight gain were calculated from birth to 18 months. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine associations between infant feeding practice at 5 months and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years. Infants who were formula-fed at 5 months of age grew faster, particularly between 2 and 6 months, compared to exclusively breastfed infants. At age 6 years, BMI was on average 1.1 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.2, 2.0) higher among infants who were formula fed and also receiving solid foods at 5 months of age compared to those exclusively breastfed. In a high-income country such as Iceland, early introduction of solid foods seems to further increase the risk of high childhood BMI among formula fed infants compared with exclusively breastfed infants, although further studies with greater power are needed.

  14. Associations between Infant Feeding Practice Prior to Six Months and Body Mass Index at Six Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Cindy Mari; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Thorisdottir, Birna; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2014-01-01

    Rapid growth during infancy is associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity and differences in weight gain are at least partly explained by means of infant feeding. The aim was to assess the associations between infant feeding practice in early infancy and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years of age. Icelandic infants (n = 154) were prospectively followed from birth to 12 months and again at age 6 years. Birth weight and length were gathered from maternity wards, and healthcare centers provided the measurements made during infancy up to 18 months of age. Information on breastfeeding practices was documented 0–12 months and a 24-h dietary record was collected at 5 months. Changes in infant weight gain were calculated from birth to 18 months. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine associations between infant feeding practice at 5 months and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years. Infants who were formula-fed at 5 months of age grew faster, particularly between 2 and 6 months, compared to exclusively breastfed infants. At age 6 years, BMI was on average 1.1 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.2, 2.0) higher among infants who were formula fed and also receiving solid foods at 5 months of age compared to those exclusively breastfed. In a high-income country such as Iceland, early introduction of solid foods seems to further increase the risk of high childhood BMI among formula fed infants compared with exclusively breastfed infants, although further studies with greater power are needed. PMID:24747694

  15. Age-specific prevalence of Escherichia coli with localized and aggregative adherence in Venezuelan infants with acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    González, R; Díaz, C; Mariño, M; Cloralt, R; Pequeneze, M; Pérez-Schael, I

    1997-05-01

    To evaluate the epidemiological significance of HEp-2 cell-adherent Escherichia coli isolates in diarrheal disease, we performed a study with 513 Venezuelan infants with diarrhea and 241 age-matched controls to determine the prevalence of enteropathogenic E. coli (enteroadherent E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli) and their correlation with O:H serotypes. E. coli isolates exhibiting localized and aggregative adherence in the HEp-2 cell assay were significantly more frequently isolated from the patients (8.5 and 26.9%, respectively) than from the controls (1.7 and 15%, respectively). This difference was significant for the group 0 to 2 months of age but for older infants. Regardless of age, E. coli isolates with diffuse adherence were found at similar frequencies in both the patients and the controls. A striking correlation between classic O serogroups and localized adherence was also observed. These findings confirm the pathogenic role of E. coli with localized and aggregative adherence in diarrheal disease, as well as the epidemiological importance of O:H serotyping for characterizing localized-adhering E. coli.

  16. A prospective study of iron status in exclusively breastfed term infants up to 6 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Shashi; Faridi, MMA; Rusia, Usha; Singh, Om

    2008-01-01

    Background Can exclusive breastfeeding until six months of age maintain optimum iron status in term babies? We evaluated iron status of exclusively breastfed term infants in relation to breast milk iron and lactoferrin. Methods In this prospective study in Delhi, India, during the period 2003–2004 normally delivered babies of non-anemic [(Hemoglobin (Hb) = 11 g/dl, n = 68] and anemic (Hb 7 – 10.9 g/dl, n = 61) mothers were followed until 6 months of age. Iron parameters were measured in the cord blood at 14 weeks and 6 months. Breast milk iron and lactoferrin were measured at the same intervals. Results Iron parameters in babies of both groups were within normal limits at birth, 14 weeks and 6 months. Mean breast milk iron and lactoferrin in non-anemic (day 1: 0.89, 6 months: 0.26 mg/l; day 1: 12.02, 6 months: 5.85 mg/ml) and anemic mothers (day 1: 0.86, 6 months: 0.27 mg/l; day 1: 12.91, 6 months: 6.37 mg/ml) were not different on day one or at other times. No relationship was found between breast milk iron, lactoferrin and iron status of the babies. Conclusion Exclusively breastfed infants of non-anemic and anemic mothers did not develop iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia by six months of age. PMID:18312681

  17. Infant hybrids in a newly formed mixed-species group of howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans and Alouatta caraya) in northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Ilaria; Holzmann, Ingrid; Di Bitetti, Mario S

    2008-10-01

    Natural hybridisation between species has been reported in several primate taxa. In the Neotropics, there is increasing evidence of this phenomenon in howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) in contact zones between species. We describe the first known case of formation of a mixed-species group, and two cases of putative infant hybrids between the brown howler (Alouatta guariba clamitans) and the black howler (A. caraya) in Misiones, Argentina. For 2 years, we followed a group consisting of one adult male and two adult female brown howlers and one adult female black howler. The adult female black howler was observed to copulate twice with brown howler males, and never with black howler males. In December 2006, this female was carrying an infant with a hybrid morphotype. This infant died at approximately 1.5 months of age. In November 2007, the same female had another putative hybrid newborn. This infant male died together with all members of his group during a yellow fever outbreak in early 2008. The lower frequency of mixed-species groups and hybrids at our site compared with other contact zones reported in the literature, suggests that the incidence of natural hybridisation between howler species differs depending on local factors such as population demography and landscape fragmentation.

  18. Some Aspects of the Effects of Day Care on Infants' Emotional and Personality Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Minta M.

    To identify any differences in emotional/personality development of a group of infants reared at home and a matched groups of infants enrolled in a day care center, data were obtained on behaviors of two groups of infants. The sample consisted of 15 demographically matched pairs of infants, ages 3-24 months at entrance. Data were collected through…

  19. Population Pharmacokinetics of Ciprofloxacin in Neonates and Young Infants Less than Three Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Hill, Helen; Le Guellec, Chantal; Neal, Tim; Mahoney, Sarah; Paulus, Stephane; Castellan, Charlotte; Kassai, Behrouz; van den Anker, Johannes N.; Kearns, Gregory L.; Turner, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is used in neonates with suspected or documented Gram-negative serious infections. Currently, its use is off-label partly because of lack of pharmacokinetic studies. Within the FP7 EU project TINN (Treat Infection in NeoNates), our aim was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in neonates and young infants <3 months of age and define the appropriate dose in order to optimize ciprofloxacin treatment in this vulnerable population. Blood samples were collected from neonates treated with ciprofloxacin and concentrations were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM software. The data from 60 newborn infants (postmenstrual age [PMA] range, 24.9 to 47.9 weeks) were available for population pharmacokinetic analysis. A two-compartment model with first-order elimination showed the best fit with the data. A covariate analysis identified that gestational age, postnatal age, current weight, serum creatinine concentration, and use of inotropes had a significant impact on ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that 90% of hypothetical newborns with a PMA of <34 weeks treated with 7.5 mg/kg twice daily and 84% of newborns with a PMA ≥34 weeks and young infants receiving 12.5 mg/kg twice daily would reach the AUC/MIC target of 125, using the standard EUCAST MIC susceptibility breakpoint of 0.5 mg/liter. The associated risks of overdose for the proposed dosing regimen were <8%. The population pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin was evaluated in neonates and young infants <3 months old, and a dosing regimen was established based on simulation. PMID:25155587

  20. Population pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in neonates and young infants less than three months of age.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Hill, Helen; Le Guellec, Chantal; Neal, Tim; Mahoney, Sarah; Paulus, Stephane; Castellan, Charlotte; Kassai, Behrouz; van den Anker, Johannes N; Kearns, Gregory L; Turner, Mark A; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne

    2014-11-01

    Ciprofloxacin is used in neonates with suspected or documented Gram-negative serious infections. Currently, its use is off-label partly because of lack of pharmacokinetic studies. Within the FP7 EU project TINN (Treat Infection in NeoNates), our aim was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in neonates and young infants <3 months of age and define the appropriate dose in order to optimize ciprofloxacin treatment in this vulnerable population. Blood samples were collected from neonates treated with ciprofloxacin and concentrations were quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM software. The data from 60 newborn infants (postmenstrual age [PMA] range, 24.9 to 47.9 weeks) were available for population pharmacokinetic analysis. A two-compartment model with first-order elimination showed the best fit with the data. A covariate analysis identified that gestational age, postnatal age, current weight, serum creatinine concentration, and use of inotropes had a significant impact on ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that 90% of hypothetical newborns with a PMA of <34 weeks treated with 7.5 mg/kg twice daily and 84% of newborns with a PMA ≥34 weeks and young infants receiving 12.5 mg/kg twice daily would reach the AUC/MIC target of 125, using the standard EUCAST MIC susceptibility breakpoint of 0.5 mg/liter. The associated risks of overdose for the proposed dosing regimen were <8%. The population pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin was evaluated in neonates and young infants <3 months old, and a dosing regimen was established based on simulation.

  1. Anti-Group B Streptococcus antibody in infants born to mothers with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection☆

    PubMed Central

    Le Doare, Kirsty; Allen, Lauren; Kampmann, Beate; Heath, Paul Trafford; Taylor, Stephen; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Gorringe, Andrew; Jones, Christine Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV-exposed uninfected infants have increased infection risk and mortality compared to HIV-unexposed infants. HIV-exposed infants may be at increased risk of invasive GBS disease due to reduced maternal antibody against GBS. Methods We quantified antibodies that bind to the surface of whole Group B Streptococcus (GBS) of serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III and V using novel flow cytometry assays in South African HIV-infected and non-infected mothers and their uninfected infants. Antibody-mediated complement C3b/iC3b deposition onto GBS of these serotypes was also quantified by a novel flow cytometry assay. Results Geometric mean concentration (GMC) of both surface-binding anti-GBS antibody and antibody-mediated complement deposition onto GBS were reduced in HIV-infected women (n = 46) compared to HIV-uninfected women (n = 58) for ST1a (surface-binding: 19.3 vs 29.3; p = 0.003; complement deposition: 2.9 vs 5.3 SU/mL; p = 0.003), STIb (24.9 vs 47.6; p = 0.003; 2.6 vs 4.9 SU/mL; p = 0.003), STII (19.8 vs 50.0; p = 0.001; 3.1 vs 6.2 SU/mL; p = 0.001), STIII (27.8 vs 60.1; p = 0.001; 2.8 vs 5.3 SU/mL; p = 0.001) and STV (121.9 vs 185.6 SU/mL; p < 0.001) and in their infants for STIa (complement deposition 9.4 vs 27.0 SU/mL; p = 0.02), STIb (13.4 vs 24.5 SU/mL; p = 0.02), STII (14.6 vs 42.7 SU/mL; p = 0.03), STIII (26.6 vs 62.7 SU/mL; p = 0.03) and STV (90.4 vs 165.8 SU/mL; p = 0.04). Median transplacental transfer of antibody from HIV-infected women to their infants was reduced compared to HIV-uninfected women for GBS serotypes II (0.42 [IQR 0.22–0.59] vs 1.0 SU/mL [0.42–1.66]; p < 0.001), III (0.54 [0.31–1.03] vs 0.95 SU/mL [0.42–3.05], p = 0.05) and V (0.51 [0.28–0.79] vs 0.75 SU/mL [0.26–2.9], p = 0.04). The differences between infants remained significant at 16 weeks of age. Conclusions Maternal HIV infection was associated with lower anti-GBS surface binding antibody concentration and antibody

  2. Intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and its association with postconceptional age

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmeyer, Rodrigo L.; Farias, Lucas; Mendonça, Taís; Filho, João Borges Fortes; Procianoy, Renato S.; Silveira, Rita C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and correlate it with postconceptional age. METHODS: The intraocular pressure in a prospective cohort of very low birth weight premature infants (defined as a birth weight ≤1,500 g and gestational age ≤32 weeks) admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil was evaluated weekly. The evaluated outcome was the variation in the intraocular pressure following changes in the postconceptional age (defined as the gestational age at birth plus the age in weeks at the time of examination) in the weeks following preterm birth. Mixed-effects models were used for the statistical analysis to determine the intraocular pressure variation according to postconceptional age, and means and 10th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the intraocular pressure values. RESULTS: Fifty preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 29.7±1.6 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1,127.7±222.7 g were evaluated. The mean intraocular pressure for the entire cohort considering both eyes was 14.9±4.5 mmHg, and 13.5% of all recorded intraocular pressure values were greater than 20 mmHg. The analysis revealed a mean reduction in the intraocular pressure of 0.29 mmHg for each increase in postconceptional age (p = 0.047; 95% CI: −0.58 to −0.0035). The mean intraocular pressure (P10–P90) decreased from 16.3 mmHg (10.52–22.16) at 26.3 weeks to 13.1 mmHg (7.28–18.92) at 37.6 weeks of postconceptional age. CONCLUSIONS: The mean intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants was 14.9±4.5 mmHg. This value decreased 0.29 mmHg per week as the postconceptional age increased. PMID:23184197

  3. An Exploration of Rhythmic Grouping of Speech Sequences by French- and German-Learning Infants.

    PubMed

    Abboub, Nawal; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Bhatara, Anjali; Höhle, Barbara; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Rhythm in music and speech can be characterized by a constellation of several acoustic cues. Individually, these cues have different effects on rhythmic perception: sequences of sounds alternating in duration are perceived as short-long pairs (weak-strong/iambic pattern), whereas sequences of sounds alternating in intensity or pitch are perceived as loud-soft, or high-low pairs (strong-weak/trochaic pattern). This perceptual bias-called the Iambic-Trochaic Law (ITL)-has been claimed to be an universal property of the auditory system applying in both the music and the language domains. Recent studies have shown that language experience can modulate the effects of the ITL on rhythmic perception of both speech and non-speech sequences in adults, and of non-speech sequences in 7.5-month-old infants. The goal of the present study was to explore whether language experience also modulates infants' grouping of speech. To do so, we presented sequences of syllables to monolingual French- and German-learning 7.5-month-olds. Using the Headturn Preference Procedure (HPP), we examined whether they were able to perceive a rhythmic structure in sequences of syllables that alternated in duration, pitch, or intensity. Our findings show that both French- and German-learning infants perceived a rhythmic structure when it was cued by duration or pitch but not intensity. Our findings also show differences in how these infants use duration and pitch cues to group syllable sequences, suggesting that pitch cues were the easier ones to use. Moreover, performance did not differ across languages, failing to reveal early language effects on rhythmic perception. These results contribute to our understanding of the origin of rhythmic perception and perceptual mechanisms shared across music and speech, which may bootstrap language acquisition.

  4. Correlation of serum KL-6 and CC16 levels with neurodevelopmental outcome in premature infants at 12 months corrected age

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiqun; Lu, Hui; Zhu, Yunxia; Xiang, Junhua; Huang, Xianmei

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate KL-6 and CC16 levels and their correlation with neurodevelopmental outcome among very low birth weight pre-term infants at 12 months corrected age. This prospective cohort study was performed from 2011 to 2013 by enrolling pre-term neonates of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks and birth weight ≤ 1500 g. Serum KL-6 and CC16 levels were determined 7 days after birth and their correlation with neurodevelopment was evaluated using Gesell Mental Developmental Scales. Of the 86 eligible pre-term infants, 63 completed follow-up, of which 15 had bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At 12 months corrected age, 49 infants had favorable outcomes and 14 infants had poor neurodevelopmental outcome. KL-6 levels were higher and CC16 levels were lower in infants with poor neurodevelopmental outcome compared with those infants who had favourable neurodevelopmental outcome. Serum KL-6 levels less than 90.0 ng/ml and CC16 levels greater than 320.0 pg/ml at 7 days of life were found to be predictive of a favourable outcome at 12 months corrected age. These biological markers could predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months corrected age in very low birth weight premature infants, and help the clinician plan early therapeutic interventions to minimize or avoid poor neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:25631862

  5. Validation of the Pictorial Infant Communication Scale for preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Ghilain, Christine S; Parlade, Meaghan V; McBee, Matthew T; Coman, Drew C; Owen, Taylor; Gutierrez, Anibal; Boyd, Brian; Odom, Samuel; Alessandri, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Joint attention, or the shared focus of attention between objects or events and a social partner, is a crucial milestone in the development of social communication and a notable area of deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder. While valid parent-report screening measures of social communication are available, the majority of these measures are designed to assess a wide range of behaviors. Targeted assessment of joint attention and related skills is primarily limited to semi-structured, examiner-led interactions, which are time-consuming and laborious to score. The Pictorial Infant Communication Scale is an efficient parent-report measure of joint attention that can be used as a complement to structured assessments in fully characterizing early social communication development. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Pictorial Infant Communication Scale. Results revealed a high degree of internal consistency and strong intercorrelations between subscales. Additionally, confirmatory factor analysis supported a three-factor model of joint attention. Furthermore, significant correlations between the Pictorial Infant Communication Scale and direct clinical measures of child joint attention, language skills, and autism spectrum disorder symptom severity were suggestive of concurrent validity. Findings suggest that the Pictorial Infant Communication Scale is a promising tool for measuring joint attention skills in preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

  6. The Subculture of the Aging, Aging Group-Conciousness, and Morale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, William C.

    The central concern of this paper is to examine the subculture of the aging theory and the relationship between aging group-consciousness and morale. Aging group-consciousness is postulated to be one of the major components of an aging subculture. A study of 81 older people was conducted in a rural, multi-story housing facility. Questionnaires…

  7. Preterm birth is associated with an increased fundamental frequency of spontaneous crying in human infants at term-equivalent age

    PubMed Central

    Shinya, Yuta; Kawai, Masahiko; Niwa, Fusako; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2014-01-01

    Human infant crying has been researched as a non-invasive tool for assessing neurophysiological states at an early developmental stage. Little is known about the acoustic features of spontaneous cries in preterm infants, although their pain-induced cries are at a higher fundamental frequency (F0) before term-equivalent age. In this study, we investigated the effects of gestational age, body size at recording and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) on the F0 of spontaneous cries in healthy preterm and full-term infants at term-equivalent age. We found that shorter gestational age was significantly associated with higher F0, although neither smaller body size at recording nor IUGR was related to increased F0 in preterm infants. These findings suggest that the increased F0 of spontaneous cries is not caused by their smaller body size, but instead might be caused by more complicated neurophysiological states owing to their different intrauterine and extrauterine experiences. PMID:25122740

  8. Infant botulism.

    PubMed

    Fenicia, Lucia; Anniballi, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Infant botulism is a rare disease that affects infant less than 12 months of age. The illness results from absorption of botulinum toxin produced in situ by neurotoxigenic clostridia that can temporarily colonize the intestinal tract of infants. To date, all inhabited continents except Africa have reported cases of infant botulism. Recognition of cases seem directly related to physician awareness and clinical suspicion. This review summarizes microbiological, clinical and epidemiological features of infant botulism.

  9. Immunogenicity of a reduced schedule of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine given concomitantly with the Prevenar and Pediacel vaccines in healthy infants in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Southern, Jo; Borrow, Ray; Andrews, Nick; Morris, Rhonwen; Waight, Pauline; Hudson, Michael; Balmer, Paul; Findlow, Helen; Findlow, Jamie; Miller, Elizabeth

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the use of two doses of three different meningococcal group C conjugate (MCC) vaccines when given for primary immunization with a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and Pediacel, a combination product containing five acellular pertussis components, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate, and inactivated-poliovirus vaccine. The immune response after a single dose of MCC is also presented. Infants were randomized to receive two doses of one of the MCC vaccines and PCV7 at 2 and 3 months or at 2 and 4 months of age. Meningococcal group C serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) geometric mean titers, Hib-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) immunoglobulin G (IgG) geometric mean concentrations (GMCs), and diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin GMCs, together with the proportions of infants achieving putative protective levels, were determined. A total of 393 infants were recruited. Following the first dose of NeisVac-C (MCC conjugated to tetanus toxoid), 97% of infants achieved protective levels (SBA titer of >or=8), compared with 80% and 53%, respectively, for Menjugate and Meningitec (both of which are conjugated to CRM(197)). SBA responses to MCC vaccines were not significantly different when administered at 2 and 3 or 2 and 4 months of age. Following two doses of each MCC, 98 to 100% of infants achieved protective levels. Both PRP IgG and tetanus responses were significantly enhanced when Pediacel was coadministered with NeisVac-C. This study demonstrates that NeisVac-C and Menjugate generate good immunogenicity after the first dose at 2 months of age when coadministered with PCV7 and Pediacel and merit further investigation in single-dose priming strategies.

  10. Early diagnosis of in utero and intrapartum HIV infection in infants prior to 6 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Lilian, Rivka R; Kalk, Emma; Bhowan, Kapila; Berrie, Leigh; Carmona, Sergio; Technau, Karl; Sherman, Gayle G

    2012-07-01

    Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV-related infant mortality. The early peak of pediatric HIV-related deaths in South Africa occurs at 3 months of age, coinciding with the earliest age at which treatment is initiated following PCR testing at 6 weeks of age. Earlier diagnosis is necessary to reduce infant mortality. The performances of the Amplicor DNA PCR, COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM), and Aptima assays for detecting early HIV infection (acquired in utero and intrapartum) up to 6 weeks of age were compared. Dried blood spots (DBS) were collected at birth and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks from HIV-exposed infants enrolled in an observational cohort study in Johannesburg, South Africa. HIV status was determined at 6 weeks by DNA PCR on whole blood. Serial DBS samples from all HIV-infected infants and two HIV-uninfected, age-matched controls were tested with the 3 assays. Of 710 infants of known HIV status, 38 (5.4%) had in utero (n = 29) or intrapartum (n = 9) infections. By 14 weeks, when treatment should have been initiated, 13 (45%) in utero-infected and 2 (22%) intrapartum-infected infants had died or were lost to follow-up. The CAP/CTM and Aptima assays identified 76.3% of all infants with early HIV infections at birth and by 4 weeks were 96% sensitive. DNA PCR demonstrated lower sensitivities at birth and 4 weeks of 68.4% and 87.5%, respectively. All assays had the lowest sensitivity at 2 weeks of age. CAP/CTM was the only assay with 100% specificity at all ages. Testing at birth versus 6 weeks of age identifies a higher total number of HIV-infected infants, irrespective of the assay.

  11. School's Out! Group Day Care for the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth; Milich, Cynthia

    This report on group day care is designed to: (1) examine the kinds of group programs for school-age children which exist in Los Angeles County, (2) describe the conditions necessary for program operation, and (3) consider the issue of quality as it relates to community expansion of day care services for children of school age. The report is…

  12. Differentiation of Occupational Perceptions Among Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Hypothesizes that occupational perceptions are more specific for older age groups than for younger age groups. Hypothesis was tested by using latent root analysis and minimum residual factor analysis to analyze intercorrelations among six Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) scales for five large and diverse samples. Both analyses supported the…

  13. Effects of gestational length, gender, postnatal age, and birth order on visual contrast sensitivity in infants

    PubMed Central

    Dobkins, Karen R.; Bosworth, Rain G.; McCleery, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate effects of visual experience versus preprogrammed mechanisms on visual development, we used multiple regression analysis to determine the extent to which a variety of variables (that differ in the extent to which they are tied to visual experience) predict luminance and chromatic (red/green) contrast sensitivity (CS), which are mediated by the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) subcortical pathways, respectively. Our variables included gestational length (GL), birth weight (BW), gender, postnatal age (PNA), and birth order (BO). Two-month-olds (n = 60) and 6-month-olds (n = 122) were tested. Results revealed that (1) at 2 months, infants with longer GL have higher luminance CS; (2) at both ages, CS significantly increases over a ~21-day range of PNA, but this effect is stronger in 2- than 6-month-olds and stronger for chromatic than luminance CS; (3) at 2 months, boys have higher luminance CS than girls; and (4) at 2 months, firstborn infants have higher CS, while at 6 months, non-firstborn infants have higher CS. The results for PNA/GL are consistent with the possibility that P pathway development is more influenced by variables tied to visual experience (PNA), while M pathway development is more influenced by variables unrelated to visual experience (GL). Other variables, including prenatal environment, are also discussed. PMID:19810800

  14. Effects of gestational length, gender, postnatal age, and birth order on visual contrast sensitivity in infants.

    PubMed

    Dobkins, Karen R; Bosworth, Rain G; McCleery, Joseph P

    2009-09-30

    To investigate effects of visual experience versus preprogrammed mechanisms on visual development, we used multiple regression analysis to determine the extent to which a variety of variables (that differ in the extent to which they are tied to visual experience) predict luminance and chromatic (red/green) contrast sensitivity (CS), which are mediated by the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) subcortical pathways, respectively. Our variables included gestational length (GL), birth weight (BW), gender, postnatal age (PNA), and birth order (BO). Two-month-olds (n = 60) and 6-month-olds (n = 122) were tested. Results revealed that (1) at 2 months, infants with longer GL have higher luminance CS; (2) at both ages, CS significantly increases over a approximately 21-day range of PNA, but this effect is stronger in 2- than 6-month-olds and stronger for chromatic than luminance CS; (3) at 2 months, boys have higher luminance CS than girls; and (4) at 2 months, firstborn infants have higher CS, while at 6 months, non-firstborn infants have higher CS. The results for PNA/GL are consistent with the possibility that P pathway development is more influenced by variables tied to visual experience (PNA), while M pathway development is more influenced by variables unrelated to visual experience (GL). Other variables, including prenatal environment, are also discussed.

  15. Nutritional status of breast-fed and non-exclusively breast-fed infants from birth to age 5 months in 8 Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Ma, Defu; Ning, Yibing; Gao, Hongchong; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Junkuan; Zheng, Yingdong; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of infants aged 0 to 5 months by different feeding approaches. A cross-sectional study on infant nutrition was performed in eight cities in China. A total of 622 infants from birth to 2 months of age and 456 infants from 3 months to 5 months of age were included in this study. Mix-fed infants received breast milk and complementary foods from birth to 2 months of age. Approximately 38.2% of mix-fed infants received excessive vitamin A, and 15.6% of infants exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) of zinc. For artificially fed infants who received only complementary foods, approximately 20% and 12.5% infants received inadequate dietary vitamin A and zinc intakes, respectively. The vitamin A and zinc intakes of half of the infants exceeded the ULs. Results showed that the usual intake distribution of the infants from 3 months to 5 months of age were similar to that of the infants from birth to 2 months of age. The common vitamin A and zinc intakes were also severely imbalanced. In addition, higher disease prevalence and lower Z scores of length-forage, weight-for-age, and weight-for-length were found in artificially fed infants and mix-fed infants compared with those in breast-fed infants. In conclusion, the usual nutrient intakes were adequate for the majority of Chinese infants, except for an important number of infants at risk for imbalance of vitamin A and zinc intakes.

  16. Redefining meaningful age groups in the context of disease.

    PubMed

    Geifman, Nophar; Cohen, Raphael; Rubin, Eitan

    2013-12-01

    Age is an important factor when considering phenotypic changes in health and disease. Currently, the use of age information in medicine is somewhat simplistic, with ages commonly being grouped into a small number of crude ranges reflecting the major stages of development and aging, such as childhood or adolescence. Here, we investigate the possibility of redefining age groups using the recently developed Age-Phenome Knowledge-base (APK) that holds over 35,000 literature-derived entries describing relationships between age and phenotype. Clustering of APK data suggests 13 new, partially overlapping, age groups. The diseases that define these groups suggest that the proposed divisions are biologically meaningful. We further show that the number of different age ranges that should be considered depends on the type of disease being evaluated. This finding was further strengthened by similar results obtained from clinical blood measurement data. The grouping of diseases that share a similar pattern of disease-related reports directly mirrors, in some cases, medical knowledge of disease-age relationships. In other cases, our results may be used to generate new and reasonable hypotheses regarding links between diseases.

  17. Comparability and representativeness of control groups in a case-control study of infant leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Puumala, Susan E; Spector, Logan G; Robison, Leslie L; Bunin, Greta R; Olshan, Andrew F; Linabery, Amy M; Roesler, Michelle A; Blair, Cindy K; Ross, Julie A

    2009-08-01

    Traditionally, controls in US pediatric cancer studies were selected through random digit dialing. With declining participation and lack of nonparticipant information, random digit dialing (RDD) controls may be substandard. Birth certificate (BC) controls are an alternative, because they are population based and include data from nonparticipants. The authors examined controls collected by random digit dialing and birth certificates for a Children's Oncology Group case-control study of infant leukemia in 1995-2006. Demographic variables were used to assess differences in RDD and BC controls and their representativeness. RDD and BC controls did not differ significantly with regard to maternal variables (age, race, education, marital status, alcohol during pregnancy) or child variables (sex, gestational age, birth weight), but they varied in smoking during pregnancy (22% RDD controls, 12% BC controls) (P = 0.05). The study's combined control group differed significantly from US births: Mothers of controls were more likely to be older (29.8 vs. 27.2 years), white (84% vs. 59%), and married (85% vs. 67%) and to have >16 years of education (37% vs. 25%). Control children were more often full term (88% vs. 81%) and heavier (3,436 vs. 3,317 g). Finally, participating BC mothers were likely to be older and to have more education than nonparticipants. Thus, the study's control groups were comparable but differed from the population of interest.

  18. Infant iron status affects iron absorption in Peruvian breastfed infants at 2 and 5 mo of age

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of prenatal iron supplementation on maternal postpartum iron status and early infant iron homeostasis remain largely unknown. We examined iron absorption and growth in exclusively breastfed infants in relation to fetal iron exposure and iron status during early infancy. Longitudinal, paired ...

  19. Circulating GLP-1 in infants born small-for-gestational-age: breast-feeding versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    Díaz, M; Bassols, J; Sebastiani, G; López-Bermejo, A; Ibáñez, L; de Zegher, F

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal growth restraint associates with the risk for later diabetes, particularly if such restraint is followed by postnatal formula-feeding (FOF) rather than breast-feeding (BRF). Circulating incretins can influence the neonatal programming of hypothalamic setpoints for appetite and energy expenditure, and are thus candidate mediators of the long-term effects exerted by early nutrition. We have tested this concept by measuring (at birth and at age 4 months) the circulating concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in BRF infants born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA; n=63) and in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants receiving either BRF (n=28) or FOF (n=26). At birth, concentrations of GLP-1 were similar in AGA and SGA infants. At 4 months, pre-feeding GLP-1 concentrations were higher than at birth; SGA-BRF infants had GLP-1 concentrations similar to those in AGA-BRF infants but SGA-FOF infants had higher concentrations. In conclusion, nutrition appears to influence the circulating GLP-1 concentrations in SGA infants and may thereby modulate long-term diabetes risk.

  20. Estimating the age of healthy infants from quantitative myelin water fraction maps.

    PubMed

    Dean, Douglas C; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Dirks, Holly; Waskiewicz, Nicole; Lehman, Katie; Walker, Lindsay; Piryatinsky, Irene; Deoni, Sean C L

    2015-04-01

    The trajectory of the developing brain is characterized by a sequence of complex, nonlinear patterns that occur at systematic stages of maturation. Although significant prior neuroimaging research has shed light on these patterns, the challenge of accurately characterizing brain maturation, and identifying areas of accelerated or delayed development, remains. Altered brain development, particularly during the earliest stages of life, is believed to be associated with many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this work, we develop a framework to construct voxel-wise estimates of brain age based on magnetic resonance imaging measures sensitive to myelin content. 198 myelin water fraction (VF(M) ) maps were acquired from healthy male and female infants and toddlers, 3 to 48 months of age, and used to train a sigmoidal-based maturational model. The validity of the approach was then established by testing the model on 129 different VF(M) datasets. Results revealed the approach to have high accuracy, with a mean absolute percent error of 13% in males and 14% in females, and high predictive ability, with correlation coefficients between estimated and true ages of 0.945 in males and 0.94 in females. This work represents a new approach toward mapping brain maturity, and may provide a more faithful staging of brain maturation in infants beyond chronological or gestation-corrected age, allowing earlier identification of atypical regional brain development.

  1. Determinants of Indices of Cerebral Volume in Former Very Premature Infants at Term Equivalent Age

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Maelle

    2017-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term equivalent age (TEA) is suggested to be a reliable tool to predict the outcome of very premature infants. The objective of this study was to determine simple reproducible MRI indices, in premature infants and to analyze their neonatal determinants at TEA. A cohort of infants born before 32 weeks gestational age (GA) underwent a MRI at TEA in our center. Two axial images (T2 weighted), were chosen to realize nine measures. We defined 4 linear indices (MAfhlv: thickness of lateral ventricle; CSI: cortex-skull index; VCI: ventricular-cortex index; BOI: bi occipital index) and 1 surface index (VS.A: volume slice area). Perinatal data were recorded. Sixty-nine infants had a GA (median (interquartile range)) of 30.0 weeks GA (27.0; 30.0) and a birth weight of 1240 grams (986; 1477). MRI was done at 41.0 (40.0; 42.0) weeks post menstrual age (PMA). The inter-investigator reproducibility was good. Twenty one MRI (30.5%) were quoted abnormal. We observed an association with retinopathy of prematurity (OR [95CI] = 4.205 [1.231–14.368]; p = 0.017), surgery for patent ductus arteriosus (OR = 4.688 [1.01–21.89]; p = 0.036), early onset infection (OR = 4.688 [1.004–21.889]; p = 0.036) and neonatal treatment by cefotaxime (OR = 3.222 [1.093–9.497]; p = 0.03). There was a difference for VCI between normal and abnormal MRI (0.412 (0.388; 0.429) vs. 0.432 (0.418; 0.449); p = 0,019); BOI was higher when fossa posterior lesions were observed; VS.A seems to be the best surrogate for cerebral volume, 80% of VS.As’ variance being explained by a multiple linear regression model including 7 variables (head circumference at birth and at TEA, PMA, dopamine, ibuprofen treatment, blood and platelets transfusions). These indices, easily and rapidly achievable, seem to be useful but need to be validated in a large population to allow generalization for diagnosis and follow-up of former premature infants. PMID:28125676

  2. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  3. An Exploration of Rhythmic Grouping of Speech Sequences by French- and German-Learning Infants

    PubMed Central

    Abboub, Nawal; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Bhatara, Anjali; Höhle, Barbara; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Rhythm in music and speech can be characterized by a constellation of several acoustic cues. Individually, these cues have different effects on rhythmic perception: sequences of sounds alternating in duration are perceived as short-long pairs (weak-strong/iambic pattern), whereas sequences of sounds alternating in intensity or pitch are perceived as loud-soft, or high-low pairs (strong-weak/trochaic pattern). This perceptual bias—called the Iambic-Trochaic Law (ITL)–has been claimed to be an universal property of the auditory system applying in both the music and the language domains. Recent studies have shown that language experience can modulate the effects of the ITL on rhythmic perception of both speech and non-speech sequences in adults, and of non-speech sequences in 7.5-month-old infants. The goal of the present study was to explore whether language experience also modulates infants’ grouping of speech. To do so, we presented sequences of syllables to monolingual French- and German-learning 7.5-month-olds. Using the Headturn Preference Procedure (HPP), we examined whether they were able to perceive a rhythmic structure in sequences of syllables that alternated in duration, pitch, or intensity. Our findings show that both French- and German-learning infants perceived a rhythmic structure when it was cued by duration or pitch but not intensity. Our findings also show differences in how these infants use duration and pitch cues to group syllable sequences, suggesting that pitch cues were the easier ones to use. Moreover, performance did not differ across languages, failing to reveal early language effects on rhythmic perception. These results contribute to our understanding of the origin of rhythmic perception and perceptual mechanisms shared across music and speech, which may bootstrap language acquisition. PMID:27378887

  4. Commercial latex agglutination test for rapid diagnosis of group B streptococcal infection in infants.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, B J; Baker, C J

    1980-01-01

    Although latex agglutination assays for detection of a variety of bacterial antigens in body fluids from patients with systemic infection have been shown to be useful as rapid diagnostic techniques, lack of commercial availability has restricted their application. The Streptex latex test kit for the detection of group B streptococcal (GBS) antigen in admission body fluid specimens was evaluated for sensitivity and specificity in 54 infants with meningitis and in 10 infants with normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters. GBS antigen was detected in 22 of 28 (78.6%) CSF specimens by latex agglutination and in 23 of 28 (82.1%) by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis. Antigen was present in 21 of 28 (latex agglutination) and 19 of 26 (countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis) CSF specimens after the initiation of antimicrobial therapy. Heat-labile factors accounted for nonspecific agglutination reactions with latex suspensions other than group B in 3 of 28 CSF samples from patients with GBS meningitis. These nonspecific reactions were readily eliminated by heating specimens for 10 min at 100 degrees C. Fifteen patients with GBS meningitis had admission serum and urine samples collected in addition to CSF. Antigen was detected by latex agglutination and countercurrent immunoelelectrophoresis in 14 of 15 (93.3%) and 13 of 15 (86.7%) concentrated urine specimens, respectively, and in 12 of 15 (80%) CSF specimens and 4 of 15 (27%) sera by each method. These findings indicate that the Streptex latex test is a rapid, sensitive, and readily available method for detection of GBS antigen in admission body fluid specimens from infants with meningitis. PMID:7012177

  5. Effect of age on manganese uptake and retention from milk and infant formulas in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Keen, C.L.; Bell, J.G.; Loennerdal, B.

