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Sample records for age groups pregnancy

  1. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... yet. You have a fever of 100.4°F (38°C) or more during labor. You have had a baby with GBS during another pregnancy. You have had urinary tract infections that were caused by GBS. When you are 35 to 37 weeks pregnant, your doctor may do ...

  2. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... CJ. Group B streptococcal infections. In: Cherry J, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach WJ, Hotez PJ, eds. ... PhD, Associate Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review ...

  3. Pregnancy-Prevention Groups for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Betty J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Tested the efficacy of group training in decision making and interpersonal skills to prevent unwanted adolescent pregnancy. Evaluation of the program suggests that group intervention is an effective social work approach. Participants reported greater commitment to postponing pregnancy and greater reliance on birth control methods. (JAC)

  4. Pregnancy Incidence in Female Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the pregnancy incidence in female nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivors of reproductive age. In a nationwide cohort, 2816 female patients 15 to 50 years of age from 1998 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Comorbidities, complications during pregnancy, and delivery status were recorded. All patients were followed up until a diagnosis of pregnancy, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or December 31, 2011. Overall, 155 patients (incidence rate [IR] = 9.50) were pregnant in the NPC group, whereas 251 patients (IR = 12.80) were pregnant in the non-NPC group. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy in the NPC group was lower than that in the non-NPC group (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61–0.91). The adjusted hazard ratio of pregnancy in the NPC group was 0.79 with 95% CI = 0.61–0.96, compared with the non-NPC group. The incidence of pregnancy is significantly lower among female NPC survivors of reproductive age than among those without NPC. PMID:27196495

  5. Do gravidity and age affect pregnancy outcome?

    PubMed

    Santow, G; Bracher, M

    1989-01-01

    Fetal loss has generally been found to vary with gravidity, previous experience of fetal loss, and maternal age, but the literature is divided on the reasons for these associations. In this paper we examine pregnancy histories obtained retrospectively from a nationally representative one-in-one-thousand sample of women in Australia aged 20 to 59 years. The relations of fetal loss ratios with both gravidity and previous outcome are consistent with heterogeneity of risk over the study population and a stopping rule, whereby high-risk women undertake more pregnancies than low-risk women to achieve the same number of live births. Evidence is presented that elevated loss ratios in the teens indicate not higher risk but a selection for short gestation intervals, while loss ratios beyond the mid-thirties do not point unequivocally to a substantial increase in risk at the older reproductive ages. PMID:2814570

  6. Family Stress, Perception of Pregnancy, and Age of First Menarche among Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravert, April A; Martin, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Examines family-of-origin stress, age of first menarche, and the perceptions of pregnancy as a life event in 97 pregnant adolescents. Participants' reported high levels of family stress with only a moderate level of impact or stress attributed to the pregnancy. As a group, the girls' first menarche matched national averages. (RJM)

  7. Pregnancy Incidence in Female Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Survivors of Reproductive Age: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Ching; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the pregnancy incidence in female nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) survivors of reproductive age.In a nationwide cohort, 2816 female patients 15 to 50 years of age from 1998 to 2010 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database. Comorbidities, complications during pregnancy, and delivery status were recorded. All patients were followed up until a diagnosis of pregnancy, withdrawal from the National Health Insurance system, or December 31, 2011.Overall, 155 patients (incidence rate [IR] = 9.50) were pregnant in the NPC group, whereas 251 patients (IR = 12.80) were pregnant in the non-NPC group. The cumulative incidence of pregnancy in the NPC group was lower than that in the non-NPC group (incidence rate ratio = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61-0.91). The adjusted hazard ratio of pregnancy in the NPC group was 0.79 with 95% CI = 0.61-0.96, compared with the non-NPC group.The incidence of pregnancy is significantly lower among female NPC survivors of reproductive age than among those without NPC. PMID:27196495

  8. Fluoride supplements in pregnancy, effectiveness in the prevention of dental caries in a group of children

    PubMed Central

    MATURO, P.; COSTACURTA, M.; PERUGIA, C.; DOCIMO, R.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY This clinical, retrospective study intends to evaluate whether the systemic administration of fluoride during pregnancy can reduce caries incidence in a group of paediatric patients, compared to a control group. 84 patients were selected out of a sample of 2000 children (3–15 years of age) and then divided in two groups: TEST Group: 34 patients (16M – 18F, mean age 9.23), whose mothers had taken fluoride during pregnancy; CONTROL Group: 50 patients (23M – 27F, mean age 9) whose mothers had not taken fluoride. Patients underwent a clinical and radiographic inspection to assess the dfs/DFS value as caries index (decayed or filled surfaces for deciduous or permanent teeth). Results: dfs/DFS value: TEST Group: 3.41, CONTROL group 2.49. The TEST group was further divided in individuals who were administered fluoride only during pregnancy (33%) with a dfs/DFS of 3.14 and individuals who were administered fluoride also after birth (67%) with a dfs/DFS of 3. Caries index (dfs/DFS) did not show any significant differences between the test and control groups. Fluoride administration during pregnancy and postpartum does not seem to have a significant impact on the reduction of caries incidence. More preventive strategies should be investigated to contrast the multifactorial etiology of children caries. PMID:23285398

  9. Pregnancy Complications: Group B Strep Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... percent) who have meningitis caused by GBS develop: Cerebral palsy (A group of disorders that can cause problems ... percent) who have meningitis caused by GBS develop: Cerebral palsy (A group of disorders that can cause problems ...

  10. Dealing with teen-age pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, P L

    1991-01-01

    The author finds that teenage pregnancy is more complicated than access to contraception or abortion. At risk teenagers are not identifiable, only at risk factors such as isolation, lack of perception of future opportunities, lack of self esteem, lack of self worth, poor performance in school, poor role models or lack of role models at home or in the community. There is indictment of parents who are just as much in need. The focus on teen pregnancy as one dimensional belies the reality that health, family, work, social and cultural experience affect people's decisions and sexual behavior. The recommendation is for a holistic approach, regardless of race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background. Adolescents need education and jobs as well as preventive health, body image, and nutrition in conjunction with contraceptives. Where success is defined by motherhood or fatherhood, birth control pills sit in drawers at home. Teenagers need to be convinced that there is some benefit in being connected to mainstream society. Support services need to help teenagers answer the question of what's in it for me? Why? Teenagers need assistance in attaining educational success, job success, the ability to handle anger, and leadership opportunities. A holistic approach is not only realistic but also is the most practical with the longest term benefit. With resources for teen pregnancy superseded by the problems of AIDs and crack gangs, there is a constantly changing political agenda for resource allocation. In fact, teenage pregnancy is reflective of social ills in an urban society simultaneous with drug abuse, school dropouts, juvenile crime and gang activity. The common denominator is that teens all need good educational opportunities, good health, and good housing. Parent involvement is needed, and it is presumptuous to believe that a couple of hours of contact a week can change lives. Parents need respect and understanding for their important role; they need information and a role

  11. The effects of female age on fecundity and pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Nugent, D; Balen, A H

    2001-01-01

    In industrialized countries worldwide, women are delaying childbearing for a variety of reasons, including pursuit of career, greater financial independence, improved and more accessible contraception and longer life expectancy. In terms of fertility and maternity, those aged > or = 35 years are considered to be of advanced maternal age and there are usually marked reductions in both the fecundity rate for spontaneous conceptions and the success rates with assisted conception. These decreases are thought to be due mainly to oocyte ageing, and the established success of oocyte donation from younger individuals to older recipients supports this contention. For those who achieve a pregnancy at an advanced maternal age there is a greater likelihood of aneuploidy (assuming conception with the woman's own oocytes), hypertensive and other medical disorders, birth by Caesarean section and maternal mortality. However, most of the complications associated with advanced maternal age are caused by age-related confounding variables, and older premenopausal women in good health should not require special attention. The data on perinatal mortality rates are encouraging and in the absence of congenital abnormalities perinatal mortality is probably not much increased, if at all, in older mothers. Pregnancy is now possible for postmenopausal women with the application of oocyte donation, but these individuals have a significantly higher likelihood of cardiovascular ageing and should be considered at increased risk of vascular complications during pregnancy. PMID:11591256

  12. Association between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Low Birthweight: Effects by Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Suzuki, Kohta; Tanaka, Taichiro; Kohama, Moriyasu; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently related to low birthweight. However, older mothers, who are already at risk of giving birth to low birthweight infants, might be even more susceptible to the effects of maternal smoking. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the modified association between maternal smoking and low birthweight by maternal age. Methods Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of all mothers of children born between 2004 and 2010 in Okinawa, Japan who underwent medical check-ups at age 3 months. Variables assessed were maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal age, gestational age, parity, birth year, and complications during pregnancy. Stratified analyses were performed using a logistic regression model. Results In total, 92641 participants provided complete information on all variables. Over the 7 years studied, the proportion of mothers smoking during pregnancy decreased from 10.6% to 5.0%, while the prevalence of low birthweight did not change remarkably (around 10%). Maternal smoking was significantly associated with low birthweight in all age groups. The strength of the association increased with maternal age, both in crude and adjusted models. Conclusions Consistent with previous studies conducted in Western countries, this study demonstrates that maternal age has a modifying effect on the association between maternal smoking and birthweight. This finding suggests that specific education and health care programs for older smoking mothers are important to improve their foetal growth. PMID:26795494

  13. The impact of group prenatal care on pregnancy and postpartum weight trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Magriples, Urania; Boynton, Marcella H.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Lewis, Jessica; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Epel, Elissa; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to investigate whether group prenatal care (Centering Pregnancy Plus [CP+]) has an impact on pregnancy weight gain and postpartum weight loss trajectories and to determine whether prenatal depression and distress might moderate these trajectories. STUDY DESIGN This was a secondary analysis of a cluster-randomized trial of CP+ in 14 Community Health Centers and hospitals in New York City. Participants were pregnant women aged 14–21 years (n = 984). Medical record review and 4 structured interviews were conducted: in the second and third trimesters and 6 and 12 months postpartum. Longitudinal mixed modeling was utilized to evaluate the weight change trajectories in the control and intervention groups. Prenatal distress and depression were also assessed to examine their impact on weight change. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the intervention and control groups in baseline demographics. Thirty-five percent of the participants were overweight or obese, and more than 50% had excessive weight gain by Institute of Medicine standards. CP+ was associated with improved weight trajectories compared with controls (P < .0001): women at clinical sites randomized to group prenatal care gained less weight during pregnancy and lost more weight postpartum. This effect was sustained among women who were categorized as obese based on prepregnancy body mass index (P < .01). Prenatal depression and distress were significantly associated with higher antepartum weight gain and postpartum weight retention. Women with the highest levels of depression and prenatal distress exhibited the greatest positive impact of group prenatal care on weight trajectories during pregnancy and through 12 months postpartum. CONCLUSION Group prenatal care has a significant impact on weight gain trajectories in pregnancy and postpartum. The intervention also appeared to mitigate the effects of depression and prenatal distress on antepartum weight

  14. Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes Among Primiparae at Very Advanced Maternal Age: At What Price?

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Alon; Glasser, Saralee; Schiff, Eyal; Zahav, Aliza Segev; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2016-04-01

    Objectives In light of the potential physical and emotional costs to both woman and child, this study was conducted to assess pregnancy complications and birth outcomes in primiparae at very advanced maternal age (VAMA, aged ≥45) compared to younger primiparae. Methods Retrospective cohort study comparing 222 VAMA primiparae and a reference group of 222 primiparae aged 30-35, delivering at Sheba Medical Center from 2008 through 2013.Results VAMA primiparae were more likely than younger primiparae to be single, to have chronic health conditions, and higher rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), gestational-hypertension (GHTN) and preeclampsia-eclampsia. VAMA primiparae conceived mostly by oocyte donation. They were more likely to be hospitalized during pregnancy, to deliver preterm and by cesarean birth. Infants of VAMA primiparae were at greater risk for low birthweight and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admission. There were no differences in outcomes between VAMA primiparae with or without preexisting chronic conditions, or between those aged 45-49 and ≥50. In multivariable analysis VAMA was an independent risk factor for GDM, GHTN and preeclamsia-eclampsia, with adjusted odds ratio of 2.38 (95 % CI 1.32, 4.29), 5.80 (95 % CI 2.66, 12.64) and 2.45 (95 % CI 1.03, 5.85); respectively. The effect of age disappeared in multiple pregnancies. Conclusions Primiparity at VAMA holds a significant risk for adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. The absence of chronic medical conditions or the use of a young oocyte donor does not improve these outcomes. Multiple pregnancies hold additional risk and may diminish the effect of age. Primiparity at an earlier age should be encouraged. PMID:26686195

  15. Induced abortion. Effects of marital status, age and parity on choice of pregnancy termination.

    PubMed

    Skjeldestad, F E; Borgan, J K; Daltveit, A K; Nymoen, E H

    1994-03-01

    Data from the Abortion File of the Central Bureau of Statistics in Norway for 1979-90 were used to examine the relative risks of induced abortion among groups varying by marital status, age, and parity for four 3-year time periods. Between January 1979 and December 1990, 639,551 births were registered and 174,590 pregnancies were terminated by abortion. The mean number of induced abortions in three-year periods increased from 12,800 to 14,600 (14%), and births increased from 50,700 to 58,800 (16%). The two prominent groups having abortions were unmarried women without children aged less than 30 years (40%) and married women with 2 or more children. Declines in abortion occurred among married women with two or more children, from 24% of all abortions in 1979-81 to 15% in 1988-90. Unmarried, pregnant women aged more than 20 years of age experienced a decline in abortion terminations. Unmarried teenage abortions remained stable. Pregnancy terminations increased primarily for married women aged 10-24 years without children. The lowest group with abortions comprised married childless women aged 25-29 years: the reference group. Unmarried women, regardless of age and parity, ended their pregnancies 40-50 times more often than the reference group. Registration of data affected the data by overestimation of abortions among single teenagers by 4% for all time periods. Although abortions increased among unmarried women aged over 20 years, there was still a decline in the proportion of pregnancies terminated by abortion among unmarried women aged over 20 years. Births among cohabiting or unmarried women increased more than the relative number of abortions among unmarried women. Cohabitation increased from 12% in 1977 to 30% in 1988. The suggestion was that the decreasing trend in abortion among pregnant unmarried women might be related to the changes in consensual unions. Data from the 1988 Norway Fertility Survey found that 40% of births were to childless married couples not

  16. Group A Streptococcal Infection in Pregnancy and the Puerperium.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Mary Ellen Burke

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increasing incidence worldwide of invasive group A streptococcal disease in pregnancy and the puerperal period over the past 30 years. Group A Streptococcus (GAS) was identified as the major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality from sepsis before the identification that hand washing techniques could prevent the transmission of the bacteria. Hand washing remains the cornerstone of prevention as transmission can occur directly from an asymptomatic colonized healthcare provider, other patients, or a community-acquired source. Pregnancy and the puerperal period are associated with significant maternal physiologic changes that must be identified and clarified to identify signs and symptoms of GAS so that treatment can be initiated at the earliest moment. Treatment of group A streptococcal sepsis follows the guidelines developed under the Surviving Sepsis Campaign model. Maternal outcomes are improved by identifying risk factors and working with the perinatal team to implement rapid intervention. Even with prompt treatment of invasive group A Streptococcus, it remains the most common cause of infection that results in severe maternal morbidity and death in the world. PMID:27104603

  17. School-age pregnancy: why hasn't prevention worked?

    PubMed

    Males, M

    1993-12-01

    Adolescent pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease (STD) reduction has not occurred, despite sexuality education and abstinence programs, and intensive publicity and community initiatives. An obstacle to adolescent pregnancy, STD, and childbearing prevention is the assumption that adolescent sexuality is a closed system of activity among peers. When a nation is consumed with the preoccupation of condoms versus chastity debates, and is ignoring high poverty levels and abuse of the young, adolescent girls will seek escape from harsh childhoods in early family formation with young adult men. There is a high correlation between poverty rates and teenage birth, AIDS, and STD rates. Schools are not able to produce magical solutions to teenage pregnancy when adult lawmakers abnegate their responsibility to provide for youth well-being. Adolescent pregnancy will occur regardless of the expansion of curative programs such as school-based clinics; fundamental changes in assumptions, attitudes, and policies are needed. Beneficial aspects of programming appear to be fact-based sexuality and contraceptive education, counseling and referrals for youths with histories of child abuse, and child care classes and flexible school schedules for parenting students. A statistical profile in California indicates that 85% of all fathers of babies born to girls between ages of 11 and 18 years were adults. More than 50% of mothers aged 11-15 years were impregnated by adult men. Fathers' average age for births among junior high school mothers was 15-26 years, when the youngest and the oldest 2.5% of fathers are eliminated. There is a greater likelihood that a man older than 23 years will impregnate a junior high girl than will a junior high boy. The partner age gap is greatest among the very young girls. The California profile of father's age is similar to birth patterns in other states and similar to the national average. An examination of STDs shows a higher rate of STDs among females

  18. Combined Effect of Fetal Sex and Advanced Maternal Age on Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Weissmann-Brenner, Alina; Simchen, Michal J.; Zilberberg, Eran; Kalter, Anat; Dulitzky, Mordechai

    2015-01-01

    Background Fetal sex and maternal age are each known to affect outcomes of pregnancies. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the combination of maternal age and fetal sex on pregnancy outcomes in term and post-term singleton pregnancies. Material/Methods This was a retrospective study on term singleton pregnancies delivered between 2004 and 2008 at the Chaim Sheba Medical Center. Data collected included maternal age, fetal sex, and maternal and neonatal complications. The combined effect of fetal sex and maternal age on complications of pregnancy was assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. Results The study population comprised 37,327 pregnancies. The risk of operative deliveries increased with maternal age ≥40 and in pregnancies with male fetuses. The risk of maternal diabetes and of longer hospitalization increased as maternal age increased, and in women <40 carrying male fetuses. The risk of hypertensive disorders increased in pregnancies with males as maternal age advanced. The risk of shoulder dystocia and neonatal respiratory complications increased in male neonates born to women<40. The risk of neonatal hypoglycemia increased in males for all maternal ages. Conclusions Risk assessment for fetal sex and advanced maternal age were given for different pregnancy complications. Knowledge of fetal sex adds value to the risk assessment of pregnancies as maternal age increases. PMID:25892459

  19. Prognosis of Pregnancy-Associated Gastric Cancer: An Age-, Sex-, and Stage-Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min Jeong; Park, Young Soo; Song, Ho June; Park, Se Jeong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Choi, Kee Don; Lee, Gin Hyug; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Yook, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Byung Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Pregnancy-associated gastric cancer is a rare condition. This case-control study was performed to identify the clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of pregnancy-associated gastric cancer. Methods All consecutive patients who presented to our tertiary referral hospital with pregnancy-associated gastric cancer from 1991 to 2012 were identified. Two age-, sex-, and stage-matched controls for each case were also identified from the records. Clinicopathological, gynecological, and oncological outcomes were recorded. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor, and E-cadherin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2. Results The median overall survival rates of the pregnancy-associated gastric cancer and control groups were 7.0 months and 15.0 months, respectively (p=0.189). Poor prognostic factors included advanced stage and tumor location in the corpus or the entire stomach but not pregnancy status or loss of E-cadherin. Pregnancy-associated gastric cancer was associated with a longer time from diagnosis to treatment (21 days vs 7 days, p=0.021). The two groups did not differ in the expression of the receptors or E-cadherin. Conclusions The dismal prognosis of pregnancy-associated gastric cancer may related to the tumor stage and location rather than to pregnancy itself. PMID:27114414

  20. Weight Gain in Pregnancy, Maternal Age and Gestational Age in Relation to Fetal Macrosomia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Liu, Qi-Fei; Zhang, Dan; Shen, Ying; Ye, Kui; Lai, Han-Lin; Wang, Hai-Qing; Hu, Chuan-Lai; Zhao, Qi-Hong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the possible risk factors related to macrosomia. Pregnant women and their newborns (n = 1041) were recruited from a cohort study in Maternal and Child Care Center of Hefei from January 2011 to July 2012. Questionnaires were applied to collect the demographic data besides the medical records. Detailed health records of the entire pregnancy were obtained using retrospective study. Meanwhile the data of neonatal outcomes was prospectively tracked. Associations between exposure risk factors and macrosomia were analyzed using Pearson's chi squared test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the independent association between these potential predictors and macrosomia. The incidence of macrosomia of this cohort was 11.24% of which male: female = 2.55:1. Male incidence (8.07%) of macrosomia was higher than female (3.17%), p < 0.001. Body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy (pre-BMI), maternal height, parity were not independently associated with macrosomia; multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that macrosomia was mainly independently associated with weight gain in pregnancy (OR=1.14, 95% CI [1.10-1.19]), maternal age (OR = 1.09, 95% CI [1.03-1.15]) and gestational age (OR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.31-1.99]), respectively. Our findings indicate that weight gain in pregnancy, maternal age and gestational age should be considered as independent risk factors for macrosomia. PMID:25954731

  1. [Clinical practice recommendations for diabetes in pregnancy (Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group of the Austrian Diabetes Association)].

    PubMed

    Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; Weitgasser, Raimund; Lechleitner, Monika

    2016-04-01

    Twenty-six years ago the St. Vincent Declaration aimed for an achievement of a comparable pregnancy outcome in diabetic and non-diabetic women. However, current surveys clearly show that women with pre-gestational diabetes still feature a much higher risk of perinatal morbidity and even increased mortality. This fact is mostly ascribed to a persistently low rate of pregnancy planning and pre-pregnancy care with optimization of metabolic control prior to conception. In addition, obesity increases worldwide, contributing to a growing number of women with type 2 diabetes at a childbearing age, and a further deterioration in outcome in diabetic women. Development of diabetic embryopathy and fetopathy are known to be related to maternal glycemic control (target: normoglycemia and normal HbA1c, if possible without hypoglycemia). The risk for hypoglycemia is at its greatest in early pregnancy and decreases with the progression of pregnancy due to the hormonal changes leading to a marked increase of insulin resistance. Intensified insulin therapy with multiple daily insulin injections and pump treatment are equally effective in reaching good metabolic control during pregnancy. All women should be experienced in the management of their therapy and on stable glycemic control prior to the conception. In addition, thyroid dysfunction, hypertension as well as the presence of diabetic complications should be excluded before pregnancy or treated adequately in order to decrease the risk for a progression of complications during pregnancy as well as for maternal and fetal morbidity. PMID:27052227

  2. Smoking during Pregnancy Is a Risk Factor for Executive Function Deficits in Preschool-aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Daseking, M.; Petermann, F.; Tischler, T.; Waldmann, H.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Maternal nicotine use during pregnancy has a negative impact on the child. Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between smoking during pregnancy and psychological deficits. This study looks at deficits in executive functioning in preschool-aged children. Methods: The executive functioning of preschool children was assessed by asking parents to complete the parental form of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions – Preschool Version (BRIEF-P, German version). The results for preschool children whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy (n = 71) were compared with those of a control group. In a subsample, parental assessments of children of smokers (n = 42) and non-smokers (n = 27) were complemented by the teacher form of the BRIEF-P (German version), which allowed inter-rater agreement (parents vs. preschool teachers) to be assessed. Results: An increased incidence of executive function deficits was noted in the children of smokers, based on parental assessment. Clinically relevant deficits were particularly evident with regard to inhibition, with inhibitory deficits in children of smokers found to be almost four times higher than in the control group (p = 0.006). Inhibitory deficits were reported both by parents and by preschool teachers. Discussion: The increased percentage of executive function deficits described here, particularly the increased inhibitory deficits, confirms the current state of research on smoking during pregnancy. Poor inhibition or impulse control is a key symptom of ADHD. PMID:25684788

  3. Influence of pregnancy perceptions on patterns of seeking antenatal care among women in reproductive age of Masaka District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Atekyereza, Peter R; Mubiru, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    Maternal mortality remains a challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa including Uganda. Antenatal Care (ANC) is one of the recommended measures to improve maternal and child health. However, the influence of pregnancy definition and perception on patterns of seeking regular and timely antenatal care among women in the reproductive age group (15-49 years) is not known. The objectives of this study were to: (i) understand the women's social definitions and perceptions on their pregnancy; (ii) understand the socio-cultural beliefs related to pregnancy among women of the reproductive age group; and, (iii) examine the influence of social definitions, perceptions and beliefs about pregnancy on women's antenatal care seeking behaviour patterns to inform the decentralised health care delivery system in Uganda. A total of 45 women, mothers and expectant women who were purposively selected from Kimanya sub county of Masaka district in Uganda participated in the study. Ten key informant interviews and four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were also conducted. Key findings indicate that the women's socio-definitions and perceptions of pregnancy influence their seeking behaviour on antenatal health care. To the women with a positive orientation towards antenatal care, pregnancy provides joy, happiness, pride, promotes their social status and safe-guards their marriage. Pregnancy is rewarding with care, love, support and gifts. Women who shun antenatal care perceive pregnancy to be a source of misery, sadness, pain and suffering. It is an uncomfortable and regrettable experience. Women also hold socio-cultural beliefs on pregnancy, which are culturally constructed and rooted in taboos, rituals and practices of their communities. It is therefore important to sensitise women and those who attend to them when they are pregnant to understand these perceptions and definitions to motivate them to seek antenatal and postnatal care for better maternal and child health. PMID:26891521

  4. Maternal Age and Contractility of Human Myometrium in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Crankshaw, Denis J; O'Brien, Yvonne M; Crosby, David A; Morrison, John J

    2015-10-01

    There is controversy as to whether maternal age exerts an influence on the contractility of human myometrium in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine a series of functional contractile parameters of human myometrium in vitro, over a broad range of maternal ages. Myometrial tissue specimens were obtained at cesarean delivery from 32 women with maternal ages ranging from 28 to 52 years. Using in vitro recordings, a number of contractile parameters including maximal amplitude, mean contractile force, time to maximal amplitude, maximum rate of rise, and occurrence of simple and complex (biphasic and multiphasic) contractions were examined for spontaneous and induced contractile activity. The relationship between maternal age and individual parameters was evaluated using linear regression analysis. For all contractile parameters examined, for both spontaneous and induced contractions, no significant correlation was observed with maternal age between 28 and 52 years. The mean maximum amplitude values for spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractions were 23 ± 3 and 43 ± 5 mN, respectively. The mean contractile forces for spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractions were 1.5 ± 0.2 and 6.5 ± 0.9 mN, respectively. There was no variation in the proportion of biphasic or multiphasic contractions with maternal age. These results indicate there is no significant functional impairment of uterine contractility and no lack in responsiveness of myometrium in vitro, in the older mother. These findings do not support the concept that there may be a biological basis for dysfunctional labor or increased cesarean delivery rates in older parturients. PMID:25759369

  5. PULSED FIELD FINGERPRINTING OF VAGINAL GROUP B STREPTOCOCCUS IN PREGNANCY: CORRELATION OF RESTRICTION PROFILES WITH SEROTYPE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management protocols for vaginal group B beta-hemolytic streptococci (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) infection during pregnancy focus on treatment after an infection is identified. However, there is more to be learned about the epidemiology of GBS infections during pregnancy. In this study, we compa...

  6. Maternal Methyl-Group Donor Intake and Global DNA (Hydroxy)Methylation before and during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Sara; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Devlieger, Roland; Freson, Kathleen; Straetmans, Dany; Van Herck, Erik; Huybrechts, Inge; Koppen, Gurdun; Godderis, Lode

    2016-01-01

    It is still unclear to which extent methyl-group intake during pregnancy can affect maternal global DNA (hydroxyl)methylation. Pregnancy methylation profiling and its link with methyl-group intake in a healthy population could enhance our understanding of the development of pregnancy related disorders. One hundred forty-eight women were enrolled in the MANOE (MAternal Nutrition and Offspring’s Epigenome) study. Thiry-four women were enrolled before pregnancy and 116 during the first trimester of pregnancy. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation in blood using LC-MS/MS and dietary methyl-group intake (methionine, folate, betaine, and choline) using a food-frequency questionnaire were estimated pre-pregnancy, during each trimester, and at delivery. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation levels were highest pre-pregnancy and at weeks 18–22 of pregnancy. We observed a positive relation between folic acid and global DNA methylation (p = 0.04) and hydroxymethylation (p = 0.04). A high intake of methionine pre-pregnancy and in the first trimester showed lower (hydroxy)methylation percentage in weeks 11–13 and weeks 18–22, respectively. Choline and betaine intake in the first weeks was negatively associated with hydroxymethylation. Women with a high intake of these three methyl groups in the second and third trimester showed higher hyrdoxymethylation/methylation levels in the third trimester. To conclude, a time trend in DNA (hydroxy)methylation was found and women with higher methyl-group intake showed higher methylation in the third trimester, and not in earlier phases of pregnancy. PMID:27509522

  7. Maternal Methyl-Group Donor Intake and Global DNA (Hydroxy)Methylation before and during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Sara; Duca, Radu Corneliu; Devlieger, Roland; Freson, Kathleen; Straetmans, Dany; Van Herck, Erik; Huybrechts, Inge; Koppen, Gurdun; Godderis, Lode

    2016-01-01

    It is still unclear to which extent methyl-group intake during pregnancy can affect maternal global DNA (hydroxyl)methylation. Pregnancy methylation profiling and its link with methyl-group intake in a healthy population could enhance our understanding of the development of pregnancy related disorders. One hundred forty-eight women were enrolled in the MANOE (MAternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome) study. Thiry-four women were enrolled before pregnancy and 116 during the first trimester of pregnancy. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation in blood using LC-MS/MS and dietary methyl-group intake (methionine, folate, betaine, and choline) using a food-frequency questionnaire were estimated pre-pregnancy, during each trimester, and at delivery. Global DNA (hydroxy)methylation levels were highest pre-pregnancy and at weeks 18-22 of pregnancy. We observed a positive relation between folic acid and global DNA methylation (p = 0.04) and hydroxymethylation (p = 0.04). A high intake of methionine pre-pregnancy and in the first trimester showed lower (hydroxy)methylation percentage in weeks 11-13 and weeks 18-22, respectively. Choline and betaine intake in the first weeks was negatively associated with hydroxymethylation. Women with a high intake of these three methyl groups in the second and third trimester showed higher hyrdoxymethylation/methylation levels in the third trimester. To conclude, a time trend in DNA (hydroxy)methylation was found and women with higher methyl-group intake showed higher methylation in the third trimester, and not in earlier phases of pregnancy. PMID:27509522

  8. Speech Differences of Factory Worker Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    This article, which focuses on speech differences of age groups, is part of a larger study of occupational jargon, its characteristics and underlying features and the part it plays in reflecting the workers' knowledge of their jobs and their attitudes toward jobs in general. The project incorporated a case method of research in a china factory.…

  9. Teen-Age Pregnancy: The Case for National Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattleton, Faye

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the national impact of adolescent pregnancy with emphasis on the Black community. Criticizes the mass media for exploiting sexual behavior. Proposes a national agenda incorporating comprehensive sex education, family planning services, and educational, economic, and social opportunities. (FMW)

  10. Delaying childbearing: effect of age on fecundity and outcome of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    van Noord-Zaadstra, B M; Looman, C W; Alsbach, H; Habbema, J D; te Velde, E R; Karbaat, J

    1991-06-01

    This study examined the age of the start of the fall (critical age) in fecundity, the probability of a pregnancy leading to a healthy baby taking into account the age of the women, and, by combining all of the results, the determination of the age-dependent probability of getting a healthy baby. 2 fertility clinics serving a large part of the Netherlands provided the 751 women who fulfilled the selection criteria. In this cohort study of all women who entered a donor insemination program, those who fulfilled the selection criteria were married to azoospermic husbands, were nulliparous, and never received donor insemination previously. Main outcome measures studied were the number of cycles prior to a pregnancy (positive pregnancy result) or the cessation of treatment and the result of the pregnancy (successful outcome). Of 751 women, 555 became pregnant and 461 had healthy babies. The drop in fecundity was estimated to begin at around age 31 (critical age); after 12 cycles, the probability of pregnancy in a woman age 31 was 0.54 compared with 0.74 in a woman age 20-31. After 24 cycles, this difference had decreased (probability of conception 0.75 in women 31 and 0.85 in women age 20-31). The probability of having a healthy baby also decreased, by 3.5% a year after the age of 30. Combining both of these age effects, the chance of a woman age 35 having a healthy baby was about 1.2 that of a woman age 25. After the age of 31, the probability of conception falls rapidly; however, this can be compensated for partly by continuing insemination for more cycles. In addition, the probability of an adverse pregnancy outcome begins to increase at about the same age. PMID:2059713

  11. [The electrocardiogram in the paediatric age group].

    PubMed

    Sanches, M; Coelho, A; Oliveira, E; Lopes, A

    2014-09-01

    A properly interpreted electrocardiogram (ECG) provides important information and is an inexpensive and easy test to perform. It continues to be the method of choice for the diagnosis of arrhythmias. Although the principles of cardiac electrophysiology are the same, there are anatomical and physiological age-dependent changes which produce specific alterations in the paediatric ECG, and which may be misinterpreted as pathological. The intention of this article is to address in a systematic way the most relevant aspects of the paediatric ECG, to propose a possible reading scheme of the ECG and to review the electrocardiograph tracings most frequently found in the paediatric age group. PMID:24907888

  12. The Influence of High School Dropout and School Disengagement on the Risk of School-Age Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Jennifer

    1998-01-01

    Used recent longitudinal cohort of eighth graders to examine whether measures of school engagement predicted school-age pregnancy among white, black, and Hispanic teens. Found that high student engagement was associated with postponing pregnancy. Among white and Hispanic teens, dropouts were more likely than others to have school-age pregnancies.…

  13. Norms as Group-Level Constructs: Investigating School-Level Teen Pregnancy Norms and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Social norms are a group-level phenomenon, but past quantitative research has rarely measured them in the aggregate or considered their group-level properties. We used the school-based design of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to measure normative climates regarding teen pregnancy across 75 U.S. high schools. We distinguished between the strength of a school's norm against teen pregnancy and the consensus around that norm. School-level norm strength and dissensus were strongly (r = -0.65) and moderately (r = 0.34) associated with pregnancy prevalence within schools, respectively. Normative climate partially accounted for observed racial differences in school pregnancy prevalence, but norms were a stronger predictor than racial composition. As hypothesized, schools with both a stronger average norm against teen pregnancy and greater consensus around the norm had the lowest pregnancy prevalence. Results highlight the importance of group-level normative processes and of considering the local school environment when designing policies to reduce teen pregnancy. PMID:26074628

  14. A best practice position statement on pregnancy in chronic kidney disease: the Italian Study Group on Kidney and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cabiddu, Gianfranca; Castellino, Santina; Gernone, Giuseppe; Santoro, Domenico; Moroni, Gabriella; Giannattasio, Michele; Gregorini, Gina; Giacchino, Franca; Attini, Rossella; Loi, Valentina; Limardo, Monica; Gammaro, Linda; Todros, Tullia; Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara

    2016-06-01

    Pregnancy is increasingly undertaken in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and, conversely, CKD is increasingly diagnosed in pregnancy: up to 3 % of pregnancies are estimated to be complicated by CKD. The heterogeneity of CKD (accounting for stage, hypertension and proteinuria) and the rarity of several kidney diseases make risk assessment difficult and therapeutic strategies are often based upon scattered experiences and small series. In this setting, the aim of this position statement of the Kidney and Pregnancy Study Group of the Italian Society of Nephrology is to review the literature, and discuss the experience in the clinical management of CKD in pregnancy. CKD is associated with an increased risk for adverse pregnancy-related outcomes since its early stage, also in the absence of hypertension and proteinuria, thus supporting the need for a multidisciplinary follow-up in all CKD patients. CKD stage, hypertension and proteinuria are interrelated, but they are also independent risk factors for adverse pregnancy-related outcomes. Among the different kidney diseases, patients with glomerulonephritis and immunologic diseases are at higher risk of developing or increasing proteinuria and hypertension, a picture often difficult to differentiate from preeclampsia. The risk is higher in active immunologic diseases, and in those cases that are detected or flare up during pregnancy. Referral to tertiary care centres for multidisciplinary follow-up and tailored approaches are warranted. The risk of maternal death is, almost exclusively, reported in systemic lupus erythematosus and vasculitis, which share with diabetic nephropathy an increased risk for perinatal death of the babies. Conversely, patients with kidney malformation, autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease, stone disease, and previous upper urinary tract infections are at higher risk for urinary tract infections, in turn associated with prematurity. No risk for malformations other than those

  15. [Lycopene intake by different aged women groups].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice. PMID:20839464

  16. Vitreous Hemorrhage in Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    AlHarkan, Dora H.; Kahtani, Eman S.; Gikandi, Priscilla W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To identify and study causes of vitreous hemorrhage (VH) in pediatric age group and to investigate factors predicting visual and anatomical outcomes. Procedure. A retrospective review of patients aged 16 years or less with the diagnosis of vitreous hemorrhage from January 2005 until December 2010. Results. A total number of 230 patients (240 eyes) were identified. Traumatic vitreous hemorrhage accounted for 82.5%. In cases of accidental trauma, final visual acuity of 20/200 was significantly associated with visual acuity of ≥20/200 at presentation and the absence of retinal detachment at last follow-up. Patients with nontraumatic vitreous hemorrhage were significantly younger with higher rates of enucleation/evisceration/exenteration and retinal detachment at last follow-up compared to traumatic cases. Conclusion. Trauma is the most common cause of VH in pediatric age group. In this group, initial visual acuity was the most important predictor for visual outcome, and the presence of retinal detachment is a negative predictor for final good visual outcome. The outcome is significantly worse in nontraumatic cases compared to traumatic cases. PMID:25505975

  17. The benefits of influenza vaccine in pregnancy for the fetus and the infant younger than six months of age

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Noni E; McDonald, Jane C

    2014-01-01

    Influenza is a serious problem for infants <6 months of age, whose hospitalization rates for influenza and associated illness are comparable with rates in the elderly. Because influenza vaccines are not effective in this age group, the optimal evidence-based strategy is to administer trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines during pregnancy. Immunizing with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in the second and third trimester is well studied and safe, not only providing protection for the pregnant woman and her infant <6 months of age, but also for the fetus by decreasing the risk for low birth weight. PMID:25587237

  18. Group comparisons: imaging the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    D’Esposito, Mark

    2008-01-01

    With the recent growth of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), scientists across a range of disciplines are comparing neural activity between groups of interest, such as healthy controls and clinical patients, children and young adults and younger and older adults. In this edition of Tools of the Trade, we will discuss why great caution must be taken when making group comparisons in studies using fMRI. Although many methodological contributions have been made in recent years, the suggestions for overcoming common issues are too often overlooked. This review focuses primarily on neuroimaging studies of healthy aging, but many of the issues raised apply to other group designs as well. PMID:18846241

  19. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  20. Mixed Age Groups in Swedish Nursery School and Compulsory School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundell, Knut

    Before 1970, no mixed-age groups existed in Swedish nursery schools. By 1991, 43 percent of children enrolled in nursery school were in mixed-age groups of ages 1 to 6 years, and 37 percent were in groups of children ages 3 to 6 years. Mixed-age groups are assumed to have advantages, including positive influences on learning and social…

  1. School-Age Pregnancy: Why Hasn't Prevention Worked?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike

    1993-01-01

    Neither sexuality education nor abstinence programs have reduced adolescent pregnancy or sexually transmitted disease. The article presents recent data, explains why prevention does not work, and describes crucial factors that school and community prevention programs fail to incorporate (adult-teen intercourse, teen-teen intercourse, adult…

  2. Folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy and asthma in children aged six

    PubMed Central

    MARTINUSSEN, Marit P.; RISNES, Kari R.; JACOBSEN, Geir W.; BRACKEN, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess whether folic acid intake during the first trimester of pregnancy is related to asthma in the offspring by the age of 6 years. Study design Prospective cohort study of 1,499 women who were followed from first trimester of pregnancy. Their children were followed until they were 6 years old. Results 51% of the women used folic acid in the month before conception and 88% in the third month of pregnancy. The adjusted OR per 100 microgram increase in average daily intake of folic acid was 0.98 (95% CI:0.93-1.04). For categories of daily folate intake, there was no evidence of associations with childhood asthma nor evidence of any dose response relation for any time period (all ptrend>0.05) Conclusion Our results do not support any association of folic acid supplementation in pregnancy and asthma risk in offspring by age 6 years. PMID:21982024

  3. Helminth infection, fecundity, and age of first pregnancy in women.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Aaron D; Tamayo, Marilyne A; Beheim, Bret; Trumble, Benjamin C; Stieglitz, Jonathan; Hooper, Paul L; Martin, Melanie; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2015-11-20

    Infection with intestinal helminths results in immunological changes that influence co-infections, and might influence fecundity by inducing immunological states affecting conception and pregnancy. We investigated associations between intestinal helminths and fertility in women, using 9 years of longitudinal data from 986 Bolivian forager-horticulturalists, experiencing natural fertility and 70% helminth prevalence. We found that different species of helminth are associated with contrasting effects on fecundity. Infection with roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) is associated with earlier first births and shortened interbirth intervals, whereas infection with hookworm is associated with delayed first pregnancy and extended interbirth intervals. Thus, helminths may have important effects on human fertility that reflect physiological and immunological consequences of infection. PMID:26586763

  4. Age, occupational class and sickness absence during pregnancy: a retrospective analysis study of the Norwegian population registry

    PubMed Central

    Ariansen, Anja M S

    2014-01-01

    Objective Western women increasingly delay having children to advance their career, and pregnancy is considered to be riskier among older women. In Norway, this development surprisingly coincides with increased sickness absence among young pregnant women, rather than their older counterparts. This paper tests the hypothesis that young pregnant women have a higher number of sick days because this age group includes a higher proportion of working class women, who are more prone to sickness absence. Design A zero-inflated Poisson regression was conducted on the Norwegian population registry. Participants All pregnant employees giving birth in 2004–2008 were included in the study. A total number of 216 541 pregnancies were observed among 180 483 women. Outcome measure Number of sick days. Results Although the association between age and number of sick days was U-shaped, pregnant women in their early 20s had a higher number of sick days than those in their mid-40s. This was particularly the case for pregnant women with previous births. In this group, 20-year-olds had 12.6 more sick days than 45-year-olds; this age difference was reduced to 6.3 after control for class. Among women undergoing their first pregnancy, 20-year-olds initially had 1.2 more sick days than 45-year-olds, but control for class altered this age difference. After control for class, 45-year-old first-time pregnant women had 2.9 more sick days than 20-year-olds with corresponding characteristics. Conclusions The negative association between age and sickness absence was partly due to younger age groups including more working class women, who were more prone to sickness absence. Young pregnant women's needs for job adjustments should not be underestimated. PMID:24793246

  5. Sex, Pregnancy and Contraception: A Report of Focus Group Discussions with Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugland, Barbara W.; Wilder, Kathleen J.; Chandra, Anita

    Findings in this report summarize the first phase of a larger, multi-year study that is combining qualitative and quantitative methods to outline a conceptual framework to guide future demographic/fertility research, pregnancy prevention programs and policies. Twelve focus groups--involving a multiculturally representative group of male and female…

  6. Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... each trimester are described below. 1 First Trimester (Week 1 to Week 12) The events that lead to pregnancy begin ... and oxygen to the fetus. 2 Second Trimester (Week 13 to Week 28) At 16 weeks, and ...

  7. Effect of age and pregnancy status on adaptive immune responses of Canadian Holstein replacement heifers.

    PubMed

    Hine, B C; Cartwright, S L; Mallard, B A

    2011-02-01

    Selection for production traits with little or no emphasis on health traits has led to an increase in the incidence of disease in Canadian dairy herds. We describe here a patented protocol for estimating the breeding value for immune responsiveness in heifers that combines measures of both cell-mediated (CM) and antibody-mediated (AM) immune responses (IR). The ability of putative type 1 and type 2 antigens used to induce CMIR and AMIR, respectively, was assessed in replacement Holstein heifers, and the effects of age and pregnancy on type 1 and type 2 IR bias were estimated. Results demonstrated that the type 1 and type 2 antigens induced polarized type 1 and type 2 responses in heifers regardless of age and pregnancy status, and can therefore be used to identify animals with superior overall immune responsiveness. However, age and pregnancy status had significant effects on adaptive IR profiles, highlighting the need for appropriate statistical modeling of such effects when ranking animals on their ability to mount CM and AMIR. Responses became increasingly type 1 biased as heifers approached 12 mo of age, from which point, responses then became increasingly type 2 biased with age and length of gestation. Knowledge of how age and pregnancy influence the dynamics of type 1 and type 2 IR bias is expected to improve our ability to select animals with enhanced immune responsiveness and aid in the development of effective vaccines through strategic targeting of vaccine components to recipients. PMID:21257066

  8. Group Prenatal Care Results in Medicaid Savings with Better Outcomes: A Propensity Score Analysis of CenteringPregnancy Participation in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Gareau, Sarah; Lòpez-De Fede, Ana; Loudermilk, Brandon L; Cummings, Tammy H; Hardin, James W; Picklesimer, Amy H; Crouch, Elizabeth; Covington-Kolb, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Objectives This study was undertaken to determine the cost savings of prevention of adverse birth outcomes for Medicaid women participating in the CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care program at a pilot program in South Carolina. Methods A retrospective five-year cohort study of Medicaid women was assessed for differences in birth outcomes among women involved in CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care (n = 1262) and those receiving individual prenatal care (n = 5066). The study outcomes examined were premature birth and the related outcomes of low birthweight (LBW) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) visits. Because women were not assigned to the CenteringPregnancy group, a propensity score analysis ensured that the inference of the estimated difference in birth outcomes between the treatment groups was adjusted for nonrandom assignment based on age, race, Clinical Risk Group, and plan type. A series of generalized linear models were run to estimate the difference between the proportions of individuals with adverse birth outcomes, or the risk differences, for CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care participation. Estimated risk differences, the coefficient on the CenteringPregnancy group indicator variable from identity-link binomial variance generalized linear models, were then used to calculate potential cost savings due to participation in the CenteringPregnancy group. Results This study estimated that CenteringPregnancy participation reduced the risk of premature birth (36 %, P < 0.05). For every premature birth prevented, there was an average savings of $22,667 in health expenditures. Participation in CenteringPregnancy reduced the incidence of delivering an infant that was LBW (44 %, P < 0.05, $29,627). Additionally, infants of CenteringPregnancy participants had a reduced risk of a NICU stay (28 %, P < 0.05, $27,249). After considering the state investment of $1.7 million, there was an estimated return on investment of nearly $2.3

  9. Dietary intakes of age-group swimmers.

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, J A; Williams, M M

    1991-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to collect information regarding the dietary habits of male and female age-group swimmers and report the energy consumptions of these athletes in relation to their daily training demands. Twenty competitive swimmers, who were training 6000 m per day 6 days a week, recorded all fluid and food consumed during a 4-day period. Dietary analysis revealed that 11 swimmers (55%) had calcium intakes below recommended dietary allowances (RDA), while 13 (65%) had iron intakes lower than RDA. Despite identical training loads and body mass, male swimmers had significantly greater (P = 0.004) daily mean (s.d.) energy consumption (3072(732) kcal, 12.9(3.1) MJ) than females (2130(544) kcal, 8.9(2.3) MJ) and were maintaining energy balance. Although the contribution of carbohydrate to total daily energy intake was the same for male (55%) and female swimmers (56%), the females ingested significantly less (P = 0.011) carbohydrate (292(87) g) than the males (404(88) g) and could be considered deficient in dietary carbohydrate with respect to their daily training demands. PMID:1777785

  10. Documentation of Contraception and Pregnancy When Prescribing Potentially Teratogenic Medications for Reproductive-Age Women

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Postlethwaite, Debbie A.; Hung, Yun-Yi; Armstrong, Mary Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Certain medications are identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as class D or X because they increase the risk for birth defects if used during pregnancy. Objective To assess pregnancy rates and the frequency of contraceptive counseling documented with prescriptions for class D or X drugs filled by women of reproductive age. Design Description of prescriptions filled in 2001. Setting A large health maintenance organization in northern California in 2001. Patients 488 175 women age 15 to 44 years who filled a total of 1 011 658 class A, B, D, or X prescriptions. Measurements Medications dispensed, contraceptive counseling, and pregnancy testing. Results A class D or X prescription was filled by 1 of every 6 women studied. Women who filled a prescription for class D or X medications were no more likely than women who filled prescriptions for safer, class A or B medications to have received contraceptive counseling, filled a contraceptive prescription, or been sterilized (48% vs. 51% of prescriptions). There was little variation by clinical indication in rates of contraceptive counseling with class D or X prescriptions, except for isotretinoin. Women who filled a class D or X prescription were only slightly less likely to have a pregnancy documented within 3 months than women filling a class A or B prescription (1.0% vs. 1.4% of prescriptions). Limitations International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes underestimate contraceptive counseling. Documentation of a positive pregnancy test after filling a prescription may overestimate medication use in early pregnancy. Women who filled several prescriptions are overrepresented in prescription analyses. Conclusion Prescriptions for potentially teratogenic medications are frequently filled by women of childbearing age without documentation of contraceptive counseling. PMID:17876020

  11. The effect of mare's age on multiple ovulation rate, embryo recovery, post-transfer pregnancy rate, and interovulatory interval in a commercial embryo transfer program in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marinone, A I; Losinno, L; Fumuso, E; Rodríguez, E M; Redolatti, C; Cantatore, S; Cuervo-Arango, J

    2015-07-01

    Advanced maternal age is an important predisposing factor on the reduction of reproductive efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of donor's age on several reproductive parameters in a commercial equine embryo transfer program. Donors were classified into 3 age groups: Group 1=fillies (3 and 4 years old), Group 2=middle age mares (aged 5-10) and Group 3=old mares (aged 13-25). Embryo recovery, multiple ovulation and pregnancy rates and interovulatory intervals were compared amongst age groups. Group 1 (171/244, 70.1%) and Group 2 (774/1081, 71.6%) had a higher (P<0.005) embryo recovery rate than Group 3 (385/701, 54.9%). Groups 2 and 3 were 2.5 and 3.4 times more likely to have multiple ovulations than Group 1 (P<0.05), respectively. The effect of age group on pregnancy rate was not significant (P>0.05). The interovulatory intervals length was influenced by individual mare (P<0.001), age (P<0.04), Day of flushing (P=0.009) and by month (P<0.012). The overall mean interovulatory interval of Group 1 (16.4±0.17 days) and Group 2 (16.6±0.12 days) was not different (P>0.05), but was shorter than the one of Group 3 (17.4±0.15 days; P<0.04). The embryo recovery rate of flushings from Groups 1 and 2 was influenced by the length of the previous interovulatory interval (P=0.03). PMID:25981675

  12. Pregnancy among the Hmong: Birthweight, Age, and Parity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsel, Deborah; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reproductive factors for Hmong immigrants (mothers of 1,937 children) were compared with those of 3,776 white, non-Hispanic women. Despite a high proportion of births at high parity and advanced maternal age, Hmong women gave birth to very low birth weight babies at about the same rate as white women. (SLD)

  13. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Real-time Ultrasound Measurements for Hanwoo Cows at Different Ages and Pregnancy Status

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. H.; Lee, Y. M.; Oh, S.-H.; Son, H. J.; Jeong, D. J.; Whitley, Niki; Kim, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of ultrasound measurements for longissimus dorsi muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BFT), and marbling score (MS) in Hanwoo cows (N = 3,062) at the ages between 18 and 42 months. Data were collected from 100 Hanwoo breeding farms in Gyeongbuk province, Korea, in 2007 and 2008. The cows were classified into four different age groups, i.e. 18 to 22 months (the first pregnancy period), 23 to 27 (the first parturition), 28 to 32 (the second pregnancy), and 33 to 42 (the second parturition), respectively. For each age group, a multi-trait animal model was used to estimate variance components and heritabilities of the three traits. The averages of LMA, BFT, and MS measurements across the cows of all age groups were 50.1 cm2, 4.62 mm, and 3.04, respectively and heritability estimates were 0.09, 0.10, and 0.08 for the respective traits. However, when the data were analyzed in different age groups, heritability estimates of LMA and BFT were 0.24 and 0.47, respectively, for the cows of 18 to 22 months of age, and 0.21 for MS in the 28 to 32 months old cows. When the cows of all age groups were used, the estimates of genetic (phenotypic) correlations were 0.43 (0.35), −0.06 (0.34) and 0.21 (0.32) between LMA and BFT, LMA and MS, and BFT and MS, respectively. However, in the cow age group between 28 and 32 (18 and 22) months, the estimates of genetic (phenotypic) correlations were 0.05 (0.29), −0.15 (0.24) and 0.38 (0.24), for the respective pairs of traits. These results suggest that genetic, environmental, and phenotypic variations differ depending on cow age, such that care must be taken when ultrasound measurements are applied to selection of cows for meat quality. PMID:25049938

  14. Maternal Nutrition and Glycaemic Index during Pregnancy Impacts on Offspring Adiposity at 6 Months of Age--Analysis from the ROLO Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Horan, Mary K; McGowan, Ciara A; Gibney, Eileen R; Byrne, Jacinta; Donnelly, Jean M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic disease. Diet and lifestyle in pregnancy influence fetal programming; however the influence of specific dietary components, including low glycaemic index (GI), remains complex. We examined the effect of a maternal low GI dietary intervention on offspring adiposity at 6 months and explored the association between diet and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and infant body composition at 6 months. 280 6-month old infant and mother pairs from the control (n = 142) and intervention group (n = 138), who received low GI dietary advice in pregnancy, in the ROLO study were analysed. Questionnaires (food diaries and lifestyle) were completed during pregnancy, followed by maternal lifestyle and infant feeding questionnaires at 6 months postpartum. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and at 6 months post-delivery, along with infant anthropometry. No difference was found in 6 months infant adiposity between control and intervention groups. Maternal trimester three GI, trimester two saturated fats and trimester one and three sodium intake were positively associated with offspring adiposity, while trimester two and three vitamin C intake was negatively associated. In conclusion associations were observed between maternal dietary intake and GI during pregnancy and offspring adiposity at 6 months of age. PMID:26742066

  15. Effects of biostimulation and nutritional supplementation on pubertal age and pregnancy rates of Nelore heifers (Bos indicus) in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C M G; Oliveira Filho, B D; Gambarini, M L; Viu, M A O; Lopes, D T; Sousa, A P F

    2009-07-01

    To determine effects of biostimulation (BIO) and dietary supplementation (BIO+S) on pubertal age and pregnancy rates, Nelore heifers (n=392) were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups (n=98/group). All animals were in tropical environmental conditions, in the middle-west region of Brazil, grazing in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha, cv. Marandu; Panicum Maximum, cv. Tanzânia and Brachiaria humidícula. The heifers of the BIO group were kept in the presence of bulls while being maintained on pasture; the animals in the BIO+S group were kept in the presence of bulls while being managed on pasture and were fed a diet with greater energy and protein content to produce 0.49 kg of BW gain/day; the animals in control group (the NBIO) were kept away from bulls and under pasture conditions; and the animals in the NBIO+S group were kept away from bulls, were maintained on pasture, and were fed the same diet as the BIO+S group. Heifers were bred at 22-23 months of age, and pregnancy diagnosis was made 45 days after the end of the breeding season. There were differences (P<0.05) between groups regarding pubertal heifers up to 19 months (NPH), final body weight (FBW) and pregnancy rates (P<0.01), with an advantage for the animals in the BIO and BIO+S groups. Although the effect of a diet with greater protein and energy content was not clear in this experiment, the exposure of heifers to a male during the prepubertal period decreased age at the first breeding season, resulting in a significant reduction in age of first pregnancy in Nelore heifers kept under extensive management systems in a tropical environment. PMID:18805660

  16. Mate selection and its impact on female marriage age, pregnancy wastages, and first child survival in Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Sureender, S; Prabakaran, B; Khan, A G

    1998-01-01

    Marriage in Indian society is a religious duty. Consanguineous marriage is common, where individuals prefer to marry within their clan (a unilateral kin group based on either matrilineal or patrilineal descent). Keeping in mind that this form of marriage has certain disadvantages for social and biological as well as demographic aspects of individuals and families, the present study examines the influence of mate selection (i.e., close relatives, distant relatives, not related) on female age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and survival status of the first child. The study was designed based on the information collected on a sample size of 3,948 married women aged 13-49 in Tamil Nadu, India, by the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), 1992. Results suggest that 48 per cent of women in Tamil Nadu marry their relatives. This practice of marrying relatives is high in rural areas, among Hindus, Scheduled Castes/tribes, and illiterate women as compared to urban areas, among non-Hindus, non-SC/ST, and educated women, respectively. The bivariate analysis reveals that women marrying their close relatives had low age at marriage and experienced a higher per cent of pregnancy wastage and child loss (first child) as compared to those women marrying their distant relatives or nonrelatives. The result is found to be consistent even after controlling for selected background variables through multivariate techniques (applied separately for age at marriage, pregnancy wastages, and the survival status of first child). Hence, this study suggests that steps should be taken to inform people about the problems of marrying close relatives through appropriate IEC programs in Tamil Nadu. PMID:10085741

  17. Timing the second birth: fecundability models for selected race and age groups in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Swanson, D A

    1986-12-01

    This article tests exponential models for fecundability for use in predicting the timing of the second birth in a non-contracepting population, using data from Hawaii for reference. The paper begins with an extensive review of the literature on mathematical models for birth intervals. The most common problem with prior studies is that the reference data are often biased with uncontrolled parameters such as maternal age, abortion history, lactation practice and pregnancy planning. Pertinent bias in the present data is evaluated. The principal tool used here is an exponential distribution, maximum-likelihood method, involving partial differential equations. The model was constructed by subjecting it to 3 steps: 1) it was tested for exponentiality with a Gail-Gastwirth test that does not depend upon an unknown parameter; 2) the reciprocal of the mean second birth interval was calculated for each group that passed the first test; 3) the estimated frequencies were tested against observed by the chi-squared goodness of fit test. The results are tabulated as separate racial groups, combined races, and age groups. Fecundabilities varied widely by age within all races. For all races, rates were .07045, .03423 and .02777 for ages 20-24, 25-29, and 30-34. Thus the results suggest that fecundability rates are largely determined by age related factors associated with coital frequency, rather than by racial or physiological variations. Other factors potentially influencing fecundability in actual data or models are discussed, such as period effects, the "intendedness" of pregnancy, types of non-live birth intervals, lactation, induced and spontaneous abortion, and differences in pre- and post-demographic transition populations. Finally appendices are added discussing cohort size bias, presenting data set documentation and evaluating the length of pregnancy term and post-partum sterility in the data used here. PMID:12268733

  18. Quality Care through Multi-Age Grouping of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Leo

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that multi-age grouping in early childhood settings can and does work. Addresses four main hurdles to successful implementation: (1) laws and regulations that act as barriers; (2) health concerns; (3) overcoming educational values that conflict with those of the age-grouped classroom; and (4) staff misunderstanding of multi-age grouping…

  19. Association between maternal age and pregnancy outcome: implications for the Pakistani society.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Hafsa Muhammad

    2011-03-01

    Maternal age at conception has long been demonstrated to have a significant correlation with pregnancy outcome and maternal health. Classically, very young (<20 years old) and old (= or >35 years) women have been classified as high-risk categories for child bearing. Recently, career, education, financial, and other goals have coerced women to delay childbearing all over the world. This trend is also becoming apparent in Pakistan, especially in the upper middle class, wealthy and educated women, as they become increasingly empowered. This review presents the association between maternal age and pregnancy outcome, particularly in the context of statistics of Pakistan, and its possible repercussions. On one hand, physicians need to develop effective counseling strategies for their patients in this regard, and on the other, more studies are required to ascertain the attitudes of Pakistani women, particularly those belonging to the upper and middle classes, regarding delayed childbearing, that can aid physicians in formulating effective counseling strategies. PMID:21465960

  20. Association Between Low Dairy Intake During Pregnancy and Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants.

    PubMed

    Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Luna-Del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Mozas-Moreno, Juan; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2016-06-01

    Background Inadequate maternal nutrition is regarded as one of the most important indicators of fetal growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the associated risk of having a small for gestational age (SGA) infant according to the mother's dairy intake during the first half of pregnancy. Methods A prospective cohort study was performed using 1175 healthy pregnant women selected from the catchment area of Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada (Spain). SGA was defined as neonates weighing less than the 10th percentile, adjusted for gestational age. Factors associated with SGA were analyzed using logistic regression models. Population attributable fractions of SGA according to dairy intake were estimated. Results Dairy intake among women who gave birth to SGA infants was 513.9, versus 590.3 g/day for women with appropriate size for gestational age infants (P = 0.003). An increased intake of dairy products by 100 g/day during the first half of pregnancy decreased the risk of having a SGA infant by 11.0 %, aOR = 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). A dose-response gradient between dairy intake and SGA was observed. Conclusions An inadequate intake of dairy products is associated with a higher risk of SGA. Our results suggest a possible causal relation between dairy intake during pregnancy and the weight of the newborn, although we cannot discard residual confounding. These results should be further supported by properly designed studies. PMID:26971269

  1. Does passive smoking in early pregnancy increase the risk of small-for-gestational-age infants?

    PubMed Central

    Dejin-Karlsson, E; Hanson, B S; Ostergren, P O; Sjöberg, N O; Marsal, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that women who deliver small-for-gestational-age infants are more often exposed to passive smoking at home or at work. METHODS: Among a 1-year cohort of nulliparous women in the city of Malmö, Sweden 872 (87.7%) women completed a questionnaire during their first prenatal visit. The study was carried out among women whose pregnancies resulted in a singleton live birth (n = 826), 6.7% of infants were classified as small for their gestational age. RESULTS: Passive smoking in early pregnancy was shown to double a woman's risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age infant, independent of potential confounding factors such as age, height, weight, nationality, educational level, and the mother's own active smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7). A stratified analysis indicated interactional effects of maternal smoking and passive smoking on relative small-for-gestational-age risk. CONCLUSIONS: Based on an attributable risk estimate, a considerable reduction in the incidence of small-for-gestational-age births could be reached if pregnant women were not exposed to passive smoking. PMID:9772856

  2. A qualitative study of the experience of CenteringPregnancy group prenatal care for physicians

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study sought to understand the central meaning of the experience of group prenatal care for physicians who were involved in providing CenteringPregnancy through a maternity clinic in Calgary, Canada. Method The study followed the phenomenological qualitative tradition. Three physicians involved in group prenatal care participated in a one-on-one interview between November and December 2009. Two physicians participated in verification sessions. Interviews followed an open ended general guide and were audio recorded and transcribed. The purpose of the analysis was to identify meaning themes and the core meaning experienced by the physicians. Results Six themes emerged: (1) having a greater exchange of information, (2) getting to knowing, (3) seeing women get to know and support each other, (4) sharing ownership of care, (5) having more time, and (6) experiencing enjoyment and satisfaction in providing care. These themes contributed to the core meaning for physicians of “providing richer care.” Conclusions Physicians perceived providing better care and a better professional experience through CenteringPregnancy compared to their experience of individual prenatal care. Thus, CenteringPregnancy could improve work place satisfaction, increase retention of providers in maternity care, and improve health care for women. PMID:23445867

  3. [Sonographic diagnosis of pregnancy and determination of fetal number and gestational age in ewes].

    PubMed

    Schmid, D; Schiess, A; Tustain, G; Fleisch, A; Bollwein, H; Janett, F

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis, determination of fetal number and estimation of gestational age in ewes. A total of 1068 ewes from 8 different flocks (Swiss White Alpine n = 379, Swiss Black-Brown Mountain n = 189, Oxford-type n = 164, Ostfriesian n = 154, Texel n = 104, Lacaune x Osfriesian crossbred n = 78) was investigated using an Ovi-Scan™ ultrasound scanner with a 3.5 MHz 170° mechanical axial probe (BCF Technology Ltd., BelIshill, Great Britain). Scanning was performed transabdominally at the right inguinal region in ewes restrained in standing position. Sonographic findings were compared with lambing data recorded by the farmers. Included in the analysis were all ewes that, at the time of examination, were not pregnant and those that were pregnant between 26 and 110 days with a known lambing date and number of lambs born (n = 882). The sensitivity of pregnancy diagnosis was 97.8% and the specificity 97.6% (overall accuracy 97.8%, n = 853). Sensitivity and specificity for discrimination between single and multiple pregnancies was 95.8% and 90.5% (overall accuracy 93.9%, n = 752), respectively, when multiples were defined as positive. Discrimination between twins and triplets reached a sensitivity of 86.0% and a specificity of 99.5% (overall accuracy 98.0%, n = 458) when triplets were defined as positive. Considering a gestation period of 150 days, the mean deviation of the estimated to the effective day of gestation at examination was 5.6 ± 5.0 days (n = 781). The correlation between estimated and true gestational age was very high (r=0.936, P<0.0001). In conclusion, a highly accurate and efficient diagnosis of pregnancy with reliable estimation of fetal number and age is possible using an Ovi-Scan™ ultrasound scanner by an experienced examiner. PMID:27145684

  4. [Construction of age group vegetation index and preliminary application].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhang-hua; Li, Cong-hui; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-yong; Gong, Cong-hong; Tang, Meng-ya

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper, one remote sensing index-age group vegetation index (AGVI) was put forward, and its feasibility was verified. Taking 518 groups of pine forest age group data collected in 13 counties (cities) of Sanming, Jiangle, Shaxian, Nanping, Huaan, Yunxiao, Nanping, Anxi, Putian, Changting, Jianyang, Ningde and Fuqing, Fujian Province and HJ-1 CCD multi-spectral image at the same time-phase as the basis, the spectrum differences of blue, green, red, near infrared and NDVI of each age group were analyzed, showing the characteristics of young forest>middle-aged forest>over-mature forest>mature forest>near mature forest at near infrared band and mature forest>near mature forest>over-mature forest>young forest>middle-aged forest at NDVI, thus the age group vegetation index (AGVI) was constructed; the index could increase the absolute and relative spectrum differences among age groups. For the pine forest AGVI, cluster analysis was conducted with K-mean method, showing that the division accuracy of pine forest age group was 80.45%, and the accurate rate was 90.41%. Therefore, the effectiveness of age group vegetation index constructed was confirmed. PMID:25358177

  5. Gestational age assessment in malaria pregnancy cohorts: a prospective ultrasound demonstration project in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for low birth weight (<2500 grams). Distinguishing infants that are born premature (< 37 weeks) from those that are growth-restricted (less than the 10th percentile at birth) requires accurate assessment of gestational age. Where ultrasound is accessible, sonographic confirmation of gestational age is more accurate than menstrual dating. The goal was to pilot the feasibility and utility of adding ultrasound to an observational pregnancy malaria cohort. Methods In July 2009, research staff (three mid-level clinical providers, one nurse) from The Blantyre Malaria Project underwent an intensive one-week ultrasound training to perform foetal biometry. Following an additional four months of practice and remote image review, subjects from an ongoing cohort were recruited for ultrasound to determine gestational age. Gestational age at delivery established by ultrasound was compared with postnatal gestational age assessment (Ballard examination). Results One hundred and seventy-eight women were enrolled. The majority of images were of good quality (94.3%, 509/540) although a learning curve was apparent with 17.5% (24/135) images of unacceptable quality in the first 25% of scans. Ultrasound was used to date 13% of the pregnancies when menstrual dates were unknown and changed the estimated gestational age for an additional 25%. There was poor agreement between the gestational age at delivery as established by the ultrasound protocol compared to that determined by the Ballard examination (bias 0.8 weeks, limits of agreement -3.5 weeks to 5.1 weeks). The distribution of gestational ages by Ballard suggested a clustering of gestational age around the mean with 87% of the values falling between 39 and 41 weeks. The distribution of gestational age by ultrasound confirmed menstrual dates was more typical. Using ultrasound confirmed dates as the gold standard, 78.5% of preterm infants were misclassified as

  6. Mapping for maternal and newborn health: the distributions of women of childbearing age, pregnancies and births

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The health and survival of women and their new-born babies in low income countries has been a key priority in public health since the 1990s. However, basic planning data, such as numbers of pregnancies and births, remain difficult to obtain and information is also lacking on geographic access to key services, such as facilities with skilled health workers. For maternal and newborn health and survival, planning for safer births and healthier newborns could be improved by more accurate estimations of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Moreover, subnational estimates of projected future numbers of pregnancies are needed for more effective strategies on human resources and infrastructure, while there is a need to link information on pregnancies to better information on health facilities in districts and regions so that coverage of services can be assessed. Methods This paper outlines demographic mapping methods based on freely available data for the production of high resolution datasets depicting estimates of numbers of people, women of childbearing age, live births and pregnancies, and distribution of comprehensive EmONC facilities in four large high burden countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Satellite derived maps of settlements and land cover were constructed and used to redistribute areal census counts to produce detailed maps of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Household survey data, UN statistics and other sources on growth rates, age specific fertility rates, live births, stillbirths and abortions were then integrated to convert the population distribution datasets to gridded estimates of births and pregnancies. Results and conclusions These estimates, which can be produced for current, past or future years based on standard demographic projections, can provide the basis for strategic intelligence, planning services, and provide denominators for subnational indicators to track progress. The datasets

  7. School's Out! Group Day Care for the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth; Milich, Cynthia

    This report on group day care is designed to: (1) examine the kinds of group programs for school-age children which exist in Los Angeles County, (2) describe the conditions necessary for program operation, and (3) consider the issue of quality as it relates to community expansion of day care services for children of school age. The report is…

  8. Stimulus requirements for pregnancy initiation in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) change with age and parity.

    PubMed

    Huck, U W; Lisk, R D; Guyton, C L

    1988-11-01

    Hamsters were mated repeatedly at 60, 180, 300 and 420 days of age or once during their lifetime at one of these ages. Copulatory stimulation was varied both for number of ejaculations (2 versus 14) and amount of vaginocervical stimulation (5 versus 50-60 intromissions). Two ejaculations provided sufficient spermatozoa to maximize litter size for all age and parity classes tested. Differences in fecundity depended on the amount of vaginocervical stimulation received. Higher levels of vaginocervical stimulation increased littering success at 300 and 420 days for nulliparous females and at 180, 300 and 420 days for multiparous females. Females which did not deliver litters did not show a cessation of oestrous cycles which characteristically follows the induction of a luteal phase. The decreased fecundity observed with increasing age or parity therefore resulted from a change in sensitivity to the stimulus conditions necessary to activate the neuroendocrine arc for establishment of pregnancy. PMID:3199363

  9. A Triplet Pregnancy with Spontaneous Delivery of a Fetus at Gestational Age of 20 Weeks and Pregnancy Continuation of Two Other Fetuses until Week 33

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Maryam; Moghadam, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of pregnancies with triplet or more has been increased due to using assisted reproductive treatments. Meanwhile, multiple pregnancies have higher risks and long-term maternal-fetal complications compared to twin and singleton pregnancies. Delayed interval delivery (DID) is a new approach in the management of multiple pregnancies following delivery or abortion. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the benefits of DID and presents a case that used this method. Methods: This paper covers a report on a case of triplet pregnancy resulting from assisted reproductive techniques with spontaneous delivery of a fetus at gestational age of 20 weeks and the use of conservative DID for two other fetuses until the 33rd week. Results: In our case, the delivery of two other fetuses occurred spontaneously at gestational age of 33 weeks after the delivery of the first fetus at week 20. Conclusions: Using DID is a useful and reliable method, but requires careful monitoring, especially in patients with a history of infertility. PMID:26383220

  10. Inflammatory insult during pregnancy accelerates age-related behavioral and neurobiochemical changes in CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Yan; Wang, Fang; Chen, Gui-Hai; Li, Xue-Wei; Yang, Qi-Gang; Cao, Lei; Yan, Wen-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Data shows that inflammation during pregnancy significantly exerts a long-term influence on offspring, such as increasing the risk of adult cognition decline in animals. However, it is unclear whether gestational inflammation affects the neurobehavioral and neurobiochemical outcomes in the mother-self during aging. In this study, pregnant CD-1 mice intraperitoneally received lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in two doses (25 and 50 g/kg, respectively) or normal saline daily during gestational days 15-17. At the age of 15 months, a battery of behavioral tasks was employed to evaluate their species-typical behaviors, sensorimotor ability, anxiety levels, and spatial learning and memory abilities. An immunohistochemical method was utilized preliminarily to detect neurobiochemical indicators consisting of amyloid-β, phosphorylated tau, presynaptic proteins synaptotagmin-1 and syntaxin-1, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and histone-4 acetylation on the K8 site (H4K8ac). The behavioral results showed that LPS exposure during pregnancy exacerbated a decline in 15-month-old CD-1 mice's abilities to nest, their sensorimotor and spatial learning and memory capabilities, and increased their anxiety levels. The neurobiochemical results indicated that gestational LPS exposure also intensified age-related hippocampal changes, including increased amyloid-β42, phosphorylated tau, synaptotagmin-1 and GFAP, and decreased syntaxin-1 and H4K8ac. Our results suggested that the inflammatory insult during pregnancy could be an important risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease, and the H4K8 acetylation might play an important role in the underlying mechanism. This study offers a perspective for improving strategies that support healthy development and successful aging. PMID:27194408

  11. Effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on offspring intelligence at the age of 5.

    PubMed

    Falgreen Eriksen, Hanne-Lise; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Wimberley, Theresa; Underbjerg, Mette; Kilburn, Tina Røndrup; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of tobacco smoking in pregnancy on children's IQ at the age of 5. A prospective follow-up study was conducted on 1,782 women, and their offspring were sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. At 5 years of age, the children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal alcohol consumption in pregnancy, the sex and age of the child, and tester were considered core confounders, but the full model also controlled for prenatal paternal smoking, maternal age and Bodymass Mass Index, parity, family/home environment, postnatal parental smoking, breast feeding, the child's health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Unadjusted analyses showed a statistically significant decrement of 4 points on full-scale IQ (FSIQ) associated with smoking 10+ cigarettes per day compared to nonsmoking. After adjustment for potential confounders, no significant effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking were found. Considering the indisputable teratogenic effects of tobacco smoking, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Still, the results may indicate that previous studies that failed to control for important confounders, particularly maternal intelligence, may be subject to substantial residual confounding. PMID:23316364

  12. Predictors of mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies among women of childbearing age in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While unintended pregnancies pose a serious threat to the health and well-being of families globally, characteristics of Tanzanian women who conceive unintentionally are rarely documented. This analysis identifies factors associated with unintended pregnancies—both mistimed and unwanted—in three rural districts of Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 2,183 random households was conducted in three Tanzanian districts of Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga in 2011 to assess women’s health behavior and service utilization patterns. These households produced 3,127 women age 15+ years from which 2,199 gravid women aged 15–49 were selected for the current analysis. Unintended pregnancies were identified as either mistimed (wanted later) or unwanted (not wanted at all). Correlates of mistimed, and unwanted pregnancies were identified through Chi-squared tests to assess associations and multinomial logistic regression for multivariate analysis. Results Mean age of the participants was 32.1 years. While 54.1% of the participants reported that their most recent pregnancy was intended, 32.5% indicated their most recent pregnancy as mistimed and 13.4% as unwanted. Multivariate analysis revealed that young age (<20 years), and single marital status were significant predictors of both mistimed and unwanted pregnancies. Lack of inter-partner communication about family planning increased the risk of mistimed pregnancy significantly, and multi-gravidity was shown to significantly increase the risk of unwanted pregnancy. Conclusions About one half of women in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania conceive unintentionally. Women, especially the most vulnerable should be empowered to avoid pregnancy at their own will and discretion. PMID:25102924

  13. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  14. Effect of iodine supplementation during pregnancy on infant neurodevelopment at 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Iñiguez, Carmen; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Estarlich, Marisa; Plaza, Belén; Barona-Vilar, Carmen; Espada, Mercedes; Vioque, Jesús; Ballester, Ferran

    2011-04-01

    Iodine is the main constituent of thyroid hormones, which in turn are required for fetal brain development. However, the relation between iodine intake during pregnancy, thyroid function, and child neurodevelopment needs further evaluation. The authors assessed the association of maternal iodine intake from diet and supplements during pregnancy and of maternal and neonatal thyroid function with infant neurodevelopment. The Mental Development Index and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) for 691 children were obtained between 2005 and 2007 using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at age 1 year in a prebirth cohort in Valencia, Spain. In multivariate analyses, a maternal thyrotropin level >4 μU/mL was associated with an increased risk of a PDI <85 (odds ratio = 3.5, P = 0.02). Maternal intake of ≥150 μg/day, compared with <100 μg/day, of iodine from supplements was associated with a 5.2-point decrease in PDI (95% confidence interval: -8.1, -2.2) and a 1.8-fold increase in the odds of a PDI <85 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 3.3). When analyses were stratified by sex, this association was intensified for girls but was not observed for boys. Further evidence on the safety and effectiveness of iodine supplementation during pregnancy is needed before it is systematically recommended in iodine-sufficient or mildly deficient areas. PMID:21385833

  15. Thyroid hormone concentrations in relation to age, sex, pregnancy, and perinatal loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    West, Kristi L; Ramer, Jan; Brown, Janine L; Sweeney, Jay; Hanahoe, Erin M; Reidarson, Tom; Proudfoot, Jeffry; Bergfelt, Don R

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated circulating concentrations of thyroid hormones in relation to age, sex, pregnancy status, and perinatal loss in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) under human care. A total of 373 blood samples were collected from 60 individual dolphins housed at nine aquariums/oceanariums. Serum concentrations of total and free thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were analyzed with commercial RIA kits validated for use with dolphins. While the effect of age was indicated by higher (P<0.0001) concentrations of total and free T4 and T3 in juveniles than adults, the effect of sex on thyroid hormones was inconclusive. The effect of pregnancy was indicated by higher (P<0.035) total and free T4 and T3 during early pregnancy compared to non-pregnancy. For both successful and unsuccessful pregnancy outcomes, maternal concentrations of thyroid hormones were highest during early, intermediate during mid, and lowest during late pregnancy (P<0.07 to P<0.0001). Compared to live and thriving births, concentrations of total and free T4 and total T3 were lower (P<0.08 to P<0.001) in dolphins with perinatal loss. Lower concentrations ranged from 10% to 14% during early, 11% to 18% during mid, and 23% to 37% during late pregnancy. In conclusion, the effects of age, reproductive status and stage of pregnancy on thyroid hormone concentrations are necessary factors to take into account when assessing thyroid gland function. Since perinatal loss may be associated with hypothyroidism in dolphins, analysis of serum T4 and T3 should be considered for those dolphins that have a history of pregnancy loss. PMID:24321177

  16. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  17. Health expenditures by age group, 1977 and 1987

    PubMed Central

    Waldo, Daniel R.; Sonnefeld, Sally T.; McKusick, David R.; Arnett, Ross H.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, concern has increased over the rapid growth of health care spending, especially spending on behalf of the aged. In 1987, those 65 years or over comprised 12 percent of the population but consumed 36 percent of total personal health care. This article is an examination of the current and future composition of the population and effects on health care spending. National health accounts aggregates for 1977 and 1987 are split into three age groups, and the consumption patterns of each group are discussed. The variations in spending within the aged cohort are also examined. PMID:10313274

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Universal Prophylaxis in Pregnancy with Prior Group B Streptococci Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Turrentine, Mark A.; Ramirez, Mildred M.; Mastrobattista, Joan M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To estimate the costs and outcomes of rescreening for group B streptococci (GBS) compared to universal treatment of term women with history of GBS colonization in a previous pregnancy. Study Design. A decision analysis model was used to compare costs and outcomes. Total cost included the costs of screening, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP), treatment for maternal anaphylaxis and death, evaluation of well infants whose mothers received IAP, and total costs for treatment of term neonatal early onset GBS sepsis. Results. When compared to screening and treating, universal treatment results in more women treated per GBS case prevented (155 versus 67) and prevents more cases of early onset GBS (1732 versus 1700) and neonatal deaths (52 versus 51) at a lower cost per case prevented ($8 805 versus $12 710). Conclusion. Universal treatment of term pregnancies with a history of previous GBS colonization is more cost-effective than the strategy of screening and treating based on positive culture results. PMID:20052397

  19. Equestrian trauma: injury patterns vary among age groups.

    PubMed

    Bilaniuk, Jaroslaw W; Adams, John M; DiFazio, Louis T; Siegel, Brian K; Allegra, John R; Luján, Juan J; Durling-Grover, Renay; Pawar, Joanne; Rolandelli, Rolando H; Németh, Zoltán H

    2014-04-01

    Patients with equestrian injuries were identified in the trauma registry from 2004 to 2007. We a priori divided patients into three groups: 0 to 18 years, 19 to 49 years, and 50 years old or older. There were 284 patients identified with equestrian-related trauma. Injury Severity Score for the three major age categories 0 to 18 years, 19 to 49 years, and 50 years or older, were 3.47, 5.09, and 6.27, respectively. The most common body region injured among all patients was the head (26.1%). The most common injuries by age group were: 0 to 18 years, upper extremity fractures; 19 to 49 year olds, concussions; and 50 years or older, rib fractures. Significant differences were observed among the three age groups in terms of percent of patients with rib fractures: percent of patients with rib fractures was 2, 8, and 22 per cent in age groups 0 to 18, 19 to 49, and 50 years or older, respectively. We found different patterns of injuries associated with equestrian accidents by age. Head injuries were commonly seen among participants in equestrian activities and helmet use should be promoted to minimize the severity of closed head injuries. Injury patterns also seem to vary among the various age groups that ride horses. This information could be used to better target injury prevention efforts among these patients. PMID:24887673

  20. The effect of face-to-face or group education during pregnancy on sexual function of couples in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Bahadoran, Parvin; MohammadiMahdiabadzade, Maryam; Nasiri, Hamid; GholamiDehaghi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy can be in conflict with sexual function which can be affected by physical and psychological changes during pregnancy. Therefore, comparison of the effect of face-to-face education with group education on sexual function during pregnancy in couples was the purpose of this research. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental pre-test post-test study, 64 pregnant couples were selected and randomized in two groups in Isfahan. The data were collected using the triangulation of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Brief form of Sexual Function Inventory (BSFI), and demographic characteristics questionnaires. The data were analyzed by independent t-test, paired t-test, Chi-square, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and analysis of variance (ANOVA) in SPSS. Results: No significant difference was found in the demographic characteristics between the two groups. Education was effective on sexual function in the two groups of women (P < 0.001), but no significant difference was found between the two groups (P = 0.61). Also, education was effective on sexual function of men in both the groups (P < 0.001) and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.003). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between couples regarding the education (P = 0.104). Conclusions: The results of the study showed that type of education plays a role in improvement of sexual function in pregnancy. In addition, sex education is effective in prevention of sexual disorders in pregnancy. Therefore, having a special approach toward sex education classes during pregnancy is important for the health providers, particularly midwifery professionals. PMID:26457096

  1. INEQUITY ISSUES AND MOTHERS' PREGNANCY, DELIVERY AND EARLY-AGE SURVIVAL EXPERIENCES IN ENDE DISTRICT, INDONESIA.

    PubMed

    Pardosi, Jerico Franciscus; Parr, Nick; Muhidin, Salut

    2015-11-01

    Indonesia's infant mortality rates are among the highest in South-East Asia, and there are substantial variations between its sub-national regions. This qualitative study aims to explore early mortality-related health service provision and gender inequity issues based on mothers' pregnancy, delivery and early-age survival experience in Ende district, Nusa Tenggara Timur province. Thirty-two mothers aged 18-45 years with at least one birth in the previous five years were interviewed in depth in May 2013. The results show most mothers have little knowledge about the danger signs for a child's illness. Mothers with early-age deaths generally did not know the cause of death. Very few mothers had received adequate information on maternal and child health during their antenatal and postnatal visits to the health facility. Some mothers expressed a preference for using a traditional birth attendant, because of their ready availability and the more extensive range of support services they provide, compared with local midwives. Unprofessional attitudes displayed by midwives were reported by several mothers. As elsewhere in Indonesia, the power of health decision-making lies with the husband. Policies aimed at elevating mothers' roles in health care decision-making are discussed as measures that would help to improve early-age survival outcomes. Widening the public health insurance distribution, especially among poorer mothers, and equalizing the geographical distribution of midwives and health facilities are recommended to tackle geographical inequities and to increase early-age survival in Ende district. PMID:25499196

  2. Malaria in pregnancy in rural Gabon: a cross-sectional survey on the impact of seasonality in high-risk groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria remains one of the most important infectious diseases in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa. Whereas seasonal malaria chemoprevention is advocated as public health intervention for children in certain areas of highly seasonal malaria transmission, the impact of seasonality on malaria in pregnancy has not yet been investigated for stable, hyper-endemic transmission settings of Equatorial Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of seasonality on the prevalence of malaria in pregnancy in Gabon. Methods The study was conducted at a rural district hospital in Gabon between January 2008 and December 2011. At first antenatal care visits demographic data, parity, age, and gestational age of pregnant women were documented and thick blood smears were performed for the diagnosis of malaria. Seasonality and established risk factors were evaluated in univariate and multivariate analysis for their association with Plasmodium falciparum infection. Results 1,661 pregnant women were enrolled in this study. Participants presenting during high transmission seasons were at significantly higher risk for P. falciparum infection compared to low transmission seasons (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-2.63, p < 0.001). Established risk factors including parity (AOR 0.45, CI 0.30-0.69, p < 0.001 for multipara versus paucipara) and age (AOR, CI and p-value for women aged 13–17, 18–22, 23–27 and ≥28 years, respectively: AOR 0.59, CI 0.40-0.88; AOR 0.57, CI 0.34-0.97; AOR 0.51, CI 0.29-0.91) were significant risk factors for P. falciparum infection. High-risk groups including nulli- and primipara and younger women aged 13–17 years showed a disproportionately increased risk for malaria in high transmission seasons from 17% to 64% prevalence in low and high transmission periods, respectively. Conclusion Seasonal variations lead to important differences in the risk for P. falciparum infection in pregnancy

  3. Twin pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in woman aged 49 using autologous oocytes by mild ovarian stimulation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Guimin; Xie, Xiaodong; Wang, Yanqiu; Shi, Lihong; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Yingling; Tong, Xiaowen; Ji, Yazhong

    2015-01-01

    There were few reports about infertile women aged 45 and above undergoing IVF/ICSI. We are reporting the case of an aged 49 woman who delivered the twins after ICSI using autologous oocytes by mild ovarian stimulation. The patient presented with 26-year primary infertility caused by double fallopian tubes obstruction and man oligoasthenozoospermia. We gave her the treatment with mild ovarian stimulation cycle of clomiphene citrate (CC) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) undergoing ICSI, and transferred two fertilization-blastocysts. The outcome measured was the live birth. The twins were delivered by cesarean section operation at 37 pregnancy weeks for the moderate pregnancy-induced hypertension. In summary, we found it is feasible for women with advanced age to undergo ART while the accompanied risk of pregnancy complications and other issues need to be further evaluated. PMID:26770601

  4. Gestational age at delivery and neonatal outcome in uncomplicated twin pregnancies: what is the optimal gestational age for delivery according to chorionicity?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Jung; Kim, Soo Hyun; Chang, Kylie Hae-Jin; Sung, Ji-Hee; Oh, Soo-young; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the neonatal outcome according to the gestational age at delivery and to determine the optimal timing for delivery in uncomplicated monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancies. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of women with uncomplicated twin pregnancies delivered at or beyond 35 weeks of gestation from 1995 to 2013. The primary outcome was neonatal composite morbidity, which was defined as when either one or both twins have one or more of the followings: fetal death after 35 weeks gestation, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, mechanical ventilator requirement, respiratory distress syndrome and neonatal death. To determine the optimal gestational age for delivery according to chorionicity, we compared the neonatal composite morbidity rate between women who delivered and women who remained undelivered at each gestational week in both monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancies. Results A total of 697 twin pregnancies were included (171 monochorionic and 526 dichorionic twins). The neonatal composite morbidity rate significantly decreased with advancing gestational age at delivery and its nadir was observed at 38 and ≥39 weeks of gestation in monochorionic and dichorionic twins, respectively. However, the composite morbidity rate did not differ between women who delivered and women who remained undelivered ≥36 and ≥37 weeks in monochorionic and dichorionic twins, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that the optimal gestational age for delivery was at ≥36 and ≥37 weeks in uncomplicated monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancies, respectively. PMID:26866030

  5. Distribution and titres of rotavirus antibodies in different age groups.

    PubMed Central

    Elias, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty-seven sera selected at random from hospital patients of all ages were examined for rotavirus antibodies using indirect immunofluorescence (FA) and complement fixation levels (CFT). Three hundred and fourteen of these were also tested for neutralizing antibodies to human rotavirus. Sera from patients admitted with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis were excluded from this survey. FA antibodies were found in newborn infants but fell to undetectable titres at 3 months. The highest titres were found in children between the ages of one and three years. In older age groups, the model titre fell gradually with increasing age until, in sera from those above 70 years of age, FA antibodies were almost undetectable. The same pattern was observed with neutralizing antibodies. A high model titre of CF antibodies was only found in sera from those aged one to three years. PMID:200676

  6. Smoking in pregnancy and children's mental and motor development at age 1 and 5 years.

    PubMed

    Trasti, N; Vik, T; Jacobsen, G; Bakketeig, L S

    1999-06-01

    We used data from a Scandinavian prospective multicenter study to investigate if smoking in pregnancy may have an adverse effect on the child's mental and motor abilities. Eligible for enrolment were para I and 2 women with a singleton pregnancy, who resided in one of the study areas and could be registered before the 20th gestational week. Women were classified as 'smokers' or 'non-smokers' at study start. At 13 months, 376 children (124 children of smokers) were evaluated with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. At this age, children of smokers and non-smokers performed equally well. At 5 years, 369 children (132 children of smokers) were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence Revised (WPPSI-R), and 362 children with the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS). Children of smokers had an increased risk of getting a WPPSI-R score below the median value of the population (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-3.3), but the risk was reduced when we adjusted for maternal education (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.9-3.7). Children of smokers had an increased risk of getting a test score below the median population value on the subscale 'balance' from PDMS (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.8). Thus, we found that smoking in pregnancy was associated with a small, but demonstrable adverse effect on the child's balance at 5 years, whereas the negative effect on cognitive function did not reach statistical significance, when we adjusted for the mother's level of education. PMID:10390089

  7. Pregnancy Desire, Partner Serodiscordance, and Partner HIV Disclosure among Reproductive Age HIV-Infected Women in an Urban Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Corinne M.; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Rana, Aadia I.

    2016-01-01

    Women comprise 25% of the US HIV epidemic, with many women of reproductive age. There is a need for providers to address the reproductive needs and desires of women with HIV given that effective antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV into a chronic disease. This cross-sectional study shows high rates of partner serodiscordance (61%) and moderate HIV disclosure to partners (61%). Patients surveyed reported practitioners discuss condoms (94%) and contraception (71%) more often than pregnancy desire (38%). In our sample, 44% of the surveyed women intended future pregnancy, whereas women who did not intend future pregnancy cited HIV/health and serodiscordance as the most common reasons (56% and 35%, resp.). There was no difference in the knowledge of mother-to-child transmission risk between women who intended or did not intend future pregnancy (p = 0.71). These results underline the need for provider training in reproductive counseling to promote risk reduction and education. PMID:27313441

  8. Changes in Experiences With Discrimination Across Pregnancy and Postpartum: Age Differences and Consequences for Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Lewis, Tené T.; Reid, Allecia E.; Lewis, Jessica B.; Stasko, Emily C.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to contribute to growing research and theory suggesting the importance of examining patterns of change over time and critical life periods to fully understand the effects of discrimination on health, with a focus on the period of pregnancy and postpartum and mental health outcomes. Methods. We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine changes across pregnancy and postpartum in everyday discrimination and the resulting consequences for mental health among predominantly Black and Latina, socioeconomically disadvantaged young women who were receiving prenatal care in New York City. Results. Patterns of change in experiences with discrimination varied according to age. Among the youngest participants, discrimination increased from the second to third trimesters and then decreased to lower than the baseline level by 1 year postpartum; among the oldest participants, discrimination decreased from the second trimester to 6 months postpartum and then returned to the baseline level by 1 year postpartum. Within-subjects changes in discrimination over time predicted changes in depressive and anxiety symptoms at subsequent points. Discrimination more strongly predicted anxiety symptoms among participants reporting food insecurity. Conclusions. Our results support a life course approach to understanding the impact of experiences with discrimination on health and when to intervene. PMID:24922166

  9. Ageing and the group-reference effect in memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeon-Nyeon; Rosa, Nicole M; Gutchess, Angela H

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines age differences in the memory benefits from group-referncing. While prior work establishes that the memory performance of younger and older adults similarly benefits from relating information to the self, this study assessed whether those benefits extend to referencing a meaningful group membership. Young and older adult participants encoded trait words by judging whether each word describes themselves, describes their group membership (selected for each age group), or is familiar. After a retention interval, participants completed a surprise recognition memory test. The results indicate that group-referencing increased recognition memory performance compared to the familiarity judgements for both young and older groups. However, the group-reference benefit is limited, emerging as smaller than the benefit from self-referencing. These results challenge previous findings of equivalent benefits for group-referencing and self-referencing, suggesting that such effects may not prevail under all conditions, including for older adults. The findings also highlight the need to examine the mechanisms of group-referencing that can lead to variability in the group-reference effect. PMID:26252870

  10. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention. PMID:26537543

  11. Maternal Psychological Distress during Pregnancy in Relation to Child Development at Age Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Novak, Matthew F. S. X.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Atella, Lara D.; Reusing, Sarah P.

    2006-01-01

    Concern exists that a constellation of negative maternal emotions during pregnancy generates persistent negative consequences for child development. Maternal reports of anxiety, pregnancy-specific and nonspecific stress, and depressive symptoms were collected during mid-pregnancy and at 6 weeks and 24 months after birth in a sample of healthy…

  12. Twin pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in woman aged 49 using autologous oocytes by mild ovarian stimulation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Guimin; Xie, Xiaodong; Wang, Yanqiu; Shi, Lihong; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Yingling; Tong, Xiaowen; Ji, Yazhong

    2015-01-01

    There were few reports about infertile women aged 45 and above undergoing IVF/ICSI. We are reporting the case of an aged 49 woman who delivered the twins after ICSI using autologous oocytes by mild ovarian stimulation. The patient who presented with 26-year primary infertility was caused by double fallopian tubes obstruction and man oligoasthenozoospermia. We gave her the treatment with mild ovarian stimulation cycle of clomiphene citrate (CC) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) undergoing ICSI, and transferred two fertilization-blastocysts. The outcome measured was the live birth. The twins were delivered by cesarean section operation at 37 pregnancy weeks for the moderate pregnancy-induced hypertension. Our study showed that the successof advanced agewomen undergoing ART was feasible to some extent, while, the accompanied risk of pregnancy complications and other issues need to be further evaluated. PMID:26885131

  13. BCG vaccination at three different age groups: response and effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Briassoulis, George; Karabatsou, Irene; Gogoglou, Vasilis; Tsorva, Athina

    2005-01-01

    Background The protection, which some BCG vaccines could confer against the development of tuberculosis (TB) in childhood, might be indirectly reflected by the subsequent development of BCG immune response. The objectives of the study were to examine effectiveness and possible differences of post-vaccination reaction to a lyophilized BCG at different age groups and to evaluate its protection against TB in a decade's period. Methods We studied the post-vaccination PPD-skin reaction and scar formation at three different school levels, corresponding to ages of 6, 12 and 15 years old, vaccinated by a lyophilized BCG vaccine (Pasteur Institute), currently used in our country. During a 10-year follow up the reported TB cases in vaccinated and non-vaccinated adolescences up to 24-years old were analyzed and compared to the number of cumulative cases observed in the adult population of two neighboring territories (vaccinated and non-vaccinated). Results and Discussion There was a significant correlation (r2 = 0.87, p < 0.0001) between tuberculin induration and scar formation. There was no statistically significant difference between the three age groups (6, 12, and 15 year-old, respectively) in regard to the diameter of tuberculin induration or scar formation. Although 34% of 10-year later indurations were unpredictably related to the initial ones (increased or decreased), they were significantly correlated (r2 = 0.45, p = 0.009). The relative percentage of TB for the 14–24 years-age group to the adult studied population was significantly lower among the immunized children compared to the non-immunized population of the same age group (17/77, 22% vs. 71/101, 70%, p < .0001). Conclusion Our data suggest that the lyophilized BCG vaccine used for BCG programs at different age groups is equally effective and may confer satisfactory protection against tuberculosis in puberty. PMID:15804351

  14. Impact of Obesity on Pregnancy Outcome in Different Ethnic Groups: Calculating Population Attributable Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Kopeika, Julia; Seed, Paul; Wandiembe, Symon; Doyle, Pat

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the proportion of adverse pregnancy outcome attributable to maternal obesity. Design Cross sectional analysis of routine obstetric dataset. Setting Guy’s and St Thomas’s NHS Foundation Trust (GSTFT). Population 23,668 women who had singleton deliveries at GSTFT between 2004 and 2008. Methods Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between BMI and outcome in different ethnic groups. Adjusted odds ratios, and the proportions of obese women, were used to calculate population attributable risk fractions (PAFs). Main Outcome Measures (i) Maternal outcomes: diabetes, type of delivery, post-partum haemorrhage, and preterm delivery. (ii) Perinatal outcomes: macrosomia, low birth weight, admission to neonatal intensive care/special care baby unit, and perinatal death. Results The prevalence of maternal obesity was 14%. Increasing BMI was independently associated with increasing risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome. At the individual level, the effect of obesity on diabetes was highest in Asian women compared to white women (p for interaction = 0.03). Calculation of population attributable risk fractions demonstrated that one third of diabetes cases and one in six Caesarean sections could be avoided in this population if all obese women were of normal BMI. At the population level, the contribution of obesity to diabetes was highest for Black women (42%), and lowest for oriental women (8%). Seven percent of neonatal macrosomia in all the population, and 13% in Black mothers, were attributable to obesity. Conclusions Preventing obesity prior to pregnancy will substantially reduce the burden of obstetric and neonatal morbidity in this population. This reduction will be higher in Black women. PMID:23341993

  15. On the age of the β Pictoris moving group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamajek, Eric E.; Bell, Cameron P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Binks & Jeffries and Malo et al. have recently reported Li depletion boundary (LDB) ages for the β Pictoris moving group (BPMG) which are twice as old as the oft-cited kinematic age of ˜12 Myr. In this study, we present (1) a new evaluation of the internal kinematics of the BPMG using the revised Hipparcos astrometry and best available published radial velocities, and assess whether a useful kinematic age can be derived, and (2) derive an isochronal age based on the placement of the A-, F-, and G-type stars in the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD). We explore the kinematics of the BPMG looking at velocity trends along Galactic axes, and conducting traceback analyses assuming linear trajectories, epicyclic orbit approximation, and orbit integration using a realistic gravitational potential. None of the methodologies yield a kinematic age with small uncertainties using modern velocity data. Expansion in the Galactic X and Y directions is significant only at the 1.7σ and 2.7σ levels, and together yields an overall kinematic age with a wide range (13-58 Myr; 95 per cent CL). The A-type members are all on the zero-age main sequence, suggestive of an age of >20 Myr, and the loci of the CMD positions for the late-F- and G-type pre-main-sequence BPMG members have a median isochronal age of 22 Myr (± 3 Myr statistical, ±1 Myr systematic) when considering four sets of modern theoretical isochrones. The results from recent LDB and isochronal age analyses are now in agreement with a median BPMG age of 23 ± 3 Myr (overall 1σ uncertainty, including ±2 Myr statistical and ±2 Myr systematic uncertainties).

  16. Serum ferritin in Danes: studies of iron status from infancy to old age, during blood donation and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Milman, N

    1996-02-01

    deficiency anaemia. In fertile women, the choice of contraception had a significant influence on the iron loss at menstruation. Hormonal contraception reduced iron loss, whereas the use of intrauterine devices increased iron loss. These effects were reflected in the serum ferritin levels of menstruating women. In a placebo-controlled study of iron supplementation during pregnancy, serum ferritin levels displayed a characteristic fall both in placebo- and iron-treated women. Among placebo-treated pregnant women at term, 19% had depleted iron reserves and 12% had iron deficiency anaemia, and among iron-treated women, 3% had depleted iron stores and none had iron deficiency anaemia. In non-pregnant women, there was a significant inverse relationship between parity and serum ferritin. Blood donation had a marked influence on the serum ferritin level in the adult population. Among Danes, 20-60 years of age, 27% of men, 15% of premenopausal and 10% of postmenopausal women were blood donors. In all three groups, the prevalence of depleted iron depots was higher in donors than in non-donors. Among premenopausal female blood donors, 31.7% had depleted iron reserves and 3.3% iron deficiency anaemia. In general, Danish men and postmenopausal women had a satisfactory iron status. Adolescent Danish girls and premenopausal women had a high prevalence of iron deficiency, which should be taken into consideration when establishing guidelines and recommendations for nutritional iron intake in this section of the population. PMID:8867722

  17. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624..., respectively, during the calendar year; and (2) They have been previously ordered to report for induction...

  18. Maximum Bite Force Analysis in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Patricia; Vieira, Marilena; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF) is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI), using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo), and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil), on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups. PMID:25992105

  19. Youth Assets and Delayed Coitarche across Developmental Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that assets are associated with youth abstinence, but whether these relationships are constant across developmental age groups has not been shown. Data for this study were obtained from two independent datasets collected across a 2-year period using in-person, in-home interviews of youth (52% female; 44% Caucasian,…

  20. An Adolescent Age Group Approach to Examining Youth Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…

  1. It All Starts at Home: Hispanic Parents Speak out on Preventing Teen Pregnancy. A Focus Group Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    This report describes data from focus groups on teen pregnancy involving Hispanic parents of adolescents in four states. Participants wanted a good education for their children and positive, loving relationships with them. They wanted to communicate with their children and be closely involved in their lives. Most believed that to help prevent teen…

  2. Higher oily fish consumption in late pregnancy is associated with reduced aortic stiffness in the child at age 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Jennifer; Hanson, Mark; Peebles, Charles; Davies, Lucy; Inskip, Hazel; Robinson, Sian; Calder, Philip C.; Cooper, Cyrus; Godfrey, Keith M.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Higher pulse wave velocity (PWV) reflects increased arterial stiffness and is an established cardiovascular risk marker associated with lower long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in adults. Experimentally, maternal fatty acid intake in pregnancy has lasting effects on offspring arterial stiffness. Objective To examine the association between maternal consumption of oily fish, a source of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, in pregnancy and child's aortic stiffness age 9 years. Methods and Results In a mother-offspring study (Southampton Women's Survey) the child's descending aorta PWV was measured at age 9 years using velocity-encoded phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging and related to maternal oily fish consumption assessed prospectively during pregnancy. Higher oily fish consumption in late pregnancy was associated with lower childhood aortic PWV (sex-adjusted β=-0.084 m/s/ portion/week, [95% CI -0.137 to -0.031], p=0.002, n=226). Mother’s educational attainment was independently associated with child’s PWV. PWV was not associated with the child’s current oily fish consumption. Conclusions Level of maternal oily fish consumption in pregnancy may influence child’s large artery development, with potential long-term consequences for later cardiovascular risk. PMID:25700036

  3. Old People's Attitudes Toward Other Age Groups' Beliefs and Opinions About the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris, Helen Brown

    The need for research which will provide old people's evaluation of what is positive or negative about beliefs and opinions of other age groups about the aged forms the basis for the research proposed in this report. Six sections are included. The introduction, section 1, covers statement of the problem, and the purpose, need, assumptions,…

  4. Sex-dependent nutritional programming: fish oil intake during early pregnancy in rats reduces age-dependent insulin resistance in male, but not female, offspring.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Fatima L C; Fernandes, Flavia S; Tavares do Carmo, Maria G; Herrera, Emilio

    2013-02-15

    Prenatal and early postnatal nutritional status may predispose offspring to impaired glucose tolerance and changes in insulin sensitivity in adult life. The long-term consequences of changes in maternal dietary fatty acid composition were determined in rats. From day 1 until day 12 of pregnancy, rats were given isocaloric diets containing 9% nonvitamin fat based on soybean, olive, fish (FO), linseed, or palm oil. Thereafter, they were maintained on the standard diet; offspring were studied at different ages. Body weight at 4, 8, and 12 mo and lumbar adipose tissue and liver weights at 12 mo did not differ between females on the different diets, whereas in males the corresponding values were all lower in the offspring from the FO group compared with the other dietary groups. Plasma glucose concentrations (both basal and after an oral glucose load) did not change with sex or dietary group, but plasma insulin concentrations were lower in females than in males and, in males, were lowest in the FO group. Similar relations were found with both the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity index. In conclusion, the intake of more n-3 fatty acids (FO diet) during early pregnancy reduced both fat accretion and age-related decline in insulin sensitivity in male offspring but not in females. It is proposed that the lower adiposity caused by the increased n-3 fatty acids during the intrauterine life was responsible of the lower insulin resistance in male offspring. PMID:23255588

  5. Coupling of Temperament with Mental Illness in Four Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament. PMID:27154370

  6. Spontaneous uterine rupture after abdominal myomectomy at the gestational age of 20 weeks in pregnancy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Pakniat, Hamideh; Soofizadeh, Nasrin; Khezri, Marzieh Beigom

    2016-01-01

    Background: Uterine rupture in pregnancy is rare and often could be life threatening and catastrophic. Myomectomy is one of very common surgeries in gynecology, performed as the vaginal, abdominal and laparoscopic surgeries. Pregnancies occured after abdominal and laparoscopic myomectomy are high risk for uterine rapture. Case: Patient was a 28 Years old female, pregnant woman at the 20 wks of gestational age with abdominal pain and a history of abdominal myomectomy 6 yrs ago. Uterus was ruptured and fetus in amniotic sac was found in abdominal cavity. Conclusion: Early diagnosis of uterine rupture after myomectomy can save patients from death. PMID:27525334

  7. Choline intake during pregnancy and child cognition at age 7 years.

    PubMed

    Boeke, Caroline E; Gillman, Matthew W; Hughes, Michael D; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Villamor, Eduardo; Oken, Emily

    2013-06-15

    Animal models indicate that exposure to choline in utero improves visual memory through cholinergic transmission and/or epigenetic mechanisms. Among 895 mothers in Project Viva (eastern Massachusetts, 1999-2002 to 2008-2011), we estimated the associations between intakes of choline, vitamin B12, betaine, and folate during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and offspring visual memory (measured by the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2), Design and Picture Memory subtests) and intelligence (measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2)) at age 7 years. Mean second-trimester intakes were 328 (standard deviation (SD), 63) mg/day for choline, 10.5 (SD, 5.1) µg/day for vitamin B12, 240 (SD, 104) mg/day for betaine, and 1,268 (SD, 381) µg/day for folate. Mean age 7 test scores were 17.2 (SD, 4.4) points on the WRAML 2 Design and Picture Memory subtests, 114.3 (SD, 13.9) points on the verbal KBIT-2, and 107.8 (SD, 16.5) points on the nonverbal KBIT-2. In a model adjusting for maternal characteristics, the other nutrients, and child's age and sex, the top quartile of second-trimester choline intake was associated with a child WRAML2 score 1.4 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 2.4) than the bottom quartile (P-trend = 0.003). Results for first-trimester intake were in the same direction but weaker. Intake of the other nutrients was not associated with the cognitive tests administered. Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years. PMID:23425631

  8. Choline Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boeke, Caroline E.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Hughes, Michael D.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Villamor, Eduardo; Oken, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Animal models indicate that exposure to choline in utero improves visual memory through cholinergic transmission and/or epigenetic mechanisms. Among 895 mothers in Project Viva (eastern Massachusetts, 1999–2002 to 2008–2011), we estimated the associations between intakes of choline, vitamin B12, betaine, and folate during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and offspring visual memory (measured by the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2), Design and Picture Memory subtests) and intelligence (measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2)) at age 7 years. Mean second-trimester intakes were 328 (standard deviation (SD), 63) mg/day for choline, 10.5 (SD, 5.1) µg/day for vitamin B12, 240 (SD, 104) mg/day for betaine, and 1,268 (SD, 381) µg/day for folate. Mean age 7 test scores were 17.2 (SD, 4.4) points on the WRAML 2 Design and Picture Memory subtests, 114.3 (SD, 13.9) points on the verbal KBIT-2, and 107.8 (SD, 16.5) points on the nonverbal KBIT-2. In a model adjusting for maternal characteristics, the other nutrients, and child's age and sex, the top quartile of second-trimester choline intake was associated with a child WRAML2 score 1.4 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 2.4) than the bottom quartile (P-trend = 0.003). Results for first-trimester intake were in the same direction but weaker. Intake of the other nutrients was not associated with the cognitive tests administered. Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years. PMID:23425631

  9. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  10. Maternal health and lifestyle and caries experience in preschool children. A longitudinal study from pregnancy to age 5 yr

    PubMed Central

    Wigen, Tove I; Wang, Nina J

    2011-01-01

    In this study, associations were explored between maternal health and lifestyle during pregnancy and in early childhood and preschool children’s caries experience. The study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and on data from the Public Dental Services. A total of 1348 children were followed from pregnancy to age 5 yr. A clinical dental examination was performed at age 5 yr. Questionnaires were completed by the mothers during pregnancy and the first 18 months of life, and as part of the dental examination. Results from the multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that having an obese mother (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.1), with a diet containing more fat (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 – 2.5) or sugar (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) than recommended, with low education (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) or having one or both parents of non-western origin (OR 5.4, 95% CI 2.8–10.6) were statistically significant risk indicators for caries experience at age 5 yr. In conclusion, maternal weight and intake of sugar and fat in pregnancy were associated with caries experience in preschool children. These characteristics may enable early referral to the dental services and preventive care to be delivered. PMID:22112032

  11. Acute Uterine Bleeding Unrelated to Pregnancy: A Southern California Permanente Medical Group Practice Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Malcolm G

    2013-01-01

    Acute uterine bleeding unrelated to pregnancy has been defined as bleeding “sufficient in volume as to, in the opinion of the treating clinician, require urgent or emergent intervention.” The Southern California Permanente Medical Group updated its guidelines for the management of this condition on the basis of the best available evidence, as identified in a systematic review of the available literature. Given the paucity of studies evaluating this condition, the guidelines, by necessity, include recommendations largely based on opinion or other sources such as case series that are, in general, categorized as low-quality evidence. Medical interventions with single or combined gonadal steroidal agents administered parenterally or orally show promise, but more high-quality studies are needed to better define the appropriate drugs, dose, and administrative scheduling. There is also some evidence that intrauterine tamponade may be useful in at least selected cases. Special attention must be paid to both diagnosing and treating inherited disorders of hemostasis, such as von Willebrand disease, that may otherwise be underdiagnosed in both adolescent and adult women. PMID:24355890

  12. Maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety is associated with child executive function at 6-9 years age.

    PubMed

    Buss, C; Davis, E P; Hobel, C J; Sandman, C A

    2011-11-01

    Because fetal brain development proceeds at an extremely rapid pace, early life experiences have the potential to alter the trajectory of neurodevelopment, which may increase susceptibility for developmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. There is evidence that prenatal maternal stress and anxiety, especially worries specifically related to being pregnant, influence neurodevelopmental outcomes. In the current prospective longitudinal study, we included 89 women for whom serial data were available for pregnancy-specific anxiety, state anxiety, and depression at 15, 19, 25, 31, and 37 weeks gestation. When the offspring from the target pregnancy were between 6 and 9 years of age, their executive function was assessed. High levels of mean maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety over the course of gestation were associated with lower inhibitory control in girls only and lower visuospatial working memory performance in boys and girls. Higher-state anxiety and depression also were associated with lower visuospatial working memory performance. However, neither state anxiety nor depression explained any additional variance after accounting for pregnancy-specific anxiety. The findings contribute to the literature supporting an association between pregnancy-specific anxiety and cognitive development and extend our knowledge about the persistence of this effect until middle childhood. PMID:21995526

  13. Population-Based Age Group Specific Annual Incidence Rates of Symptomatic Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saari, Jukka M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the population-based annual incidence rates of exudative, dry and all cases of symptomatic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in different age and sex groups. Methods. This is a one year, prospective, population-based study on all consecutive new patients with AMD in the hospital district of Central Finland. The diagnosis was confirmed in all patients with slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a Spectralis HRA + OCT device, and the Heidelberg Eye Explorer 1.6.2.0 program. Fluorescein angiograms were taken when needed. Results. The population-based annual incidence rates of all cases of symptomatic AMD increased from 0.03% (95% CI, 0.01-0.05%) in the age group 50-59 years to 0.82% (95% CI, 0.55-1.09%) in the age group 85-89 years and were 0.2% (95% CI, 0.17-0.24%) in exudative, 0.11% (95% CI, 0.09-0.14%) in dry, and 0.32% (95% CI, 0.28-0.36%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. During the next 20 years in Central Finland the population-based annual incidence rates can be estimated to increase to 0.27% (95% CI, 0.24-0.30%) in exudative, to 0.13% (95% CI, 0.11-0.15%) in dry, and to 0.41% (95% CI, 0.37-0.45%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. The population-based annual incidence of AMD did not show statistically significant differences between males and females (p>0.1). Conclusion: The population-based age-group specific annual incidence rates of symptomatic AMD of this study may help to plan health care provision for patients of AMD. PMID:25674187

  14. Myasthenia in pregnancy: best practice guidelines from a U.K. multispecialty working group.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Fiona; Dhanjal, Mandish; Hill, Marguerite; James, Natalie; Jungbluth, Heinz; Kyle, Pippa; O'Sullivan, Geraldine; Palace, Jacqueline; Robb, Stephanie; Williamson, Catherine; Hilton-Jones, David; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    A national U.K. workshop to discuss practical clinical management issues related to pregnancy in women with myasthenia gravis was held in May 2011. The purpose was to develop recommendations to guide general neurologists and obstetricians and facilitate best practice before, during and after pregnancy. The main conclusions were (1) planning should be instituted well in advance of any potential pregnancy to allow time for myasthenic status and drug optimisation; (2) multidisciplinary liaison through the involvement of relevant specialists should occur throughout pregnancy, during delivery and in the neonatal period; (3) provided that their myasthenia is under good control before pregnancy, the majority of women can be reassured that it will remain stable throughout pregnancy and the postpartum months; (4) spontaneous vaginal delivery should be the aim and actively encouraged; (5) those with severe myasthenic weakness need careful, multidisciplinary management with prompt access to specialist advice and facilities; (6) newborn babies born to myasthenic mothers are at risk of transient myasthenic weakness, even if the mother's myasthenia is well-controlled, and should have rapid access to neonatal high-dependency support. PMID:23757420

  15. Early high dose chemotherapy intensification with autologous bone marrow transplantation in lymphoma associated with retention of fertility and normal pregnancies in females. Scotland and Newcastle Lymphoma Group, UK.