    1986-03-01

    Manganese nutrition of the neonate is poorly understood, due in part to a paucity of information on the amount and availability of manganese in infant foods. We have developed a suckling pup model to assess the uptake of manganese from fluid diets by using extrinsic labeling. Human milk, cow milk and infant formulas were fed by intubation to fasted rat pups and adults. Rats were killed after varying time periods, and tissues were removed and counted. A period of 6 h was found to be adequate to allow for stomach emptying while limiting tissue redistribution; 24 h was found to reflect pup manganese retention. From human milk, manganese retention was highest (greater than or equal to 80%) in pups less than or equal to 15 days of age; in older pups average retention decreased to 40%. Using d 14 pups to assess relative Mn uptake from diets, wholebody Mn uptake was highest from cow milk (approximately 89%); uptake from human and cow milk formula was similar (approximately 80%) whereas it was lower from soy formula (approximately 60%). These findings suggest that bioavailability of Mn from infant diets is very high during the suckling period. Since most formulas contain considerably more manganese than is found in human milk, Mn deficiency may be less of a concern than possible toxicity from formulas.

  6. Iron deficiency anemia among Jewish and Arab infants at 6 and 12 months of age in Hadera, Israel.

    PubMed

    Lavon, B; Tulchinsky, T H; Preger, M; Said, R; Kaufman, S

    1985-02-01

    Infants attending six Family Health Centers of the Israel Ministry of Health in various Jewish and Arab localities in the Hadera subdistrict were examined for hemoglobin levels at 6 and 12 months of age. The prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin less than 11 g/dl) among Jewish infants rose from a total of 44.7 to 60% from 6 to 12 months. For the Arab infants, the prevalence of anemia increased from a total of 43.7% at 6 months to 71.0% at 12. The prevalence of severe anemia (less than 10 g/dl) for the Jewish infants rose from 4.5 to 13.1% and for the Arab infants from 7.7 to 19.6%. Of the Jewish infants with a hemoglobin level less than 10 g/dl at 6 months, 50% were still less than 10 g/dl at 12 months. Of the Arab infants less than 10 g/dl at 6 months, 36.4% were still at that level at 12 months. The lack of routine iron supplementation as a preventive procedure and the routine use of cow's milk for infant feeding are the probable causes of this high prevalence of iron deficiency anemia.

  7. Decreased right temporal activation and increased interhemispheric connectivity in response to speech in preterm infants at term-equivalent age.

    PubMed

    Naoi, Nozomi; Fuchino, Yutaka; Shibata, Minoru; Niwa, Fusako; Kawai, Masahiko; Konishi, Yukuo; Okanoya, Kazuo; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2013-01-01

    Preterm infants are at increased risk of language-related problems later in life; however, few studies have examined the effects of preterm birth on cerebral responses to speech at very early developmental stages. This study examined cerebral activation and functional connectivity in response to infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) in full-term neonates and preterm infants at term-equivalent age using 94-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that compared with ADS, IDS increased activity in larger brain areas such as the bilateral frontotemporal, temporal, and temporoparietal regions, both in full-term and preterm infants. Preterm infants exhibited decreased activity in response to speech stimuli in the right temporal region compared with full-term infants, although the significance was low. Moreover, preterm infants exhibited increased interhemispheric connectivity compared with full-term controls, especially in the temporal and temporoparietal regions. These differences suggest that preterm infants may follow different developmental trajectories from those born at term owing to differences in intrauterine and extrauterine development.

  8. Infants Discriminate between Adult Directed and Infant Directed Talk in Both Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pegg, Judith E.; And Others

    A total of 60 infants of 7 weeks of age were tested in a habituation-dishabituation looking procedure to determine if they could discriminate between infant-directed talk (IDT) and adult-directed talk (ADT) uttered by the same speaker. One group of 12 infants was habituated to a female speaker's ADT and dishabituated to the same speaker's IDT,…

  9. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sundheim, Leif; Lillegaard, Inger Therese; Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Brodal, Guro; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl

    2017-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group. PMID:28165414

  10. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  11. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-06-04

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively.

  12. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  13. Changes in the incomes of age groups, 1984-89.

    PubMed

    Radner, D B

    1991-12-01

    In terms of changes in the incomes of age groups, the 1984-89 period was very different from the periods that immediately preceded it. This summary focuses on changes for aged family units. During the 1984-89 period, the rate of growth of real median income of aged units was substantially lower than in other subperiods since 1967, the first year for which comparable detailed estimates are available. During the 1984-89 period, the ratio of aged to nonaged median incomes fell for 4 consecutive years, after generally rising since about 1970. The relative medians of almost all detailed aged age groups fell at least slightly from 1984 to 1989, after a period of substantial rises. The increases in income for aged units during 1984-89 were higher for high-income units than for low-income units, producing an increase in inequality. The percentage of aged persons who were poor fell slightly from 1984 to 1989, but that percentage remained above the rates for other adult age groups. A relatively high percentage of aged persons had income that was less than 50 percent above the poverty threshold. The increase in the real mean total income of aged units from 1984 to 1989 was the net result of substantial increases in earnings and pension income and a substantial decrease in property income. In contrast, the much larger increase in real mean total income for aged units from 1979 to 1984 was characterized by a large increase in property income, substantial increases in Social Security benefits and pension income, and a small decrease in earnings.

  14. Assessment of gestational age in the Cameroonian newborn infant: a comparison of four scoring methods.

    PubMed

    Sunjoh, F; Njamnshi, A K; Tietche, F; Kago, I

    2004-10-01

    A clinical assessment of gestational age using four different methods was performed in the same population of 358 Cameroonian newborn infants with the aim of determining the most applicable in the local context. Method applicability was compared in terms of validity, accuracy, reliability, and ease of administration. The gestational age ranged from 25 to 44 weeks. The infants were evaluated within 72 h from birth, using the scoring methods of Farr (FSM), Dubowitz (DSM), Ballard (New Ballard Score--NBS) and Eregie (ESM). The DSM was the most valid with a 93 per cent agreement within +/-2 weeks of gestational age by dates followed by the ESM with 92.4 per cent. The NBS and the FSM showed lower validity of 85.6 per cent and 78.3 per cent respectively. The ESM was the most accurate with a mean difference (MD) in weeks (+/-1 SD) between gestational age by method and gestational age by dates of 0.259+/-1.376, followed by the NBS with 0.355+/-1.51. The DSM was fairly accurate with a MD of 0.500+/-1.31, and the FSM the least accurate with a MD of 1.228+/-1.495. The DSM was the most reliable with a high correlation coefficient (r) of 0.94. The NBS and the ESM had comparable reliability with correlation coefficient of 0.93 each. The easiest to administer was the ESM, completed in an average of 41 s, followed by the FSM in 1 min 22 s. The NBS was completed in 2 min 48 s and the DSM in 4 min 28 s. We concluded that the Eregie model has comparable validity and reliability to the Dubowitz score but is more accurate, simple, and very easy to administer. It is therefore recommended where the workload is heavy and health personnel limited, as is the case in developing countries.

  15. Mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants from birth to 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lyall, Amanda E; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-03-19

    Human cortical folding is believed to correlate with cognitive functions. This likely correlation may have something to do with why abnormalities of cortical folding have been found in many neurodevelopmental disorders. However, little is known about how cortical gyrification, the cortical folding process, develops in the first 2 years of life, a period of dynamic and regionally heterogeneous cortex growth. In this article, we show how we developed a novel infant-specific method for mapping longitudinal development of local cortical gyrification in infants. By using this method, via 219 longitudinal 3T magnetic resonance imaging scans from 73 healthy infants, we systemically and quantitatively characterized for the first time the longitudinal cortical global gyrification index (GI) and local GI (LGI) development in the first 2 years of life. We found that the cortical GI had age-related and marked development, with 16.1% increase in the first year and 6.6% increase in the second year. We also found marked and regionally heterogeneous cortical LGI development in the first 2 years of life, with the high-growth regions located in the association cortex, whereas the low-growth regions located in sensorimotor, auditory, and visual cortices. Meanwhile, we also showed that LGI growth in most cortical regions was positively correlated with the brain volume growth, which is particularly significant in the prefrontal cortex in the first year. In addition, we observed gender differences in both cortical GIs and LGIs in the first 2 years, with the males having larger GIs than females at 2 years of age. This study provides valuable information on normal cortical folding development in infancy and early childhood.

  16. Preterm birth and behaviour problems in infants and preschool-age children: a review of the recent literature.

    PubMed

    Arpi, Elena; Ferrari, Fabrizio

    2013-09-01

    The behaviour problems of children born preterm at school age are well known, but there have been few studies on the behaviour problems of preterm-born infants during infancy and at preschool age. Fourteen cohort studies published in PubMed and PsycINFO between 2000 and 2012 were reviewed with a focus on the type, occurrence, comorbidity, stability, prediction, perinatal, social, and relational risk factors for behaviour problems of preterm-born children in infancy (0-2y) and at preschool age (3-5y). The relational risk factor was considered in an additional four papers. Very-preterm, very-low-birthweight, and moderately-preterm children, in both age groups, show more behaviour problems than term-born comparison children even after perinatal and social risk factors and cognitive performance have been controlled for. Poor social/interactive skills, poor behavioural and emotional self-regulation, emotional difficulties, and reduced attention are the most common behaviour problems. Behaviour problems in infancy are predictive of later behaviour problems and they should be included in follow-up programmes.

  17. [Status of, and factors associated with, complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months in poor rural areas of Hunan Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Fang, J Q; Luo, J Y; Wang, H; Du, Q Y; Huang, G W; Feng, B B

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To describe the status of, and to identify the factors associated with, complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months in poor rural areas of Hunan Province, China. Methods: A total of 8 735 infants and young children aged 6- 23 months from 30 poor rural counties in the Wuling and Luoxiao Mountains in Hunan Province were selected by township-level probability-proportional-to-size sampling in August 2015. Questionnaires were used to collect information on the feeding status of the infants in the previous 24 hours, along with personal/family information. The qualified rate of minimum dietary diversity (MDD), the minimum meal frequency (MMF) and the minimum acceptable diet (MAD) were calculated according to the WHO indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices. Multi non-conditional logistic regression models were used to analyze factors associated with complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months. Results: The findings indicated that 73.9% (6 452/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6-23 months received the minimum dietary diversity, 81.6% (7 124/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6- 23 months received the minimum meal frequency and 49.0% (4 276/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6- 23 months received an acceptable diet. Compared with the boys, the OR for the MMF and MAD for the girls were 1.15 and 1.11, respectively. Compared with the 6-11 month group, the OR for the MDD for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 0.41 and 0.38, respectively; the OR for the MMF for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 1.53 and 2.46, respectively; and the OR for the MAD for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 0.60 and 0.60, respectively. Compared with the Han ethnic group, the OR for the MDD, MMF and MAD for the Miao ethnic group were 1.43, 1.72 and 1.56, respectively; for the Tujia ethnic group were 2.21, 2.02 and 2.11, respectively; and for the Dong ethnic

  18. Associations between respiratory arrhythmia and fundamental frequency of spontaneous crying in preterm and term infants at term‐equivalent age

    PubMed Central

    Shinya, Yuta; Kawai, Masahiko; Niwa, Fusako

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study investigated whether lower vagal function in preterm infants is associated with increased fundamental frequency (F 0; frequency of vocal fold vibration) of their spontaneous cries. We assessed respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during quiet sleep as a measure of vagal function, and its relationship with the F 0 of spontaneous cries in healthy preterm and term infants at term‐equivalent age. The results showed that preterm infants have significantly lower RSA, and higher overall F 0 than term infants. Moreover, lower RSA was associated with higher overall F 0 in preterm infants, whereas higher RSA was positively associated with mean and maximum F 0, and a larger F 0 range in term infants. These results suggest that individual differences in vagal function may be associated with the F 0 of spontaneous cries via modulation of vocal fold tension in infants at an early developmental stage. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58:724–733, 2016. PMID:27037599

  19. Associations between respiratory arrhythmia and fundamental frequency of spontaneous crying in preterm and term infants at term-equivalent age.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Yuta; Kawai, Masahiko; Niwa, Fusako; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated whether lower vagal function in preterm infants is associated with increased fundamental frequency (F0 ; frequency of vocal fold vibration) of their spontaneous cries. We assessed respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during quiet sleep as a measure of vagal function, and its relationship with the F0 of spontaneous cries in healthy preterm and term infants at term-equivalent age. The results showed that preterm infants have significantly lower RSA, and higher overall F0 than term infants. Moreover, lower RSA was associated with higher overall F0 in preterm infants, whereas higher RSA was positively associated with mean and maximum F0 , and a larger F0 range in term infants. These results suggest that individual differences in vagal function may be associated with the F0 of spontaneous cries via modulation of vocal fold tension in infants at an early developmental stage. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58:724-733, 2016.

  20. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-11-17

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89-0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age-Z-score of the birthweight; r = -0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086-12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034-1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure through

  1. Predictors of RSV LRTI Hospitalization in Infants Born at 33 to 35 Weeks Gestational Age: A Large Multinational Study (PONI)

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Elie; Kosma, Paraskevi; Posfay-Barbe, Klara; Yunis, Khalid; Farstad, Teresa; Unnebrink, Kristina; van Wyk, Jean; Wegzyn, Colleen; Notario, Gerard; Kalus, Stefanie; Campbell, Fiona J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Preterm infants are at high risk of developing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). This observational epidemiologic study evaluated RSV disease burden and risk factors for RSV-associated LRTI hospitalization in preterm infants 33 weeks+0 days to 35 weeks+6 days gestational age not receiving RSV prophylaxis. Methods Preterm infants ≤6 months of age during RSV season (1 October 2013–30 April 2014) were followed at 72 sites across 23 countries from September 2013–July 2014 (study period). RSV testing was performed according to local clinical practice. Factors related to RSV-associated hospitalization for LRTI were identified using multivariable logistic regression with backward selection. Results Of the 2390 evaluable infants, 204 and 127 were hospitalized for LRTI during the study period and RSV season, respectively. Among these subjects, 64/204 and 46/127, respectively, were hospitalized for confirmed RSV LRTI. Study period and RSV season normalized RSV hospitalization rates (per 100 infant years) were 4.1 and 6.1, respectively. Factors associated with an increased risk of RSV-related LRTI hospitalization in multivariable analyses were smoking of family members (P<0.0001), non-hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease diagnosis (P = 0.0077), maternal age of ≤25 years at delivery (P = 0.0009), low maternal educational level (P = 0.0426), household presence of children aged 4 to 5 years (P = 0.0038), age on 1 October ≤3 months (P = 0.0422), and presence of paternal atopy (P<0.0001). Conclusions During the 2013–2014 RSV season across 23 countries, for preterm infants 33–35 weeks gestation ≤6 months old on 1 October not receiving RSV prophylaxis, confirmed RSV LRTI hospitalization incidence was 4.1 per 100 infant years during the study period and 6.1 per 100 infant years during the RSV season. This study enhances the findings of single-country studies of common risk factors for

  2. Long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids associate with development of premature infants up to 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Strandvik, Birgitta; Ntoumani, Eleni; Lundqvist-Persson, Cristina; Sabel, Karl-Göran

    2016-04-01

    Myelination is important perinatally and highly dependent on long-chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, nowadays often supplemented, inhibit oleic acid synthesis. Using data from a premature cohort, we studied if nervonic, lignoceric and oleic acids correlated to growth and early development up to 18 months corrected age. Small for gestational age infants had lower concentrations than infants appropriate for gestational age. Only oleic acid was negatively correlated to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Oleic and lignoceric acids correlated to social interaction at one month, and nervonic acid to mental, psychomotor and behavioral development at 6, 10 and 18 months, also when adjusted for several confounders. Negative association between oleic acid and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids suggests inhibition of delta-9 desaturase, and nervonic acid´s divergent correlation to lignoceric and oleic acids suggests different metabolism in neonatal period. Our results may have implications for the supplementation of premature infants.

  3. Increased Risk for Group B Streptococcus Sepsis in Young Infants Exposed to HIV, Soweto, South Africa, 2004–20081

    PubMed Central

    Schrag, Stephanie J.; Thigpen, Michael C.; Velaphi, Sithembiso C.; Wadula, Jeannette; Adrian, Peter V.; Kuwanda, Locadiah; Groome, Michelle J.; Buchmann, Eckhart; Madhi, Shabir A.

    2015-01-01

    Although group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of severe invasive disease in young infants worldwide, epidemiologic data and knowledge about risk factors for the disease are lacking from low- to middle-income countries. To determine the epidemiology of invasive GBS disease among young infants in a setting with high maternal HIV infection, we conducted hospital-based surveillance during 2004–2008 in Soweto, South Africa. Overall GBS incidence was 2.72 cases/1,000 live births (1.50 and 1.22, respectively, among infants with early-onset disease [EOD] and late-onset [LOD] disease). Risk for EOD and LOD was higher for HIV-exposed than HIV-unexposed infants. GBS serotypes Ia and III accounted for 84.0% of cases, and 16.9% of infected infants died. We estimate that use of trivalent GBS vaccine (serotypes Ia, Ib, and III) could prevent 2,105 invasive GBS cases and 278 deaths annually among infants in South Africa; therefore, vaccination of all pregnant women in this country should be explored. PMID:25812061

  4. Compliance with WHO IYCF Indicators and Dietary Intake Adequacy in a Sample of Malaysian Infants Aged 6–23 Months

    PubMed Central

    Khor, Geok Lin; Tan, Sue Yee; Tan, Kok Leong; Chan, Pauline S.; Amarra, Maria Sofia V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO) Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators are useful for monitoring feeding practices. Methods: A total sample of 300 subjects aged 6 to 23 months was recruited from urban suburbs of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya. Compliance with each IYCF indicator was computed according to WHO recommendations. Dietary intake based on two-day weighed food records was obtained from a sub-group (N = 119) of the total sample. The mean adequacy ratio (MAR) value was computed as an overall measure of dietary intake adequacy. Contributions of core IYCF indicators to MAR were determined by multinomial logistic regression. Results: Generally, the subjects showed high compliance for (i) timely introduction of complementary foods at 6 to 8 months (97.9%); (ii) minimum meal frequency among non-breastfed children aged 6 to 23 months (95.2%); (iii) consumption of iron-rich foods at 6 to 23 months (92.3%); and minimum dietary diversity (78.0%). While relatively high proportions achieved the recommended intake levels for protein (87.4%) and iron (71.4%), lower proportions attained the recommendations for calcium (56.3%) and energy (56.3%). The intake of micronutrients was generally poor. The minimum dietary diversity had the greatest contribution to MAR (95% CI: 3.09, 39.87) (p = 0.000) among the core IYCF indicators. Conclusion: Malaysian urban infants and toddlers showed moderate to high compliance with WHO IYCF indicators. The robustness of the analytical approach in this study in quantifying contributions of IYCF indicators to MAR should be further investigated. PMID:27916932

  5. Age-group differences in inhibiting an oculomotor response.

    PubMed

    Gottlob, Lawrence R; Fillmore, Mark T; Abroms, Ben D

    2007-11-01

    Age-group differences were examined in the delayed oculomotor response task, which requires that observers delay the execution of a saccade (eye movement) toward an abrupt-onset visual cue. This task differs from antisaccade and attentional capture in that inhibition causes saccades to be postponed, not redirected. Older adults executed more premature saccades than young adults, but there were no age-group differences in latency or accuracy of saccades executed at the proper time. The results suggest that older adults are less capable of inhibiting a prepotent saccadic response, but that other aspects of visual working memory related to the task are preserved.

  6. Alcohol Policy, Social Context, and Infant Health: The Impact of Minimum Legal Drinking Age

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Caine, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective The minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) was increased in the U.S. in the late 1980s in an effort to reduce intoxication-associated injuries, especially those related to motor vehicle accidents. This paper explores distal (secondary) effects of changing MLDA on indices of infant health, and whether changes in drinking behaviors or birth composition contributed to these effects. Methods State- and year-fixed-effects models are used to analyze the relationship between MLDA, drinking behaviors, and birth outcomes. We studied the effects of different MLDA (age 18, 19, 20, or 21 years) when potential mothers were 14 years old by merging two population-based datasets, the Natality Detailed Files and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System between 1985 and 2002. Results A MLDA of 18 years old (when potential mothers were 14 years old) increased the prevalence of low birth weight, low Apgar scores, and premature births. Effects were stronger among children born to black women compared with white women. Moreover, a younger MLDA was associated with an increasing proportion of very young and high school dropouts for black women. Furthermore, older MLDA laws at age 14 years decreased the prevalence of binge drinking among black women. Conclusions Increasing the MLDA had longer term, distal impacts beyond the initially intended outcomes, specifically on birth outcomes (particularly among infants born to black women) as well as school drop-outs and binge drinking patterns among black young females. The older MLDA, intended initially to reduce problematic drinking behaviors, appeared to alter broader social contexts that influenced young women during their early childbearing years. PMID:22016717

  7. Early Visual Attention in Preterm and Fullterm Infants in Relation to Cognitive and Motor Outcomes at School Age: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Hitzert, Marrit M.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.; Hunnius, Sabine; Geuze, Reint H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Preterm infants are exposed to the visual environment earlier than fullterm infants, but whether early exposure affects later development is unclear. Our aim was to investigate whether the development of visual disengagement capacity during the first 6 months postterm was associated with cognitive and motor outcomes at school age, and whether associations differed between fullterms and low-risk preterms. Method: Seventeen fullterms and ten low-risk preterms were tested in a gaze shifting task every 4 weeks until 6 months postterm. The longitudinal data were converted into single continuous variables by fitting the data with an S-shaped curve (frequencies of looks) or an inverse model (latencies of looks). Neuropsychological test results at school age were converted into composite z scores. We then performed linear regression analyses for each functional domain at school age with the variables measuring infant visual attention as separate predictors and adjusting for maternal level of education and group (fullterms versus preterms). We included an interaction term, visual attention*group, to determine whether predictive relations differed between fullterms and preterms. Results: A slower development of disengagement predicted poorer performance on attention, motor skills, and handwriting, irrespective of fullterm or preterm birth. Predictive relationships differed marginally between fullterms and preterms for inhibitory attentional control (P = 0.054) and comprehensive reading (P = 0.064). Conclusion: This exploratory study yielded no indications of a clear advantage or disadvantage of the extra visual exposure in healthy preterm infants. We tentatively conclude that additional visual exposure does not interfere with the ongoing development of neuronal networks during this vulnerable period of brain development. PMID:25340045

  8. The Visual Scoring of Sleep in Infants 0 to 2 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Grigg-Damberger, Madeleine M.

    2016-01-01

    In March 2014, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) Board of Directors requested the Scoring Manual Editorial Board develop rules, terminology, and technical specifications for scoring sleep/wake states in full-term infants from birth to 2 mo of age, cognizant of the 1971 Anders, Emde, and Parmelee Manual for Scoring Sleep in Newborns. On July 1, 2015, the AASM published rules for scoring sleep in infants, ages 0–2 mo. This evidence-based review summarizes the background information provided to the Scoring Manual Editorial Board to write these rules. The Anders Manual only provided criteria for coding physiological and behavioral state characteristics in polysomnograms (PSG) of infants, leaving specific sleep scoring criteria to the individual investigator. Other infant scoring criteria have been published, none widely accepted or used. The AASM Scoring Manual infant scoring criteria incorporate modern concepts, digital PSG recording techniques, practicalities, and compromises. Important tenets are: (1) sleep/wake should be scored in 30-sec epochs as either wakefulness (W), rapid eye movement, REM (R), nonrapid eye movement, NREM (N) and transitional (T) sleep; (2) an electroencephalographic (EEG) montage that permits adequate display of young infant EEG is: F3-M2, F4-M1, C3-M2, C4-M1, O1-M2, O2-M1; additionally, recording C3-Cz, Cz-C4 help detect early and asynchronous sleep spindles; (3) sleep onsets are more often R sleep until 2–3 mo postterm; (4) drowsiness is best characterized by visual observation (supplemented by later video review); (5) wide open eyes is the most crucial determinant of W; (6) regularity (or irregularity) of respiration is the single most useful PSG characteristic for scoring sleep stages at this age; (7) trace alternant (TA) is the only relatively distinctive EEG pattern, characteristic of N sleep, and usually disappears by 1 mo postterm replaced by high voltage slow (HVS); (8) sleep spindles first appear 44–48 w

  9. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention.

  10. Dynamics of infant habituation: infants' discrimination of musical excerpts.

    PubMed

    Flom, Ross; Pick, Anne D

    2012-12-01

    Schöner and Thelen (2006) summarized the results of many habituation studies as a set of generalizations about the emergence of novelty preferences in infancy. One is that novelty preferences emerge after fewer trials for older than for younger infants. Yet in habituation studies using an infant-controlled procedure, the standard criterion of habituation is a 50% decrement in looking regardless of he ages of the participants. If younger infants require more looking to habituate than do older infants, it might follow that novelty preferences will emerge for younger infants when a more stringent criterion is imposed, e.g., a 70% decrement in looking. Our earlier investigation of infants' discrimination of musical excerpts provides a basis and an opportunity for assessing this idea. Flom et al. (2008) found that 9-month-olds, but not younger infants, unambiguously discriminate "happy" and "sad" musical excerpts. The purpose of the current study was to examine younger infants' discrimination of happy and sad musical excerpts using a more stringent, 70% habituation criterion. In Experiment 1, 5- and 7-month olds were habituated to three musical excerpts rated as happy or sad. Following habituation infants were presented with two musical excerpts from the other affect group. Infants at both ages showed significant discrimination. In Experiment 2, 5- and 7-month-olds were presented with two new excerpts from the same affective group as the habituation excerpts. The infants did not discriminate these novel, yet affectively similar excerpts. In Experiment 3, 5- and 7-month-olds discriminated individual happy and sad excerpts. These results replicate those for the older, 9-month-olds in the previous investigation. The results are important as they demonstrate that whether infants show discrimination using an infant-controlled procedure is affected by the researchers' chosen criterion of habituation.

  11. Microstructural brain development between 30 and 40 weeks corrected age in a longitudinal cohort of extremely preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Kersbergen, Karina J; Leemans, Alexander; Groenendaal, Floris; van der Aa, Niek E; Viergever, Max A; de Vries, Linda S; Benders, Manon J N L

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is frequently used to assess brain development in preterm infants. This study investigates maturational changes in diffusivity measures in 122 regions of the brain between 30 and 40 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) using the neonatal atlas of Oishi and colleagues (Oishi et al., 2011). Forty infants without cerebral injury and with normal neurodevelopmental outcome were selected from a cohort of preterm infants (gestational age<28 weeks), scanned longitudinally at 30 and 40 weeks PMA. Fractional anisotropy (FA) changed significantly in 84 brain regions, with the largest increase in the central brain regions; by contrast, the cortical brain regions showed a decrease in FA. Mean, radial and axial diffusivity all showed a clear decrease in the majority of brain regions. This study provides longitudinal reference diffusivity values in a cohort of extremely preterm infants, showing a central to peripheral and posterior to anterior directed gradient, in line with our current understanding of brain maturation, and adding to this knowledge. This study further elucidates brain maturation in preterm infants during the last 10 weeks prior to term equivalent age. The presented values can be used as a reference for assessing brain development in other cohorts, when investigating the effects of brain injury in this vulnerable period, and to evaluate the effect of future neuroprotective strategies.

  12. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-01-01

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001) and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age—Z-score of the birthweight; r = −0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001), and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033). In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086–12.597, p < 0.001) and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.401; p = 0.017), were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure

  13. Neonatal Intensive Care Nurses' Perceptions of Parental Participation in Infant Pain Management: A Comparative Focus Group Study.

    PubMed

    Axelin, Anna; Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta; Eriksson, Mats; Pölkki, Tarja; Korhonen, Anne; Franck, Linda S

    2015-01-01

    This comparative focus group study explored nurses' experiences and perceptions regarding parental participation in infant pain management in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A total of 87 nurses from 7 NICUs in Finland, Sweden, and the United States participated in focus-group interviews (n = 25). Data were analyzed using deductive and inductive thematic analysis. Nurses' experiences and perceptions varied considerably, from nurses being in control, to nurses sharing some control with parents, to nurse-parent collaboration in infant pain management. When nurses controlled pain management, parents were absent or passive. In these cases, the nurses believed this led to better pain control for infants and protected parents from emotional distress caused by infant pain. When nurses shared control with parents, they provided information and opportunities for participation. They believed parent participation was beneficial, even if it caused nurses or parents anxiety. When nurses collaborated with parents, they negotiated the optimal pain management approach for an individual infant. The collaborative approach was most evident for the nurses in the Swedish NICUs and somewhat evident in the NICUs in Finland and the United States. Further research is needed to address some nurses' perceptions and concerns and to facilitate greater consistency in the application of evidence-based best practices.

  14. Infants with complex congenital heart diseases show poor short-term memory in the mobile paradigm at 3 months of age.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Harrison, Tondi; Heathcock, Jill

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine learning, short-term memory and general development including cognitive, motor, and language domains in infants with Complex Congenital Heart Defects (CCDH). Ten infants with CCHD (4 males, 6 females) and 14 infants with typical development (TD) were examined at 3 months of age. The mobile paradigm, where an infant's leg is tethered to an overhead mobile, was used to evaluate learning and short-term memory. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development 3rd edition (Bayley-III) was used to evaluate general development in cognitive, motor, and language domains. Infants with CCHD and infants with TD both showed learning with significant increase in kicking rate (p<0.001) across periods of the mobile paradigm, but only infants with TD demonstrated short-term memory (p=0.017) in the mobile paradigm. There were no differences on cognitive, motor, and language development between infants with CCHD and infants with TD on the Bayley-III. Early assessment is necessary to guide targeted treatment in infants with CCHD. One-time assessment may fail to detect potential cognitive impairments during early infancy in infants with CCHD. Supportive intervention programs for infants with CCHD that focuses on enhancing short-term memory are recommended.

  15. Menopausal age in various ethnic groups in Israel.

    PubMed

    Neri, A; Bider, D; Lidor, Y; Ovadia, J

    1982-12-01

    The effects of various parameters on age at menopause have been investigated in five ethnic groups in Israel comprising East European, West European, North African, Israeli and other Middle Eastern (Mediterranean) women, respectively. The data were acquired by means of anonymous questionnaires and were programmed for 1770 women. Correlation coefficients between various variables and age at menopause revealed three variables which have a straight correlation, vis. obesity index, number of children, and years of amenorrhoea (during the reproductive years). The years-of-smoking variable has an inverse correlation with age at menopause. East Europeans have the highest age at menarche. Two-way analysis of variance has shown that the obesity index, years of amenorrhoea, number of children and years-of-smoking parameters are individually more important than ethnic origin. The finding that the age at menopause is highest in the North African group is explained by the higher incidence in this group of high parity, a greater number of amenorrhoea, obesity, and low cigarette consumption. Since many habits (such as smoking, diet, use of contraceptive pills, multiple partners and marital obligations) are subject to frequent change in the modern world, it is of the utmost importance to repeat such a study every few years.

  16. Predictors of Obesity in a Cohort of Children Enrolled in WIC as Infants and Retained to 3 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Chiasson, M A; Scheinmann, R; Hartel, D; McLeod, N; Sekhobo, J; Edmunds, L S; Findley, S

    2016-02-01

    This longitudinal study of children enrolled as infants in the New York State (NYS) Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) examined predictors of obesity (body mass index ≥ 95th percentile) at 3 years of age. NYS WIC administrative data which included information from parent interviews and measured heights and weights for children were used. All 50,589 children enrolled as infants in WIC between July to December 2008 and July to December 2009 and retained in WIC through age three were included. At 3 years of age, 15.1% of children were obese. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that children of mothers who received the Full Breastfeeding Food Package when their infant was enrolled in WIC (adjusted OR = 0.52) and children with ≤2 h screen time daily at age 3 (adjusted OR = 0.88) were significantly less likely to be obese (p < 0.001) controlling for race/ethnicity, birth weight, and birthplace. In this cohort of NYS WIC participants, maternal receipt of the Full Breastfeeding Food Package (a surrogate measure of exclusive breastfeeding) is associated with lower levels of obesity in their children at age 3. The relationships between participation in WIC, exclusive breastfeeding, and obesity prevention merit further study.

  17. Maximum Bite Force Analysis in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Patricia; Vieira, Marilena; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF) is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI), using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo), and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil), on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups. PMID:25992105

  18. An Adolescent Age Group Approach to Examining Youth Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…

  19. Youth Assets and Delayed Coitarche across Developmental Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that assets are associated with youth abstinence, but whether these relationships are constant across developmental age groups has not been shown. Data for this study were obtained from two independent datasets collected across a 2-year period using in-person, in-home interviews of youth (52% female; 44% Caucasian,…

  20. Temperament Measures of African-American Infants: Change and Convergence with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worobey, John; Islas-Lopez, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Studies of infant temperament are inconsistent with regard to convergence across measurement sources. In addition, little published work is available that describes temperament in minority infants. In this study, measures of temperament at three and six months were made for 24 African-American infants. Although maternal ratings of activity and…

  1. Infant Temperament and Cardiac Vagal Tone: Assessments at Twelve Weeks of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Lynne C.; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Explored relation between temperament and cardiac vagal tone in 12-week olds. Found that infants with higher baseline vagal tone showed fewer negative behaviors in the laboratory and were less disrupted by experimental procedures than infants with lower baselines. Infants who decreased cardiac vagal tone during assessments were rated by mothers as…

  2. Excessive infant crying doubles the risk of mood and behavioral problems at age 5: evidence for mediation by maternal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Smarius, Laetitia Joanna Clara Antonia; Strieder, Thea G A; Loomans, Eva M; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Gemke, Reinoud J; van Eijsden, Manon

    2017-03-01

    The onset of behavioral problems starts in early life. This study examined whether excessive infant crying (maternal ratings) is a determinant of emotional and behavioral problems at age 5-6 years. In the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study, a large prospective, observational, population-based multiethnic birth cohort, excessive infant crying (crying for three or more hours per 24 h day over the past week) during the 13th week after birth (range 11-25 weeks, SD 2 weeks), maternal burden of infant care and maternal aggressive behavior (either angry speaking, or physical aggression) was assessed using a questionnaire. Children's behavioral and emotional problems at the age of 5-6 were assessed by Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), by the subscale of generalized anxiety of the preschool anxiety scale (PAS), and by the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). Inclusion criterion was singleton birth. Exclusion criteria were preterm born babies or congenital disorders. Among 3389 children, excessive infant crying (n = 102) was associated with a twofold increased risk of the overall problem behavior, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and mood problems at the age of 5-6 [ORs between 1.75 (95 % CI 1.09-2.81) and 2.12 (95 % CI 1.30-3.46)]. This association was mediated by maternal burden of infant care (change in odds' ratio 1-17 %) and maternal aggressive behavior (change in odds' ratio 4-10 %). There was no effect modification by the child's gender or maternal parity. Excessive infant crying was not associated with general anxiety problems. Excessive infant crying doubles the risk of behavioral, hyperactivity, and mood problems at the age of 5-6, as reported by their mother. Maternal burden of infant care partially mediates the association between excessive crying and behavioral and mood problems. Special care for mothers with a high burden of care for their excessive crying infant, notwithstanding their own good

  3. Food allergy and anaphylaxis in infants and preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Gaspar-Marques, João; Carreiro-Martins, Pedro; Papoila, Ana Luísa; Caires, Iolanda; Pedro, Catarina; Araújo-Martins, José; Virella, Daniel; Rosado-Pinto, José; Leiria-Pinto, Paula; Neuparth, Nuno

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy (FA) prevalence data in infants and preschool-age children are sparse, and proposed risk factors lack confirmation. In this study, 19 children's day care centers (DCC) from 2 main Portuguese cities were selected after stratification and cluster analysis. An ISAAC's (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) derived health questionnaire was applied to a sample of children attending DCCs. Outcomes were FA parental report and anaphylaxis. Logistic regression was used to explore potential risk factors for reported FA. From the 2228 distributed questionnaires, 1217 were included in the analysis (54.6%). Children's median age was 3.5 years, and 10.8% were described as ever having had FA. Current FA was reported in 5.7%. Three (0.2%) reports compatible with anaphylaxis were identified. Reported parental history of FA, personal history of atopic dermatitis, and preterm birth increased the odds for reported current FA. A high prevalence of parental-perceived FA in preschool-age children was identified. Risk factor identification may enhance better prevention.

  4. Coupling of Temperament with Mental Illness in Four Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament.

  5. Rifampin Use and Safety in Hospitalized Infants

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Christopher J.; Ericson, Jessica; Kohman, Jordan; Corey, Kaitlyn L.; Oh, Morgan; Onabanjo, Janet; Hornik, Christoph P.; Clark, Reese H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P. Brian; Chu, Vivian H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the use and safety of rifampin in hospitalized infants. Study Design Observational study of clinical and laboratory adverse events among infants exposed to rifampin from 348 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group between 1997 and 2012. Result 2500 infants received 4279 courses of rifampin; mean gestational age was 27 weeks (5th, 95th %tile; 23, 36) and mean birth weight was 1125 g (515, 2830). Thrombocytopenia (121/1000 infant days) and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (25/1000 infant days) were the most common laboratory adverse events. The most common clinical adverse events were medical necrotizing enterocolitis (64/2500 infants, 3%) and seizure (60/2500 infants, 2%). Conclusion The overall incidence of adverse events among infants receiving rifampin appears low; however, additional studies to further evaluate safety and dosing of rifampin in this population are needed. PMID:25594217

  6. Predicting School Readiness from Neurodevelopmental Assessments at Age 2 Years after Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Infants Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrianakos-Hoobler, Athena I.; Msall, Michael E.; Huo, Dezheng; Marks, Jeremy D.; Plesha-Troyke, Susan; Schreiber, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 2 years accurately predict school readiness in children who survived respiratory distress syndrome after preterm birth. Method: Our cohort included 121 preterm infants who received surfactant and ventilation and were enrolled in a randomized controlled study of inhaled nitric…

  7. The Quality of Preterm Infants' Spontaneous Movements: An Early Indicator of Intelligence and Behaviour at School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Phillipa R.; van Braeckel, Koen; Bouma, Anke; Einspieler, Christa; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth F.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The quality of very preterm infants' spontaneous movements at 11 to 16 weeks post-term age is a powerful predictor of their later neurological status. This study investigated whether early spontaneous movements also have predictive value for the intellectual and behavioural problems that children born very preterm often experience.…

  8. Immunogenicity and safety of a trivalent inactivated 2010-2011 influenza vaccine in Taiwan infants aged 6-12 months.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kao-Pin; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Yen, Ting-Yu; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Hung-Chih; Chen, An-Chyi; Chow, Julie Chi; Huang, Li-Min

    2014-05-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the immune responses and safety of an influenza vaccine in vaccine-naïve infants aged 6-12 months, and was conducted from November 2010 to May 2011. Fifty-nine infants aged 6-12 months received two doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine 4 weeks apart. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were measured 4 weeks after the two doses of study vaccine. Based on the assumption that a hemagglutination inhibition titer of 1:40 or greater against the antigen would be protective in adults, two doses of the study vaccine generated a protective immune response of 63.2% against influenza A(H1N1), 82.5% against influenza A(H3N2) and 38.6% against influenza B viruses in infants aged 6-12 months. The geometric mean fold rises against influenza type A and B viruses also met the European Medicines Agency criteria for flu vaccines. The solicited events within 7 days after vaccination were mild in intensity. No deaths or adverse events such as optic neuritis, cranial neuropathy, and brachial neuropathy or Guillain-Barre syndrome were reported. Two doses of inactivated influenza vaccine were well tolerated and induced a protective immune response against influenza in infants aged 6-12 months.

  9. United States Air Force Child Care Center Infant Care Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Ardyn; And Others

    Intended to guide Air Force infant caregivers in providing high quality group care for infants 6 weeks to 6 months of age, this infant care guide must be used in conjunction with other Air Force regulations on day care, such as AFR 215-1, Volume VI (to be renumbered AFR 215-27). After a brief introductory chapter (Chapter I), Chapter II indicates…

  10. Randomised controlled trial of postnatal sodium supplementation on body composition in 25 to 30 week gestational age infants

    PubMed Central

    Hartnoll, G.; Betremieux, P.; Modi, N.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To compare the effects of early and delayed sodium supplementation on body composition and body water compartments during the first two weeks of postnatal life.
METHODS—Preterm infants of 25-30 weeks' gestation were stratified and randomly assigned according to gender and gestational age, to receive a sodium intake of 4 mmol/kg/day beginning either on the second day after birth or when weight loss of 6% of birthweight had been achieved. Daily sodium intake, total fluid intake, energy intake, urine volume, and urinary sodium excretion were recorded. Total body water was measured by H218O dilution on days 1, 7, and 14, and extracellular fluid volume by sodium bromide dilution on days 1 and 14.
RESULTS—Twenty four infants received early, and 22 delayed, sodium supplementation. There were no significant differences between the groups in body water compartments on day 1. In the delayed group, but not the early group, there was a significant loss of total body water during the first week (delayed −44 ml/kg, p=0.048; early 6 ml/kg, p=0.970). By day 14 the delayed, but not the early group, also had a significant reduction in extracellular fluid volume (delayed −53 ml/kg, p=0.01; early −37 ml/kg, p=0.2). These changes resulted in a significant alteration in body composition at the end of the first week (total body weight: delayed 791 ml/kg; early 849 ml/kg, p=0.013). By day 14 there were once again no significant differences in body composition between the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS—Body composition after preterm birth is influenced by the timing of introduction of routine sodium supplements. Early sodium supplementation can delay the physiological loss of body water that is part of normal postnatal adaptation. This is likely to be of particular relevance to babies with respiratory distress syndrome. A tailored approach to clinical management, delaying the introduction of routine sodium supplements until there has been postnatal loss of body water, is

  11. Infant Constipation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Diapers & Clothing > Infant Constipation Ages & Stages Listen ...

  12. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  13. Relationship disruption stress in human infants: a validation study with experimental and control groups.

    PubMed

    Haley, David W

    2011-09-01

    The current study examined whether the psychological stress of the still-face (SF) task (i.e. stress resulting from a parent's unresponsiveness) is a valid laboratory stress paradigm for evaluating infant cortisol reactivity. Given that factors external to the experimental paradigm, such as arriving at a new place, may cause an elevation in cortisol secretion; we tested the hypothesis that infants would show a cortisol response to the SF task but not to a normal FF task (control). Saliva was collected for cortisol measurement from 6-month-old infants (n = 31) randomly assigned to either a repeated SF task or to a continuous FF task. Parent-infant dyads were videotaped. Salivary cortisol concentration was measured at baseline, 20, and 30 min after the start of the procedure. Infant salivary cortisol concentrations showed a significant increase over time for the SF task but not for the FF task. The results provide new evidence that the repeated SF task provides a psychological challenge that is due to the SF condition rather than to some non-task related factor; these results provide internal validity for the paradigm. The study offers new insight into the role of parent-infant interactions in the activation of the infant stress response system.

  14. Should Partial Hydrolysates Be Used as Starter Infant Formula? A Working Group Consensus.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Alarcon, Pedro; Fleischer, David; Hernell, Olle; Kolacek, Sanja; Laignelet, Hugo; Lönnerdal, Bo; Raman, Rita; Rigo, Jacques; Salvatore, Silvia; Shamir, Raanan; Staiano, Annamaria; Szajewska, Hania; Van Goudoever, Hans J; von Berg, Andrea; Lee, Way S

    2016-01-01

    Partially hydrolyzed formulas (pHFs) are increasingly used worldwide, both in the prevention of atopic disease in at-risk infants and in the therapeutic management of infants with functional gastrointestinal manifestations. Because prevention is always preferable to treatment, we reviewed the literature aiming to find an answer for the question whether pHF may be recommended for feeding all infants if breast-feeding is not possible. PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched up to December 2014. In addition, to search for data that remained undetected by the searches, we approached authors of relevant articles and major producers of pHFs asking for unpublished data. Because few data were found, nonrandomized, controlled trials and trials in preterm infants were included as well. Overall, only limited data could be found on the efficacy and safety of pHF in healthy term infants. Available data do not indicate that pHFs are potentially harmful for healthy, term infants. With respect to long-term outcomes, particularly referring to immune, metabolic and hormonal effects, data are, however, nonexistent. From a regulatory point of view, pHFs meet the nutrient requirements to be considered as standard formula for term healthy infants. Cost, which is different from country to country, should be considered in the decision-making process. Based on limited available data, the use of pHF in healthy infants is safe with regard to growth. The lack of data, in particular for metabolic consequences and long-term outcomes, is, however, the basis for our recommendation that health authorities should develop and support long-term follow-up studies. Efficacy and long-term safety data are required before a recommendation of this type of formula for all infants can be made.

  15. Reliability of Tethered Swimming Evaluation in Age Group Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Nuno; Marinho, Daniel A; Batalha, Nuno; Marques, Mário C; Morouço, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability of tethered swimming in the evaluation of age group swimmers. The sample was composed of 8 male national level swimmers with at least 4 years of experience in competitive swimming. Each swimmer performed two 30 second maximal intensity tethered swimming tests, on separate days. Individual force-time curves were registered to assess maximum force, mean force and the mean impulse of force. Both consistency and reliability were very strong, with Cronbach’s Alpha values ranging from 0.970 to 0.995. All the applied metrics presented a very high agreement between tests, with the mean impulse of force presenting the highest. These results indicate that tethered swimming can be used to evaluate age group swimmers. Furthermore, better comprehension of the swimmers ability to effectively exert force in the water can be obtained using the impulse of force. PMID:25114742

  16. Acute pancreatitis in the paediatric age group: a personal experience.

    PubMed

    Cosentini, A; Stranieri, G; Capillo, S; Notarangelo, L; Madonna, L; Iannini, S; Ferro, V; Defilippo, V; Defilippo, R G; Rubino, R

    2005-01-01

    Although relatively rare, acute pancreatitis is the most common disease complex involving the pancreas in the paediatric age group. The etiology of the disease is often unknown, and Italian epidemiological data on the paediatric population and, in particular, on the etiology of the disease are not available (except for studies of prevalence). Within the field of the most frequently encountered pancreatitis in the age range of our interest (i.e. 0-18 years), not only the commonly observed forms whose etiopathogenesis is ascribable to cholelithiasis must be mentioned but also those forms due to proteic-caloric malnutrition that are becoming increasingly common. The presenting clinical symptoms and signs may not be typical and the laboratory tests may not always be sensitive enough. In such age range chronic recurrent pancreatitis plays a very important epidemiologic role. Approximately 40% of children and teenagers admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of pancreatitis report a previous episode of the disease. Irreversible changes in pancreatic parenchyma develop in those patients in whom the disease progresses, leading to pancreatic insufficiency. Such a morbid condition (chronic pancreatitis) is more often observed in adolescents, in whom the disease manifests itself with a vague repetitive dyspeptic symptomatology, after alternating remissions and recrudescences, not always clinically evident. In children, the clinical picture most commonly encountered is represented by recurrent abdominal pains, in view of the fact that the patients are frequently affected by thalassaemia. The pseudocystic evolution of the disease is the most common organic damage resulting from the chronic progression of the pancreatic impairment. A few differences have been found with respect to severity, etiology, and mortality of pancreatitis in the paediatric age group as compared with older age groups. Both the general practitioner with a paediatric practice and the paediatrician

  17. Postnatal growth in term infants born small for gestational age is associated with later neurocognitive and metabolic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Castanys-Muñoz, Esther; Kennedy, Kathy; Castañeda-Gutiérrez, Eurídice; Forsyth, Stewart; Godfrey, Keith M; Koletzko, Berthold; Ozanne, Susan E; Rueda, Ricardo; Schoemaker, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; van Buuren, Stef; Ong, Ken K

    2017-04-06

    We systematically reviewed papers published in English between 1994 and October 2015 on how postnatal weight gain and growth affects neurodevelopment and metabolic outcomes in term-born small for gestational age (SGA) infants. Two randomised trials reported that enriched infant formulas that promoted early growth also increased fat mass, lean mass and blood pressure, but had no effect on early neurocognitive outcomes. Meanwhile, 31 observational studies reported consistent positive associations between postnatal weight gain and growth with neurocognitive outcomes, adiposity, insulin resistance and blood pressure.

  18. Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy as Primary Therapy for Retinoblastoma in Infants Less than 3 Months of Age: A Series of 10 Case-Studies

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jiejun; Liu, Zhenyin; Jiang, Hua; Shen, Gang; Li, Haibo; Jiang, Yizhou; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Retinoblastoma is the most common primary malignant intra-ocular tumor in children. Although intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) by selectively infusing chemotherapy through the ophthalmic artery has become an essential technique in the treatment of advanced intra-ocular retinoblastoma in children, the outcome of IAC as primary therapy for infants less than 3 months of age remains unknown. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the outcome of IAC as primary therapy for retinoblastoma in infants less than 3 months of age. Methods We retrospectively reviewed ten retinoblastoma patients attending our center from January 2009 to September 2015 and beginning primary IAC before the age of 3 months. The patient characteristics, overall outcomes and therapy-related complications were assessed. Results The mean patient age at the first IAC treatment was 10.4 weeks (range 4.9–12.9 weeks). These eyes were classified according to the International Classification of Retinoblastoma (ICRB) as group A (n = 0), B (n = 2), C (n = 0), D (n = 9), or E (n = 2). A total of 28 catheterizations were performed, and the procedure was stopped in one patient because of internal carotid artery spasm. Each eye received a mean of 2.6 cycles of IAC (range 2–4 cycles). After IAC with a mean follow-up of 28.3 months (range 9–65 months), tumor regression was observed in 12 of 13 eyes. One eye was enucleated due to tumor progression. All patients are alive and no patient has developed metastatic disease or other malignancies. Conclusions Our experience suggests IAC as primary therapy is a feasible and promising treatment for retinoblastoma in infants less than 3 months of age. PMID:27504917

  19. Infant attachment disorganization and moderation pathways to level and change in externalizing behavior during preschool ages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feihong; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Cox, Martha J

    2016-12-01

    This research examined the child, parent, and family conditions under which attachment disorganization was related to both level and change in externalizing behavior during preschool among a community sample. Using the ordinary least squares regression, we found that attachment disorganization at 12 months significantly predicted children's externalizing behavior at 36 months and this prediction was not contingent on any other factors tested. For predicting changes in externalizing behavior from 36 to 60 months, we found a significant main effect of family cumulative risk and an interaction effect between attachment disorganization at 12 months and maternal sensitivity at 24 months. Specifically, high disorganization was related to a significant decrease in externalizing behavior from 36 to 60 months when maternal sensitivity at 24 months was high. Our main-effect findings replicated the significant effect of attachment disorganization and cumulative risk on externalizing behavior with preschool-aged children. Our interaction finding provided support for understanding the parenting conditions under which infant attachment disorganization may be related to change in externalizing behavior during preschool ages. Implications of the findings were discussed.

  20. Learning science in small multi-age groups: the role of age composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-06-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by pre-primary children aged 4-6. The second part included one primary class attended by students aged 6-8 in addition to the pre-primary classes. Students were involved in inquiry-based science activities. Two sources of data were used: Lesson recordings and children's assessments. The data from both sources were separately analyzed and the findings plotted. The resulting graphs indicate a linear relationship between the overall performance of the younger children in a class and the number of older ones participating in the groups in each class. It seems that the age composition of the groups can significantly affect the overall cognitive achievements of the younger children and preferentially determines the time within which this factor reaches its maximum value. The findings can be utilized in deciding the age composition of small groups in a class with the aim of facilitating the younger children's learning in science.

  1. Infant language development is related to the acquisition of walking.

    PubMed

    Walle, Eric A; Campos, Joseph J

    2014-02-01

    The present investigation explored the question of whether walking onset is related to infant language development. Study 1 used a longitudinal design (N = 44) to assess infant locomotor and language development every 2 weeks from 10 to 13.5 months of age. The acquisition of walking was associated with a significant increase in both receptive and productive language, independent of age. Study 2 used an age-held-constant study with 12.5-month-old infants (38 crawling infants; 37 walking infants) to further explore these findings. Results from Study 2 replicated the differences in infant language development between locomotor groups. Additionally, a naturalistic observation of parent-infant interactions (20 crawling dyads; 24 walking dyads) revealed that language development was predicted by multiple factors in the social environment, but only for walking infants. Possible explanations of the findings (e.g., social, cognitive, neurological) are discussed, and topics for future research are highlighted.

  2. Autism Treatment in the First Year of Life: A Pilot Study of Infant Start, a Parent-Implemented Intervention for Symptomatic Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, S. J.; Vismara, L.; Wagner, A. L.; McCormick, C.; Young, G.; Ozonoff, S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of early autism screening is earlier treatment. We pilot-tested a 12-week, low-intensity treatment with seven symptomatic infants ages 7-15 months. Parents mastered the intervention and maintained skills after treatment ended. Four comparison groups were matched from a study of infant siblings. The treated group of infants was…

  3. Effects of age at introduction of complementary foods to breast-fed infants on duration of lactational amenorrhea in Honduran women.

    PubMed

    Dewey, K G; Cohen, R J; Rivera, L L; Canahuati, J; Brown, K H

    1997-05-01

    Lactational amenorrhea (LA) is associated with postpartum infertility and is known to be related to breast-feeding frequency and duration, but the exact role of complementary feeding of the infant has not been clearly defined. Data on LA were collected during and after a 2-mo intervention trial in which low-income Honduran women who had breast-fed fully for 4 mo were randomly assigned to one of three groups: continued full breast-feeding until 6 mo (FBF, n = 50), introduction of complementary foods at 4 mo with ad libitum breast-feeding from 4 to 6 mo (SF, n = 47), or introduction of complementary foods at 4 mo with maintenance of baseline breast-feeding frequency from 4 to 6 mo (SF-M, n = 44). Women were followed up until the infant was 12 mo of age, or later if menses had not occurred by then. All but six of the women continued to breast-feed for > or = 12 mo. With the exclusion of those whose menses returned before 18 wk postpartum (which could not have been due to the intervention), the proportion of women who were amenorrheic at 6 mo was 64.5% in the SF group, 80.0% in the FBF group, and 85.7% in the SF-M group (chi-square test = 4.13, P = 0.02; one-tailed test with the latter two groups combined). The total duration of LA did not differ significantly among groups. The most significant determinant of LA was time spent breast-feeding (min/d), which was in turn negatively associated (P = 0.06) with the infant's energy intake from complementary foods in regression analyses. These results indicate that there is a significant effect of introducing foods at 4 mo on the likelihood of amenorrhea at 6 mo postpartum, but not thereafter, and that this effect is not seen in mothers who maintain breast-feeding frequency.

  4. Body composition and circulating high-molecular-weight adiponectin and IGF-I in infants born small for gestational age: breast- versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    de Zegher, Francis; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponectin, and IGF-I were assessed at birth and 4 months in BRF infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 72) and SGA infants receiving BRF (n = 46) or FOF (n = 56), the latter being randomized to receive a standard (FOF1) or protein-rich formula (FOF2). Compared with AGA-BRF infants, the catchup growth of SGA infants was confined to lean mass, independently of nutrition. Compared with AGA-BRF infants, SGA-BRF infants had normal HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels at 4 months, whereas SGA-FOF infants had elevated levels of HMW adiponectin (particularly SGA-FOF1) and IGF-I (particularly SGA-FOF2). In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes.

  5. Triiodothyronine Supplementation in Infants and Children Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass (TRICC) A Multicenter Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial: Age Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Portman, Michael A.; Slee, April; Olson, Aaron K.; Cohen, Gordon; Karl, Tom; Tong, Elizabeth; Hastings, Laura; Patel, Hitendra; Reinhartz, Olaf; Mott, Antonio R.; Mainwaring, Richard; Linam, Justin; Danzi, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Background Triiodothyronine levels decrease in infants and children after cardiopulmonary bypass. We tested the primary hypothesis that triiodothyronine (T3) repletion is safe in this population and produces improvements in postoperative clinical outcome. Methods and Results The TRICC study was a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in children younger than 2 years old undergoing heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Enrollment was stratified by surgical diagnosis. Time to extubation (TTE) was the primary outcome. Patients received intravenous T3 as Triostat (n=98) or placebo (n=95), and data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards. Overall, TTE was similar between groups. There were no differences in adverse event rates, including arrhythmia. Prespecified analyses showed a significant interaction between age and treatment (P=0.0012). For patients younger than 5 months, the hazard ratio (chance of extubation) for Triostat was 1.72. (P=0.0216). Placebo median TTE was 98 hours with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 71 to 142 compared to Triostat TTE at 55 hours with CI of 44 to 92. TTE shortening corresponded to a reduction in inotropic agent use and improvement in cardiac function. For children 5 months of age, or older, Triostat produced a significant delay in median TTE: 16 hours (CI, 7–22) for placebo and 20 hours (CI, 16–45) for Triostat and (hazard ratio, 0.60; P=0.0220). Conclusions T3 supplementation is safe. Analyses using age stratification indicate that T3 supplementation provides clinical advantages in patients younger than 5 months and no benefit for those older than 5 months. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00027417. PMID:20837917

  6. Maltreated Infants: Reported Eligibility for Part C and Later School-Age Special Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarborough, Anita A.; McCrae, Julie S.

    2008-01-01

    National estimates of characteristics of maltreated infants and report of an Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) and an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) 54 months later are presented. The study was based on 1,196 infants from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Measures of neurodevelopment, language, and cognition were…

  7. Phonetic Modification of Vowel Space in Storybook Speech to Infants up to 2 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Evamarie B.; Wieland, Elizabeth A.; Kondaurova, Maria V.; McAuley, J. Devin; Bergeson, Tonya R.; Dilley, Laura C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A large body of literature has indicated vowel space area expansion in infant-directed (ID) speech compared with adult-directed (AD) speech, which may promote language acquisition. The current study tested whether this expansion occurs in storybook speech read to infants at various points during their first 2 years of life. Method: In 2…

  8. Infant Attention to Dynamic Audiovisual Stimuli: Look Duration from 3 to 9 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Greg D.; Zhang, Dantong; Guy, Maggie W.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine developmental change in visual attention to dynamic visual and audiovisual stimuli in 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old infants. Infant look duration was measured during exposure to dynamic geometric patterns and Sesame Street video clips under three different stimulus modality conditions: unimodal visual, synchronous…

  9. Intermanual Transfer of Shapes in Preterm Human Infants from 33 to 34 + 6 Weeks Postconceptional Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Fleur; Marcus, Leila; Berne-Audeoud, Frederique; Streri, Arlette; Debillon, Thierry; Gentaz, Edouard

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of preterm infants to learn an object shape with one hand and discriminate a new shape in the opposite hand (without visual control). Twenty-four preterm infants between 33 and 34 + 6 gestational weeks received a tactile habituation task with either their right or left hand followed by a tactile discrimination…

  10. Baseline Characteristics of the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Population: Predicting Recognition Acuity at 4.5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Lynn, Michael J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To identify patient baseline characteristics that predict recognition acuity at 4.5 years of age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a study of patients with monocular infantile cataracts. Methods. We analyzed baseline characteristics of the 114 infants enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study to determine which were most predictive of visual outcome at 4.5 years of age. All infants underwent cataract surgery between 1 and 7 months of age. Monocular acuity was assessed at 4.5 years of age by a traveling examiner using the Amblyopia Treatment Study HOTV protocol. Results. Age at cataract surgery was weakly associated with visual acuity (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.19, P = 0.041) with median visual acuity better among the younger patients (28–48 days: 0.50 logMAR, 49–210 days: 1.10 logMAR, P = 0.046). Patients from families with private insurance had significantly better median visual acuity (0.60 vs. 1.40 logMAR, P = 0.0004). No other baseline characteristic revealed a significant bivariate relationship with visual acuity. A multiple linear regression relating visual acuity to all baseline characteristics demonstrated that only the availability of private insurance was statistically significant, accounting for 12% of the variance. Conclusions. This analysis concurs with previous studies that early surgery is important for good visual outcomes in patients with unilateral infantile cataracts. The fact that only one baseline variable (private insurance) contributed to the multivariate analysis, accounting for 12% of the variance, suggests that predicting visual outcome for these patients is complicated at best, and cannot be estimated from baseline characteristics alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00212134.) PMID:25503455

  11. [EEG of the very premature infant born at 24 to 30 weeks gestational age. Definitions and normal area].

    PubMed

    Vecchierini, M-F; André, M; d'Allest, A-M

    2007-01-01

    This article aims at summarizing normal EEG criteria and their maturational pattern in premature infants of 24 to 30 weeks gestational age. Although very premature infants with a normal outcome are not numerous, their normal EEG patterns must be known, as EEG constitutes a basis for neurological prognosis. Background activity is first discontinuous. Discontinuity decreases thereafter with increasing age, so that some long periods of continuous activity may be observed in active sleep, around 30 weeks of age. Conversely, interburst intervals become shorter and the proportion of time without EEG activity is decreasing. Based on EEG activity and eye movements, a rough sleep-state differentiation was described as soon as 25 weeks of gestational age and is completely achieved at 30 weeks. The main EEG figures are high-voltage delta waves of higher amplitude and slower frequency in younger infants. Temporal delta waves occur in sequences, these are very characteristic of the very premature infant; thereafter, they become smaller, less numerous and eventually disappear around 27-28 weeks. In contrast, occipital delta waves remain numerous and of high voltage, are usually bilateral and superimposed with fast rhythms. The two types of frontal delta waves that are observed in 24-27 weeks prematures disappear with maturation. Bursts of synchronized delta waves are less numerous than localized delta waves and also disappear before 28 weeks of age. Finally, diffuse theta bursts are mainly recorded at 26-27 weeks GA and become more localized in temporal areas with maturation. At 30 weeks, they are observed on temporal areas, mainly during slow-wave sleep.

  12. Effects of Chronologic Age and Young Child Exposure on Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease among US Preterm Infants Born at 32 to 35 Weeks Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Eric A. F.; Anderson, Evan J.; Wu, Xionghua; Ambrose, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease as a function of chronologic age and exposure to young children in US preterm infants. Methods In the RSV Respiratory Events among Preterm Infants Outcomes and Risk Tracking (REPORT) study, preterm infants born at 32–35 weeks gestational age (wGA) were enrolled from 188 US clinics and followed September-May of 2009–2010 or 2010–2011. Infants with medically-attended acute respiratory illness had nasal/pharyngeal swabs collected for viral testing. Results of RSV tests conducted during routine clinical care were also collected. Event rates during November-March were modeled as a function of chronologic age and birth month using Poisson regression and adjusting for other covariates. Rates were calculated overall and for infants with and without exposure to young siblings or daycare attendance. Of 3317 infants screened, 1646 were enrolled as a consecutive sample. Infants with chronic lung disease of prematurity, hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease, life expectancy <6 months, or receiving or being considered for RSV immunoprophylaxis were excluded. 84% of patients completed the study. Demographics of the enrolled cohort were generally similar to those of US infants born at 32–35 wGA; infants 32–34 wGA, Hispanic infants, and infants of less-educated mothers were under-represented. Results Among 1642 evaluable infants, outpatient RSV lower respiratory illness incidence was highest at older ages, whereas RSV hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were highest at younger ages. In all instances, young child exposure was associated with higher RSV incidence. The highest RSV hospitalization and ICU rates occurred among February-born infants with young child exposure, at 19.0 (95% CI, 13.5–27.0) and 6.5 (95% CI, 5.6–7.6) per 100 infant-seasons, respectively. Conclusions Preterm infants have a substantially elevated risk of RSV disease. Young age and

  13. School Achievements, Behavioural Adjustments and Health at Nine Years of Age in a Population of Infants Who Were Born Preterm or Required Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohay, Heather; And Others

    The prevalence of subtle handicapping conditions, such as learning disabilities, behavior problems, and recurrent illness, in a population of 88 high-risk infants was investigated when the children reached 9 years of age. Infants had had birthweights of less than 1500 grams or had required prolonged mechanical ventilation in the neonatal period.…

  14. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated.

  15. Environmental exposure of the pediatric age groups in Cairo City and its suburbs to cadmium pollution.

    PubMed

    Hossny, E; Mokhtar, G; El-Awady, M; Ali, I; Morsy, M; Dawood, A

    2001-06-12

    In a trial to assess the exposure of subjects in the pediatric age group to cadmium (Cd) pollution, serum Cd was estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry in 405 subjects, birth-18 years old, from Cairo City and its suburbs. Serum Cd mean concentrations were: 0.92 microg/l in 32 neonates (birth-4 weeks); 1.33 microg/l in 70 infants (4 weeks-2 years); 1.11 microg/l in 100 children in the preschool period (2-6 years); 1.34 microg/l in 103 primary school children (6-12 years); and 1.24 microg/l in 100 adolescents (12-18 years). In neonates, serum Cd was higher in babies with weights and heights that remained below the 5th percentile for age. Breast-fed infants had a serum Cd geometric mean level (1.25 microg/l) that was not in accordance to that of their mothers' milk (0.52 microg/l, P < 0.001), suggesting alternative routes of exposure. Environmental tobacco-smoke exposure was the most important determinant of Cd status in the school-aged children, the geometric mean being 1.42 microg/l in passive smokers vs. 1.2 microg/l in non-exposed children (P < 0.05). Moreover, adolescents who were active smokers had a significantly higher serum Cd level (1.7 microg/l) as compared to non-smokers (1.2 microg/l). Gender did influence the Cd status in adolescents, being higher among males, probably related to smoking, or to the difference in lifestyle of adolescents according to gender in the community. Alpha-1-microglobulinuria was accompanied by a higher serum Cd concentration in the group of adolescents only, suggesting a subclinical renal effect after several years of cumulative exposure. The residential classification, whether urban or suburban, did not influence the serum Cd status; neither did the present or past history of bronchial asthma. These findings certainly justify further evaluation of the problem of Cd pollution among Cairene individuals, knowing the long-term consequences of exposure to it. Systematic efforts for the proper disposal of Cd wastes and prevention

  16. [Anthropometric data on newborn infants: comparative study of two ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Martínez Cortés, F; Martínez Guerrero, M V; Valdivielso Felices, P; Legros Carrenard, J R; Martín Sánchez, J

    1992-11-01

    We have studied the birth weights, obstetrics data and anthropometrical data from 1.157 full-term newborns who were delivered in the Hospital del Insalud-Cruz Roja in Ceuta (Spain). Of these newborns, 489 were of arabic origin and 668 of hispanic origin. Arabic newborns were heavier (3.248 +/- 473 g versus 3.280 +/- 431 g, p < 0.001) and longer (50.2 +/- 1.8 cm versus 49.6 +/- 1.8 cm, p < 0.001) than their hispanic counterparts. These differences were not due to a disproportion in sex or gestational age between the groups. Furthermore, the differences were still present after adjustments were made for maternal age, parity and the mother's smoking habit. Thus, this difference in size at birth between arabic and hispanic newborns could be, at least in part, ethnically related.

  17. Effects of age and strain on the microbiota colonization in an infant human flora-associated mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Benhua; Li, Guiqing; Yuan, Jing; Li, Wenxia; Tang, Huan; Wei, Hong

    2013-09-01

    The establishment of human flora-associated animal models allows the in vivo manipulation of host, microbial, and environmental parameters to influence the gut microbial community. However, it is difficult to simulate infant gut microbiota in germ-free animals because of the variation and dynamic state of infant microbial communities. In this study, the effects of age and strain on intestinal microbiota were observed in an infant human flora-associated (IHFA) mouse model. To establish an IHFA model, postnatal day (PND) 1 germ-free mice (Kunming, n = 10; BALB/c, n = 10) were infected with feces from a breast-fed infant. Microbiota in the feces of BALB/c mice (at PND 7, 14, and 21), and Kunming mice (at PND 14) were analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli levels in the feces of BALB/c and Kunming mice (PND 7/14/21) were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The Dice similarity coefficient (Cs) for the fecal microbiota of IHFA mice in comparison with the HD donor sample was higher for BALB/c mice than for Kunming mice (P < 0.05). In addition, the DCs at PND 7 were lower than those at PND 14 and PND 21 in both mouse strains (P < 0.05). The Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus species colonizing the BALB/c mice were similar to those in the Kunming mice (at PND 7/14/21). The bifidobacteria counts increased with age in both mouse strains, whereas the lactobacilli counts decreased with age in both strains. These results suggest that both age and strain influence microbiota patterns in the IHFA mouse model.

  18. Mushroom poisoning in infants and children: the Amanita pantherina/muscaria group.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, D R

    1992-01-01

    The clinical features and management of nine cases of mushroom poisoning due to Amanita pantherina (eight cases) and Amanita muscaria (one case) admitted to a children's hospital are described. Most ingestions were in the toddler age group with males being more frequently involved. Symptoms occurred between 30-180 min with the onset of central nervous system depression, ataxia, waxing and waning obtundation, hallucinations, intermittent hysteria or hyperkinetic behavior. Vomiting was rare. Seizures or myoclonic twitching occurred in 4/9 patients, but was controlled with standard anticonvulsant therapy. No other anticholinergic or cholinergic signs were prominent. Recovery was rapid and complete in all patients.

  19. Video Evidence That London Infants Can Resettle Themselves Back to Sleep After Waking in the Night, as well as Sleep for Long Periods, by 3 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hovish, Kimberly; Owen, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Objective: Most infants become settled at night by 3 months of age, whereas infants not settled by 5 months are likely to have long-term sleep-waking problems. We assessed whether normal infant development in the first 3 months involves increasing sleep-period length or the ability to resettle autonomously after waking in the night. Methods: One hundred one infants were assessed at 5 weeks and 3 months of age using nighttime infrared video recordings and parental questionnaires. Results: The clearest development was in sleep length; 45% of infants slept continuously for ≥5 hours at night at 3 months compared with 10% at 5 weeks. In addition, around a quarter of infants woke and resettled themselves back to sleep in the night at each age. Autonomous resettling at 5 weeks predicted prolonged sleeping at 3 months suggesting it may be a developmental precursor. Infants reported by parents to sleep for a period of 5 hours or more included infants who resettled themselves and those with long sleeps. Three-month olds fed solely breast milk were as likely to self-resettle or have long sleep bouts as infants fed formula or mixed breast and formula milk. Conclusions: Infants are capable of resettling themselves back to sleep in the first 3 months of age; both autonomous resettling and prolonged sleeping are involved in “sleeping through the night” at an early age. Findings indicate the need for physiological studies of how arousal, waking, and resettling develop into sustained sleeping and of how environmental factors support these endogenous and behavioral processes. PMID:26035139

  20. Reliability and repeatability of quantitative tractography methods for mapping structural white matter connectivity in preterm and term infants at term-equivalent age.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Supreet; Powell, Samuel; He, Lili; Pierson, Christopher R; Parikh, Nehal A

    2014-01-01

    Premature infants exhibit widespread insults and delays in white matter maturation that can be sensitively detected early using diffusion tensor imaging. Diffusion tensor tractography facilitates in vivo visualization of white matter tracts and has the potential to be more sensitive than simpler two-dimensional DTI-based measures. However, the reliability and reproducibility of performing tractography for major white matter tracts in preterm infants is not known. The main objective of our study was to develop highly reliable and repeatable methods for ten white matter tracts in extremely low birth weight infants (birth weight ≤ 1000 g) at term-equivalent age. To demonstrate clinical utility, we also compared fiber microstructural and macrostructural parameters between preterm and healthy term controls. Twenty-nine ELBW infants and a control group of 15 healthy term newborns were studied. A team of researchers experienced in neuroanatomy/neuroimaging established the manual segmentation protocol based on a priori anatomical knowledge and an extensive training period to identify sources of variability. Intra- and inter-rater reliability and repeatability was tested using intra-class correlation coefficient, within-subject standard deviation (SD), repeatability, and Dice similarity index. Our results support our primary goal of developing highly reliable and reproducible comprehensive methods for manual segmentation of 10 white matter tracts in ELBW infants. The within-subject SD was within 1-2% and repeatability within 3-7% of the mean values for all 10 tracts. The intra-rater Dice index was excellent with a range of 0.97 to 0.99, and as expected, the inter-rater Dice index was lower (range: 0.80 to 0.91), but still within a very good reliability range. ELBW infants exhibited fewer fiber numbers and/or abnormal microstructure in a majority of the ten quantified tracts, consistent with injury/delayed development. This protocol could serve as a valuable tool for

  1. Infants and Toddlers in Group Care: Feeding Practices that Foster Emotional Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscomb, Kathryn R.; Goble, Carla B.