    PubMed

    Jackson, G H; Wood, A; Taylor, P R; Lennard, A L; Lucraft, H; Heppleston, A; Robinson, P; Moore, J; Proctor, S J

    1997-12-01

    As more centres consider autologous bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for patients with high risk Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in first complete remission (CR1) the long term sequelae of such treatments have to be considered. One of the most important side effects of such intensive treatment is loss of fertility. Sperm banking before treatment commences is available for males but unfortunately cryopreservation of ova/ovarian tissue is not yet possible for females. We have transplanted 30 women, 23 were under 40 years and report ten females who have had successful pregnancies (including two twin pregnancies and one triplet pregnancy), leading to live births following autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) for poor prognosis HD and NHL in first or second complete remission. None of these children have shown evidence of birth defects (median follow up of two years). Of the twenty one pregnancies reported to the European Bone Marrow Transplantation Registry (EBMTR) following ABMT for lymphoma, eight of the seventeen unassisted cases came from our centres. The Newcastle/SNLG autotransplant differs from the approach in many EBMTR centres in that it uses melphalan or melphalan/etoposide alone instead of the more common four drug containing regimens and yet sustained complete remission rates indicate that the non-ablative approach is equally effective as more aggressive regimens on the disease with the huge advantage of preserved fertility in females. This approach to conditioning for ABMT should be considered when treating women in the reproductive age group. PMID:9498711

  16. Occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy associated with sex-specific neurobehavioral deficits in the children at school age.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Helle R; Debes, Fróði; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to pesticides may affect neurodevelopment, while the impact of modern pesticides is unclear. From 1997-2001, women working in greenhouse horticultures were recruited at the beginning of their pregnancy. Based on detailed interview of the women and their employers, those categorized as occupationally exposed to pesticides were moved to unexposed work functions or went on paid leave, while women without any exposure were considered unexposed controls. Of the resulting birth cohort of 203 children, 133 (65%) were examined at age 6 to 11 years together with 44 newly recruited children of same age whose mothers were not occupationally exposed to pesticides in pregnancy. All children underwent a standardized examination including a battery of neurodevelopmental tests. Maternal occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy was associated with prolonged brainstem auditory evoked potential latencies in the children as a whole and with impaired neuropsychological function in girls, while no effect was apparent in boys. In girls, language and motor speed functions were significantly inversely associated with prenatal exposure, and a non-significant tendency toward decreased function was also seen for other neuropsychological outcomes. A structural equation model that combined all these test results showed an overall impaired neuropsychological function in girls prenatally exposed to pesticides. Thus, our findings suggest an adverse effect of maternal occupational pesticide exposure on their children's neurodevelopment, despite the fact that the exposures occurred solely during early pregnancy and under well regulated working conditions, where special measures to protect pregnant women were applied. PMID:25450661

  17. The effect of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy on small for gestational age and stillbirth: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Allen, Victoria M; Joseph, KS; Murphy, Kellie E; Magee, Laura A; Ohlsson, Arne

    2004-08-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are leading causes of maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, studies attempting to quantify the effect of hypertension on adverse perinatal outcomes have been mostly conducted in tertiary centres. This population-based study explored the frequency of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and the associated increase in small for gestational age (SGA) and stillbirth. METHODS: We used information on all pregnant women and births, in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, between 1988 and 2000. Pregnancies were excluded if delivery occurred < 20 weeks, if birthweight was < 500 grams, if there was a high-order multiple pregnancy (greater than twin gestation), or a major fetal anomaly. RESULTS: The study population included 135,466 pregnancies. Of these, 7.7% had mild pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), 1.3% had severe PIH, 0.2% had HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets), 0.02% had eclampsia, 0.6% had chronic hypertension, and 0.4% had chronic hypertension with superimposed PIH. Women with any hypertension in pregnancy were 1.6 (95% CI 1.5-1.6) times more likely to have a live birth with SGA and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.8) times more likely to have a stillbirth as compared with normotensive women. Adjusted analyses showed that women with gestational hypertension without proteinuria (mild PIH) and with proteinuria (severe PIH, HELLP, or eclampsia) were more likely to have infants with SGA (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.4-1.6 and RR 3.2, 95% CI 2.8-3.6, respectively). Women with pre-existing hypertension were also more likely to give birth to an infant with SGA (RR 2.5, 95% CI 2.2-3.0) or to have a stillbirth (RR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9-5.4). CONCLUSIONS: This large, population-based study confirms and quantifies the magnitude of the excess risk of small for gestational age and stillbirth among births to women with hypertensive disease in pregnancy. PMID:15298717

  18. EFFECTS OF MATERNAL EXPOSURE TO PHTHALATES AND BISPHENOL A DURING PREGNANCY ON GESTATIONAL AGE

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Barry; Vetrano, Anna M.; Archer, Faith E.; Marcella, Stephen W.; Buckley, Brian; Wartenberg, Daniel; Robson, Mark G.; Klim, Jammie; Azhar, Sana; Cavin, Sarah; Wang, Lu; Rich, David Q.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are ubiquitous environmental toxicants, present in high concentrations in numerous consumer products. We hypothesized that maternal exposure to phthalates and BPA in pregnancy is associated with shortened gestation. Methods Urinary phthalate and BPA metabolites from 72 pregnant women were measured at the last obstetric clinic visit prior to delivery. Using linear regression models, we estimated the change in gestational age associated with each interquartile range (IQR) increase in phthalate and BPA metabolite concentration. Results IQR increases in urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and BPA concentrations were associated with 4.2 and 1.1 day decreases in gestation, respectively. When stratified by gender, these alterations were found only in male infants. Conclusions We conclude that MEHHP and BPA (free + glucuronide) are associated with reductions in gestation, with effects observed only in males. Our findings are consistent with the idea that these agents induce gender-specific alterations in signaling via PPAR-γ transcription factor, androgen precursors, and/or inflammatory mediators during the initiation of labor. PMID:23795657

  19. Risk groups in children under six months of age using self-organizing maps.

    PubMed

    Schilithz, A O C; Kale, P L; Gama, S G N; Nobre, F F

    2014-06-01

    Fetal and infant growth tends to follow irregular patterns and, particularly in developing countries, these patterns are greatly influenced by unfavorable living conditions and interactions with complications during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify groups of children with different risk profiles for growth development. The study sample comprised 496 girls and 508 boys under six months of age from 27 pediatric primary health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were obtained through interviews with the mothers and by reviewing each child's health card. An unsupervised learning, know as a self-organizing map (SOM) and a K-means algorithm were used for cluster analysis to identify groups of children. Four groups of infants were identified. The first (139) consisted of infants born exclusively by cesarean delivery, and their mothers were exclusively multiparous; the highest prevalences of prematurity and low birthweight, a high prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and a low proportion of hospitalization were observed for this group. The second (247 infants) and the third (298 infants) groups had the best and worst perinatal and infant health indicators, respectively. The infants of the fourth group (318) were born heavier, had a low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding, and had a higher rate of hospitalization. Using a SOM, it was possible to identify children with common features, although no differences between groups were found with respect to the adequacy of postnatal weight. Pregnant women and children with characteristics similar to those of group 3 require early intervention and more attention in public policy. PMID:24725333

  20. Implementation of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups Criteria: Not Always a Cause for Concern

    PubMed Central

    Sibartie, Pooja; Quinlivan, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Background. Controversy surrounds the decision to adopt the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as fears that disease prevalence rates will soar have been raised. Aims. To investigate the prevalence of pregnancy complicated with GDM before and after the introduction of the IADPSG 2010 diagnostic criteria. Materials and Methods. A prospective audit of all women who delivered from July 1, 2010, to June 30, 2014, in a predefined geographic region within the North Metropolitan Health Service of Western Australia. Women were diagnosed with GDM according to Australian Diabetes in Pregnancy Society (ADIPS 1991) criteria until December 31, 2011, and by the IADPSG 2010 criteria after this date. Incidence of GDM and predefined pregnancy outcomes were audited. Results. Of 10,296 women, antenatal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results and follow-up data were obtained for 10,103 women (98%), of whom 349 (3.5%) were diagnosed with GDM. The rate of GDM utilising ADIPS criteria was 3.4% and the rate of utilising IADPSG criteria was 3.5% (p = 0.92). Conclusion. IADPSG diagnostic criteria did not significantly increase the incidence of GDM in this low prevalence region. PMID:26788370

  1. Multiple sclerosis and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bodiguel, E; Bensa, C; Brassat, D; Laplaud, D; Le Page, E; Ouallet, J-C; Zephir, H; De Seze, J

    2014-04-01

    The question of pregnancy in patients with multiple sclerosis is regularly raised due to the prevalence of the disease in middle age women. The multiple sclerosis think tank (Groupe de Réflexion sur la Sclérose en Plaques [GRESEP]) decided to develop recommendations on this issue, with consideration to both the impact of multiple sclerosis on pregnancy, and that of pregnancy on the disease. As with topics of previous works, the formal expert consensus method was used. The working group was composed of hospital-based and private practice neurologists. The reading group was composed of neurologists, anaesthetists and obstetricians. Each recommendation is presented with the relevant level of consensus. PMID:24684929

  2. Identification of Normal Blood Pressure in Different Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Chen, Yen-Lin; Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Pei, Dee; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The concept of using single criterion of normal blood pressure with systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < 90 mmHg for all ages is still disputable. The aim of the study is to identify the cutoff value of normotension in different age and sex groups. Totally, 127,922 (63,724 men and 64,198 women) were enrolled for the analysis. Finally, four fifths of them were randomly selected as the study group and the other one fifths as the validation group. Due the tight relationship with comorbidities from cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MetS) was used as a surrogate to replace the actual cardiovascular outcomes in the younger subjects. For SBP, MetS predicted by our equation had a sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 67% in males and 65%, 83% in females, respectively. At the same time, they are 61%, 73% in males and 73%, 86% in females for DBP, respectively. These sensitivity, specificity, odds ratio, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from our equations are all better than those derived from the criteria of 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg in both genders. By using the presence of MetS as the surrogate of CVD, the regression equations between SBP, DBP, and age were built in both genders. These new criteria are proved to have better sensitivity and specificity for MetS than either 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg. These simple equations should be used in clinical settings for early prevention of CVD. PMID:27057846

  3. Pyogenic Sacroiliitis due to Group A Streptococcus following Uncomplicated Pregnancy and Vaginal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Alexander Michael; Adno, Alan Maurice; Marry, Jyothi

    2013-01-01

    Background. Although the incidence of pregnancy-associated pyogenic sacroiliitis is low, it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Timely diagnosis of the condition is challenging due to its nonspecific clinical features. Case. A 31-year-old primigravida had an uncomplicated pregnancy and labour. Postpartum, she developed persistent fever and debilitating hip pain on ambulation. White cell count was normal (7.3 × 109/L) and C-reactive protein was elevated (468.4 mg/L). Streptococcus pyogenes was identified on vaginal swabs and blood cultures, and a pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed bilateral sacroiliitis. Conclusion. Pyogenic sacroiliitis is a potentially lethal cause of postpartum pain. It should be considered as a differential diagnosis even in low-risk women who present with debilitating pelvic pain in or around pregnancy, particularly when initial therapy appears unsuccessful. PMID:24396619

  4. Pyogenic Sacroiliitis due to Group A Streptococcus following Uncomplicated Pregnancy and Vaginal Delivery.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoon Sik; Owen, Alexander Michael; Adno, Alan Maurice; Marry, Jyothi

    2013-01-01

    Background. Although the incidence of pregnancy-associated pyogenic sacroiliitis is low, it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Timely diagnosis of the condition is challenging due to its nonspecific clinical features. Case. A 31-year-old primigravida had an uncomplicated pregnancy and labour. Postpartum, she developed persistent fever and debilitating hip pain on ambulation. White cell count was normal (7.3 × 10(9)/L) and C-reactive protein was elevated (468.4 mg/L). Streptococcus pyogenes was identified on vaginal swabs and blood cultures, and a pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed bilateral sacroiliitis. Conclusion. Pyogenic sacroiliitis is a potentially lethal cause of postpartum pain. It should be considered as a differential diagnosis even in low-risk women who present with debilitating pelvic pain in or around pregnancy, particularly when initial therapy appears unsuccessful. PMID:24396619

  5. "They" are old but "I" feel younger: age-group dissociation as a self-protective strategy in old age.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David; Lang, Frieder R

    2012-03-01

    Age becomes an important self-defining aspect particularly during advanced age. With increasing age, negative attributes related to age and aging become salient. Aging-related declines, losses, as well as the finitude of life seem to threaten older adults' sense of self. We hypothesize that older adults will try to avoid the negative consequences of their age group membership by distancing themselves from their age group. Study 1 (N = 544, 65% women; 18-85 years of age) examined the role of age-group identification for self-conception and self-image (subjective age and future time perspective) across the life span. Results show that weakly identified older adults feel younger than their chronological age and report a more expanded future time perspective relative to their same-age counterparts. A second experiment (N = 68, 69% women; 65-85 years of age) tested the impact of age stereotypes on older adults' level of age-group identification. Results suggest that older adults are more likely to psychologically dissociate themselves from their age group when negative age stereotypes are salient. Discussion focuses on (mal)adaptive consequences of age-group dissociation in later adulthood. PMID:21988154

  6. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  7. The effect of follicle age on pregnancy rate in beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age of the ovulatory follicle on fertility in beef cows. Multiparous (n = 171) and primiparous (n = 130) postpartum beef cows in 2 groups (G1 and G2) received estradiol benzoate (EB; 1mg/500kg BW, i.m.) 5.5 d (G1; n = 162) and 6.5 d (G2; n =...

  8. The results of pregnancies after gender selection by pre implantation genetic diagnosis and its relation with couple's age

    PubMed Central

    Panahi, Sorayya; Fahami, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-medical utilization of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), like sex selection, is increasing, therefore it is necessary to follow-up the health and outcome of fertilization and newborn's birth followed PGD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of fertilization after sex selection by PGD and the relation between the age of parents and the outcome of fertilization. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive correlative study conducted on 218 couples in Isfahan. Samples were selected through convenience sampling. The rate of chemical and clinical pregnancy and abortion, the frequency of success in achieving the desired sex, and the mean of gestational age and weight of newborns were gathered through reviewing medical files and phone interviews. Data was analyzed using independent t test and Pearson correlation test. Results: The rate of chemical and clinical pregnancy was 30.7% and 30.3% respectively, the rate of abortion was 26.9%, the frequency of success in achieving the desired sex was 100%, and the mean of gestational age and weight of newborns was 3260 (616) kg and 37.7 (2.07) weeks respectively. There was no significant relation between the age of parents and the rate of abortion, the rate of chemical and clinical pregnancy and newborn's gestational weight. But there was a significant relation between the age of men and gestational age of newborns (P = 0.04). Conclusions: PGD method was 100% successful in achieving the desired sex, but relatively high rate of abortion could indicate the effect of PGD on the embryo development process. PMID:26793251

  9. Lack of Association between Recurrent Pregnancy Loss and Inherited Thrombophilia in a Group of Colombian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Henry; Castañeda, Serguei A.; Cardona Maya, Wálter; Alvarez, Leonor; Gómez, Joaquín; Gómez, Jorge; Torres, José; Tobón, Luis; Bedoya, Gabriel; Cadavid, Ángela P.

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown an association between recurrent pregnancy loss and inherited thrombophilia in Caucasian populations, but there is insufficient knowledge concerning triethnic populations such as the Colombian. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether inherited thrombophilia is associated with recurrent pregnancy loss. Methods. We conducted a case-control study of 93 patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (cases) and 206 healthy multiparous women (controls) in a Colombian subpopulation. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers of the inherited thrombophilias factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Activated protein C resistance and plasma levels of antithrombin, protein C, and protein S were also measured. Results. The frequency of thrombophilia-associated SNPs, activated protein C resistance, and anticoagulant protein deficiencies, was low overall, except for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T SNP. The differences between patients and controls had no statistical significance. Conclusion. Our study confirms the low prevalence of inherited thrombophilias in non-Caucasian populations and it is unlikely that the tested thrombophilias play a role in the pathogenesis of recurrent pregnancy loss in this Colombian population. PMID:22577540

  10. Influence of Body Weight, Ethnicity, Oral Contraceptives, and Pregnancy on the Pharmacokinetics of Azithromycin in Women of Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Mitra; Kilpatrick, Sarah J.; Tuomala, Ruth E.; Shier, Janice M.; Wollett, Lori; Fischer, Patricia A.; Khorana, Kinnari S.; Rodvold, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Women of childbearing age commonly receive azithromycin for the treatment of community-acquired infections, including during pregnancy. This study determined azithromycin pharmacokinetics in pregnant and nonpregnant women and identified covariates contributing to pharmacokinetic variability. Plasma samples were collected by using a sparse-sampling strategy from pregnant women at a gestational age of 12 to 40 weeks and from nonpregnant women of childbearing age receiving oral azithromycin for the treatment of an infection. Pharmacokinetic data from extensive sampling conducted on 12 healthy women were also included. Plasma samples were assayed for azithromycin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Population data were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The population analysis included 53 pregnant and 25 nonpregnant women. A three-compartment model with first-order absorption and a lag time provided the best fit of the data. Lean body weight, pregnancy, ethnicity, and the coadministration of oral contraceptives were covariates identified as significantly influencing the oral clearance of azithromycin and, except for oral contraceptive use, intercompartmental clearance between the central and second peripheral compartments. No other covariate relationships were identified. Compared to nonpregnant women not receiving oral contraceptives, a 21% to 42% higher dose-adjusted azithromycin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) occurred in non-African American women who were pregnant or receiving oral contraceptives. Conversely, azithromycin AUCs were similar between pregnant African American women and nonpregnant women not receiving oral contraceptives. Although higher levels of maternal and fetal azithromycin exposure suggest that lower doses be administered to non-African American women during pregnancy, the consideration of azithromycin pharmacodynamics during pregnancy should guide any dose adjustments. PMID:22106226

  11. Trends in ectopic pregnancy in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Hockin, J C; Jessamine, A G

    1984-01-01

    The incidence in Canada of one complication of sexually transmitted disease, ectopic pregnancy, was examined by age group for the years 1971 through 1980 by means of hospital statistics provided by Statistics Canada. The denominator was "reported pregnancies"--the total of live births, stillbirths, legal abortions and ectopic pregnancies in a given year. In 1980, 4123 ectopic pregnancies (9.3/1000 reported pregnancies) were reported, a 63% increase from 1970. The incidence had increased in each age stratum. This trend may be related to increasing rates of gonococcal infection and of hospitalization for pelvic inflammatory disease and lends confirmation to data from other countries that relate the increase in the rate of ectopic pregnancy to rising rates of sexually transmitted disease. PMID:6478362

  12. Decorin expression is decreased in first trimester placental tissue from pregnancies with small for gestation age infants at birth.

    PubMed

    Murthi, P; van Zanten, D E; Eijsink, J J H; Borg, A J; Stevenson, J L; Kalionis, B; Chui, A K; Said, J M; Brennecke, S P; Erwich, J J H M

    2016-09-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. FGR pregnancies are often associated with histological evidence of placental vascular thrombosis. The proteoglycans are important components and regulators of vascular homeostasis. Previous studies from our laboratory highlighted mRNA and protein expression differences in placental proteoglycan decorin (DCN), within a clinically well-characterised cohort of third-trimester idiopathic FGR compared with gestation-matched uncomplicated control pregnancies. We also showed that decorin contributes to abnormal angiogenesis and increased thrombin generation in vitro. These observations suggest that DCN gene expression may contribute to the etiology of FGR. Small for gestational age (SGA) is frequently used as a proxy for FGR and is defined as a birth weight below the 10th percentile of a birth weight curve. We therefore made use of a unique resource of first trimester tissues obtained via chorionic villus sampling during the first trimester to investigate the temporal relationship between altered DCN expression and any subsequent development of SGA. We hypothesized that placental DCN expression is decreased early in gestation in SGA pregnancies. Surplus chorionic villus specimens from 15 women subsequently diagnosed with FGR and 50 from women with uncomplicated pregnancies were collected. DCN mRNA and DCN protein were determined using real-time PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Both DCN mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in placentae from first-trimester SGA-pregnancies compared with controls (p < 0.05). This is the first study to report a temporal relationship between altered placental DCN expression and subsequent development of SGA. PMID:27577711

  13. Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Bhattathiry, Malini M.; Ethirajan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP), which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of “unmet need for FP” and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed. PMID:24696634

  14. Scurvy in pediatric age group – A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009–2014) with search terms “scurvy” “vitamin C deficiency” “ascorbic acid deficiency” “scurvy and children” “scurvy and pediatric age group”. There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  15. The significance of pregnancy among adolescents choosing abortion as compared to those continuing pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Morin-Gonthier, M; Lortie, G

    1984-04-01

    The significance of pregnancy for adolescent women is usually related to unconscious motivations. Some teenagers faced with the problem choose to abort, and others do not. Psychosocial status, contraceptive and sexual habits, attitudes towards pregnancy and environmental influences were studied in 50 teenagers who chose abortion. These young women were matched for age and parity with a control group of 50 who elected to carry their pregnancies to term. The results point to significant differences between the two groups, particularly as to the meaning of pregnancy and the decision-making process. PMID:6716370

  16. Gestational Age-specific Cut-off Values Are Needed for Diagnosis of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Sung; Kim, Byoung Jae; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Da Young; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Jeon, Hye Won

    2015-01-01

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >2.5 mIU/L has been suggested as the universal criterion for subclinical hypothyroidism. However, TSH levels change continuously during pregnancy, even in the first trimester. Therefore the use of a fixed cut-off value for TSH may result in a different diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism according to gestational age. The objective of this study was to obtain the normal reference range of TSH during the first trimester in Korean gravida and to determine the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism using the fixed cut-off value (TSH >2.5 mIU/L). The study population consisted of pregnant women who were measured for TSH during the first trimester of pregnancy (n=492) and nonpregnant women (n=984). Median concentration of TSH in pregnant women was lower than in non-pregnant women. There was a continuous decrease of median TSH concentration during the first trimester of pregnancy (median TSH concentration: 1.82 mIU/L for 3+0 to 6+6 weeks; 1.53 mIU/L for 7+0 to 7+6 weeks; and 1.05 mIU/L for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks). Using the fixed cut-off value of TSH >2.5 mIU/L, the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism decreased significantly according to the gestational age (GA) at TSH (25% in 3+0 to 6+6 weeks, 13% in 7+0 to 7+6 weeks, and 9% for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks, P<0.001), whereas the diagnosis rate was 5% in all GA with the use of a GA-specific cut-off value (P=0.995). Therefore, GA-specific criteria might be more appropriate for the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism. PMID:26339172

  17. Gestational Age-specific Cut-off Values Are Needed for Diagnosis of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Sung; Kim, Byoung Jae; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Da Young; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Jeon, Hye Won; Lee, Seung Mi

    2015-09-01

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >2.5 mIU/L has been suggested as the universal criterion for subclinical hypothyroidism. However, TSH levels change continuously during pregnancy, even in the first trimester. Therefore the use of a fixed cut-off value for TSH may result in a different diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism according to gestational age. The objective of this study was to obtain the normal reference range of TSH during the first trimester in Korean gravida and to determine the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism using the fixed cut-off value (TSH >2.5 mIU/L). The study population consisted of pregnant women who were measured for TSH during the first trimester of pregnancy (n=492) and nonpregnant women (n=984). Median concentration of TSH in pregnant women was lower than in non-pregnant women. There was a continuous decrease of median TSH concentration during the first trimester of pregnancy (median TSH concentration: 1.82 mIU/L for 3+0 to 6+6 weeks; 1.53 mIU/L for 7+0 to 7+6 weeks; and 1.05 mIU/L for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks). Using the fixed cut-off value of TSH >2.5 mIU/L, the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism decreased significantly according to the gestational age (GA) at TSH (25% in 3+0 to 6+6 weeks, 13% in 7+0 to 7+6 weeks, and 9% for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks, P<0.001), whereas the diagnosis rate was 5% in all GA with the use of a GA-specific cut-off value (P=0.995). Therefore, GA-specific criteria might be more appropriate for the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism. PMID:26339172

  18. AISF position paper on liver transplantation and pregnancy: Women in Hepatology Group, Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (AISF).

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    After the first successful pregnancy in a liver transplant recipient in 1978, much evidence has accumulated on the course, outcomes and management strategies of pregnancy following liver transplantation. Generally, liver transplantation restores sexual function and fertility as early as a few months after transplant. Considering that one third of all liver transplant recipients are women, that approximately one-third of them are of reproductive age (18-49 years), and that 15% of female liver transplant recipients are paediatric patients who have a >70% probability of reaching reproductive age, the issue of pregnancy after liver transplantation is rather relevant, and obstetricians, paediatricians, and transplant hepatologists ever more frequently encounter such patients. Pregnancy outcomes for both the mother and infant in liver transplant recipients are generally good, but there is an increased incidence of preterm delivery, hypertension/preeclampsia, foetal growth restriction, and gestational diabetes, which, by definition, render pregnancy in liver transplant recipients a high-risk one. In contrast, the risk of congenital anomalies and the live birth rate are comparable to those of the general population. Currently there are still no robust guidelines on the management of pregnancies after liver transplantation. The aim of this position paper is to review the available evidence on pregnancy in liver transplant recipients and to provide national Italian recommendations for clinicians caring for these patients. PMID:27267817

  19. From “sugar daddies” to “sugar babies”: exploring a pathway between age-disparate sexual relationships, condom use, and adolescent pregnancy in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Toska, Elona; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark; Pantelic, Marija; Kuo, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent pregnancy has been linked to adverse outcomes for mothers and children. Most studies proposing potential risk pathways for adolescent pregnancy in South Africa are qualitative, hypothesizing links among age-disparate relationships, reduced condom use and higher pregnancy rates. No known South African studies have quantitatively explored pathways to adolescent pregnancy. Objectives This study aimed to: (i) identify which literature-hypothesized factors were associated with adolescent pregnancy and (ii) explore a hypothesized pathway of risk by assessing whether condom use mediated the relationship between age-disparate sexual relationships (defined as having ever had a sexual partner more than 5 years older than participants) and adolescent pregnancy. Methods A cross-sectional survey in six urban and rural health districts of three South African provinces. 447 sexually-active girls aged 10–19 were interviewed. Analyses used multivariate logistic regressions controlling for confounders. Mediation tests were conducted using Hayes’ bootstrapping methodology. Results Consistent condom use (B=−2.148, OR=8.566, p ≤ 0.001) and school enrolment (B=−1.600, OR=0.202, p ≤ 0.001) were associated with lower rates of adolescent pregnancy. Engaging in age-disparate sex (B=1.093, OR=2.982, p ≤ 0.001) and long-term school absences (B=1.402, OR=4.061, p ≤ 0.001) were associated with higher rates of adolescent pregnancy. The indirect effect of engaging in age-disparate sex on adolescent pregnancy through condom use was significant, irrespective of age, age at sexual initiation, poverty and residential environment (B=0.4466, SE=0.1303, CI 0.2323–0.7428). Conclusion This multi-site cross-sectional survey supports qualitative hypotheses that girls’ inability to negotiate their partners’ condom use in age-disparate sexual relationships may drive adolescent pregnancy. Interventions addressing these relationships, facilitating condom use and

  20. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  1. Dynamics of colonization with group B streptococci in relation to normal flora in women during subsequent trimesters of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brzychczy-Włoch, Monika; Pabian, Wojciech; Majewska, Elzbieta; Zuk, Ma Gorzata; Kielbik, Jadwiga; Gosiewski, Tomasz; Bulanda, Ma Gorzata

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of the study was to compare the qualitative and quantitative composition of vaginal and rectal flora in GBS-positive (n=15) and GBS-negative (n=27) pregnant women examined in three subsequent trimesters of their pregnancy. Study samples consisted of vaginal and rectal smears and urine samples. GBS numbers were determined by the quantitatively cultured method [cfu/ml] and with the use of qPCR. Five GBS colonies were isolated per each positive sample and genotyped by PFGE and serotyping. The normal flora components: Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Candida were quantitatively cultured. Carriage of GBS in subsequent trimesters in vagina/anus was variable and fluctuated between 17% and 28%. Quantitative GBS analyses showed that the vaginal population was at a constant level with the mean value equal to 3.94×104 cfu/ml, in contrast to the rectal population where the highest values appeared in the third trimester 4.37×105. The use of qPCR gave 7% more positive results for vaginal/rectal swabs. Genetic similarity analysis showed that one GBS clone was present in 73% of carriers during pregnancy, while in 27% of patients, 2 clones were found. H2O2-positive vaginal lactobacilli were detected in all women, while H2O2-negative lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium occurred more frequently in the anus in about 50% of women. Candida was present in the vagina in 30% of women. The analysis of women in three consecutive trimesters of pregnancy on the basis of a study group and control group showed no statistically significant differences in either the species (qualitative) or quantitative composition in vaginal and rectal flora in both of the groups. Therefore, GBS should be considered as a component of the microbiota and an opportunistic microorganism rather than a typical pathogen, because it does not distort the composition of women's normal genital tract flora. PMID:25180845

  2. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children's weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did not find exercise intensity or changes in exercise habits in pregnancy related to the children's BMI or risk of overweight. PMID:22548089

  3. Inter-pregnancy weight change impacts placental weight and is associated with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the second pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The inter-pregnancy period is considered a teachable moment when women are receptive to weight- management guidance aimed at optimising pregnancy outcome in subsequent pregnancies. In population based studies inter-pregnancy weight change is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes but the impact on placental size is unknown. Methods The association between inter-pregnancy weight change and the primary risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the second pregnancy was investigated in 12,740 women with first two consecutive deliveries at a single hospital using logistic regression. Results Compared with women who were weight stable, weight loss (>1BMI unit) between pregnancies was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery, low placental weight and small for gestational age (SGA) birth, while weight gain (>3BMI units) increased the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, emergency caesarean section, placental oversize and large for gestational age (LGA) birth at the second pregnancy. The relationship between weight gain and pre-eclampsia risk was evident in women who were overweight at first pregnancy only (BMI ≥25 units), while that between weight loss and preterm delivery was confined to women with a healthy weight at first pregnancy (BMI <25 units). In contrast, the association between weight loss and SGA was independent of first pregnancy BMI. A higher percentage of women who were obese at first pregnancy were likely to experience a large weight gain (P < 0.01) or weight loss (P < 0.001) between consecutive pregnancies compared with the normal BMI reference group. Conclusion Inter-pregnancy weight change in either direction increases the risk of a number of contrasting pregnancy complications, including extremes of placental weight. The placenta may lie on the causal pathway between BMI change and the risk of LGA or SGA birth. PMID:24450357

  4. The effect of a very short interpregnancy interval and pregnancy outcomes following a previous pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    WONG, Luchin F.; SCHLIEP, Karen C.; SILVER, Robert M.; MUMFORD, Sunni L.; PERKINS, Neil J.; YE, Aijun; GALAI, Noya; WACTAWSKI-WENDE, Jean; LYNCH, Anne M.; TOWNSEND, Janet M.; FARAGGI, David; SCHISTERMAN, Enrique F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We sought to assess the relationship between a short interpregnancy interval (IPI) following a pregnancy loss and subsequent live birth and pregnancy outcomes. Study Design A secondary analysis of women enrolled in the Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction trial with an hCG-positive pregnancy test and whose last reproductive outcome was a loss were included in this analysis (n=677). IPI was defined as the time between last pregnancy loss and last menstrual period of the current pregnancy and categorized by 3-month intervals. Pregnancy outcomes include live birth, pregnancy loss, and any pregnancy complications. These were compared between IPI groups using multivariate relative risk estimation by Poisson regression. Results Demographic characteristics were similar between IPI groups. The mean gestational age of prior pregnancy loss was 8.6 ± 2.8 weeks. The overall live birth rate was 76.5%, with similar live birth rates between those with IPI ≤ 3 months as compared to IPI > 3 months, aRR=1.07 (95% CI 0.98–1.16). Rates were also similar for peri-implantation loss (aRR=0.95; 95% CI 0.51–1.80), clinically confirmed loss, (aRR=0.75; 95% CI 0.51–1.10), and any pregnancy complication (aRR=0.88; 95% CI 0.71–1.09) for those with IPI ≤ 3 months as compared to IPI > 3 months. Conclusion Live birth rates and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss, were not associated with a very short IPI after a prior pregnancy loss. The traditional recommendation to wait at least 3 months after a pregnancy loss before attempting a new pregnancy may not be warranted. PMID:25246378

  5. Pregnancy in women with congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Sermer, Mathew; Silversides, Candice K

    2015-01-01

    Due to advances in paediatric congenital heart surgery, there are a growing number of women with congenital heart disease (CHD) reaching childbearing age. Pregnancy, however, is associated with haemodynamic stresses which can result in cardiac decompensation in women with CHD. Many women with CHD are aware of their cardiac condition prior to pregnancy, and preconception counselling is an important aspect of their care. Preconception counselling allows women to make informed pregnancy decisions, provides an opportunity for modifications of teratogenic medications and, when necessary, repair of cardiac lesions prior to pregnancy. Less commonly, the haemodynamic changes of pregnancy unmask a previously unrecognised heart lesion. In general, pregnancy outcomes are favourable for women with CHD, but there are some cardiac lesions that carry high risk for both the mother and the baby, and this group of women require care by an experienced multidisciplinary team. This review discusses preconception counselling including contraception, an approach to risk stratification and management recommendations in women with some common CHDs.

  6. [The impact of thyroid function in women of reproductive age: infertility, pregnancy and the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Speer, Gábor

    2013-12-22

    This article reviews the management and diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum, which was published by any of the endocrine societies in 2012. The author presents human data based on these clinical practice guidelines, however, there are also many unresolved questions. Especially, there are inconsistencies about screening using plasma TSH measurement. In pregnancy the main causes of hyperthyroidism are Graves's disease and gestational transient thyrotoxicosis. Generally, gestational transient thyrotoxicosis does not require medication, whereas Graves's disease needs antithyroid drug therapy. Postpartum thyroiditis occurs more frequently in antithyroid peroxidase-positive women, who should be screened using serum thyrotropin measurements at 6 to 12 gestation weeks and at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Because overt maternal hypothyroidism, due to autoimmune pathophysioloical mechanisms, negatively affects the fetus, timely recognition and treatment are important. The subclinical form of maternal hypothyroidism should also be treated. A link between thyroid dysfunction and infertility has been warranted. PMID:24334133

  7. Family risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy: study of a group of adolescent girls and their families in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guijarro, S; Naranjo, J; Padilla, M; Gutiérez, R; Lammers, C; Blum, R W

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents the study on the family risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy among adolescent girls and their families in Quito, Ecuador. The study aimed to identify characteristics within the family associated with adolescent pregnancy. A total of 135 female adolescents (aged 12-19 years) and their families were separately interviewed. 47 were pregnant and attending prenatal care at an inner city hospital in Quito, and 88 were nonpregnant students from schools located within the same geographical area. Results showed that when compared to their pregnant peers, more nonpregnant adolescents lived with their biological parents (p 0.002); they showed higher school performance (p 0.001); and more values and religiosity (p 0.0001). Pregnant adolescents reported lower mother-daughter and father-daughter communication (p 0.02), lesser life satisfaction in general, and more school and economic difficulties (p 0.001). Moreover, they were less likely to find support for their problems in or outside the family (p 0.0001) and showed higher levels of depression (68.8%) and sexual abuse (14.9%). Parental education was higher in the families of nonpregnant adolescents and both parents worked to provide financial support for the family. PMID:10447044

  8. Pregnancy and lactation differentially modify the transcriptional regulation of steroidogenic enzymes through DNA methylation mechanisms in the hippocampus of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, María F; Varayoud, Jorgelina; Lazzarino, Gisela P; Luque, Enrique H; Ramos, Jorge G

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we examined the mRNA expression and DNA methylation state of steroidogenic enzymes in the hippocampus of young adult (90-days-old) and middle-aged (450-days-old) nulliparous rats, and middle-aged multiparous rats subjected to three pregnancies with and without lactation. Aging decreased the mRNA levels of steroidogenic-related genes, while pregnancy and lactation significantly reduced the effect of aging, maintaining high expression levels of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), steroid 5α-reductase-1 (5αR-1), cytochrome P450arom (P450arom) and aldosterone synthase (P450(11β)-2). In addition, pregnancy and lactation diminished the methylation state of the 5αR-1 promoter and increased the transcription of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, synaptophysin and spinophilin. Pregnancy without lactation increased P450scc and 5αR-1 gene expression and decreased the methylation of their promoters. We concluded that the age-related decrease in the mRNA expression of steroidogenic enzymes is differentially attenuated by pregnancy and lactation in the rat hippocampus and that differential methylation mechanisms could be involved. PMID:27040308

  9. Babies in waiting: why increasing the IVF age cut-off might lead to fewer wanted pregnancies in the presence of procrastination.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paul; Rudisill, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    Despite the best of intentions, we often act at the last minute when we are faced with a deadline. A recent recommendation by the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) to make In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) available to women up to 42 years of age instead of 39 intends to offer more women the chance of pregnancy. Given what we know about behavioural responses to what is, in essence, a deadline, the policy could lead to procrastination and fewer wanted pregnancies. We examine how many women it would take to delay trying for a baby for this policy to result in fewer pregnancies. We take a cohort of 1000 women from age 34. If no women delay trying, the increased age on access to IVF results in 31 more pregnancies. Because of declining fertility with age, it would take only about a third of these women to delay trying for a baby until age 35 for there to be zero net benefits of increased IVF availability. If all women delayed by a year, the new policy will lead to 59 fewer pregnancies. We also estimate the implications for IVF treatment numbers as this has psychological and personal consequences. Our findings highlight how no policy sits in a behavioural vacuum and all policy decisions should consider the likely behavioural responses and incorporate them into their design and evaluation. PMID:25445061

  10. Effects of gestational age and surface modification on materno-fetal transfer of nanoparticles in murine pregnancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Sun, Cuiji; Fan, Zhenlin; Tian, Xin; Yan, Liang; Du, Libo; Liu, Yang; Chen, Chunying; Liang, Xing-Jie; Anderson, Gregory J.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Zhao, Yuliang; Nie, Guangjun

    2012-11-01

    Nanoparticle exposure in pregnancy may result in placental damage and fetotoxicity; however, the factors that determine fetal nanoparticle exposure are unclear. Here we have assessed the effect of gestational age and nanoparticle composition on fetal accumulation of maternally-administered nanomaterials in mice. We determined the placental and fetal uptake of 13 nm gold nanoparticles with different surface modifications (ferritin, PEG and citrate) following intravenous administration at E5.5-15.5. We showed that prior to E11.5, all tested nanoparticles could be visualized and detected in fetal tissues in significant amounts; however, fetal gold levels declined dramatically post-E11.5. In contrast, Au-nanoparticle accumulation in the extraembryonic tissues (EET) increased 6-15 fold with gestational age. Fetal and EET accumulation of ferritin- and PEG-modified nanoparticles was considerably greater than citrate-capped nanoparticles. No signs of toxicity were observed. Fetal exposure to nanoparticles in murine pregnancy is, therefore, influenced by both stage of embryonic/placental maturation and nanoparticle surface composition.

  11. Behavioral Group Work in a Home for the Aged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsk, N.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Elderly people in institutions frequently become isolated and noncommunicative. By using behavioral measurements of group workers and group members, the authors have formulated ways of treatment that encourage members to participate more actively. (Author)

  12. Ectopic Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Ectopic Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Ectopic Pregnancy Page ... Ectopic Pregnancy FAQ155, August 2011 PDF Format Ectopic Pregnancy Pregnancy What is an ectopic pregnancy? Who is ...

  13. Leadership Asymmetries in Mixed-Age Children's Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Doran C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Observed the decision-reaching and leadership behavior of children in same- amd mixed-age triads by coding their verbalizations in arriving at a consensus for their preference ranking of eight pictures. (HOD)

  14. Maternal Caffeine Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition and Behavior at 4 and 7 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Klebanoff, Mark A; Keim, Sarah A

    2015-12-15

    Although caffeine is commonly consumed during pregnancy, there are few reports on the association of in utero caffeine exposure with offspring cognition or behavior during childhood. We evaluated the association of maternal serum paraxanthine, caffeine's primary metabolite, at <20 and ≥26 weeks' gestation with the child's intelligence quotient (IQ) and problem behaviors at ages 4 and 7 years among 2,197 mother-child pairs. The mothers were controls from a case-control study of caffeine metabolites and spontaneous abortion that was nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project (multiple US sites, 1959-1974). Associations of paraxanthine (adjusted for maternal age, race, education, smoking, prepregnancy weight, gestational age at blood draw, and child sex) with mean IQ were assessed by linear regression and associations with problem behaviors by logistic regression. Paraxanthine concentration at ≥26 weeks' gestation manifested an inverted-J-shaped association with child's IQ at age 7 years, with a peak difference (vs. undetectable) of 0.65 points at 750 µg/L (66th percentile) and a decrement thereafter. Paraxanthine at <20 weeks was linearly associated with internalizing behavior at age 4 years (for a 500-µg/L increase, odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.5). None of the remaining 12 associations approached statistical significance. We conclude that over a range of values applicable to most pregnant women, there was no meaningful association of serum paraxanthine level with childhood IQ or problem behaviors. PMID:26585526

  15. Where Are the Adults? The Attitudes of Parents, Teachers, Clergy, Coaches, and Youth Workers on Teen Pregnancy. A Focus Group Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    In 1997, the National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy convened nine focus groups of parents of teens and other adults who work with teens such as teachers, clergy, coaches, youth recreation specialists, youth-serving organization staff, and community outreach workers. This report publishes the results of these focus groups, which involved 57…

  16. Mortality Associated with Severe Sepsis Among Age-Similar Women with and without Pregnancy-Associated Hospitalization in Texas: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Oud, Lavi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The reported mortality among women with pregnancy-associated severe sepsis (PASS) has been considerably lower than among severely septic patients in the general population, with the difference being attributed to the younger age and lack of chronic illness among the women with PASS. However, no comparative studies were reported to date between patients with PASS and age-similar women with severe sepsis not associated with pregnancy (NPSS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We used the Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File to compare the crude and adjusted hospital mortality between women with severe sepsis, aged 20-34 years, with and without pregnancy-associated hospitalizations during 2001-2010, following exclusion of those with reported chronic comorbidities, as well as alcohol and drug abuse. RESULTS Crude hospital mortality among PASS vs. NPSS hospitalizations was lower for the whole cohort (6.7% vs. 14.1% [p<0.0001]) and those with ≥3 organ failures (17.6% vs. 33.2% [p=0.0100]). Adjusted PASS mortality (odds ratio [95% CI]) was 0.57 (0.38-0.86) [p=0.0070]. CONCLUSIONS Hospital mortality was unexpectedly markedly and consistently lower among women with severe sepsis associated with pregnancy, as compared with contemporaneous, age-similar women with severe sepsis not associated with pregnancy, without reported chronic comorbidities. Further studies are warranted to examine the sources of the observed differences and to corroborate our findings. PMID:27286326

  17. Mortality Associated with Severe Sepsis Among Age-Similar Women with and without Pregnancy-Associated Hospitalization in Texas: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Oud, Lavi

    2016-01-01

    Background The reported mortality among women with pregnancy-associated severe sepsis (PASS) has been considerably lower than among severely septic patients in the general population, with the difference being attributed to the younger age and lack of chronic illness among the women with PASS. However, no comparative studies were reported to date between patients with PASS and age-similar women with severe sepsis not associated with pregnancy (NPSS). Material/Methods We used the Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File to compare the crude and adjusted hospital mortality between women with severe sepsis, aged 20–34 years, with and without pregnancy-associated hospitalizations during 2001–2010, following exclusion of those with reported chronic comorbidities, as well as alcohol and drug abuse. Results Crude hospital mortality among PASS vs. NPSS hospitalizations was lower for the whole cohort (6.7% vs. 14.1% [p<0.0001]) and those with ≥3 organ failures (17.6% vs. 33.2% [p=0.0100]). Adjusted PASS mortality (odds ratio [95% CI]) was 0.57 (0.38–0.86) [p=0.0070]. Conclusions Hospital mortality was unexpectedly markedly and consistently lower among women with severe sepsis associated with pregnancy, as compared with contemporaneous, age-similar women with severe sepsis not associated with pregnancy, without reported chronic comorbidities. Further studies are warranted to examine the sources of the observed differences and to corroborate our findings. PMID:27286326

  18. ASSOCIATIONS OF BLOOD PRESSURE CHANGE IN PREGNANCY WITH FETAL GROWTH AND GESTATIONAL AGE AT DELIVERY: FINDINGS FROM A PROSPECTIVE COHORT

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2014-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are associated with intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth. However, the associations of patterns of blood pressure change during pregnancy with these outcomes have not been studied in detail. We studied repeat antenatal blood pressure measurements of 9,697 women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (median (interquartile range) 10 (9, 11) measurements per woman). Bivariate linear spline models were used to relate blood pressure changes to perinatal outcomes. Higher systolic, but not diastolic, blood pressure at baseline (8 weeks gestation) and a greater increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure between 18 and 36 weeks gestation were associated with lower offspring birthweight and being smaller for gestational age in confounder-adjusted models. For example, the mean difference (95% CI) in birthweight per 1 mmHg/week greater increase in systolic blood pressure between 18-30 weeks was −71g (−134, −14) and between 30-36 weeks was −175g (−208, −145). A smaller decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure prior to 18 weeks and a greater increase between 18 and 36 weeks was associated with a shorter gestation (percentage difference in gestational duration per 1 mmHg/week greater increase in systolic blood pressure between 18-30 weeks: −0.60% (−1.01, −0.18) and 30-36 weeks: −1.01% (−1.36, −0.74)). Associations remained strong when restricting to normotensive women. We conclude that greater increases in blood pressure, from the 18-week nadir, are related to reduced fetal growth and shorter gestation even in women whose blood pressure does not cross the threshold for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. PMID:24821945

  19. Does n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy increase the IQ of children at school age? Follow-up of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Jacqueline F; Treyvaud, Karli; Yelland, Lisa N; Anderson, Peter J; Smithers, Lisa G; Gibson, Robert A; McPhee, Andrew J; Makrides, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite recommendations that pregnant women increase their docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake to support fetal brain development, a recent systematic review found a lack of high-quality data to support the long-term effects of DHA supplementation on children's neurodevelopment. Methods and analysis We will assess child neurodevelopment at 7 years of age in follow-up of a multicentre double-blind randomised controlled trial of DHA supplementation in pregnancy. In 2010–2012, n=2399 Australian women with a singleton pregnancy <21 weeks’ gestation were randomised to receive 3 capsules daily containing a total dose of 800 mg DHA/day or a vegetable oil placebo until birth. N=726 children from Adelaide (all n=97 born preterm, random sample of n=630 born at term) were selected for neurodevelopmental follow-up and n=638 (preterm n=85) are still enrolled at 7 years of age. At the 7-year follow-up, a psychologist will assess the primary outcome, IQ, with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition. Specific measures of executive functioning (Fruit Stroop and the Rey Complex Figure), attention (Test of Everyday Attention for Children), memory and learning (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test), language (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition) and basic educational skills (Wide Range Achievement Test, Fourth Edition) will also be administered. Caregivers will be asked to complete questionnaires measuring behaviour and executive functioning. Families, clinicians and research personnel are blinded to group assignment with the exception of families who requested unblinding prior to the follow-up. All analyses will be conducted according to the intention-to-treat principal. Ethics and dissemination All procedures will be approved by the relevant institutional ethics committees prior to start of the study. The results of this study will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journal publications and academic presentations

  20. Assessment of Pregnancy Status, Malaria Knowledge and Malaria Fever Morbidity among Women of Reproductive Ages in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    OYEKALE, Abayomi Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria is one the major health problem in Nigeria. During pregnancy, it poses serious threat to the survival of both unborn foetus and the mothers. This study determined the effect of adequate malaria knowledge and pregnancy status of women on use of mosquito nets and reported malaria fever morbidity. Methods The data were collected during the Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) from 4632 women. Data analyses were carried out with descriptive statistics and Seemingly Unrelated Bivariate Probit regression. Results Results show that 13.19% of the women were pregnant, of which about one-third slept under mosquito nets. Also, 25.26% reported malaria associated fever in the previous two weeks to the time of interview, while 78.28% correctly answered that mosquitoes are responsible for malaria. Knowledge on malaria prevention was low with 55.70% and 14.93% indicating sleeping under mosquito nets and ITN, respectively. Probability of sleeping under mosquito nets significantly increased with knowing that sleeping under mosquito nets and ITN could prevent malaria while it decreased with having fever, age, urban residence and knowing that use of mosquito spray and coil can prevent malaria. The probability of having fever increased significantly with household size, being pregnant and age at first birth but decreased with age, knowing that sleeping under ITN, cutting grasses and closing door/windows would prevent malaria. Conclusions Use of mosquito nets among the women was low. Also, efforts to enhance their knowledge on malaria prevention and ensuring adequate access to mosquito nets especially for pregnant women would curtail the impact of malaria. PMID:26175973

  1. Group Treatment of Sexually Abused Latency-Age Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Lisa Y.; Gutierrez-Kovner, Victoria M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a pilot group developed to address the traumagenic stigmatization, powerlessness, betrayal, and sexualization that characterize victims of sexual abuse. Treatment modules developed within this framework focused on: group cohesiveness, discussion of specific abuse experiences, coping strategies, sexuality, victimization prevention, and…

  2. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  3. Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals during Pregnancy and Weight at 7 Years of Age: A Multi-pollutant Approach

    PubMed Central

    Agay-Shay, Keren; Martinez, David; Valvi, Damaskini; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Basagaña, Xavier; Robinson, Oliver; Casas, Maribel; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may induce weight gain and obesity in children, but the obesogenic effects of mixtures have not been studied. Objective We evaluated the associations between pre- and perinatal biomarker concentrations of 27 EDCs and child weight status at 7 years of age. Methods In pregnant women enrolled in a Spanish birth cohort study between 2004 and 2006, we measured the concentrations of 10 phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, cadmium, arsenic, and lead in two maternal pregnancy urine samples; 6 organochlorine compounds in maternal pregnancy serum; mercury in cord blood; and 6 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in colostrum. Among 470 children at 7 years, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated, and overweight was defined as BMI > 85th percentile. We estimated associations with EDCs in single-pollutant models and applied principal-component analysis (PCA) on the 27 pollutant concentrations. Results In single-pollutant models, HCB (hexachlorobenzene), βHCH (β-hexachlorocyclohexane), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 138 and 180 were associated with increased child BMI z-scores; and HCB, βHCH, PCB-138, and DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) with overweight risk. PCA generated four factors that accounted for 43.4% of the total variance. The organochlorine factor was positively associated with BMI z-scores and with overweight (adjusted RR, tertile 3 vs. 1: 2.59; 95% CI: 1.19, 5.63), and these associations were robust to adjustment for other EDCs. Exposure in the second tertile of the phthalate factor was inversely associated with overweight. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to organochlorines was positively associated with overweight at age 7 years in our study population. Other EDCs exposures did not confound this association. Citation Agay-Shay K, Martinez D, Valvi D, Garcia-Esteban R, Basagaña X, Robinson O, Casas M, Sunyer J, Vrijheid M. 2015. Exposure to endocrine

  4. Traditions and plant use during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum recovery by the Kry ethnic group in Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated in many Southeast Asian cultures, and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet and traditional medicine. Little is known of the Kry, a small ethnic group whose language was recently described, concerning its traditions and use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare. This research aims to study those traditions and identify medicinal plant use. Methods Data were collected in the 3 different Kry villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results A total of 49 different plant species are used in women's healthcare. Plant use is culturally different from the neighboring Brou and Saek ethnic groups. Menstruation, delivery and postpartum recovery take place in separate, purpose-built, huts and a complex system of spatial restrictions is observed. Conclusions Traditions surrounding childbirth are diverse and have been strictly observed, but are undergoing a shift towards those from neighboring ethnic groups, the Brou and Saek. Medicinal plant use to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care, is more common than previously reported (49 species instead of 14). The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as traditional delivery, spatial taboos, confinement and dietary restrictions, and their potential in modern healthcare. PMID:21569234

  5. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  6. MULTI-AGE GROUPING--ENRICHING THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES OF CHILDREN OCCUR NATURALLY IN PLAY AND IN MANY SCHOOL ACTIVITIES, FOR EXAMPLE, STUDENT COUNCIL MEETINGS, CLUBS, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS. THESE ACTIVITIES DEMAND THE VARIETY OF AGES, TALENTS, INTERESTS, AND EXPERIENCES REPRESENTED BY THE WHOLE RANGE OF STUDENTS IN A SCHOOL. IT IS QUESTIONED WHETHER ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES WOULD NOT…

  7. Anaemia during pregnancy in Burkina Faso, west Africa, 1995-96: prevalence and associated factors. DITRAME Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Meda, N.; Mandelbrot, L.; Cartoux, M.; Dao, B.; Ouangré, A.; Dabis, F.

    1999-01-01

    We report the results of a cross-sectional study carried out in 1995-96 on anaemia in pregnant women who were attending two antenatal clinics in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, as part of a research programme including a clinical trial of zidovudine (ZDV) in pregnancy (ANRS 049 Clinical Trial). For women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Africa, anaemia is of particular concern when considering the use of ZDV to decrease mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for maternal anaemia in the study population, and the effect of HIV infection on the severity of maternal anaemia. HIV counselling and testing were offered to all women, and haemograms were determined for those women who consented to serological testing. Haemoglobin (Hb) levels were available for 2308 of the 2667 women who accepted HIV testing. The prevalence of HIV infection was 9.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.6-10.8%). The overall prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy (Hb level < 11 g/dl) was 66% (95% CI: 64-68%). The prevalence of mild (10 g/dl < or = Hb < 11 g/dl), moderate (7 g/dl < or = Hb < 10 g/dl) and severe (Hb < 7 g/dl) anaemia was 30.8%, 33.5% and 1.7%, respectively. The prevalence of anaemia was 78.4% in HIV-infected women versus 64.7% in HIV-seronegative women (P < 0.001). Although the relative risk of HIV-seropositivity increased with the severity of anaemia, no significant association was found between degree of anaemia and HIV serostatus among the study women with anaemia. Logistic regression analysis showed that anaemia was significantly and independently related to HIV infection, advanced gestational age, and low socioeconomic status. This study confirms the high prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy in Burkina Faso. Antenatal care in this population must include iron supplementation. Although HIV-infected women had a higher prevalence of anaemia, severe anaemia was infrequent, possibly because few

  8. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  9. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding. PMID:26458013

  10. Diagnosis of pregnancy-associated venous thromboembolism - position paper of the Working Group in Women's Health of the Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (GTH).

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Birgit; Bauersachs, Rupert; Rott, Hannelore; Halimeh, Susan; Zotz, Rainer; Gerhardt, Andrea; Boddenberg-Pätzold, Barbara; Toth, Bettina; Scholz, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Over the past decade, new diagnostic algorithms have been established, combining clinical probability, laboratory testing and imaging studies for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in the non-pregnant population. However, there is no such generally accepted algorithm for the diagnosis of pregnancy-associated VTE. Studies establishing clinical prediction rules have excluded pregnant women, and prediction scores currently in use have not been prospectively validated in pregnancy or during the postpartum period. D-dimers physiologically increase throughout pregnancy and peak at delivery, so a negative D-dimer test result, based on the reference values of non-pregnant subjects, becomes unlikely in the second and third trimesters. Imaging studies therefore play a major role in confirming suspected DVT or PE in pregnant women. Major concerns have been raised against radiologic imaging because of foetal radiation exposure, and doubts about the diagnostic value of ultrasound techniques in attempting to exclude isolated iliac vein thrombosis grow stronger as pregnancy progresses. As members of the Working Group in Women's Health of the Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (GTH), we summarise evidence from the available literature and aim to establish a more uniform strategy for diagnosing pregnancy-associated VTE. PMID:27058795

  11. Efficiency of Screening for the Recurrence of Antenatal Group B Streptococcus Colonization in a Subsequent Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis with Independent Patient Data.

    PubMed

    Turrentine, Mark A; Colicchia, Laura C; Hirsch, Emmet; Cheng, Po-Jen; Tam, Teresa; Ramsey, Patrick S; Page-Ramsey, Sarah M

    2016-04-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of recurrent group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization in a subsequent pregnancy and to assess clinical characteristics that influence this risk. Study Design A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Databases were searched from inception through June 2015 using PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Central, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Studies were eligible if they assessed antenatal GBS colonization in two successive pregnancies. The quality of included studies was evaluated. Independent patient data was requested from the authors of the included trials. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) were pooled using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed effect model. Results In the five studies identified, two studies lacked a nonexposed cohort. GBS colonization in the index pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of recurrence of GBS colonization in a subsequent pregnancy (three studies: 50.2 compared with 14.1%; pooled fixed effects OR, 6.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.84-7.55). When heavy colonization with GBS was compared with colonization by vaginal culture only, an increased risk of recurrence was shown (four studies: 52.0 compared with 45.1%, pooled fixed effects OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.02-2.31). Conclusion Women colonized with GBS are at significantly higher odds for recurrent colonization in a subsequent pregnancy when compared with women who were not colonized in an index pregnancy. If the individual is considered heavily colonized with GBS, there appears to be an association with an increased risk compared with conventional culture. Subgroup analysis of the variables time interval ≤ 12 months between subsequent pregnancies, body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2), race, ethnicity, and primiparous in the subsequent pregnancy showed no effect. PMID:26683604

  12. European survey of fertility and pregnancy in women with Crohn's disease: a case control study by European collaborative group.