    2008-01-01

    The quality of child-teacher interactions during daily child care routines plays a significant role in young children's development. The nature of mealtimes--the pace, the caregiver's responsiveness, how food is offered--affects infants' and toddlers' emotional health. Maintaining consistency between how children are fed at home and at the center…

  2. Evaluating "Baby Think It Over" Infant Simulators: A Comparison Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Jerrold E.

    2006-01-01

    To test the efficacy of Baby-Think-It-Over (BTIO) infant simulators, two versions of a sexuality education program were compared. While the program was designed to include BTIO as an important teaching technique, two schools (49 students) opted not to use them. These students completed all elements of the program except the BTIO activities. Their…

  3. A Novel Physiology-Based Mathematical Model to Estimate Red Blood Cell Lifespan in Different Human Age Groups.

    PubMed

    An, Guohua; Widness, John A; Mock, Donald M; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurement of red blood cell (RBC) survival in humans has improved from the original accurate but limited differential agglutination technique to the current reliable, safe, and accurate biotin method. Despite this, all of these methods are time consuming and require blood sampling over several months to determine the RBC lifespan. For situations in which RBC survival information must be obtained quickly, these methods are not suitable. With the exception of adults and infants, RBC survival has not been extensively investigated in other age groups. To address this need, we developed a novel, physiology-based mathematical model that quickly estimates RBC lifespan in healthy individuals at any age. The model is based on the assumption that the total number of RBC recirculations during the lifespan of each RBC (denoted by N max) is relatively constant for all age groups. The model was initially validated using the data from our prior infant and adult biotin-labeled red blood cell studies and then extended to the other age groups. The model generated the following estimated RBC lifespans in 2-year-old, 5-year-old, 8-year-old, and 10-year-old children: 62, 74, 82, and 86 days, respectively. We speculate that this model has useful clinical applications. For example, HbA1c testing is not reliable in identifying children with diabetes because HbA1c is directly affected by RBC lifespan. Because our model can estimate RBC lifespan in children at any age, corrections to HbA1c values based on the model-generated RBC lifespan could improve diabetes diagnosis as well as therapy in children.

  4. Characteristics of extremely low birth weight infant survivors with unimpaired outcomes at 30 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Praveen; Shankaran, Seetha; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Kendrick, Douglas E.; Pappas, Athina; Vohr, Betty R.; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate characteristics of unimpaired outcome in ELBW survivors. Study Design ELBW infants (n=714) with 30 months’ assessments were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to develop a model for the binary outcome of unimpaired versus impaired outcome. Results Thirty-three percent of infants had an unimpaired outcome. 17% of ELBW survivors had a Bayley II Mental Developmental Index score of ≥101 and 2% had a score of ≥116. Female gender, use of antenatal steroids, maternal education ≥ high school and absence of major neonatal morbidities were independent predictors of unimpaired outcome. The likelihood of an unimpaired outcome in presence of major neonatal morbidities was higher in infants exposed to antenatal steroids. Conclusions The majority of unimpaired ELBW survivors had cognitive scores shifted towards the lower end of the normal distribution. Exposure to antenatal steroids was associated with higher likelihood of an unimpaired outcome in infants with major neonatal morbidities. PMID:23807719

  5. Maternal prenatal cigarette, alcohol and illicit drug use and risk of infant leukaemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Slater, Megan E; Linabery, Amy M; Blair, Cindy K; Spector, Logan G; Heerema, Nyla A; Robison, Leslie L; Ross, Julie A

    2011-11-01

    Several case-control studies have evaluated associations between maternal smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use during pregnancy and risk of childhood leukaemia. Few studies have specifically focused on infants (<1 year) with leukaemia, a group that is biologically and clinically distinct from older children. We present data from a Children's Oncology Group case-control study of 443 infants diagnosed with acute leukaemia [including acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)] between 1996 and 2006 and 324 population controls. Mothers were queried about their cigarette, alcohol and illicit drug use 1 year before and throughout pregnancy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals [CI] were calculated using adjusted unconditional logistic regression models. Maternal smoking (>1 cigarette/day) and illicit drug use (any amount) before and/or during pregnancy were not significantly associated with infant leukaemia. Alcohol use (>1 drink/week) during pregnancy was inversely associated with infant leukaemia overall [OR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.43, 0.94], AML [OR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.28, 0.87], and leukaemia with mixed lineage leukaemia gene rearrangements ('MLL+') [OR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.36, 0.97]. While our results agree with the fairly consistent evidence that maternal cigarette smoking is not associated with childhood leukaemia, the data regarding alcohol and illicit drug use are not consistent with prior reports and are difficult to interpret. It is possible that unhealthy maternal behaviours during pregnancy, some of which carry potential legal consequences, may not be adequately measured using only self-report. Future case-control studies of childhood leukaemia that pursue these exposures may benefit from incorporation of validated instruments and/or biomarkers when feasible.

  6. [Development of nocturnal sleep behaviors in very low birth infants].

    PubMed

    Asaka, Yoko; Takada, Satoshi

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the developmental changes in nocturnal sleep behaviors among preterm infants in comparison with full-term infants (control group). The subjects were 18 preterm infants and 23 full-term infants with mean gestational weeks of 26.5 +/- 2.3 and 39.1 +/- 1.3, and average weights of 879 +/- 188 g and 2,940 +/- 352 g, respectively. Sleep measures were obtained through Actigraph (Micro-mini RC, Ambulatory Monitoring Inc., Ardsley, NY) over a week-long period. Results showed that the sleep duration was significantly different depending on the corrected age of months in only the preterm group (Preterm group: 504 +/- 55 min in under 12 months group, 543 +/- 68 min in over 13 months group. Full-term group: 548 +/- 68 min in under 12 months group, 544 +/- 79 min in over 13 months group). ACTX (percentage of minutes with higher than 0 activity score) was significantly higher for the preterm infants at both age groups in months. In conclusion, the nocturnal sleep duration of preterm infants reached the same level as those of full-term infants after the age of 13 corrected months. Also preterm infants were found to have a higher percentage of less restful sleep during nighttime. Further research is needed to understand the developmental course of physical activity during night time of preterm infants.

  7. High blood pressure in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Helena; Antonio, Natália; Rodrigues, Dina; Da Silva, Marinho; Pêgo, Mariano; Providência, Luís Augusto

    2010-03-01

    The definition of hypertension (HT) in the pediatric age group is based on the normal distribution of blood pressure (BP) in healthy children. Normal BP is defined as being below the 90th percentile for gender, age and height, and hypertension as equal to or higher than the 95th percentile on at least three separate occasions. If the values are above the 90th percentile but below the 95th percentile, the child should be considered prehypertensive. Ambulatory BP monitoring is useful in the assessment of BP levels in the young. P values in children and adolescents have creased in the last decade, in parallel with increases in body mass index, and HT now has a prevalence of 2-5%. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is one of the main predictors of HT in adulthood, but it is also associated with other cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, inflammation and impaired vascular function. Left ventricular hypertrophy is the most prominent evidence of target organ damage caused by hypertension in children and adolescents. The goal for antihypertensive treatment is to reduce BP below the 95th percentile. Weight control, with regular physical activity and dietary changes, is the primary therapy for obesity-related hypertension. Weight loss decreases not only BP but also other cardiovascular risk factors. The indications for use of antihypertensive drugs are: symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, established hypertensive target organ damage, stage 2 hypertension and failure of nonpharmacologic measures.

  8. Task factor usability ratings for different age groups writing Chinese.

    PubMed

    Chan, A H S; So, J C Y

    2009-11-01

    This study evaluated how different task factors affect performance and user subjective preferences for three different age groups of Chinese subjects (6-11, 20-23, 65-70 years) when hand writing Chinese characters. The subjects copied Chinese character sentences with different settings for the task factors of writing plane angle (horizontal 0 degrees , slanted 15 degrees ), writing direction (horizontal, vertical), and line spacing (5 mm, 7 mm and no lines). Writing speed was measured and subjective preferences (effectiveness and satisfaction) were assessed for each of the task factor settings. The result showed that there was a conflict between writing speed and personal preference for the line spacing factor; 5 mm line spacing increased writing speed but it was the least preferred. It was also found that: vertical and horizontal writing directions and a slanted work surface suited school-aged children; a horizontal work surface and horizontal writing direction suited university students; and a horizontal writing direction with either a horizontal or slanted work surface suited the older adults.

  9. Scurvy in pediatric age group – A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009–2014) with search terms “scurvy” “vitamin C deficiency” “ascorbic acid deficiency” “scurvy and children” “scurvy and pediatric age group”. There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  10. "New beginnings" in South African shelters for the homeless: piloting of a group psychotherapy intervention for high-risk mother-infant dyads.

    PubMed

    Bain, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The New Beginnings program was developed at the Anna Freud Centre and originally piloted in Her Majesty Prisons in the United Kingdom. This study aimed to explore the use of this manualized parent-infant psychotherapy group model in an African setting with high-risk mother-infant dyads, and describes the implementation and investigation of this 12-week group psychotherapy intervention in two Johannesburg shelters for homeless women. The measures used to investigate treatment efficacy were the Parent Development Interview (A. Slade, J.L. Aber, I. Bresgi, B. Berger, & M. Kaplan,), the Emotional Availability Scales (Z. Biringen, J.L. Robinson, & R.N. Emde,), the Kessler-10 (R.C. Kessler et al.,), and the Griffiths Scales of Mental Development (D. Luiz et al., . At pretesting, infants exhibited delays in a number of developmental areas, and mothers showed high levels of depression and generally low capacities for reflective function. While significant shifts in the mothers' capacities for reflective function were not found in the treatment condition, significant shifts were found in the infants' speech abilities and in the mothers' abilities to structure their interactions with their infants. This suggests that the program enabled mothers to become more sensitized to their infants' needs in interaction and that communication between mother and infant increased. The number of sessions attended by the dyads correlated with improvements made by the mothers and their infants.

  11. Infant stimulation curriculum for infants with cerebral palsy: effects on infant temperament, parent-infant interaction, and home environment.

    PubMed

    Palmer, F B; Shapiro, B K; Allen, M C; Mosher, B S; Bilker, S A; Harryman, S E; Meinert, C L; Capute, A J

    1990-03-01

    To assess the effects of intervention in cerebral palsy, 48 infants 12 to 19 months of age, with mild to severe spastic diplegia, were randomly assigned to receive either 6 months of infant stimulation followed by 6 months of physical therapy (test group) or 12 months of neurodevelopmental physical therapy (contrast group). The infant stimulation protocol consisted of cognitive, motor, sensory, and language activities. Outcome was assessed after 12 months by using Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire subscores (activity, rhythmicity, adaptability, approach, threshold, intensity, mood, distractibility, and persistence); Roth Mother-Child Relationship Evaluation subscores (acceptance, overprotection, overindulgence, rejection); and Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment subscores (maternal responsiveness, avoidance of restriction and punishment, organization of environment, play materials, maternal involvement, and variety of daily stimulation). Motor and cognitive outcomes suggesting advantage for the test group have been reported previously. After 12 months of intervention, mothers with infants in the contrast group showed a greater improvement in emotional and verbal responsiveness as measured by the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (mean score change in control group = 1.2, test group = 0.3 P less than .04). None of the 19 other measures differed significantly between treatment groups in change from baseline. This study demonstrates no short-term systematic effect on temperament, maternal-infant interaction, or home environment attributable to the inclusion of an infant stimulation curriculum in an intervention program for infants with spastic diplegia. It suggests that motor and cognitive advantages associated with infant stimulation are not mediated by measurable changes in the psychosocial variables studied.

  12. Evolutionary perspectives on pregnancy: maternal age at menarche and infant birth weight.

    PubMed

    Coall, David A; Chisholm, James S

    2003-11-01

    We present a novel evolutionary analysis of low birth weight (LBW). LBW is a well-known risk factor for increased infant morbidity and mortality. Its causes, however, remain obscure and there is a vital need for new approaches. Life history theory, the most dynamic branch of evolutionary ecology, provides important insights into the potential role of LBW in human reproductive strategies. Life history theory's primary rationale for LBW is the trade-off between current and future reproduction. This trade-off underlies the prediction that under conditions of environmental risk and uncertainty (experienced subjectively as psychosocial stress) it can be evolutionarily adaptive to reproduce at a young age. One component of early reproduction is early menarche. Early reproduction tends to maximise offspring quantity, but parental investment theory's assumption of a quantity-quality trade-off holds that maximizing offspring quantity reduces quality, of which LBW may be the major component. We therefore predict that women who experienced early psychosocial stress and had early menarche are more likely to produce LBW babies. Furthermore, the extension of parent-offspring conflict theory in utero suggests that the fetus will attempt to resist its mother's efforts to reduce its resources, allocating more of what it does receive to the placenta in order to extract more maternal resources to increase its own quality. We propose that LBW babies born to mothers who experience early psychosocial stress and have early menarche are more likely to have a higher placental/fetal weight ratio. We review evidence in support of these hypotheses and discuss the implications for public health.

  13. Infant Mortality on the Yakama Indian Reservation, 1914-1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trafzer, Clifford E.

    1999-01-01

    Infants under age 1 constituted the most deaths recorded for any age group among Native people on the Yakama Indian Reservation (Washington), between 1914 and 1964. Poverty conditions, including poor diet and unsanitary housing; social anomie; and lack of adequate health care contributed to infant deaths. Data tables and figures detail infant…

  14. Processed complementary food does not improve growth or hemoglobin status of rural tanzanian infants from 6-12 months of age in Kilosa district, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mamiro, Peter S; Kolsteren, Patrick W; van Camp, John H; Roberfroid, Dominique A; Tatala, Simon; Opsomer, Anne S

    2004-05-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted from March 2001 to March 2002 involving 309 infants who received either a processed complementary food (CF) or an unprocessed placebo from 6 to 12 mo of age. The groups were comparable in baseline characteristics. The study took place in Kilosa district, Tanzania. The processed CF contained germinated, autoclaved, and dried finger millet (65.2%), kidney beans (19.1%), roasted-peanuts (8%), and mango purée (7.7%). The same blend, but not processed, served as the placebo. Processing increased iron solubility and energy density without affecting viscosity. Mean length for age, weight for age, hemoglobin, and zinc protoporphyrin at 6 and 12 mo did not differ between the 2 groups. The results show that the processed food did not differ from the unprocessed placebo in improving growth, hemoglobin, and iron status of infants when given under the study conditions. The control group consumed equal amounts of macronutrients, and the higher energy density in this study did not seem to have any benefits. In our study, there was a very intensive follow-up; at every encounter with mothers, giving the required amounts and adding extra lipids was strongly reinforced. Under those conditions, a well-balanced complementary food with additional lipids can meet the energy needs of young children. The reduction in phytates by 34% and improvement in iron solubility to 19% due to processing might not have been enough to compensate for the rather low iron content of the complementary food.

  15. Visual function in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic insults: correlation with neurodevelopment at 2 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, E.; Haataja, L.; Guzzetta, A.; Anker, S.; Cowan, F.; Rutherford, M.; Andrew, R.; Braddick, O.; Cioni, G.; Dubowitz, L.; Atkinson, J.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To determine if there is any association between the findings of visual assessment performed at the age of 5 months and neurodevelopmental outcome at the age of 2 years in children who have sustained hypoxic-ischaemic insults.
METHODS—Twenty nine term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and/or brain lesions on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were prospectively evaluated. At 5 months of age all the infants had their visual function assessed using the Atkinson Battery of Child Development for Examining Functional Vision, which includes the assessments of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), acuity, visual fields, fixation shift and phase and orientation reversal visual evoked potentials. At 2 years of age the children had a structured neurological evaluation and a Griffiths developmental assessment.
RESULTS—There was good correlation between the extent of the early detected visual impairment and both neuromotor and global development. Children with more than three out of five abnormal visual tests at 5 months of age tended to have abnormal neurological examination results and abnormal developmental quotients. Children with three or fewer abnormalities tended to have developmental quotients in the normal range; the level of their performance, however, was still related to the number of visual tests passed.
CONCLUSIONS—Individual visual tests can provide important prognostic information. While abnormal OKN and acuity were always associated with abnormal outcome, normal results on visual evoked potentials and fixation shift tended to be associated with normal outcome.

 PMID:10325784

  16. A prominent large high-density lipoprotein at birth enriched in apolipoprotein C-I identifies a new group of infancts of lower birth weight and younger gestational age

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiterovich Jr., Peter O.; Cockrill, Steven L.; Virgil, Donna G.; Garrett, Elizabeth; Otvos, James; Knight-Gibson, Carolyn; Alaupovic, Petar; Forte, Trudy; Farwig, Zachlyn N.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

    2003-10-01

    Because low birth weight is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk and death in adults, lipoprotein heterogeneity at birth was studied. A prominent, large high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass enriched in apolipoprotein C-I (apoC-I) was found in 19 percent of infants, who had significantly lower birth weights and younger gestational ages and distinctly different lipoprotein profiles than infants with undetectable, possible or probable amounts of apoC-I-enriched HDL. An elevated amount of an apoC-I-enriched HDL identifies a new group of low birth weight infants.

  17. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study

    PubMed Central

    McAullay, Daniel; Strobel, Natalie A.; Marriott, Rhonda; Atkinson, David N.; Marley, Julia V.; Stanley, Fiona J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months) have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants. Methods Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA). Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD]) on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation. Findings There were 3,382 (5.4%) Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6%) non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77–2.04, p = <0.001) and emergency department presentation (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.98–2.33, p = <0.001) compared to non-Indigenous infants. Fifty nine percent (59.0%) of admissions in Indigenous children were classified as preventable compared to 31.2% of admissions in non-Indigenous infants (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.88–2.39). The risk of hospital admission in the most disadvantaged (IRSD 1) infants in the total cohort (35.7%) was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5) infants (30.6%) (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96–1.13, p = 0.356). Interpretation WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live. PMID:27120331

  18. Frequency of transient hypothyroxinaemia in low birthweight infants. Potential pitfall for neonatal screening programmes.

    PubMed Central

    Uhrmann, S; Marks, K H; Maisels, M J; Kulin, H E; Kaplan, M; Utiger, R

    1981-01-01

    Thyroid function was studied in 54 low birthweight infants during a 3-week period. Each infant was placed in one of three groups. Group 1 (n = 21), infants who were well and appropriately grown fro gestational age; group 2 (n = 23), infants who were appropriately grown but who had hyaline membrane disease; group 3 (n = 10), infants who were small-for-gestational-age. In group 1, 5 (24%) infants had at least one serum thyroxine value less than 3.0 micrograms/100 ml (39 nmol/l). There were 8 (35%) infants in group 2 who had similarly low serum thyroxine values as did 5 (50%) of the 10 infants in group 3. Serum thyrotropin levels and serum binding of the thyroid hormones, as measured by a T3-charcoal uptake test, were normal in all infants. In all instances but 2, serum thyroxine values were at least 4.0 micrograms/100 ml (51 nmol/l) by the end of the 3-week period. There is thus a high incidence of transient 'hypothyroxinaemia' in low birthweight infants, particularly if such infants have hyaline membrane disease or are small-for-gestational-age. These findings must be considered when interpreting results of screening programmes for congenital hypothyroidism and they lend further support to the use of a combination of serum thyroxine and thyrotropin determinations for optimum screening of such infants. PMID:7212760

  19. The Baby Moves prospective cohort study protocol: using a smartphone application with the General Movements Assessment to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 2 years for extremely preterm or extremely low birthweight infants

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J; Kwong, A; Doyle, LW; Marschik, PB; Einspieler, C; Cheong, JLY

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infants born extremely preterm (EP; <28 weeks' gestation) and/or with extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g birth weight) are at increased risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, it is challenging to predict those EP/ELBW infants destined to have long-term neurodevelopmental impairments in order to target early intervention to those in most need. The General Movements Assessment (GMA) in early infancy has high predictive validity for neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. However, access to a GMA may be limited by geographical constraints and a lack of GMA-trained health professionals. Baby Moves is a smartphone application (app) developed for caregivers to video and upload their infant's general movements to be scored remotely by a certified GMA assessor. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive ability of using the GMA via the Baby Moves app for neurodevelopmental impairment in infants born EP/ELBW. Methods and analysis This prospective cohort study will recruit infants born EP/ELBW across the state of Victoria, Australia in 2016 and 2017. A control group of normal birth weight (>2500 g birth weight), term-born (≥37 weeks' gestation) infants will also be recruited as a local reference group. Parents will video their infant's general movements at two time points between 3 and 4 months' corrected age using the Baby Moves app. Videos will be scored by certified GMA assessors and classified as normal or abnormal. Parental satisfaction using the Baby Moves app will be assessed via survey. Neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years' corrected age includes developmental delay according to the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III and cerebral palsy diagnosis. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the Human Research and Ethics Committees at the Royal Children's Hospital, The Royal Women's Hospital, Monash Health and Mercy Health in Melbourne, Australia. Study findings will be

  20. A neonatal piglet model for investigating brain and cognitive development in small for gestational age human infants.

    PubMed

    Radlowski, Emily C; Conrad, Matthew S; Lezmi, Stephane; Dilger, Ryan N; Sutton, Brad; Larsen, Ryan; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    The piglet was investigated as a potential model for studying brain and cognitive deficits associated with being born small for gestational age (SGA). Naturally farrowed SGA (0.7-1.0 kg BW) and average for gestational age (AGA, 1.3-1.6 kg BW) piglets were obtained on postnatal day (PD) 2, placed in individual cages, and provided a nutritionally adequate milk replacer diet (285 ml/kg/d). Beginning at PD14, performance in a spatial T-maze task was assessed. At PD28, piglets were anesthetized for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assess brain structure (voxel-based morphometry), connectivity (diffusion-tensor imaging) and metabolites in the hippocampus and corpus callosum (proton MR spectroscopy). Piglets born SGA showed compensatory growth such that BW of SGA and AGA piglets was similar (P>0.05), by PD15. Birth weight affected maze performance, with SGA piglets taking longer to reach criterion than AGA piglets (p<0.01). Total brain volume of SGA and AGA piglets was similar (P<0.05), but overall, SGA piglets had less gray matter than AGA piglets (p<0.01) and tended to have a smaller internal capsule (p = 0.07). Group comparisons between SGA and AGA piglets defined 9 areas (≥ 20 clusters) where SGA piglets had less white matter (p<0.01); 2 areas where SGA piglets had more white matter (p<0.01); and 3 areas where SGA piglets had more gray matter (p<0.01). The impact of being born SGA on white matter was supported by a lower (p<0.04) fractional anisotropy value for SGA piglets, suggesting reduced white matter development and connectivity. None of the metabolites measured were different between groups. Collectively, the results show that SGA piglets have spatial learning deficits and abnormal development of white matter. As learning deficits and abnormalities in white matter are common in SGA human infants, the piglet is a tractable translational model that can be used to investigate SGA-associated cognitive deficits and potential interventions.

  1. Special education services and school performance in a regional cohort of low-birthweight infants at age nine.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Whitaker, Agnes; Feldman, Judith; Cnaan, Avital; Zhao, Huaqing; Bloch, Joan Rosen; Rosen-Bloch, Joan; McCulloch, Dawn; Paneth, Nigel

    2004-03-01

    Previous research has shown that low birthweight is a predictor of several adverse educational outcomes, including special educational placement, by middle school age. Most low-birthweight follow-up studies that have extended to school age have focused on very small infants-- < 1500 or < 1000 g; less is known of the school age outcomes for infants with only moderately low birthweight (1500-2000 g). This study examines the prevalence of special educational placement and the relationship of such placement to grade retention, verbal and performance scores on tests of general intelligence, reading and maths achievement scores and classroom hyperactivity among low-birthweight children. In a regional birth cohort of 1105 infants born between 1984 and 1987 and weighing 500-2000 g, 868 children were available for follow-up at age nine. Information on special education placement as well as grade retention, intelligence, academic achievement and classroom behaviour was available on 645 (74% completion rate). Nearly a third of the cohort was classified as needing special education. Special education placement followed a birthweight gradient, occurring among 29.3% of children with birthweights 1500-2000 g, among 32.5% in children 1000-1500 g and 49.4% in children < 1000 g. Among children in special education, a similar birthweight gradient was found for maths achievement and hyperactivity, but not for reading achievement or IQ scores. Among children not in special education, only maths achievement showed such a decline with birthweight. A substantial proportion of low-birthweight children, including those of moderate low birthweight, receive special education services, although the need is greatest among those with the lowest birthweights. Maths achievement declined with birthweight regardless of educational placement. The medical and social risk factors that accompany low birthweight and may account for these findings, require further study.

  2. A new formula for assessing skeletal age in growing infants and children by measuring carpals and epiphyses of radio and ulna.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Stefano; Mangiulli, Tatiana; Merelli, Vera; Conforti, Federica; Velandia Palacio, Luz Andrea; Agostini, Susanna; Spinas, Enrico; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a specific formula for the purpose of assessing skeletal age in a sample of Italian growing infants and children by measuring carpals and epiphyses of radio and ulna. A sample of 332 X-rays of left hand-wrist bones (130 boys and 202 girls), aged between 1 and 16 years, was analyzed retrospectively. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied to study how sex affects the growth of the ratio Bo/Ca in the boys and girls groups. The regression model, describing age as a linear function of sex and the Bo/Ca ratio for the new Italian sample, yielded the following formula: Age = -1.7702 + 1.0088 g + 14.8166 (Bo/Ca). This model explained 83.5% of total variance (R(2) = 0.835). The median of the absolute values of residuals (observed age minus predicted age) was -0.38, with a quartile deviation of 2.01 and a standard error of estimate of 1.54. A second sample test of 204 Italian children (108 girls and 96 boys), aged between 1 and 16 years, was used to evaluate the accuracy of the specific regression model. A sample paired t-test was used to analyze the mean differences between the skeletal and chronological age. The mean error for girls is 0.00 and the estimated age is slightly underestimated in boys with a mean error of -0.30 years. The standard deviations are 0.70 years for girls and 0.78 years for boys. The obtained results indicate that there is a high relationship between estimated and chronological ages.

  3. Screening Retinopathy of Prematurity in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in China and the Need for Earlier Screening Times

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianxun; Chen, Feng; He, Shiping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To convey the need for a revised screening strategy for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants in China. Design. A retrospective longitudinal study. Methods. The medical charts of infants with a birth weight (BW) of less than 1 kg were reviewed. The infants were divided into three groups: group A, without ROP; group B, with ROP but not up to type 1 prethreshold or threshold ROP; group C, with type 1 prethreshold or threshold ROP. Data collected included gender, gestational age (GA), BW, postmenstrual age (PMA), age of onset of ROP, and age at which treatment was carried out, if required. Results. A total of 77 infants were involved. Fifty-six infants developed ROP at any stage and 38 infants developed type 1 prethreshold or threshold ROP. The mean BW and GA of infants in group A were significantly different compared with groups B and C. The mean PMA of onset of ROP in infants who developed mild ROP was 37 weeks compared with 34 weeks for infants who developed severe ROP. Conclusion. ELBW infants have a higher incidence of ROP in China which highlights the need for optimizing neonatal care for these infants. In ELBW infants, ROP tends to develop more severely when it occurs earlier. It is necessary for ELBW infants, especially for those with a BW less than 800 g or a GA less than 25 weeks, to be initially screened at an earlier time. PMID:28116141

  4. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  5. Age-appropriate infant and young child feeding practices are associated with child nutrition in India: insights from nationally representative data.

    PubMed

    Menon, Purnima; Bamezai, Apurva; Subandoro, Ali; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Aguayo, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Age-appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are critical to child nutrition. The objective of this paper was to examine the associations between age-appropriate IYCF practices and child nutrition outcomes in India using data from ∼18 463 children of 0-23.9 months old from India's National Family Health Survey, 2005-06-3. The outcome measures were child height-for-age z-score (HAZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), weight-for-height z-score, stunting, underweight and wasting. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used, accounting for the clustered survey data. Regression models were adjusted for child, maternal, and household characteristics, and state and urban/rural residence. The analyses indicate that in India suboptimal IYCF practices are associated with poor nutrition outcomes in children. Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding were not associated with any of the nutrition outcomes considered. Not consuming any solid or semi-solid foods at 6-8.9 months was associated with being underweight (P < 0.05). The diet diversity score and achieving minimum diet diversity (≥4 food groups) for children 6-23 months of age were most strongly and significantly associated with HAZ, WAZ, stunting and underweight (P < 0.05). Maternal characteristics were also strongly associated with child undernutrition. In summary, poor IYCF practices, particularly poor complementary foods and feeding practices, are associated with poor child nutrition outcomes in India, particularly linear growth.

  6. The contribution of attenuated selection in utero to small-for-gestational-age (SGA) among term African American male infants.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Julia M; Karasek, Deborah; Anderson, Elizabeth; Catalano, Ralph A

    2013-07-01

    Natural selection conserves mechanisms allowing women to spontaneously abort gestations least likely to yield fit offspring. Small gestational size has been proposed as an indicator of fitness observable by maternal biology. Previous research suggests that exposure to ambient stress in utero results in more "culling" of small fetuses and therefore lower rates of small-for-gestational-age (SGA). However, African American women persistently have higher rates of SGA than non-Hispanic white women, despite experiencing more ambient stress. This paper tests whether attenuation of the stress response among highly stressed African American women, as suggested by the weathering hypothesis, may help to explain this apparent inconsistency. We apply time-series modeling to over 2 million African American and non-Hispanic white male term births in California over the period of January 1989 through December 2010. We test for the parabolic (i.e., "U" shaped) relationship, implied by an attenuated stress response, between unusually strong labor market contraction and the rate of SGA among African American term male infants, and a linear relationship among non-Hispanic whites. We find the hypothesized parabolic relationship among term male African American infants. As expected, we find a linear relationship between unexpected layoffs and the rate of SGA among term male non-Hispanic whites. These results are robust to sensitivity analyses. These results may help to explain the high rates of SGA among term male African American infants, despite greater maternal exposure to ambient stress during pregnancy.

  7. Maternal Employment, Infant Child Care and Security of Attachment at Age 12 Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, L. J.; Ungerer, J. A.

    This study examined the relationship between varying patterns of maternal employment, the use of child care, and the infant's establishment of a reciprocal, responsive relationship with the mother. Parental and non-parental caregivers were located within a family system to examine attachment theory within an ecological framework. The subjects were…

  8. The Preterm Infant's Use of Triangular Bids at Three Months, Adjusted Age: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Ellen Saeter

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on preterm infants' early triangular capacity, restricted to the use of triangular bids in interaction with their parents. An observational setting, the Lausanne Trilogue Play (LTP), is used for studying the patterns of interaction. This is an approach focusing on the family as a whole. These observations are part of a study…

  9. Prevention of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Infants and Children of Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fomon, Samuel J.

    Iron-deficiency anemia is almost certainly the most prevalent nutritional disorder among infants and young children in the United States. Anemia is frequently seen among children of low socioeconomic status but is probably also the most frequent nutritional deficiency disease seen among children cared for by private doctors. Possible reasons for…

  10. Hearing Screening Procedures for Infants and Toddlers, Early Childhood & School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.

    This manual describes the screening procedures used to identify infants and children in need of further diagnosis and treatment for hearing loss in Minnesota. It is intended for use by Community Health Service agencies, school health programs, Head Start agencies, and voluntary agencies, and should be used as a post-training reference. Newborn…

  11. Baseline values of candidate urine acute kidney injury biomarkers vary by gestational age in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Askenazi, David J; Koralkar, Rajesh; Levitan, Emily B; Goldstein, Stuart L; Devarajan, Prasad; Khandrika, Srikrishna; Mehta, Ravindra L; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2011-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in premature infants and is associated with poor outcomes. Novel biomarkers can detect AKI promptly. Because premature infants are born with underdeveloped kidneys, baseline biomarker values may differ. We describe baseline values of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), IL-18, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), osteopontin (OPN), beta-2 microglobulin (B2mG), and Cystatin-C (Cys-C). Next, we test the hypothesis that these biomarkers are inversely related to GA. Candidate markers were compared according to GA categories in 123 infants. Mixed linear regression models were performed to determine the independent association between demographics/interventions and baseline biomarker values. We found that urine NGAL, KIM-1, Cys-C, and B2mG decreased with increasing GA. With correction for urine creatinine (cr), these markers and OPN/cr decreased with increasing GA. IL-18 (with or without correction for urine creatinine) did not differ across GA categories. Controlling for other potential clinical and demographic confounders with regression analysis shows that NGAL/cr, OPN/cr, and B2mG/cr are independently associated with GA. We conclude that urine values of candidate AKI biomarkers are higher in the most premature infants. These findings should be considered when designing and analyzing biomarker studies in newborn with AKI.

  12. Interchangeability of meningococcal group C conjugate vaccines with different carrier proteins in the United Kingdom infant immunisation schedule.

    PubMed

    Ladhani, Shamez N; Andrews, Nick J; Waight, Pauline; Hallis, Bassam; Matheson, Mary; England, Anna; Findlow, Helen; Bai, Xilian; Borrow, Ray; Burbidge, Polly; Pearce, Emma; Goldblatt, David; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-29

    An open, non-randomised study was undertaken in England during 2011-12 to evaluate vaccine antibody responses in infants after completion of the routine primary infant immunisation schedule, which included two doses of meningococcal group C (MenC) conjugate (MCC) vaccine at 3 and 4 months. Any of the three licensed MCC vaccines could be used for either dose, depending on local availability. Healthy term infants registered at participating general practices (GPs) in Hertfordshire and Gloucestershire, UK, were recruited prospectively to provide a single blood sample four weeks after primary immunisation, which was administered by the GP surgery. Vaccination history was obtained at blood sampling. MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) and IgG antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib), pertussis toxin (PT), diphtheria toxoid (DT), tetanus toxoid (TT) and thirteen pneumococcal serotypes were analysed according to MCC vaccines received. MenC SBA responses differed significantly (P<0.001) according to MCC vaccine schedule as follows: MenC SBA geometric mean titres (GMTs) were significantly lower in infants receiving a diphtheria cross-reacting material-conjugated MCC (MCC-CRM) vaccine followed by TT-conjugated MCC (MCC-TT) vaccine (82.0; 95% CI, 39-173; n=14) compared to those receiving two MCC-CRM (418; 95% CI, 325-537; n=82), two MCC-TT (277; 95% CI, 223-344; n=79) or MCC-TT followed by MCC-CRM (553; 95% CI, 322-949; n=18). The same group also had the lowest Hib geometric mean concentrations (0.60 μg/mL, 0.27-1.34) compared to 1.85 μg/mL (1.23-2.78), 2.86 μg/mL (2.02-4.05) and 4.26 μg/mL (1.94-9.36), respectively. Our results indicate that MCC vaccines with different carrier proteins are not interchangeable. When several MCC vaccines are available, children requiring more than one dose should receive MCC vaccines with the same carrier protein or, alternatively, receive MCC-TT first wherever possible.

  13. Incidence of Severe and Nonsevere Pertussis Among HIV-Exposed and -Unexposed Zambian Infants Through 14 Weeks of Age: Results From the Southern Africa Mother Infant Pertussis Study (SAMIPS), a Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Christopher J.; Mwananyanda, Lawrence; MacLeod, William; Kwenda, Geoffrey; Mwale, Magdalene; Williams, Anna L.; Siazeele, Kazungu; Yang, Zhaoyan; Mwansa, James; Thea, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Maternal vaccination with tetanus, reduced-dose diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) could be an effective way of mitigating the high residual burden of infant morbidity and mortality caused by Bordetella pertussis. To better inform such interventions, we conducted a burden-of-disease study to determine the incidence of severe and nonsevere pertussis among a population of Zambian infants. Methods. Mother–infant pairs were enrolled at 1 week of life, and then seen at 2- to 3-week intervals through 14 weeks of age. At each visit, nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were obtained from both, and symptoms were catalogued. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify cases, and a severity scoring system to triage these into severe/nonsevere, we calculated disease incidence using person-time at risk as the denominator. Results. From a population of 1981 infants, we identified 10 with clinical pertussis, for an overall incidence of 2.4 cases (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–4.2) per 1000 infant-months and a cumulative incidence of 5.2 cases (95% CI, 2.6–9.0) per 1000 infants. Nine of 10 cases occurred within a 3-month window (May–July 2015), with highest incidence between birth and 6 weeks of age (3.5 cases per 1000 infant-months), concentrated among infants prior to vaccination or among those who had only received 1 dose of Diphtheria Tetanus whole cell Pertussis (DTwP). Maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) modestly increased the risk of infant pertussis (risk ratio, 1.8 [95% CI, .5–6.9]). Only 1 of 10 infant cases qualified as having severe pertussis. The rest presented with the mild and nonspecific symptoms of cough, coryza, and/or tachypnea. Notably, cough durations were long, exceeding 30 days in several cases, with PCRs repeatedly positive over time. Conclusions. Pertussis is circulating freely among this population of Zambian infants but rarely presents with the classical symptoms of paroxysmal cough, whooping, apnea

  14. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Famciclovir in Infants and Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis in Infants and Children ▿

    PubMed Central

    Blumer, Jeffrey; Rodriguez, Adib; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Sallas, William; Kaiser, Guenther; Hamed, Kamal

    2010-01-01

    A multicenter, open-label study evaluated the single-dose pharmacokinetics and safety of a pediatric oral famciclovir (prodrug of penciclovir) formulation in infants aged 1 to 12 months with suspicion or evidence of herpes simplex virus infection. Individualized single doses of famciclovir based on the infant's body weight ranged from 25 to 175 mg. Eighteen infants were enrolled (1 to <3 months old [n = 8], 3 to <6 months old [n = 5], and 6 to 12 months old [n = 5]). Seventeen infants were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis; one infant experienced immediate emesis and was excluded. Mean Cmax and AUC0-6 values of penciclovir in infants <6 months of age were ∼3- to 4-fold lower than those in the 6- to 12-month age group. Specifically, mean AUC0-6 was 2.2 μg·h/ml in infants aged 1 to <3 months, 3.2 μg·h/ml in infants aged 3 to <6 months, and 8.8 μg·h/ml in infants aged 6 to 12 months. These data suggested that the dose administered to infants <6 months was less than optimal. Eight (44.4%) infants experienced at least one adverse event with gastrointestinal events reported most commonly. An updated pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted, which incorporated the data in infants from the present study and previously published data on children 1 to 12 years of age. An eight-step dosing regimen was derived that targeted exposure in infants and children 6 months to 12 years of age to match the penciclovir AUC seen in adults after a 500-mg dose of famciclovir. PMID:20160046

  15. Affective Properties of Mothers' Speech to Infants With Hearing Impairment and Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Bergeson, Tonya R.; Xu, Huiping; Kitamura, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The affective properties of infant-directed speech influence the attention of infants with normal hearing to speech sounds. This study explored the affective quality of maternal speech to infants with hearing impairment (HI) during the 1st year after cochlear implantation as compared to speech to infants with normal hearing. Method Mothers of infants with HI and mothers of infants with normal hearing matched by age (NH-AM) or hearing experience (NH-EM) were recorded playing with their infants during 3 sessions over a 12-month period. Speech samples of 25 s were low-pass filtered, leaving intonation but not speech information intact. Sixty adults rated the stimuli along 5 scales: positive/negative affect and intention to express affection, to encourage attention, to comfort/soothe, and to direct behavior. Results Low-pass filtered speech to HI and NH-EM groups was rated as more positive, affective, and comforting compared with the such speech to the NH-AM group. Speech to infants with HI and with NH-AM was rated as more directive than speech to the NH-EM group. Mothers decreased affective qualities in speech to all infants but increased directive qualities in speech to infants with NH-EM over time. Conclusions Mothers fine-tune communicative intent in speech to their infant's developmental stage. They adjust affective qualities to infants' hearing experience rather than to chronological age but adjust directive qualities of speech to the chronological age of their infants. PMID:25679195

  16. Diabetes technology and treatments in the paediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Shalitin, S; Peter Chase, H

    2011-02-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases and its incidence has doubled during the last decade. The goals of intensive management of diabetes were established in 1993 by the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) (1). Children with T1D and their caregivers continue to face the challenge to maintain blood glucose levels in the near-normal range. It is important to prevent sustained hyperglycaemia which is associated with long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications and to avoid recurrent episodes of hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia, especially in young children, which may have adverse effects on cognitive function and impede efforts to achieve the recommended glycaemic targets. Advances in the use of technology that may help maintain the metabolic control goals for young people with T1D were centred on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) (2-4), continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) (5-7), and combining both technologies into a closed-loop system (8-10). The dilemma in paediatrics of patient selection for insulin pump therapy was found to be most successful in those with more frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and younger age prior to pump initiation (2). Similarly, those who used a dual-wave bolus probably paid closer attention to their management and had lower HbA1c levels (3). The advantage of using a pre-meal bolus to improve postprandial glucose levels was shown to offer another potential method to improve glycaemic control (4). SMBG is an important component of therapy in patients with diabetes, especially in the paediatric age group. Standard use of glucose meters for SMBG provides only intermittent single blood glucose levels, without giving the 'whole picture' of glucose variability during the 24 h, and especially during the night, when blood glucose levels are seldom measured. Therefore, the use of a device such as real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) that provides

  17. Prevalence and Health Outcomes of Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Infants From Birth to 12 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Abkari, Abdelhak; Bellaiche, Marc; Benninga, Marc; Chouraqui, Jean Pierre; ÇokuÐraþ, FügenÇullu; Harb, Tracy; Hegar, Badriul; Lifschitz, Carlos; Ludwig, Thomas; Miqdady, Mohamed; de Morais, Mauro Batista; Osatakul, Seksit; Salvatore, Silvia; Shamir, Raanan; Staiano, Annamaria; Szajewska, Hania; Thapar, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: The aim of the study was to review published evidence and the opinion of practising clinicians on the prevalence and long-term health consequences of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in infants younger than 12 months. Methods: PubMed was searched from inception to November 2014 to find articles reporting the prevalence and long-term health outcomes of infantile colic, regurgitation, functional constipation, functional diarrhoea, and dyschezia in infants younger than <12 months. A questionnaire was sent to practising clinicians worldwide, and a group of 15 international experts met to discuss the likely frequency and longer-term consequences of these symptoms. Results: The literature search identified 30 studies reporting the prevalence of infantile colic (2%–73%), 13 that of regurgitation (3%–87%), 8 that of functional constipation (0.05%–39.3%), 2 that of functional diarrhoea (2%–4.1%), and 3 that of dyschezia (0.9%–5.6%). The studies varied in design, populations investigated, and definition of the symptoms. Questionnaires were received from 369 respondents. The experts agreed that the likely prevalences for colic, regurgitation, and functional constipation were 20%, 30%, and 15%, respectively. The limited data in the literature for functional diarrhoea and dyschezia suggest prevalences <10%. Infantile colic may be associated with future health problems in a subset of infants. Conclusions: Functional gastrointestinal symptoms appear to occur in a significant proportion of infants younger than 12 months and may have an impact on future health outcomes. Prospective collection of data according to agreed criteria is needed to obtain more accurate estimates of the prevalence and consequences of these symptoms. PMID:26308317

  18. A comparison of the efficacy of weight-shift vs. joystick control of a robotic mobility device by infants ages 5 to 10 months.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Sharon; Dennis, Carole; Altman, Rachel; Smith, Janelle; Larin, Hélène

    2017-02-02

    The onset of crawling in infants contributes to cognitive, perceptual, social, and emotional development. Conversely, infants with motor impairment that delays or prevents autonomous mobility often have associated developmental delays. Evidence suggests that providing mobility may have positive developmental outcomes, however powered wheelchairs may not be recommended for very young children, due to safety concerns and the child's level of cognitive maturity. The WeeBot is a mobility device controlled by infant weight shifting while seated; infants as young as 5 months have learned to use it. This study compares the efficacy of using the WeeBot vs. using the traditional manual joystick to control a robotic mobility device. Participants were 20 typically developing infants between 5 and 10 months who had not yet achieved independent mobility. A quasi-experimental two-group design was used: The first 10 participants recruited used the WeeBot (weight-shift); the next 10 used the joystick. Results showed that infants learned to use weight-shift control more easily and more skilfully than did infants using the joystick. The ability of infants to use the WeeBot suggests that an intuitive alternative control might allow very early powered mobility for children with disabilities, which might have implications for various aspects of their development.

  19. Correlation between breakfast tryptophan content and morning-evening in Japanese infants and students aged 0-15 yrs.

    PubMed

    Harada, Tetsuo; Hirotani, Masaaki; Maeda, Mari; Nomura, Hiromi; Takeuchi, Hitomi

    2007-03-01

    Tryptophan can be metabolized via 5-hydroxytryptamine=serotonin to melatonin by a series of 4 enzymes in pineal body. Lack of serotonin in body fluid in the brain during daytime can lead to several psychiatric disorders, while shortage of plasma-melatonin at night can be related to sleep disorders. The Morning-Evening (M-E) questionnaire and the original questionnaire including questions on sleep habits, mental symptoms, and contents of meals were administered to 1055 infants aged 0-6 yrs, 751 students attending an elementary school, and 473 students attending junior high school in Kochi City (33 degrees N). The index of tryptophan taken at breakfast (Trp-Index) was calculated as tryptophan amount per one meal based on the tryptophan included in each 100 g of the foods and a standard amount of food per one meal. A significant positive-correlation between M-E scores and Trp-Index was not shown by relatively older students, aged 9-15 yrs (Pearson's test, r=0.044-0.123, p=0.071-0.505), whereas a significant positive correlation was shown by infants and young elementary school students aged 0-8 yrs (r=0.180, 0.258, p<0.001). The more frequently the infants had difficulty falling asleep at bedtime and waking up in the morning, the less the Trp-Indices taken at breakfast were (Kruskall-Wallis-test, p=0.027 for difficulty falling asleep; p=0.008 for difficulty waking up). The more frequently infants became angry even by a little trigger, or depressed, the lower (more evening-typed) the M-E scores were (Kruskal-Wallis test: p

  20. [Mid and long-term neurological prognosis of preterm infants less than 28 weeks gestational age].

    PubMed

    Valleur, D; Magny, J-F; Rigourd, V; Kieffer, F

    2004-02-01

    The study of the long-term outcome of extremely premature babies is specially difficult because data in the literature is very heterogeneous. Recruitment (inborn, outborn), type of obstetrical management, and criteria and means used for interrupting curative treatment have varied greatly. We present the outcome of 204 infants born before 28 weeks of gestation between 1992 and 1997. The minimal follow up is 6 years. 82 infants (40.2%) died during the neonatal period. Significantly associated with neonatal death were absence of prenatal steroid course, male gender, elevated lactic acid at birth, and occurrence of pulmonary complications. When major neurological lesions (ventricular hemorrage stage III or IV and kryptic leucomalacia) developed, most infants died following a decision to stop active treatment. Out of the 114 survivors, 17 (14.9%) developed cerebral palsy (CP) or a low IQ. 31 (27.2%) had minor disorders, 66 (57.9%) were completely normal. The predictive factors of CP were major brain lesions, elevated lactic acid at the time of birth and multiple pregnancy. We also detail the minor neurological sequelae, cognitive behavioral, and psychological disorders observed in this population of extremely premature children and discuss the need for early and continuous care for these high risk babies.

  1. Effect of early maternal docosahexaenoic acid intake on neuropsychological status and visual acuity at five years of age of breast-fed infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported better psychomotor development at 30 months of age in infants whose mothers received a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplement for the first 4 months of lactation. We now assess neuropsychological and visual function of the same children at 5 years of age. Breastfeeding women w...

  2. Caregiver- vs infant-oriented feeding: a model of infant-feeding strategies among special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children participants in rural east Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Katherine F; Habibi, Mona; Anderson, Kirsten; Spence, Marsha

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this project was to collect data from focus-group participants to inform the future development of region-specific educational strategies to modify infant-feeding practices that may predispose children to obesity. Infant-feeding perceptions and practices were collected from participants of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, through recorded focus groups, in two East Tennessee counties. Focus groups replaced the participants' required, prescheduled nutrition-education classes for participants with infants younger than 6 months of age. Twenty-nine focus groups were convened and recorded, reaching a total of 109 participants. Results of this series of focus groups indicate that the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children population in rural East Tennessee was similar to populations elsewhere in terms of early solid-food introduction, frequent switching of formula, and sources of and valuation of infant-feeding advice. However, this population seemed to be different in the magnitude at which they introduce infant cereal early (primarily as an addition to the bottle). For this reason, interventions designed to reduce inappropriate infant-feeding behaviors in this population should focus on early introduction of solid food (especially infant cereal) first. In addition to these findings, a model of infant-feeding strategy development based on caregiver-orientation (framed within parenting styles) is presented and discussed.

  3. Minor neurological dysfunction, cognitive development, and somatic development at the age of 3 to 7 years after dexamethasone treatment in very-low birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, J; Tomaselli, J; Maurer, U; Mueller, W; Urlesberger, B

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess minor neurological dysfunction, cognitive development, and somatic development after dexamethasone therapy in very-low-birthweight infants. Thirty-three children after dexamethasone treatment were matched to 33 children without dexamethasone treatment. Data were assessed at the age of 3-7 years. Dexamethasone was started between the 7th and the 28th day of life over 7 days with a total dose of 2.35 mg/kg/day. Exclusion criteria were asphyxia, malformations, major surgical interventions, small for gestational age, intraventricular haemorrhage grades III and IV, periventricular leukomalacia, and severe psychomotor retardation. Each child was examined by a neuropediatrician for minor neurological dysfunctions and tested by a psychologist for cognitive development with a Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children and a Draw-a-Man Test. There were no differences in demographic data, growth, and socio-economic status between the two groups. Fine motor skills and gross motor function were significantly better in the control group (p<0.01). In the Draw-a-Man Test, the control group showed better results (p<0.001). There were no differences in development of speech, social development, and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. After dexamethasone treatment, children showed a higher rate of minor neurological dysfunctions. Neurological development was affected even without neurological diagnosis. Further long-term follow-up studies will be necessary to fully evaluate the impact of dexamethasone on neurological and cognitive development.

  4. Specific Infant Feeding Practices Do Not Consistently Explain Variation in Anthropometry at Age 1 Year in Urban United States, Mexico, and China Cohorts12

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jessica G.; Guerrero, M. Lourdes; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M.; Peng, Yong-mei; Herbers, Patricia M.; Yao, Wen; Ortega, Hilda; Davidson, Barbara S.; McMahon, Robert J.; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Infant feeding practices generally influence infant growth, but it is unclear how introduction of specific foods affects growth across global populations. We studied 3 urban populations in the Global Exploration of Human Milk study to determine the association between infant feeding and anthropometry at 1 y of age. Three hundred sixty-five breastfeeding mother-infant pairs (120 US, 120 China, and 125 Mexico) were recruited soon after the infant’s birth. Enrollment required agreement to breastfeed ≥75% for at least 3 mo. Weekly, 24-h, food frequency data were conducted on infants for 1 y and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration and timing of specific complementary food introduction were calculated. Weight and length were measured at age 1 y and anthropometry Z-scores calculated using WHO standards. Cohorts in the 3 urban populations (Shanghai, China; Cincinnati, USA; and Mexico City, Mexico) differed by median EBF duration (5, 14, and 7 wk, respectively; P < 0.001), timing of introduction of meat/eggs/legumes (4.8, 9.3, and 7.0 mo, respectively; P < 0.0001), and other feeding practices. By age 1 y, infants in Shanghai were heavier and longer than Cincinnati and Mexico City infants (P < 0.001). Adjusting for nonfeeding covariates, the only feeding variable associated with anthropometry was EBF duration, which was modestly inversely associated with weight-for-age but not length-for-age or BMI Z-scores at 1 y. Although feeding variables differed by cohort, their impact on anthropometry differences was not consistent among cohorts. Overall, across these urban, international, breast-fed cohorts, differences in specific feeding practices did not explain the significant variation in anthropometry. PMID:23236024

  5. Efficacy of budesonide inhalation suspension in infants and young children with persistent asthma. Budesonide Inhalation Suspension Study Group.

    PubMed

    Mellon, M

    1999-10-01

    This paper reviews the results from 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter studies that assessed the efficacy and safety of once- and twice-daily dosing of budesonide inhalation suspension (BIS) in infants and young children with persistent asthma. In children with mild persistent asthma that was previously treated with bronchodilators or noncorticosteroid anti-inflammatory agents (study A), nighttime and daytime asthma symptoms were significantly improved in 0.25-mg once daily, 0.5-mg once daily, and 1.0-mg once daily BIS treatment groups compared with placebo (P groups (approximately 2 days of every 14 days) compared with placebo (P <.05). The proportion of patients who discontinued this therapy because of worsening asthma was greater in the placebo group than in the BIS groups, with the difference between placebo (23%) and the 1. 0-mg BIS group (13%) being statistically significant (P =.020). All BIS doses except 0.5 mg once daily showed nonsignificant numeric improvement in morning and evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) compared with placebo. In children with asthma that was previously treated with inhaled corticosteroids (study B), BIS doses of 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, and 1.0 mg twice daily resulted in significant improvements in nighttime symptoms scores versus placebo (P groups (approximately 2.5 to 3.5 days of every 14 days) compared with placebo (P groups (9%; P group compared with placebo (P groups showed numeric improvements compared with placebo; the 0.25-mg twice daily budesonide group showed statistically significant

  6. Parent-infant interaction in infant siblings at risk of autism.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ming Wai; Green, Jonathan; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Johnson, Mark; Charman, Tony; Plummer, Faye

    2012-01-01

    Recent models of the early emergence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) propose an interaction between risk susceptibility and the infant's social environment, resulting in a progressively atypical developmental trajectory. The infant's early social environmental experience consists mostly of interaction with caregivers, yet there has been little systematic study of early parent-infant interaction in infants at risk of ASD. This study examined the global characteristics of parent-infant interaction in 6- to 10-month-old infants with an older sibling diagnosed with ASD (at-risk sibs), in comparison with a group of infants with no family history of ASD (low-risk sibs). As part of the British Autism Study of Infant Siblings (BASIS), 6-min videotaped unstructured play interactions of mother-infant dyads (45 at-risk sibs and 47 low-risk sibs) were rated on global aspects of parent-infant interaction, blind to participant information. Differences in global characteristics of interaction were observed in both infant and parent contributions in the at-risk group compared to low-risk controls. In analyses adjusted for age and developmental level, at-risk sib infants were less lively, and their parents showed higher directiveness, and lower sensitive responding (as a trend after adjustment). Level of infant liveliness was independent of other interactive behaviour. Consistent with reports in previous literature in older children with autism and in other neurodevelopmental disorders, our findings may suggest that infants at genetic risk are exposed to a more directive interactive style relatively early in infancy. We discuss possible explanations for these findings and implications for further developmental study and intervention.

  7. Environmental support and the development of grasp in infants.

    PubMed

    Hirschel, A; Pehoski, C; Coryell, J

    1990-08-01

    This study examines the acquisition of internal stability as it relates to the development of prehension in normal infants. Thirty-two subjects, 7 to 14 months of age, were observed grasping Cheerios from styrene surfaces that provided different amounts of support to the infants' hands. The subjects were scored on the grasp patterns they used and on their success in securing a Cherrio without dislodging the styrene surface from a platform. Success increased with age, thus demonstrating a developmental progression in the acquisition of upper extremity internal stability. Consistency of grasp also increased with age. Whereas the youngest infants (7 to 8 months old) reverted to immature grasp patterns on the less stable surfaces, the oldest infants (13 to 14 months old) used mature pincer grasp patterns consistently. Infants 10 to 11 months old seemed to be in a transitional stage between the variability of grasp seen in the youngest infants and the consistency achieved by the oldest group.

  8. Infant Development in Fragile X Syndrome: Cross-Syndrome Comparisons.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jane E; McCary, Lindsay M; Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Bailey, Donald B

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the developmental profile of male infants with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and its divergence from typical development and development of infants at high risk for autism associated with familial recurrence (ASIBs). Participants included 174 boys ranging in age from 5 to 28 months. Cross-sectional profiles on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning indicated infants with FXS could be differentiated from typically developing infants and ASIBs by 6 months of age. Infants with FXS displayed a trend of lower developmental skills with increasing age that was unique from the typically developing and ASIB groups. Findings suggest infants with FXS present with more significant, pervasive and early emerging delays than previously reported with potentially etiologically distinct developmental profiles.

  9. Infants' sensitivity to vertical disparity for depth perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruhara, Aki; Kaneko, Hirohiko; Kanazawa, So; Otsuka, Yumiko; Shirai, Nobu; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2013-05-01

    Both horizontal and vertical binocular disparities produce depth perception in adults. In developmental studies, infants aged around 4 to 6 months were shown to perceive depth from horizontal disparity. However, infants' sensitivity to vertical disparity has not been shown clearly. To examine the sensitivity in infants, this study measured preferential looking behavior of infants aged 20 to 27 weeks. Results showed a significant preference for the stimulus with vertical disparity, providing the first evidence of infants' sensitivity to vertical disparity. The infants in the same age group did not show preference for stimulus with horizontal disparity when the stimulus were comparable to the stimulus with vertical disparity, while their sensitivity to horizontal disparity was confirmed with the stimuli used in a previous study. Our results would suggest that properties in processing horizontal and vertical disparities are different in infancy, and that the sensitivity to horizontal disparity are still premature in 27 weeks after birth.

  10. Neurodevelopmental Profile, Growth, and Psychosocial Environment of Preterm Infants with Difficult Feeding Behavior at Two Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Crapnell, Tara L.; Woodward, Lianne J.; Rogers, Cynthia E.; Inder, Terrie E.; Pineda, Roberta G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of difficult feeding behaviors in very preterm infants at two years of age with growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes and family factors and functioning. Study design Eighty children born ≤30 weeks gestation were studied from birth until two years of age. Feeding difficulties were assessed using the Eating Subscale of the Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment at age two years alongside growth and developmental testing. Maternal mental health and family factors were assessed using standardized questionnaires. ANOVA and chi-square analyses were used to determine associations between feeding difficulties and growth, neurodevelopmental outcomes, and family characteristics. Results Twenty-one (26%) of the cohort were at risk for feeding difficulties, and an additional 18 (23%) had definite feeding difficulties at age two years. Those with feeding difficulties were more likely to be subject to a range of neurodevelopmental problems including impaired cognition (p=0.02), language (p=0.04), motor (p=0.01) and socio-emotional (p<0.007) skills. Parents of very preterm born children with feeding difficulties had higher parenting stress (p=0.02) and reported more difficulty managing their child’s behavior (p=0.002) and more frequent parent-child interaction problems (p=0.002) than parents of children with fewer feeding difficulties. No associations were found between difficult feeding behaviors and growth, maternal mental health, and family factors. Conclusions Difficult feeding behaviors in children born very preterm appear to be highly comorbid with other developmental and family challenges, including neurodevelopmental impairment and parent-child interaction difficulties. Focusing on improving feeding skills, in conjunction with supporting positive parent-child interactions, may be beneficial for improving outcomes. PMID:26490123

  11. Infants' Memory for Musical Performances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkova, Anna; Trehub, Sandra E.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated 6- and 7-month-olds' preference and memory for expressive recordings of sung lullabies. In Experiment 1, both age groups preferred lower-pitched to higher-pitched renditions of unfamiliar lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants were tested after 2 weeks of daily exposure to a lullaby at one pitch level. Seven-month-olds listened…

  12. Infant Care Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Robin D.

    The Infant Care Survey (ICS) was developed to measure new mothers' confidence in their knowledge and skills regarding the care of babies under one year of age. One potential use of this test would be the identification of groups at high risk for health problems or for avoiding medical care. Self-efficacy was an important construct in the…

  13. Evaluation and Treatment of Anemia in Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Hasanbegovic, Edo; Cengic, Nermana; Hasanbegovic, Snijezana; Heljic, Jasmina; Lutolli, Ismail; Begic, Edin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Anemia in preterm infants is the pathophysiological process with greater and more rapid decline in hemoglobin compared to the physiological anemia in infants. There is a need for transfusions and administration of human recombinant erythropoietin. Aim: To determine the frequency of anemia in premature infants at the Pediatric Clinic, University Clinical Center Sarajevo, as well as parameter values in the blood count of premature infants and to explore a relationship between blood transfusions with the advent of intraventricular hemorrhage (determine treatment outcome in preterm infants). Patients and methods: Research is retrospective study and it included the period of six months in year 2014. Research included 100 patients, gestational age < 37 weeks (premature infants). Data were collected by examining the medical records of patients at the Pediatric Clinic, UCCS. Results: The first group of patients were premature infants of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks (62/100) and the second group were premature infants of gestational age 33-37 weeks (38/100). Among the patients, 5% were boys and 46% girls. There was significant difference in birth weight and APGAR score among the groups. In the first group, there were 27.42% of deaths, while in the second group, there were only 10.53% of deaths. There was a significant difference in the length of treatment. There was a statistically significant difference in the need for transfusion among the groups. 18 patients in the first group required a transfusion, while in the second group only 3 patients. Conclusions: Preterm infants of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks are likely candidates for blood transfusion during treatment. Preterm infants of gestational age ≤ 32 weeks have the risk of intracranial bleeding associated with the application of blood transfusion in the first week of life. PMID:28210010

  14. Impact of a Brief Group Intervention to Enhance Parenting and the Home Learning Environment for Children Aged 6-36 Months: a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hackworth, N J; Berthelsen, D; Matthews, J; Westrupp, E M; Cann, W; Ukoumunne, O C; Bennetts, S K; Phan, T; Scicluna, A; Trajanovska, M; Yu, M; Nicholson, J M

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a group parenting intervention designed to strengthen the home learning environment of children from disadvantaged families. Two cluster randomised controlled superiority trials were conducted in parallel and delivered within existing services: a 6-week parenting group (51 locations randomised; 986 parents) for parents of infants (aged 6-12 months), and a 10-week facilitated playgroup (58 locations randomised; 1200 parents) for parents of toddlers (aged 12-36 months). Each trial had three conditions: intervention (smalltalk group-only); enhanced intervention with home coaching (smalltalk plus); and 'standard'/usual practice controls. Parent-report and observational measures were collected at baseline, 12 and 32 weeks follow-up. Primary outcomes were parent verbal responsivity and home learning activities at 32 weeks. In the infant trial, there were no differences by trial arm for the primary outcomes at 32 weeks. In the toddler trial at 32-weeks, participants in the smalltalk group-only trial showed improvement compared to the standard program for parent verbal responsivity (effect size (ES) = 0.16; 95% CI 0.01, 0.36) and home learning activities (ES = 0.17; 95% CI 0.01, 0.38) but smalltalk plus did not. For the secondary outcomes in the infant trial, several initial differences favouring smalltalk plus were evident at 12 weeks, but not maintained to 32 weeks. For the toddler trial, differences in secondary outcomes favouring smalltalk plus were evident at 12 weeks and maintained to 32 weeks. These trials provide some evidence of the benefits of a parenting intervention focused on the home learning environment for parents of toddlers but not infants.

  15. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  16. The Pros and Cons of Mixed-Age Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodish, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Recently, numerous larger schools have tried to capture the potential advantages of a wide age range in their classrooms. The nongraded organizational system recognizes and plans for varied student abilities, provides for different rates of progress, and adjusts to individual emotional and social needs. Both advantages and disadvantages are…

  17. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  18. Dengue in Vietnamese infants--results of infection-enhancement assays correlate with age-related disease epidemiology, and cellular immune responses correlate with disease severity.

    PubMed

    Chau, Tran Nguyen Bich; Quyen, Nguyen Than Ha; Thuy, Tran Thi; Tuan, Nguyen Minh; Hoang, Dang Minh; Dung, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Lien, Le Bich; Quy, Nguyen Thien; Hieu, Nguyen Trong; Hieu, Lu Thi Minh; Hien, Tran Tinh; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Farrar, Jeremy; Simmons, Cameron P

    2008-08-15

    The pathogenesis of severe dengue is not well understood. Maternally derived subneutralizing levels of dengue virus-reactive IgG are postulated to be a critical risk factor for severe dengue during infancy. In this study, we found that, in healthy Vietnamese infants, there was a strong temporal association between the Fc-dependent, dengue virus infection-enhancing activity of neat plasma and the age-related epidemiology of severe dengue. We then postulated that disease severity in infants with primary infections would be associated with a robust immune response, possibly as a consequence of higher viral burdens in vivo. Accordingly, in infants hospitalized with acute dengue, the activation phenotype of peripheral-blood NK cells and CD8+ and CD4+ T cells correlated with overall disease severity, but HLA-A*1101-restricted NS3(133-142)-specific CD8+ T cells were not measurable until early convalescence. Plasma levels of cytokines/chemokines were generally higher in infants with dengue shock syndrome. Collectively, these data support a model of dengue pathogenesis in infants whereby antibody-dependent enhancement of infection explains the age-related case epidemiology and could account for antigen-driven immune activation and its association with disease severity. These results also highlight potential risks in the use of live attenuated dengue vaccines in infants in countries where dengue is endemic.

  19. Influence of holding practice on preterm infant development

    PubMed Central

    Neu, Madalynn; Robinson, JoAnn; Schmiege, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this randomized, controlled trial was to determine if nurse supported kangaroo holding of healthy preterm infants in the first eight weeks of the infant's life facilitates early behavioral organization and development. Methods We randomized 87 infants born between 32 to 35 weeks gestation and their mothers to one of three holding groups: kangaroo (skin-to-skin between mother's breasts), blanket (held in mother's arms), or control (no holding restrictions). Nurse supported groups (kangaroo and blanket) received 8 weekly visits from a registered nurse who encouraged holding and provided education about infant development. The control group received brief social visits. Mothers recorded time held in a daily diary. The Assessment of Preterm Infant Behavior was administered when infants were 40 to 44 weeks postconceptional age. Results Total holding time averaged four to five hours per day and did not differ among groups. Mothers held kangaroo style an average of 59 minutes per day in the kangaroo group, and 5 and 9 minutes per day in the blanket and control groups respectively (p <.001). Infants in the kangaroo and blanket groups had more optimal scores than the control group in Robust Crying (p = .015) indicating that they could arouse to vigorous crying and calm. Scores, except for Attention and State Regulation, were at least as high as those of full term infants. Clinical Implications When kangaroo holding is compared to blanket holding, both methods may provide equal early behavioral organization and developmental benefit to the infant. PMID:23625100

  20. The effect of group composition and age on social behavior and competition in groups of weaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Faerevik, G; Jensen, M B; Bøe, K E

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how group composition affects behavior and weight gain of newly weaned dairy calves and how age within heterogeneous groups affects behavior and competition. Seventy-two calves were introduced into 6 groups of 12 calves, of which 3 groups were homogeneous and 3 groups were heterogeneous (including 6 young and 6 old calves). The 9.8 mx9.5 m large experimental pen had 4 separate lying areas as well as a feeding area. Behavior and subgrouping were recorded on d 1, 7, and 14 after grouping, and calves were weighed before and after the experimental period of 14 d. Analysis of the effect of group composition on behavior and weight gain included young calves in heterogeneous groups and calves in homogeneous groups within the same age range at grouping (30 to 42 d). Irrespective of group composition, time spent feeding and lying increased, whereas time spent active decreased from d 1 to 7. In homogeneous groups, calves were more explorative on d 1 after grouping. Finally, calves in homogeneous groups had a higher average daily weight gain than calves in heterogeneous groups. Analysis of the effect of age included young and old calves of heterogeneous groups. Young calves were less explorative than old calves. Young calves were more active than old calves on d 1 but less active on d 7. Time spent lying and lying alone increased over time. More displacements from the feed manger were performed by old calves than by young calves. An analysis including all calves in both homogeneous and heterogeneous groups showed that when lying, calves were evenly distributed on the 4 lying areas and formed subgroups of on average 3 calves. In conclusion, age heterogeneity leads to increased competition, which may have a negative influence on the young calves' performance.

  1. Diaphragmatic pathology: a cause of clinically unexplained death in the perinatal/paediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, S; Ostojic, N S; Rushton, D I; Cox, P M; Acland, P

    2005-04-01

    Sudden unexpected death in infancy and childhood requires a 'full' post-mortem investigation. Guidance from the Royal College of Pathologists recommends sampling of all the major organs. However, the diaphragm does not feature in this or in most lists of routine histology. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of sampling the diaphragm for histological examination during autopsy. We describe three autopsy cases of clinically unexplained death in the perinatal and paediatric age group that showed significant pathology of the diaphragm. In Case 1, a previously healthy five-year-old girl collapsed suddenly and died four days later. In Case 2, an eight-month-old infant had repeated episodes of respiratory arrest that culminated in death. Autopsy demonstrated a predominantly diaphragmatic myositis. In Case 3 a female neonate had a respiratory arrest three days after birth and died less than a month later. Autopsy showed multiple large calcified necrotic fibres in the diaphragm. The diaphragm is seldom sampled at autopsy. In the first two cases a predominantly diaphragmatic myositis was either the direct or underlying cause of death. In the third case long-standing diaphragmatic pathology of uncertain cause may have contributed to the original respiratory arrest. Had the diaphragm not been examined histologically, the cause of death would have remained unascertained in these cases. In cases of sudden death in infancy and childhood, failure to reach a diagnosis may lead to undue suspicion falling upon the child's carers. This underscores the need for full histology at post-mortem in child deaths, including diaphragmatic sampling.

  2. Working group reports: evaluation of the evidence to support practice guidelines for nutritional care of preterm infants-the Pre-B Project.

    PubMed

    Raiten, Daniel J; Steiber, Alison L; Carlson, Susan E; Griffin, Ian; Anderson, Diane; Hay, William W; Robins, Sandra; Neu, Josef; Georgieff, Michael K; Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Fenton, Tanis R

    2016-02-01

    The "Evaluation of the Evidence to Support Practice Guidelines for the Nutritional Care of Preterm Infants: The Pre-B Project" is the first phase in a process to present the current state of knowledge and to support the development of evidence-informed guidance for the nutritional care of preterm and high-risk newborn infants. The future systematic reviews that will ultimately provide the underpinning for guideline development will be conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Evidence Analysis Library (EAL). To accomplish the objectives of this first phase, the Pre-B Project organizers established 4 working groups (WGs) to address the following themes: 1) nutrient specifications for preterm infants, 2) clinical and practical issues in enteral feeding of preterm infants, 3) gastrointestinal and surgical issues, and 4) current standards of infant feeding. Each WG was asked to 1) develop a series of topics relevant to their respective themes, 2) identify questions for which there is sufficient evidence to support a systematic review process conducted by the EAL, and 3) develop a research agenda to address priority gaps in our understanding of the role of nutrition in health and development of preterm/neonatal intensive care unit infants. This article is a summary of the reports from the 4 Pre-B WGs.