    PubMed Central

    Mayberry, J F; Weterman, I T

    1986-01-01

    Two hundred and seventy five patients with Crohn's disease from five countries were interviewed. Each patient was matched with a control of the same age. Of the 275 women with Crohn's disease 224 had been married at some time compared with 208 controls. The mean age at marriage was 23 years. Diagnosis of Crohn's disease was made five years later and the survey was conducted on average 16 years after marriage. Cases and controls had a similar obstetric study before diagnosis. After diagnosis there was a significant reduction in the number of children born to patients (0.4) compared with controls (0.7). Crohn's disease did not increase the rate of miscarriage or Caesarean section but prematurity was more common in patients (16%) than controls (7%). The site of disease at diagnosis did not affect these findings. Medical advice against pregnancy may be partly responsible for this reduction in fertility, but patients practised contraception less than controls and a significantly greater proportion of these (42%) failed to become pregnant compared with controls (28%). Crohn's disease results in subfertility. PMID:3732892

  13. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  14. Diversity, Group Identity, and Citizenship Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide immigration and quests for rights by minority groups have caused social scientists and educators to raise serious questions about liberal assimilationist conceptions of citizenship that historically have dominated citizenship education in nation-states. The author of this article challenges liberal assimilationist conceptions of…

  15. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  16. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these

  17. Associations of Pregnancy Complications with Calculated CVD Risk and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Middle Age: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Abigail; Nelson, Scott M.; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Cherry, Lynne; Butler, Elaine; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The nature and contribution of different pregnancy related complications to future cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors, as well as mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. Methods and Results We studied associations of pregnancy diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), preterm delivery and size for gestational age with calculated 10 year CVD risk (based on the Framingham score) and a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors measured 18 years after pregnancy (mean age at outcome assessment: 48 years) in a prospective cohort of 3,416 women. Gestational diabetes (GDM) was positively associated with fasting glucose and insulin, even after adjusting for potential confounders whilst HDP were associated with BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipids and insulin. Large for gestational age (LGA) was associated with greater waist circumference and glucose concentrations, whilst small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm delivery were associated with higher blood pressure. The association with the calculated 10 year CVD risk based on the Framingham prediction score was OR=1.31 (95%CI: 1.11, 1.53) for preeclampsia and 1.26 (0.95, 1.68) for GDM compared to women without preeclampsia and GDM respectively. Conclusions HDP and pregnancy diabetes are independently associated with an increased calculated 10 year CVD risk. Preeclampsia may be the better predictor of future CVD since it was associated with a wider range of cardiovascular risk factors. Our results suggest that pregnancy may be an important opportunity for early identification of women at increased risk of CVD later in life. PMID:22344039

  18. Alcohol, Smoking and Drug Use among Inuit Women of Childbearing Age during Pregnancy and the Risk to Children

    PubMed Central

    Muckle, Gina; Laflamme, Dominique; Gagnon, Jocelyne; Boucher, Olivier; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption during pregnancy, a known teratogen often associated with drug use and smoking, is a well-known public health concern. Aim This study provides prevalence data for alcohol, smoking, and illicit drug use before, during, and after pregnancy among Inuit. Factors associated with alcohol use are also identified. Methods 248 Inuit women from Arctic Quebec were interviewed at mid-pregnancy, and at 1 and 11 months postpartum to provide descriptive data on smoking, alcohol, and drug use during pregnancy, and the year before and after pregnancy. Sociodemographic and family characteristics potentially associated with alcohol use were documented. Results 92% of the women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking during pregnancy. Episodes of binging during pregnancy were reported by 62% of the alcohol users, which corresponds to 38% of pregnant women. 36% of the participants reported using marijuana during pregnancy. Alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy were more likely to be reported by women who lived in less crowded houses, had a better knowledge of a second language, drank alcohol more often and in larger amounts prior to pregnancy, and used illicit drugs. Binge drinkers were more likely to be single women and to have had fewer previous pregnancies. Postpartum distress and violence were more likely to be experienced by women who used alcohol during pregnancy. Binge drinking during pregnancy was best predicted by drinking habits before pregnancy, maternal symptoms of depression, the use of illicit drugs during pregnancy and the number of young children living with the mother. Conclusions These results confirm that alcohol is a major risk factor to maternal and child health in this population, underscoring the need for culturally relevant and effective prevention programs. PMID:21332531

  19. FACTORS INFLUENCING MISTIMED AND UNWANTED PREGNANCIES AMONG NEPALI WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Pawan; Gautam, Rupesh; Aro, Arja R

    2016-03-01

    This paper assesses the factors influencing mistimed and unwanted pregnancies in Nepal separately using data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. Women who had given birth within the five years before the survey were interviewed about the intendedness of their last pregnancy. The data were analysed with a chi-squared test, followed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Among the total 5391 participants, 11.29% and 13.13% reported their last pregnancy as mistimed and unwanted respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that women from the hill region were more likely to report mistimed pregnancy, while women from the Western and Far-Western development regions were less likely to report mistimed pregnancy. Education status was positively correlated with the reporting of mistimed pregnancy. Women involved in agriculture, with full autonomy on household decision, with some exposure to mass media, belonging to higher age group and having third or higher parity were less likely to report mistimed pregnancy. Similarly, women from the Western development region had relatively higher odds of reporting unwanted pregnancy. Women with husbands involved in a paid job had lower odds of unwanted pregnancy. Women's autonomy was also positively correlated with unwanted pregnancy. Women with the intention to use contraceptive had lower odds of unwanted pregnancy. Interventions targeting the factors identified by this study could be useful in reduction of mistimed and unwanted pregnancies among Nepali women. PMID:26008148

  20. Development and Implementation of CHOICES Group to Reduce Drinking, Improve Contraception, and Prevent Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies in American Indian Women.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jessica D; Ingersoll, Karen; Pourier, Susan

    2015-12-01

    Public health officials assert that prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) should begin before conception, by reducing alcohol consumption in women at-risk for or planning pregnancy, and/or preventing pregnancy in women who are drinking at risky levels. One such effort is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) CHOICES Program. While the OST CHOICES Program has been successfully implemented, a community-based needs assessment determined that the OST CHOICES intervention should expand and be delivered in a group setting using group motivational interviewing (MI) techniques. After extensive group MI and CHOICES group trainings, recruitment for CHOICES Group began and within a ten month period, a total of twelve groups with non-pregnant American Indian women were held for this pilot intervention. Evaluations completed by participants indicated that CHOICES Group sessions positively engaged members, had low levels of anger or tension, and had average levels of avoidance of personal responsibility. An evaluation of the CHOICES Group leaders indicated strengths in certain MI skills, although improvement is needed in some core MI and group leadership skills. This is an important expansion of a successful AEP prevention program (CHOICES), as well as a novel application of MI, and recommendations and future plans for this intervention are outlined. PMID:26265591

  1. Ectopic Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Ectopic Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Ectopic Pregnancy Print A A ... lower back pain continue What Causes an Ectopic Pregnancy? An ectopic pregnancy usually happens because a fertilized ...

  2. Alaska Native and Rural Youths' Views of Sexual Health: A Focus Group Project on Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV/AIDS, and Unplanned Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leston, Jessica D.; Jessen, Cornelia M.; Simons, Brenna C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The disparity in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy between Alaska Native (AN) and non-AN populations, particularly among young adults and females, is significant and concerning. Focus groups were conducted to better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of rural Alaska youth…

  3. [Efficacy of group psychotherapy for homosexual aging males].

    PubMed

    Gagliesi, Pablo

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this research is try to expose and to debate the groupal psychotherapy experience of homosexual males older than 65 years, in Buenos Aires. The starting point for this work is based on that homogeneous groups are effective in some contexts, what is demonstrated by the results at the beginning and at the end of the samples of the BSI and SAS, although this data are not, like it was supposed, commonly linked with the selected biographical antecedents (abuse of power, bereavements during the last military dictatorships, bereavements as result of the AIDS epidemic and the difficulties in the economic survival). PMID:12478313

  4. Valve repair in rheumatic heart disease in pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pramod K; Dharmapuram, Anil K; Swain, Sunil K; Ramdoss, Nagarajan; Raghavan, Sreekanth S; Murthy, Kona S

    2008-04-01

    Valve repair in children is technically demanding but more desirable than valve replacement. From April 2004 to September 2005, 1 boy and 8 girls with rheumatic heart disease, aged 2-13 years (median, 9 years), underwent valve repair for isolated mitral regurgitation in 5, combined mitral and aortic regurgitation in 2, mitral stenosis in 1, and mitral regurgitation associated with atrial septal defect in 1. Chordal shortening in 7, annular plication in 6, commissurotomy in 1, reconstruction of commissural leaflets in 7 were performed for mitral valve disease. Plication and reattachment of the aortic cusps was carried out in 2 patients. Annuloplasty rings were not used. All patients survived the operation, 8 had trivial or mild residual mitral regurgitation, and 1 had trivial aortic regurgitation. Mean left atrial pressure decreased from 14 to 7 mm Hg postoperatively. During follow-up of 3-18 months, all children were asymptomatic and enjoyed normal activity. None required reoperation. In addition to chordal shortening and annular plication, reconstruction of the commissural leaflets is considered the most important aspect of valve repair. It can be achieved without annuloplasty rings, giving good early and midterm results. PMID:18381871

  5. The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women. PMID:19017195

  6. Bone Mineral Density in Gravida: Effect of Pregnancies and Breast-Feeding in Women of Differing Ages and Parity

    PubMed Central

    Mishukov, Yuri; Babchenko, Liana; Samueloff, Arnon; Zimran, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Changes of bone during pregnancy and during lactation evaluated by bone mineral density (BMD) may have implications for risk of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied BMD in women of differing ages, parity, and lactation histories immediately postpartum for BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores. Institutional Review Board approval was received. All women while still in hospital postpartum were asked to participate. BMD was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machine at femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) by a single technician. Of 132 participants, 73 (55.3%) were ≤30 years; 27 (20.5%) were primiparous; 36 (27.3%) were grand multiparous; 35 (26.5%) never breast fed. Mean FN T-scores and Z-scores were higher than respective mean LS scores, but all means were within the normal limits. Mean LS T-scores and Z-scores were highest in the grand multiparas. There were only 2 (1.5%) outliers with low Z-scores. We conclude that, in a large cohort of Israeli women with BMD parameters assessed by DXA within two days postpartum, mean T-scores and Z-scores at both the LS and FN were within normal limits regardless of age (20–46 years), parity (1–13 viable births), and history of either no or prolonged months of lactation (up to 11.25 years). PMID:25506038

  7. Bone mineral density in gravida: effect of pregnancies and breast-feeding in women of differing ages and parity.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Ehud; Mishukov, Yuri; Babchenko, Liana; Samueloff, Arnon; Zimran, Ari; Elstein, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Changes of bone during pregnancy and during lactation evaluated by bone mineral density (BMD) may have implications for risk of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied BMD in women of differing ages, parity, and lactation histories immediately postpartum for BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores. Institutional Review Board approval was received. All women while still in hospital postpartum were asked to participate. BMD was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machine at femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) by a single technician. Of 132 participants, 73 (55.3%) were ≤30 years; 27 (20.5%) were primiparous; 36 (27.3%) were grand multiparous; 35 (26.5%) never breast fed. Mean FN T-scores and Z-scores were higher than respective mean LS scores, but all means were within the normal limits. Mean LS T-scores and Z-scores were highest in the grand multiparas. There were only 2 (1.5%) outliers with low Z-scores. We conclude that, in a large cohort of Israeli women with BMD parameters assessed by DXA within two days postpartum, mean T-scores and Z-scores at both the LS and FN were within normal limits regardless of age (20-46 years), parity (1-13 viable births), and history of either no or prolonged months of lactation (up to 11.25 years). PMID:25506038

  8. Finisher and performance trends in female and male mountain ultramarathoners by age group

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Eichenberger, Evelyn; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined changes according to age group in the number of finishers and running times for athletes in female and male mountain ultramarathoners competing in the 78 km Swiss Alpine Marathon, the largest mountain ultramarathon in Europe and held in high alpine terrain. Methods The association between age and performance was investigated using analysis of variance and both single and multilevel regression analyses. Results Between 1998 and 2011, a total of 1,781 women and 12,198 men finished the Swiss Alpine Marathon. The number of female finishers increased (r2 = 0.64, P = 0.001), whereas the number of male finishers (r2 = 0.18, P = 0.15) showed no change. The annual top ten men became older and slower, whereas the annual top ten women became older but not slower. Regarding the number of finishers in the age groups, the number of female finishers decreased in the age group 18–24 years, whereas the number of finishers increased in the age groups 30–34, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, and 70–74 years. In the age groups 25–29 and 35–39 years, the number of finishers showed no changes across the years. In the age group 70–74 years, the increase in number of finishers was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. For men, the number of finishers decreased in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, and 35–39 years. In the age groups 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 70–74, and 75–79 years, the number of finishers increased. In the age group 40–44 years, the increase was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. Female finishers in the age group 40–44 years became faster over time. For men, finishers in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, 40–44, and 45–49 years became slower. Conclusion The number of women older than 30 years and men older than 40 years increased in the Swiss Alpine Marathon. Performance improved in women aged 40–44 years but

  9. Body-image perceptions across sex and age groups.

    PubMed

    Cullari, S; Rohrer, J M; Bahm, C

    1998-12-01

    Weight dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, and body-image distortion measures were used with 98 fifth and eighth graders and 57 undergraduate students. Measures included the Piers-Harris Self-concept Scale and the Kids Eating Disorder Survey for the young children, the Interpersonal Behavior Survey, and a seven-item mistaken beliefs scale for the college sample. Body dissatisfaction and Body-image distortion were assessed with a figure-drawing procedure. Significant differences in both weight dissatisfaction and body dissatisfaction were found between males and females in the eighth grade and undergraduate groups. There were no significant sex differences in body-image distortion in the fifth or eighth grades, but significant differences in body-image distortion between men and women were found in the college sample. The direction of body-image distortion for both the 20 men and the 37 women was consistent with their ideal weight. In the college sample, there was a significant correlation between body-image dissatisfaction and self-confidence for the women but not for the men. PMID:9885045

  10. Predicting mortality from burns: the need for age-group specific models.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandra L; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2014-09-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000 to 2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. "One size fits all" models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  11. Risk of Preterm or Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth After Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy: Caveats When Conducting Retrospective Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Kharbanda, Elyse O; Naleway, Allison L; Lipkind, Heather; Sukumaran, Lakshmi; McCarthy, Natalie L; Omer, Saad B; Qian, Lei; Xu, Stanley; Jackson, Michael L; Vijayadev, Vinutha; Klein, Nicola P; Nordin, James D

    2016-08-01

    Vaccines are increasingly targeted toward women of reproductive age, and vaccines to prevent influenza and pertussis are recommended during pregnancy. Prelicensure clinical trials typically have not included pregnant women, and when they are included, trials cannot detect rare events. Thus, postmarketing vaccine safety assessments are necessary. However, analysis of observational data requires detailed assessment of potential biases. Using data from 8 Vaccine Safety Datalink sites in the United States, we analyzed the association of monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccine (MIV) during pregnancy with preterm birth (<37 weeks) and small-for-gestational-age birth (birth weight < 10th percentile). The cohort included 46,549 pregnancies during 2009-2010 (40% of participants received the MIV). We found potential biases in the vaccine-birth outcome association that might occur due to variable access to vaccines, the time-dependent nature of exposure to vaccination within pregnancy (immortal time bias), and confounding from baseline differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. We found a strong protective effect of vaccination on preterm birth (relative risk = 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.85) when we ignored potential biases and no effect when accounted for them (relative risk = 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.83, 1.0). In contrast, we found no important biases in the association of MIV with small-for-gestational-age birth. Investigators conducting studies to evaluate birth outcomes after maternal vaccination should use statistical approaches to minimize potential biases. PMID:27449414

  12. Relationship of the intake of different food groups by pregnant mothers with the birth weight and gestational age: Need for public and individual educational programs

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Zahra; Mansourian, Marjan; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the intake of different food groups by pregnant mothers and neonatal low birth weight and premature births. Materials and Methods: In this cohort, the target population was 225 pregnant women, randomly selected from different geographical areas of the city of Isfahan, Iran (from April to September, 2012). The main variables in the study were weight and gestational age of the neonates and the type and amount of different food groups used by the mothers. All nutritional variables were compared according to different groups of infants (normal, premature, and low birth weight). In the multivariate analysis, multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to identify those different food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) variables independently associated with the newborn's weight and gestational age, adjusted by maternal consumption of calcium supplementation, folic acid, and omega-3, during pregnancy. Results: A total of 214 (47.7% boys) infants with complete information were included. They had a mean gestational age of 38.72 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean birth weight was 3.11 ± 0.384 kg. The percentages of premature and low birth weight (LBW) infants were 7 and 5%, respectively. At multiple logistic regression controlling for potentially confounding factors that were significantly associated with prematurity and LBW at univariate analysis (maternal consumption of calcium supplementation, folic acid, and omega-3, during pregnancy), type of nutritional groups containing dairy products, proteins, fish, and shrimp group, as well as fruits and vegetables, had a significant positive association with increasing the gestational age (P < 0.05). The group that consumed proteins, fish, and shrimp, as well as fruits and vegetables had a significant positive association with the newborn's weight (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated the importance of proper nutrition on reducing the rates of LBW and

  13. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  14. Racial-Ethnic Comparisons of Temperament Constructs for Three Age Groups Using the Student Styles Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Mary E.; Oakland, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses construct validity for comparisons of racial-ethnic group response patterns on the SSQ when age is considered as a factor. Assesses whether the SSQ's factor structure is similar for African American, Hispanic American, and Anglo American children and youth, grouped by ages 8-10, 11-13, and 14-17 years old. (RJM)

  15. GUIDANCE ON SELECTING AGE GROUPS FOR MONITORING AND ASSESSING CHILDHOOD EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guidance document provides a set of early-lifestage age groups for Environmental Protection Agency scientists to consider when assessing children’s exposure to environmental contaminants and the resultant potential dose. These recommended age groups are based on current und...

  16. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  17. Quantifying Low Birth Weight, Preterm Birth and Small-for-Gestational-Age Effects of Malaria in Pregnancy: A Population Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rijken, Marcus J.; De Livera, Alysha M.; Lee, Sue J.; Boel, Machteld E.; Rungwilailaekhiri, Suthatsana; Wiladphaingern, Jacher; Paw, Moo Kho; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Simpson, Julie A.; Nosten, François; McGready, Rose

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between malaria during pregnancy and low birth weight (LBW) is well described. This manuscript aims to quantify the relative contribution of malaria to small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants and preterm birth (PTB) in pregnancies accurately dated by ultrasound on the Thai-Myanmar border at the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit. Methods and Findings From 2001 to 2010 in a population cohort of prospectively followed pregnancies, we analyzed all singleton newborns who were live born, normal, weighed in the first hour of life and with a gestational age (GA) between 28+0 and 41+6 weeks. Fractional polynomial regression was used to determine the mean birthweight and standard deviation as functions of GA. Risk differences and factors of LBW and SGA were studied across the range of GA for malaria and non-malaria pregnancies. From 10,264 newborns records, population centiles were created. Women were screened for malaria by microscopy a median of 22 [range 1–38] times and it was detected and treated in 12.6% (1,292) of pregnancies. Malaria was associated with LBW, PTB, and SGA compared to those without malaria. Nearly two-thirds of PTB were classified as LBW (68% (539/789)), most of which 83% (447/539) were not SGA. After GA 39 weeks, 5% (298/5,966) of non-LBW births were identified as SGA. Low body mass index, primigravida, hypertension, smoking and female sex of the newborn were also significantly and independently associated with LBW and SGA consistent with previous publications. Conclusions Treated malaria in pregnancy was associated with an increased risk for LBW, PTB, and SGA, of which the latter are most important for infant survival. Using LBW as an endpoint without adjusting for GA incorrectly estimated the effects of malaria in pregnancy. Ultrasound should be used for dating pregnancies and birth weights should be expressed as a function (or adjusted for GA) of GA in future malaria in pregnancy studies. PMID:24983755

  18. Age-related changes in the effects of stress in pregnancy on infant motor development by maternal report: The Queensland Flood Study.

    PubMed

    Simcock, Gabrielle; Kildea, Sue; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; Stapleton, Helen; Cobham, Vanessa; King, Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of a natural disaster (a sudden onset flood) as a stressor in pregnancy on infant fine and gross motor development at 2, 6, and 16 months of age. Whether the timing of the stressor in pregnancy or sex of the infant moderated the impact of the prenatal maternal stress on motor development was also explored. Mothers' objective experiences of the flood, emotional reactions and distress, and their cognitive appraisal of the event were assessed retrospectively. Infants' fine and gross motor skills were assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, and results showed age-related changes in the effects of prenatal maternal stress on these domains. At 2 months, higher levels of prenatal maternal stress was positively related to infant motor development, yet at 6 and 16 months of age there was a negative association, particularly if flood exposure occurred later in pregnancy and if mothers had negative cognitive appraisals of the event. Results also showed differential effects of the maternal stress responses to the floods on infants' fine and gross motor development at each age and that infant sex did not buffer these effects. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 640-659, 2016. PMID:27004939

  19. Pregnancy Outcome in Women with Threatened Miscarriage: a Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Salah Roshdy; El-Sammani, Mohamed El-Khatem; Al-Sheeha, Muneera Al-Alaziz; Aitallah, Abdou Saeed; Jabin Khan, Farhat; Ahmed, Salah Roshdy

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Patients with threatened miscarriage associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes because of associated pregnancy and labor complications. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of threatened miscarriage on early and late pregnancy outcome. Methods: A retrospective case–controlled study was performed on 89 women with threatened miscarriage (study group) at Maternity and Children Hospital Buraidah, KSA from January 2010 to December 2010. They were matched for age and parity to 45 cases (control group) attending route antenatal clinic at the same time. Data recorded included, demographic characteristics and detailed pregnancy outcome and ultrasound finding including gestational age, cardiac activity and subchorionic hematoma. Results: The overall adverse pregnancy outcome was significantly higher in the studied cases compared to the control group (p=015).The miscarriage rate was significantly higher in study group compared to the controls group, (16.9%vs 2.2%, p=0000). Preterm delivery, babies with low birth weight and premature rupture of membranes were significantly higher in the miscarriage group compared to the controls group, (15.7% vs 2.2%, p=0.001), (15.7% vs 2.2%), p=0.001) and (6.7%) vs 4.45), p=0.016). There were no significant differences in other pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion: threatened miscarriage is associated with increased incidence of adverse pregnancy outcome. The risk is specially increased in premature rupture of the membranes, preterm delivery and neonatal birth weight. PMID:23678307

  20. Obstetrics and perinatal outcomes of dichorionic twin pregnancy following ART compared with spontaneous pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pourali, Leila; Ayati, Sedigheh; Jelodar, Shahrzad; Zarifian, Ahmadreza; Sheikh Andalibi, Mohammad Sobhan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Regarding to the recent advances in assisted reproductive techniques (ART), twin and multiple pregnancies have increased during past years. Objective: This study was performed to compare obstetrics and perinatal outcomes of dichorionic twin pregnancy following ART with spontaneous pregnancy. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was performed in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, 107 dichorionic twin pregnancy were enrolled in two groups: spontaneous group (n=96) and ART group (n=31). Basic criteria and obstetrics and neonatal outcomes information including demographic data, gestational age, mode of delivery, pregnancy complications (preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm labor, and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), postpartum hemorrhage), neonatal outcomes (weight, first and fifth minute Apgar score, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admission, mortality, respiratory distress, and icterus) were recorded using a questionnaire. Results: Preterm labor, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia were significantly higher in ART group compared to spontaneous pregnancy group. However, other factors such as anemia, IUGR, postpartum hemorrhage, and intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) were not significantly different between groups. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of neonatal outcomes (weight, 1st and 5th min Apgar score <7, NICU hospitalization, mortality, respiratory distress, and icterus). Conclusion: With regard of significantly higher poor outcomes such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm labor in ART group, the couples should be aware of these potential risks before choosing ART. PMID:27326416

  1. Arsenic in drinking water and pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, S A; Sayed, M H; Barua, S; Khan, M H; Faruquee, M H; Jalil, A; Hadi, S A; Talukder, H K

    2001-01-01

    We studied a group of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water to identify the pregnancy outcomes in terms of live birth, stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, and preterm birth. We compared pregnancy outcomes of exposed respondents with pregnancy outcomes of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were not exposed to arsenic-contaminated water. In a cross-sectional study, we matched the women in both exposed and nonexposed groups for age, socioeconomic status, education, and age at marriage. The total sample size was 192, with 96 women in each group (i.e., exposed and nonexposed). Of the respondents in the exposed group, 98% had been drinking water containing [Greater and equal to] 0.10 mg/L arsenic and 43.8% had been drinking arsenic-contaminated water for 5-10 years. Skin manifestation due to chronic arsenic exposure was present in 22.9% of the respondents. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in terms of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and preterm birth rates were significantly higher in the exposed group than those in the nonexposed group (p = 0.008, p = 0.046, and p = 0.018, respectively). PMID:11445518

  2. Effect of Maternal Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Praziquantel Treatment During Pregnancy on Schistosoma mansoni Infection and Immune Responsiveness among Offspring at Age Five Years

    PubMed Central

    Tweyongyere, Robert; Naniima, Peter; Mawa, Patrice A.; Jones, Frances M.; Webb, Emily L.; Cose, Stephen; Dunne, David W.; Elliott, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Offspring of Schistosoma mansoni-infected women in schistosomiasis-endemic areas may be sensitised in-utero. This may influence their immune responsiveness to schistosome infection and schistosomiasis-associated morbidity. Effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on risk of S. mansoni infection among offspring, and on their immune responsiveness when they become exposed to S. mansoni, are unknown. Here we examined effects of praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy on prevalence of S. mansoni and immune responsiveness among offspring at age five years. Methods In a trial in Uganda (ISRCTN32849447, http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN32849447/elliott), offspring of women treated with praziquantel or placebo during pregnancy were examined for S. mansoni infection and for cytokine and antibody responses to SWA and SEA, as well as for T cell expression of FoxP3, at age five years. Results Of the 1343 children examined, 32 (2.4%) had S. mansoni infection at age five years based on a single stool sample. Infection prevalence did not differ between children of treated or untreated mothers. Cytokine (IFNγ, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13) and antibody (IgG1, Ig4 and IgE) responses to SWA and SEA, and FoxP3 expression, were higher among infected than uninfected children. Praziquantel treatment of S. mansoni during pregnancy had no effect on immune responses, with the exception of IL-10 responses to SWA, which was higher in offspring of women that received praziquantel during pregnancy than those who did not. Conclusion We found no evidence that maternal S. mansoni infection and its treatment during pregnancy influence prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection or effector immune response to S. mansoni infection among offspring at age five years, but the observed effects on IL-10 responses to SWA suggest that maternal S. mansoni and its treatment during pregnancy may affect immunoregulatory responsiveness in childhood

  3. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  4. Variations of Weight of Prostate Gland in Different Age Groups of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Epsi, E Z; Khalil, M; Mannan, S; Azam, M S; Ahmed, Z; Farjan, S; Kabir, A; Ara, I; Ajmery, S; Zaman, U K; Amin, S

    2016-07-01

    Now a days, benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate are the most common disorders in men. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh to find out the difference in weight of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories - Group A (upto 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the prostate gland were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the prostate gland was 10.13gm in Group A, 17.27gm in Group B and 22.50gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that mean differences of weight of the prostate were highly significant among all age groups. The weight of prostate gland was found to increase with increased age. For statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using students unpaired 't' test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of prostate gland of Bangladeshi people. PMID:27612887

  5. Treatment of pregnancy-associated venous thromboembolism - position paper from the Working Group in Women's Health of the Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (GTH).

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Birgit; Scholz, Ute; Rott, Hannelore; Halimeh, Susan; Zotz, Rainer; Gerhardt, Andrea; Toth, Bettina; Bauersachs, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major cause of maternal morbidity during pregnancy and the postpartum period. However, because there is a lack of adequate study data, management strategies for pregnancy-associated VTE must be deduced from observational stu-dies and extrapolated from recommendations for non-pregnant patients. In this review, the members of the Working Group in Women's Health of the Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (GTH) have summarised the evidence that is currently available in the literature to provide a practical approach for treating pregnancy-associated VTE. Because heparins do not cross the placenta, weight-adjusted therapeutic-dose low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is the anticoagulant treatment of choice in cases of acute VTE during pregnancy. No differences between once and twice daily LMWH dosing regimens have been reported, but twice daily dosing seems to be advisable, at least peripartally. It remains unclear whether determining dose adjustments according to factor Xa activities during pregnancy provides any benefit. Management of delivery deserves attention and mainly depends on the time interval between the diagnosis of VTE and the expected delivery date. In particular, if VTE manifests at term, delivery should be attended by an experienced multidisciplinary team. In lactating women, an overlapping switch from LMWH to warfarin is possible. Anticoagulation should be continued for at least 6 weeks postpartum or for a minimum period of 3 months. Although recommendations are provided for the treatment of pregnancy-associated VTE, there is an urgent need for well-designed prospective studies that compare different management strategies and define the optimal duration and intensity of anticoagulant treatment. PMID:27058796

  6. P300 EVENT RELATED POTENTIAL IN NORMAL HEALTHY CONTROLS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, R.; Trivedi, J.K.; Singh, R.; Singh, Y.; Chakravorty, P.

    2000-01-01

    P300 event related potential was recorded in 115 healthy controls with a mean age of35.9±14.81 years and a male : female ratio of 72 : 43. There was significant difference in the P300 latency in < 40 years as compared to ≥ 40 years group (p< 0.001). There was no significant difference between males and females. There was a strong positive correlation between age and P300 latency (p< 0.001). The regression equation for P300 latency was Y=287.9+1.492x with an SEE of 20.2 (where Y is the P300 latency in ms, x is the age in years, SEE is the standard error of estimate). There was a negative correlation between age and P300 amplitude which was significant in ≥ 40 years age group while in > 40 years age group it was not significant. PMID:21407977

  7. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  8. Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Measures During and After Pregnancy and Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Intervals in African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).

    PubMed

    Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R

    2015-07-01

    Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions. PMID:26224434

  9. Maternal Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index and Offspring Temperament and Behavior at 1 and 2 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Robinson, Monique; Niccols, Alison; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that fetal exposure to increased maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy may be associated with psychopathology later in life. When this link first emerges, and if it is due to intrauterine exposures or confounding variables is not known. We therefore assessed associations between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and:…

  10. Age groups of antarctic krill, Euphausia superba dana, in the Prydz Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong; Sun, Song; Wang, Ke; Li, Chao-Iun

    2000-06-01

    Age groups of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba Dana) in the Prydz Bay region were studied by distribution mixture analysis based on length/frequency data collected by R/V Jidi during the 1989/1990 and 1990/1991 austral summer. Five age groups were determined, i.e. 1+, 2+, 3+, 4+, and 5+, or six age groups in all, if the 0+ larvae were included. The mean body length of 1+ to 5+ age groups was 25.70 mm, 40.47 mm, 45.52 mm, 50.52 mm and 54.52 mm respectively. Supposing the difference in body length between successive age groups is a reflection of the early growth, the maximum growth rate occurred during the period from 1+ juveniles to 2+ subadults (14.77 mm/a). From 2+ subadults to 3+ adults the growth rate dropped steeply (5.05 mm/a) because at this stage, increase of body length was substituted, to a great extent, by the growth of sexual products. From 3+ onwards the growth rate was maintained at a relatively low level and decreased slowly with age. The relative abundance of age groups 1+ and 2+, in our sample must be much lower than that in the real population owing to both the large mesh size we used and the distribution difference between juveniles and adults. If we left aside 1+ and 2+ age groups and just looked at the relative abundance of adults, we found that age group 3+ dominated the adult population and that the relative abundance decreased sharply with increasing age. If this situation is normal, one can expect an extremely high mortality rate in adults, 82.6% from 3+ to 4+ and 94.0% from 4+ to 5+. This is reasonably expectable for the Prydz Bay region.

  11. How do groups work? Age differences in performance and the social outcomes of peer collaboration.

    PubMed

    Leman, Patrick J

    2015-05-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were awarded to the best performing individuals. Findings, both in terms of social outcomes and performance in the quiz, indicated that the 8-year olds viewed the benefits of group membership in terms of the opportunities to receive information from other members. The 13-year olds, in contrast, viewed group collaboration as a constructive process where success was connected with group cohesiveness. PMID:25250886

  12. Pregnancy and Skin

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Rita V.; Gupta, Rajat; Mehta, Malay J.; Chaudhari, Arvind H.; Pilani, Abhishek P.; Patel, Nidhi

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with complex of endocrinological, immunological, metabolic, and vascular changes that may influence the skin and other organs in various ways. Pregnancy is a period in which more than 90% women have significant and complex skin changes that may have great impact on the woman's life. The dermatoses of pregnancy represent a heterogeneous group of skin diseases related to pregnancy and/or the postpartum period. The dermatoses of pregnancy can be classified into the following three groups: Physiologic skin changes in pregnancy, pre-existing dermatoses affected by pregnancy, and specific dermatoses of pregnancy. Though most of these skin dermatoses are benign and resolve in postpartum period, a few can risk fetal life and require antenatal surveillance. Most of the dermatoses of pregnancy can be treated conservatively but a few require intervention in the form of termination of pregnancy. Correct diagnosis is essential for the treatment of these disorders. This article discusses the current knowledge of various skin changes during pregnancy and the evaluation of the patient with pregnancy dermatoses with special emphasis on clinical features, diagnostic tests, maternal and fetal prognosis, therapy, and management. PMID:25657937

  13. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:9737070

  14. Ectopic pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Tubal pregnancy; Cervical pregnancy; Tubal ligation-ectopic pregnancy ... In most pregnancies, the fertilized egg travels through the fallopian tube to the womb (uterus). If the movement of the egg ...

  15. Pertussis vaccination during pregnancy in Belgium: Follow-up of infants until 1 month after the fourth infant pertussis vaccination at 15 months of age.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Kirsten; Caboré, Raïssa Nadège; Huygen, Kris; Vermeiren, Sandra; Hens, Niel; Van Damme, Pierre; Leuridan, Elke

    2016-06-30

    Vaccination of pregnant women with a pertussis containing vaccine is a recommended strategy in some industrialized countries, to protect young infants from severe disease. One of the effects of the presence of high titers of passively acquired maternal antibodies in young infants is blunting of immune responses to infant vaccination. We present infant immune responses to a fourth pertussis containing vaccine dose at 15 months of age, as a follow-up of previously presented data. In a prospective cohort study, women were either vaccinated with an acellular pertussis vaccine (Boostrix(®)) during pregnancy (vaccine group) or received no vaccine (control group). All infants were vaccinated with Infanrix Hexa(®) according to the standard Belgian vaccination schedule (8/12/16 weeks, 15 months). We report results from blood samples collected before and 1 month after the fourth vaccine dose. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), tetanus toxoid (TT) and diphtheria toxoid (DT) were measured using commercially available ELISA tests. Antibody levels were expressed in International Units per milliliter. Demographic characteristics were similar in the vaccine and control group. Before the fourth vaccine dose, significantly lower antibody titers were measured in the vaccine group compared to the control group for anti-Prn IgG (p=0.003) and anti-DT IgG (p=0.023), with a steep decay of antibody titers since post-primary vaccination. One month after the fourth dose, antibody titers were only significantly lower in the vaccine group for anti-PT IgG (p=0.006). For all antigens, there was a rise in antibody titer after the fourth vaccine dose. The present results indicate still a minor blunting effect 1 month after a fourth vaccine dose for anti-PT antibodies. However, a good humoral immune response on all measured antigens was elicited in both groups of children. The clinical significance of such blunting

  16. Testing principle working mechanisms of the health action process approach for subjective physical age groups.

    PubMed

    Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; Fink, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in social-cognitive predictors and self-regulatory planning, as proposed by the health action process approach (HAPA), across three different subjective physical age groups for physical activity. With a cross-sectional design, 521 participants across the chronological age span from 25 to 86 years (M = 48.79; SD = 12.66) were separated into three groups: those who feel physically younger than they are in terms of chronological age, the same perceived and chronological age, and feeling physically older compared to their chronological age. Participants were assessed regarding their perceived vulnerability, outcome expectancies, general intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and stages of physical activity (non-intenders, intenders, and actors). Data were analysed via mean comparison and multigroup structural equation modelling. Mean differences for all but one construct were eminent in all groups, generally showing that those feeling physically younger also report better social-cognitive predictors of physical activity (e.g. lower perceived vulnerability) in comparison to those who feel the same age or older. The model showed that basic working mechanisms of the HAPA can be applied to all groups. With that, the results provide for the first time evidence that principle working mechanism of the HAPA can be applied to all subjective physical age groups. These may be used to tailor health promoting interventions according to participants' needs as a more suitable proxy than chronological age. PMID:26967593

  17. Pregnancy hypertensive disease and risk of dementia and cardiovascular disease in women aged 65 years or older: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Cnattingius, S; Åkerud, H; Wikström, J; Pedersen, N L; Wikström, A-K

    2016-01-01

    Objective The primary aim was to study pregnancy hypertensive disease and subsequent risk of dementia. The second aim was to study if the increased risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke after pregnancy hypertensive disease persist in an elderly population. Design Cohort study. Setting Sweden. Population or sample 3232 women 65 years or older (mean 71 years) at inclusion. Methods Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to calculate risks of dementia, CVD and/or stroke for women exposed to pregnancy hypertensive disease. Exposure data were collected from an interview at inclusion during the years 1998–2002. Outcome data were collected from the National Patient Register and Cause of Death Register from the year of inclusion until the end of 2010. Age at inclusion was set as a time-dependent variable, and adjustments were made for body mass index, education and smoking. Main outcome measures Dementia, CVD, stroke. Results During the years of follow-up, 7.6% of the women exposed to pregnancy hypertensive disease received a diagnosis of dementia, compared with 7.4% among unexposed women (HR 1.19; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.73). The corresponding rates for CVD were 22.9% for exposed women and 19.0% for unexposed women (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.61), and for stroke 13.4% for exposed women and 10.7% for unexposed women (HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.81). Conclusions There was no increased risk of dementia after self-reported pregnancy hypertensive disease in our cohort. We found that the previously reported increased risk of CVD and stroke after pregnancy hypertensive disease persists in an older population. PMID:26801467

  18. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong-Liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-Jun; Wang, Yu-Long; Ji, Qing-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were built to analyze the outcomes and risk factors. Increasing age gradient with a 10-year interval was associated with the trend of higher proportions for male gender, grade III/IV and summary stage of distant metastases. Both CSS and OS continued to worsen with increasing age, being poorest in in the oldest age group (≥71); multivariate analysis confirmed that CSS continued to fall with each age decade, significantly starting at 60 years (HR = 7.5, 95% 1.0-54.1, p = 0.047) compared to the young group (≤20). Similarly, multivariate analysis suggested that OS continued worsening with increasing age, but starting at 40 years (HR = 3.7, 95% 1.4-10.1, p = 0.009) compared to the young group. The current study suggests that an age exceeding 60 years itself represents an unfavorable prognostic factor and high risk for cancer-specific death in DTC. PMID:27272218

  19. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Rong-liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-jun; Wang, Yu-Long; Ji, Qing-hai

    2016-01-01

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were built to analyze the outcomes and risk factors. Increasing age gradient with a 10-year interval was associated with the trend of higher proportions for male gender, grade III/IV and summary stage of distant metastases. Both CSS and OS continued to worsen with increasing age, being poorest in in the oldest age group (≥71); multivariate analysis confirmed that CSS continued to fall with each age decade, significantly starting at 60 years (HR = 7.5, 95% 1.0–54.1, p = 0.047) compared to the young group (≤20). Similarly, multivariate analysis suggested that OS continued worsening with increasing age, but starting at 40 years (HR = 3.7, 95% 1.4–10.1, p = 0.009) compared to the young group. The current study suggests that an age exceeding 60 years itself represents an unfavorable prognostic factor and high risk for cancer-specific death in DTC. PMID:27272218

  20. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  1. A self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young moving groups in the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2015-11-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young ( ≲ 200 Myr), nearby ( ≲ 100 pc) moving groups in the solar neighbourhood based on homogeneous fitting of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones using the τ2 maximum-likelihood fitting statistic of Naylor & Jeffries in the MV, V - J colour-magnitude diagram. The final adopted ages for the groups are as follows: 149^{+51}_{-19} {Myr} for the AB Dor moving group, 24 ± 3 Myr for the β Pic moving group (BPMG), 45^{+11}_{-7} {Myr} for the Carina association, 42^{+6}_{-4} {Myr} for the Columba association, 11 ± 3 Myr for the η Cha cluster, 45 ± 4 Myr for the Tucana-Horologium moving group (Tuc-Hor), 10 ± 3 Myr for the TW Hya association and 22^{+4}_{-3} {Myr} for the 32 Ori group. At this stage we are uncomfortable assigning a final, unambiguous age to the Argus association as our membership list for the association appears to suffer from a high level of contamination, and therefore it remains unclear whether these stars represent a single population of coeval stars. Our isochronal ages for both the BPMG and Tuc-Hor are consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary (LDB) ages, which unlike isochronal ages, are relatively insensitive to the choice of low-mass evolutionary models. This consistency between the isochronal and LDB ages instils confidence that our self-consistent, absolute age scale for young, nearby moving groups is robust, and hence we suggest that these ages be adopted for future studies of these groups. Software implementing the methods described in this study is available from http://www.astro.ex.ac.uk/people/timn/tau-squared/.

  2. Postterm Pregnancy (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnancies Oligohydramnios Postterm pregnancy Prenatal assessment of gestational age and estimated date of delivery The following organizations also provide reliable health information. National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  3. Maternal Thyroid Function during the Second Half of Pregnancy and Child Neurodevelopment at 6, 12, 24, and 60 Months of Age

    PubMed Central

    Chevrier, Jonathan; Harley, Kim G.; Kogut, Katherine; Holland, Nina; Johnson, Caroline; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that maternal hypothyroidism and mild hypothyroxinemia during the first half of pregnancy alters fetal neurodevelopment among euthyroid offspring, little data are available from later in gestation. In this study, we measured free T4 using direct equilibrium dialysis, as well as total T4 and TSH in 287 pregnant women at 27 weeks' gestation. We also assessed cognition, memory, language, motor functioning, and behavior in their children at 6, 12, 24, and 60 months of age. Increasing maternal TSH was related to better performance on tests of cognition and language at 12 months but not at later ages. At 60 months, there was inconsistent evidence that higher TSH was related to improved attention. We found no convincing evidence that maternal TH during the second half of pregnancy was related to impaired child neurodevelopment. PMID:22132346

  4. Secular trends in smoking during pregnancy according to income and ethnic group: four population-based perinatal surveys in a Brazilian city

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Mariangela F; Matijasevich, Alicia; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Horta, Bernardo L; Santos, Ina S; Barros, Aluisio J D; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in smoking during pregnancy over three decades (1982–2011). Setting Population-based study in Pelotas City, Brazil. Participants All urban women giving birth in the city hospitals in 1982 (5909), 1993 (5223) and 2004 (4201), plus all urban and rural women delivering from January 2011 to April 2012 (6275). Primary outcome Self-reported smoking during pregnancy. Results The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy fell from 35.7% in 1982 to 21.0% in 2011. In each survey, prevalence decreased with increasing income (p<0.001). In the poorest quintile, smoking fell by 27.4% in the period studied compared to 67.1% in the wealthiest quintile. In all surveys, prevalence was lower among white women than among those who classified themselves as black or brown (p<0.001). Over time, smoking declined by 50.0% among the former and 30.7% among the latter. Absolute and relative inequalities both increased over time. Conclusions The reduction in smoking during pregnancy was primarily due to a decline among white, high-income women. Further efforts are needed to reduce smoking among all population groups. PMID:26832432

  5. The effects of subchorionic hematoma on pregnancy outcome in patients with threatened abortion

    PubMed Central

    Şükür, Yavuz Emre; Göç, Göksu; Köse, Osman; Açmaz, Gökhan; Özmen, Batuhan; Atabekoğlu, Cem Somer; Koç, Acar; Söylemez, Feride

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of ultrasonographically detected subchorionic hematomas on pregnancy outcomes in patients with vaginal bleeding within the first half of pregnancy. Material and Methods Patients diagnosed with threatened abortion due to painless vaginal bleeding and who were followed up in an in-patient service during the first vaginal bleeding between January 2009 and December 2010 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of subchorionic hematoma. Miscarriage rates and pregnancy outcomes of ongoing pregnancies were compared between the groups. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the groups regarding demographic parameters, including age, parity, previous miscarriage history, and gestational age at first vaginal bleeding. While 13 of 44 pregnancies (29.5%) with subchorionic hematoma resulted in miscarriage, 25 of 198 pregnancies (12.6%) without subchorionic hematoma resulted in miscarriage (p=.010). The gestational age at miscarriage and the duration between first vaginal bleeding and miscarriage were similar between the groups. The outcome measures of ongoing pregnancies, such as gestational week at delivery, birth weight, and delivery route, were also similar between the groups. Conclusion Ultrasonographically detected subchorionic hematoma increases the risk of miscarriage in patients with vaginal bleeding and threatened abortion during the first 20 weeks of gestation. However, it does not affect the pregnancy outcome measures of ongoing pregnancies. PMID:25584033

  6. Serum uric acid levels in normal pregnancy with observations on the renal excretion of urate in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, James A.; Campbell, Stuart; Duncan, Anne M.; Greig, William R.; Buchanan, W. Watson

    1966-01-01

    Serum uric acid estimations were performed in 106 healthy pregnant women during early, middle, and late pregnancy, using an automated colorimetric method. The mean serum uric acid level was significantly lower during early and middle pregnancy than that of 64 age-matched female controls. The serum uric acid level was not significantly different in late pregnancy from the control group. Studies of the daily urinary urate excretion in 31 pregnant women showed normal urinary urate excretion in early pregnancy and enhanced renal loss of urate in middle and late pregnancy. It appears that the renal clearance of urate in pregnancy is high, especially in the middle period when the serum level is low in spite of the increased production of uric acid by the foetus. PMID:5919366

  7. Personality-informed interventions for healthy aging: conclusions from a National Institute on Aging work group.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-05-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how. In fact, the notion that personality could be changed was part and parcel of many schools of psychotherapy, which suggested that long-term and meaningful change in symptoms could not be achieved without change in relevant aspects of personality. We review intervention research documenting change in personality. On the basis of an integrative view of personality as a complex system, we describe a bottom-up model of change in which interventions to change basic personality processes eventuate in changes at the trait level. A 2nd framework leverages the descriptive and predictive power of personality to tailor individual risk prediction and treatment, as well as refine public health programs, to the relevant dispositional characteristics of the target population. These methods dovetail with, and add a systematic and rigorous psychosocial dimension to, the personalized medicine and patient-centeredness movements in medicine. In addition to improving health through earlier intervention and increased fit between treatments and persons, cost-effectiveness improvements can be realized by more accurate resource allocation. Numerous examples from the personality, health, and aging literature on Conscientiousness and other traits are provided throughout, and we conclude with a series of recommendations for research in these emerging areas. PMID:23978300

  8. Skin disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Soutou, Boutros; Aractingi, Sélim

    2015-07-01

    Skin manifestations during pregnancy are common and diversified. This review will focus on the most important entities to be recognized by obstetricians. These are, on the one hand, physiological changes, where unnecessary investigations should be avoided, and on the other, the specific dermatoses of pregnancy. These develop electively in pregnancy, and they are currently grouped into three disorders: polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, atopic eczema of pregnancy, and pemphigoid gestationis. Arguments for recognition of these are presented including detection of anti-BP180 antibodies. Follow-up and treatment depend on the precise diagnosis. Risks in fetal prognosis may occur in rare pemphigoid gestationis cases. PMID:25862358

  9. Age Bias in the Workplace: Cultural Stereotypes and In-Group Favoritism.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Tay K; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Sarkisian, Natasha; Besen, Elyssa; Kidahashi, Miwako

    2016-07-01

    Two key theoretical frameworks that explain why people might hold biases for or against a specific age group-cultural stereotypes and in-group favoritism-yield distinct and sometimes contradictory predictions. This study proposes a combined framework drawing on these two theories and then tests hypotheses based on this framework in the workplace context. Using survey data from U.S. employees of two pharmaceutical companies, we evaluated the extent to which respondents attributed characteristics related to innovation or change and reliable performance to other workers based on perceived relative age (the age of the target relative to the age of the respondent). The hypotheses that our combined framework generated were supported, but the results varied by type of characteristic as well as by age of the respondent. We conclude that the combined framework is more predictive of age bias in the workplace than either individual framework alone. PMID:27199491

  10. Dermatological disease in the older age group: a cross-sectional study in aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Maneka S; Vandal, Alain C; Jarrett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of dermatological disease in aged care facilities, and the relationship between cognitive or physical disability and significant disease. Setting 2 large aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand, each providing low and high level care. Participants All 161 residents of the facilities were invited to participate. The only exclusion criterion was inability to obtain consent from the individual or designated guardian. 88 participants were recruited—66 females (75%), 22 males (25%) with average age 87.1 years (SD 5.5 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary—presence of significant skin disease (defined as that which in the opinion of the investigators needed treatment or was identified as a patient concern) diagnosed clinically on full dermatological examination by a dermatologist or dermatology trainee. Secondary—functional and cognitive status (Rehabilitation Complexity Scale and Abbreviated Mental Test Score). Results 81.8% were found to have at least one significant condition. The most common disorders were onychomycosis 42 (47.7%), basal cell carcinoma 13 (14.8%), asteototic eczema 11 (12.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ 9 (10.2%). Other findings were invasive squamous cell carcinoma 7 (8%), bullous pemphigoid 2 (2.3%), melanoma 2 (2.3%), lichen sclerosus 2 (2.3%) and carcinoma of the breast 1 (1.1%). Inflammatory disease was more common in those with little physical disability compared with those with serious physical disability (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6, p=0.04). No significant association was found between skin disease and cognitive impairment. Conclusions A high rate of dermatological disease was found. Findings ranged from frequent but not life-threatening conditions (eg, onychomycosis), to those associated with a significant morbidity (eg, eczema, lichen sclerosus and bullous pemphigoid), to potentially life-threatening (eg, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and breast cancer

  11. Degree and Content of Negative Meaning in Four Different Age Groups in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Sanna; Westerhof, Gerben J.; Dittmann-Kohli, Freya

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the degree and content of negative meaning (i.e., negative evaluations, motivations, feelings) in four different age groups of men and women in East- and West-Germany. A sample was drawn from 290 cities in Germany which was stratified according to four age groups (18-25, 40-54, 55-69, and 70-85), gender and…

  12. Vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours across different age groups in Swedish Adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13–14, 15–16 and 17–18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15–16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in

  13. Non-fatal self-poisoning across age groups, in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning in common in Sri Lanka, but little is known about variation of psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent across differing ages. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka across three different age groups (namely 14-24 years, 25-34 years and ≥35 years). It was anticipated that the findings of the study would inform and guide development of preventive interventions for non-fatal self-poisoning in this country. 935 participants were interviewed within one week of admission to hospital for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning, over a consecutive 14-month period. Socio-demographic factors, types of poison ingested, triggers and psychiatric morbidity was examined as a function of age. Results showed that a majority (83%) of participants were aged below 35 years. Younger participants aged <25 years were significantly more likely to ingest medicinal overdoses, compared to older persons (aged 25-34 years, and ≥35 years), who were more likely to ingest pesticides. Recent interpersonal conflict was a proximal trigger seen in all age groups, but suicidal intent, depression and alcohol use disorders increased with age. The overall study findings indicate that most who carry out acts of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka are young (aged <35 years). Interpersonal conflict as a trigger is common to all age groups, but psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent is higher in the older age groups, as is pesticide ingestion. Age specific interventions may be efficacious in the prevention of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. PMID:26957344

  14. An Examination of Group-Based Treatment Packages for Increasing Elementary-Aged Students' Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeny, John C.; Silber, Jennifer M.

    2006-01-01

    Reading fluency has been described as one of the essential ingredients for ensuring that students become successful readers. Unfortunately, a large number of elementary-aged students in this country do not fluently read age-appropriate material. Because of this, small-group interventions are practical and more time efficient than individualized…

  15. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  16. The Effects of Music on Age Group Swimmers' Motivation and Practice Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckel, Bryan D.

    This study examined the effects of music on the motivation of 22 female and 5 male swimmers ages 10-13 years. These age-group swimmers practiced 2.0-2.5 hours per day and had six training sessions per week. Using observation logs, surveys, and open-ended questions, the study analyzed swimmers' perceptions of, and behavior when, listening to music…

  17. Age Group and Sex of Students. Fall 1974. Report No. 8-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    There has been considerable discussion in the literature of higher education regarding significant changes in student body characteristics. The data in this document examines distribution of students at the State University of New York system by age group and sex. Tables array four fundamental student characteristics: age, sex, level…

  18. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  19. Age Group Differences in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Functional Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.; Kim, Johnny S.

    2007-01-01

    This study used data from the 2000 interview wave of the Health and Retirement Study to examine age group differences in the likelihood of self-reported depressive symptomatology among a nationally representative sample of 3,035 adults age 55 years or older who had at least one activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily…

  20. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive…

  1. Factors influencing women's attitudes towards antenatal vaccines, group B Streptococcus and clinical trial participation in pregnancy: an online survey

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Fiona; Stevens, Zoe; Plumb, Jane; Hughes, Rhona; Voysey, Merryn; Heath, Paul T; Snape, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore factors influencing the likelihood of antenatal vaccine acceptance of both routine UK antenatal vaccines (influenza and pertussis) and a hypothetical group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaccine in order to improve understanding of how to optimise antenatal immunisation acceptance, both in routine use and clinical trials. Setting An online survey distributed to women of childbearing age in the UK. Participants 1013 women aged 18–44 years in England, Scotland and Wales. Methods Data from an online survey conducted to gauge the attitudes of 1013 women of childbearing age in England, Scotland and Wales to antenatal vaccination against GBS were further analysed to determine the influence of socioeconomic status, parity and age on attitudes to GBS immunisation, using attitudes to influenza and pertussis vaccines as reference immunisations. Factors influencing likelihood of participation in a hypothetical GBS vaccine trial were also assessed. Results Women with children were more likely to know about each of the 3 conditions surveyed (GBS: 45% vs 26%, pertussis: 79% vs 63%, influenza: 66% vs 54%), to accept vaccination (GBS: 77% vs 65%, pertussis: 79% vs 70%, influenza: 78% vs 68%) and to consider taking part in vaccine trials (37% vs 27% for a hypothetical GBS vaccine tested in 500 pregnant women). For GBS, giving information about the condition significantly increased the number of respondents who reported that they would be likely to receive the vaccine. Health professionals were the most important reported source of information. Conclusions Increasing awareness about GBS, along with other key strategies, would be required to optimise the uptake of a routine vaccine, with a specific focus on informing women without previous children. More research specifically focusing on acceptability in pregnant women is required and, given the value attached to input from healthcare professionals, this group should be included in future studies. PMID:27098824

  2. Association between maternal intimate partner violence victimization during pregnancy and maternal abusive behavior towards infants at 4 months of age in Japan.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Airi; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether maternal intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization during pregnancy is associated with abusive behavior by the mother towards infants at 4 months of age. A population-based sample of 6590 mothers with 4-month-old infants participated in this study in Japan. Abusive behavior was assessed via questionnaire and defined as frequency of shaking and smothering during the preceding month. Both verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy were assessed retrospectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for types of IPV and potential covariates, specifically postpartum depression. Maternal exposure to verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy was reported by 10.9% and 1.2% of women, respectively. In the adjusted model, women exposed to verbal IPV alone were significantly more likely to abuse offspring (odds ratio: 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.16) while exposure to physical IPV did not have an additive effect for abusive behavior. Maternal victimization by verbal, but not physical IPV was associated with maternal abusive behavior towards their 4-month-old infant. Screening for verbal abuse during pregnancy might be an efficient approach to identify high-risk mothers of infant abuse. PMID:27082752

  3. Prevalence, Formation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of Interdisciplinary Student Aging Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine J.; Vandenberg, Edward V.; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and…

  4. Attitudes about Aging Well among a Diverse Group of Older Americans: Implications for Promoting Cognitive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Tseng, Winston; Wu, Bei; Beard, Renee L.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Ivey, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine perceptions about aging well in the context of cognitive health among a large and diverse group of older adults. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups were conducted with older adults living in the community ( N = 396; White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic). Participant descriptions …

  5. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  6. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  7. The Effects of Multi-Age Grouping on Young Children and Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Melanie K.; Green, Virginia P.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review on the effects of multiage groupings (MAGs) in the primary grades supports their use and argues that children in MAGs perform as well academically as children in single-age groupings (SAGs) and develop better self-concept and school attitudes than children in SAGs. Expresses concerns over lack of training and support for…

  8. Anthropometric difference of the knee on MRI according to gender and age groups.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyuksoo; Oh, Sohee; Chang, Chong Bum; Kang, Seung-Baik

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data from MRI images that were obtained from the non-arthritic knees in Asian adults, and to identify the existence of morphologic differences between age groups. This cross-sectional study included knee MR images of 535 patients (273 males, 262 females) taken for the evaluation of soft-tissue injuries, excluding cases with cartilage defect and malalignment. The age, gender, height, and BMI were also assessed. The patients were grouped into three different 20-year age groups (20-39, 40-59, and 60-79). The MRI analysis was performed on the anthropometric parameters of distal femur and posterior tibial slope. Age-related differences were found in femoral width, distance from the distal and posterior cartilage surface to the medial/lateral epicondyle, medial posterior condylar offset (PCO), and posterior condylar angle (PCA) (all P < 0.001), but not in lateral PCO, and medial/lateral tibial slopes. In the analysis of covariance analyses, significant interaction between gender and age groups was found in most parameters, but not in PCA, distance from the posterior cartilage surface to the medial epicondyle, or medial tibial slope. We found anthropometric differences among age groups exist in most of distal femoral parameters, but not in posterior tibial slope. The results of this study can be used by manufacturers to modify prostheses to be suitable for the future Asian elderly population. PMID:26253858

  9. The Isochronal Age Scale of Young Moving Groups in the Solar Neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2016-01-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young (<~ 200 Myr), nearby (<~ 100 pc) moving groups, which is consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary ages for both the β Pic and Tucana-Horologium moving groups. This age scale was derived using a set of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones that incorporate an empirical colour-T eff relation and bolometric corrections based on the observed colours of Pleiades members, with theoretical corrections for the dependence on logg. Absolute ages for young, nearby groups are vital as these regions play a crucial role in our understanding of the early evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars, as well as providing ideal targets for direct imaging and other measurements of dusty debris discs, substellar objects and, of course, extrasolar planets.