  3. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  4. The Preservation of Two Infant Temperaments into Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Jerome; Snidman, Nancy; Kahn, Vali; Towsley, Sara

    2007-01-01

    This "Monograph" reports theoretically relevant behavioral, biological, and self-report assessments of a sample of 14-17-year-olds who had been classified into one of four temperamental groups at 4 months of age. The infant temperamental categories were based on observed behavior to a battery of unfamiliar stimuli. The infants classified as high…

  5. Diversity, Group Identity, and Citizenship Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide immigration and quests for rights by minority groups have caused social scientists and educators to raise serious questions about liberal assimilationist conceptions of citizenship that historically have dominated citizenship education in nation-states. The author of this article challenges liberal assimilationist conceptions of…

  6. Effects of Early Sensory Stimulation on the Premature Infant as Measured by the Bayley Scales of Infant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Kathy Kees; And Others

    Looking beyond the overall effectiveness of sensory stimulation, this study aimed to identify specific aspects of infant behavior most responsive to early stimulation. Subjects were 65 premature infants with a birth weight of less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces and a gestational age under 37 weeks. Experimental group members had completed a multimodal…

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of a pentavalent acellular pertussis combined vaccine including diphtheria, tetanus, inactivated poliovirus and conjugated Haemophilus Influenzae type b polysaccharide for primary vaccination at 2, 3, 4 or 3, 4, 5 months of age in infants in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong Cheng; Li, Feng Xiang; Li, Yan Ping; Hou, Qi Ming; Li, Chang Gui; Li, Ya Nan; Chen, Fu Sheng; Hu, Xue Zhong; Su, Wen Bin; Zhang, Shu Min; Fang, Han Hua; Ye, Qiang; Zeng, Tian De; Liu, Tao Xuan; Li, Xiu Bi; Huang, Yun Neng; Deng, Man Ling; Zhang, Yan Ping; Ortiz, Esteban

    2011-02-24

    The aim was to demonstrate the immunogenicity and safety of a DTaP-IPV//PRP-T combined vaccine (Pentaxim(®)) compared to individual vaccines in infants in the People's Republic of China. Infants (N=792) were randomly assigned to receive DTaP-IPV//PRP-T at 2, 3 and 4 months of age (Group A) or 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group B), or DTaP (Wuhan Institute of Biological Products), PRP-T (Act-Hib(®)) and IPV (Imovax(®) Polio) at 3, 4 and 5 months of age (Group C). Antibody titers were measured pre- and 1 month after the third vaccination; non-inferiority analyses were performed for seroprotection/seroconversion (SP/SC) rates. Safety was assessed 1 month after the primary series. SP/SC rates for the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine were high and non-inferior to the controls. Reactogenicity was low for each group and no hypotonic hyporesponsive episode or seizure was reported. In conclusion, the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine was highly immunogenic, non-inferior to the commercially available control vaccines and had a good safety profile for both primary administration schedules.

  8. Upper airway radiographs in infants with upper airway insufficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin, S L; Davis, S L; Gunn, T R

    1994-01-01

    Upper airway measurements in nine infants considered to be at risk of upper airway insufficiency, six of whom presented after an apnoeic episode, were compared with measurements taken in two age groups of healthy infants. Paired, inspiratory and expiratory, lateral upper airway radiographs were obtained while the infants were awake and breathing quietly. The radiographs of all nine infants demonstrated narrowing in the oropharyngeal portion of the airway during inspiration and in six infants there was ballooning of the upper airway during expiration. Seven of the nine infants subsequently experienced recurrent apnoeic episodes which required vigorous stimulation to restore breathing. Experience suggests that respiratory phase timed radiographs are a useful adjunct to the evaluation of infants who are suspected of having upper airway dysfunction. They provide information regarding both the dimensions and compliance of the upper airway as well as the site of any restriction. Images PMID:8048825

  9. Comparison of slide coagglutination test and countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis for detection of group B streptococcal antigen in cerebrospinal fluid from infants with meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, B J; Edwards, M S; Baker, C J

    1980-01-01

    The usefulness of Phadebact streptococcus reagents for the detection of group B streptococcal antigen in cerebrospinal fluid was evaluated in 54 infants with meningitis and in 22 normal infants. Antigens was detected by slide coagglutination in 19 (82.6%) and by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis in 20 (87.0%) of 23 cerebrospinal fluid specimens from infants with group B streptococcal meningitis at admission. After initiation of antimicrobial therapy, antigen could be detected in 11 of 19 (by slide coagglutination) and 7 of 18 (by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis) cerebrospinal fluids. False-positive reactions were noted by slide coagglutination in one infant with S. bovis meningitis and one with group B streptococcal bacteremia without meningitis; none occurred with countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis. The commercial availiability, simplicity, sensitivity (82.6%), and specificity (96.4%) of the Phadebact slide coaggluatination test for detecting group B streptococcal antigen in cerebrospinal fluid suggest that it may be useful for the early and rapid diagnosis of group B streptococcal meningitis. PMID:6991524

  10. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  11. Alliance for aging research AD biomarkers work group: structural MRI.

    PubMed

    Jack, Clifford R

    2011-12-01

    Biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are increasingly important. All modern AD therapeutic trials employ AD biomarkers in some capacity. In addition, AD biomarkers are an essential component of recently updated diagnostic criteria for AD from the National Institute on Aging--Alzheimer's Association. Biomarkers serve as proxies for specific pathophysiological features of disease. The 5 most well established AD biomarkers include both brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measures--cerebrospinal fluid Abeta and tau, amyloid positron emission tomography (PET), fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This article reviews evidence supporting the position that MRI is a biomarker of neurodegenerative atrophy. Topics covered include methods of extracting quantitative and semiquantitative information from structural MRI; imaging-autopsy correlation; and evidence supporting diagnostic and prognostic value of MRI measures. Finally, the place of MRI in a hypothetical model of temporal ordering of AD biomarkers is reviewed.

  12. Similar Occurrence of Febrile Episodes Reported in Non-Atopic Children at Three to Five Years of Age after Prebiotics Supplemented Infant Formula

    PubMed Central

    van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Stam, José; Grüber, Christoph; Mosca, Fabio; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Chirico, Gaetano; Braegger, Christian P.; Riedler, Josef; Boehm, Günther; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2015-01-01

    This is a follow up study of a multicenter randomised placebo-controlled trial in seven centres in five West European countries. The RCT assessed the effect of infant formula supplemented with a mixture of prebiotics (with neutral short-chain and long-chain oligosaccharides and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides) during infancy in term-born children (n=1130). In the follow-up study 672 children (60% of the study population) participated: 232 (56%) from the prebiotics group (PG), 243 (58%) from the control group (CG), and 197 (66%) from the non-randomised breast-fed group (BG). The primary outcome was the occurrence of febrile episodes at three to five years of age prospectively documented by the parents: in the PG 1.17 (interquartile range 0.50-2.08) episodes per year versus 1.20 (0.52-2.57) in the CG; and 1.48 (0.65-2.60) in the BG. This specific prebiotics mixture given during infancy in healthy non-atopic subjects does not decrease febrile episodes and therefore seems not to prevent infection between their third and fifth birthday. PMID:26076141

  13. Similar Occurrence of Febrile Episodes Reported in Non-Atopic Children at Three to Five Years of Age after Prebiotics Supplemented Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Stam, José; Grüber, Christoph; Mosca, Fabio; Arslanoglu, Sertac; Chirico, Gaetano; Braegger, Christian P; Riedler, Josef; Boehm, Günther; Sauer, Pieter J J

    2015-01-01

    This is a follow up study of a multicenter randomised placebo-controlled trial in seven centres in five West European countries. The RCT assessed the effect of infant formula supplemented with a mixture of prebiotics (with neutral short-chain and long-chain oligosaccharides and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides) during infancy in term-born children (n=1130). In the follow-up study 672 children (60% of the study population) participated: 232 (56%) from the prebiotics group (PG), 243 (58%) from the control group (CG), and 197 (66%) from the non-randomised breast-fed group (BG). The primary outcome was the occurrence of febrile episodes at three to five years of age prospectively documented by the parents: in the PG 1.17 (interquartile range 0.50-2.08) episodes per year versus 1.20 (0.52-2.57) in the CG; and 1.48 (0.65-2.60) in the BG. This specific prebiotics mixture given during infancy in healthy non-atopic subjects does not decrease febrile episodes and therefore seems not to prevent infection between their third and fifth birthday.

  14. Asymmetrical motor behaviour as a window to early leg preference: a longitudinal study in infants 7-12 months of age.

    PubMed

    Atun-Einy, Osnat

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored leg preference in infancy during half-kneel pulling-to-stand (PTS) and asymmetrical four-point kneeling, which is part of the typical motor repertoire of infants. The special characteristics of the half-kneel PTS as a discrete task, performed in a bilateral context provide the opportunity to explore leg preference during an asymmetrical behaviour. Twenty-seven infants were observed in their homes, every 3 weeks between the ages of 7-12 months. Leg preference was determined by the "lead-out" limb used as the infants pulled to stand from the half-kneeling position (half-kneel PTS). As a complementary measure, the leading leg during asymmetrical four-point kneeling and crawling ("asymmetrical four-point patterns") was used in the 10 infants who developed these patterns. The infants studied showed a general preference for using a leading leg during half-kneel PTS, which was mostly consistent over the study period. A strong correlation was found between leg preferences during half-kneel PTS and asymmetrical four-point patterns. The findings documented functional asymmetry in infant lower limbs during half-kneel PTS and asymmetrical four-point patterns, highlighting the importance of the tasks used to define leg preference.

  15. Effect of socioeconomic disadvantage, remoteness and Indigenous status on hospital usage for Western Australian preterm infants under 12 months of age: a population-based data linkage study

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Natalie A; Peter, Sue; McAuley, Kimberley E; McAullay, Daniel R; Marriott, Rhonda; Edmond, Karen M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our primary objective was to determine the incidence of hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous and non-Indigenous preterm infants aged postdischarge from birth admission to 11 months in Western Australia. Secondary objectives were to assess incidence in the poorest infants from remote areas and to determine the primary causes of hospital usage in preterm infants. Design Prospective population-based linked data set. Setting and participants All preterm babies born in Western Australia during 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measures All-cause hospitalisations and emergency department presentations. Results There were 6.9% (4211/61 254) preterm infants, 13.1% (433/3311) Indigenous preterm infants and 6.5% (3778/57 943) non-Indigenous preterm infants born in Western Australia. Indigenous preterm infants had a higher incidence of hospital admission (adjusted incident rate ratio (aIRR) 1.24, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.42) and emergency department presentation (aIRR 1.71, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.02) compared with non-Indigenous preterm infants. The most disadvantaged preterm infants (7.8/1000 person days) had a greater incidence of emergency presentation compared with the most advantaged infants (3.1/1000 person days) (aIRR 1.61, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.00). The most remote preterm infants (7.8/1000 person days) had a greater incidence of emergency presentation compared with the least remote preterm infants (3.0/1000 person days; aIRR 1.82, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.22). Conclusions In Western Australia, preterm infants have high hospital usage in their first year of life. Infants living in disadvantaged areas, remote area infants and Indigenous infants are at increased risk. Our data highlight the need for improved postdischarge care for preterm infants. PMID:28100563

  16. Mother-infant interaction improves with a developmental intervention for mother-preterm infant dyads.

    PubMed

    White-Traut, Rosemary; Norr, Kathleen F; Fabiyi, Camille; Rankin, Kristin M; Li, Zhyouing; Liu, Li

    2013-12-01

    While premature infants have a high need for positive interactions, both infants and their mothers are challenged by the infant's biological immaturity. This randomized clinical trial of 198 premature infants born at 29-34 weeks gestation and their mothers examined the impact of the H-HOPE (Hospital to Home: Optimizing the Infant's Environment) intervention on mother-premature infant interaction patterns at 6-weeks corrected age (CA). Mothers had at least 2 social environmental risk factors such as minority status or less than high school education. Mother-infant dyads were randomly assigned to the H-HOPE intervention group or an attention control group. H-HOPE is an integrated intervention that included (1) twice-daily infant stimulation using the ATVV (auditory, tactile, visual, and vestibular-rocking stimulation) and (2) four maternal participatory guidance sessions plus two telephone calls by a nurse-community advocate team. Mother-infant interaction was assessed at 6-weeks CA using the Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training-Feeding Scale (NCAST, 76 items) and the Dyadic Mutuality Code (DMC, 6-item contingency scale during a 5-min play session). NCAST and DMC scores for the Control and H-HOPE groups were compared using t-tests, chi-square tests and multivariable analysis. Compared with the Control group (n = 76), the H-HOPE group (n = 66) had higher overall NCAST scores and higher maternal Social-Emotional Growth Fostering Subscale scores. The H-HOPE group also had significantly higher scores for the overall infant subscale and the Infant Clarity of Cues Subscale (p < 0.05). H-HOPE dyads were also more likely to have high responsiveness during play as measured by the DMC (67.6% versus 58.1% of controls). After adjustment for significant maternal and infant characteristics, H-HOPE dyads had marginally higher scores during feeding on overall mother-infant interaction (β = 2.03, p = 0.06) and significantly higher scores on the infant subscale (β = 0.75, p

  17. Relation between hand function and gross motor function in full term infants aged 4 to 8 months

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Solange F.; Figueiredo, Elyonara M.; Gonçalves, Rejane V.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In children, reaching emerges around four months of age, which is followed by rapid changes in hand function and concomitant changes in gross motor function, including the acquisition of independent sitting. Although there is a close functional relationship between these domains, to date they have been investigated separately. Objective: To investigate the longitudinal profile of changes and the relationship between the development of hand function (i.e. reaching for and manipulating an object) and gross motor function in 13 normally developing children born at term who were evaluated every 15 days from 4 to 8 months of age. Method: The number of reaches and the period (i.e. time) of manipulation to an object were extracted from video synchronized with the Qualisys(r) movement analysis system. Gross motor function was measured using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. ANOVA for repeated measures was used to test the effect of age on the number of reaches, the time of manipulation and gross motor function. Hierarchical regression models were used to test the associations of reaching and manipulation with gross motor function. Results: Results revealed a significant increase in the number of reaches (p<0.001), the time of manipulation (p<0.001) and gross motor function (p<0.001) over time, as well as associations between reaching and gross motor function (R2=0.84; p<0.001) and manipulation and gross motor function (R2=0.13; p=0.02) from 4 to 6 months of age. Associations from 6 to 8 months of age were not significant. Conclusion: The relationship between hand function and gross motor function was not constant, and the age span from 4 to 6 months was a critical period of interdependency of hand function and gross motor function development. PMID:25714437

  18. Executive summary: evaluating the evidence base to support the inclusion of infants and children from birth to 24 mo of age in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans—“the B-24 Project”123

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Ramkripa; Porter, Alexandra; Obbagy, Julie E; Spahn, Joanne M

    2014-01-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) are the cornerstone of US government efforts to promote health and prevent disease through diet and nutrition. The DGA currently provides guidelines for ages ≥2 y. In an effort to determine the strength of the evidence to support the inclusion of infants and children from birth to age 24 mo, the partner agencies led by the Department of Health and Human Services Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion and the USDA Center for Nutrition Program and Policy initiated the project entitled “Evaluating the evidence base to support the inclusion of infants and children from birth to 24 months of age in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans—the B-24 Project.” This project represents the first step in the process of applying systematic reviews to the process of deciding whether the evidence is sufficient to include this age group in future editions of the DGA. This supplement includes the B-24 Executive Summary, which describes the B-24 Project and the deliberations of the 4 working groups during the process of developing priority topics for the systematic review, and a research agenda to address the critical gaps. Also included in this supplement issue is an article on the Nutrition Evidence Library methodology for developing systematic review questions and articles from the invited content presenters at the B-24 Prime meeting. PMID:24500158

  19. Executive summary: Evaluating the evidence base to support the inclusion of infants and children from birth to 24 mo of age in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans--"the B-24 Project".

    PubMed

    Raiten, Daniel J; Raghavan, Ramkripa; Porter, Alexandra; Obbagy, Julie E; Spahn, Joanne M

    2014-03-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) are the cornerstone of US government efforts to promote health and prevent disease through diet and nutrition. The DGA currently provides guidelines for ages ≥ 2 y. In an effort to determine the strength of the evidence to support the inclusion of infants and children from birth to age 24 mo, the partner agencies led by the Department of Health and Human Services Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion and the USDA Center for Nutrition Program and Policy initiated the project entitled "Evaluating the evidence base to support the inclusion of infants and children from birth to 24 months of age in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans--the B-24 Project." This project represents the first step in the process of applying systematic reviews to the process of deciding whether the evidence is sufficient to include this age group in future editions of the DGA. This supplement includes the B-24 Executive Summary, which describes the B-24 Project and the deliberations of the 4 working groups during the process of developing priority topics for the systematic review, and a research agenda to address the critical gaps. Also included in this supplement issue is an article on the Nutrition Evidence Library methodology for developing systematic review questions and articles from the invited content presenters at the B-24 Prime meeting.

  20. Infant immunization coverage in Italy: estimates by simultaneous EPI cluster surveys of regions. ICONA Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Salmaso, S.; Rota, M. C.; Ciofi Degli Atti, M. L.; Tozzi, A. E.; Kreidl, P.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, a series of regional cluster surveys (the ICONA Study) was conducted simultaneously in 19 out of the 20 regions in Italy to estimate the mandatory immunization coverage of children aged 12-24 months with oral poliovirus (OPV), diphtheria-tetanus (DT) and viral hepatitis B (HBV) vaccines, as well as optional immunization coverage with pertussis, measles and Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) vaccines. The study children were born in 1996 and selected from birth registries using the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) cluster sampling technique. Interviews with parents were conducted to determine each child's immunization status and the reasons for any missed or delayed vaccinations. The study population comprised 4310 children aged 12-24 months. Coverage for both mandatory and optional vaccinations differed by region. The overall coverage for mandatory vaccines (OPV, DT and HBV) exceeded 94%, but only 79% had been vaccinated in accord with the recommended schedule (i.e. during the first year of life). Immunization coverage for pertussis increased from 40% (1993 survey) to 88%, but measles coverage (56%) remained inadequate for controlling the disease; Hib coverage was 20%. These results confirm that in Italy the coverage of only mandatory immunizations is satisfactory. Pertussis immunization coverage has improved dramatically since the introduction of acellular vaccines. A greater effort to educate parents and physicians is still needed to improve the coverage of optional vaccinations in all regions. PMID:10593033

  1. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle L; Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen

    2008-10-01

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, and SO2. Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (≤24 years) and older (≥40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  2. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen

    2008-10-01

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, and SO2. Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (<=24 years) and older (>=40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  3. Performance trends in age group breaststroke swimmers in the FINA World Championships 1986-2014.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2016-10-31

    Performance trends in breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level in pool competitions are well investigated for elite swimmers, but not for age group swimmers. This study investigated trends in participation, performance and sex difference in performance in a total of 35,143 (16,160 women and 18,983 men) age group breaststroke swimmers aged 25-29 to 95-99 years competing in the Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) World Masters Championships between 1986 and 2014. Trends in participation were analysed using linear regression analyses and trends in performance were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses with sex, distance and calendar year as fixed variables. Women and men improved performance in all age groups. For age groups 25-29 to 85-89 years, men were faster than women. For age groups 90-94 to 95-99 years, men were not faster than women. Sex and distance showed a significant interaction for all distances in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years. In 50 m, women reduced the gap to men in age groups 40-44 to 70-74 years and in 100 m and 200 m, women reduced the gap in age groups 50-54 to 60-64 years. In summary, (i) women and men improved performance in all race distances and in all age groups, (ii) men were faster than women from 25 to 89 years, but not from 90 to 99 years, and (iii), women reduced the gap to men between ~40 and ~75 years, but not in younger (<40 years) or older (>75 years) age groups. Based on these findings for a time period of nearly 30 years, we may assume a further increase in participation and a further improvement in performance in the near future in age group breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level.

  4. Child-directed teaching and social learning at 18 months of age: evidence from Yucatec Mayan and US infants.

    PubMed

    Shneidman, Laura; Gaskins, Suzanne; Woodward, Amanda

    2016-05-01

    In several previous studies, 18-month-old infants who were directly addressed demonstrated more robust imitative behaviors than infants who simply observed another's actions, leading theorists to suggest that child-directed interactions carried unique informational value. However, these data came exclusively from cultural communities where direct teaching is commonplace, raising the possibility that the findings reflect regularities in infants' social experiences rather than responses to innate or a priori learning mechanisms. The current studies consider infants' imitative learning from child-directed teaching and observed interaction in two cultural communities, a Yucatec Mayan village where infants have been described as experiencing relatively limited direct instruction (Study 1) and a US city where infants are regularly directly engaged (Study 2). Eighteen-month-old infants from each community participated in a within-subjects study design where they were directly taught to use novel objects on one day and observed actors using different objects on another day. Mayan infants showed relative increases in imitative behaviors on their second visit to the lab as compared to their first visit, but there was no effect of condition. US infants showed no difference in imitative behavior in the child-directed vs. observed conditions; however, infants who were directly addressed on their first visit showed significantly higher overall imitation rates than infants who observed on their first visit. Together, these findings call into question the idea that child-directed teaching holds automatic or universal informational value.

  5. Effects of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation of Infant Formula on Cognition and Behaviour at 9 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Corina; Kikkert, Hedwig K.; Fidler, Vaclav; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation of infant formula may have a beneficial effect on cognitive development. This study aimed to investigate the effect of LCPUFA formula supplementation primarily on cognition and secondarily on behaviour at age 9 years. Special attention was paid to the potentially modifying effect…

  6. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants with acute leukemia: a retrospective survey of the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Michiki; Miyamura, Takako; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Taga, Takashi; Tawa, Akio; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Kajihara, Ryosuke; Adachi, Souichi; Ishii, Eiichi; Tomizawa, Daisuke

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause life-threatening complications of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in young children with malignancies, but reports remain limited. We performed a retrospective nationwide survey to clarify the current status of RSV disease among infants with hematological malignancies. Clinical course, treatment, and outcome of patients with hematological malignancies who suffered from RSV infections at the age of <24 months during anti-tumor therapy from April 2006 to March 2009 were investigated by sending a questionnaire to all member institutions of the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG). Twelve patients with acute leukemia were identified as having experienced RSV disease. The primary diseases were acute myeloid leukemia (n = 8) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 4). RSV infection occurred pre- or during induction therapy (n = 8) and during consolidation therapy (n = 4). Eight patients developed LRTI, four of whom had severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome; these four patients died despite receiving intensive care. In our survey, the prognosis of RSV disease in pediatric hematological malignancies was poor, and progression of LRTI in particular was associated with high mortality. In the absence of RSV-specific therapy, effective prevention and treatment strategies for severe RSV disease must be investigated.

  7. Feasibility of Using Flash-heated Breastmilk as an Infant Feeding Option for HIV-exposed, Uninfected Infants after 6 Months of Age in Urban Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Chantry, Caroline J.; Young, Sera L.; Rennie, Waverly; Ngonyani, Monica; Mashio, Clara; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Peerson, Janet; Nyambo, Margaret; Matee, Mecky; Ash, Deborah; Dewey, Kathryn; Koniz-Booher, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Objective Heat-treating expressed breastmilk is recommended as an interim feeding strategy for HIV-exposed infants in resource-poor countries, but data on its feasibility are minimal. Flash-heating (FH) is a simple in-home technique for heating breastmilk that inactivates HIV while preserving its nutritional and anti-infective properties. Our primary objective was to determine, among HIV-infected mothers, the feasibility and protocol adherence of FH expressed breastmilk after 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. Design Prospective longitudinal Participants 101 HIV-infected breastfeeding mothers Setting Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Intervention Peer counselors provided in-home counseling and support on infant feeding from 2 to 9 months postpartum. Mothers were encouraged to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months followed by FH expressed breastmilk if her infant was HIV-negative. Clinic-based staff measured infant growth and morbidity monthly and mothers kept daily logs of infant morbidity. FH behavior was tracked until 9 months postpartum using daily logs, in-home observations, and clinic-and home-based surveys. Bacterial cultures of unheated and heated milk samples were performed. Results Thirty-seven of 72 eligible mothers (51.4%) chose to Flash-heat. Median (range) frequency of milk expression was 3 (1–6) times daily and duration of method use on-study was 9.7 (0.1–15.6) weeks. Mean (SD) daily milk volume was 322 (201) mL (range 25–1120). No heated and 32 (30.5%) unheated samples contained bacterial pathogens. Conclusion FH is a simple technology that many HIV-positive women can successfully use after exclusive breastfeeding to continue to provide the benefits of breastmilk while avoiding maternal-to-child transmission associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding. Based on these feasibility data, a clinical trial of the effects of FH breastmilk on infant health outcomes is warranted. PMID:22362154

  8. Infant Temperament and Parent Stress in 3 month old Infants following Surgery for Complex Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Torowicz, Deborah; Irving, Sharon Y; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Sumpter, Danica Fulbright; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to identify and compare differences in temperament and maternal stress between infants with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) and healthy controls at 3 months of age. Methods Study sample was drawn from an existing longitudinal study examining growth in infants with CHD as compared to healthy controls. Infant temperament and parental stress were measured in 129 mother-infant dyads. Inclusion criteria for infants with CHD were ≥ 36 weeks post-menstrual age, ≥ 2500 grams at birth, surgery in first 6 weeks of life, and no major congenital anomalies or genetic syndromes. The Early Infancy Temperament Questionnaire and Parent Stress Index were the assessment tools used. Results Infants with single ventricle (SV) physiology were more negative in mood (F=7.14, p<0.001) and less distractible (F=5.00, p<0.008) than the biventricular physiology (BV) or control (C) infant groups. The demands of care for infants with CHD was a source of stress as compared to control infants (p<.05). Five of six subscales of the Child Domain were significant sources of stress in the SV group compared to BV and Control groups. Negative mood and difficulty to soothe were predictors for Child Domain and Total Life Stress in SV infants. Conclusion The demands of parenting an irritable infant with SV physiology puts these mothers at risk for high levels of stress. Results suggest the need for pre-discharge anticipatory guidance for parents to better understand and respond to the behavioral style of their infants, in particular, infants with SV physiology. PMID:20375737

  9. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years) and older (64-85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  10. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  11. Finisher and performance trends in female and male mountain ultramarathoners by age group

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Eichenberger, Evelyn; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined changes according to age group in the number of finishers and running times for athletes in female and male mountain ultramarathoners competing in the 78 km Swiss Alpine Marathon, the largest mountain ultramarathon in Europe and held in high alpine terrain. Methods The association between age and performance was investigated using analysis of variance and both single and multilevel regression analyses. Results Between 1998 and 2011, a total of 1,781 women and 12,198 men finished the Swiss Alpine Marathon. The number of female finishers increased (r2 = 0.64, P = 0.001), whereas the number of male finishers (r2 = 0.18, P = 0.15) showed no change. The annual top ten men became older and slower, whereas the annual top ten women became older but not slower. Regarding the number of finishers in the age groups, the number of female finishers decreased in the age group 18–24 years, whereas the number of finishers increased in the age groups 30–34, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, and 70–74 years. In the age groups 25–29 and 35–39 years, the number of finishers showed no changes across the years. In the age group 70–74 years, the increase in number of finishers was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. For men, the number of finishers decreased in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, and 35–39 years. In the age groups 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 70–74, and 75–79 years, the number of finishers increased. In the age group 40–44 years, the increase was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. Female finishers in the age group 40–44 years became faster over time. For men, finishers in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, 40–44, and 45–49 years became slower. Conclusion The number of women older than 30 years and men older than 40 years increased in the Swiss Alpine Marathon. Performance improved in women aged 40–44 years but

  12. Group B streptococcal infections in the newborn infant and the potential value of maternal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Alberto; Cattelani, Chiara; Creti, Roberta; Berner, Reinhard; Pietrangiolillo, Zaira; Margarit, Immaculada; Maione, Domenico; Ferrari, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal bacterial infections in developed countries. Early-onset disease (EOD) occurs at day 0-6 and late-onset disease occurs at day 7-89. Currently, the prevention of EOD relies upon intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) given to women who are GBS positive at prenatal screening or women with risk factors for EOD. Although successfully implemented, IAP has not fully eradicated EOD, and incidence rates of late-onset disease remain unchanged. Furthermore, antibiotic resistance may result from widespread antibiotic use. New prophylactic strategies are therefore of critical importance. A vaccine active against GBS, administered during pregnancy and combined with targeted IAP, could overcome these problems and reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with invasive diseases.

  13. Infant and young child feeding practices among children under 2 years of age and maternal exposure to infant and young child feeding messages and promotions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Vitta, Bineti S; Benjamin, Margaret; Pries, Alissa M; Champeny, Mary; Zehner, Elizabeth; Huffman, Sandra L

    2016-04-01

    There are limited data describing infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF) in urban Tanzania. This study assessed the types of foods consumed by children under 2 years of age and maternal exposure to promotions of these foods in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 305 mothers of children less than 24 months of age who attended child health services in October and November, 2014. Among infants less than 6 months of age, rates of exclusive breastfeeding were low (40.8%) and a high proportion (38.2%) received semi-solid foods. Continued breastfeeding among 20-23-month-olds was only 33.3%. Consumption of breastmilk substitutes was not prevalent, and only 3.9% of infants less than 6 months of age and 4.8% of 6-23 month-olds were fed formula. Among 6-23-month-olds, only 38.4% consumed a minimum acceptable diet (using a modified definition). The homemade complementary foods consumed by the majority of 6-23-month-olds (85.2%) were cereal-dominated and infrequently contained micronutrient-rich ingredients. Only 3.1% of 6-23-month-olds consumed commercially produced infant cereal on the day preceding the interview. In contrast, commercially produced snack foods were consumed by 23.1% of 6-23-month-olds. Maternal exposure to commercial promotions of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods was low (10.5% and 1.0%, respectively), while exposure to promotions of commercially produced snack foods was high (45.9%). Strategies are needed to improve IYCF practices, particularly with regard to exclusive and continued breastfeeding, increased dietary diversity and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods, and avoidance of feeding commercially produced snack foods.

  14. A Clinico-Etiological Study of Dermatoses in Pediatric Age Group in Tertiary Health Care Center in South Gujarat Region

    PubMed Central

    Jawade, Sugat A; Chugh, Vishal S; Gohil, Sneha K; Mistry, Amit S; Umrigar, Dipak D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dermatologic conditions have different presentation and management in pediatric age group from that in adult; this to be studied separately for statistical and population based analysis. Objective: To study the pattern of various dermatoses in infants and children in tertiary health care center in South Gujarat region. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study; various dermatoses were studied in pediatric patients up to 14 years of age attending the Dermatology OPD of New Civil Hospital, Surat, Gujarat over a period of 12 months from June 2009 to June 2010. All patients were divided into four different study groups: <1 month (neonates), 1 month to 1 year, >1 to 6 years and 7 to 14 years. Results: There were 596 boys and 425 girls in total 1021 study populations. Majority of the skin conditions in neonates were erythema toxicum neonatorum (12.97%), scabies (9.92%), mongolian spot (9.16%), and seborrheic dermatitis (7.63%). In > 1 month to 14 years age group of children among infectious disorder, children were found to be affected most by scabies (24.49%), impetigo (5.96%), pyoderma (5.62%), molluscum contagiosum (5.39%), tinea capitis (4.49%), leprosy (2.02%), and viral warts (1.35%) while among non-infectious disorders, they were affected by atopic dermatitis (4.27%), pityriasis alba (4.16%), seborrheic dermatitis (3.60%), pityriasis rosea (3.15%), others (3.01%), phrynoderma (2.70%), lichen planus (2.58%), contact dermatitis (1.57%) and ichthyosis (1.45%). Conclusion: There is a need to emphasize on training the management of common pediatric dermatoses to dermatologists, general practitioners and pediatricians for early treatment. PMID:26677296

  15. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  16. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  17. [Symptomatic and asymptomatic infections of Demodex spp. in eye lashes of patients of different age groups].

    PubMed

    Kuźna-Grygiel, Wanda; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Czepita, Damian; Sambor, Izabella

    2004-01-01

    Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis were looked for on eyelashes sampled from 481 people, aged 3 through 96. The persons studied were divided into 9 age groups. Magnitude of the infection symptoms was assessed based on macroscopic changes of eye-lid edges and on interviews with patients. An increase of the prevalence of infection and intensification of the symptoms were observed to coincide with the age increase of the persons studied. No significant differences were demonstrated between the infection frequencies of women and men. Symptoms of ocular demodecosis were more frequent only in women of group III (aged 21-30) and group V (41-50) (p < 0.05).

  18. Benefits of gregarious feeding by aposematic caterpillars depend on group age structure.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stuart A; Stastny, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Gregarious feeding is a common feature of herbivorous insects and can range from beneficial (e.g. dilution of predation risk) to costly (e.g. competition). Group age structure should influence these costs and benefits, particularly when old and young larvae differ in their feeding mode or apparency to predators. We investigated the relative value of gregarious feeding by aposematic larvae of Uresiphita reversalis that we observed feeding in groups of mixed ages and variable densities on wild Lupinus diffusus. In a manipulative field experiment, the survivorship and growth of young larvae were enhanced in the presence of older conspecifics, but not in large groups of similarly aged larvae. Estimates of insect damage and induced plant responses suggest that mixed-age groups enhance plant quality for young larvae while avoiding competition. We conclude that benefits of gregariousness in this species are contingent on group age structure, a finding of significance for the ecology and evolution of gregariousness and other social behaviours.

  19. Attempting to Honor Beliefs of Jehovah’s Witnesses at the Edge of Viability in an Infant Born at 23 Weeks’ Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Charles W.; Marc-Aurele, Krishelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 23 weeks’ gestational age newborn Final Diagnosis: 23 weeks’ extreme prematurity • intraventricular hemorrhage • anemia • respiratory distress syndrome Symptoms: Hypotension • metabolic acidosis • tachycardia Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Transfusion of packed red blood cells Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Infants born at 23 weeks’ gestation have a poor prognosis and require intensive care, including blood transfusions, to survive. Generally speaking, the decision to forgo life support is acceptable. Jehovah’s Witnesses believe that life is sacred and want lifesaving interventions except for blood transfusions. Therefore, an ethical dilemma exists when a baby is born on the edge of viability to parents that are Jehovah’s Witnesses. In this case, if parents and healthcare professionals disagree on the best interests of the child, the medical team should obtain a court order from the state to intervene. Case Report: We present the case of an infant born at 23 weeks’ gestation to parents who are Jehovah’s Witnesses. The parents wanted full life-support, except for blood transfusions, to be given. The clinical team obtained a court order to transfuse the infant. The infant unfortunately died despite all efforts. Conclusions: Currently, it is nearly impossible to honor the beliefs of Jehovah’s Witnesses to provide lifesaving treatments without blood transfusions for infants born at the border of viability. If the goal is to prolong life, the standard of care for a premature infant is for a doctor to obtain a court order to override the beliefs and wishes of Jehovah’s Witness parents and transfuse blood products as medically indicated. Although bloodless techniques for high-risk surgeries are under development, care for premature infants at 23 weeks’ gestation necessitates red cell transfusions. PMID:27255268

  20. Maternal leptin concentrations are similar in African Americans and Caucasians in normal pregnancy, preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age infants.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Laura D; Powers, Robert W; Adotey, Mary; Gallaher, Marcia J; Markovic, Nina; Ness, Roberta B; Roberts, James M

    2007-01-01

    Leptin concentrations were measured in African American women in order to assess leptin's role in the increased frequency and severity of preeclampsia. In addition, leptin concentrations were measured in women who delivered small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. A case-control study of African American and Caucasian women with normal pregnancies, preeclampsia, or SGA infants was done. Plasma leptin was quantitated by radio-immunoassay. The previously recognized pattern of increased leptin concentrations in preeclampsia was replicated. Leptin concentrations did not differ by race in any diagnostic category, and concentrations in women with SGA infants were not higher than those in healthy women. Differences in the frequency and severity of preeclampsia in African Americans cannot be explained by higher leptin concentrations.