  10. Magnetostratigraphic and geochronological age constraints on the lowermost Beaufort Group, Karoo Basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohver, E.; Lanci, L.; Wilson, A.; Flint, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Karoo Basin of South Africa is a classic foreland basin sequence, with sedimentation putatively linked to Gondwanide orogenesis in the Cape Fold Belt. Biostratigraphic data for the fluvial to lacustrine sediments of the Beaufort Group have traditionally assigned a late Permian age to these foreland basin sediments on the basis of Glossopteris flora and Dicynodont fauna findings. This age conflicts with recently published U-Pb zircon age data from below the Beaufort Group that suggested a latest Permian, early Triassic age for those rocks. In order to resolve this discrepancy, we undertook a coupled magnetostratigraphic and geochronological study of the lowermost Beaufort Group of South Africa. Volcanic zircons from various tuffaceous horizons were analyzed for U-Pb age by SHRIMP. The youngest population of late Permian zircons are interpreted as the age of volcanic ashfall and sedimentation, with inheritance from pre-existing crust recognized from the presence of ca. 500 Ma and 1000-1100 Ma zircons. The possibility of Pb loss from these youngest grains will be assessed by CA-TIMS work. Magnetostratigraphic sampling was carried out in two separate sedimentary profiles, 169 m and 549 m thick, that are separated by roughly 85 km across depositional strike. Diagnostic patterns of normal and reversed magnetozones allow for the close correlation of these two sections. This pattern, anchored by the U-Pb zircon ages, can be correlated to the Global Polarity Timescale of Ogg et al. (2008), and supports a late Guadalupian age for these sediments.

  11. Regional placental blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes with gestational age in normally developing pregnancies using long duration R2* mapping in utero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dighe, Manjiri; Kim, Yun Jung; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Blazejewska, Ania I.; Mckown, Susan; Caucutt, Jason; Gatenby, Christopher; Studholme, Colin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the use of R2* mapping in maternal and fetal sub-regions of the placenta with the aim of providing a reference for blood oxygenation levels during normative development. There have been a number of MR relaxation studies of placental tissues in-utero, but none have reported R2* value changes with age, or examined differences in sub-regions of the placenta. Here specialized long-duration Multi-frame R2* imaging was used to create a stable estimate for R2* values in different placental regions in healthy pregnant volunteers not imaged for clinical reasons. 27 subjects were recruited and scanned up to 3 times during their pregnancy. A multi-slice dual echo EPI based BOLD acquisition was employed and repeated between 90 and 150 times over 3 to 5 minutes to provide a high accuracy estimate of the R2* signal level. Acquisitions were also repeated in 13 cases within a visit to evaluate reproducibility of the method in a given subject. Experimental results showed R2* measurements were highly repeatable within a visit with standard deviation of (0.76). Plots of all visits against gestational age indicated clear correlations showing decreases in R2* with age. This increase was consistent was also consistent over time in multiple visits of the same volunteer during their pregnancy. Maternal and fetal regional changes with gestational age followed the same trend with increase in R2* over the gestational age.

  12. MAGNETO-CONVECTION AND LITHIUM AGE ESTIMATES OF THE {beta} PICTORIS MOVING GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, J.; Mullan, D. J. E-mail: mullan@udel.ed

    2010-11-10

    Although the means of the ages of stars in young groups determined from Li depletion often agree with mean ages determined from Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram isochrones, there are often statistically significant differences in the ages of individual stars determined by the two methods. We find that inclusion of the effects of inhibition of convection due to the presence of magnetic fields leads to consistent ages for the individual stars. We illustrate how age consistency arises by applying our results to the {beta} Pictoris moving group (BPMG). We find that, although magnetic inhibition of convection leads to increased ages from the H-R diagram isochrones for all stars, Li ages are decreased for fully convective M stars and increased for stars with radiative cores. Our consistent age determination for BPMG of 40 Myr is larger than previous determinations by a factor of about two. We have also considered models in which the mixing length ratio is adjusted to give consistent ages. We find that our magneto-convection models, which give quantitative estimates of magnetic field strength, provide a viable alternative to models in which the effects of magnetic fields (and other processes) are accounted for by reducing the mixing length ratio.

  13. Maternal Antioxidant Levels in Pregnancy and Risk of Preeclampsia and Small for Gestational Age Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jacqueline M.; Beddaoui, Margaret; Kramer, Michael S.; Platt, Robert W.; Basso, Olga; Kahn, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress in preeclampsia and small for gestational age (SGA) birth suggests antioxidant supplementation could prevent these conditions. However, it remains unclear whether maternal antioxidant levels are systematically lower in these pregnancies. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the association between maternal antioxidant levels during pregnancy and preeclampsia or SGA. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, and several other databases from 1970–2013 for observational studies that measured maternal blood levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamins A, C, E, and carotenoids) during pregnancy or within 72 hours of delivery. The entire review process was done in duplicate. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and additional questions. We pooled the standardized mean difference (SMD) across studies, stratified by outcome and pregnancy trimester, and investigated heterogeneity using meta-regression. Results We reviewed 1,882 unique citations and 64 studies were included. Most studies were small with important risk of bias. Among studies that addressed preeclampsia (n = 58) and SGA (n = 9), 16% and 66%, respectively, measured levels prior to diagnosis. The SMDs for vitamins A, C, and E were significantly negative for overall preeclampsia, but not for mild or severe preeclampsia subtypes. Significant heterogeneity was observed in all meta-analyses and most could not be explained. Evidence for lower carotenoid antioxidants in preeclampsia and SGA was limited and inconclusive. Publication bias appears likely. Conclusions Small, low-quality studies limit conclusions that can be drawn from the available literature. Observational studies inconsistently show that vitamins C and E or other antioxidants are lower in women who develop preeclampsia or SGA. Reverse causality remains a possible explanation for associations observed. New clinical trials are not warranted in light of this evidence; however, additional rigorous

  14. Pregnancy history and current use of contraception among women of reproductive age in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda: analysis of demographic and health survey data

    PubMed Central

    Bakibinga, Pauline; Matanda, Dennis J; Ayiko, Rogers; Rujumba, Joseph; Muiruri, Charles; Amendah, Djesika; Atela, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between pregnancy history and the use of contraception among women of reproductive age (15–49 years) in East Africa. Methods Demographic and Health Surveys data from Burundi (2010), Kenya (2008–2009), Rwanda (2010), Tanzania (2010) and Uganda (2011) were used in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to determine the effects of women's pregnancy history on their use of contraception. Setting Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Participants 3226, 2377, 4396, 3250 and 2596 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) from Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda, respectively, were included in the analysis. Results Women who had experienced a mistimed pregnancy were more likely to use a modern contraceptive method during their most recent sexual encounter in Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda. Other significant correlates of women's contraceptive use were: desire for more children, parity, household wealth, maternal education and access information through radio. In-country regional differences on use of modern contraceptive methods were noted across five East African countries. Conclusions Women's birth histories were significantly associated with their decision to adopt a modern contraceptive method. This highlights the importance of considering women's birth histories, especially women with mistimed births, in the promotion of contraceptive use in East Africa. Variations as a result of place of residency, educational attainment, access to family planning information and products, and wealth ought to be addressed in efforts to increase use of modern contraceptive methods in the East African region. PMID:26966059

  15. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter

    PubMed Central

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K.; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68%) but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 – 88.1%) of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80%) were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100) were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic. PMID:26061003

  16. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter.

    PubMed

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68%) but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 - 88.1%) of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80%) were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100) were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic. PMID:26061003

  17. The Ages of A-Stars. I. Interferometric Observations and Age Estimates for Stars in the Ursa Major Moving Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jeremy; White, R. J.; Boyajian, T.; Schaefer, G.; Baines, E.; Ireland, M.; Patience, J.; ten Brummelaar, T.; McAlister, H.; Ridgway, S. T.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Farrington, C.; Goldfinger, P. J.

    2015-11-01

    We have observed and spatially resolved a set of seven A-type stars in the nearby Ursa Major moving group with the Classic, CLIMB, and PAVO beam combiners on the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy Array. At least four of these stars have large rotational velocities (v{sin}i ≳ 170 {km} {{{s}}}-1) and are expected to be oblate. These interferometric measurements, the stars’ observed photometric energy distributions, and v{sin}i values are used to computationally construct model oblate stars from which stellar properties (inclination, rotational velocity, and the radius and effective temperature as a function of latitude, etc.) are determined. The results are compared with MESA stellar evolution models to determine masses and ages. The value of this new technique is that it enables the estimation of the fundamental properties of rapidly rotating stars without the need to fully image the star. It can thus be applied to stars with sizes comparable to the interferometric resolution limit as opposed to those that are several times larger than the limit. Under the assumption of coevality, the spread in ages can be used as a test of both the prescription presented here and the MESA evolutionary code for rapidly rotating stars. With our validated technique, we combine these age estimates and determine the age of the moving group to be 414 ± 23 Myr, which is consistent with, but much more precise than previous estimates.

  18. Pregnancy Intentions and Teenage Pregnancy Among Latinas: A Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Corinne H.; Doherty, Irene; Padian, Nancy S.; Hubbard, Alan E.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT The extent to which pregnancy intentions mediate the relationship between individual, familial and cultural characteristics and adolescent pregnancy is not well understood. The role of intentions may be particularly important among Latina teenagers, whose attitudes toward pregnancy are more favorable than those of other groups and whose pregnancy rates are high. METHODS Prospective, time-varying data from 2001–2004 were used to investigate whether two measures of pregnancy intentions, wantedness and happiness, mediated associations between risk factors and pregnancy among 213 Latina adolescents in San Francisco. Participants were tested for pregnancy and interviewed about pregnancy intentions, partnerships, family characteristics and activities every six months for two years. Associations and mediation were examined using logistic regression. RESULTS Neither pregnancy intention variable mediated relationships between participant characteristics and pregnancy. After adjustment for other measures, wantedness was strongly associated with pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.6), while happiness was not. Having a strong family orientation was associated with happiness (3.7) but unrelated to pregnancy. Low sexual relationship power with a main partner was associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.3). If the pregnancy intentions of all participants were changed to definitely not wanting pregnancy, the estimated decline in pregnancy risk would be 16%. CONCLUSIONS Pregnancy intentions were important not as mediators but rather as independent risk factors for pregnancy. Differences in pregnancy rates between groups of Latinas may be less a function of intentional choice than of situational factors. Interventions and research should focus on identifying and targeting factors that hinder effective contraceptive use among teenagers who want to avoid pregnancy. PMID:20887287

  19. Physicochemical traits of Holstein loin and top round veal from two slaughter age groups.

    PubMed

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Park, Sang-Woon; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and microbial quality of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. Semimembranosus) in Holstein veal produced from two slaughter age groups (5 and 8 months of age). A total of 20 Holstein calves were randomly selected from a local cattle farm. The slaughtered cold carcasses were vacuum-packaged. The samples were analyzed for proximate composition and physicochemical analyses and stored for 1, 7, 10, 20 and 30 days for microbiological analyses. Fat and protein contents of loin for the 8 month group were higher than those for the 5 month groups (p < 0.05). For both loin and top round muscles, the pH, cooking loss and the shear force values for the 5 month group was higher than those for the 8 month group (p < 0.05). On the other hands, the water-holding capacity (WHC) for the 8 month group was higher than those for the 5 month group (p < 0.05). In terms of meat color, CIE L* (lightness) for both muscle were higher in the 5 month group than in the 8 month groups. On the other hands, a* (redness) were higher in the 8 month group than in the 5 month groups (p < 0.05). Total aerobic counts in all samples remained up to 30 days at values less than 7 log CFU/g. However, there was no significant difference for both muscles between the two age groups. The results indicate that Holstein muscles from the 8 month group had desirable quality properties than those from the 5 month group. PMID:26290744

  20. Pregnancy After Age 35

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects in your baby’s brain and spine called neural tube defects and birth defects in your baby’s ... defects in your baby’s brain and spine called neural tube defects and birth defects in your baby’s ...

  1. Population Biology of Intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Individuals in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  2. Benefits of gregarious feeding by aposematic caterpillars depend on group age structure.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stuart A; Stastny, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Gregarious feeding is a common feature of herbivorous insects and can range from beneficial (e.g. dilution of predation risk) to costly (e.g. competition). Group age structure should influence these costs and benefits, particularly when old and young larvae differ in their feeding mode or apparency to predators. We investigated the relative value of gregarious feeding by aposematic larvae of Uresiphita reversalis that we observed feeding in groups of mixed ages and variable densities on wild Lupinus diffusus. In a manipulative field experiment, the survivorship and growth of young larvae were enhanced in the presence of older conspecifics, but not in large groups of similarly aged larvae. Estimates of insect damage and induced plant responses suggest that mixed-age groups enhance plant quality for young larvae while avoiding competition. We conclude that benefits of gregariousness in this species are contingent on group age structure, a finding of significance for the ecology and evolution of gregariousness and other social behaviours. PMID:25399243

  3. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Keinan-Boker, Lital; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Kaufman, Bella; Meirow, Dror

    2008-10-01

    The frequency of pregnancy-associated breast cancer, a rare but serious occurrence, may increase in light of the secular trends for lower parity in general and for older age at first full-term delivery in particular Data on PABC in individuals who are at high risk for breast cancer are limited. A computerized search of Pubmed showed that the reported incidence of PABC is 1:3000 pregnancies; it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and its prognosis is inferior compared to non-PABC Carriers of mutations in the genes BRCA1/2 may present a specific high risk group for PABC especially at younger ages. Women treated with fertility treatment drugs may be at a higher risk for PABC as well. PMID:19009954

  4. Duration of the immune response to MMR vaccine in children of two age-different groups.

    PubMed

    Li Volti, S; Giammanco-Bilancia, G; Grassi, M; Garozzo, R; Gluck, R; Giammanco, G

    1993-05-01

    A combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) was administered to both a group of children aged 10-12 months simultaneously with booster doses of compulsory diphtheria-tetanus toxoids and oral poliovirus vaccine and a group of children aged 15-24 months who had previously received booster doses of the compulsory vaccines. Apart from one subject belonging to the second group who was non responder and one from the same group who did not seroconvert against the mumps virus alone, 5 to 6 weeks after MMR vaccine administration we found protective levels of antibodies against measles, mumps and rubella viruses in all children. The follow up of both groups at 3 years did not reveal difference between the two groups. Protective levels of serum antibodies against measles and mumps were found in the two groups, although a significant decline of rubella antibodies was shown (p < 0.05). Since the immunogenicity of the vaccines in the two groups did not differ, we recommend that the scientific community reconsider the vaccination schedule until now recommended. In our opinion the MMR vaccine should be administered simultaneously with booster doses of diphtheria-tetanus toxoids and oral poliovirus vaccine at 10-12 months of age because this policy improves parents' compliance, markedly reduces community costs and simplifies routine immunization schedule. PMID:8405317

  5. Hypertensive emergencies in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Vadhera, Rakesh B; Simon, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy complicate 7% to 10% of pregnancies and are among the major causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Recently American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Taskforce on Hypertension during Pregnancy modified the diagnosis and management of hypertension in pregnancy, recommending prompt diagnosis, admission, close monitoring, and treatment. They strive to decrease maternal mortality and systemic complications. Labetalol, hydralazine, or nifedipine are considered first-line treatment, and either can be used to stabilize the patient with similar outcomes. Definite treatment is delivery of the fetus and should be considered based on the etiology of the hypertensive crisis and gestational age. PMID:25314092

  6. Serum Glucose Level in First and Third Trimester of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zannat, M R; Nessa, A; Hossain, M M; Das, R K; Asrin, M; Sufrin, S; Islam, M T; Tajkia, T; Nasreen, S

    2016-04-01

    In the present study serum glucose were estimated in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and third trimester of pregnancy to observe the frequency of hyperglycemia during pregnancy and to assess the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus. This study was a cross sectional study, carried out in the Department of Physiology of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from July 2014 to June 2015. For this purpose, total 300 women with age ranged from 18 to 35 years were selected and divided into 100 healthy non pregnant women as control group and 200 normal pregnant women as study group. Study group was further divided into 100 pregnant women in first trimester of pregnancy and 100 pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy. Diagnosed case of type I and type II diabetes, hypothyroidism, cushing's syndrome, polycystic ovary, antipsychotic drug users, regular steroid users were excluded from this study. Serum glucose was evaluated by the glucose-oxidase principle by GOD-PAP method in women with 1st trimester of pregnancy, 3rd trimester of pregnancy and in non pregnant women. Statistical analysis of data was done by unpaired student's t test. The results showed that the serum glucose levels increased significantly in third trimester and the value is not significant in first trimester. The increasing frequency of serum glucose level in third trimester may predispose the women to hyperglycemia of pregnancy or gestational diabetes mellitus. PMID:27277349

  7. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436

  8. A case-control study to examine the association between breastfeeding during late pregnancy and risk of a small-for-gestational-age birth in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Rossina G; Marquis, Grace S; Penny, Mary E; Dixon, Philip M

    2015-04-01

    Excessive demands on maternal nutritional status may be a risk factor for poor birth outcomes. This study examined the association between breastfeeding during late pregnancy (≥ 28 weeks) and the risk of having a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn, using a matched case-control design (78 SGA cases: birthweight <10th percentile for gestational age; 150 non-SGA controls: 50th percentile age). Between March 2006 and April 2007, project midwives visited daily three government hospitals in Lima, Peru and identified cases and matched controls based on hospital, gestational age, and inter-gestational period. Mothers were interviewed and clinical chart extractions were completed. Factors associated with risk of SGA were assessed by their adjusted odds ratios (aOR) from conditional logistic regression. Exposure to an overlap of breastfeeding during late pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of having a SGA newborn [aOR=0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10-3.30]. However, increased risk was associated with having a previous low-birthweight birth (aOR=6.53; 95% CI: 1.43-29.70) and a low intake of animal source foods (<25th percentile; aOR=2.26; 95% CI: 1.01-5.04), and tended to be associated with being short (<150 cm; aOR=2.05; 95% CI: 0.92-4.54). This study found no evidence to support the hypothesis that breastfeeding during late pregnancy increases the risk for SGA; however, studies with greater statistical power are needed to definitively examine this possible association and clarify whether there are other risks to the new baby, the toddler and the pregnant woman. PMID:23020780

  9. Violent death in the pediatric age group: rural and urban differences.

    PubMed

    Gausche, M; Seidel, J S; Henderson, D P; Ness, B; Ward, P M; Wayland, B W

    1989-03-01

    Violent death (homicide and suicide) in the pediatric age group is a major public health problem. A descriptive study was undertaken to review retrospectively the 1077 pediatric coroner's cases in 11 California counties for differences between urban and rural violent death rates. Pediatric violent death was more prevalent in the urban region than in the rural region (P less than 0.0007). High urban homicide rates accounted for most of this difference. Suicide rates were not significantly different (P = 0.18). Seventy-four percent of the violent deaths were in the 15- to 18-year age group, and most of these deaths were caused by firearms (81%). Blacks had the highest homicide and suicide rates. Child abuse was an important cause of death for young children in the urban area only. Socioeconomic factors, cultural differences, high population density, and the availability of firearms were proposed as factors affecting violent death in the pediatric age group. PMID:2785264

  10. [CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RETINA IN CHRONIC STRESS IN LABORATORY RATS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS].

    PubMed

    Nesterova, A A; Yermilov, V V; Tiurenkov, I N; Smirnov, A V; Grigoriyeva, N V; Zagrebin, V L; Rogova, L N; Antoshkin, O N; Dovgalyov, A O

    2016-01-01

    The retina was studied in albino laboratory male rats of two age groups (12 and 24 months), 10 animals in each subjected to chronic combined stress. The stress was caused in animals by simultaneous exposure to pulsed light, loud sound, swinging and restriction of mobility for 7 days, 30 mm daily. The retina of intact rats of the corresponding age groups (n = 20) served as control. Enucleated eyes of stressed and control animals were processed with standard histological technique and stained with Nissl's method and hematoxylin-eosin. The retina of the stressed animals of both age groups showed the decrease in the number of cells and the disarrangement of its layers, most pronounced in the layers of photoreceptor neurons and ganglion cells. The comparative morphometric analysis demonstrated a reduction of the layer thickness and cell numerical density in the retina of stressed animals, both young (12 months) and old (24 months), as compared to that of control animals. PMID:27487662

  11. Effect of Age Group on Technical-Tactical Performance Profile of the Serve in Men's Volleyball.

    PubMed

    García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical-tactical performance profile of the serve for various age groups and categories of competition in men's volleyball. The sample comprised 13,262 serves performed by 986 players in 299 sets observed in various categories of competition (U-14, U-16, U-19, national senior, and international senior). An observational design was used. The variables studied were category of competition, type of execution, and serve performance. The results showed that for higher age groups (senior categories), there were significantly fewer jump serves and poorer serve performance, regardless of players' maturity and training development. The use of the jump serves increased the serve risk while attempting to hinder the organization of the opponent attack. This paper discusses the serve evolution and the implications on the training process at the different age groups in men's volleyball. PMID:27468992

  12. Osteoporosis knowledge, calcium intake, and weight-bearing physical activity in three age groups of women.

    PubMed

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women and compare knowledge to calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity (WBPA). In this cross-sectional study, knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA were assessed using probe interviews, a food frequency and an activity questionnaire, respectively. Seventy-five white women were separated into three groups: young (25-35 years), middle aged (36-46 years) and postmenopausal (50+ years). Concept maps were used to assess knowledge (concepts, integration and misconceptions). Calcium intakes from diet, supplements and fortified orange juice were estimated as were minutes of daily WBPA. Analysis of covariance was used to compare knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA by age group. Covariates included education, family history, physical problems making exercise difficult, and lactose intolerance. Chi square analysis was used to determine differences in these covariates across age groups. Correlations and regression analysis were used to determine relationships between knowledge and behaviors. Knowledge scores averaged 32-44 points (183 possible). Average calcium intake in all groups exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake's recommended Adequate Intake but 20-24% consumed less than 60% of the AI. Housework, walking at work, and standing at home and work accounted for 90% of WBPA. Knowledge about osteoporosis was limited and not associated with age, WBPA or calcium intake. Calcium intake and WBPA were not associated with age. Practitioners need to provide explicit information on osteoporosis and risk reducing behaviors to women of all ages. PMID:12238730

  13. The effect of group training on pregnancy-induced lumbopelvic pain: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials.

    PubMed

    Fisseha, Berihu; Mishra, Prakash Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Since there is lack of up to date consensus exists as to whether group training is effective in improving lumbopelvic pain (LPP) after pregnancy, a review of the recent evidences is needed. To determine the effect of group exercise training for the management of LPP among pregnant women compared with usual antenatal care. An electronic database search for relevant randomized control trials published in English from 2006 to 2015 was conducted. Articles with outcome measures of self-reported LPP, visual analogue scale and sick leave due to LPP after pregnancy were included. Quality of the included articles was rated using Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale and the pooled effect of self-reported LPP was obtained by Review Manager (RevMan 5) software. Significant effect of group training was detected over usual antenatal care or no treatment with P=0.0035 (95% confidence interval, -0.2348 to -0.0044). The results of this systematic review proposed that group training reduces LPP significantly better than routine antenatal care for pregnant women suffered from LPP. PMID:26933655

  14. Adolescent Pregnancy and Attained Height among Black South African Girls: Matched-Pair Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A.; Norris, Shane A.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Suchdev, Parminder S.; Mehta, Neil K.; Richter, Linda M.; Stein, Aryeh D.

    2016-01-01

    Importance The impact of adolescent pregnancy on offspring birth outcomes has been widely studied, but less is known about its impact on the growth of the young mother herself. Objective To determine the association between adolescent pregnancy and attained height. Design Prospective birth cohort study. Setting Cohort members followed from birth to age 20 y in Soweto, South Africa. Participant From among 840 Black females with sufficient data, we identified 54 matched pairs, in which a girl who became pregnant before the age of 17 years was matched with a girl who did not have a pregnancy by age 20 y. Pairs were matched on age at menarche and height-for-age z scores in the year before the case became pregnant (mean 15.0 y). Main Outcome Measures The two groups were compared with respect to attained height, measured at mean age 18.5 y. Results Mean age at conception was 15.9 years (range: 13.7 to 16.9 y). Mean height at matching was 159.4 cm in the adolescent pregnancy group and 159.3 cm in the comparison group (p = 0.3). Mean attained height was 160.4 cm in the adolescent pregnancy group and 160.3 cm in the comparison group (p = 0.7). Conclusions Among Black females in Soweto, South Africa, adolescent pregnancy was not associated with attained height. PMID:26808552

  15. Pregnancy Outcomes Based on Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index in Japanese Women

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, Kimiko; Aoki, Shigeru; Toma, Rie; Fujiwara, Kana; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Hirahara, Fumiki

    2016-01-01

    Objective To verify whether body mass index (BMI) classification proposed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) is valid in Japanese women. Method A study was conducted in 97,157 women with singleton pregnancies registered in the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG) Successive Pregnancy Birth Registry System between January 2013 and December 2013, to examine pregnancy outcomes in four groups stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI category according to the 2009 criteria recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The groups comprised 17,724 underweight women with BMI <18.5, 69,126 normal weight women with BMI 18.5–24.9, 7,502 overweight women with BMI 25–29.9, and 2,805 obese women with BMI ≥30. The pregnancy outcomes were also compared among subgroups stratified by a gestational weight gain below, within, and above the optimal weight gain. Results The higher the pre-pregnancy BMI, the higher the incidences of pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, macrosomia, cesarean delivery, postpartum hemorrhage, and post-term birth, but the lower the incidence of small for gestational age (SGA). In all pre-pregnancy BMI category groups, excess gestational weight gain was associated with a higher frequency of large for gestational age and macrosomia; poor weight gain correlated with a higher frequency of SGA, preterm birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes, and spontaneous preterm birth; and optimal weight gain within the recommended range was associated with a better outcome. Conclusion The BMI classification by the IOM was demonstrated to be valid in Japanese women. PMID:27280958

  16. Ectopic Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and how far into the pregnancy she is: Methotrexate Methotrexate is a medicine that stops an ectopic pregnancy ... of ectopic pregnancies can be successfully treated with methotrexate if detected early enough. The rest will require ...

  17. Pregnancy test

    MedlinePlus

    HCG level rises rapidly during the first trimester of pregnancy and then slightly declines. ... hours in the beginning of a pregnancy. HCG level that does not rise appropriately may indicate a problem with your pregnancy. ...

  18. Association of assisted reproductive technology with adverse pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jie, Zhang; Yiling, Ding; Ling, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background: More and more infertile patients have accepted the assisted reproductive technique (ART) therapy. Concerns have been raised over an increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes in ART populations as compared with natural conception (NC). Objective: The aim was to improve the ART in clinicial work and to reduce the incidence of pregnancy complications in ART group according to analyzing the reasons of high incidence of pregnancy complications in ART group, comparing the incidence of pregnancy complications in different controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) programs and evaluating the effects of ART which attribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this prospective population-based cohort study,3216 pregnant women with gestational age ≤12 weeks, regular antenatal examination,and ultrasound identification of intrauterine pregnancy were enrolled from January 2010 to June 2013. According to having ART history, the participantswere divided into two groups: ART group (contains fresh embryo transfer group or frozen-thawed embryo transfer group) and NC group. We compared the incidence of pregnancy complications between different groups and evaluated the factors which could affect the occurrence of these complications. Results: When compared to NC group, significantly increased rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (p<0.01), preeclampsia (PE) (p<0.01) and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) (p˂0.01) were observed in ART group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of birth defect between the two groups (p=0.07). Multiple pregnancies and Gonadotropin (Gn) were risk factors in GDM, PE, and ICP. The exogenous progesterone treatment had no effect on GDM, PE or ICP. Conclusion: ART increases the risk of adverse maternal complications such as GDM, PE and ICP. The dosages of Gn should be reduced to an extent and the number of embryo implantation should be controlled. Exogenous progesterone treatment is safe

  19. Teaching the Moon: A Study of Teaching Methodology Across Age Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, F.; Paust, N.

    2012-08-01

    In this study I attempted to determine the most effective teaching style for teaching elementary, middle school, and undergraduate students about lunar phases and eclipses. Within each age group, there were two sub groups, one of which was introduced to the material in a standard lecture format while the other sub-group interacted with the content through activities and demonstrations. After their respective lessons, both sub-groups were given the same post-instruction test in order to assess their comprehension of the content. The results from this experiment provided insight into effective teaching styles and common misconceptions about lunar phases and eclipses at different age levels, as well as introducing new interactive teaching activities for elementary, middle school and undergraduate students.

  20. The effects of maternal exercise on early pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Clapp, J F

    1989-12-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that vigorous aerobic exercise during both the periconceptional period and early pregnancy increases the incidence of abnormal early pregnancy outcome. Exercise performance was prospectively monitored before and during pregnancy in 47 recreational runners, 40 aerobic dancers, and 28 physically active, fit controls. Pregnancy was diagnosed by an early test for beta-subunit human chorionic gonadotropin and viability was confirmed by ultrasonography at 40 days' conceptional age. Spontaneous abortion occurred in 19% of the pregnancies. The incidence was 17% in the runners, 18% in the aerobic dancers, and 25% in the controls. At term, one congenital abnormality was detected in each of the three groups. Late pregnancy events, potentially related to abnormalities of placentation, were limited to two cases of mild pregnancy-induced hypertension. We conclude that, in physically fit women, continuation of these types of aerobic activity at intensities between 50% and 85% of maximum during the periconceptional period and early pregnancy does not appreciably alter early pregnancy outcome. PMID:2603898

  1. Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marmontel, M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Kochman, H.I.; Humphrey, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Growth layers were observed in histological preparations of bones of known-age, known minimum-age, and tetracycline-marked free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), substantiating earlier preliminary findings of other studies. Detailed analysis of 17 new case histories showed that growth-layer group (GLG) counts in the periotic bone were consistent with known age, or time since tetracycline administration, but were less reliable in other bones. GLG counts were also made in periotic bones of 1,196 Florida manatees of unknown age found dead from 1974 through 1991. These counts were conducted in order to assess variability and to determine relationships among estimated age, size, sex, and degree of bone resorption. Resorption can interfere with accuracy of GLG counts. This effect does not occur until ages greater than about 15 yr and body lengths greater than 300 cm are attained. GLGs were also observed in periotic bones of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) but were not validated against known-age specimens. Use of GLG counts in the periotic bone is suitable for application to studies of population dynamics and other age-related aspects of manatee biology.

  2. An evaluation of selective feeding by three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beck, K.; Neves, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    A tri-algal diet was fed to three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris: ages 2-3 d, 50-53 d, and 3-6 years. Changes in the relative abundance of each algal species were determined in 5-h feeding trials from feeding chambers and by gut content analyses. All age-groups rejected Scenedesmus quadricauda and preferentially selected Nannochloropsis oculata and Selenastrum capricornutum, principally on the basis of size. Changes in the relative abundance of algae in feeding chambers did not differ significantly among age-groups. Observed differences in the ingested quantities of the similar-sized N. oculata and S. capricornutum were attributed to other particle-related characteristics. Results indicate that the rainbow mussel can be fed similar-sized algae at ali ages in captive propagation facilities. When developing a suitable algal diet for rearing juvenile mussels, one probably need not investigate different species at each stage of development if the algae used are in the 2.8-8.5-??m size range.

  3. Teenage Pregnancy among Latinas: Examining Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan-Ates, Aysun; Carrion-Basham, Carla Y.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the role of three groups of risk and protective factors (e.g., individual, family, and extrafamilial) that are associated with teen pregnancy. Two groups of Latina adolescents (aged 15 to 19), nonpregnant/ nonparenting (NP; N = 48) and pregnant/parenting (P; N = 46), completed a demographic survey, an adolescent profile…

  4. Comparative Research on Mixed-Age Groups in Swedish Nursery and Compulsory Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundell, Knut

    1994-01-01

    Reviews recent studies on the effects of mixed-age grouping (MAG) in Swedish nursery and elementary schools. Although studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s suggested that MAG was beneficial to children's learning and socioemotional development and to teachers' work satisfaction, studies conducted in the 1990s suggest that MAG does not promote…

  5. Outcome Differences Across Age Groups. Data Notes. Volume 3, Number 2, March/April 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clery, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Using data from Achieving the Dream: Community College Count, this issue examines the differing developmental needs and enrollment and persistence patterns of Achieving the Dream students across different age groups. The data show older students in Achieving the Dream colleges tended to achieve higher grades and perform better academically than…

  6. Metabolic Effects of Chronic Heavy Physical Training on Male Age Group Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, Garret P.; And Others

    This study attempts to appraise the effectiveness of chronic heavy exercise on 13 male swimmers from 10 to 17 years of age. The experimental group trained six days a week, often with more than one workout per day. During this period, the principles of interval training were employed in conjunction with high-intensity swimming. At the completion of…

  7. Impact of ethnicity on gestational diabetes identified with the WHO and the modified International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jenum, Anne K; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Sletner, Line; Vange, Siri; Torper, Johan L; Nakstad, Britt; Voldner, Nanna; Rognerud-Jensen, Odd H; Berntsen, Sveinung; Mosdøl, Annhild; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Vårdal, Mari H; Holme, Ingar; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Birkeland, Kåre I

    2012-01-01

    Objective The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) recently proposed new criteria for diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We compared prevalence rates, risk factors, and the effect of ethnicity using the World Health Organization (WHO) and modified IADPSG criteria. Methods This was a population-based cohort study of 823 (74% of eligible) healthy pregnant women, of whom 59% were from ethnic minorities. Universal screening was performed at 28±2 weeks of gestation with the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Venous plasma glucose (PG) was measured on site. GDM was diagnosed as per the definition of WHO criteria as fasting PG (FPG) ≥7.0 or 2-h PG ≥7.8 mmol/l; and as per the modified IADPSG criteria as FPG ≥5.1 or 2-h PG ≥8.5 mmol/l. Results OGTT was performed in 759 women. Crude GDM prevalence was 13.0% with WHO (Western Europeans 11%, ethnic minorities 15%, P=0.14) and 31.5% with modified IADPSG criteria (Western Europeans 24%, ethnic minorities 37%, P< 0.001). Using the WHO criteria, ethnic minority origin was an independent predictor (South Asians, odds ratio (OR) 2.24 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26–3.97); Middle Easterners, OR 2.13 (1.12–4.08)) after adjustments for age, parity, and prepregnant body mass index (BMI). This increased OR was unapparent after further adjustments for body height (proxy for early life socioeconomic status), education and family history of diabetes. Using the modified IADPSG criteria, prepregnant BMI (1.09 (1.05–1.13)) and ethnic minority origin (South Asians, 2.54 (1.56–4.13)) were independent predictors, while education, body height and family history had little impact. Conclusion GDM prevalence was overall 2.4-times higher with the modified IADPSG criteria compared with the WHO criteria. The new criteria identified many subjects with a relatively mild increase in FPG, strongly associated with South Asian origin and prepregnant overweight. PMID:22108914

  8. Age, sources, and provenances of protoliths of metasedimentary rocks of the Dzheltulak group, Dzheltulak suture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikoslavinskii, S. D.; Kotov, A. B.; Kovach, V. P.; Tolmacheva, E. V.; Larin, A. M.; Sorokin, A. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Wang, K. L.; Salnikova, E. B.

    2016-06-01

    The results of Sm-Nb isotopic-geochemical studies of metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of the Dzheltulak Group of the central part of the Dzheltulak suture, as well as geochronological U-Th-Pb (LA ICP MS) studies of detrital zircons from metasedimentary rocks, which are considered as Paleoproterozoic in current stratigraphic schemes, are presented. The age of the youngest zircons is 170-190 Ma, whereas the age of the last stage of regional metamorphism is 140-150 Ma. Thus, the Dzheltulak Group hosts metasedimentary rocks, the age of the protolith of which ranges from 140-150 to 170-190 Ma. The detrital zircons derived from intrusive and metamorphic rocks of the Selenga-Stanovoi and Dzhugdzhur-Stanovoi superterranes.

  9. Length of papillary muscles in both ventricles of different age group on Bangladeshi cadaver.

    PubMed

    Farzana, T; Khalil, M; Mannan, S; Sultana, J; Sumi, M S; Sultana, R

    2015-01-01

    Papillary muscle rupture and dysfunction can lead to complications of prolapsed atrioventricular valve and valvular regurgitation. Morphology, measurements and attachments of papillary muscles in both tricuspid and bicuspid valve gains utmost importance in cardiac surgeries and variations in the papillary muscle morphology is one of causes for myocardial infarction in recent time. Therefore, it is important to know both the normal anatomy and variations of papillary muscles. The study was carried out in the department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from July 2013 to June 2014. A total 80 human hearts were collected by purposive sampling method, among them 49 were male and 31 were female. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 6 months to 60 years, from autopsy laboratory of the Department of Forensic Medicine of Mymensingh Medical College. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 40 years) and Group C (41 to 60 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. Length of each papillary muscle was measured in both ventricles in different age groups. In present study the mean length of the anterior papillary muscles of right ventricle was higher than both the posterior and septal papillary muscles among the age groups. The mean±SD length of the anterior papillary muscle was 1.07±0.48, 1.50±0.37 and 1.60±0.25cm in Group A, B and C respectively. The mean±SD length of the posterior papillary muscle was 1.02±0.35, 1.31±0.40 and 1.37±0.34cm in Group A, B & C respectively. The mean±SD length of the septal papillary muscle in right ventricle was 0.51±0.42, 0.65±0.31 and 0.81±0.35cm in Group A, B & C respectively. It was also observed that the mean length of anterior, posterior and septal papillary muscle was increased with age. In present study the mean length of the anterior papillary muscles in left ventricle was

  10. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751

  11. Employee age and perceptions of work in self-managing and traditional work groups.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, B; Miller, C; Beyerlein, M M; Johnson, D; Metheny, W; Yeatts, D

    1996-01-01

    Self-managing work groups are a form of work design in which employees take responsibility for the group's tasks and have discretion over decisions which impact group performance. To explore the impact of age and work teams on job attitudes, data from 477 employees suggested that self-managed work group members differed from traditional job holders regarding perceived general job satisfaction, perceived control by supervisors, as well as a number of specific dimensions of the work environment. Moreover, while there was evidence of an age effect on attitudes toward supervisory control, there was no joint effect of age by work design on job attitudes, i.e., one's perceived general job satisfaction. Older employees who were members of self-managed work groups were however, more impacted by this form of work design in reporting more positive perceptions of their access to information essential to the performance of their work. These findings suggest that an "older" work force should not be considered a barrier to implementing a work teams approach to job design. PMID:8835612

  12. Inter-individual Variability in Soccer Players of Different Age Groups Playing Different Positions

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis; Ziv, Gal; Lidor, Ronnie; Arnon, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to profile physical characteristics and motor abilities of three age groups of soccer players – under 14 years, 14–17, and over 17, playing different positions – goalkeepers, defenders, midfielders, and forwards; and (b) to examine the inter-individual variability among the players in each age group in all physical and physiological measurements performed in the study. In addition, anthropometric, power, strength, and flexibility tests were administered. Findings showed large inter-individual variability in all three age groups and in all playing positions. Differences between playing positions were found only in the 14–17 group (body mass) and in the over-17 group (body height, body mass, fat-free mass, and mean power in the Wingate Anaerobic Test). Due to the observed large inter-individual variability, it was concluded that the findings obtained in the physical and physiological tests should be interpreted with caution when attempting to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful soccer players, as well as when trying to predict future success in soccer. PMID:25031689

  13. Level, Trend and Correlates of Mistimed and Unwanted Pregnancies among Currently Pregnant Ever Married Women in India

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Mili; Shekhar, Chander; Prashad, Lokender

    2015-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy accounts for more than 40% of the total pregnancies worldwide. An Unintended pregnancy can have serious implications on women and their families. With more than one-fourth of the children in India born out of unintended pregnancies such pregnancies are considered to be one of the major public health concerns today. The present study is aimed at determining major predictors of unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant ever-married women in India. The present study has used National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data, conducted by the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai, to show the trend, pattern and determinants of mistimed and unwanted pregnancies. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression model have been used with the help of Stata 13 software. The results show that the likelihood of a mistimed pregnancy is more prevalent among young women whereas the prevalence of unwanted pregnancy is observed more among the women aged 35 years or more. The results also show that the risk of experiencing mistimed pregnancy decreases if the woman belongs to ‘other’ castes and has higher education. The likelihood of unwanted pregnancy decreases among married women aged 18 years and above, those women having higher education, some autonomy and access to any mode of mass communication. Knowledge of these predictors of mistimed and unwanted pregnancy will be helpful in identifying the most vulnerable group and prioritize the intervention strategies of the reproductive health programmes for the population in need. PMID:26629813

  14. Antecedent factors in teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Black, D

    1979-10-01

    41 women under 17 presenting with pregnancy at 2 Sheffield hospitals were interviewed between December 1976-77. 78% had experienced intercourse by age 15. 7 had more than 1 partner. 21 were pregnant by age 15. 50% came from large families, 4 or more children. There was a family history of illegitimacy in 1/3 of the group. 46% had experienced separation from 1 or both parents before age 7, chronic illness, death or divorce of parents. Only 8 had received contraceptive advice; 7 had received no school sex education. Most sources of information were mothers, siblings, and friends. 70% knew of at least 3 methods of contraception: withdrawal, the sheath, and the pill. The chemist and the general practitioner were most frequently named sources. 3 had gone to a clinic; most could not identify any clinics. 18 felt contraception should be their own decision; 15 felt it should be a joint decision. The high level of accepted risk taking and nonacceptability of the source of information were the most common reasons for noncontraceptive use. Adolescent pregnancies occur more frequently in lower socioeconomic classes. The majority of the women who continued with the pregnancy (15) were older and presented after 14 weeks. PMID:12336080

  15. Diplopia of pediatric orbital blowout fractures: a retrospective study of 83 patients classified by age groups.

    PubMed

    Su, Yun; Shen, Qin; Lin, Ming; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-01-01

    Orbital blowout fractures are relatively rare in patients under 18 years of age, but may lead to serious complications. We conducted this retrospective study to evaluate diplopia, clinical characteristics, and postoperative results in cases of orbital blowout fractures in the pediatric population. Eighty-three patients, all less than 18 years old, with orbital blowout fractures, were divided into 3 groups by age: 0 to 6 years old, 7 to 12 years old, and 13 to 18 years old. The cause of injury, fracture locations, diplopia grades, ocular motility restrictions, enophthalmos, and postoperative results were reviewed from their records. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact analyses, analyses of variance, and logistic regressions were performed to determine characteristics associated with diplopia, and to identify factors related to residual diplopia in pediatric patients. The most common causes of injuries were traffic accidents in the 0 to 6 years old group, normal daily activities in the 7 to 12 years old group, and assaults in the 13 to 18 years old group. Floor fractures were the most common location in both the 0 to 6- and 7 to 12 years old groups, and medial-floor fractures were the most common location in the 13 to 18 years old group. The occurrence of preoperative diplopia was related to ocular motility restriction and enophthalmos, but not with the age group, the gender, the cause of injury, or the fracture locations. The time interval from injury to surgery was significant in the outcome of postoperative diplopia (P < 0.01). A statistical difference was also found in the recovery time from diplopia among the 3 age groups (P < 0.01). The characteristics of orbital blowout fracture varied among the different age groups. It was related to 2 factors, the cause of injury and fracture locations, which probably resulted from structural growth changes and differences in daily habits. Children had a slower recovery from orbital fractures, and the younger the

  16. Diplopia of Pediatric Orbital Blowout Fractures: A Retrospective Study of 83 Patients Classified by Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yun; Shen, Qin; Lin, Ming; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Orbital blowout fractures are relatively rare in patients under 18 years of age, but may lead to serious complications. We conducted this retrospective study to evaluate diplopia, clinical characteristics, and postoperative results in cases of orbital blowout fractures in the pediatric population. Eighty-three patients, all less than 18 years old, with orbital blowout fractures, were divided into 3 groups by age: 0 to 6 years old, 7 to 12 years old, and 13 to 18 years old. The cause of injury, fracture locations, diplopia grades, ocular motility restrictions, enophthalmos, and postoperative results were reviewed from their records. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact analyses, analyses of variance, and logistic regressions were performed to determine characteristics associated with diplopia, and to identify factors related to residual diplopia in pediatric patients. The most common causes of injuries were traffic accidents in the 0 to 6 years old group, normal daily activities in the 7 to 12 years old group, and assaults in the 13 to 18 years old group. Floor fractures were the most common location in both the 0 to 6- and 7 to 12 years old groups, and medial-floor fractures were the most common location in the 13 to 18 years old group. The occurrence of preoperative diplopia was related to ocular motility restriction and enophthalmos, but not with the age group, the gender, the cause of injury, or the fracture locations. The time interval from injury to surgery was significant in the outcome of postoperative diplopia (P < 0.01). A statistical difference was also found in the recovery time from diplopia among the 3 age groups (P < 0.01). The characteristics of orbital blowout fracture varied among the different age groups. It was related to 2 factors, the cause of injury and fracture locations, which probably resulted from structural growth changes and differences in daily habits. Children had a slower recovery from orbital fractures, and the younger

  17. Pregnancy and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, R; Harvey, V

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies during pregnancy. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) presents a challenging clinical situation. This article reviews the current evidence around the management of PABC and the safety of pregnancy after breast cancer. The trend towards later age at first childbirth has resulted in an increase in the number of breast cancer cases coexistent with pregnancy. The management of breast cancer during pregnancy requires a multidisciplinary team approach. Breast surgery can be safely performed during any trimester of pregnancy. Radiation therapy, if required, must be delayed until after delivery. The majority of patients with PABC require chemotherapy. The timing of delivery in relation to chemotherapy administration should be carefully considered. There is no evidence to date that pregnancy termination influences overall survival for the mother. To date, there is no clear evidence that subsequent pregnancy after breast cancer is associated with worse maternal survival. There is a suggestion that subsequent pregnancy may in fact be associated with an improved survival. However, the available studies are limited by potential biases.

  18. Capturing heterogeneous group differences using mixture-of-experts: Application to a study of aging.

    PubMed

    Eavani, Harini; Hsieh, Meng Kang; An, Yang; Erus, Guray; Beason-Held, Lori; Resnick, Susan; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-01-15

    In MRI studies, linear multi-variate methods are often employed to identify regions or connections that are affected due to disease or normal aging. Such linear models inherently assume that there is a single, homogeneous abnormality pattern that is present in all affected individuals. While kernel-based methods can implicitly model a non-linear effect, and therefore the heterogeneity in the affected group, extracting and interpreting information about affected regions is difficult. In this paper, we present a method that explicitly models and captures heterogeneous patterns of change in the affected group relative to a reference group of controls. For this purpose, we use the Mixture-of-Experts (MOE) framework, which combines unsupervised modeling of mixtures of distributions with supervised learning of classifiers. MOE approximates the non-linear boundary between the two groups with a piece-wise linear boundary, thus allowing discovery of multiple patterns of group differences. In the case of patient/control comparisons, each such pattern aims to capture a different dimension of a disease, and hence to identify patient subgroups. We validated our model using multiple simulation scenarios and performance measures. We applied this method to resting state functional MRI data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, to investigate heterogeneous effects of aging on brain function in cognitively normal older adults (>85years) relative to a reference group of normal young to middle-aged adults (<60years). We found strong evidence for the presence of two subgroups of older adults, with similar age distributions in each subgroup, but different connectivity patterns associated with aging. While both older subgroups showed reduced functional connectivity in the Default Mode Network (DMN), increases in functional connectivity within the pre-frontal cortex as well as the bilateral insula were observed only for one of the two subgroups. Interestingly, the subgroup

  19. Lithium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... role in the rate of miscarriage, which include maternal age, gestational age, and history of previous miscarriage that ... Studies on children up to seven years of age who were exposed to lithium during pregnancy did not find significant physical, mental, or behavioral ...

  20. Capturing Age-group Differences and Developmental Change with the BASC Parent Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Baptiste; Hein, Sascha; Luthar, Suniya S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of age-group differences and intra-individual change across distinct developmental periods is often challenged by the use of age-appropriate (but non-parallel) measures. We present a short version of the Behavior Assessment System (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1998), Parent Rating Scales for Children (PRS-C) and Adolescents (PRS-A), which uses only their common-items to derive estimates of the initial constructs optimized for developmental studies. Measurement invariance of a three-factor model (Externalizing, Internalizing, Adaptive Skills) was tested across age-groups (161 mothers using PRS-C; 200 mothers using PRS-A) and over time (115 mothers using PRS-C at baseline and PRS-A five years later) with the original versus short PRS. Results indicated that the short PRS holds a sufficient level of invariance for a robust estimation of age-group differences and intra-individual change, as compared to the original PRS, which held only weak invariance leading to flawed developmental inferences. Importance of test-content parallelism for developmental studies is discussed. PMID:25045196

  1. The Seroepidemiology of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) in Different Age Groups in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Zohreh; Emadi Ghanjin, Sekyneh

    2005-06-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV), the causative agent of chicken pox and shingles, can cause severe systemic infections of the CNS and the respiratory tract in immunocompetent individuals as well as in immunocompromized patients.The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of antibody Varicella zoster virus in different age groups.The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was used to assess the presence of anti -VZV antibody.A total of 635 serum samples were collected. Age specific prevalence of IgG antibody to VZV showed a progressive increase with age in both males and females. The overall seroprevalence rate was 83.6%. Prevalence of antibodies was 59.7% in the age group of less than 10 years, 60.4 % in 10-14 years, 87.5 % in 15-19 years, 88 % in 20-24 years, 89.4 % in 25-29 years and 87.9 % in 30-39 years.The data show that children should be considered as a target group for prevention programs against VZV infection. PMID:17301429

  2. Coronary, aortic and cerebral atherosclerosis in swine of 3 age-groups: implications*

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, H. L.; Luginbühl, H.; Pivnik, L.

    1970-01-01

    Coronary, aortic and intercranial atherosclerosis has been compared in swine maintained under the following conditions: (1) adequate food and housing but animals held in test social situations for 1 year; postmortem examination at ages of 13 to 15 months; (2) food and management designed for high productivity; postmortem examination at ages of 6 to 9 years; (3) an outdoor system of husbandry and a cooked garbage diet; postmortem examination at ages of 8 to 14 years. Extramural coronary, aortic and intracranial atherosclerosis was most advanced in swine that were fed garbage. Cerebral infarction (cerebromalacia) also was most advanced in these swine but developed in swine of the younger groups in which it was associated with atherosclerosis of small intracranial extracerebral arteries rather than with stenosis of the larger intracranial extracerebral arteries as in the oldest swine. The lesions of atherosclerosis in swine of these 3 age-groups form a continuous series and are morphologically identical with corresponding stages of atherosclerosis of man. It is concluded that swine can replace non-human primates as subjects for studies of atherosclerotic vascular disease, and that experimental designs must allow for age and behaviour patterns of the species. ImagesFIG. 4-7FIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:5310139

  3. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised at Pregnancy: Maternal-Fetal Repercussions.

    PubMed

    Corvino, S B; Netto, A O; Sinzato, Y K; Campos, K E; Calderon, I M P; Rudge, M V C; Volpato, G T; Zambrano, E; Damasceno, D C

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of swimming in pregnant rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and their offspring, IUGR rats were obtained using the streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic (SD) rats. In this study, the nondiabetic parental generation presented 10 rats and diabetic parental generation presented 116 rats. Of these, the mated nondiabetic female rats were 10 and the number of diabetic rats was 45. In relation to term pregnancy, there were 10 animals in the nondiabetic group and 15 rats in the diabetic group. In the offspring of SD rats (IUGR group), 43 females were classified as small for pregnancy age, 19 rats were classified as appropriate for pregnancy age, and 0 female was classified as large for pregnancy age. The nondiabetic and SD pregnant rats generated offspring with appropriate (control [C]) and small (IUGR) weight for pregnancy age, respectively. At adult life, the C group was maintained as nonexercised C group and IUGR rats were distributed into 2 subgroups, namely, nonexercised (IUGR) and exercised (IUGRex). The rate of mated rats in the IUGR group was reduced compared to the C group. During pregnancy, the IUGR rats presented hyperinsulinemia, impaired reproductive outcomes, decreased body weight, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperlactacidemia. The IUGRex presented reduced insulin and triglyceride levels. Thus, swimming improved lipid metabolism and increased insulin sensitivity. However, the offspring showed retarded growth, reinforcing the need to stimulate the exercise practice in women under supervision with different professional expertise to promote appropriate gestational conditions and improve perinatal outcomes. PMID:25761405

  4. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  5. Using Korotkoff Sounds to Detect the Degree of Vascular Compliance in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The principle behind the generation of the Korotkoff sounds is the turbulence of blood flowing through a partially occluded area in the artery. With increasing age, the vascular wall compliance is expected to decrease, which is due to the thickening of the vessel wall, due to which the amplitude of the transmitted Korotkoff sounds is decreased. There is also an accompanying rise in the systolic B.P. and pulse pressure. Aim To record and compare the amplitudes of the intermediate Korotkoff sounds and the blood pressures in individuals of the two age groups, and calculate the pulse pressure and determine whether they vary in relation to the amplitude of the intermediate Korotkoff sounds recorded. Materials and Methods The cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 young subjects (15-25 years) and 50 older subjects (50-70 years). The mid arm circumference was measured using a tape. A phonoarteriogram was placed over the left brachial artery and the sphygmomanometer cuff was tied 2cm above the cubital fossa of the left arm. The blood pressure was recorded using the Lab Tutor software. The Korotkoff sounds picked up and transmitted by the phonoarteriogram are represented as distinct lines on the graphical recording. Statistical Analysis Independent samples t-test to look for significant mean amplitude differences and for correlating mean amplitude and pulse pressure. Null hypothesis rejected at p<0.05. Data analysed using the SPSS software version 20.0 (SPSS Inc.). Results There was a significant difference in the mean amplitudes of Korotkoff sounds among the different age groups (p=0.001) and subject categories (p=0.043 among males, p=0.037 among females). A significant difference in pulse pressures was also seen among different age groups and subject categories. The decrease in the amplitudes of Korotkoff sounds in the older age group accompanies the increase in pulse pressures seen in this group and the same was seen among the different age groups within

  6. Correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and chronological age in a group of Iranian females

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients. PMID:26604958

  7. Tobacco and alcohol use during pregnancy and risk of oral clefts. Occupational Exposure and Congenital Malformation Working Group.

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, C; Cordier, S; Goujard, J; Aymé, S; Bianchi, F; Calzolari, E; De Walle, H E; Knill-Jones, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between maternal tobacco and alcohol consumption during the first trimester of pregnancy and oral clefts. METHODS: Data were derived from a European multicenter case-control study including 161 infants with oral clefts and 1134 control infants. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses showed an increased risk of cleft lip with or without cleft palate associated with smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07, 3.04) and an increased risk of cleft palate associated with alcohol consumption (OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.02, 5.09). The former risk increased with the number of cigarettes smoked. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides further evidence of the possible role of prevalent environmental exposures such as tobacco and alcohol in the etiology of oral clefts. PMID:10705862

  8. Progressive post-yield behavior of human cortical bone in compression for middle-aged and elderly groups

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Huijie; Dong, X. Neil; Wang, Xiaodu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a progressive loading regimen (load–dwell–unloading–dwell–reloading) was applied on bone samples to examine the compressive post-yield response of bone at increasing strain levels. Cortical bone specimens from human tibiae of two age groups (middle-aged group: 53±2 years, 4 females and 4 males, elderly group: 83±6 years, 4 females and 4 males) were loaded in compression using the progressive loading scheme. Modulus degradation, plastic deformation, viscous response, and energy dissipation of bone during post-yield deformation were assessed. Although initial modulus was not significantly different between the two age groups, the degradation of modulus with the applied strain in the elderly group was faster than in the middle-aged group. The modulus loss (or microdamage accumulation) of bone occurred prior to plastic deformation. Plastic strain had a similar linear relationship with the applied strain for both middle-aged and the elderly group although middle-aged bone yielded at a greater strain. The viscoelastic time constant changed similarly with increasing strain for the two groups, whereas a higher magnitude of stress relaxation was observed in the middle-aged group. Energy dissipation was investigated through three pathways: elastic release strain energy, hysteresis energy, and plastic strain energy. The middle-aged group had significantly greater capacity of energy dissipation than the elderly group in all three pathways. The information obtained may provide important insights in age-related effects on bone fragility. PMID:19150716

  9. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of macrosomic pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Weissmann-Brenner, Alina; Simchen, Michal J.; Zilberberg, Eran; Kalter, Anat; Weisz, Boaz; Achiron, Reuven; Dulitzky, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of term macrosomic and adequate for gestational age (AGA) pregnancies. Material/Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on all term singleton macrosomic (birth weight ≥4000 g) and AGA (birth weight >10th percentile and <4000 g) pregnancies delivered at our hospital between 2004 and 2008. Data collected included maternal age, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, birth weight, fetal gender, maternal and neonatal complications. Comparisons were made between macrosomic and AGA pregnancies and between different severities of macrosomia (4000–4250 g, 4250–4500 g and ≥4500 g). Results The study population comprised of 34,685 pregnancies. 2077 neonates had birth weight ≥4000 g. Maternal age and gestational age at delivery were significantly higher for macrosomic neonates. Significantly more macrosomic neonates were born by cesarean section, and were complicated with shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia, and had longer hospitalization period (both in vaginal and cesarean deliveries). Specifically, the odds ratio (OR) relative to AGA pregnancies for each macrosomic category (4000–4250 g, 4250–4500 g and ≥4500 g) of shoulder dystocia was 2.37, 2.24, 7.61, respectively, and for neonatal hypoglycemia 4.24, 4.41, 4.15, respectively. The risk of post partum hemorrhage was statistically increased when birth weight was >4500 g (OR=5.23) but not for birth weight between 4000–4500 g. No differences were found in the rates of extensive perineal lacerations between AGA and the different macrosomic groups. Conclusions Macrosomia is associated with increased rate of cesarean section, shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia, and longer hospitalization, but not associated with excessive perineal tears. Increased risk of PPH was found in the >4500g group. PMID:22936200

  10. Changes in the constraints of semantic and syntactic congruity on memory across three age groups.

    PubMed

    Toyota, H

    2001-06-01

    20 college undergraduates, 25 sixth-grade, and 31 second-grade students studied targets embedded in three types of sentence contexts and then performed free recall and cued recall tests. Although there were no differences in performance of free recall among sentence types within each age group, the differences in cued recall among sentence types were observed. For sixth graders and undergraduates, both semantically congruous/syntactically congruous sentences and semantically incongruous/syntactically congruous sentences led to a better cued recall of targets than semantically incongruous/syntactically incongruous sentences. Second graders performed better in a cued recall of targets in semantically congruous/syntactically congruous sentences than for the other two sentence types. The results were interpreted as indicating changes across age groups in constraints of semantic and syntactic congruity on the spreading activation of targets in memory. PMID:11453195

  11. Attitudes toward mental health services: age-group differences in Korean American adults.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the attitudes toward mental health services held by younger (aged 20-45, n = 209) and older (aged 60 and older, n = 462) groups of Korean Americans. Following Andersen's (1968; A behavioral model of families' use of health service, Center for Health Administration Studies) behavioral health model, predisposing (age, gender, marital status and education), need (anxiety and depressive symptoms) and enabling (acculturation, health insurance coverage and personal experience and beliefs) variables were considered. In the mean-level assessment, younger and older adults were found to hold a similar level of positive attitudes toward mental health services. In the multivariate analysis, culture-influenced beliefs were shown to have a substantial contribution to the model of attitudes toward mental health services in both age groups. The belief that depression is a medical condition was found to be a common predictor of positive attitudes across the groups. In the older adult sample, more negative attitudes were observed among those who believed that depression is a sign of personal weakness and that having a mentally ill family member brings shame to the whole family. Our findings show that older adults are not only more subject to cultural misconceptions and stigma related to mental disorders, but also their attitudes toward service use are negatively influenced by the cultural stigma. The findings provide important implications for interventions targeted to improve access to mental health care among minority populations. Based on the similarities and differences found between young and old, both general and age-specific strategies need to be developed in order to increase effectiveness of these programs. PMID:19197698

  12. Posterior scleritis in pediatric age group: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Radha; Suryawanshi, Milind; Isaac, Roshini; Philip, Santhosh K.

    2016-01-01

    Posterior scleritis is rare in both the adult and pediatric age groups. Increased awareness and availability of advanced diagnostic facilities aid in early diagnosis and management. Visual recovery is possible with systemic steroids and immunosuppression. We report the case of a 12-year-old male child who presented with poor vision in his right eye and was found to have retinal striae and disc edema due to posterior scleritis. PMID:27013832

  13. [Current model of breakfast for different age groups: children, a adolescents and adults].

    PubMed

    Núñez, C; Cuadrado, C; Carbajal, A; Moreiras, O

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to assess the current breakfast model in different age groups: children between the ages of 6 and 12 years (n = 54); adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 years (n = 174); and adults, older than 18 years of age (n = 252). For this a questionnaire has been designed that follows the standards of that used for a similar study by our team in 1984 on a sample of 1350 individuals. The modified and amplified questionnaire included open and closed questions about: the omission of breakfast and its causes, foods that are a part of breakfast, the most frequent types and the variations, the role of the second breakfast, the number of fasting hours since dinner, the time spent of breakfast, and the subjective opinion regarding the importance or not of having breakfast. 98.95% answer yes to the question do you have breakfast, but only 9% eats a nutritionally correct breakfast, one defined as that breakfast that supplies 20% of the total energy and includes foods from at least four different groups. All the children included some form of milk product in their breakfast. The adolescents consumed the lowest proportion of cereals (19.4%) and the highest proportion of pastries (24.2%). The percentage of adults who drink coffee with milk (57%) and sugar (37.7%) is significantly higher than that it the other two groups. Bread (37.7%), pastries (28.3%) and cookies (26.1%) are the solid foods eaten most by the adults. The children spend the longest time on breakfast. 35.9% of the sample varies their breakfast, 43.1% never does, and 21% does so sometimes. The average time elapsed between dinner and breakfast is 10.5 +/- 1.2 hours. It is advisable to have a more nutritionally balanced breakfast, including different foods from at least four groups, and including a greater variety in the menus. PMID:9780752

  14. Ciprofloxacin and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a group of antibiotics called “quinolones or fluoroquinolones.” Is there an increased chance for miscarriage if ... al. 1998. Pregnancy outcome following gestational exposure to fluoroquinolones: a multicenter prospective controlled study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother ...

  15. Blood Biomarkers of Late Pregnancy Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water and Fetal Growth Measures and Gestational Age in a Chinese Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wen-Cheng; Zeng, Qiang; Luo, Yan; Chen, Hai-Xia; Miao, Dong-Yue; Li, Li; Cheng, Ying-Hui; Li, Min; Wang, Fan; You, Ling; Wang, Yi-Xin; Yang, Pan; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that elevated exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water during gestation may result in adverse birth outcomes. However, the findings of these studies remain inconclusive. Objective: The purpose of our study was to examine the association between blood biomarkers of late pregnancy exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water and fetal growth and gestational age. Methods: We recruited 1,184 pregnant women between 2011 and 2013 in Wuhan and Xiaogan City, Hubei, China. Maternal blood THM concentrations, including chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM), were measured as exposure biomarkers during late pregnancy. We estimated associations with gestational age and fetal growth indicators [birth weight, birth length, and small for gestational age (SGA)]. Results: Total THMs (TTHMs; sum of TCM, BDCM, DBCM, and TBM) were associated with lower mean birth weight (–60.9 g; 95% CI: –116.2, –5.6 for the highest vs. lowest tertile; p for trend = 0.03), and BDCM and DBCM exposures were associated with smaller birth length (e.g., –0.20 cm; 95% CI: –0.37, –0.04 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of DBCM; p for trend = 0.02). SGA was increased in association with the second and third tertiles of TTHMs (OR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.32, 6.42 and OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.01, 5.03; p for trend = 0.08). Conclusions: Our results suggested that elevated maternal THM exposure may adversely affect fetal growth. Citation: Cao WC, Zeng Q, Luo Y, Chen HX, Miao DY, Li L, Cheng YH, Li M, Wang F, You L, Wang YX, Yang P, Lu WQ. 2016. Blood biomarkers of late pregnancy exposure to trihalomethanes in drinking water and fetal growth measures and gestational age in a Chinese cohort. Environ Health Perspect 124:536–541; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409234 PMID:26340795

  16. Phylogeny and age of diversification of the planitibia species group of the Hawaiian Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Bonacum, James; O'Grady, Patrick M; Kambysellis, Michael; Desalle, Rob

    2005-10-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophila offer a unique opportunity to examine evolutionary questions because of the known ages of the Hawaiian Islands and the large number of species endemic to this archipelago. One of the more well studied groups of Hawaiian Drosophila is the planitibia species group, a long-standing population genetic model system. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis of all 17 taxa in the planitibia group based on nucleotide sequences from two mitochondrial (16S and COII) and four nuclear (Adh, Gpdh, Yp1, and Yp2) loci, accounting for over 4kb of sequence per taxon. We use these data to estimate major divergence times within this group. Our results suggest that the basal diversification within this group, calculated at 6.1 +/- 0.47 MY, predates the oldest high island of Kauai. The older diversifications in this group took place on Kauai, with subsequent colonization and speciation events occurring as new islands became available to Drosophila. Understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of this important group will place the existing population genetic work in a macroevolutionary context and stimulate additional work, particularly on those taxa endemic to the Maui Nui complex of islands. PMID:16182150

  17. Lupus and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baer, Alan N; Witter, Frank R; Petri, Michelle

    2011-10-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) disproportionately affects women in their reproductive age years. Pregnancy in this systemic autoimmune disease has long been associated with poor obstetric outcomes. However, the frequency of pregnancy loss in lupus has dropped to a level commensurate with that of the general US population. The outcomes of lupus pregnancies are better if conception is delayed until the disease has been inactive for at least 6 months, and the medication regimen has been adjusted in advance. Pregnancy in lupus is prone to complications, including flares of disease activity during pregnancy or in the postpartum period, preeclampsia, miscarriage, stillbirth, intrauterine growth retardation, and preterm birth. Active lupus nephritis poses the greatest risk. The recognition of a lupus flare during pregnancy may be difficult because the signs and symptoms may mimic those of normal pregnancy. Monitoring should include baseline and monthly laboratory tests, serial ultrasonography, fetal surveillance tests, and fetal m-mode echocardiography for mothers with SS-A (Ro) or SS-B (La) antibodies. In the absence of any signs or symptoms of active SLE, affected patients require no specific treatment during pregnancy. If hydroxychloroquine was in use before conception, it should be maintained throughout pregnancy. If a woman with SLE has antiphospholipid antibodies, prophylactic treatment with aspirin and/or low-molecular weight heparin is indicated to prevent fetal loss. Lupus flares during pregnancy are generally treated with hydroxychloroquine, low-dose prednisone, pulse intravenous methylprednisolone, and azathioprine. High-dose prednisone and cyclophosphamide are reserved for severe lupus complications but are associated with significant pregnancy-related complications and poor obstetrical outcomes. PMID:22112525

  18. [Emotional experience and regulation across the adult lifespan: comparative analysis in three age groups].

    PubMed

    Márquez-González, María; Izal Fernández de Trocóniz, María; Montorio Cerrato, Ignacio; Losada Baltar, Andrés

    2008-11-01

    The studies focused on age-related differences in emotional experience are still scarce, and most of them have been conducted with North-American samples. This study explores the presence of age-related differences in some facets of emotional experience (subjective well-being and emotional intensity), as well as in variables related to emotion regulation (subjective emotional control and three emotion-regulation mechanisms: situation selection, emotion suppression, rumination) in the Spanish population. One hundred and sixty people from three age groups (younger, middle-aged and older adults) participated in the study. Older participants reported lower levels of life satisfaction and positive emotional intensity than younger ones, as well as higher levels of perceived emotional control, emotional maturity and leveling of positive affect, and more use of emotion suppression. The results partially support the emotional maturity hypothesis of emotional functioning in old age, but also suggest that older adults' emotional regulation may present important peculiarities which have not yet been addressed in the extant literature, such as the moderation or limitation of emotional experience, especially positive emotions. PMID:18940059

  19. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  20. Effect of Training on Physiological and Biochemical Variables of Soccer Players of Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Indranil; Khanna, Gulshan Lal; Chandra Dhara, Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To find out the effect of training on selected physiological and biochemical variables of Indian soccer players of different age groups. Methods A total of 120 soccer players volunteered for the study, were divided (n = 30) into 4 groups: (i) under 16 years (U16), (ii) under 19 years (U19), (iii) under 23 years (U23), (iv) senior (SR). The training sessions were divided into 2 phases (a) Preparatory Phase (PP, 8 weeks) and (b) Competitive Phase (CP, 4 weeks). The training program consisted of aerobic, anaerobic and skill development, and were completed 4 hrs/day; 5 days/week. Selected physiological and biochemical variables were measured at zero level (baseline data, BD) and at the end of PP and CP. Results A significant increase (P < 0.05) in lean body mass (LBM), VO2max, anaerobic power, grip and back strength, urea, uric acid and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C); and a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in body fat, hemoglobin (Hb), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected in some groups in PP and CP phases of the training when compare to BD. However, no significant change was found in body mass and maximal heart rate of the players after the training program. Conclusion This study would provide useful information for training and selection of soccer players of different age groups. PMID:22375187

  1. Maternal iron levels early in pregnancy are not associated with offspring IQ score at age 8, findings from a Mendelian randomization study

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, S J; Bonilla, C; Brion, M-J; Lawlor, D A; Gunnell, D; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Ness, A; Smith, G D

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Iron is fundamental to many basic biological functions, and animal studies suggest that iron deficiency early in life can have a lasting impact on the developing brain. Subjects/Methods: We used a population-based cohort of mothers and their children to assess the effect of iron status among pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring. But to avoid the inherent confounding that occurs within observational epidemiology studies we examined the association of maternal genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes HFE (rs1799945) and (rs1800562), TF (rs3811647) and TMPRSS6 (rs1800562), which are related to iron, haemoglobin or transferrin levels, on their child's cognitive test scores at age 8. Results: We found strong associations between HFE and TMPRSS6 genotypes and mother's haemoglobin levels early in pregnancy (P-values are all ⩽4.1 × 10−5) and a genetic score comprised of alleles at these loci was even more strongly associated with haemoglobin levels (P=3.0 × 10−18), suggesting that this was a good instrument to use to look at the effect of prenatal iron levels on offspring cognition. However, mother's genotype at the above loci was not associated with offspring IQ at age 8. Conclusions: We therefore concluded that there is no evidence of an effect of exposure to low levels of iron (within the normal range) in pregnancy on offspring cognition at age 8. However, pregnant women in the UK with low haemoglobin levels are prescribed iron supplements and so we were unable to look at the effect of iron deficiency in our study. PMID:24398642

  2. Breast cancer in pregnancy: an institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Blanquisett, Abraham Hernández; Vicent, Carmen Herrero; Gregori, Joaquín Gavilá; Zotano, Ángel Guerrero; Porta, Vicente Guillem; Simón, Amparo Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) is defined as breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or within 12 months of delivery. Nowadays PABC can be safely diagnosed, staged, and treated during pregnancy with good outcomes for both the mother and the fetus. Recent studies suggest that prognosis of women diagnosed during postpartum seems to be worse. In order to gain a better understanding of the PABC, we reviewed our centre’s experience. Patients and methods We assessed the clinicopathological parameters, evolution, and outcome of patients treated in the Fundación Instituto Valenciano de Oncología of Valencia, Spain, from October 1990 to October 2013, and compared the results of patients diagnosed during pregnancy (group ‘A’) and patients diagnosed within one year of delivery (group ‘B’). Of 12,000 cases of breast cancer registered in our database, 35 cases of PABC were identified. We included 11 patients in group ‘A’ and 24 in group ‘B’. Results In our group the median age was 35 years (range 29–42), of which ten (28%) patients had family history (first grade) of breast cancer, four patients were BRCA 1 mutation carriers. Axillary node compromise was found in 19 patients (53.5%), 24 patients were stage II or III at diagnosis (68.5%), 22 (62.8%) were ER positive, and nine (25.7%) were HER-2 positive. In group A (n = 11), five patients diagnosed before 18th week decided that a therapeutic abortion be performed before treatment, two patients were treated during pregnancy, one with chemotherapy without treatment associated complications during delivery. Four women diagnosed after 28th week decided to delay the treatment until delivery. After a follow up of 172 months, the relapse free survival (RFS) was 69% at five years and 45% at ten years. Overall survival (OS) at five years was 90.8% and 74.2% at ten years for all patients. For group ‘A’ OS was higher

  3. Maternal obesity and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S R; Kolberg, B H; Varner, M W; Railsback, L D

    1987-05-01

    We examined the risk of maternal obesity in 588 pregnant women weighing at least 113.6 kilograms (250 pounds) during pregnancy. Compared with a control group matched for age and parity, we found a significantly increased risk in the obese patient for gestational diabetes, hypertension, therapeutic induction, prolonged second stage of labor, oxytocin stimulation of labor, shoulder dystocia, infants weighing more than 4,000 grams and delivery after 42 weeks gestation. Certain operative complications were also more common in obese women undergoing cesarean section including estimated blood loss of more than 1,000 milliliters, operating time of more than two hours and wound infection postoperatively. These differences remained significant after controlling for appropriate confounding variables. We conclude that maternal obesity should be considered a high risk factor. PMID:3576419

  4. Utility of Microbiological Profile of Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge in Rural Women of Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Results: Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Conclusion: Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae. PMID:25954668

  5. Patterns of Adverse Drug Reactions in Different Age Groups: Analysis of Spontaneous Reports by Community Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yun Mi; Shin, Wan Gyoon; Lee, Ju-Yeun; Choi, Soo An; Jo, Yun Hee; Youn, So Jung; Lee, Mo Se; Choi, Kwang Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) spontaneously reported by community pharmacists and to compare the ADRs by age. Methods ADRs reported to the Regional Pharmacovigilance Center of the Korean Pharmaceutical Association by community pharmacists from January 2013 to June 2014 were included. Causality was assessed using the WHO-Uppsala Monitoring Centre system. The patient population was classified into three age groups. We analyzed 31,398 (74.9%) ADRs from 9,705 patients, identified as having a causal relationship, from a total pool of 41,930 ADRs from 9,873 patients. Median patient age was 58.0 years; 66.9% were female. Results Gastrointestinal system (34.4%), nervous system (14.4%), and psychiatric (12.1%) disorders were the most frequent symptoms. Prevalent causative drugs were those for acid-related disorders (11.4%), anti-inflammatory products (10.5%), analgesics (7.2%), and antibacterials (7.1%). Comparisons by age revealed diarrhea and antibacterials to be most commonly associated with ADRs in children (p < 0.001), whereas dizziness was prevalent in the elderly (p < 0.001). Anaphylactic reaction was the most frequent serious event (19.7%), mainly associated with cephalosporins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Among 612 ADRs caused by nonprescription drugs, the leading symptoms and causative drugs were skin disorders (29.6%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (16.2%), respectively. Conclusions According to the community pharmacist reports, the leading clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with ADRs in outpatients differed among age groups. PMID:26172050

  6. The hierarchical factor model of ADHD: Invariant across age and national groupings?

    PubMed Central

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Sorge, Geoff B.; Flora, David B.; Chen, Wai; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Thompson, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary; Asherson, Philip; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the factor structure of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of 1373 children and adolescents with ADHD and their 1772 unselected siblings recruited from different countries across a large age range. Hierarchical and correlated factor analytic models were compared separately in the ADHD and sibling samples, across three different instruments and across parent and teacher informants. Specific consideration was given to factorial invariance analyses across different ages and different countries in the ADHD sample. Method A sample of children and adolescents between 5 and 17 years of age with ADHD and their unselected siblings was assessed. Participants were recruited from seven European countries and Israel. ADHD symptom data came from a clinical interview with parents (PACS) and questionnaires from parents and teachers (Conners Parent and Teacher). Results A hierarchical general factor model with two specific factors best represented the structure of ADHD in both the ADHD and unselected sibling groups, and across informants and instruments. The model was robust and invariant with regard to age differences in the ADHD sample. The model was not strongly invariant across different national groups in the ADHD sample, likely reflecting severity differences across the different centers and not any substantial difference in the clinical presentation of ADHD. Conclusions The results replicate previous studies of a model with a unitary ADHD component and separable specific traits of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The unique contribution of this study was finding support for this model across a large developmental and multinational/multicultural sample and its invariance across ages. PMID:22084976

  7. Maternal serum cadmium level during pregnancy and its association with small for gestational age infants: a population-based birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Lu; Hu, Yong-Fang; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Su, Pu-Yu; Fu, Lin; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Lei; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal cadmium (Cd) exposure during pregnancy and the increased risk of fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains controversial. The present study evaluated the association between maternal serum Cd level and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) infants in a Chinese population. The present study analyzed a subsample of the C-ABCS cohort that recruited 3254 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs. Maternal serum Cd level during pregnancy was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The rate and odds ratio (OR) for SGA infant were calculated. The rate for SGA infant was 10.6% among subjects with H-Cd (≥1.06 μg/L), significantly higher than 7.5% among subjects with L-Cd (<1.06 μg/L). OR was 1.45 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.90; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Adjusted OR for SGA infants was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.88; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Taken together, we observe the fact that maternal Cd exposure at middle gestational stage, elevates the risk of SGA in contrast to early gestational stage. The present results might be interesting and worth more discussing, and guarantee to further studies. PMID:26934860

  8. Maternal serum cadmium level during pregnancy and its association with small for gestational age infants: a population-based birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Lu; Hu, Yong-Fang; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Su, Pu-Yu; Fu, Lin; Yu, Zhen; Zhang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Lei; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The association between maternal cadmium (Cd) exposure during pregnancy and the increased risk of fetal growth restriction (FGR) remains controversial. The present study evaluated the association between maternal serum Cd level and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) infants in a Chinese population. The present study analyzed a subsample of the C-ABCS cohort that recruited 3254 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs. Maternal serum Cd level during pregnancy was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The rate and odds ratio (OR) for SGA infant were calculated. The rate for SGA infant was 10.6% among subjects with H-Cd (≥1.06 μg/L), significantly higher than 7.5% among subjects with L-Cd (<1.06 μg/L). OR was 1.45 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.90; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Adjusted OR for SGA infants was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.88; P = 0.007) among subjects with H-Cd. Taken together, we observe the fact that maternal Cd exposure at middle gestational stage, elevates the risk of SGA in contrast to early gestational stage. The present results might be interesting and worth more discussing, and guarantee to further studies. PMID:26934860

  9. Challenges of Twin Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Lynn M.; Hose, Patricia M.

    1991-01-01

    Family physicians have an important role in the diagnosis and management of twin pregnancies. Optimal antepartum management begins with early detection. Provision of patient education about the risks of the pregnancy is important. Intrapartum management is dependent on gestation age, placentation, fetal presentation, and fetal well-being. Anticipatory guidance and ongoing support should be provided for postpartum issues, such as breast-feeding and family adjustment. PMID:21229108

  10. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J.; Aguayo, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011) was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used. PMID:26828515

  11. Early adulthood: an overlooked age group in national sodium reduction initiatives in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Jounghee; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Jong-Wook; Byun, Jae-Eon; Kang, Baeg-Won; Choi, Bo Youl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES South Korean's sodium consumption level is more than twice the upper limit level suggested by the WHO. Steep increases in the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Korea necessitate more effective sodium reduction programs. This study was conducted in order to compare sodium intake-related eating behaviors and key psychosocial factors according to age group and gender. SUBJECTS/METHODS Using an online survey, a total of 1,564 adults (20-59 years old) considered to be geographically representative of South Korea were recruited and surveyed. The major outcomes were perceived behaviors, knowledge, intentions, and self-efficacy related to sodium intake. RESULTS The results show that perceived behavior and level of self-efficacy related to low sodium consumption differed by age and gender. Female participants showed better behavior and intention towards low sodium intake than male counterparts. Young participants in their 20s showed the lowest intention to change their current sodium intake as well as lowest self-efficacy measures. CONCLUSIONS Future sodium reduction interventions should be developed with tailored messages targeting different age and gender groups. Specifically, interventions can be planned and implemented at the college level or for workers in their early career to increase their intention and self-efficacy as a means of preventing future health complications associated with high sodium intake. PMID:25489413

  12. Endoparasite prevalence and recurrence across different age groups of dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Maureen C.; Nolan, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The apparent prevalence of endoparasite infections across different age groups was calculated from 6,555 dogs and 1,566 cats that had a fecal examination performed upon presentation to the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 1997 and 2007. Based on notations from the medical history indicating prior parasite infections, estimates of recurrence were generated for each common group of parasites, including Trichuris, Giardia, ascarids, hookworms, Cystoisospora, and tapeworms. Endoparasitism was predominantly a disease of younger animals, with peak prevalence observed almost uniformly in dogs under 6 months old, with the exception of Trichuris with its longer pre-patent period, and in cats less than 18 months old. Furthermore, nearly 50% of dogs under 6 months old with a history of parasites, were diagnosed with at least one species of parasite on subsequent fecal examination. The percentage dropped to 18.4% in animals aged 1 – 4 years, but again increased to 31.5% in animals over 10 years old. There was no reported recurrence of Giardia or Cystoisospora from canine or feline patients older than 1 year. The recurrence of whipworm rose steadily with age, while hookworm and roundworm recurrence peaked in patients 1 - 4 years old. Findings from the study emphasize the importance of follow up fecal examinations and treatments in patients diagnosed with endoparasites. PMID:19709815

  13. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Key points Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is common and the severity increases as pregnancy progresses. Frequent snoring, older age and high pre-pregnancy body mass index (>25 kg⋅m−2) could be reliable indicators for SDB in early pregnancy. SDB screening tools, including questionnaires, used in the nonpregnant population have poor predictive ability in pregnancy. Accumulating evidence suggests that SDB during pregnancy may be associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously because several studies failed to adjust for potential maternal confounders and have other study limitations. There are no pregnancy-specific practice guidelines for SDB treatment. Many clinicians and practices follow recommendations for the treatment in the general population. Women with pre-existing SDB might need to be reassessed, particularly after the sixth month of pregnancy, because symptoms can worsen with nasal congestion and weight gain. Educational aims To highlight the prevalence and severity of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in the pregnant population. To inform readers about risk factors for SDB in pregnancy. To explore the impact of SDB on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, and biological pathways for associated adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. To introduce current management options for SDB in pregnancy, including medical and behavioural approaches. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the

  14. Unique trophoblast stem cell- and pluripotency marker staining patterns depending on gestational age and placenta-associated pregnancy complications.

    PubMed

    Weber, Maja; Göhner, Claudia; San Martin, Sebastian; Vattai, Aurelia; Hutter, Stefan; Parraga, Mario; Jeschke, Udo; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Markert, Udo R; Fitzgerald, Justine S

    2016-03-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are rare but severe pregnancy complications that are associated with placental insufficiency often resulting in premature birth. The clinical pathologies are related to gross placental pathologies and trophoblastic deficiencies that might derive from inflammatory processes and oxidative stress injury. The mesenchymal core of placental villi has been identified as a possible niche for trophoblast progenitor cells that are called upon to replenish the injured syncytiotrophoblast layer. These progenitor cells are known to express trophoblast stem cell (CDX2) and pluripotency (SOX2, NANOG and OCT4A) markers, however only little data is available characterizing the expression of these transcription factors beyond the blastocyst stage. We aimed to describe the expression of these factors in healthy 1st and 3rd trimester placentae as well as PE, IUGR and combined PE+IUGR placentae. We analyzed 8 respective samples derived from 1st trimester (elective abortions), and 3rd trimester (healthy controls, PE, IUGR and combined PE+IUGR). We accomplished immunoperoxidase staining to detect the stem cell markers: CDX2 (trophectoderm), SOX2, NANOG and OCT4A (embryonal). Immunoreative scoring was used for objective analyses of staining patterns. All markers display clearly elevated signals in 1st trimester villous samples as compared to healthy 3rd trimester counterparts. Especially CDX2 and NANOG were specific to the cytotrophoblast layer and the mesenchymal core. Specific and differential expression patterns were visible in the villous/extravillous compartment of each placenta-associated pregnancy complication (PE: pan elevated expression; IUGR elevated SOX2 in basal plate; combined PE+IUGR pan loss of expression). Reduction of stem cell transcription factor expression in term placentae indicates temporal regulation, and probably a specific function which is yet to be elucidated. The differential expression patterns

  15. Plants used during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum healthcare in Lao PDR: A comparative study of the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Hugo; Lamxay, Vichith

    2009-01-01

    Background In many Southeast Asian cultures the activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet, traditional medicine, steam bath and mother roasting (where mother and child placed on a bed above a brazier with charcoal embers on which aromatic plants are laid). This research focuses on the use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare among three ethnic groups, the Brou, Saek and Kry. It aims to identify culturally important traditions that may facilitate implementation of culturally appropriate healthcare. Methods Data were collected in 10 different villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results A total of 55 different plant species are used in women's healthcare, of which over 90% are used in postpartum recovery. Consensus Analysis rejects the hypothesis that the three ethnic groups belong to a single culture for postpartum plant use, and multidimensional scaling reveals non-overlapping clusters per ethnic group. Conclusion Medicinal plant use is common among the Brou, Saek and Kry to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care. The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as confinement, dietary restrictions, mother roasting and herbal steam baths and their incorporation into modern healthcare. PMID:19737413

  16. The medico-legal evaluation of injuries from falls in pediatric age groups.

    PubMed

    Kafadar, Safiye; Kafadar, Hüseyin

    2015-04-01

    Blunt trauma from accidental falls or intentional jumping from great heights occurs frequently in forensic medicine. The goal of this study was to investigate injuries due to falls in children under 19 years of age. Injuries from falls are the leading cause of visits to emergency departments and to deaths due to injuries. Various methods are used in the classification of falls. In this study, we have classified falls as "high-level" (≥ 5 m), "low-level" (<5 m) and "ground-level". We have retrospectively evaluated 814 boys (61.18%) and 512 girls (38.62%), making up a total of 1326 children (under 19 years old) with the mean age of 7.85 ± 3.46, that were admitted to State Hospital between January 2009 and December 2013 due to falls from heights and falls on ground-level. Falls were low-level in 738 cases, high-level in 176 cases, and ground-level in 412 cases. Cases were categorized by gender, age, age group, fall height, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), injured body part(s), mortality rate, and distribution according to months. In conclusion, falls merit attention because of their high risk of mortality and morbidity, as well as their burden on medical budgets. If the medico-legal aspects of falls were evaluated with regard to preventive event or death, the importance of the topic could be better understood. PMID:25735785

  17. [Psychophysiological characteristics of professional burnout syndrome in doctors of various specialties and different age groups].

    PubMed

    Parfenov, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    Based on clinical psychopathology, psycho-physiological and medical tests the risk factors of professional burnout among medical professionals of all ages were revealed and the assessment of their impact on the formation of adverse functional status of physicians under research was conducted. The role of psycho-physiological factors (neuro-psychological stability, coping strategies, psychological defense mechanisms, psychosemantic self-relation space, asthenic, obsessive-phobic, hypothymic, anancastic symptoms, the dynamic characteristics of the inhibitory processes, and emotional lability) in the formation of professional burnout among medical specialists of young, middle and elderly age was defined. Neurophysiological markers of professional burnout among medical specialists of young, middle and old age, which are characterized by lower levels of reserve capacity of the cerebral cortex of alpha-rhythm, the prevalence and strength of excitation and balance of beta-rhythm were examined. It was shown that clinical examination of medical specialists of different age groups with symptoms of professional burnout should include the clinical-psychopathological and psychophysiological examinations to determine the psychopathological and personal features, psychological and emotional states of the border areas, which help to identify reactive neurotic disorders and conduct its targeted correction. PMID:23734523

  18. Pregnancy care

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnancy ( gestational diabetes ) High blood pressure during pregnancy ( preeclampsia ). Your doctor will talk with you about how to care for yourself if you have preeclampsia . Premature or preterm changes in the cervix Problems ...

  19. Pregnancy ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... findings that might indicate an increased risk for Down syndrome A pregnancy ultrasound may also be done in ... weeks of pregnancy to look for signs of Down syndrome or other problems in the developing baby. This ...

  20. Ectopic Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... woman is pregnant. If you have an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg grows in the wrong place, ... tubes. The result is usually a miscarriage. Ectopic pregnancy can be a medical emergency if it ruptures. ...

  1. Teenage Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... plan to get pregnant, but many do. Teen pregnancies carry extra health risks to both the mother ... later on. They have a higher risk for pregnancy-related high blood pressure and its complications. Risks ...

  2. Estimates of Intraclass Correlation Coefficients from Longitudinal Group-Randomized Trials of Adolescent HIV/STI/Pregnancy Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Jill R.; Potter, Susan C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Coyle, Karin K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Group-randomized trials (GRTs) are one of the most rigorous methods for evaluating the effectiveness of group-based health risk prevention programs. Efficiently designing GRTs with a sample size that is sufficient for meeting the trial's power and precision goals while not wasting resources exceeding them requires estimates of the…

  3. Equestrian injuries in the paediatric age group: a two centre study.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Hewson, G L; Robinson, S M; Egleston, C V

    1999-03-01

    This study's objective was to examine the nature, cause and frequency of injury resulting from equestrian sport in paediatric patients attending two accident and emergency departments. We recorded the attendances of patients aged less than 16 years with equestrian-related trauma in 1 year. Demographic details, injury, mechanism of injury, rider experience and use of protective equipment were noted. There were 41 attendances (39 female, two male, median age 12 years). Thirty-one were injured while mounted, 10 while dismounted. The commonest group of injuries were soft tissue injuries of the lower limb (13 cases), soft tissue injuries of the upper limb (12 cases), fractures of the upper limb (nine cases), and minor head injury (seven cases). There was one case of severe head injury. Two patients required admission to hospital. The commonest mechanism of injury in the mounted group was a fall or throw (23 cases), in the dismounted group injuries were most commonly the result of being trodden on or being kicked (seven cases). The majority of equestrian-related trauma was minor in this study. The possibility of severe trauma exists. Emergency physicians working in areas where equestrian sport is popular should be aware of the likely injuries and their treatment. PMID:10340733

  4. Cortisol responses to a group public speaking task for adolescents: variations by age, gender, and race.

    PubMed

    Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  5. Cortisol Responses to a Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents: Variations by Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; McQuillan, Mollie T.; Mirous, Heather J.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N = 191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of 5 adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  6. Socio-behavioral determinants of oral hygiene practices among USA ethnic and age groups.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P L; Rams, T E; Andersen, R M

    1997-05-01

    In this study, socio-behavioral determinants of oral hygiene practices were examined across several dentate ethnic and age groups. Oral hygiene scale scores were constructed from toothbrushing and dental floss frequencies self-reported by population-based samples of middle-aged (35-44 years) and older (65-74 years) dentate adults representing Baltimore African-American and White, San Antonio Hispanic and non-Hispanic White, and Navajo and Lakota Native American persons participating in the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II) survey. Female gender, education, certain oral health beliefs, household income, and the presence of a usual source of care were revealed with multivariate analysis to show a significant positive relationship with higher oral hygiene scale scores (indicating better personal oral hygiene practices). Other socio-behavioral variables exhibited a more varied, ethnic-specific pattern of association with oral hygiene scale scores. PMID:9549990

  7. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children's Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Wiegand, Ryan E; Omedo, Martin; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization recommendations for the timing and target population for mass drug administration (MDA) for schistosomiasis are based on the prevalence of infection in school children within a given community. In a large study comparing MDA approaches for Schistosoma mansoni control, we evaluated whether prevalence of infection and egg burdens in 9- to 12-year-old students reflected infection levels in young children and adults in the same community. Cross-sectional surveys of preadolescents (9-12 years old) were compared with those of first year students (5-8 years old) in 225 villages and adults (20-55 years old) in 150 villages along the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Village schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity levels in preadolescents strongly correlated (P < 0.0001) with prevalence and infection intensity for other age groups in the community. Our findings suggest that S. mansoni prevalence and intensity among 9- to 12-year-olds are valid for community sampling purposes in mapping for MDAs. PMID:26416108

  8. Effect of yellow filter on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity under glare condition among different age groups.

    PubMed

    Mahjoob, Monireh; Heydarian, Samira; Koochi, Somayyeh

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of yellow filter on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity under glare condition for various ages. A total of 60 subjects, aged 5-60 years, with no ocular pathology and no previous surgery were assessed in this cross-sectional study. We divided subjects into six subgroups according to their ages, and the number of subjects in each group was 10: group 1, aged 5-10 years; group 2, aged 11-20 years; group 3, aged 21-30 years; group 4, aged 31-40 years; group 5, aged 41-50 years; and group 6, aged 51-60 years. Snellen visual acuity and Pelli Robson contrast sensitivity with and without glare and with the use of yellow filter under glare condition were determined. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS, version 20. Our results showed a significant reduction in contrast sensitivity under glare condition in all age groups (p = 0.000), which improved significantly with the use of yellow filter (p = 0.000). Although when data in different age groups were analyzed separately, this improvement was only significant in older subjects, aged 51-60 years (p = 0.007). No significant difference was found between Snellen visual acuity with and without glare (p = 0.083), and also we found no yellow filter effect on visual acuity under glare condition. We conclude that yellow filter, which absorbs short wavelength, may provide significant contrast sensitivity benefits for individuals and influences older subjects more than younger ones. PMID:26613932

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR COMPETENCE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IS WEAKER IN THE 15-16 YR. ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP THAN IN YOUNGER AGE GROUPS (4-5 YR. AND 11-12 YR.).

    PubMed

    Haga, Monika; Gísladóttír, Thórdís; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2015-12-01

    Developing motor competence and physical fitness can affect the maintenance of a sufficient level of physical activity in children and adolescents. This study assesses the relationship between motor competence and physical fitness from childhood through early adolescence. A cross-sectional sample of 194 participants from 4 to 16 years old were divided into three groups; 4-6 yr. (n=42, M age=5.2, SD 0.6), 11-12 yr. (n=58, M age=12.4, SD=0.3), and 15-16 yr. (n=94, M age=15.9, SD=0.4). To assess motor competence, each child completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). To measure physical fitness, three tasks (strength, speed, and endurance) were selected from the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF). To analyze the significance of the difference between the correlation coefficient in the three age groups (samples) (4-6, 11-12, and 15-16 yr.), Fischer r-to-z transformation was used. The correlation (Pearson's) between motor competence and physical fitness in the age groups was statistically higher for the youngest age groups (4-6 and 11-12 yr.) and the adolescent group (age 15-16). The differences between the two youngest age groups were not statistically significant. The results demonstrate that the correlation between motor competence and physical fitness decreases with age. PMID:26595203

  10. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Eclarinal, Jesse D; Zhu, Shaoyu; Baker, Maria S; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe B; Coarfa, Cristian; Fiorotto, Marta L; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-07-01

    Previous rodent studies have shown that maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy leads to metabolic changes in adult offspring. We set out to test whether maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy also induces persistent changes in voluntary physical activity in the offspring. Adult C57BL/6J female mice were randomly assigned to be caged with an unlocked (U) or locked (L) running wheel before and during pregnancy. Maternal running behavior was monitored during pregnancy, and body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, total cage activity, and running wheel activity were measured in the offspring at various ages. U offspring were slightly heavier at birth, but no group differences in body weight or composition were observed at later ages (when mice were caged without access to running wheels). Consistent with our hypothesis, U offspring were more physically active as adults. This effect was observed earlier in female offspring (at sexual maturation). Remarkably, at 300 d of age, U females achieved greater fat loss in response to a 3-wk voluntary exercise program. Our findings show for the first time that maternal physical activity during pregnancy affects the offspring's lifelong propensity for physical activity and may have important implications for combating the worldwide epidemic of physical inactivity and obesity.-Eclarinal, J. D., Zhu, S., Baker, M. S., Piyarathna, D. B., Coarfa, C., Fiorotto, M. L., Waterland, R. A. Maternal exercise during pregnancy promotes physical activity in adult offspring. PMID:27033262

  11. Pregnancy rate and first-service conception rate in Angus heifers.

    PubMed

    Bormann, J Minick; Totir, L R; Kachman, S D; Fernando, R L; Wilson, D E

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the genetic control of conception rate, or pregnancy percentage in Angus beef heifers. Producers from 6 herds in 5 states provided 3,144 heifer records that included breeding dates, breeding contemporary groups, service sires, and pregnancy check information. Two hundred fourteen sires of the heifers were represented; with 104 sires having less than 5 progeny, and 14 sires having greater than 50 progeny. These data were combined with performance and pedigree information, including actual and adjusted birth weights, weaning weights, and yearling weights, from the American Angus Association database. Heifer pregnancy rate varied from 75 to 95% between herds, and from 65 to 100% between sires, with an overall pregnancy rate of 93%, measured as the percentage of heifers pregnant at pregnancy check after the breeding season. Pregnancy was analyzed as a threshold trait with an underlying continuous distribution. A generalized linear animal model, using a relationship matrix, was fitted. This model included the fixed effects of contemporary group, age of dam, and first AI service sire, and the covariates of heifer age at the beginning of breeding, adjusted birth weight, adjusted weaning weight, and adjusted yearling weight. The relationship matrix included 4 generations of pedigree. The heritability of pregnancy and first-service conception rates on the underlying scale was 0.13 +/- 0.07 and 0.03 +/- 0.03, respectively. Estimated breeding values for pregnancy rate on the observed scale ranged from -0.02 to 0.05 for sires of heifers. Including growth traits with pregnancy rate as 2-trait analyses did not change the heritability of pregnancy rate. As expected for a reproductive trait, the heritability of pregnancy rate was low. Because of its low heritability, genetic improvement in fertility by selection on heifer pregnancy rate would be expected to be slow. PMID:16864860

  12. Determinants of caregivers’ vaccination intention with respect to child age group: a cross-sectional survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Shin, Kyung-Ah; Park, Kisoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined how knowledge, risk perception, health beliefs and multidimensional health locus of control (HLC) were associated with caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their child, and how these associations varied across child age groups. Setting South Korea. Methods The cross-sectional survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview among 1017 nationally representative caregivers who had children aged 12 or younger. The outcome variable was caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their children. Results Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that risk perception was negatively associated with vaccination intention only among the age group 4–6 (β=−0.127, p<0.05). Perceived benefit was the only significant predictor of the outcome variables for all three age groups. In contrast, perceived barrier was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=−0.104, p<0.05). Internal HLC was positively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=0.151, p<0.001), while chance HLC was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 0–3 (β=−0.121, p<0.05). Conclusions This study identifies key vaccination intention determinants that are differentially associated with caregivers’ children's age groups. To improve vaccination rates, it suggests the need for strategies tailored to children's age. PMID:26408283

  13. Age Differences and Changes of Coping Behavior in Three Age Groups: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Rott, Christoph; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With increasing age, older adults are more likely to be challenged by an increasing number of physical, functional and social losses. As a result, coping with losses becomes a central theme in very late life. This study investigated age differences and age changes in active behavioral, active cognitive and avoidance coping and related coping to…

  14. Teachers Observe to Learn: Differences in Social Behavior of Toddlers and Preschoolers in Same-Age and Multiage Groupings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Mary Ellin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an action research conducted by a group of teachers comparing multiage with same-age interactions of children, especially among toddlers. The research involving 31 children ranging in age from two through five-and-a-half was conducted under optimal conditions, with small groups, low teacher-child ratios, and highly trained…

  15. Swimming Training Assessment: The Critical Velocity and the 400-m Test for Age-Group Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Zacca, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Ricardo Jorge P; Pyne, David B; Castro, Flávio Antônio de S

    2016-05-01

    Zacca, R, Fernandes, RJP, Pyne, DB, and Castro, FAdS. Swimming training assessment: the critical velocity and the 400-m test for age-group swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1365-1372, 2016-To verify the metabolic responses of oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentrations [La], and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) when swimming at an intensity corresponding to the critical velocity (CV) assessed by a 4-parameter model (CV4par), and to check the reliability when using only a single 400-m maximal front crawl bout (T400) for CV4par assessment in age-group swimmers. Ten age-group swimmers (14-16 years old) performed 50-, 100-, 200-, 400- (T400), 800-, and 1,500-m maximal front crawl bouts to calculate CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured immediately after bouts. Swimmers then performed 3 × 10-minute front crawl (45 seconds rest) at CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured after 10 minutes of rest (Rest), warm-up (Pre), each 10-minute repetition, and at the end of the test (Post). CV4par was 1.33 ± 0.08 m·s. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were similar between first 10-minute and Post time points in the 3 × 10-minute protocol. CV4par was equivalent to 92 ± 2% of the mean swimming speed of T400 (v400) for these swimmers. CV4par calculated through a single T400 (92%v400) showed excellent agreement (r = 0.30; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.05 m·s, p = 0.39), low coefficient of variation (2%), and root mean square error of 0.02 ± 0.01 m·s when plotted against CV4par assessed through a 4-parameter model. These results generated the equation CV4par = 0.92 × v400. A single T400 can be used reliably to estimate the CV4par typically derived with 6 efforts in age-group swimmers. PMID:26473520

  16. Influence of maternal stature, pregnancy age, and infant birth weight on growth during childhood in Yucatan, Mexico: a test of the intergenerational effects hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Varela-Silva, Maria Inês; Azcorra, Hugo; Dickinson, Federico; Bogin, Barry; Frisancho, A R

    2009-01-01

    In developing nations, obesity has increased dramatically in the last decade, but a high prevalence of stunting still coexists. The intergenerational influences hypothesis (IIH) is one explanation for this. We test the IIH regarding variation in maternal stature, mother's age at pregnancy, and infant birth weight in relation to risk for overweight and stunting in 206 Maya children (4-6 years old) from Mérida, Yucatan, Mexico. The Maya children are compared with growth references (Frisancho 2008: Anthropometric Standards: An Interactive Nutritional Reference of Body Size and Body Composition for Children and Adults. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press. 335 pp) for height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). Almost 70% of the mothers are shorter than 150 cm. Mothers' height and child's birth weight predict overweight. Children with a mother shorter than 150 cm are less than half as likely (OR = 0.44) to be overweight compared to children whose mothers are equal to or taller than 150 cm. Children with birth weights below 3,000 g are only a third as likely to be overweight (OR = 0.28) than their peers within the range of normal birth weight (3,000-3,500 g). Sex of the child, mother's height, and birth weight predict stunting. Girls are only 40% as likely as boys to be stunted. Children with a mother below 150 cm are 3.6 times more likely of being stunted. Children with birth weights below 3000 g are over 3 times more likely to be stunted relative to children with birth weights within the normal range. Mother's age at pregnancy is not a predictor of overweight or stunting. Our findings conform the IIH and with similar studies of populations undergoing nutritional/epidemiological transitions from traditional to globalized lifestyles. PMID:19214997

  17. Patients Presenting with Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease: Epidemiological Features by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We explored factors influencing presentation with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease by age group. Data were derived from a city-wide cross-sectional survey of 759 HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. The significance of each observed factor was assessed via multivariate logistic regression. Of subjects aged 20-34 years, lower educational level had a positive influence on presentation with advanced HIV disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-4.34); those recently diagnosed with HIV were more likely to be presented with advanced HIV disease (aOR, 3.17; 95% CI, 0.99-10.2). Of the subjects aged 35-49 years, those w ith advanced HIV disease were more likely to have been diagnosed during health check-ups (aOR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.15-7.32) or via clinical manifestations (aOR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.39-9.36). Of the subjects aged ≥ 50 years, presentation with advanced HIV disease was significantly more common in older subjects (aOR per increment of 5 years, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.32-3.23) and less common among individuals diagnosed with HIV in 2000-2006 (aOR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.04-0.83). In conclusion, a lower educational level in younger subjects and more advanced age in older subjects positively influence the presentation of advanced HIV disease. PMID:26839469

  18. Perceptions of mental workload in Dutch university employees of different ages: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As academic workload seems to be increasing, many studies examined factors that contribute to the mental workload of academics. Age-related differences in work motives and intellectual ability may lead to differences in experienced workload and in the way employees experience work features. This study aims to obtain a better understanding of age differences in sources of mental workload. 33 academics from one faculty discussed causes of workload during focus group interviews, stratified by age. Findings Among our participants, the influence of ageing seems most evident in employees’ actions and reactions, while the causes of workload mentioned seemed largely similar. These individual reactions to workload may also be driven by differences in tenure. Most positively assessed work characteristics were: interaction with colleagues and students and autonomy. Aspects most often indicated as increasing the workload, were organisational aspects as obstacles for ‘getting the best out of people’ and the feeling that overtime seems unavoidable. Many employees indicated to feel stretched between the ‘greediness’ of the organisation and their own high working standards, and many fear to be assigned even less time for research if they do not meet the rigorous output criteria. Moreover, despite great efforts on their part, promotion opportunities seem limited. A more pronounced role for the supervisor seems appreciated by employees of all ages, although the specific interpretation varied between individuals and career stages. Conclusions To preserve good working conditions and quality of work, it seems important to scrutinize the output requirements and tenure-based needs for employee supervision. PMID:23506458

  19. A longitudinal study of maternal digoxin-like immunoreactive substances in normotensive pregnancy and pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kerkez, S A; Poston, L; Wolfe, C D; Quartero, H W; Carabelli, P; Petruckevitch, A; Hilton, P J

    1990-03-01

    The serum of women in the third trimester of pregnancy demonstrates cross-reactivity with some commercially available antibodies to digoxin. A number of studies have suggested that levels of this digoxin-like immunoreactive substance(s) are further increased in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension, and some have proposed that the digoxin-like immunoreactive substance could be useful as a predictor of pregnancy-induced hypertension. We measured digoxin-like immunoreactive substance levels every 2 weeks throughout the third trimester in 170 women; of these, 20 developed hypertension. Digoxin-like immunoreactive substance levels rose with gestational age. A graph of the slope of digoxin-like immunoreactive substance plotted against gestational age was fitted for the results obtained from each woman. There was no significant difference in the mean rate of increase of digoxin-like immunoreactive substance level per week between pregnancy-induced hypertension and normotensive pregnancy, nor was there any difference between these two groups at any gestational age studied. These results suggest that measuring digoxin-like immunoreactive substance levels is not useful as a predictor of pregnancy-induced hypertension. PMID:2316589

  20. What it Takes to Successfully Implement Technology for Aging in Place: Focus Groups With Stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Eveline JM; Luijkx, Katrien G; Vrijhoef, Hubertus JM

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in empowering older adults to age in place by deploying various types of technology (ie, eHealth, ambient assisted living technology, smart home technology, and gerontechnology). However, initiatives aimed at implementing these technologies are complicated by the fact that multiple stakeholder groups are involved. Goals and motives of stakeholders may not always be transparent or aligned, yet research on convergent and divergent positions of stakeholders is scarce. Objective To provide insight into the positions of stakeholder groups involved in the implementation of technology for aging in place by answering the following questions: What kind of technology do stakeholders see as relevant? What do stakeholders aim to achieve by implementing technology? What is needed to achieve successful implementations? Methods Mono-disciplinary focus groups were conducted with participants (n=29) representing five groups of stakeholders: older adults (6/29, 21%), care professionals (7/29, 24%), managers within home care or social work organizations (5/29, 17%), technology designers and suppliers (6/29, 21%), and policy makers (5/29, 17%). Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Stakeholders considered 26 different types of technologies to be relevant for enabling independent living. Only 6 out of 26 (23%) types of technology were mentioned by all stakeholder groups. Care professionals mentioned fewer different types of technology than other groups. All stakeholder groups felt that the implementation of technology for aging in place can be considered a success when (1) older adults’ needs and wishes are prioritized during development and deployment of the technology, (2) the technology is accepted by older adults, (3) the technology provides benefits to older adults, and (4) favorable prerequisites for the use of technology by older adults exist. While stakeholders seemed to have identical aims, several underlying

  1. Pesticide exposure of two age groups of women and its relationship with their diet.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Ana; Cerrillo, Isabel; Granada, Alicia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2007-08-15

    The widespread presence of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in human samples may be explained by the environmental exposure of the population. Foods are considered a constant source of exposure, despite compliance with maximum permitted residue levels. This study aimed to examine the relationship between nutritional habits of women in Southeast Spain and their serum concentrations of OCs. A semi-quantitative questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency of consumption of foods by two age groups of women, pre-menopausal (Pre-M) and post-menopausal (Post-M), and their serum pesticide levels were measured by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector and confirmed by GC and mass spectrometry. The Pre-M group showed significantly higher serum concentrations of all OCs studied with the exception of DDE. The groups significantly differed in consumption of all food groups with the exception of fruit. In the Pre-M group, the mean serum p,p-DDT concentration was significantly associated with milk/yoghurt (p<0.045) and red meat (p<0.023), serum o,p-DDT with red meat (p<0.049), serum aldrin with eggs (p<0.038) and poultry (p<0.024), and serum DDE with eggs (p<0.025). In the Post-M group, serum lindane was associated with fresh and cured cheese (p<0.001), red meat (p<0.001) and white and oily fish (p<0.001), and both serum DDE and dieldrin were associated with fresh cheese, cured cheese, red meat, and white and oily fish (p<0.001). These results confirm foods as a source of human exposure to persistent organic molecules. Consideration should be given to the reduction of permitted residue levels to minimize this threat to human and animal health. PMID:17477954

  2. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  3. The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Dai, K

    1991-03-01

    Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

  4. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  5. Sternal Gland Scent-Marking Signals Sex, Age, Rank, and Group Identity in Captive Mandrills.