  1. Effect of Peer Counselling by Mother Support Groups on Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices: The Lalitpur Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Komal P.; Sankar, Jhuma; Sankar, M. Jeeva; Gupta, Arun; Dadhich, J. P.; Gupta, Y. P.; Bhatt, Girish C.; Ansari, Dilshad A.; Sharma, B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our primary objective was to evaluate the effect of peer counselling by mother support groups (MSG's) in improving the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in the community. Methods We conducted this repeated-measure before and after study in the Lalitpur district of Uttar Pradesh, India between 2006 and 2011. We assessed the IYCF practices before and after creating MSG's within the community. The feeding practices were reassessed at two time points–2 (T1) and 5 years (T2) after the intervention and compared with that of the pre-intervention phase (T0). Results The total population covered by the project from the time of its initiation was 105000. A total of 425 (T0), 480 (T1) and 521 (T2) mother infant pairs were selected from this population. There was significant improvement in the following IYCF practices in the community (represented as %; adjOR (95% CI, p) such as initiation of breast feeding within 1 hour at both T1 (71% vs. 11%); 19.6 (13.6, 28.2, p = <0.0001)and T2 (62% vs. 11%); 13.3 (9.4, 18.9, p = <0.0001); use of prelacteal feeds at both T1 (67% vs. 15%); 12.6 (CI: 9.0, 17.6, p<0.0001) and T2 (67% vs. 5%); 44.4 (28.8, 68.4, p = <0.0001); rates of exclusive breast feeding for 6 months at both T1 (50% vs. 7%); 13.6 (7.6, 25.0, p = <0.0001) and T2 (60% vs. 7%); 20.5 (11.3, 37.2, p = <0.0001); initiation of complementary feeding at T1 (85% vs. 54%); 5.6 (3.6, 8.7, p = <0.0001) and T2 (96% vs. 54%); 22.9 (11.8, 44.1, p = <0.0001) and complementary feeding along with continued breast feeding at both T1 (36% vs. 4.5%); 6 (1.15, 31.4, p = 0.033) and T2 (42% vs. 4.5%); 8.06 (1.96, 49.1, p = 0.005) as compared to pre-intervention period (T0) after adjusting for important social and demographic variables. Conclusions Peer counseling by MSG's improved the IYCF practices in the district and could be sustained. PMID:25369452

  2. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). A group of 5-month-olds (n = 201) were classified as short or long lookers. At 24, 36, and 48 months of age, children completed age-appropriate EF tasks. Infant short lookers (i.e., more efficient information processors) exhibited higher EF throughout early childhood as compared to infant long lookers, even after controlling for verbal ability (a potential indicator of intelligence). These findings are discussed in relation to the emergence of executive attention. PMID:23711103

  3. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  4. Ethnic differences in infant feeding practices and their relationship with BMI at 3 years of age - results from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki

    2014-05-28

    The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow

  5. Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: Association with Indometacin Therapy and Effects on Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 18-22 months Corrected Age

    PubMed Central

    Wadhawan, Rajan; Oh, William; Vohr, Betty R.; Saha, Shampa; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J.; Walsh, Michele C.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) is associated with the use of postnatal glucocorticoids and indometacin in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. We hypothesized: 1) an association of SIP with the use of antenatal steroids (ANS) and indometacin either as prophylaxis for IVH (P Indo) or for treatment of PDA (Indo/PDA) and 2) an increased risk of death or abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants with SIP at 18-22 months corrected age. Design/Methods We retrospectively identified ELBW infants with SIP in the Neonatal Research Network’s generic database. Unadjusted analysis identified the differences in maternal, neonatal and clinical variables between infants with and without SIP. Logistic regression analysis identified the adjusted odds ratio for SIP with reference to ANS, P Indo and Indo/PDA. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed among survivors at 18 to 22 months corrected age. Results Indo/PDA was associated with an increased risk of SIP (adjusted OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.25,2.08), while P Indo and ANS were not. SIP was independently associated with an increased risk of death or NDI (adjusted OR−1.85; 95% CI 1.32,2.60) and NDI among survivors (adjusted OR−1.75, 95% CI 1.20,2.55). Conclusion Indometacin used for IVH prophylaxis and ANS were not associated with the occurrence of SIP in ELBW infants. Indometacin used for treatment of symptomatic PDA was however associated with an increased risk of SIP. ELBW infants with SIP have an increased risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:22684157

  6. [Recommendations for an age-corresponding design of a toothbrush for infants and younger preschool children].

    PubMed

    Makuch, A

    1990-02-01

    The design of the tooth brush handle has a great importance for learning of effective oral hygienic measures in children. The present paper is a contribution for development of an age-corresponding tooth brush handle considering the anatomical and motorial suppositions of the childlike hand.

  7. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000712.htm Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants To use ... prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Babies and infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies ...

  8. [Infant feeding].

    PubMed

    Robert, M

    2012-09-01

    Infants are vulnerable: their growth and their development depend largely on their nutritional status. It is important to propose for them an optimal food. The human milk is unquestionably the best choice for the infant. When breastfeeding is not possible, the choice of the milk is made among hundreds of formulas for infants. They are regulated by a European directive. The healthcare professionals have to recommend as often as possible an infant formula: low protein content, predominance of whey proteins, enrichment with long chain fatty acids, lactose, addition of pre- or probiotics. The formulas for specific indications will be recommended in case of particular situations after verification that the complaints (constipation, regurgitations, stomach pains) cannot be corrected by simple dietary measures (increasing of the intakes of meals with a concomitant reduction of the volume of the meals). The food diversification is recommended between 17 and 26 weeks according to the neuromuscular capacities of the infant. These meals must be presented with a spoon to assure a sufficient nutritional intake. In Belgium, the use is to begin with fruits. One should avoid adding biscuits or sugar. The meal of vegetables will be introduced a little later. It should consist of starchy foods, vegetables with some fat to which the meat will be added. Numerous foods (biscuits, croissants and similar products, chips) should never be part of the ordinary menu, but should be reserved for particular occasions. The education of the children should begin from this age on.

  9. Prediction of Small for Gestational Age Infants in Healthy Nulliparous Women Using Clinical and Ultrasound Risk Factors Combined with Early Pregnancy Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    McCowan, Lesley M. E.; Thompson, John M. D.; Taylor, Rennae S.; Baker, Philip N.; North, Robyn A.; Poston, Lucilla; Roberts, Claire T.; Simpson, Nigel A. B.; Walker, James J.; Myers, Jenny; Kenny, Louise C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Most small for gestational age pregnancies are unrecognised before birth, resulting in substantial avoidable perinatal mortality and morbidity. Our objective was to develop multivariable prediction models for small for gestational age combining clinical risk factors and biomarkers at 15±1 weeks’ with ultrasound parameters at 20±1 weeks’ gestation. Methods Data from 5606 participants in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) cohort study were divided into Training (n = 3735) and Validation datasets (n = 1871). The primary outcomes were All-SGA (small for gestational age with birthweight <10th customised centile), Normotensive-SGA (small for gestational age with a normotensive mother) and Hypertensive-SGA (small for gestational age with an hypertensive mother). The comparison group comprised women without the respective small for gestational age phenotype. Multivariable analysis was performed using stepwise logistic regression beginning with clinical variables, and subsequent additions of biomarker and then ultrasound (biometry and Doppler) variables. Model performance was assessed in Training and Validation datasets by calculating area under the curve. Results 633 (11.2%) infants were All-SGA, 465(8.2%) Normotensive-SGA and 168 (3%) Hypertensive-SGA. Area under the curve (95% Confidence Intervals) for All-SGA using 15±1 weeks’ clinical variables, 15±1 weeks’ clinical+ biomarker variables and clinical + biomarkers + biometry /Doppler at 20±1 weeks’ were: 0.63 (0.59–0.67), 0.64 (0.60–0.68) and 0.69 (0.66–0.73) respectively in the Validation dataset; Normotensive-SGA results were similar: 0.61 (0.57–0.66), 0.61 (0.56–0.66) and 0.68 (0.64–0.73) with small increases in performance in the Training datasets. Area under the curve (95% Confidence Intervals) for Hypertensive-SGA were: 0.76 (0.70–0.82), 0.80 (0.75–0.86) and 0.84 (0.78–0.89) with minimal change in the Training datasets. Conclusion Models for prediction of small

  10. Impact of infant and preschool pertussis vaccinations on memory B-cell responses in children at 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Hendrikx, Lotte H; de Rond, Lia G H; Oztürk, Kemal; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2011-08-05

    Whooping cough, caused by Bordetella pertussis, is reemerging in the vaccinated population. Antibody levels to pertussis antigens wane rapidly after both whole-cell (wP) and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccination and protection may largely depend on long-term B- and T-cell immunity. We studied the effect of wP and aP infant priming at 2, 3, 4 and 11 months according to the Dutch immunization program on pertussis-specific memory B-cell responses before and after a booster vaccination with either a high- or low-pertussis dose vaccine at 4 years of age. Purified B-cells were characterized by FACS-analysis and after polyclonal stimulation, memory B-cells were detected by ELISPOT-assays specific for pertussis toxin, filamentous haemagglutinin and pertactin. Before and after the booster, higher memory B-cell responses were measured in aP primed children compared with wP primed children. In contrast with antibody levels, no dose-effect was observed on the numbers of memory B-cell responses. In aP primed children a fifth high-dose aP vaccination tended to induce even lower memory B-cell responses than a low-dose aP booster. In both wP and aP primed children, the number of memory B-cells increased after the booster and correlated with the pertussis-specific antibody concentrations and observed affinity maturation. This study indicates that aP vaccinations in the first year of life induce higher pertussis-specific memory B-cell responses in children 4 years of age compared with Dutch wP primary vaccinations. Since infant aP vaccinations have improved protection against whooping cough in children despite waning antibody levels, this suggests that an enhanced memory B-cell pool induction may have an important role in protection. However, the pertussis-dose of the preschool booster needs to be considered depending on the vaccine used for priming to optimize long-term protection against whooping cough.

  11. Electronic paper display preferred viewing distance and character size for different age groups.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Chieh

    2011-09-01

    This study explores the preferred viewing distance and character size for an electronic paper display for three age groups. Proofreading speed and accuracy ratio were measured during Chinese proofreading tests using the preferred character size and minimum acceptable character size. Data analysis showed that the mean preferred viewing distance for young, middle-aged and older groups was 503, 455 and 444 mm, respectively. The mean preferred character size determined by young, middle-aged and older groups was 42.0, 50.0 and 55.2 min arc, respectively. The proofreading test results indicated that the older group proofread significantly more slowly (1.25 word/sec) than the young (1.76 word/sec) and middle-aged groups (1.74 word/sec). Further, the participants proofread more correctly with their preferred character size (73.3%) than with their minimum acceptable character size (65.4%). This study provides valuable information for the design of Chinese text presentations for various age groups. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study confirmed the preferred viewing distance and character size for E-paper display were influenced by age. The preferred Chinese character size for young, middle-aged and older people was 42, 50 and 55 min arc, respectively. Therefore, the age factor should be considered for E-paper displays design and video display terminal (VDT) guidelines.

  12. Annual age-grouping and athlete development: a meta-analytical review of relative age effects in sport.

    PubMed

    Cobley, Stephen; Baker, Joseph; Wattie, Nick; McKenna, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Annual age-grouping is a common organizational strategy in sport. However, such a strategy appears to promote relative age effects (RAEs). RAEs refer both to the immediate participation and long-term attainment constraints in sport, occurring as a result of chronological age and associated physical (e.g. height) differences as well as selection practices in annual age-grouped cohorts. This article represents the first meta-analytical review of RAEs, aimed to collectively determine (i) the overall prevalence and strength of RAEs across and within sports, and (ii) identify moderator variables. A total of 38 studies, spanning 1984-2007, containing 253 independent samples across 14 sports and 16 countries were re-examined and included in a single analysis using odds ratios and random effects procedures for combining study estimates. Overall results identified consistent prevalence of RAEs, but with small effect sizes. Effect size increased linearly with relative age differences. Follow-up analyses identified age category, skill level and sport context as moderators of RAE magnitude. Sports context involving adolescent (aged 15-18 years) males, at the representative (i.e. regional and national) level in highly popular sports appear most at risk to RAE inequalities. Researchers need to understand the mechanisms by which RAEs magnify and subside, as well as confirm whether RAEs exist in female and more culturally diverse contexts. To reduce and eliminate this social inequality from influencing athletes' experiences, especially within developmental periods, direct policy, organizational and practitioner intervention is required.

  13. Acute Respiratory Infections among Under-Five Age Group Children at Urban Slums of Gulbarga City: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Pattankar, Jayashree; Puttahonnappa, Suresh Kuralayanapalya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Among all illness, Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) account for 30-60% of paediatric outpatient attendance and 20-30% of hospital admissions. Aim To study the morbidity pattern of ARI among under-five-age group children and to assess the determinants. Materials and Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted for a one year period, comprising a cumulative sample of 400 children from 3 urban slums of Gulbarga city. History of nasal discharge, cough, fever, sore throat, breathing difficulty, any discharge from ear alone or in combination, was used in the recognition of an ARI episode. Respiratory rate >60/minute (<2 month infants), >50(2-11 months) and >40(1-5 years) in a child with cough, cold or fever singly or in combination was considered the criteria for recognition of pneumonia. Results Out of the 400 surveyed, ARI was detected among 109 children giving an incidence of 27.25%. Among these, Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) was found among 19.25% and Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) among 8%. ARI was observed among 38.04% of infants, 37.84% of 2-3-year-old children, 36.87% of boys, 40.43% of children born to illiterate father’s, 35.77% of SES class IV & 40.79% of SES class V, and 41.89% of children with family history of respiratory illness. All these data were found to be statistically significant. High rates of ARI were also observed among 41.36% of children living in households with firewood fuel usage, 35.04% of children with pets in the household, 34.82% of children with delayed milestones, 53.85% of children with grade IV and 66.67% of children with grade V malnutrition. More episodes occurred during winter months of the year (Oct – Jan). During the follow-up phase of study done on a cohort of 112 children for a period of one year, an attack rate of 3.27 episodes/child/year was observed. Conclusion Community education programs should focus on addressing specific issues viz. identification of respiratory illness

  14. Other age groups than children need to be considered as carriers of Streptococcal pneumoniae serotypes.

    PubMed

    Slotved, Hans-Christian

    2016-10-02

    We need to raise the issue that focus on children as the only carriage group for pneumococci is not optimal; we need to consider that other age groups might also be carriers of pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in unvaccinated age groups. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have successfully removed IPD from vaccinated children. Studies have shown an effect of PCV reducing the pneumococcal carriage of PCV serotypes in children. The status for several countries having used PCV for many years is that they do not see PCV serotypes neither carried nor as a cause of IPD in children. PCV vaccination of children has shown a herd protection effect in unvaccinated groups as a reduction in IPD cases caused by PCV serotypes. However, not all PCV serotypes have disappeared as the cause of IPD in the unvaccinated age groups. The author therefore believes that if we are to see PCV serotypes disappear as a cause of IPD in unvaccinated age groups, we need to perform further carriage studies to examine carriage in other age groups. Alternatively, all age groups should be vaccinated against pneumococci to eliminate IPD caused by PCV serotypes from possible hidden carriers.

  15. The Shift in Infant Preferences for Vowel Duration and Pitch Contour between 6 and 10 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitamura, Christine; Notley, Anna

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of the acoustic properties of vowels on 6- and 10-month-old infants' speech preferences. The shape of the contour (bell or monotonic) and the duration (normal or stretched) of vowels were manipulated in words containing the vowels /i/ and /u/, and presented to infants using a two-choice preference procedure.…

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Coordination in Mother-Infant Vocal Interaction from Age 4 to 10 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Susanne; Lange, Theis; Hansen, Gert Foget; Vaever, Mette; Køppe, Simo

    2015-01-01

    This is a longitudinal study of development in coordinated mother-infant vocal interaction from 4 to 10 months (N = 41) focusing on the development of turn-taking patterns and time spent in coordinated vocal interaction. Data analyses were carried out using multistate analysis. Both mothers and infants were found to coordinate their own…

  17. Paleontological evidence of Paleozoic age for the Walden Creek Group, Ocoee Supergroup, Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unrug, Raphael; Unrug, Sophia

    1990-11-01

    A newly discovered fossil assemblage including trilobite, ostracod, bryozoan, and microcrinoid fragments and agglutinated foraminifers has been found in the Wilhite Formation, Walden Creek Group, Ocoee Supergroup, in the foothills of the Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee. These fossils prove a Paleozoic age for the Walden Creek Group, which had been interpreted to be of Late Proterozoic age. The foraminiferal assemblage indicaes the Silurian as the older age limit for the Walden Creek Group. These findings make necessary a redefinition of the Ocoee sedimentary basin and reinterpretation of models of the evolution of the Blue Ridge structural province.

  18. Multi-sensory intervention for preterm infants improves sucking organization

    PubMed Central

    Medoff-Cooper, Barbara; Rankin, Kristin; Li, Zhuoying; Liu, Li; White-Traut, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this RCT was to evaluate sucking organization in premature infants following a preterm infant multi-sensory intervention, the Auditory, Tactile, Visual, and Vestibular (ATVV). Study Design A convenience sample of 183 healthy premature infants born 29 - 34 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA) enrolled. Sucking organization was measured at baseline, then weekly assessments, during the infant's hospital stay. Results A quadratic trend was observed for number of sucks, sucks per burst, and maturity index, with the intervention group increasing significantly faster by day 7 (Model estimates for group*day: β = 13.69, p < 0.01; β = 1.16, p < 0.01; and β = 0.12, p < 0.05, respectively). Sucking pressure increased linearly over time, with significant between-group differences at day 14 (β = 45.66, p < 0.01). Conclusion ATVV infants exhibited improved sucking organization during hospitalization, suggestive that ATVV intervention improves oral feeding. PMID:25822519

  19. Timely sleep facilitates declarative memory consolidation in infants

    PubMed Central

    Seehagen, Sabine; Konrad, Carolin; Herbert, Jane S.; Schneider, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Human infants devote the majority of their time to sleeping. However, very little is known about the role of sleep in early memory processing. Here we test 6- and 12-mo-old infants’ declarative memory for novel actions after a 4-h [Experiment (Exp.) 1] and 24-h delay (Exp. 2). Infants in a nap condition took an extended nap (≥30 min) within 4 h after learning, whereas infants in a no-nap condition did not. A comparison with age-matched control groups revealed that after both delays, only infants who had napped after learning remembered the target actions at the test. Additionally, after the 24-h delay, memory performance of infants in the nap condition was significantly higher than that of infants in the no-nap condition. This is the first experimental evidence to our knowledge for an enhancing role of sleep in the consolidation of declarative memories in the first year of life. PMID:25583469

  20. Infant sign language program effects on synchronic mother-infant interactions.

    PubMed

    Góngora, Ximena; Farkas, Chamarrita

    2009-04-01

    The effects of an intentional infant sign language program on mother-infant interactions were studied. Design was quasi-experimental, longitudinal, descriptive and comparative. The sample was composed of 14 mother-infant dyads, with the infants being between 5 and 9 months at the beginning of the study. The participants were middle or upper-middle socio-economic status. The interactions were evaluated through observations of free play and analyzed using a Grid to analyze early interactions. The frequency and duration of synchronic interactions were compared across experimental and control groups at 12-14 and 18-20 months of age using non-parametric Mann-Whitney tests. The results suggested significant differences between groups on visual and tactile synchronic interactions, and a tendency for vocal interactions, in the direction of higher frequencies in the experimental group.

  1. Increased Risk of Group B Streptococcus Invasive Infection in HIV-Exposed but Uninfected Infants: A Review of the Evidence and Possible Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dauby, Nicolas; Chamekh, Mustapha; Melin, Pierrette; Slogrove, Amy L.; Goetghebuer, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (HUU). A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection. Maternal GBS colonization during pregnancy is a major risk factor for early-onset GBS invasive disease, but colonization rates are not higher in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected pregnant women, while selective colonization with more virulent strains in HIV-infected women is suggested in some studies. Lower serotype-specific GBS maternal antibody transfer and quantitative and qualitative defects of innate immune responses in HEU infants may play a role in the increased risk of GBS invasive disease. The impact of maternal antiretroviral treatment and its consequences on immune activation in HEU newborns are important to study. Maternal immunization presents a promising intervention to reduce GBS burden in the growing HEU population. PMID:27899925

  2. Ambulatory BP monitoring and clinic BP in predicting small-for-gestational-age infants during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, K; Ohmaru, T; Ohkuchi, A; Hirashima, C; Takahashi, K; Suzuki, H; Kario, K; Matsubara, S; Suzuki, Mitsuaki

    2016-01-01

    The significance of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring during pregnancy has not been established. We performed a prospective study to elucidate whether ABP measures are associated with small-for-gestational-age birth weight (SGA). We studied 146 pregnant women who were seen for maternal medical checkups or suspected hypertension. ABP monitoring was performed for further assessment of hypertension. The outcome measure was SGA. The subjects were classified by their medical history and ABP as having preeclampsia or gestational hypertension (n=68 cases), chronic hypertension (n=48) or white-coat hypertension (n=30). There were 50 (34.2%) cases of SGA by the fetal growth reference standard. In multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusting for age, body mass index, the presence of prior pregnancy, current smoking habit and the use of antihypertensive medications, 24-h SBP (per 10 mm Hg (odds ratio (OR): 1.74; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.28-2.38; P<0.001)) was more closely associated with SGA than clinic BP (OR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.92-2.13; P=0.11). The results were essentially the same if 24-h BP was replaced by awake or sleep SBP. Ambulatory diastolic BP showed the same tendency. However, abnormal circadian rhythm was not associated with the outcome. In conclusion, ambulatory BP monitoring measures performed during pregnancy were more closely associated with SGA than clinic BP.

  3. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong-Liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-Jun; Wang, Yu-Long; Ji, Qing-Hai

    2016-06-08

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were built to analyze the outcomes and risk factors. Increasing age gradient with a 10-year interval was associated with the trend of higher proportions for male gender, grade III/IV and summary stage of distant metastases. Both CSS and OS continued to worsen with increasing age, being poorest in in the oldest age group (≥71); multivariate analysis confirmed that CSS continued to fall with each age decade, significantly starting at 60 years (HR = 7.5, 95% 1.0-54.1, p = 0.047) compared to the young group (≤20). Similarly, multivariate analysis suggested that OS continued worsening with increasing age, but starting at 40 years (HR = 3.7, 95% 1.4-10.1, p = 0.009) compared to the young group. The current study suggests that an age exceeding 60 years itself represents an unfavorable prognostic factor and high risk for cancer-specific death in DTC.

  4. Spatial Patterns, Longitudinal Development, and Hemispheric Asymmetries of Cortical Thickness in Infants from Birth to 2 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-06-17

    Cortical thickness (CT) is related to normal development and neurodevelopmental disorders. It remains largely unclear how the characteristic patterns of CT evolve in the first 2 years. In this paper, we systematically characterized for the first time the detailed vertex-wise patterns of spatial distribution, longitudinal development, and hemispheric asymmetries of CT at 0, 1, and 2 years of age, via surface-based analysis of 219 longitudinal magnetic resonance images from 73 infants. Despite the dynamic increase of CT in the first year and the little change of CT in the second year, we found that the overall spatial distribution of thin and thick cortices was largely present at birth, and evolved only modestly during the first 2 years. Specifically, the precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, occipital cortex, and superior parietal region had thin cortices, whereas the prefrontal, lateral temporal, insula, and inferior parietal regions had thick cortices. We revealed that in the first year thin cortices exhibited low growth rates of CT, whereas thick cortices exhibited high growth rates. We also found that gyri were thicker than sulci, and that the anterior bank of the central sulcus was thicker than the posterior bank. Moreover, we showed rightward hemispheric asymmetries of CT in the lateral temporal and posterior insula regions at birth, which shrank gradually in the first 2 years, and also leftward asymmetries in the medial prefrontal, paracentral, and anterior cingulate cortices, which expanded substantially during this period. This study provides the first comprehensive picture of early patterns and evolution of CT during infancy.

  5. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  6. A self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young moving groups in the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2015-11-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young ( ≲ 200 Myr), nearby ( ≲ 100 pc) moving groups in the solar neighbourhood based on homogeneous fitting of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones using the τ2 maximum-likelihood fitting statistic of Naylor & Jeffries in the MV, V - J colour-magnitude diagram. The final adopted ages for the groups are as follows: 149^{+51}_{-19} {Myr} for the AB Dor moving group, 24 ± 3 Myr for the β Pic moving group (BPMG), 45^{+11}_{-7} {Myr} for the Carina association, 42^{+6}_{-4} {Myr} for the Columba association, 11 ± 3 Myr for the η Cha cluster, 45 ± 4 Myr for the Tucana-Horologium moving group (Tuc-Hor), 10 ± 3 Myr for the TW Hya association and 22^{+4}_{-3} {Myr} for the 32 Ori group. At this stage we are uncomfortable assigning a final, unambiguous age to the Argus association as our membership list for the association appears to suffer from a high level of contamination, and therefore it remains unclear whether these stars represent a single population of coeval stars. Our isochronal ages for both the BPMG and Tuc-Hor are consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary (LDB) ages, which unlike isochronal ages, are relatively insensitive to the choice of low-mass evolutionary models. This consistency between the isochronal and LDB ages instils confidence that our self-consistent, absolute age scale for young, nearby moving groups is robust, and hence we suggest that these ages be adopted for future studies of these groups. Software implementing the methods described in this study is available from http://www.astro.ex.ac.uk/people/timn/tau-squared/.

  7. Dermatological disease in the older age group: a cross-sectional study in aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Maneka S; Vandal, Alain C; Jarrett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of dermatological disease in aged care facilities, and the relationship between cognitive or physical disability and significant disease. Setting 2 large aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand, each providing low and high level care. Participants All 161 residents of the facilities were invited to participate. The only exclusion criterion was inability to obtain consent from the individual or designated guardian. 88 participants were recruited—66 females (75%), 22 males (25%) with average age 87.1 years (SD 5.5 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary—presence of significant skin disease (defined as that which in the opinion of the investigators needed treatment or was identified as a patient concern) diagnosed clinically on full dermatological examination by a dermatologist or dermatology trainee. Secondary—functional and cognitive status (Rehabilitation Complexity Scale and Abbreviated Mental Test Score). Results 81.8% were found to have at least one significant condition. The most common disorders were onychomycosis 42 (47.7%), basal cell carcinoma 13 (14.8%), asteototic eczema 11 (12.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ 9 (10.2%). Other findings were invasive squamous cell carcinoma 7 (8%), bullous pemphigoid 2 (2.3%), melanoma 2 (2.3%), lichen sclerosus 2 (2.3%) and carcinoma of the breast 1 (1.1%). Inflammatory disease was more common in those with little physical disability compared with those with serious physical disability (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6, p=0.04). No significant association was found between skin disease and cognitive impairment. Conclusions A high rate of dermatological disease was found. Findings ranged from frequent but not life-threatening conditions (eg, onychomycosis), to those associated with a significant morbidity (eg, eczema, lichen sclerosus and bullous pemphigoid), to potentially life-threatening (eg, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and breast cancer

  8. [Nutrition and Metabolism Group of the Spanish Neonatology Society: recommendations and evidence for dietary supplementation with probiotics in very low birth weight infants].

    PubMed

    Narbona López, E; Uberos Fernández, J; Armadá Maresca, M I; Couce Pico, M L; Rodríguez Martínez, G; Saenz de Pipaon, M

    2014-12-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are an important tool for improving healthcare. In recent years there has been accumulating evidence on the impact of nutritional supplementation with probiotics in the very low birth weight infants. With no uniformity in microorganisms and strains used. The Spanish Neonatology Society (SENeo), through its Nutrition and Metabolism Group has undertaken to develop recommendations that will be useful as a guide for the neonatologist in this field.

  9. Girls arrested for murder: an empirical analysis of 32 years of U.S. data by offender age groups.

    PubMed

    Heide, Kathleen M; Sellers, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) have used small samples and have concentrated on adolescent male offenders. As a result, little is known about the population of female juveniles arrested for murder. This study utilized the Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) database to investigate age differences between younger (aged 6-12 years) and older (aged 13-17 years) females arrested for murder in the United States from 1976 to 2007. As predicted, six variables used to test seven hypotheses with respect to younger and older female JHOs in single victim incidents were significant (victim age, victim gender, victim offender relationship, murder weapon, offender count, and homicide circumstance). Regression analysis revealed that younger girls were seven times more likely than older girls to kill children aged 0-12 years. Girls aged 6-12 years were five times more likely than their teen counterparts to be involved in conflict-related homicides as opposed to crime-related homicides. Although approximately the same percentages of younger and older girls killed infants under the age of 1, the victims were significantly different for the two offender age groups. This article concludes with a discussion of our findings and directions for future research.

  10. Effects of age, ambient temperature, and heat-stable Escherichia coli enterotoxin on intestinal transit in infant mice.

    PubMed

    Moon, H W; Fung, P Y; Isaacson, R E; Booth, G D

    1979-07-01

    Some interrelationships among age, ambient temperature, intestinal transit, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection were studied in an infant mouse model. The transit of dye in the small intestine was accelerated during the response to heat-stable E. coli enterotoxin. Transit in the small intestine of normal mice accelerated with increased age (from less than 17 h to 8 days old) and accelerated with increased ambient temperature (from 25 to 37 degrees C). Transit was more rapid in the jejunum than in the ileum throughout the range of experimental conditions studied. E. coli strains that do not produce any of the pili known facilitate intestinal colonization were cleared from the small intestine more rapidly at 37 degrees C than at 25 degrees C. This clearance was thought to be due to accelerated transit at the higher temperature. In contrast, a strain of E. coli that produces K99 (pili previously shown to facilitate intestinal colonization in other species) was not cleared from the small intestine and colonized more intensively at 37 degrees C than at 25 degrees C. Intensified colonization by this strain was thought to be due to increased production of K99 at the higher temperature. It was suggested that sluggish intestinal transit may also be characteristic of the neonates of other species and be one of the factors predisposing them to intestinal colonization by enteropathogens. It was speculated that this predisposition may be enhanced if the neonates are chilled. However, the effect of ambient temperature on intestinal transit in homeothermic neonates such as pigs, calves, and humans may be different from that in mice because neonatal mice are poikilothermic.

  11. Childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure and household income among US children aged 0 to 2 years.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juhee; Gallien, Tara L

    2016-07-01

    The primary objective of this study is to examine the disparities in childcare and infant feeding practices by family structure (single-mother vs. two-parent households) and whether household income level may modify the observed associations by family structure. The cross-sectional data analysis was conducted using a nationally representative sample of children aged 0 to 2 years enrolled in the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. The analytic sample is children from single mothers (n = 1801, 16.0%) and children from two parents (n = 11 337, 84.0%). Children of single mothers used more non-parental childcare [adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 2.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.99-3.58], especially relative care and centre care, than children of two parents. Lower rates of any breastfeeding for 6 months (AOR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.43-0.77) and ever breastfed (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.50-0.89) were reported among children of single mothers than those of two parents. The many observed differences in childcare arrangements and breastfeeding by family structure remained significant in both low- and high-income households. However, children of low-income single mothers had more last-minute changes of childcare arrangement (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.55-3.52) than children of low-income two-parent households and children of high-income single mothers had more early introduction of complementary foods (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.12-3.29) than children of high-income two-parent households. This study documented disparities in childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure, regardless of income level. These findings support the need to for comprehensive policies that address maternal employment leave, childcare support and workplace accommodations and support for breastfeeding for children 0 to 2 years, especially among single mothers, regardless of income.

  12. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  13. Guidance on Selecting Age Groups for Monitoring and Assessing Childhood Exposures to Environmental Contaminants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document recommends a set of age groupings based on current understanding of differences in lifestage behavior and anatomy and physiology that can serve as a starting set for consideration by Agency risk assessors and researchers.

  14. Effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on fetal growth and drug withdrawal symptoms in infants born at term.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lynne; Yonekura, M Lynn; Wallace, Toni; Berman, Nancy; Kuo, Jennifer; Berkowitz, Carol

    2003-02-01

    To determine fetal growth and the incidence of withdrawal symptoms in term infants exposed to methamphetamine in utero, we retrospectively identified neonates whose mothers used methamphetamine during pregnancy and matched them to unexposed newborns. Exclusion criteria included multiple and preterm gestations. Although there were no differences in infant growth parameters between the methamphetamine-exposed and methamphetamine-unexposed neonates, methamphetamine exposure throughout gestation was associated with decreased growth relative to infants exposed only for the first two trimesters. In addition, there were significantly more small for gestational age infants in the methamphetamine group compared with the unexposed group. Methamphetamine-exposed infants whose mothers smoked had significantly decreased growth relative to infants exposed to methamphetamine alone. Withdrawal symptoms (as determined by a previously reported scoring system) requiring pharmacologic intervention were observed in 4% of methamphetamine-exposed infants. These preliminary findings indicate that methamphetamine use is associated with growth restriction in infants born at term.

  15. Effect of Early Intervention to Promote Mother - Infant Interaction and Maternal Sensitivity in Japan: A Parenting Support Program based on Infant Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Komoto, Keiko; Hirose, Taiko; Omori, Takahide; Takeo, Naoko; Okamitsu, Motoko; Okubo, Noriko; Okawa, Hiroji

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the Japanese Early Promotion Program (JEPP), which is based on the Infant Mental Health (IMH) program. The JEPP aims to promote mother-infant interactions by enhancing the mother's ability to respond appropriately her child. Mothers in the JEPP group (n = 15) received support from IMH nurses in a pediatric clinic until their infants reached 12 months of age. The nurses provided positive feedback that emphasized strength of parenting, and assisted the mothers in understanding the construct of their infants. Mother-infant interactions and mother's mental health status were assessed at intake (1-3 months), and at 6, 9, and 12 months of infants' age. The JEPP group data were compared with cross-sectional data of the control group (n = 120). Although JEPP dyads were not found to be significantly different from the control group in general dyadic synchrony, both before and after intervention, JEPP mothers significantly improved their ability to understand their infant's cues and to respond promptly. In the JEPP group, unresponsiveness to infants was reduced in mothers, while infants showed reduced passiveness and enhanced responsiveness to the mother. Furthermore, the intervention reduced the mothers' parenting stress and negative emotions, thereby enhancing their self-esteem.

  16. Non-fatal self-poisoning across age groups, in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning in common in Sri Lanka, but little is known about variation of psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent across differing ages. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka across three different age groups (namely 14-24 years, 25-34 years and ≥ 35 years). It was anticipated that the findings of the study would inform and guide development of preventive interventions for non-fatal self-poisoning in this country. 935 participants were interviewed within one week of admission to hospital for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning, over a consecutive 14-month period. Socio-demographic factors, types of poison ingested, triggers and psychiatric morbidity was examined as a function of age. Results showed that a majority (83%) of participants were aged below 35 years. Younger participants aged <25 years were significantly more likely to ingest medicinal overdoses, compared to older persons (aged 25-34 years, and ≥ 35 years), who were more likely to ingest pesticides. Recent interpersonal conflict was a proximal trigger seen in all age groups, but suicidal intent, depression and alcohol use disorders increased with age. The overall study findings indicate that most who carry out acts of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka are young (aged <35 years). Interpersonal conflict as a trigger is common to all age groups, but psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent is higher in the older age groups, as is pesticide ingestion. Age specific interventions may be efficacious in the prevention of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka.

  17. Cenomanian-? early Turonian minimum age of the Chubut Group, Argentina: SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Manuel; Márquez, Marcelo; De La Cruz, Rita; Navarrete, César; Fanning, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Four new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages older than 93 Ma from samples of the two uppermost formations accumulated in two different depocenters (Golfo de San Jorge and Cañadón Asfalto basins) of the Chubut Group in central Argentinean Patagonia, establish a pre-late Cenomanian-? early Turonian age for the group. It also confirms a coeval and comparable evolution of the two depocenters, where distal pyroclastic material was deposited together with fluvial and lacustrine facies.

  18. Vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours across different age groups in Swedish Adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13–14, 15–16 and 17–18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15–16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in

  19. Influence of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Gabriela L.; Bueno, Thaís B.; Tudella, Eloisa; Dionisio, Jadiane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infants with Down syndrome present with organic and neurological changes that may lead to a delay in the acquisition of motor skills such as kicking, a fundamental skill that is a precursor of gait and is influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Therefore, this movement should be taken into account in early physical therapy interventions in infants. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and to compare the effect of additional weight on the frequency of kicks in infants with Down syndrome and infants with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age. METHOD: Five infants with Down syndrome and five with typical development at 3 and 4 months of age were filmed. The experiment was divided into four experimental conditions lasting 1 minute each: training, baseline, weight (addition of ankle weight with 1/3 the weight of the lower limb), and post-weight. RESULTS: There were significant differences between groups for all variables (p<0.05), with lower frequencies observed for infants with Down syndrome in all variables. There were significant differences between the experimental conditions baseline and post-weight (p<0.001) for both groups in the frequency of contact and success, with a higher frequency in the post-weight condition. CONCLUSIONS: The weight acted as an important stimulus for both groups, directing the kicks toward the target and improving the infants' performance in the task through repetition, however, the infants with Down syndrome had lower frequencies of kicks. PMID:25003276

  20. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  1. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive memories…

  2. The Effects of Music on Age Group Swimmers' Motivation and Practice Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckel, Bryan D.