    PubMed

    Vaglio, Stefano; Minicozzi, Pamela; Romoli, Riccardo; Boscaro, Francesca; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Moneti, Gloriano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2016-02-01

    Mandrills are one of the few Old World primates to show scent-marking. We combined ethological and chemical approaches to improve our understanding of this behavior in 3 zoo-managed groups. We observed the olfactory behavior performed by adults and adolescents (N = 39) for 775h. We investigated the volatile components of sternal scent-marks using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared volatile profiles with traits of the signaler. Males marked more than females and within each sex the frequency of scent-marking was related to age and dominance status, but alpha males scent-marked most frequently and particularly in specific areas at the enclosure boundaries. We identified a total of 77 volatile components of sternal gland secretion, including compounds functioning as male sex pheromones in other mammals, in scent-marks spontaneously released on filter paper by 27 male and 18 female mandrills. We confirmed our previous findings that chemical profiles contain information including sex, male age and rank, and we also found that odor may encode information about group membership in mandrills. Our results support the hypotheses that scent-marking signals the status of the dominant male as well as playing territorial functions but also suggest that it is part of sociosexual communication. PMID:26708734

  6. Metabolism of Oxycodone in Human Hepatocytes from Different Age Groups and Prediction of Hepatic Plasma Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Korjamo, Timo; Tolonen, Ari; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Turpeinen, Miia; Kokki, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Oxycodone is commonly used to treat severe pain in adults and children. It is extensively metabolized in the liver in adults, but the maturation of metabolism is not well understood. Our aim was to study the metabolism of oxycodone in cryopreserved human hepatocytes from different age groups (3 days, 2 and 5 months, 4 years, adult pool) and predict hepatic plasma clearance of oxycodone using these data. Oxycodone (0.1, 1, and 10 μM) was incubated with hepatocytes for 4 h, and 1 μM oxycodone also with CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole (1 μM). Oxycodone and noroxycodone concentrations were determined at several time points with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. In vitro clearance of oxycodone was used to predict hepatic plasma clearance, using the well-stirred model and published physiological parameters. Noroxycodone was the major metabolite in all batches and ketoconazole inhibited the metabolism markedly in most cases. A clear correlation between in vitro oxycodone clearance and CYP3A4 activity was observed. The predicted hepatic plasma clearances were typically much lower than the published median total plasma clearance from pharmacokinetic studies. The data suggests that there are no children-specific metabolites of oxycodone. Moreover, CYP3A activity seems to be the major determinant in metabolic clearance of oxycodone regardless of age group or individual variability in hepatocyte batches. PMID:22291644

  7. The influence of gender and gender typicality on autobiographical memory across event types and age groups.

    PubMed

    Grysman, Azriel; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie A; Graci, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Gender differences in autobiographical memory emerge in some data collection paradigms and not others. The present study included an extensive analysis of gender differences in autobiographical narratives. Data were collected from 196 participants, evenly split by gender and by age group (emerging adults, ages 18-29, and young adults, ages 30-40). Each participant reported four narratives, including an event that had occurred in the last 2 years, a high point, a low point, and a self-defining memory. Additionally, all participants completed self-report measures of masculine and feminine gender typicality. The narratives were coded along six dimensions-namely coherence, connectedness, agency, affect, factual elaboration, and interpretive elaboration. The results indicated that females expressed more affect, connection, and factual elaboration than males across all narratives, and that feminine typicality predicted increased connectedness in narratives. Masculine typicality predicted higher agency, lower connectedness, and lower affect, but only for some narratives and not others. These findings support an approach that views autobiographical reminiscing as a feminine-typed activity and that identifies gender differences as being linked to categorical gender, but also to one's feminine gender typicality, whereas the influences of masculine gender typicality were more context-dependent. We suggest that implicit gendered socialization and more explicit gender typicality each contribute to gendered autobiographies. PMID:27068433

  8. Pregnancy outcome after liver transplantation: a single-center experience of 71 pregnancies in 45 recipients.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Vimala; Al-Chalabi, Thawab; Richardson, Paul D; Muiesan, Paolo; Rela, Mohammed; Heaton, Nigel D; O'Grady, John G; Heneghan, Michael A

    2006-07-01

    Infertility is common in women with end-stage liver disease. Successful liver transplant (LT), however, can restore childbearing potential. Controversy exists regarding the most appropriate immunosuppressive regimen and timing of conception following LT. We report the outcomes of a review of all pregnancies occurring following LT at King's College Hospital, London, from 1988 to 2004. Seventy-one pregnancies were recorded in 45 women. Tacrolimus (60%) and cyclosporin A (38%) were the predominant primary immunosuppressive agents used. Median age at conception was 29 years (range, 19-42), with a median time from LT to conception of 40 months (range, 1-111). There were 50 live births, and no maternal or fetal deaths related to pregnancy. There were no graft losses. Median gestation was 37 weeks (range, 24-42) with a median birth weight of 2,690 g (range, 554-4,260). Caesarean section was performed in 40% of pregnancies. Complications included pregnancy-induced hypertension in 20%, preeclampsia in 13%, acute cellular rejection in 17%, and renal impairment in 11%. There was no statistically significant difference in complication rates observed between immunosuppressive groups. Pregnancies occurring within 1-year posttransplant had an increased incidence of prematurity, low birth weight, and acute cellular rejection compared to those occurring later than 1 year. In conclusion, this study confirms that favorable outcomes of pregnancy post-LT can be expected for the majority of patients. However, delaying pregnancy until after 1-year post-LT is advisable, since doing so maybe associated with a lower risk of prematurity. PMID:16799943

  9. Age-Related Alterations of Plasma Lipid Peroxidation and Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Different Ethnic Groups of Gorgan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mansourian, Azad Reza; Veghari, Gholam Reza; Rabiee, Mohammad Reza

    Free radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of ageing. The free radical theory of ageing postulates that ageing is caused by free radical reactions. These highly reactive species can cause oxidative damage in the cell. The purposive of this study was to investigate the alteration in plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen healthy people. We measured plasma lipid peroxidation levels (lipid peroxidation expressed as malondialdehyde) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. Study include 350 (175 Fars and 175 Turkmen male) apparently healthy individuals. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were determined in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen consisting of healthy individuals between 26-60 years of age {26-30 (n = 30), 3-35 (n = 30), 36-40 (n = 30), 41-45 (n = 30), 46-50 (n = 25), 51-55 (n = 15) and 56-60 (n = 15)}, respectively. The data was analyzed by Student` t-test. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma lipid peroxidation levels in Fars and Turkmen people with 41-45 ages (group 4) and 36-40 ages (group 3) were significantly lower and higher than in the other age groups (Fars groups 1, 2 and 3, Turkmen groups 1, 2), respectively (p< 0.05). There were no significant relation between the age group 4 (Fars people) and the age groups 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). There were no significant relation between the age groups 3 (Turkmen people) and the age groups 4, 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). We found age-related differences in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and plasma lipid peroxidation levels. The results indicate that the balance between antioxidant and prooxidant factors in free radical metabolism shifts towards increased lipid peroxidation with advancing age in 2 ethnic groups. This situation maybe begin in Turkmen people earlier than Fars people. The ethnic origin, diet, heavy working and life style factors of the two populations may explain

  10. Takayasu arteritis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Soma-Pillay, P; Adeyemo, A; Suleman, F E

    2015-01-01

    Takayasu arteritis is a chronic, granulomatous arteritis affecting large and medium-sized arteries. During pregnancy, maternal and foetal complications are largely as a consequence of maternal arterial hypertension. We present a case of a 35-year-old para one gravida two patient with Takayasu arteritis (group III disease) complicated by chronic hypertension and a severely dilated ascending aorta. Good blood pressure control during pregnancy is an important measure in reducing obstetric morbidity. PMID:25670635

  11. Identification of specific age groups with a high risk for developing cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Malinova, Vesna; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Voit, Martin; Suntheim, Patricia; Rohde, Veit; Mielke, Dorothee

    2016-07-01

    The impact of age on the incidence of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a matter of ongoing discussion. The aim of this study was to identify age groups with a higher risk for developing vasospasm, delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND), or delayed infarction (DI) and to identify a cut-off age for a better risk stratification. We defined six age groups (<30, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and >70 years). ROC analysis was performed to determine a cutoff age with the highest positive predictive value (PPV) for developing vasospasm, defined as a blood-flow-velocity-increase >120 cm/s in transcranial-Doppler-sonography (TCD). Multivariate binary-logistic-regression-analysis was then performed to evaluate differences in the incidence of cerebral vasospasm, DIND, and DI among the different age groups. A total of 753 patients were included in the study. The highest incidence (70 %) of TCD-vasospasm was found in patients between 30 and 39 years of age. The cutoff age with the highest PPV (65 %) for developing TCD-vasospasm was 38 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that age <38 years (OR 3.6; CI 95 % 2.1-6.1; p < 0.001) best predicted vasospasm, followed by the need for cerebrospinal fluid drainage (OR 1.5; CI 95 % 1.0-2.3; p = 0.04). However, lower age did not correlate with higher rates of DIND or infarcts. The overall vasospasm-incidence after aSAH is age-dependent and highest in the age group <38 years. Surprisingly, the higher incidence in the younger age group does not translate into a higher rate of DIND/DI. This finding may hint towards age-related biological factors influencing the association between arterial narrowing and cerebral ischemia. PMID:26940102

  12. Pregnancy after Treatment for Cervical Cancer Precursor Lesions in a Retrospective Matched Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Naleway, Allison L.; Weinmann, Sheila; Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Arondekar, Bhakti; Fernandez, Jovelle; Swamy, Geeta; Myers, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether treatments for precancerous cervical lesions were associated with lower pregnancy rates compared to rates in unexposed women and women who had a diagnostic cervical biopsy or colposcopy. Design Matched, retrospective cohort study. Setting Kaiser Permanente Northwest (KPNW), an integrated healthcare delivery system in Oregon and Washington. Patients Women 14 to 53 years old with KPNW enrollment during the period 1998 through 2009. Main Outcome Measure Pregnancy after exposure or index date. Pregnancy was defined using a validated algorithm and electronic medical records data. Results We observed 570 pregnancies following cervical treatment in 4,137 women, 1,533 pregnancies following a diagnostic procedure in 13,767 women, and 7,436 pregnancies in a frequency-matched sample of 81,435 women unexposed to treatment or diagnostic procedures. After adjusting for age and contraceptive use, we observed a higher rate of pregnancies in the treatment group compared to unexposed women (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30–1.55), but no difference in pregnancy rates between the treatment and diagnostic procedure groups (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.93–1.13). Conclusions No adverse effects of cervical procedures on subsequent rates of pregnancy were observed in this cohort with up to twelve years of follow-up time. PMID:25671561

  13. Amniotic fluid cortisol and alpha-fetoprotein in normal and aneuploid pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Drugan, A; Subramanian, M G; Johnson, M P; Evans, M I

    1988-01-01

    Cortisol and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were measured in amniotic fluid (AF) samples at 15-20 weeks of gestation from 125 normal pregnancies and 29 pregnancies affected by aneuploidy. The normal pregnancy group was further subdivided into 'low' AF-AFP (less than 0.6 MOM, n = 60) and 'normal' AF-AFP (0.6 less than AFP less than 1.4 MOM, n = 65). A significant, inverse, linear correlation was found between cortisol and AF-AFP for both normal AFP and low AFP groups (r = -0.26, and r = -0.4, respectively, p less than 0.05). Gestational age was significantly correlated with both cortisol and AFP levels in the normal pregnancy groups. No difference was found when cortisol levels were compared between the low and normal AFP groups. The correlation between cortisol and AFP in aneuploid pregnancies was not significant (p = 0.37). The strong association between cortisol or AFP and gestational age in normal pregnancy (p less than 0.00001) was lost in trisomic gestation. We conclude that higher cortisol levels do not seem to be the cause of low AFP in normal or aneuploid pregnancies. PMID:2483963

  14. Pregnancy after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Carlo B; Doria, Cataldo

    2014-11-01

    Women constitute >30% of patients undergoing liver transplantation (orthotopic liver transplantation, OLT) and about 8% are of reproductive age, and 5% are pediatric females who will mostly survive into adulthood and will consider pregnancy. Although pregnancy in OLT recipients is associated with an increased incidence of hypertension, preeclampsia, anemia, preterm deliveries, and cesarean section, acute rejection and liver allograft loss do not appear to be increased and pregnancy-related maternal death is uncommon. The incidence of structural malformations in the newborn of liver transplant recipients is reported to be 4.4%, which is similar to the rate of 3-5% in the US general population. Patients are advised to defer conception for at least 1-2 years after OLT, while maintaining effective contraception. Pregnancy after OLT usually results in a favorable maternal and neonatal outcome when there is coordinated pre- and perinatal care by a multidisciplinary team composed of obstetric-gynecologists, and a transplant team. PMID:25257968

  15. Hydroacoustic separation of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Stetter S.L.; Rudstam, L. G.; Stritzel, Thomson J.L.; Parrish, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Separate assessment of young-of-year (YOY) and yearling-and-older (YAO) fish is desirable from both ecological and management perspectives. Acoustic assessments provide information on fish population size structure in the target strength (TS) distribution, but interpretation of TS distributions must be done carefully, as single age groups can produce multiple TS modes. We assessed the ability of in situ TS distributions to identify Lake Champlain rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in June, July, and September of 2001 using mobile and stationary surveys, knowledge of vertical distribution preferences, and predicted TS from trawl catches. YAO rainbow smelt (93-179 mm total length) had wide TS distributions between -60 and -35 dB in all 3 months with two modes at approximately -50 and -40 dB. Most stationary survey single-fish tracks attributed to YAO had targets in both TS modes and a wide TS range often over 15 dB. Between June and September, YOY rainbow smelt TS increased, but single-fish tracks were unimodal, and the TS range was smaller (6 dB). Overlap in TS attributed to YOY and YAO increased from no overlap in June (YOY TS -76 to -61 dB, 15-25 mm) to moderate overlap in July (-76 to -50 dB, 25-63 mm) to considerable overlap in September (-68 to -45 dB, 33-80 mm). In June and July, the TS distribution changed abruptly at the thermocline, indicating almost complete separation of the two groups. A more gradual TS transition was evident in September, indicating substantial overlap between YOY and YAO. Separate estimates can be obtained in September by decomposing TS overlap into components attributed to YOY and YAO rainbow smelt. However, this decomposition introduces additional uncertainty and an assessment in July or possibly August is preferable to obtain separate abundance estimates of YOY and YAO. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nasal physiological changes during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Philpott, C M; Conboy, P; Al-Azzawi, F; Murty, G

    2004-08-01

    Rhinitis in pregnancy has been previously investigated with variable results. This study examines all the variables of the nasal airway simultaneously for the first time. Eighteen women were recruited in the first trimester of pregnancy and followed through to the postpartum period to monitor the changes that occurred. Measurements of the nasal airway included anterior rhinoscopy (AnR), peak inspiratory nasal flow, acoustic rhinometry, anterior rhinomanometry (ARM), and the saccharin test with rhinitis questionnaire scores providing a symptomatic measurement. All the tests showed a trend consistent with decreasing nasal patency when expressed as an average for the group as a whole, although only AnR, ARM, mucociliary clearance time and rhinitis questionnaire scores were statistically significant (P < or = 0.05). This confirms the effect of pregnancy on the nasal mucosa and coincides with the rise in the serum concentration of the female sex hormones with gestational age, returning to normal postpartum. Pharmacological antagonism of oestrogens may therefore relieve nasal congestion and is currently under further research. PMID:15270820

  17. Case series: Pregnancy Outcome in Patients with Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Kusuma; Shreelatha, S.; Vana, Harshini

    2015-01-01

    Fibroids in pregnancy is a commonly encountered clinical entity. Objective of this study was to evaluate the maternal and fetal outcome in women having pregnancy with uterine fibroids. We present the clinical, obstetric data, perinatal outcomes of 15 patients from a prospective study. Fifteen pregnant women with fibroid >3cm were prospectively included in study. Major proportion of patient with fibroids were in younger age group of 25-30 years when compared to older age group of 31-35 years (66% vs 33%). Fibroids were more frequent in multi-gravidae, compared to primigravidae. In almost half of patients, (53.3%) fibroids were diagnosed before pregnancy. Common complications encountered during pregnancy in decreasing order of frequency were pain abdomen (46.6%), followed by threatened preterm labour (26.6%) and anaemia (26.6%). Out of 15, three (20%) women had abortion. In remaining, 11/12 patients attained term pregnancy between 37 to 40 weeks. Two patients required antenatal myomectomy. Caesarean section was done in 75% of women who attained term pregnancy and one patient had technical difficulty during caesarean section. Post partum heamorrhage was seen in 5/15 (33.3%) of patients. Out of 12, five babies were low birth weight. Four babies required NICU admission. There was no perinatal mortality. In our small patient series high incidence of caesarean section rates and increased incidence of threatened preterm labour, anaemia, and postpartum haemorrhage, was observed in pregnant patients with fibroids and hence, the pregnancy with fibroids should be considered as high risk pregnancy. PMID:26557577

  18. Case series: Pregnancy Outcome in Patients with Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Radhika, B H; Naik, Kusuma; Shreelatha, S; Vana, Harshini

    2015-10-01

    Fibroids in pregnancy is a commonly encountered clinical entity. Objective of this study was to evaluate the maternal and fetal outcome in women having pregnancy with uterine fibroids. We present the clinical, obstetric data, perinatal outcomes of 15 patients from a prospective study. Fifteen pregnant women with fibroid >3cm were prospectively included in study. Major proportion of patient with fibroids were in younger age group of 25-30 years when compared to older age group of 31-35 years (66% vs 33%). Fibroids were more frequent in multi-gravidae, compared to primigravidae. In almost half of patients, (53.3%) fibroids were diagnosed before pregnancy. Common complications encountered during pregnancy in decreasing order of frequency were pain abdomen (46.6%), followed by threatened preterm labour (26.6%) and anaemia (26.6%). Out of 15, three (20%) women had abortion. In remaining, 11/12 patients attained term pregnancy between 37 to 40 weeks. Two patients required antenatal myomectomy. Caesarean section was done in 75% of women who attained term pregnancy and one patient had technical difficulty during caesarean section. Post partum heamorrhage was seen in 5/15 (33.3%) of patients. Out of 12, five babies were low birth weight. Four babies required NICU admission. There was no perinatal mortality. In our small patient series high incidence of caesarean section rates and increased incidence of threatened preterm labour, anaemia, and postpartum haemorrhage, was observed in pregnant patients with fibroids and hence, the pregnancy with fibroids should be considered as high risk pregnancy. PMID:26557577

  19. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  20. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications. PMID:26892834

  1. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Z B; Luan, J H; Miller, M K; Yu, C Y; Liu, C T

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications. PMID:26892834

  2. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  3. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for twomore » interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. Lastly, the co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.« less

  4. Evaluation of the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in North Indians using the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study groups (IADPSG) criteria

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, V; Singh, R; Pradeep, Y; Kapoor, D; Rani, AK; Pradhan, S; Bhatia, E; Yadav, SB

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Currently, there is controversy regarding the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as per the newer International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria. We studied the prevalence and associations of GDM in North Indians, diagnosed by the IADPSG criteria. Patients and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 332 pregnant women, predominantly belonging to lower and middle socioeconomic strata. The women were screened for GDM between 24 weeks and 28 weeks of gestation by 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and GDM diagnosed by the IADPSG criteria. Results: The prevalence of GDM was 41.9% [95% Confidence interval (CI) 36.6-47.2%]. Amongst the women diagnosed to have GDM, 91.4% had abnormal fasting plasma glucose (FPG), while 1-h and 2-h post-glucose (PG) levels were abnormal in 18.7% and 17.3% of women, respectively. No maternal factors were significantly associated with GDM. Birth weight of the neonates was similar in women with GDM as compared to those with normal glucose tolerance. In the entire group, fasting glucose levels were associated with the weight of the patient while 1-h PG levels were associated with weight, height, socioeconomic score, and parity. Conclusions: There is a very high prevalence rate of GDM using the IADPSG criteria in North Indian women of low and middle socioeconomic strata. Further studies are needed to assess the utility of applying these criteria in settings with limited resources. PMID:26119433

  5. Maternal infection during late pregnancy increases anxiety- and depression-like behaviors with increasing age in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Enayati, Mohsen; Solati, Jalal; Hosseini, Mohammad-Hassan; Shahi, Hamid-Reza; Saki, Golshid; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2012-02-10

    Scientific reports suggest that the exposure to long-term stressors throughout or during late gestation increase anxiety- and depression-like behaviors of offspring in their later life. Moreover, several studies concluded that increasing age correlates with increased anxiety behaviors in humans and rodents. In the present study, we assessed the effects of prenatally administration of equal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) doses in various points of late gestation (days 15, 16, and 17) period, on neuroendocrine and immunological responses of pregnant mice, and subsequent long-lasting consequences of anxiety and depression with increasing age in male offspring at postnatal days (PD) 40 and 80. Four hours after the LPS injection, levels of corticosterone (COR) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (PIC) in pregnant mice, as compared to the control dams, were increased significantly. Furthermore, maternal inflammation raised the levels of COR, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors with increasing age in male offspring in comparison with saline male offspring. These data support other studies demonstrating that maternal stress increases the levels of anxiety and depression in offspring. Additionally, our data confirm other findings indicating that increasing age correlates with increased anxiety or depression behaviors in humans and rodents. Findings of this study suggest that time course of an inflammation response or stressor application during various stages of gestation and ages of offspring are important factors for assessing neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:21893170

  6. Fluoxetine exposure during pregnancy and lactation: Effects on acute stress response and behavior in the novelty-suppressed feeding are age and gender-dependent in rats.

    PubMed

    Francis-Oliveira, José; Ponte, Bianca; Barbosa, Ana Paula Moreno; Veríssimo, Luiz Fernando; Gomes, Marcus Vinícius; Pelosi, Gislaine Garcia; Britto, Luiz Roberto Giorgetti de; Moreira, Estefânia Gastaldello

    2013-09-01

    Fluoxetine (FLX) is commonly used to treat anxiety and depressive disorders in pregnant women. Since FLX crosses the placenta and is excreted in milk, maternal treatment with this antidepressant may expose the fetus and neonate to increased levels of serotonin (5-HT). Long-term behavioral abnormalities have been reported in rodents exposed to higher levels of 5-HT during neurodevelopment. In this study we evaluated if maternal exposure to FLX during pregnancy and lactation would result in behavioral and/or stress response disruption in adolescent and adult rats. Our results indicate that exposure to FLX influenced restraint stress-induced Fos expression in the amygdala in a gender and age-specific manner. In male animals, a decreased expression was observed in the basolateral amygdala at adolescence and adulthood; whereas at adulthood, a decrease was also observed in the medial amygdala. A lack of FLX exposure effect was observed in females and also in the paraventricular nucleus of both genders. Regarding the behavioral evaluation, FLX exposure did not induce anhedonia in the sucrose preference test but decreased the latency to feed of both male and female adolescent rats evaluated in the novelty-suppressed feeding test. In conclusion, FLX exposure during pregnancy and lactation decreases acute amygdalar stress response to a psychological stressor in males (adolescents and adults) as well as influences the behavior of adolescents (males and females) in a model that evaluates anxiety and/or depressive-like behavior. Even though FLX seems to be a developmental neurotoxicant, the translation of these findings to human safe assessment remains to be determined since it is recognized that not treating a pregnant or lactating woman may also impact negatively the development of the descendants. PMID:23764459

  7. A comparison of participation and performance in age-group finishers competing in and qualifying for Ironman Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Michael; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Background Athletes intending to compete in Ironman Hawaii need to qualify in an age-group based qualification system. We compared participation and top ten performances of athletes in various age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Methods Finishes in Ironman Hawaii and in its qualifier races in 2010 were analyzed in terms of performance, age, and sex. Athletes were categorized into age groups from 18–24 to 75–79 years and split and race times were determined for the top ten athletes in each age group. Results A higher proportion of athletes aged 25–49 years finished in the qualifier races than in Ironman Hawaii. In athletes aged 18–24 and 50–79 years, the percentage of finishes was higher in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. For women, the fastest race times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for those aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 25–29 (P<0.05), and 60–64 (P<0.05) years. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for 18–24, 25–29, 40–44, 50–54, and 60–64 years (P<0.05) in age groups. For men, finishers aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 40–44 (P<0.001), 50–54 (P<0.01), 55–59 (P<0.001), 60–64 (P<0.01), and 65–69 (P<0.001) years were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for those aged 18–24 and those aged 40 years and older (P<0.05). Conclusion There are differences in terms of participation and performance for athletes in different age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Triathletes aged 25–49 years and men generally were underrepresented in Ironman Hawaii compared with in its Ironman qualifier races. These athletes may have had less chance to qualify for Ironman Hawaii than female athletes or younger (<25

  8. Associations of consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy with infant birth weight or small for gestational age births: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Mary M; Stettler, Nicolas; Smith, Kimberly M; Reiss, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Maternal nutrition is recognized as one of the determinants of fetal growth. Consumption of fruits and vegetables is promoted as part of a healthful diet; however, intakes are typically lower than recommended levels. The purpose of this study was to systematically review results from studies examining the relationship between maternal consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy with infant birth weight or risk for delivering a small for gestational age baby. A comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE was conducted and abstracts were screened using predefined criteria. Eleven relevant studies were identified and systematically reviewed, including six prospective cohort studies, three retrospective cohort studies, and two case–control studies. Seven studies were conducted in cohorts from highly developed countries. One prospective study from a highly developed area reported increased risk for small for gestational age birth by women with low vegetable intakes (odds ratio 3.1; 95% confidence interval 1.4–6.9; P=0.01); another large prospective study reported a 10.4 g increase in birth weight per quintile increase in fruit intake (95% confidence interval 6.9–3.9; P<0.0001) and increases of 8.4 or 7.7 g per quintile intake of fruits and vegetables (combined) or fruits, vegetables, and juice (combined), respectively. One retrospective study reported an association between low fruit intake and birth weight. In less developed countries, increased vegetable or fruit intake was associated with increased birth weight in two prospective studies. Overall, limited inconclusive evidence of a protective effect of increased consumption of vegetables and risk for small for gestational age birth, and increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and increased birth weight among women from highly developed countries was identified. Among women in less developed countries, limited inconclusive evidence suggests that increased consumption of vegetables or fruits may be

  9. Nutrition in pregnancy and lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal maternal health during pregnancy reduces the risk of suboptimal fetal development. Obesity prevalence is increasing among women of childbearing age in both developed and developing countries. Although teenage pregnancies remain common in some countries, generally women are getting pregnant a...

  10. Schools, Society, and "Teen" Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike

    1993-01-01

    Reality of widespread adult/teen sex--as revealed through age-specific pregnancy, birth, and sexually transmitted disease (STD) statistics--has profound implications for public school sex education and efforts to reduce incidence of teen pregnancy and STDs. Many public school "prevention" measures have failed because male half of "teen" pregnancy…

  11. Peer education: The effects on knowledge of pregnancy related malaria and preventive practices in women of reproductive age in Edo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is limited uptake of measures to prevent malaria by pregnant women in Nigeria which is often related to the lack of knowledge on Malaria in Pregnancy (MIP) and its effects on mother and foetus. This study, explored peer to peer education as a tool in raising knowledge of MIP among women of child bearing age. Methods 1105 women of child bearing age were interviewed in their households using a structured questionnaire about their knowledge of malaria in general, MIP and use of preventive measures. Thereafter, a peer education campaign was launched to raise the level of knowledge in the community. The interviews were repeated after the campaign and the responses between the pre- and post-intervention were compared. Results In the pre-assessment women on average answered 64.8% of the question on malaria and its possibility to prevent malaria correctly. The peer education campaign had a significant impact in raising the level of knowledge among the women; after the campaign the respondents answered on average 73.8% of the questions correctly. Stratified analysis on pre and post assessment scores for malaria in general (68.8 & 72.9%) and MIP (61.7 & 76.3%) showed also significant increase. Uptake of bed nets was reported to be low: 11.6% Conclusion Peer education led to a significant increase in knowledge of malaria and its prevention but we could not asses its influence on the use of preventive measures. PMID:21801460

  12. US suicide rates by age group, 1970-2002: an examination of recent trends.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Robert E; Cuffe, Steven P; Schulz, Richard M

    2006-10-01

    US suicide rates have declined in recent years, reversing earlier trends. We examined suicide rates among 4 age groups from 1970 to 2002 and the factors that may have contributed to the decline. We paid particular attention to newer anti-depressants because of recent concerns and controversy about a possible association with suicidal behaviors. These trends warrant more extensive analysis of suicide rates among specific subgroups, including consideration of additional variables that may influence rates differentially. The relative contributions of depression diagnosis and treatment, postsuicide attempt care, and other contextual factors (e.g., overall economic conditions) also deserve attention. If the decline is associated with contextual factors, clarifying these associations will better inform public policy decisions and contribute to more effective interventions for preventing suicide. PMID:17008567

  13. The elasticity of demand for health care in Burkina Faso: differences across age and income groups.

    PubMed

    Sauerborn, R; Nougtara, A; Latimer, E

    1994-06-01

    Like many other developing countries, Burkina Faso has been exploring how community resources can be tapped to co-finance health services. Although revenue generation is important for the viability of health services, effects on utilization and on equity of access to health care must also be considered. The authors present a logistic regression model to derive price elasticities of demand for health care based on cross-sectional survey data. While demand for health care appears inelastic overall (-0.79), subgroup analysis reveals differences in elasticity across age and income groups. Elasticities of demand for infants and children (-3.6 and -1.7) and for the lowest income quartile (-1.4) are substantially greater than overall elasticity. The method used is unusual in that it allows estimation of elasticities before the introduction of user fees. This increases the value of the information to policy makers. PMID:15726780

  14. Ileal perforation associated with dengue in the paediatric age group: an uncommon presentation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Gupta, Archika; Pandey, Anand; Kureel, Shiv Narain

    2016-01-01

    Acute abdomen in dengue, a common arboviral disease found in tropical and subtropical countries, is not uncommon and can occasionally present as acute surgical emergency requiring urgent surgical intervention. The spectrum of acute abdomen presenting as surgical emergency in dengue infection that raises suspicion of an abdominal catastrophe includes acute appendicitis, acute cholecystitis, appendicitis and, rarely, intestinal perforation. All cases of intestinal perforation including appendicular, gastric and jejunal perforation have been reported in adult patients during the course of dengue infection. However, intestinal perforation during the course of dengue infection in the paediatric age group has never been reported. We report two cases of ileal perforation in children occurring during the course of dengue infection. PMID:27485879

  15. Nutritional deficiencies in the pediatric age group in a multicultural developed country, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Haimi, Motti; Lerner, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide. Diseases and morbid conditions have been described to result from nutritional deficiencies. It is essential to address nutrient deficiencies as these may lead to chronic long-term health problems such as rickets, iron deficiency anemia, goiter, obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, cancer and osteoporosis. In the present review we surveyed the extent and severity of nutritional deficiencies in Israel through a selective and comprehensive Medline review of previous reports and studies performed during the last 40 years. Israeli populations have multiple nutritional deficiencies, including iron, calcium, zinc, folic acid, and vitamins B12, C, D and E, spanning all age groups, several minorities, and specific regions. In Israel, some of the nutrients are mandatorily implemented and many of them are implemented voluntarily by local industries. We suggest ways to prevent and treat the nutritional deficiencies, as a step to promote food fortification in Israel. PMID:24868510

  16. Pregnancy is not a risk factor for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Ting-Ting; Lin, Ching-Heng; Shiao, Jiun-Yih; Liang, Kai-Li

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) in pregnancy is rare. It usually occurs in the third trimester. SSNHL in pregnancy does not increase risks during delivery or subsequent stroke. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the incidence and to determine the factors associated with SSNHL in pregnancy. Method Data were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database (NHIRD), covering the years 2000-2009. Patients admitted for SSNHL during pregnancy were enrolled. An age-matched controlled cohort was randomly selected from pregnant women without SSNHL in the NHIRD. The clinical characteristics of both cohorts were collected for further analyses. Results Thirty-three patients with SSNHL in pregnancy were enrolled. The estimated incidence of SSNHL in pregnancy in Taiwan was 2.71 per 100,000 pregnancies. The incidence of SSNHL in pregnancy was lower than that of the general female population. The incidence of SSNHL in the third trimester was higher compared to the other two. The incidence of SSNHL occurring in the 30-39 years old age group was higher than other groups. Women with better socioeconomic status had a higher incidence of SSNHL. There were no identified systemic diseases before SSNHL. Two patients had pre-eclampsia and one patient had premature delivery. Nevertheless, SSNHL in pregnancy did not increase the risk for stroke. PMID:27052963

  17. Ultrasonographic assessment of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    England, G C

    1998-07-01

    Ultrasonographic imaging is widely used in small animal practice for the diagnosis of pregnancy and the determination of fetal number. Ultrasonography can also be used to monitor abnormal pregnancies, for example, conceptuses that are poorly developed for their gestational age (and therefore are likely to fail), and pregnancies in which there is embryonic resorption or fetal abortion. An ultrasound examination may reveal fetal abnormalities and therefore alter the management of the pregnant bitch or queen prior to parturition. There are, however, a number of ultrasonographic features of normal pregnancies that may mimic disease, and these must be recognized. PMID:9698618

  18. Scappoose Formation, Columbia County, Oregon: new evidence of age and relation to Columbia River basalt group

    SciTech Connect

    VanAtta, R.O.; Kelty, K.B.

    1985-05-01

    The Scappoose Formation, considered to be late Oligocene to early Miocene in age, was originally believed to be disconformably separated from both the underlying Pittsburg Bluff Formation and the overlying Yakima subgroup of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Recent mapping and petrography show that it lies disconformably on both the Keasey and Pittsburg Bluff Formations, and interfingers with the Yakima Basalt. The Scappoose is composed of fluvial sandstone, conglomerate, and carbonaceous to coal-bearing mud rock, intertongued with shallow neritic to estuarine siltstone, mud rock, and minor sandstone. Chemistry of basalt clasts from fluvial conglomerates reveals that they are derived from the Yakima subgroup. Basalt conglomerate and palagonitic sediments in the upper part of the formation are intercalated with Grande Ronde basalt (Yakima subgroup) flows at many localities. Flows of Yakima Basalt are also invasive into originally wet, unconsolidated Scappoose sediment. Grande Ronde basalt and the Frenchman Springs Member of the Wanapum basalt overlie conglomerate of the Scappoose. In places, the Scappoose Formation is absent, and Yakima Basalt lies directly on the Pittsburg Bluff and Keasey Formations. The thickness of both the Scappoose Formation and the Columbia River Basalt Group varies widely, indicating that both were deposited over a paleotopography with a relief up to 800 ft (245 m). The definition of the boundaries of the Scappoose Formation should be revised, owing to the disconformable relation of the Scappoose to both the underlying Keasey and Pittsburg Bluff Formations and to the Scappoose's intercalation with the overlying Yakima Basalt. Definition of age must also be revised, inasmuch as sedimentation of the formation was coeval with Columbia River Basalt volcanism.

  19. Small-quantity, lipid-based nutrient supplements provided to women during pregnancy and 6 mo postpartum and to their infants from 6 mo of age increase the mean attained length of 18-mo-old children in semi-urban Ghana: a randomized controlled trial12

    PubMed Central

    Arimond, Mary; Vosti, Stephen; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood stunting usually begins in utero and continues after birth; therefore, its reduction must involve actions across different stages of early life. Objective: We evaluated the efficacy of small-quantity, lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNSs) provided during pregnancy, lactation, and infancy on attained size by 18 mo of age. Design: In this partially double-blind, individually randomized trial, 1320 women at ≤20 wk of gestation received standard iron and folic acid (IFA group), multiple micronutrients (MMN group), or SQ-LNS (LNS group) daily until delivery, and then placebo, MMNs, or SQ-LNS, respectively, for 6 mo postpartum; infants in the LNS group received SQ-LNS formulated for infants from 6 to 18 mo of age (endline). The primary outcome was child length by 18 mo of age. Results: At endline, data were available for 85% of 1228 infants enrolled; overall mean length and length-for-age z score (LAZ) were 79.3 cm and −0.83, respectively, and 12% of the children were stunted (LAZ <−2). In analysis based on the intended treatment, mean ± SD length and LAZ for the LNS group (79.7 ± 2.9 cm and −0.69 ± 1.01, respectively) were significantly greater than for the IFA (79.1 ± 2.9 cm and −0.87 ± 0.99) and MMN (79.1 ± 2.9 cm and −0.91 ± 1.01) groups (P = 0.006 and P = 0.009, respectively). Differences were also significant for weight and weight-for-age z score but not head or midupper arm circumference, and the prevalence of stunting in the LNS group was 8.9%, compared with 13.7% in the IFA group and 12.9% in the MMN group (P = 0.12). In analysis based on actual supplement provided at enrollment, stunting prevalences were 8.9% compared with 15.1% and 11.5%, respectively (P = 0.045). Conclusion: Provision of SQ-LNSs to women from pregnancy to 6 mo postpartum and to their infants from 6 to 18 mo of age may increase the child’s attained length by age 18 mo in similar settings. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  20. Frequency of Group B Streptococcal Colonization in Pregnant Women Aged 35- 37 Weeks in Clinical Centers of Shahed University, Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hadavand, Shahrzad; Ghafoorimehr, Fatemeh; Rajabi, Leila; Davati, Ali; Zafarghandi, Nafiseh

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objectives: One of the important infectious factors in pregnant mothers and newborns is Group B Streptococcus (GBS). There is no perfect report about prevalence of GBS in Iran and in the case of preterm rupture of amniotic membrane or preterm labor all patients are treated by antibiotics without culture so this has led to adverse taking antibiotics and drug resistance. The present study is intended to determine the frequency of colonization of GBS in the pregnant mother (35-37 weeks), referred to medical centers of Shahed University. Methods: Overall, 210 pregnant women (35-37 weeks), referred to medical center of Shahed University, Tehran, Iran were selected as sample group and after filling out the questionnaires about demographic data and midwifery status and the related information of post- partum, the rectovaginal culture was done for them. Results: Among 210 samples, 7 (3.3%) included positive culture in terms of GBS colonization while all these cases were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, nitrofurantoin, and all of the samples were resistant against tetracycline and contrimoxazole. There was no relationship among age, job, education, number of pregnancy, blood pressure background, diabetes and preterm childbirth with positive culture. Similarly, because of limited number of positive cases it was not possible to examine the relationship among GBS colonization and infection in mother and newborn. Conclusion: There was a low frequency in GBS colonization in the studied hospitals and the study inside the country also confirms this finding. PMID:26351472

  1. Teenage Pregnancy in Canada and Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Guilbert, Edith; Forget, Gilles

    1991-01-01

    In 1987, there were 36 694 known pregnancies in Canada among women aged 15 to 19. Although the Canadian teenage pregnancy rate decreased from 1980 to 1987, it remains three times higher than that of the industrialized country with the lowest rate. Health professionals, social workers, and educators can have an important role in preventing teenage pregnancy. PMID:21229025

  2. Age constraints for Paleoproterozoic glaciation in the Lake Superior Region: Detrital zircon and hydrothermal xenotime ages for the Chocolay Group, Marquette Range Supergroup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallini, D.A.; Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    A geochronological study of the Chocolay Group at the base of the Paleoproterozoic Marquette Range Supergroup in Michigan, Lake Superior Region, is attempted for the first time, Age data from detrital zircon grains and hydrothermal xenotime from the basal glaciogenic formation, the Enchantment Lake Formation, and the stratigraphically higher Sturgeon Quartzite and its equivalent, the Sunday Quartzite, provide maximum and minimum age constraints for the Chocolay Group. The youngest detrital zircon population in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2317 ?? 6 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2306 ?? 9 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2647 ?? 5 Ma. The oldest hydrothermal xenotime age in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2133 ?? 11 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2115 ?? 5 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2207 ?? 5 Ma. The radiometric age data in this study implies the depositional age of the Chocolay Group is constrained to ???2.3-2.2 Ga, which proves its correlation with part of the Huronian Supergroup in the Lake Huron Region, Ontario, and reveals the unconformity that separates the Chocolay Group from the overlying Menominee Group is up to 325 million years in duration. The source(s) of the ??? 2.3 Ga detrital zircon populations in the Enchantment Lake Formation and Sturgeon Quartzite remains an enigma because no known rock units of this age are known in the Michigan area. It is speculated that once widespread volcano-sedimentary cover sequences in Michigan were removed or concealed prior to Chocolay Group deposition. The hydrothermal xenotime ages probably reflect basinal hydrothermal fluid flow associated with the period of extension involving rifting and major dyke formation, that affected the North American provinces between 2.2 and 2.1 Ga. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  3. Risk of cerebral arteriovenous malformation rupture during pregnancy and puerperium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Yuan-li; Teo, Mario; Guo, Peng; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Rong; Cao, Yong; Ye, Xun; Kang, Shuai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the risk of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) rupture is increased during pregnancy and puerperium. Methods: Participants included 979 female patients with intracranial AVM admitted to Beijing Tiantan Hospital between 1960 and 2010. Two neurosurgery residents reviewed medical records for each case. Of them, 393 patients with ruptured AVM between 18 and 40 years of age were used for case-crossover analysis. Number of children born and clinical information during pregnancy and puerperium were retrieved to identify whether AVM rupture occurred during this period. Results: Of the 979 women, 797 hemorrhages occurred during 25,578 patient-years of follow-up, yielding an annual hemorrhage rate of 3.11%. The annual AVM hemorrhage rate in patients aged 18 to 40 years (n = 579) was 2.78%, lower than the rate in other age groups (odds ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.65–0.86, p < 0.05). Of the 393 patients with rupture of AVM aged 18 to 40 years, 12 hemorrhages occurred in 12 patients over 452 pregnancies, yielding a hemorrhage rate of 2.65% per pregnancy or 3.32% per year. Among the remaining 381 patients, 441 hemorrhages occurred during 10,627 patient-years of follow-up, yielding an annual hemorrhage rate of 4.14%. The odds ratio for rupture of AVM during pregnancy and puerperium, compared with the control period, was 0.71 (95% confidence interval 0.61–0.82). Conclusions: No increased risk of hemorrhage was found in patients with cerebral AVM during pregnancy and the puerperium. We therefore would not advise against pregnancy in women with intracranial AVM. PMID:24759847

  4. Comparison of maternal and fetal outcomes of IVF and spontaneously conceived twin pregnancies: three year experience of a tertiary hospital

    PubMed Central

    Göçmen, Ahmet; Güven, Şirin; Bağci, Simge; Çekmez, Yasemin; Şanlıkan, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare maternal and fetal outcomes of spontaneously conceived and in-vitro fertilization (IVF) twin pregnancies that were admitted to our obstetric clinic and delivered between January 1, 2011 to November 1, 2014. Material method: A total of 84 twin pregnancies were enrolled for the study and divided into two groups: group 1 as IVF (n = 19) and group 2 as spontaneously conceived (n = 65) twin pregnancies. Data of neonatal various morbidities needs neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), sepsis, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and maternal morbidities such as preeclampsia, eclampsia, postpartum bleeding, gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) were collected by hospital records. Results: There were no statistical difference between two groups regarding hypertension related to pregnancy, intrauterine growth retardation, Apgar scores, NICU needs, birth weight and height (P > 0.05). The rate of premature rupture of membranes, maternal age, antenatal anemia and premature birth were detected higher in IVF group when compared with the other group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Although twin pregnancies, regardless of conception method are high risk pregnancies in terms of obstetric and perinatal outcomes, premature rupture of membranes, maternal age, antenatal anemia and premature birth risks are higher in IVF twin pregnancies. PMID:26131238

  5. Epigenetic Analysis of Neurocognitive Development at 1 year of Age in a Community-Based Pregnancy Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Laura E.; Palmer, Frederick B.; Graff, J. Carolyn; Sutter, Thomas R.; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Hovinga, Collin A.; Thomas, Fridtjof; Park, Vicki; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Adkins, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies show that molecular genetic changes and epigenetic modifications affect the risk of cognitive disability or impairment. However, the role of epigenetic variation in cognitive development of neurotypical young children remains largely unknown. Using data from a prospective, community-based study of mother-infant pairs, we investigated the association of DNA methylation patterns in neonatal umbilical cord blood with cognitive and language development at 1 year of age. No CpG loci achieved genome-wide significance, although a small number of weakly suggestive associations with Bayley-III Receptive Communication scales were noted. While umbilical cord blood is a convenient resource for genetic analyses of birth outcomes, our results do not provide conclusive evidence that its use for DNA methylation profiling yields epigenetic markers that are directly related to postnatal neurocognitive outcomes at 1 year of age. PMID:24452678

  6. Nutrition and Pregnancy after Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kaska, Lukasz; Kobiela, Jarek; Abacjew-Chmylko, Anna; Chmylko, Lukasz; Wojanowska-Pindel, Magdalena; Kobiela, Paulina; Walerzak, Anna; Makarewicz, Wojciech; Proczko-Markuszewska, Monika; Stefaniak, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating problem in all age groups and it is observed to be more common in females than males. About 25% of women meet the criteria of obesity and one-third of them are in the reproductive age. Because morbid obesity requiring surgical treatment is observed with increasing frequency, surgeons and gynecologists are undergoing new challenges. It is not only a matter of women's health and their quality of life but also proper development of the fetus, which should be a concern during bariatric treatment. Therefore complex perinatal care has to be provided for morbid obesity patients. The paper reviews pregnancy and fertility issues in bariatric surgery patients. PMID:24555146

  7. A Group and Individual Analysis of the Relationship between Age and Information Channel Capacity of Adults. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, William L.

    This study was designed to measure adult performance as related to age. Using methodology derived from information theory, information processing ability was measured with the individuals performing as a communication system. Fifty-five school teachers, ranging in age from 20 to 66, served as subjects. In four groups, the subjects judged the sizes…

  8. Severe sepsis in women with group B Streptococcus in pregnancy: an exploratory UK national case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Kalin, Asli; Acosta, Colleen; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Brocklehurst, Peter; Knight, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of severe maternal sepsis due to group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the UK, and to investigate the associated outcomes for mother and infant. Design National case–control study. Setting All UK consultant-led maternity units. Participants 30 women with confirmed or suspected severe GBS sepsis, and 757 control women. Main outcome measures Disease incidence, additional maternal morbidity, critical care admission, length of stay, infant infection, mortality. Results The incidences of confirmed and presumed severe maternal GBS sepsis were 1.00 and 2.75 per 100 000 maternities, respectively, giving an overall incidence of 3.75 per 100 000. Compared with controls, severe GBS sepsis was associated with higher odds of additional maternal morbidity (OR 12.35, 95% CI 3.96 to 35.0), requiring level 2 (OR 39.3, 95% CI 16.0 to 99.3) or level 3 (OR 182, 95% CI 21.0 to 8701) care and longer hospital stay (median stay in cases and controls was 7 days (range 3–29 days) and 2 days (range 0–16 days), respectively, p<0.001). None of the women died. Severe maternal GBS sepsis was associated with higher odds of infant sepsis (OR 32.7, 95% CI 8.99 to 119.0); 79% of infants, however, did not develop sepsis. There were no associated stillbirths or neonatal deaths. Conclusions Severe maternal GBS sepsis is a rare occurrence in the UK. It is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:26450426

  9. Pregnancy after autologous bone marrow transplantation for malignant lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Brice, P; Pautier, P; Marolleau, J P; Castaigne, S; Gisselbrecht, C

    1994-10-01

    In the present paper, we report two cases of normal pregnancy after high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in two of the 72 women belonging to a group of 188 patients transplanted in our unit for advanced malignant lymphoma. These pregnancies occurred 19 and 33 months after high dose therapy in two women aged 27 and 28, neither of whom had received previous total body irradiation or pelvic radiotherapy. There are several reasons for the relatively low frequency of pregnancies after ASCT. In particular, the median age of the patients is 35 years, most of these women are transplanted in relapse and have received previous pretreatment with alkylating agents and the disease free survival rate does not exceed 40%. The preservation of long term fertility should be taken into account when deciding therapeutic options for young women with curable disease. PMID:7892134

  10. Preliminary evidence for associations between second-trimester human chorionic gonadotropin and unconjugated oestriol levels with pregnancy outcome in Down syndrome pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Benn, P A

    1998-04-01

    Fifty-six cases of Down syndrome were identified in a population of women who had undergone maternal serum triple marker screening [alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) analyses]. These affected pregnancies represented all known cases present in the population of 34,368 women screened. Using a 1:270 mid-trimester Down syndrome risk to define the screen-positive group, 42 affected pregnancies were screen-positive (medians: AFP = 0.79 MOM, hCG = 2.13 MOM, uE3 = 0.62 MOM, age 34.6 years) and 14 pregnancies were screen-negative (medians: AFP = 0.82 MOM, hCG = 1.57 MOM, uE3 = 0.92 MOM, age 24.2 years). Four affected pregnancies were associated with in utero death and each of these cases was associated with relatively extreme values of AFP, hCG, and uE3, including the three highest levels of hCG in the entire series of Down syndrome pregnancies. Twenty-nine (15 screen-positive and 14 screen-negative) affected pregnancies resulted in liveborns. Down syndrome pregnancies had a significantly shorter gestational term than controls, and Down syndrome babies were also lighter than controls, even after adjustment for sex and gestational age. In affected pregnancies, a low uE3 level appeared to be associated with a greater chance of a small-for-gestational age baby. No correlations could be demonstrated between AFP or hCG levels and gestational age-adjusted term weight. Based on this small series, it would appear that uE3 may be particularly useful in detecting those Down syndrome cases associated with small-for-gestational age fetuses. A very high hCG value may indicate a higher probability of fetal death. PMID:9602476

  11. Reduction of multiple pregnancies in the advanced maternal age population after implementation of an elective single embryo transfer policy coupled with enhanced embryo selection: pre- and post-intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Ubaldi, Filippo Maria; Capalbo, Antonio; Colamaria, Silvia; Ferrero, Susanna; Maggiulli, Roberta; Vajta, Gábor; Sapienza, Fabio; Cimadomo, Danilo; Giuliani, Maddalena; Gravotta, Enrica; Vaiarelli, Alberto; Rienzi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    applied in cryopreservation cycles. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Patient and cycle characteristics were similar in the pre- and post-intervention groups [mean (SD) female age: 39.6 ± 2.1 and 39.4 ± 2.2 years; range 36–44] as assessed by logistic regression. A total of 1609 versus 574 oocyte retrievals, 937 versus 350 embryo warming and 138 versus 27 oocyte warming cycles were performed in the pre- and post-intervention periods, respectively, resulting in 1854 and 508 embryo transfers, respectively. In the post-intervention period, 289 cycles were blastocyst stage with (n = 182) or without PGS (n = 107). A mean (SD) number of 2.9 ± 1.1 (range 1–4) and 1.4 ± 0.8 (range 1–3) embryos were transferred pre- and post-intervention, respectively (P < 0.01) and similar cumulative clinical pregnancy rates per transfer and per cycle were obtained: 26.8, 30.9% and 29.7, 26.3%, respectively. The total DR per oocyte retrieval cycle (21.0 and 20.4% pre- and post-intervention, respectively) defined as efficacy was not affected by the intervention [odds ratio (OR) = 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7–1.1; P = 0.23]. However, a significantly increased live birth rate per transferred embryo (defined as efficiency) was observed in the post-intervention group 17.0 versus 10.6% (P < 0.01). Multiple DRs decreased from 21.0 in the preintervention to 6.8% in the post-intervention group (OR = 0.3. 95% CI = 0.1–0.7; P < 0.01). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION In this study, the suitability of SET was assessed in individual women on the basis of both clinical and embryological prognostic factors and was not standardized. For the described eSET strategy coupled with an enhanced embryo selection policy, an optimized culture system, cryopreservation and aneuploidy screening programme is necessary. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Owing to the increased maternal morbidity and perinatal complications related to multiple pregnancies, it is recommended to extend the eSET policy

  12. [Adolescent pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Fatichi, B

    1991-10-01

    This exploration of adolescent pregnancy focuses on adolescents whose pregnancies are undesired. The physical and psychic transformations of puberty and adolescence may be experienced differently in different social contexts. The prolongation of school attendance in Western societies means that most adolescents remain financially dependent on their parents. But greater sexual freedom in the society at large has been reflected in an increase in early sexual activity among adolescents. Wider use of contraception has not completely eliminated prenatal pregnancy among adolescents. Adolescent pregnancies have actually declined in France as a proportion of all pregnancies carried to term, from 4% to 1.5-2% in the past 10 or 15 years. But in 1986, 42.5% of all induced abortions were performed on adolescents. Among causes of unwanted pregnancy in adolescents are their frequent inability to believe that they may be at risk of pregnancy, or that pregnancy can result from the 1st sexual intercourse. The episodic nature of sexual relations, the lack of ready availability of contraception, and specific shortcomings of different methods are factors in the frequent failure of adolescents to protect themselves against undesired pregnancy. Adolescents may become pregnant out of loneliness or to prove that they are women, or as a result of incest or prostitution. Adolescents who seek abortions are those who have discovered and acknowledged their pregnancies before the 12th week and had the courage to inform their parents and obtain legal permission for the abortion. Pregnancy terminations are more frequent in more advantaged societal sectors with more structured family life. The moral shock and sense of failure associated with abortion are often deeply felt by adolescents. Their experience is greatly influenced by the attitudes of those around them. Adolescents who carry their pregnancies to term are those who have not sought abortion in the 1st 12 weeks. Often they refuse to admit

  13. Cystic fibrosis in pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Kent, N E; Farquharson, D F

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the outcomes of pregnancies in women with cystic fibrosis (CF) and to address issues pertinent to the obstetric care of such women. DATA SOURCES: English-language case reports and case series published from 1960 to 1991 identified through a search of MEDLINE and Index Medicus. The terms of reference were "cystic fibrosis" and "pregnancy". Not all the reports reviewed addressed all the outcomes under consideration. STUDY SELECTION: A total of 20 reports citing cases of pregnancy in women with CF. DATA EXTRACTION: Outcomes included the number of spontaneous abortions, pregnancies continued beyond 20 weeks, preterm deliveries, maternal deaths at 6 months and 2 years after delivery and perinatal deaths. Breast-feeding was addressed. Measures to assess the severity of maternal disease included the mean age at diagnosis of CF, weight gain during pregnancy, pulmonary function studies if available and the need for pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of 217 pregnancies in 162 women spontaneous abortion occurred in 10 (4.6%). Pregnancy progressed beyond 20 weeks in 81.6% of cases; 24.3% of the deliveries were preterm. The maternal death rate did not exceed that among age-related women with CF who were not pregnant. The rate of perinatal death was 7.9%. Breast milk was not hypernatremic. Poor outcomes were associated with a weight gain of less than 4.5 kg and a forced vital capacity of less than 50% of the predicted value. CONCLUSIONS: Premature labour and delivery remain a significant risk for pregnant women with CF, contributing to a high rate of perinatal death. Maternal illness and death result from deteriorating pulmonary function. Breast-feeding is not contraindicated. Attention to energy intake and pulmonary function is important. PMID:8374843

  14. [Measles outbreak in the adult age group: evaluation of 28 cases].

    PubMed

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Akın, Hicran; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Kalkan, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the age group affected from measles has widened and the disease has become more common among adolescents and young adults. The number of measles case reports have increased in our country, particularly from 2010-2011, and measles outbreaks occurred in various regions in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographical and epidemiological characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, and complications of adult patients with measles who were affected during the outbreak. A total of 28 patients (25 male, 3 female; age range: 19-39 years, median age: 24) who were hospitalized and followed-up in our clinic between January 2013 and June 2013, were evaluated. In the serum sample of the index case, measles-specific IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA, and measles virus RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then genotyping was performed to detect the epidemiological relationship. In all of the other cases, measles IgM and IgG antibodies were screened by ELISA. The most common symptoms on admission included high fever (n= 28, 100%), malaise (n= 25, 89%), sore throat (n= 25, 89%), headache (n= 20, 71%) and cough (n= 18, 64%). At physical examination, rash (n= 28, 100%), lymphadenopathy (n= 11, 39%) and conjunctivitis (n= 10, 36%) were in the foreground, and Koplik spots were detected in five (18%) cases. The most common laboratory findings were; increased level of C-reactive protein (n= 15, 54%), leukopenia (n= 12, 43%) and increased serum levels of aminotransferases (n= 12, 43%), and thrombocytopenia was detected in five (18%) patients. One or more complications (secondary bacterial pneumonia in 5, diarrhea in 4, hepatitis in 3 and otitis in 2 cases) developed in the eight (29%) patients. Measles RT-PCR and IgM tests yielded positive results for the index case, and the isolate was identified as D8 strain by genotyping. Measles lgM antibodies were also positive in all of the other cases. The hospitalization period was

  15. Prognostic effect of pregnancy on young female patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: results from a matched cohort analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lin-Quan; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Guo, Shan-Shan; Liu, Li-Ting; Guo, Ling; Mo, Hao-Yuan; Zhao, Chong; Guo, Xiang; Cao, Ka-Jia; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Shao, Jian-Yong; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun; Hong, Ming-Huang; Mai, Hai-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to evaluate the prognosis of pregnancy-associated patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in a young population. Methods From June 1999 to December 2010, 51 patients aged ≤ 35 years who were diagnosed with NPC during pregnancy or within one year after delivery were admitted into the pregnancy-associated group in our institution. An additional 51 patients who were not pregnant at diagnosis were selected from 451 patients based on the matching criteria to match the pregnancy-associated female patients. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). The secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and distant-metastasis failure-free survival (DMFS) and locoregional failure-free survival (LRFS). Results The advanced stage was not different between the pregnant and the non-pregnant group before matching (69.8% vs. 70.3%, P = 0.690). No difference in OS at the median follow-up time of 92 months was observed between the pregnancy-associated and the non-pregnant group (85.4% vs. 92.2%, P = 0.478); likewise, no differences were observed regarding PFS and DMFS. However, the pregnancy-associated group had worse LRFS than the non-pregnant group (84.8% vs. 95.9%, P = 0.033). When the pregnancy-associated patients were dichotomized into an early pregnancy group and a late pregnancy group, our data showed that pregnancy interval did not seem to impact the risk of death or relapse. Conclusion Our results show that patients in the pregnant group did not seem to have more advanced stage or inferior survival than that in the non-pregnant group. PMID:26980734

  16. Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator You are here Home / Online Tools Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Print Share Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Intro ...