    This study examined the effects of music on the motivation of 22 female and 5 male swimmers ages 10-13 years. These age-group swimmers practiced 2.0-2.5 hours per day and had six training sessions per week. Using observation logs, surveys, and open-ended questions, the study analyzed swimmers' perceptions of, and behavior when, listening to music…

  3. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  4. Age Group Differences in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Functional Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.; Kim, Johnny S.

    2007-01-01

    This study used data from the 2000 interview wave of the Health and Retirement Study to examine age group differences in the likelihood of self-reported depressive symptomatology among a nationally representative sample of 3,035 adults age 55 years or older who had at least one activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily…

  5. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak.

    PubMed

    Worby, Colin J; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-08-17

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic's peak. We found children aged 11-12y, 13-14y and 8-10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak's ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11-12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak's ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8-10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8-14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation.

  6. Burden of Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Disease Among 33–35 Weeks’ Gestational Age Infants Born During Multiple Respiratory Syncytial Virus Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier; Blanken, Maarten; Lanari, Marcello; Sheridan-Pereira, Margaret; Rodgers-Gray, Barry; Fullarton, John; Rouffiac, Elisabeth; Vo, Pamela; Notario, Gerard; Campbell, Fiona; Paes, Bosco

    2017-01-01

    Background: Moderate-late preterm infants, 33–35 weeks’ gestational age (wGA), are at increased risk for respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization (RSVH). The objective of this study is to quantify the burden of RSVH in moderate-late preterm infants. Methods: A pooled analysis was conducted on RSVH from 7 prospective, observational studies in the Northern Hemisphere from 2000 to 2014. Infants’ 330–356 wGA without comorbidity born during the respiratory syncytial virus season who did not receive respiratory syncytial virus immunoprophylaxis were enrolled. Data for the first confirmed RSVH during the season (+1 month) were analyzed. Incidence and hospitalization rate per 100 patient-seasons, intensive care unit admission and length of stay (LOS), oxygen support, mechanical ventilation and overall hospital LOS were assessed. Results: The pooled analysis comprised 7,820 infants; 267 experienced a confirmed RSVH at a median age of 8.4 weeks. The crude pooled RSVH incidence rate was 3.41% and the rate per 100 patient-seasons was 4.52. Median hospital LOS was 5.7 days. A total of 22.2% of infants required intensive care unit admission for a median LOS of 8.3 days. A total of 70.4% received supplemental oxygen support for a median of 4.9 days, and 12.7% required mechanical ventilation for a median of 4.8 days. Conclusions: The burden of RSVH in moderate-late, 33–35 weeks’ wGA preterm infants without comorbidities born during the viral season in Northern Hemisphere countries is substantial. Severe cases required prolonged and invasive supportive therapy. PMID:27755464

  7. Development of visual and somatosensory attention of the reach-to-eat movement in human infants aged 6 to 12 months.

    PubMed

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Karl, Jenni M; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2012-11-01

    The reach-to-eat movement is a natural act in which an object or food item is grasped and brought to the mouth. It is one of the earliest forelimb behaviours displayed by human infants, who bring almost all grasped objects to the mouth, and is used daily by adults. In adults, there is a tight coupling between visual attention and the advance phase of the reach-to-eat movement. The target is visually engaged just as hand advance is initiated and visually disengaged just as the target is grasped. This coupling of vision and hand advance suggests that advance is mediated by visual attention and withdrawal by somatosensation. The present study examined when the tight coupling between visual attention and the advance phase of the movement develops in infancy. In a longitudinal study, eight infants, aged 6-12 months, and 20 adults reached for familiar inanimate objects and food items. Visual gaze, hand movement and hand accuracy were measured using frame-by-frame video scoring and 2D kinematic analysis. The study found that the youngest infants (6-8 months) visually engaged the target well before initiating a reaching movement and continued to fixate on the target after it was grasped and as it was brought to the mouth. Between 10 and 12 months of age, infants began to visually engage the target just as the reaching movement was initiated and visually disengaged the target as it was grasped, as did the adults. Over the same developmental time period, the infants developed rotatory hand shaping movements, precision grasping, and improved targeting accuracy both for grasping the object and placing it into the mouth. The results suggest that visual guidance of advance and somatosensory guidance of withdrawal develop together and in concert with hand movement ability and skill.

  8. Measuring Neural Entrainment to Beat and Meter in Infants: Effects of Music Background.

    PubMed

    Cirelli, Laura K; Spinelli, Christina; Nozaradan, Sylvie; Trainor, Laurel J

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers often engage in musical interactions with their infants. For example, parents across cultures sing lullabies and playsongs to their infants from birth. Behavioral studies indicate that infants not only extract beat information, but also group these beats into metrical hierarchies by as early as 6 months of age. However, it is not known how this is accomplished in the infant brain. An EEG frequency-tagging approach has been used successfully with adults to measure neural entrainment to auditory rhythms. The current study is the first to use this technique with infants in order to investigate how infants' brains encode rhythms. Furthermore, we examine how infant and parent music background is associated with individual differences in rhythm encoding. In Experiment 1, EEG was recorded while 7-month-old infants listened to an ambiguous rhythmic pattern that could be perceived to be in two different meters. In Experiment 2, EEG was recorded while 15-month-old infants listened to a rhythmic pattern with an unambiguous meter. In both age groups, information about music background (parent music training, infant music classes, hours of music listening) was collected. Both age groups showed clear EEG responses frequency-locked to the rhythms, at frequencies corresponding to both beat and meter. For the younger infants (Experiment 1), the amplitudes at duple meter frequencies were selectively enhanced for infants enrolled in music classes compared to those who had not engaged in such classes. For the older infants (Experiment 2), amplitudes at beat and meter frequencies were larger for infants with musically-trained compared to musically-untrained parents. These results suggest that the frequency-tagging method is sensitive to individual differences in beat and meter processing in infancy and could be used to track developmental changes.

  9. Measuring Neural Entrainment to Beat and Meter in Infants: Effects of Music Background

    PubMed Central

    Cirelli, Laura K.; Spinelli, Christina; Nozaradan, Sylvie; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers often engage in musical interactions with their infants. For example, parents across cultures sing lullabies and playsongs to their infants from birth. Behavioral studies indicate that infants not only extract beat information, but also group these beats into metrical hierarchies by as early as 6 months of age. However, it is not known how this is accomplished in the infant brain. An EEG frequency-tagging approach has been used successfully with adults to measure neural entrainment to auditory rhythms. The current study is the first to use this technique with infants in order to investigate how infants' brains encode rhythms. Furthermore, we examine how infant and parent music background is associated with individual differences in rhythm encoding. In Experiment 1, EEG was recorded while 7-month-old infants listened to an ambiguous rhythmic pattern that could be perceived to be in two different meters. In Experiment 2, EEG was recorded while 15-month-old infants listened to a rhythmic pattern with an unambiguous meter. In both age groups, information about music background (parent music training, infant music classes, hours of music listening) was collected. Both age groups showed clear EEG responses frequency-locked to the rhythms, at frequencies corresponding to both beat and meter. For the younger infants (Experiment 1), the amplitudes at duple meter frequencies were selectively enhanced for infants enrolled in music classes compared to those who had not engaged in such classes. For the older infants (Experiment 2), amplitudes at beat and meter frequencies were larger for infants with musically-trained compared to musically-untrained parents. These results suggest that the frequency-tagging method is sensitive to individual differences in beat and meter processing in infancy and could be used to track developmental changes. PMID:27252619

  10. Kinetics of antibody-secreting cell and fecal IgA responses after oral cholera vaccination in different age groups in a cholera endemic country.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Marjahan; Qadri, Firdausi; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur R; Akter, Sarmin; Rafique, Tanzeem A; Khan, Arifuzzaman; Islam, Laila N; Saha, Amit; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Lundgren, Anna

    2017-01-05

    Immune responses to oral enteric vaccines in children and infants may be influenced by factors such as age, previous priming with related microorganisms and breast feeding. In this study, we aimed to determine optimal time points to assess immune responses to oral enteric vaccines in different clinical specimens. This was done by investigating antibody secreting cell (ASC) and fecal antibody responses on different days after vaccination using the licensed oral cholera vaccine Dukoral, containing cholera toxin B-subunit (rCTB) and inactivated Vibrio cholerae bacteria, as a model vaccine. Two vaccine doses were given 2weeks apart to infants (6-11months), young children (12-18months), toddlers (19months-5years) and adults in a cholera endemic country (Bangladesh). IgA ASC responses, as determined by the antibodies in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) assay, plasma IgA and IgG responses and secretory IgA (SIgA) responses in extracts of fecal samples were evaluated 4/5 and 7days after each vaccination. After the first vaccine dose, anti-CTB ALS IgA responses in adults and toddlers were high and comparable on day 5 and 7, while responses were low and infrequent in young children. After the second dose, highest ALS responses were detected on day 5 among the time points studied in all age groups and the responses declined until day 7. In contrast, plasma IgA and IgG anti-CTB responses were high both on day 5 and 7 after the second dose. Fecal SIgA responses in young children and infants were highest on day 7 after the second dose. Our results suggest that ASC/ALS responses to two doses of the oral cholera vaccine Dukoral and related oral vaccines should be analyzed earlier than previously recommended (day 7) at all ages. Fecal antibody responses should preferably be analyzed later than ASC/ALS responses to detect the highest antibody responses.

  11. Infant Twins’ Social Interactions with Caregivers and Same-Age Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Naomi J.; Brooks, Patricia J.; Yuksel-Sokmen, P. Ozlem; Ragir, Sonia; Flory, Michael J.; Lennon, Elizabeth M.; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Gardner, Judith M.

    2015-01-01

    The study of twin behavior offers the opportunity to study differential patterns of social and communicative interactions in a context where the adult partner and same-age peer are equally familiar. We investigated the development of social engagement, communicative gestures, and imitation in 7- to 25-month-old twins. Twin dyads (N = 20 pairs) participated in ten-minute, semi-structured play sessions, with the mother seated in a chair completing paperwork for half the session, and on the floor with her children for the other half. Overall, twins engaged more with their mothers than with their siblings: they showed objects and imitated speech and object use more frequently when interacting with their mothers than with their siblings. When the mother was otherwise engaged, the twins played with toys separately, observed each other’s toy play, or were unengaged. These results demonstrate that adult scaffolding of social interactions supports increased communicative bids even in a context where both familiar peers and adults are available as communicative partners. PMID:26476957

  12. Infant twins' social interactions with caregivers and same-age siblings.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Naomi J; Brooks, Patricia J; Yuksel-Sokmen, P Ozlem; Ragir, Sonia; Flory, Michael J; Lennon, Elizabeth M; Karmel, Bernard Z; Gardner, Judith M

    2015-11-01

    The study of twin behavior offers the opportunity to study differential patterns of social and communicative interactions in a context where the adult partner and same-age peer are equally familiar. We investigated the development of social engagement, communicative gestures, and imitation in 7- to 25-month-old twins. Twin dyads (N=20 pairs) participated in 10-min, semi-structured play sessions, with the mother seated in a chair completing paperwork for half the session, and on the floor with her children for the other half. Overall, twins engaged more with their mothers than with their siblings: they showed objects and imitated speech and object use more frequently when interacting with their mothers than with their siblings. When the mother was otherwise engaged, the twins played with toys separately, observed each other's toy play, or were unengaged. These results demonstrate that adult scaffolding of social interactions supports increased communicative bids even in a context where both familiar peers and adults are available as communicative partners.

  13. Favorable outcome in non-infant children with MLL-AF4-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Daisuke; Kato, Motohiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Junya; Inukai, Takeshi; Fukushima, Takashi; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Manabe, Atsushi; Ohara, Akira

    2015-11-01

    Unlike acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants, MLL gene rearrangement (MLL-r) is rare in ALL children (≥1 year old). The outcome and optimal treatment options for MLL-r ALL remain controversial. Among the 1827 children enrolled in the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group ALL studies L95-14, L99-15, L99-1502, L04-16, and L07-1602 (1995-2009), 25 MLL-r ALL patients (1.3 %) were identified. Their median age and leukocyte count at diagnosis was 2 years old (range 1-15 years) and 27,690/μL (range 1800-1,113,000/μL), respectively. All but one patient achieved complete remission (CR) after induction therapy, and 19 underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in first CR according to the protocol. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rate were 60.0 % [standard error (SE), 9.7 %] and 64.0 % (SE 9.6 %), respectively. Notably, 9/12 cases with MLL-AF4-positive ALL are alive in continuous CR with a 75.0 % (SE 12.5 %) EFS rate. The causes of treatment failure were as follows: one induction failure, five relapses, and five transplant-related deaths. With intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic HSCT, favorable outcome of children (≥1 year old) with MLL-AF4-positive ALL was observed. However, considering the risk of acute and late toxicities associated with HSCT, its indication should be restricted.

  14. APPEARANCE OF ISOAGGLUTININS IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Happ, W. M.

    1920-01-01

    1. The isoagglutination reaction of 131 infants and children from birth to 10½ years was examined by testing their serum and washed corpuscles microscopically against the serum and corpuscles of each of the four adult groups. 2. The grouping as present in adults is rarely present in blood from the umbilical cord. 3. At birth and during the 1st month of life isoagglutination is rarely present, but the percentage of infants in whom the isoagglutinin group is established increases with age, so that after 1 year the group is usually established, and after 2 years is always present as in adults. 4. The grouping is established in the corpuscles before it is established in the serum; i.e., the corpuscles acquire agglutinophilic receptors before the serum acquires agglutinin. Therefore, Group I is the first group to be formed and Group IV is the last. 5. The early grouping in the corpuscles before the group is established in the serum is liable to change by the acquisition of new receptors. 6. When the grouping has been established in both serum and corpuscles it does not change. 7. Isoagglutinins are present in mother's milk and the grouping is identical with that in the mother's blood. These agglutinins are probably not transmitted to the nursing infant through the milk. 8. On account of the differences between the agglutination reactions in the blood of mother and child it is not safe to transfuse an infant from its mother without making the preliminary tests. PMID:19868404

  15. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  16. Relation of Melody Complexity in Infants' Cries to Language Outcome in the Second Year of Life: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wermke, Kathleen; Leising, Daniel; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Angelika

    2007-01-01

    This study is part of the German Language Development Study's prospective longitudinal research programme on infants from birth until the age of 3 years. Thirty-four infants were retrospectively classified into two groups (normal/delayed) by their language skills at 2.5 years of age. Frequency spectrograms and melodies of about 11,000 cries from…

  17. Short-Term Outcomes and Mortality of Late Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Cahide; Gürsoy, Tuğba; Ovalı, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Late preterm infants have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to term infants. Determining the risk factors in these infants leads to more comprehensive preventive and treatment strategies. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the morbidity rates such as respiratory system diseases, infections, congenital anomalies, hypoglycemia and hematologic abnormalities and mortality rates in a large group of patients at a referral center. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Medical records of late preterm and term infants who were managed at the referral center were analysed. Results: 41752 births were analysed in 3 years. 71.9% of all births were between 37–42 gestational weeks (i.e. term) and 16.1% were between 34–37 weeks (i.e. late preterm). Compared to term infants, late preterm infants had increased rates of short-term problems. The rate of mortality increased with decreased gestational age. The duration of hospitalization was significantly higher in the smallest late preterm infants. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the need that late preterm infants who have higher risk for morbidity and mortality, compared to term infants require close monitoring. The rate of mortality and hospitalization increased with decreased gestational age. PMID:27403390

  18. Comparison of evoked arousability in breast and formula fed infants

    PubMed Central

    Horne, R; Parslow, P; Ferens, D; Watts, A; Adamson, T

    2004-01-01

    Background: Currently, there is no consistent evidence that breast feeding reduces the risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Arousal from sleep is believed to be an important survival mechanism that may be impaired in victims of SIDS. Previously it has been shown that arousability is impaired by the major risk factors for SIDS such as prone sleeping and maternal smoking. Aims: To establish whether arousability was altered by method of feeding, and whether breast fed infants would have lower arousal thresholds. Methods: Forty three healthy term infants were studied using daytime polysomnography on three occasions: 2–4 weeks post-term, 2–3 months post-term, and 5–6 months post-term. Multiple measurements of arousal threshold (cm H2O) in response to nasal air jet stimulation applied alternately to the nares were made in both active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS) while infants slept supine. Arousal thresholds and sleep period lengths were compared between formula fed and breast fed infants at each age. Results: Arousal thresholds were not different between breast fed and formula fed infants in QS. However, in AS breast fed infants were significantly more arousable than formula fed infants at 2–3 months of age. There was no difference between groups of infants when sleep period length was compared at any study. Conclusions: Breast fed infants are more easily aroused from AS at 2–3 months of age than formula fed infants. This age coincides with the peak incidence of SIDS. PMID:14709496

  19. Differentiated effects of social participation components on suicidal ideation across age groups in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide among adults in the Korean population merits study to improve the understanding of the salient risk and protective factors because suicide rates in Korea have increased dramatically over the past 20 years. However, the association between social participation and suicidal ideation is poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to identify the components of social participation in Korean society and to examine the processes through which the components of social participation influence the degree of suicidal ideation people experience across age groups. Methods This study used survey data from the 2010 Seoul Welfare Panel Study. The sample population was restricted to adults aged 20 or older and was categorised into three groups by respondents’ ages. The groups were defined as 'young adults’ (aged 20–39), 'middle-aged adults’ (aged 40–64) and 'the elderly’ (age 65 or more). Three dimensions of social participation were identified by factor analysis – friendship network and hobby group, religious involvement, and instrumental social participation. Results In the young adult group, only instrumental participation was statistically significant (-0.10, p = 0.06). In the middle-aged adult group, only friendship network and hobby group had a strong association with suicidal ideation (-0.11, p = 0.01). Interestingly, for the elderly, religious involvement was related to suicidal ideation, but in a positive way (0.26, p = 0.02). Conclusion The study results supported the theory that different components of social participation are associated with a lower risk of suicidal ideation in different stages of adulthood. PMID:24067075

  20. Maternal serum cadmium level during pregnancy and its association with small for gestational age infants: a population-based birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Lu; Hu, Yong-Fang; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Su, Pu-Yu; Fu, Lin; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Lei; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal cadmium (Cd) exposure during pregnancy and the increased risk of fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains controversial. The present study evaluated the association between maternal serum Cd level and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) infants in a Chinese population. The present study analyzed a subsample of the C-ABCS cohort that recruited 3254 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs. Maternal serum Cd level during pregnancy was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The rate and odds ratio (OR) for SGA infant were calculated. The rate for SGA infant was 10.6% among subjects with H-Cd (≥1.06 μg/L), significantly higher than 7.5% among subjects with L-Cd (<1.06 μg/L). OR was 1.45 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.90; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Adjusted OR for SGA infants was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.88; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Taken together, we observe the fact that maternal Cd exposure at middle gestational stage, elevates the risk of SGA in contrast to early gestational stage. The present results might be interesting and worth more discussing, and guarantee to further studies. PMID:26934860

  1. Association between maternal intimate partner violence victimization during pregnancy and maternal abusive behavior towards infants at 4 months of age in Japan.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Airi; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether maternal intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization during pregnancy is associated with abusive behavior by the mother towards infants at 4 months of age. A population-based sample of 6590 mothers with 4-month-old infants participated in this study in Japan. Abusive behavior was assessed via questionnaire and defined as frequency of shaking and smothering during the preceding month. Both verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy were assessed retrospectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for types of IPV and potential covariates, specifically postpartum depression. Maternal exposure to verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy was reported by 10.9% and 1.2% of women, respectively. In the adjusted model, women exposed to verbal IPV alone were significantly more likely to abuse offspring (odds ratio: 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.16) while exposure to physical IPV did not have an additive effect for abusive behavior. Maternal victimization by verbal, but not physical IPV was associated with maternal abusive behavior towards their 4-month-old infant. Screening for verbal abuse during pregnancy might be an efficient approach to identify high-risk mothers of infant abuse.

  2. [A paediatrician's play kit: example and basic tool for an approach of the infant's global development between 0 and 4 years of age].

    PubMed

    Vasilescu, C; Van Overbeke, V; Zupan-Simunek, V

    2013-06-01

    The South and West Francilien Pediatric Network (Réseau Pédiatrique du Sud et Ouest Francilien [RPSOF]) has established a protocol for the developmental follow up of infants inspired by the existing developmental scales adapted to the current practice of out patient consultation. The consultation described here collects a set of very simple objects and trade toys that are a support for a qualitative exploration of the development for the infants of less than 4 years of age. Different fields are taken into account: global motor skills, hand-eye coordination, manipulation and construction, communication and language, attentional capacity, relational and social behaviour. The time of exchange and play between the paediatrician and the infant allows a first detection of possible problems: the orientation towards a specialized professional for a consultation, a standard check-up or even a therapeutic care becomes easier and clearer. This playful environment also offers a space for the parents, and supports their participation as primary role players in the development of their child. This time, integral part of the consultation, is completed by the somatic examination and sensory screening tests. At present reserved for children identified as being at risk, this type of consultation could be universalised for all infants.

  3. Suffer the Infants: A Severe Case of Pertussis in Oregon, 2012.

    PubMed

    Liko, Juventila; Koenig, William J; Cieslak, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Pertussis remains a public health concern in Oregon, especially among young infants. The disease can be severe in this age group and is associated with a high inpatient cost. This report describes an Oregon infant who was hospitalized with pertussis for 90 days, required extracorporeal oxygenation for 43 days, suffered complications including stroke, and had hospital charges totaling $1.5 million. Pertussis morbidity among young infants argues for vaccination of women during each pregnancy and of infants beginning promptly at two months of age.

  4. Suffer the Infants: A Severe Case of Pertussis in Oregon, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, William J.; Cieslak, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Pertussis remains a public health concern in Oregon, especially among young infants. The disease can be severe in this age group and is associated with a high inpatient cost. This report describes an Oregon infant who was hospitalized with pertussis for 90 days, required extracorporeal oxygenation for 43 days, suffered complications including stroke, and had hospital charges totaling $1.5 million. Pertussis morbidity among young infants argues for vaccination of women during each pregnancy and of infants beginning promptly at two months of age. PMID:26327720

  5. Early Discharge of Preterm Infants- An Indian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Sandeep; Pandit, Anand; Patole, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early home discharge of preterm infants is a priority in developing countries due to bed shortage and poor socio-economic status. There is wide variation in home discharge policies for preterm infants. Limited data exists on optimal timing for discharging such infants. In view of the socio-economic and medico-legal importance of the issue, we aimed to study the outcomes of our ex-preterm infants discharged home ‘early’, to guide our clinical practice. Aim To study the rates of re-admissions/mortality within 4 weeks after discharge in preterm (born <34 weeks) infants. Materials and Methods This was an analysis of retrospectively collected data on all ex-preterm infants (gestation <34 weeks at birth) discharged home from our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) during the study period. Infants enrolled were stratified based on their gestation age: Group I (n=54): 26-29 weeks, Group II (n=181): 30-34 weeks. Data on demographic characteristics, hospital course and outcomes were analysed for infants meeting inclusion criteria. Re-admission and/or mortality within 4 weeks after discharge were studied. Results The mean±(SD) duration of stay was 42±19 vs. 19±14 days in group I vs. II infants. Five (2.7%) infants were re-admitted within the first four weeks after discharge in group II; none in group I. Conclusion Early home discharge for preterm infants born <34 weeks was feasible and safe in our set-up. Large prospective studies are required to confirm these benefits. PMID:28208967

  6. Transport of recombinant human CD4-immunoglobulin G across the human placenta: pharmacokinetics and safety in six mother-infant pairs in AIDS clinical trial group protocol 146.

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, W T; Duliege, A M; Kline, M W; Hammill, H; Minkoff, H; Ammann, A J; Chen, S; Izu, A; Mordenti, J

    1995-01-01

    Recombinant CD4-immunoglobulin G (rCD4-IgG) is a 98-kDa human immunoglobulin-like protein that is produced by fusing the gp120 binding domain of CD4 to the Fc portion of the human IgG1 heavy chain. This hybrid molecule was given to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women at the onset of labor by intravenous bolus at 1 mg/kg of body weight (group A; n = 3) and 1 week prior to and at the onset of labor by the same route and at the same dose (group B; n = 3). In addition to pharmacokinetic studies, safety in the mothers and infants was determined through routine chemistries, hematology, and urinalysis; immunologic and HIV infection statuses in the infants were assessed through lymphocyte cultures, p24 antigen level determination, culture of HIV from plasma, PCR, lymphocyte subset enumeration, quantitative immunoglobulin analysis, and lymphocyte proliferation. Thirty minutes after the rCD4-IgG injection, concentrations in maternal serum were 12 to 23 micrograms/ml. These concentrations declined slowly, with initial and terminal half-lives (mean +/- standard deviation) of 9.95 +/- 3.23 and 47.6 +/- 22.3 h, respectively. Infants were born 2.6 to 46.5 h after rCD4-IgG administration; concentrations of rCD4-IgG in cord blood ranged from 28 to 107 ng/ml. The half-life of rCD4-IgG in infants ranged from 5 to 29 h. These data demonstrate that the transfer of rCD4-IgG from the mother to the fetus is rapid and that newborns do not appear to have any difficulty eliminating rCD4-IgG. No safety concerns in mothers or infants were encountered. Although the study did not address the question of efficacy, none of the infants was HIV type 1 infected 36 months later. In summary, these findings document that bifunctional immune molecules can be transported across the placenta, and this general approach may be used in the future to block vertical transmission of HIV type 1. PMID:7664172

  7. Anthropometric difference of the knee on MRI according to gender and age groups.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyuksoo; Oh, Sohee; Chang, Chong Bum; Kang, Seung-Baik

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data from MRI images that were obtained from the non-arthritic knees in Asian adults, and to identify the existence of morphologic differences between age groups. This cross-sectional study included knee MR images of 535 patients (273 males, 262 females) taken for the evaluation of soft-tissue injuries, excluding cases with cartilage defect and malalignment. The age, gender, height, and BMI were also assessed. The patients were grouped into three different 20-year age groups (20-39, 40-59, and 60-79). The MRI analysis was performed on the anthropometric parameters of distal femur and posterior tibial slope. Age-related differences were found in femoral width, distance from the distal and posterior cartilage surface to the medial/lateral epicondyle, medial posterior condylar offset (PCO), and posterior condylar angle (PCA) (all P < 0.001), but not in lateral PCO, and medial/lateral tibial slopes. In the analysis of covariance analyses, significant interaction between gender and age groups was found in most parameters, but not in PCA, distance from the posterior cartilage surface to the medial epicondyle, or medial tibial slope. We found anthropometric differences among age groups exist in most of distal femoral parameters, but not in posterior tibial slope. The results of this study can be used by manufacturers to modify prostheses to be suitable for the future Asian elderly population.

  8. The Effects of Multi-Age Grouping on Young Children and Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Melanie K.; Green, Virginia P.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review on the effects of multiage groupings (MAGs) in the primary grades supports their use and argues that children in MAGs perform as well academically as children in single-age groupings (SAGs) and develop better self-concept and school attitudes than children in SAGs. Expresses concerns over lack of training and support for…

  9. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  10. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  11. Prevalence, Formation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of Interdisciplinary Student Aging Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine J.; Vandenberg, Edward V.; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and…

  12. Growing with Your Baby: A Facilitator's Manual for Use with School-Age Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Patricia

    This facilitator's manual, produced by the Family Developmental Center of the Family Service Agency of San Francisco, is designed for use with groups of school-age mothers. Included are meeting-by-meeting instructions for the group leader and some curriculum materials for students. The introduction indicates that the leader should be sensitive to…

  13. The low-birth-weight infant

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants have special nutritional requirements arising from their rapid growth rate and developmental immaturity. LBW infants are of many kinds; for example, the nutritional needs and functional capabilities of a small-for-gestational-age full-term infant are not the same as those of a very LBW premature infant. Ideal criteria for evaluating the nutritional management of these infants have not been established, and thus the recommended intakes given here do not represent proven physiological requirements. They nevertheless provide a basis from which more refined recommendations may be made. Although this chapter is not intended as such to be a discussion of applicable feeding techniques, it would be difficult and artificial to divorce two such closely intertwined aspects of the distinctive needs of this highly vulnerable group. Feeding techniques have to be carefully assessed in the light of specific environments and the expertise available, and none is entirely risk-free in any setting. Thus, it is essential to compensate for the immaturity of the infants and to avoid compromising the airway or risking aspiration of gastric contents. The choice between using breast milk or proprietary formulas in feeding LBW infants is complex on both nutritional and immunological grounds as well as for practical reasons. Given that the preponderance (>90%) of LBW infants are born in developing countries, the use of an infant's own mother's fresh milk may be the only realistic option. However, irrespective of the health care facilities, level of technology or alternative formulas that might be available, studies show that there is much to recommend feeding LBW infants their own mothers' milk in any environment. PMID:20604471

  14. Human milk for the premature infant

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  15. Population Analysis of Adverse Events in Different Age Groups Using Big Clinical Trials Data

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Christina; Cho, Chi C; Cisler, Ron A

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding adverse event patterns in clinical studies across populations is important for patient safety and protection in clinical trials as well as for developing appropriate drug therapies, procedures, and treatment plans. Objectives The objective of our study was to conduct a data-driven population-based analysis to estimate the incidence, diversity, and association patterns of adverse events by age of the clinical trials patients and participants. Methods Two aspects of adverse event patterns were measured: (1) the adverse event incidence rate in each of the patient age groups and (2) the diversity of adverse events defined as distinct types of adverse events categorized by organ system. Statistical analysis was done on the summarized clinical trial data. The incident rate and diversity level in each of the age groups were compared with the lowest group (reference group) using t tests. Cohort data was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov, and 186,339 clinical studies were analyzed; data were extracted from the 17,853 clinical trials that reported clinical outcomes. The total number of clinical trial participants was 6,808,619, and total number of participants affected by adverse events in these trials was 1,840,432. The trial participants were divided into eight different age groups to support cross-age group comparison. Results In general, children and older patients are more susceptible to adverse events in clinical trial studies. Using the lowest incidence age group as the reference group (20-29 years), the incidence rate of the 0-9 years-old group was 31.41%, approximately 1.51 times higher (P=.04) than the young adult group (20-29 years) at 20.76%. The second-highest group is the 50-59 years-old group with an incidence rate of 30.09%, significantly higher (P<.001) when compared with the lowest incidence in the 20-29 years-old group. The adverse event diversity also increased with increase in patient age. Clinical studies that recruited older

  16. Motor contingency learning and infants with Spina Bifida.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Heather B; Barnes, Marcia A; Landry, Susan H; Swank, Paul; Fletcher, Jack M; Huang, Furong

    2013-02-01

    Infants with Spina Bifida (SB) were compared to typically developing infants (TD) using a conjugate reinforcement paradigm at 6 months-of-age (n = 98) to evaluate learning, and retention of a sensory-motor contingency. Analyses evaluated infant arm-waving rates at baseline (wrist not tethered to mobile), during acquisition of the sensory-motor contingency (wrist tethered), and immediately after the acquisition phase and then after a delay (wrist not tethered), controlling for arm reaching ability, gestational age, and socioeconomic status. Although both groups responded to the contingency with increased arm-waving from baseline to acquisition, 15% to 29% fewer infants with SB than TD were found to learn the contingency depending on the criterion used to determine contingency learning. In addition, infants with SB who had learned the contingency had more difficulty retaining the contingency over time when sensory feedback was absent. The findings suggest that infants with SB do not learn motor contingencies as easily or at the same rate as TD infants, and are more likely to decrease motor responses when sensory feedback is absent. Results are discussed with reference to research on contingency learning in infants with and without neurodevelopmental disorders, and with reference to motor learning in school-age children with SB.

  17. Efficacy of daily and weekly iron supplementation on iron status in exclusively breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Yurdakök, Kadriye; Temiz, Fatih; Yalçin, S Songül; Gümrük, Fatma

    2004-05-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) remains the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in infants worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of daily and weekly iron supplementation for 3 months to improve the iron status in 4-month-old, exclusively breast-fed healthy infants. Infants 4 months of age were eligible for the open, randomized controlled trial if their mothers intended to continue exclusive breast-feeding until the infants were 6 months of age. Infants or mothers with iron deficiency (ID) or IDA on admission were excluded. The infants (n = 79) were randomly assigned to three groups, the first group receiving daily (1 mg/kg daily), the second group weekly (7 mg/kg weekly), and the third group no iron supplementation. Anthropometric measurements were taken on admission and at 6 and 7 months of age. Iron status was analyzed on admission and monthly for 3 months. Both hematologic parameters and anthropometric measurements were found to be similar among the three groups during the study period. Seven infants (31.8%) in the control group, six (26.0%) in the daily group, and three (13.6%) in the weekly group developed ID or IDA (P > 0.05). Infants whose mothers had ID or IDA during the study period were more likely to develop ID or IDA independently from iron supplementation. Serum ferritin levels decreased between 4 and 6 months of age in the control and daily groups; the weekly group showed no such decrease. In all groups, the mean levels of serum ferritin were significantly increased from 6 months to 7 months of age during the weaning period. In this study, which had a limited number of cases, weekly or daily iron supplementation was not found to decrease the likelihood of IDA. In conclusion, exclusively breast-fed infants with maternal IDA appeared to be at increased risk of developing IDA.

  18. Safety of Enalapril in Infants Admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Ku, Lawrence C; Zimmerman, Kanecia; Benjamin, Daniel K; Clark, Reese H; Hornik, Christoph P; Smith, P Brian

    2017-01-01

    Enalapril is used to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure in infants. However, enalapril is not labeled for neonates, and safety data in infants are sparse. To evaluate the safety of enalapril in young infants, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of infants who were exposed to enalapril in the first 120 days of life and were cared for in 348 neonatal intensive care units from 1997 to 2012. We determined the proportion of exposed infants who developed adverse events, including death, hypotension requiring pressors, hyperkalemia, and elevated serum creatinine. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined risk factors for adverse events, including postnatal age at first exposure, exposure duration, gestational age group, small for gestational age status, race, sex, 5-min Apgar score, and inborn status. Of a cohort of 887,910 infants, 662 infants (0.07%) were exposed to enalapril. Among exposed infants, 142 infants (21%) suffered an adverse event. The most common adverse event was hyperkalemia (13%), followed by elevated serum creatinine (5%), hypotension (4%), and death (0.5%). Significant risk factors for adverse events included postnatal age <30 days at first exposure and longer exposure duration. This study is the largest to date examining the safety of enalapril in young term and preterm infants without significant structural cardiac disease.

  19. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    PubMed

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (<1000 g) remain at high risk for death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address

  20. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (< 1000 grams) remain at high risk for death and disability with 30–50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20–50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of CPAP, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for

  1. Population biology of intestinal enterococcus isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Tedim, Ana P; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  2. Population Biology of Intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Individuals in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  3. Fecal sodium and potassium losses in low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Verma, R P; John, E; Fornell, L; Vidyasagar, D

    1993-01-01

    We measured 24-hour fecal losses of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) in immediate post natal period of preterm neonates to determine the role of this route in the electrolyte imbalances seen in such infants. The values from preterm infants were compared to a group of age matched term infants. Eleven studies were done on unfed extremely low birth weight infants (group I, birth weight < 1200 gms), seven on fed preterm infants (group II, birth weight 1201-2500 gms) and nine on fed term infants (group III, birth weight 2501-4000 gms). Measured and derived variables compared between the groups were 24 hour fecal volume, total fecal electrolyte contents, Na or K lost per kg of body weight and per gm. of stool and Na or K losses as percent of intake. Although 24 hour fecal volume was lowest in group I, none of the variables related to Na differed between groups I and II whereas all of them were significantly lower in group I when compared with group III.