  17. Organ-specific systemic lupus erythematosus activity during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Sara K; Guan, Hongshu; Fine, Alexander; Costenbader, Karen H; Bermas, Bonnie

    2016-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease of reproductive-age women, and thus questions regarding how disease influences pregnancy outcomes arise. We investigated whether five specific types of SLE activity during the 6 months before conception or during pregnancy (nephritis, cytopenias, skin disease, arthritis, serositis) were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcomes among women with SLE at the Brigham and Women's Hospital Lupus Center. Adverse pregnancy outcomes included pre-eclampsia, pre-term delivery, elective termination due to SLE, spontaneous miscarriage at weeks 12-20, and stillbirth. SLE and obstetric history, laboratories, and medications were obtained from electronic medical records. Generalized linear mixed models adjusting for potential confounders were used to identify predictors of any adverse pregnancy outcome. Most pregnancies resulted in a live term delivery (76.5 %). After adjustment for Hispanic ethnicity, prior adverse pregnancy outcome and medication use 6 months before conception, nephritis during pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) 3.6, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.0-12.8), cytopenias during pregnancy (OR 3.9, 95 % CI 1.3-11.4), and serositis during pregnancy (OR 5.9, 95 % CI 1.0-34.0) were significantly associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Specific types of SLE disease activity during pregnancy were related to adverse pregnancy outcome. Nephritis, cytopenias, and serositis carried a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, suggesting that these abnormalities should be carefully monitored during pregnancy. PMID:27166627

  18. Managing asthma in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a common comorbidity during pregnancy and its prevalence is increasing in the community. Exacerbations are a major clinical problem during pregnancy with up to 45% of women needing to seek medical help, resulting in poor outcomes for mothers and their babies, including low birth weight and preterm delivery. The goals of effective asthma management in pregnancy are to maintain the best possible asthma control and prevent exacerbations. This is achieved by aiming to prevent day- and night-time symptoms, and maintain lung function and normal activity. In addition, maintaining fetal oxygenation is an important consideration in pregnancy. Guidelines recommend providing asthma advice and review prior to conception, and managing asthma actively during pregnancy, with regular 4-weekly review, provision of a written action plan, use of preventer medications as indicated for other adults with asthma, and management of comorbid conditions such as rhinitis. Improvements have been made in recent years in emergency department management of asthma in pregnancy, and multidisciplinary approaches are being proposed to optimise both asthma outcomes and perinatal outcomes. One strategy that has demonstrated success in reducing exacerbations in pregnancy is treatment adjustment using a marker of eosinophilic lung inflammation, the exhaled nitric oxide fraction (FeNO). The use of an algorithm that adjusted inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) according to FeNO and added long-acting β-agonists when symptoms remained uncontrolled resulted in fewer exacerbations, more women on ICS but at lower mean doses, and improved infant respiratory health at 12 months of age. Further evidence is needed to determine whether this strategy can also improve perinatal outcomes and be successfully translated into clinical practice. Key points Asthma is the most common chronic disease to affect pregnant women. Exacerbations occur in up to 45% of pregnant women with asthma. Asthma should be managed

  19. Teenage Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Mary C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the problems of teenage pregnancy, including the costs to society, the challenge to educators, and the types of preventive programs developing across the country. Programs dealing strictly with reproduction and contraception are the least effective deterrents to teenage pregnancy. (MD)

  20. Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and in postpartum period: treatment and latest recommendations.

    PubMed

    Vandana; Kumar, Amit; Khatuja, Ritu; Mehta, Sumita

    2014-05-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is the second most common endocrine disorder, only after diabetes mellitus, affecting females in reproductive age group. Pregnancy is associated with profound repercussions on the thyroid status of a lady. Thyroid dysfunctions such as hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis and thyroid nodules may develop during pregnancy leading to abortion, placental abruptions, pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and reduced intellectual function in the offspring. Thus, maintenance of euthyroid state is of utmost important for maternal and fetal well being during pregnancy as well as after. The Endocrine Society has issued latest guidelines regarding the diagnosis and management of thyroid dysfunction related to pregnancy. All the clinicians should be well aware of the latest recommendations regarding management of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy and in postpartum phase and practice them accordingly. PMID:24510157

  1. The Effect of Reminiscence Group Work on Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem and Mood of Ageing People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Puyenbroeck, Joris; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the effects of reminiscence group work on the subjective well-being of ageing people with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The content of the successive group work sessions was manipulated as follows: a control-phase with three "current topics" sessions, an experimental phase with six "reminiscence" sessions and…

  2. Does whom you work with matter? Effects of referent group gender and age composition on managers' compensation.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, Cheri; Atwater, Leanne E

    2003-08-01

    Much research has examined gender and age effects on compensation, concluding that a wage gap exists favoring men and negative stereotypes against older workers persist. Although the effect of an employee's gender or age has been widely studied, little work has examined the impact of the demographic characteristics of a focal employee's immediate referent groups (e.g., subordinates, peers, or supervisors) on pay. The effect of the gender and age composition of a focal manager's subordinates, peers, and supervisor on the manager's compensation levels was investigated in a sample of 2,178 managers across a wide range of organizations and functional areas. After controlling for a number of human capital variables, results indicated that not only does a wage gap favoring men exist, but also managerial pay is lower when managers' referent groups are largely female, when subordinates are outside the prime age group, and when peers and supervisors are younger. PMID:12940411

  3. Evaluation of the ovarian reserve function in patients with metabolic syndrome in relation to healthy controls and different age groups

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ovarian reserve function in female patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods This study evaluated 136 subjects, 67 with MetS and 69 controls. Subjects were divided into three age groups. Group I included 49 subjects aged 20–29 years, 22 with MetS and 27 controls; group II included 45 subjects aged 30–39 years, 22 with MetS and 23 controls; and group III included 42 subjects aged 40–49 years, 23 with MetS and 19 controls. Demographic characteristics, anthropometrics, blood biochemistry, and gonadotrophic hormones were compared as total ovarian volume and antral follicle count on ovarian transvaginal ultrasonography. Results Serum levels of FSH, LH, E2 and progesterone were similar in the MetS and control groups, while testosterone levels were significantly higher in MetS patients than controls, both in the overall population (p = 0.024) and in those aged 20–29 years (p = 0.018). Total ovarian volume was significantly lower in MetS patients than controls, in both the overall population (p = 0.003) and those aged 20–29 years (p = 0.018), while antral follicle counts were similar. Ovarian volume correlated positively with antral follicle count (AFC) (r = 0.37; p < 0.001) and negatively with age (r = 0.34; p < 0.001) and FSH concentration (r = 0.21; p = 0.013). AFC was negatively correlated with age (r = 0.36; p < 0.001). Conclusion Ovarian reserve function is significantly lower in MetS patients than in healthy control subjects, particularly in women aged 20–29 years. PMID:24955131

  4. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Lymphocytes from Different Age Groups of Bolivian Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis)

    PubMed Central

    Nehete, Pramod N.; Hanley, Patrick W.; Nehete, Bharti P.; Yang, Guojun; Ruiz, Julio C.; Williams, Lawrence; Abee, Christian R.; Sastry, K. Jagannadha

    2013-01-01

    Due to many physiological and genetic characteristic similarities to humans, squirrel monkeys provide an ideal animal model specifically for studying malaria, and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease). While squirrel monkeys three years and older are generally considered adult subjects suitable for use in medical research studies, little is known about the functional properties of lymphocytes in relation to the age of these animals, which could significantly impact the quality and quantity of innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we investigated differences in the phenotype and function of lymphocytes subsets of young (3–4 years), adult (8–10 years) and aged (16–19 years) squirrel monkeys. In general, animals in all three age groups exhibited comparable numbers of different lymphocyte subsets except for CD20+ B cells that were significantly lower in aged relative to young animals and T cells subsets expressing both CD4 and CD8 (double positive) were significantly higher in aged relative to young animals. With increasing age, phenotypic differences in central and effector memory T cells subsets were observed, that were more pronounced for the CD8+ T cells. Despite equal proportions of CD3+ T cells among the three age groups, responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to T cell mitogens PHA and Con A showed lower IFN-γ producing cells in the aged group than that in the young group. Furthermore, aged animals showed significantly higher plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-12. These findings suggest that while the squirrel monkeys in general share phenotypic and functional similarities of lymphocyte subsets with humans in relation to age, specific differences exist in immune function of lymphocytes between young and old animals that could potentially impact experimental outcomes for which the measurement of immunologic endpoints are critical. PMID:24282512

  5. Maternity care practices and breastfeeding experiences of women in different racial and ethnic groups: Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS).

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Indu B; Morrow, Brian; D'Angelo, Denise; Li, Ruowei

    2012-11-01

    Research shows that maternity care practices are important to promoting breastfeeding in the early post partum period; however, little is known about the association between maternity care practices and breastfeeding among different racial and ethnic groups. We examined the association between maternity care practices and breastfeeding duration to ≥10 weeks overall and among various racial and ethnic groups using data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS). PRAMS is a state, population-based surveillance system that collects information on maternal behaviors. We used maternity care practices data from 11 states and New York City with response rates ≥70% from 2004 to 2006. Multiple maternity care practices were examined and the analysis adjusted for demographic characteristics, participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), lifestyle, and infant variables. The outcome variable for multivariable analysis was breastfeeding duration to <10 weeks or ≥10 weeks. PRAMS data show that 22.1% of women did not breastfeed, about 27.7% breastfed for <10 weeks and 50.2% breastfed for ≥10 weeks. Breastfeeding patterns varied with white and Hispanic women reporting highest breastfeeding initiation and duration prevalence. Overall, practices positively associated with ≥10 duration were: breastfeeding initiated within the first hour after birth (adjusted OR [AOR] = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.16-1.45); fed breast milk only (AOR = 2.40; 95% CI: 2.15-2.68); breastfed on demand (AOR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.08-1.40) and receiving telephone support (AOR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.03-1.39). Maternity care practices associated with breastfeeding to ≥10 weeks varied across three racial/ethnic groups. One practice, that of giving newborns breast milk only, was positively associated with breastfeeding duration of ≥10 weeks across all three groups. Maternity care practices associated with breastfeeding continuation

  6. Clinicoetiological Characterization of Infectious Vaginitis amongst Women of Reproductive Age Group from Navi Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Narayankhedkar, Anuradha; Hodiwala, Anahita; Mane, Arati

    2015-01-01

    Vaginitis is one of the commonest reproductive tract infections in sexually active women. In the present study clinicoetiological characterization of infectious vaginitis amongst 380 women of reproductive age group (18–45 years) was done. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was detected by Nugent's scoring, Candida infection by culture, and trichomoniasis (TV) by wet mount. One hundred and ten (28.9%) women presented with symptoms of vaginitis. The presenting symptoms were vaginal discharge 106 (96.4%), vulval itching/irritation 19 (17.3%), malodor 5 (4.5%), pain in abdomen 3 (2.7%), and dysuria 1 (0.9%). The commonest etiology detected was Candida in 33 (30%) cases, of which 18 (54.5%) were C. albicans and 15 (45.5%) non-albicans Candida (NAC) infections. The NAC isolates were C. glabrata (n = 10), C. tropicalis (n = 3), and C. krusei (n = 2). BV and TV were observed in 19 (17.3%) and 2 (1.8%) cases, respectively. A statistically significant association between Candida infection and presence of curdy-white discharge (p = 0.001) and vulval itching/irritation (p = 0.007) was noted. To conclude, we observed the etiological predominance of Candida infection, with considerable prevalence of NAC, indicating the need for microbiological investigation up to species level in cases of Candida infections, to ensure appropriate management. PMID:26351613

  7. Report on Adolescent Pregnancy in Fort Worth, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tees, Sandra

    Teenage pregnancy is an overwhelming problem in Fort Worth, Texas. To examine the problem of teenage pregnancy, figures on total live births by age, race, repeat pregnancy, and at-risk infants were gathered from 1981 and 1982 Department of Public Health data. In addition, consequences of teenage pregnancy and motivation factors were examined. An…

  8. DNA Methylation and Expression Patterns of Selected Genes in First-Trimester Placental Tissue from Pregnancies with Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants at Birth.

    PubMed

    Leeuwerke, Mariëtte; Eilander, Michelle S; Pruis, Maurien G M; Lendvai, Ágnes; Erwich, Jan Jaap H M; Scherjon, Sicco A; Plösch, Torsten; Eijsink, Jasper J H

    2016-02-01

    Variations in DNA methylation levels in the placenta are thought to influence gene expression and are associated with complications of pregnancy, like fetal growth restriction (FGR). The most important cause for FGR is placental dysfunction. Here, we examined whether changes in DNA methylation, followed by gene expression changes, are mechanistically involved in the etiology of FGR. In this retrospective case-control study, we examined the association between small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children and both DNA methylation and gene expression levels of the genes WNT2, IGF2/H19, SERPINA3, HERVWE1, and PPARG in first-trimester placental tissue. We also examined the repetitive element LINE-1. These candidate genes have been reported in the literature to be associated with SGA. We used first-trimester placental tissue from chorionic villus biopsies. A total of 35 SGA children (with a birth weight below the 10th percentile) were matched to 70 controls based on their gestational age. DNA methylation levels were analyzed by pyrosequencing and mRNA levels were analyzed by real-time PCR. None of the average DNA methylation levels, measured for each gene, showed a significant difference between SGA placental tissue compared to control tissue. However, hypermethylation of WNT2 was detected on two CpG positions in SGA. This was not associated with changes in gene expression. Apart from two CpG positions of the WNT2 gene, in early placenta samples, no evident changes in DNA methylation or expression were found. This indicates that the already reported changes in term placenta are not present in the early placenta, and therefore must arise after the first trimester. PMID:26740591

  9. Patterns of Multiple Myeloma During the Past 5 Decades: Stable Incidence Rates for All Age Groups in the Population but Rapidly Changing Age Distribution in the Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Turesson, Ingemar; Velez, Ramon; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y.; Landgren, Ola

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define age-adjusted incidence trends in multiple myeloma (MM) in a well-characterized population during a long period, given that some, but not all, studies have reported increasing MM incidence over time and that clinical experience from some centers suggests an increased incidence mainly in younger age groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified all patients (N=773) with MM diagnosed in Malmö, Sweden, from January 1, 1950, through December 31, 2005. Using census data for the population of Malmö, we calculated age- and sex-specific incidence rates. Incidence rates were also calculated for 10-year birth cohorts. Analyses for trends were performed using the Poisson regression. RESULTS: From 1950 through 2005, the average annual age-adjusted (European standard population) incidence rate remained stable (Poisson regression, P=.07 for men and P=.67 for women). Also, comparisons between 10-year birth cohorts (from 1870-1879 to 1970-1979) failed to detect any increase. Between 1950-1959 and 2000-2005, the median age at diagnosis of MM increased from 70 to 74 years, and the proportion of newly diagnosed patients aged 80 years or older increased from 16% to 31%. CONCLUSION: Our finding of stable MM incidence rates for all age groups during the past 5 decades suggests that recent clinical observations of an increase of MM in the young may reflect an increased referral stream of younger patients with MM, which in turn might be a consequence of improved access to better MM therapies. Importantly, because of the aging population, the proportion of patients with MM aged 80 years or older doubled between 1950-1959 and 2000-2005. PMID:20194150

  10. Use of Smokeless Tobacco by Indian Women Aged 18–40 Years during Pregnancy and Reproductive Years

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Saritha; Schensul, Jean J.; Begum, Shahina; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Oncken, Cheryl; Bilgi, Sameena M.; Pasi, Achhelal R.; Donta, Balaiah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper discusses patterns of daily smokeless tobacco (SLT) use and correlates of poly SLT use among married women aged 18–40 years in a Mumbai slum community with implications for tobacco control. Methods Using a mixed methods approach, the study included a structured survey with 409 daily SLT users and in-depth interviews with 42 women. Participants for the survey were selected using a systematic sampling procedure (one woman in every fourth eligible household). Univariate and bivariate analysis, and multiple logistic regressions were conducted to identify demographic and social factors associated with women’s use of poly SLT products. To illustrate survey results, in-depth interviews were analyzed using Atlas ti software. Results Sixty-four percent of the women surveyed used only one type of SLT; of these, 30% used mishri, 32% used pan with tobacco and the rest used chewed tobacco (11%), gul (17%) or gutkha (10%). Thirty-six percent used more than one type of SLT. Poly SLT users chewed or rubbed 50% more tobacco as compared to single users (mean consumption of tobacco per day: 9.54 vs. 6.49 grams; p<0.001). Women were more likely to be poly SLT users if they were illiterate as compared to literate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.07-2.71), if they had lived in Mumbai for 10 years or more, versus less than ten years (AOR=1.67, 95% CI=1.03-2.71); and if their husband was a poly SLT user as compared to a non SLT user (AOR=2.78, 95% CI=1.63-4.76). No differences were noted between pregnant and non-pregnant women in SLT consumption patterns. Conclusions Tobacco control policies and programs must focus specifically on both social context and use patterns to address SLT use among women of reproductive age with special attention to poly SLT users, an understudied and vulnerable population. PMID:25786247

  11. Yoga in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Babbar, Shilpa; Shyken, Jaye

    2016-09-01

    Yoga is a mind-body practice that encompasses a system of postures (asana), deep breathing (pranayama), and meditation. Over 36 million Americans practice yoga of which the majority are reproductive-aged women. Literature to support this practice is limited, albeit on the rise. A prenatal yoga practice has been shown to benefit women who suffer from anxiety, depression, stress, low back pain, and sleep disturbances. A small number of studies have been performed in high-risk pregnancies that also demonstrate an improvement in outcomes. The safety of performing yoga for the first time in pregnancy and fetal tolerance has been demonstrated. PMID:27152528

  12. Marital Satisfaction in Pregnancy: Stability and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Lonnie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studied marital satisfaction in 106 women, evaluating satisfaction both early and late in their pregnancy. Found that coping resource and pregnancy decision-making were related to marital satisfaction at both stages. Marital satisfaction remained consistent, both for individuals and for group. Marital satisfaction late in pregnancy was related to…

  13. The Risk Factors and Pregnancy Outcomes of 48 Cases of Heterotopic Pregnancy from a Single Center

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors that are associated with heterotopic pregnancy (HP) following in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer (ET) and to demonstrate the outcomes of HP after the surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancies. Forty-eight patients from a single center, who were diagnosed with HP between 1998 and 2012 were included. All of the patients had received infertility treatments, such as Clomid with timed coitus (n = 1, 2.1%), superovulation with intrauterine insemination (n = 7, 14.6%), fresh non-donor IVF-ET (n = 33, 68.8%), and frozen-thawed cycles (n = 7, 14.6%). Eighty-four additional patients were randomly selected as controls from the IVF registry database. HP was diagnosed at 7.5 ± 1.2 weeks (range 5.4-10.3) gestational age. In six cases (12.5%), the diagnosis was made three weeks after the patients underwent treatment for abortion. There were significant differences in the history of ectopic pregnancy (22.5% vs. 3.6%, P = 0.002). There were no significant differences in either group between the rates of first trimester intrauterine fetal loss (15.0% vs. 13.1%) or live birth (80.0% vs. 84.1%) after the surgical treatment for ectopic pregnancy. The risk factors for HP include a history of ectopic pregnancy (OR 7.191 [1.591-32.513], P = 0.010), abortion (OR 3.948 [1.574-9.902], P = 0.003), and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) (OR 10.773 [2.415-48.060], P = 0.002). In patients undergoing IVF-ET, history of ectopic pregnancy, abortion, and OHSS may be risk factors for HP as compared to the control group of other IVF patients. The surgical treatment of HP does not appear to affect the rates of first trimester fetal loss or live birth. PMID:27366008

  14. The Risk Factors and Pregnancy Outcomes of 48 Cases of Heterotopic Pregnancy from a Single Center.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ji Hyun; Hwang, Yu Im; Shin, Im Hee; Park, Chan Woo; Yang, Kwang Moon; Kim, Hye Ok

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors that are associated with heterotopic pregnancy (HP) following in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer (ET) and to demonstrate the outcomes of HP after the surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancies. Forty-eight patients from a single center, who were diagnosed with HP between 1998 and 2012 were included. All of the patients had received infertility treatments, such as Clomid with timed coitus (n = 1, 2.1%), superovulation with intrauterine insemination (n = 7, 14.6%), fresh non-donor IVF-ET (n = 33, 68.8%), and frozen-thawed cycles (n = 7, 14.6%). Eighty-four additional patients were randomly selected as controls from the IVF registry database. HP was diagnosed at 7.5 ± 1.2 weeks (range 5.4-10.3) gestational age. In six cases (12.5%), the diagnosis was made three weeks after the patients underwent treatment for abortion. There were significant differences in the history of ectopic pregnancy (22.5% vs. 3.6%, P = 0.002). There were no significant differences in either group between the rates of first trimester intrauterine fetal loss (15.0% vs. 13.1%) or live birth (80.0% vs. 84.1%) after the surgical treatment for ectopic pregnancy. The risk factors for HP include a history of ectopic pregnancy (OR 7.191 [1.591-32.513], P = 0.010), abortion (OR 3.948 [1.574-9.902], P = 0.003), and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) (OR 10.773 [2.415-48.060], P = 0.002). In patients undergoing IVF-ET, history of ectopic pregnancy, abortion, and OHSS may be risk factors for HP as compared to the control group of other IVF patients. The surgical treatment of HP does not appear to affect the rates of first trimester fetal loss or live birth. PMID:27366008

  15. Two consecutive singleton pregnancies versus one twins pregnancy as preferred outcome of in vitro fertilization for mothers and infants: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Morini, Daria; Gizzo, Salvatore; Nicoli, Alessia; Palomba, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Objective Many infertile couples request a multiple embryo transfer because they desire more than one child. Based on this consideration, the current study aimed to compare the reproductive and perinatal outcomes of two consecutive singleton pregnancies versus one twin pregnancy in a large cohort of in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients. Research design and methods Retrospective analysis of data from patients with clinical twin pregnancy after IVF fresh cycles and from patients with two consecutive IVF fresh cycles and clinical singleton pregnancy. Main outcome measures Miscarriage rate, delivery rate, gestational age at birth, neonatal birth weight, and perinatal complications. A sub-analysis of data according to vanishing twin syndrome (VTS) was also performed. Results A total of 18,703 autologous fresh cycles were analyzed. One hundred seven patients had two consecutive singleton clinical pregnancies, whereas one clinical twin pregnancy occurred in 641 women. In patients who had two consecutive singleton clinical pregnancies the rates of overall pregnancies lost (odds ratio [OR] 4.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.4, 6.9) and live births (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1, 0.3) were, respectively, higher and lower when compared to patients who had one clinical twin pregnancy. That data did not change after sub-analysis for VTS. The overall risk of perinatal complications was significantly higher in patients who had one twin delivery rather than patients who had two consecutive singleton deliveries (OR 31.8, 95% CI 14.1, 71.5). No difference between groups was detected in terms of intrauterine/neonatal deaths, perinatal mortality and neonatal intensive care unit admission. Data did not change after adjusting for confounders. Conclusions When compared with two consecutive singleton pregnancies, twin pregnancies are characterized by higher success rates but worse perinatal outcomes irrespectively of VTS. Well designed prospective controlled studies are needed to confirm or rebut

  16. Group B Streptococcus and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... are positive? • What if I am allergic to penicillin? • What if I already had a baby who ... bacteria may regrow and be present during labor. Penicillin is the antibiotic that is most often given ...

  17. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity.

    PubMed

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  18. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  19. A survey of the causes of sudden cardiac death in the under 35-year-age group.

    PubMed

    Quigley, F; Greene, M; O'Connor, D; Kelly, F

    2005-09-01

    CRY (Cardiac Risk in the Young) is a registered Irish charity established by parents who are bereaved as a result of sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study is to establish the incidence and causes of sudden cardiac death in Dublin city in the 10-year period from 1st January 1993 to 31st December 2002. All sudden cardiac deaths in the under 35-year age group which were reported to the city coroner in the study period were examined. Details regarding age, sex, previous symptoms, investigations, circumstances of death and main pathological finding were recorded in each case. A total of 72 cases of sudden cardiac death in the under-35 year age group were reported. 52 were men. The median age was 26.5 years (range 12-34 years). The cause of death in 20 cases was reported as atherosclerotic Coronary Artery Disease. The second commonest cause of death (24% cases) was Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy was the commonest cause of death under the age of 25 years. Overall atherosclerotic coronary artery disease was the commonest cause of death in this group. The importance of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is highlighted by the fact it was the commonest cause of death in the under 25-year age group. Screening those at high risk of sudden cardiac death especially the relatives of those affected by Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy need to be discussed and implemented. PMID:16255113

  20. Impact of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Administration in Pediatric Older Age Groups in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Kimberly; Welch, Emily; Elder, Kate; Cohn, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is included in the World Health Organization’s routine immunization schedule and is recommended by WHO for vaccination in high-risk children up to 60 months. However, many countries do not recommend vaccination in older age groups, nor have donors committed to supporting extended age group vaccination. To better inform decision-making, this systematic review examines the direct impact of extended age group vaccination in children over 12 months in low and middle income countries. Methods An a priori protocol was used. Using pre-specified terms, a search was conducted using PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CAB Abstracts, clinicaltrials.gov and the International Symposium on Pneumococci and Pneumococcal Diseases abstracts. The primary outcome was disease incidence, with antibody titers and nasopharyngeal carriage included as secondary outcomes. Results Eighteen studies reported on disease incidence, immune response, and nasopharyngeal carriage. PCV administered after 12 months of age led to significant declines in invasive pneumococcal disease. Immune response to vaccine type serotypes was significantly higher for those vaccinated at older ages than the unimmunized at the established 0.2ug/ml and 0.35ug/ml thresholds. Vaccination administered after one year of age significantly reduced VT carriage with odds ratios ranging from 0.213 to 0.69 over four years. A GRADE analysis indicated that the studies were of high quality. Discussion PCV administration in children over 12 months leads to significant protection. The direct impact of PCV administration, coupled with the large cohort of children missed in first year vaccination, indicates that countries should initiate or expand PCV immunization for extended age group vaccinations. Donors should support implementation of PCV as part of delayed or interrupted immunization for older

  1. Pregnancy Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization with or without Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xuan; Deng, Cheng-Yan; Sun, Zheng-Yi; Chen, Wei-Lin; Wang, Han-Bi; Zhou, Yuan-Zheng; Jin, Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) on pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients is still ambiguous. This study aimed to analyze pregnancy outcomes of IVF with or without OHSS in Chinese patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to compare pregnancy outcomes between 190 women with OHSS and 197 women without OHSS. We examined the rates of clinical pregnancy, multiple pregnancies, miscarriage, live birth, preterm delivery, preterm birth before 34 weeks’ gestation, cesarean delivery, low birth weight (LBW), and small-for-gestational age (SGA) between the two groups. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of measure of clinical pregnancy were also analyzed. Results: The clinical pregnancy rate of OHSS patients was significantly higher than that of non-OHSS patients (91.8% vs. 43.5%, P < 0.001). After controlling for drug protocol and causes of infertility, the adjusted ORs of moderate OHSS and severe/critical OHSS for clinical pregnancy were 4.65 (95% CI, 1.86–11.61) and 5.83 (95% CI, 3.45–9.86), respectively. There were no significant differences in rates of multiple pregnancy (4.0% vs. 3.7%) and miscarriage (16.1% vs. 17.5%) between the two groups. With regard to ongoing clinical pregnancy, we also found no significant differences in the rates of live birth (82.1% vs. 78.8%), preterm delivery (20.9% vs. 17.5%), preterm birth before 34 weeks’ gestation (8.6% vs. 7.9%), cesarean delivery (84.9% vs. 66.3%), LBW (30.2% vs. 23.5%), and SGA (21.9% vs. 17.6%) between the two groups. Conclusion: OHSS, which occurs in the luteal phase or early pregnancy in IVF patients and represents abnormal transient hemodynamics, does not exert any obviously adverse effect on the subsequent pregnancy. PMID:26612291

  2. Group-based activities with on-site childcare and online support improve glucose tolerance in women within 5 years of gestational diabetes pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Women with gestational diabetes history are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. They face specific challenges for behavioural changes, including childcare responsibilities. The aim of this study is to test a tailored type 2 diabetes prevention intervention in women within 5 years of a pregnancy with gestational diabetes, in terms of effects on weight and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods The 13-week intervention, designed based on focus group discussions, included four group sessions, two with spousal participation and all with on-site childcare. Web/telephone-based support was provided between sessions. We computed mean percentage change from baseline (95% confidence intervals, CI) for anthropometric measures, glucose tolerance (75 g Oral glucose tolerance test), insulin resistance/sensitivity, blood pressure, physical activity, dietary intake, and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Results Among the 36 enrolled, 27 completed final evaluations. Most attended ≥ 3 sessions (74%), used on-site childcare (88%), and logged onto the website (85%). Steps/day (733 steps, 95% CI 85, 1391) and fruit/vegetable intake (1.5 servings/day, 95% CI 0.3, 2.8) increased. Proportions decreased for convenience meal consumption (−30%, 95% CI −50, −9) and eating out (−22%, 95% CI −44, −0) ≥ 3 times/month. Body mass index and body composition were unchanged. Fasting (−4.9%, 95% CI −9.5, −0.3) and 2-hour postchallenge (−8.0%, 95% CI −15.6, −0.5) glucose declined. Insulin sensitivity increased (ISI 0,120 23.7%, 95% CI 9.1, 38.4; Matsuda index 37.5%, 95% CI 3.5, 72.4). Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR −9.4%, 95% CI −18.6, −0.1) and systolic blood pressure (−3.3%, 95% CI −5.8, −0.8) decreased. Conclusions A tailored group intervention appears to lead to improvements in health behaviours and cardiometabolic risk factors despite unchanged body mass index and body composition. This approach merits further study. Clinical trial

  3. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PREGNANCY AMONG UNMARRIED WOMEN IN MALAYSIA.

    PubMed

    Zain, Norhasmah Mohd; Low, Wah Yun; Othman, Sajaratulnisah

    2015-05-01

    Pregnancy among unmarried women may have negative social and health implications in Malaysia. The number of pregnancies among unmarried women has increased in Malaysia, but the socio-demographic profile of these women is unclear. This study aims to evaluate the characteristics of unmarried pregnant women and the factors associated with unmarried pregnancies among young women in Malaysia. We conducted a cross sectional study at six hospitals and six women's shelters in Peninsular Malaysia during 2011-2012. Unmarried pregnant women were compared with married pregnant women. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire asking for socio-demographic data, family background, risky sexual behavior, social support and pregnancy details. A total of 484 women (239 unmarried and 245 married) were included in the study. Most unmarried subjects were adolescents, from urban areas, from a low socioeconomic group, and lived with parents prior to pregnancy. Age (OR=0.67; 95% CI: 0.61-0.74), studying status (OR=17.33; 95% CI: 2.65-113.19), alcohol use (OR=40.46; 95% CI: 2.51-652.38) exposure to pornographic material (OR=13.48; 95% CI: 3.24-56.01), contraceptive use (OR=0.20; 95% CI: 0.08-0.51), and social support (OR=0.90; 95% CI: 0.86-0.94) were all associated with unmarried pregnancy. These factors need to be considered when.designing an intervention program. PMID:26521527

  4. Flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy as a screening modality for colorectal adenomas in older age groups? Findings in a cohort of the normal population aged 63-72 years

    PubMed Central

    Thiis-Evensen, E; Hoff, G; Sauar, J; Majak, B; Vatn, M

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Most cases of colorectal cancer originate from adenomas. Removing adenomas has been shown to reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer. The design of cost effective endoscopic screening programmes requires a knowledge of the distribution of adenomas in different age groups.
AIM—To investigate the distribution of colorectal adenomas in older age groups in the normal population.
METHOD—A total of 356 men and women selected randomly from the population register were offered a colonoscopic screening examination to detect and remove polyps.
RESULTS—In all, 241(68%) subjects, mean age 67.4 years (range 62-73), attended. The caecum was intubated in 193 (80%), and in this group 32 (38%) women and 51 (47%) men had adenomas. One hundred and ten (54%) of the adenomas and 11 (39%) of the "high risk adenomas" (adenomas larger than 10 mm in diameter, adenomas containing villous components, and adenomas with severe dysplasia) were found proximal to the sigmoid colon. In 36 (43%) of the subjects with adenomas, the adenomas were only found proximal to the sigmoid colon. Twenty two (11%) subjects had more than two adenomas. Of 203 adenomas discovered, 189 (93%) were less than 10 mm in diameter.
CONCLUSION—More than half of the adenomas were localised proximal to the sigmoid colon, and, in nearly half of the adenoma bearing subjects examined, the adenoma was proximal to the descending colon. This indicates that a sigmoidoscopic screening examination in this age group would miss a substantial number of adenomas, but this may be acceptable as the vast majority of proximal adenomas do not progress to clinical cancer within the life expectancy of this age group.


Keywords: adenoma; colon; colorectal neoplasms; endoscopy; epidemiology; polyps PMID:10562581

  5. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. Methods The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,323,758) were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Results Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Conclusions Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy. PMID:22784412

  6. Cervical ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Samal, Sunil Kumar; Rathod, Setu

    2015-01-01

    Cervical pregnancy is a rare type of ectopic pregnancy and it represents <1% of all ectopic pregnancies. Early diagnosis and medical management with systemic or local administration of methotrexate is the treatment of choice. If the pregnancy is disturbed, it may lead to massive hemorrhage, which may require hysterectomy to save the patient. We report three cases of cervical pregnancy managed successfully with different approaches of management. Our first case, 28 years old G3P2L2 with previous two lower segment cesarean sections, presented with bleeding per vaginum following 6 weeks of amenorrhea. Clinical examination followed by transvaginal ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of cervical pregnancy. Total abdominal hysterectomy was done in view of intractable bleeding to save the patient. The second case, a 26-year-old second gravida with previous normal vaginal delivery presented with pain abdomen and single episode of spotting per vaginum following 7 weeks of amenorrhea. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed empty endometrial cavity, closed internal os with gestational sac containing live fetus of 7 weeks gestational age in cervical canal and she was treated with intra-amniotic potassium chloride followed by systemic methotrexate. Follow up with serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin level revealed successful outcome. Our third case, a 27-year-old primigravida with history of infertility treatment admitted with complaints of bleeding per vaginum for 1 day following 8 weeks amenorrhea. She was diagnosed as cervical pregnancy by clinical examination, confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography and subsequently managed by dilation and curettage with intracervical Foleys' ballon tamponade. PMID:25810679

  7. Age impact on autoimmune thyroid disease in females

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid autoimmune disease, a widespread phenomenon in female population, impairs thyroid function during pregnancy. Identifying cases, which will develop hypothyroidism during pregnancy, is crucial in the follow-up process. The study group comprised 108 females, with ages between 20-40 years; with known inactive autoimmune thyroid disease, before pregnancy that became pregnant in the study follow-up period. They were monitored by means of clinical, hormonal and immunological assays. Supplemental therapy with thyroid hormones was used, where needed. Maternal age and level of anti-thyroid antibodies were used to predict thyroid functional impairment.

  8. Absolute age constraints on the age and tectonics of the Middle and Late Proterozoic Pahrump Group, southern Death Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Calzia, J.P. ); Troxel, B.W.

    1993-04-01

    The Pahrump Group unconformably overlies 1.35 Ga granite, is unconformably overlain by the Late Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite, and is divided into the Crystal Spring Formation, the Beck Spring Dolomite, and the Kingston Peak Formation. Contacts between these formations are gradational through several meters of interbedded clastic and carbonate rocks. Lithologic data, sedimentary structures, and fossil assemblages suggest that the Pahrump Group, from middle Crystal Spring to lower Kingston Peak time, was deposited in an intratidal to supratidal environment. Diamictite, volcanic ash, and mono lithologic megabreccia suggest that the middle and the upper members of the Kingston Peak Formation were deposited in a higher energy sedimentary and tectonic environment. Dikes and sills of 1.08 Ga diabase intrude the gneiss and all members of the Crystal Spring Formation; erosional clasts of diabase first appear in the middle Kingston Peak Formation. The diabase sills are up to 450 m thick and have caused at least 20 percent inflation of the Crystal Spring, Beck Spring, and lower Kingston Peak formations. If these sedimentary rocks were deposited at or above wave base, evidence of intraplate rifting or gross stratigraphic inflation is not recorded in the Pahrump stratigraphy until middle and upper Kingston Peak time. Therefore, the stratigraphic and petrologic data suggest that the diabase was emplaced in the Crystal Spring Formation during post-lower but pre-middle Kingston Peak time. The Beck Spring Dolomite and the lower Kingston Peak Formation are older than 1.08 Ga; the contact between the lower and the middle Kingston Peak Formation is a regional disconformity that marks significant changes in the depositional and the tectonic environments of the Pahrump Group at about 1.08 Ga.

  9. The Age of the Ursa Major Moving Group from Interferometric Measurements of Its A-type Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jeremy; White, Russel J.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Schaefer, Gail; Baines, Ellyn K.; Ireland, Michael; Patience, Jenny; McAlister, Harold A.; Ten Brummelaar, Theo

    2015-01-01

    A set of six A-type stars in the nearby Ursa Major moving group have been observed and spatially resolved with the CHARA Array, using the Classic and/or CLIMB beam combiners. At least four of these stars are rapidly rotating (vsini ≥ 170 kms-1) and are expected to be oblate. These interferometric measurements and the stars' observed photometric energy distributions (PEDs) are used to construct oblate star models from which stellar properties (R(θ), T(θ), etc.) are determined. The results are compared with MESA stellar evolution models to determine mass and age. This analysis provides an independently determined mean age estimate for the Ursa Major moving group of 490 Myr with a standard deviation of 98 Myr, consistent with previous age estimates. This validated technique can be used to provide independent age estimates of field A-stars, including those that host directly imaged substellar companions (e.g. HR 8799, κ And).

  10. Ambiguous response of lung lamellar bodies to sauna-like heat stress in two age groups of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Heino, M E

    1980-06-01

    Two groups of adult male rats, aged 2.5 and 5 months, were exposed daily for 12 min to 65 degrees C for five successive periods a week for 6 weeks. Both age groups, and in particular the young one, repeatedly suffered from exhausting heat stress. Lung specimens from cardiac lobes were prepared for light- and electron-microscopy. A significnat increase was noted in the lung lamellar body number in the old test rats, on comparison with old ones employed as controls (p < 0.05). The young group was unresponsive. Consequently, stress induced by increased sympathetic activity is not always a direct stimulus, as had been thought earlier. It seems, at least where heat stress is concerned, that it is the age, weight, and systemic reactions which exercise a great influence upon lamellar body production, and may even overrule the role of sympathetic activity. PMID:7417113

  11. Students' perceptions of being graded as a group in the college classroom: relations among students' age, employment, and perceived group satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Barfield, Rufus L

    2002-12-01

    This investigation compared and measured for different age groups of students, hours of employment, and previous grading experiences of one student cohort in relation to their perceived overall satisfaction with being graded as a group. A cohort of 230 students from a large southern metropolitan university enrolled in sections of two undergraduate classes. Group Interaction and Decision Making and Conflict Management, participated. Analysis indicated that (a) older students (28-47 years) were more likely to be dissatisfied with a group grade experience than middle (23-27 years) and younger (18-22 years) students. (b) Older students working part time were significantly more dissatisfied with the overall group experience than the younger part-time working students. (c) Older part-time working students were significantly more dissatisfied with the overall experience of working and being graded as a group than the middle part-time and middle full-time working students. Differences were noted between the older and younger students, which supported older students' overall dissatisfaction with their experience of being graded as a group. Common complaints by older students were that younger students were immature, irresponsible, lacked "real-life" experience, and had misplaced priorities. Common complaints by younger students were that older students were too serious and rigid. It is recommended that this work be extended to include other comparison groups, graduate students, and other disciplines. PMID:12578270

  12. Equine alpha-fetoprotein levels in Lipizzaner mares with normal pregnancies and with pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Vincze, Boglárka; Gáspárdy, András; Kulcsár, Margit; Baska, Ferenc; Bálint, Ádám; Hegedűs, György Tamás; Szenci, Ottó

    2015-12-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein has proved to be a good indicator of fetal well-being in human medicine for decades. Although this molecule is present in most of the mammalian species including horses, reference values in healthy and high-risk pregnant mares have not yet been published. The aim of the present study was to determine whether equine alpha-fetoprotein (eqAFP) is a good indicator of complicated pregnancies in Lipizzaner mares. A total of 111 serum samples from 30 mares have been analyzed for eqAFP levels throughout gestation (Days 60-325). After the pregnancy was confirmed, 23 mares had normal pregnancies with viable foals, six had late embryonic loss, and one of the mares aborted in the ninth gestational month. Equine alpha-fetoprotein concentrations significantly differed in the normal group (72.93 ± 49.25 pg/mL; mean ± standard deviation) and in the complicated pregnancy loss group (152 ± 36.48 pg/mL; mean ± standard deviation). The mares' age, gestational age, and the conception rate significantly affected the alpha-fetoprotein concentrations in the normal group. Furthermore, notable individual differences occurred in eqAFP concentrations between mares. Equine alpha-fetoprotein seems to be an important indicator of fetal well-being in horses, but there are still some unanswered questions (levels in foals of different age, ponies, and draft horses) regarding this serum protein. Large-scale studies are needed to assess the specificity, sensitivity, and reliability of this test as a possible future diagnostic tool for fetal well-being in horses. PMID:26359849

  13. During Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... During Pregnancy Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Preventing Problems Genetics and Family History Other Concerns Things to Think About Before ...

  14. Multiple Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called multiple pregnancy . If more than one egg is released during the menstrual cycle and each ... fraternal twins (or more). When a single fertilized egg splits, it results in multiple identical embryos. This ...

  15. Pregnancy Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... the hCG. hCG is made when a fertilized egg implants in the uterus. This usually happens about ... conception (when the man's sperm fertilizes the woman's egg). 1 Some home pregnancy tests are more sensitive ...

  16. Pregnancy Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy that ends before 20 weeks is called miscarriage. Miscarriage usually happens because of genetic problems in the ... uterus or cervix might play a role in miscarriage. Health problems, such as polycystic ovary syndrome , might ...

  17. Pregnancy Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... chills, fever, sweats UTIs are treated with antibiotics . Yeast infection An infection caused by an overgrowth of bacteria normally found in the vagina . Yeast infections are more common during pregnancy than in ...

  18. Occurrence of pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes during isotretinoin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Henry, David; Dormuth, Colin; Winquist, Brandace; Carney, Greg; Bugden, Shawn; Teare, Gary; Lévesque, Linda E.; Bérard, Anick; Paterson, J. Michael; Platt, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Isotretinoin, a teratogen, is widely used to treat cystic acne. Although the risks of pregnancy during isotretinoin therapy are well recognized, there are doubts about the level of adherence with the pregnancy prevention program in Canada. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Canadian pregnancy prevention program in 4 provinces: British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Ontario. Methods: Using administrative data, we identified 4 historical cohorts of female users of isotretinoin (aged 12–48 yr) for the period 1996 to 2011. We defined pregnancy using International Statistical Classification of Diseases and billing codes. One definition included only cases with documented pregnancy outcomes (high-specificity definition); the other definition also included individuals recorded as receiving prenatal care (high-sensitivity definition). We studied new courses of isotretinoin and detected pregnancies in 2 time windows: during isotretinoin treatment only and up to 42 weeks after treatment. Live births were followed for 1 year to identify congenital malformations. Results: A total of 59 271 female patients received 102 308 courses of isotretinoin. Between 24.3% and 32.9% of participants received prescriptions for oral contraceptives while they were taking isotretinoin, compared with 28.3% to 35.9% in the 12 months before isotretinoin was started. According to the high-specificity definition of pregnancy, there were 186 pregnancies during isotretinoin treatment (3.1/1000 isotretinoin users), compared with 367 (6.2/1000 users) according to the high-sensitivity definition. By 42 weeks after treatment, there were 1473 pregnancies (24.9/1000 users), according to the high-specificity definition. Of these, 1331 (90.4%) terminated spontaneously or were terminated by medical intervention. Among the 118 live births were 11 (9.3%) cases of congenital malformation. Pregnancy rates during isotretinoin treatment remained constant between 1996 and 2011

  19. Pregnancy at 65, risks and complications

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shailja; Agarwal, Krishna; Gandhi, Gauri

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old postmenopausal pregnant woman was referred with antepartum hemorrhage at 29 weeks of gestation. Postadmission diagnosed with chronic hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, valvular heart disease, and placenta previa. Her pregnancy was terminated by cesarean delivery at 32 weeks as she had a bout of bleeding per vaginum. Most of the placenta was adherent with no plane of cleavage; therefore, cesarean hysterectomy was performed. Baby birth weight was 1650 g and was shifted to nursery for observation and mother needed Intensive Care Unit care postcesarean. On the 15th day, both healthy mother and baby were discharged. Although pregnancy is possible in postmenopausal women with hormone support but the incidence of complications remain very high. It raises a need for developing well-laid guidelines for performing in vitro fertilization in older age group women. PMID:27382238

  20. Age Group Differences in HIV Risk and Mental Health Problems among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2014-01-01

    HIV risk and mental health problems are prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. The purpose of this research was to study age group differences in HIV risk and mental health problems in this population. In the current study we divided a sample of 1,022 FSWs into three age groups (≤20 years, 21– 34 years, and ≥35 years). Results showed that among the three groups (a) older FSWs (≥35 years) were likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged (e.g., rural residency, little education, employment in low-paying venues, and low monthly income); (b) older FSWs reported the highest rates of inconsistent, ineffective condom use and STD history; (c) younger FSWs (≤20 years) reported the highest level of depression, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, regular-partner violence, and substance use; (d) all health-related risks except casual-partner violence were more prevalent among older and younger FSWs than among FSW aged 21–34 years; (e) age had a significant effect on all health indicators except suicide attempts after controlling for several key demographic factors. These findings indicate the need for intervention efforts to address varying needs among FSWs in different age groups. Specific interventional efforts are needed to reduce older FSWs’ exposure to HIV risk; meanwhile, more attention should be given to improve FSWs’ mental health status, especially among younger FSWs. PMID:24410298

  1. Age group estimation in free-ranging African elephants based on acoustic cues of low-frequency rumbles

    PubMed Central

    Stoeger, Angela S.; Zeppelzauer, Matthias; Baotic, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Animal vocal signals are increasingly used to monitor wildlife populations and to obtain estimates of species occurrence and abundance. In the future, acoustic monitoring should function not only to detect animals, but also to extract detailed information about populations by discriminating sexes, age groups, social or kin groups, and potentially individuals. Here we show that it is possible to estimate age groups of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) based on acoustic parameters extracted from rumbles recorded under field conditions in a National Park in South Africa. Statistical models reached up to 70 % correct classification to four age groups (infants, calves, juveniles, adults) and 95 % correct classification when categorising into two groups (infants/calves lumped into one group versus adults). The models revealed that parameters representing absolute frequency values have the most discriminative power. Comparable classification results were obtained by fully automated classification of rumbles by high-dimensional features that represent the entire spectral envelope, such as MFCC (75 % correct classification) and GFCC (74 % correct classification). The reported results and methods provide the scientific foundation for a future system that could potentially automatically estimate the demography of an acoustically monitored elephant group or population. PMID:25821348

  2. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  3. Decrease in Middle Ear Resonance Frequency During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dag, Emine Kutlu; Gulumser, Cagri; Erbek, Seyra

    2016-04-20

    Many physiological changes occur during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to reveal whether there is a change in middle ear resonance frequency during pregnancy. A prospective case-control study was designed at a tertiary referral center. The study included 46 pregnant women at the third trimester (27-40 weeks) and 43 nonpregnant voluntary women. All the study subjects underwent pure-tone audiometry and multifrequency tympanometry. Pure-tone hearing levels at frequencies of 250 to 8000 Hz and resonance frequency values were compared between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Impact of age, side of the tested ear, and weight gained in pregnancy on resonance frequency were evaluated. Air conduction threshold values at frequencies of 250 Hz and 500 Hz were significantly higher in pregnant women than in the control group (P<0.001). Middle ear resonance frequency values of both ears in pregnant women were found to be significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant relation of middle ear resonance frequency values to age or side of the tested ear in both groups (P>0.05). A negative correlation between weight gained in pregnancy and middle ear resonance frequency values was determined for the left ear (correlation coefficient for left ears: -0.348, P=0.018). The results of this study suggest that resonance frequency may be decreased during the pregnancy. More comprehensive studies in which many pregnant women followed regularly before and after pregnancy are needed to have more certain links. PMID:27588163

  4. Decrease in Middle Ear Resonance Frequency During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dag, Emine Kutlu; Gulumser, Cagri; Erbek, Seyra

    2016-01-01

    Many physiological changes occur during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to reveal whether there is a change in middle ear resonance frequency during pregnancy. A prospective case-control study was designed at a tertiary referral center. The study included 46 pregnant women at the third trimester (27-40 weeks) and 43 nonpregnant voluntary women. All the study subjects underwent pure-tone audiometry and multifrequency tympanometry. Pure-tone hearing levels at frequencies of 250 to 8000 Hz and resonance frequency values were compared between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Impact of age, side of the tested ear, and weight gained in pregnancy on resonance frequency were evaluated. Air conduction threshold values at frequencies of 250 Hz and 500 Hz were significantly higher in pregnant women than in the control group (P<0.001). Middle ear resonance frequency values of both ears in pregnant women were found to be significantly lower than those in control group (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant relation of middle ear resonance frequency values to age or side of the tested ear in both groups (P>0.05). A negative correlation between weight gained in pregnancy and middle ear resonance frequency values was determined for the left ear (correlation coefficient for left ears: –0.348, P=0.018). The results of this study suggest that resonance frequency may be decreased during the pregnancy. More comprehensive studies in which many pregnant women followed regularly before and after pregnancy are needed to have more certain links. PMID:27588163

  5. Lower Paleozoic Through Archean Detrital Zircon Ages From Metasedimentary Rocks of the Nome Group, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, J. M.; Miller, E. L.; Gehrels, G.

    2003-12-01

    Metamorphic rocks of Seward Peninsula have been divided into two groups based on their metamorphic grade and history: The Nome Group and the Kigluaik Group. Although it is sometime been assumed that the higher structural position of the Nome Group versus the Kigluaik Group indicates the Kigluaik Group is older, this relationship and the age of the protoliths of these rocks has never been well-established. The Nome Group includes (delete the) lower grade blueschist and greenschist facies rocks which are widespread across the Seward Peninsula (delete) Rock types include pelitic schist, more mafic chlorite-white mica-albite schist, marble, quartzite, and metabasite. An early metamorphic event (pre-120 Ma) occurred at high pressure and relatively low temperature, and is everywhere overprinted by younger deformation and greenschist facies Rare eclogite facies assemblages are preserved in metabasites, and garnet-glaucophane in some of the pelitic schists. The Kigluaik Group includes upper greenschist to granulite facies rocks that are exposed in the core of a gneiss dome. They record a younger event (~91 Ma) that occurred at higher temperatures and resulted in partial thermal overprinting of the Nome Group and upper greenschist to granulite facies assemblages forming in the Kigluaik Group. The Kigluaik Group and equivalent rocks in the Bendeleben and Darby Mountains represent at least in part similar protoliths to many of the units in the Nome Group (Till and Dumoulin, 1994). The boundary between the rocks of the Nome Group and those clearly affected by the second metamorphic event is placed arbitrarily at the "Biotite-in" isograd along the flanks of the gneiss dome. In order to assess the protolith ages and source rock ages for these units, detrital zircon ages were obtained from three samples from the Nome Group, with Kigluaik Group ages forthcoming. LA-MC-ICPMS U/Pb isotope analysis was used for dating. Two samples were collected from the western Kigluaik Mountains

  6. Pharyngeal Pressure Generation during Tongue-Hold Swallows across Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Macrae, Phoebe; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effects of the tongue-hold swallowing maneuver on pharyngeal pressure generation in healthy young and elderly research volunteers. Method: Sixty-eight healthy research volunteers (young, n = 34, mean age = 26.8 years, SD = 5.5; elderly, n = 34, mean age = 72.6 years, SD = 4.8; sex equally represented) performed 5…

  7. Structural Validity of the Movement ABC-2 Test: Factor Structure Comparisons across Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Joerg; Henderson, Sheila E.; Sugden, David A.; Barnett, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Movement ABC test is one of the most widely used assessments in the field of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Improvements to the 2nd edition of the test (M-ABC-2) include an extension of the age range and reduction in the number of age bands as well as revision of tasks. The total test score provides a measure of motor…

  8. A Note on Sex Differences in Mental Rotation in Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Eid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A large number of studies have reported average performance differences in favor of males in mental rotation tasks. However, it is still unclear to what extent the magnitude of the sex differences varies across age, and whether the differences increase with age. In this study, we reanalyzed data from a cross-sectional investigation of N = 1624…

  9. Genetic determination of telomere size in humans: A twin study of three age groups

    SciTech Connect

    Slagboom, P.E.; Droog, S.; Boomsma, D.I.

    1994-11-01

    Reduction of telomere length has been postulated to be a casual factor in cellular aging. Human telomeres terminate in tandemly arranged repeat arrays consisting of the (TTAGGG) motif. The length of these arrays in cells from human mitotic tissues is inversely related to the age of the donor, indicating telomere reduction with age. In addition to telemore length differences between different age cohorts, considerable variation is present among individuals of the same age. To investigate whether this variation can be ascribed to genetic influences, we have measured the size of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) in HaeIII-digested genomic DNA from 123 human MZ and DZ twin pairs 2-95 years of age. The average rate of telomere shortening was 31 bp/year, which is similar to that observed by others. Statistical analysis in 115 pairs 2-63 years of age indicates a 78% heritability for mean TRF length in this age cohort. The individual differences in mean TRF length in blood, therefore, seem to a large extent to be genetically determined. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Engaging Focus Group Methodology: The 4-H Middle School-Aged Youth Learning and Leading Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson

    2015-01-01

    With young people, discussing complex issues such as learning and leading in a focus group can be a challenge. To help prime youth for the discussion, we created a focus group approach that featured a fun, interactive activity. This article includes a description of the focus group activity, lessons learned, and suggestions for additional…

  11. Calibrating the Lower Cretaceous Time Scale with U-Pb Zircon Ages from the Great Valley Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimokawa, A.; Coleman, D. S.; Bralower, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    U-Pb dating of zircons from the Great Valley Group in northern California provides an opportunity to improve the resolution and reliability of the Early Cretaceous Time Scale and enhance its global range and applicability. Well established calcareous nannofossil and macrofossil biostratigraphy, enabled by good preservation, allows for the Great Valley Group to be anchored within the global Geologic Time Scale. Interlayered bentonites contain zircon, which when analyzed via U-Pb ID-TIMS can yield high precision ages. Our understanding of Early Cretaceous events - such as the Cretaceous Normal Polarity Super-Chron and oceanic anoxic events - will be improved by a refined time scale, particularly since the Early Cretaceous is one of the periods most lacking in high-precision radiometric points in the entire Mesozoic. Prior to this study, no U-Pb zircon analyses from the Great Valley Group involved the thermal annealing-chemical abrasion technique. Here, two new TA-CA ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon ages from the McCarty Creek section of the Great Valley Group are presented. The first bentonite is lower Valanginian, from an interval that cannot be biostratigraphically distinguished between NK-3 (Calcicalathina oblongata) and NK-4 (Cruciellipsis cuvillieri) nannofossil biozones, and four concordant dates yield an age of 137.22±0.098Ma. This age corroborates the GTS2008 lower Valanginian boundary age of 140.2Ma, and calls into question previously published Great Valley Group late Berriasian ages: 136.9±0.3Ma for a bentonite from the Stony Creek section, and 137.1±0.6Ma for a bentonite from the Grindstone Creek section. These ages appear to be too young, perhaps as a result of lead loss - the effects of which can be vastly minimized by chemical abrasion. Very preliminary results of re-dating the same aforementioned Grindstone Creek horizon yield an older age of 138.4Ma. The second bentonite is lower Aptian (Chiastozygus litterarius (NK-6) biozone) and three concordant dates yield

  12. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among High-Risk Age Groups in South Korea, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Young Ran; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Jeong, Young Eui

    2016-01-01

    After an extensive vaccination policy, Japanese encephalitis (JE) was nearly eliminated since the mid-1980s in South Korea. Vaccination in children shifted the affected age of JE patients from children to adults. However, an abrupt increase in JE cases occurred in 2010, and this trend has continued. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the JE virus (JEV) among high-risk age groups (≥40 years) in South Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to JEV in 945 subjects within four age groups (30–39, 40–49, 50–59, and 60–69 years) in 10 provinces. Of the 945 enrolled subjects, 927 (98.1%) exhibited antibodies against JEV. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies according to sex, age, or occupation. However, there were significant differences in the plaque reduction rate according to age and occupation; oldest age group had a higher reduction rate, and subjects who were employed in agriculture or forestry also had a higher value than the other occupations. We also found that three provinces (Gangwon, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam) had a relatively lower plaque reduction rate than the other locations. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were conducted to determine recent viral infections and 12 (2.2%) subjects were found to have been recently infected by the virus. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicated that the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies has been maintained at very high levels among adult age groups owing to vaccination or natural infections, or both. In the future, serosurveillance should be conducted periodically using more representative samples to better understand the population-level immunity to JE in South Korea. PMID:26807709

  13. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W.; Crout, Richard J.; Weyant, Robert J.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1–5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6–11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12–17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18–59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1–5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6–11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12–17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  14. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1-5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6-11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12-17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18-59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1-5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6-11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12-17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  15. Trends in diabetes in pregnancy in Sweden 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Fadl, Helena E; Simmons, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diabetes in pregnancy has been shown to increase in parallel with the increasing prevalence of obesity. In this national population-based study, we analyzed the trends for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), type 1 diabetes in pregnancy, and type 2 diabetes in pregnancy in Sweden between 1998 and 2012. Research design and methods A population-based cohort study using the Swedish national medical birth registry data. The time periods were categorized into 3-year intervals and adjusted for maternal body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and age in a logistic regression. Results Each type of diabetes increased over the studied 15-year period. Type 1 diabetes increased by 33.2% (22.2–45.3) and type 2 diabetes by 111% (62.2–174.4) in the adjusted model. Nordic women had the highest prevalence of type 1 diabetes (0·47%) compared with other ethnic groups. The increase in GDM and, to a lesser extent, type 2 diabetes was explained by country of birth, BMI, and maternal age. The prevalence of GDM in Nordic women (0.7–0.8%) did not increase significantly over the time period. Conclusions All types of diabetes in pregnancy increased over the 15-year time period in Sweden. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI remains the key factor explaining the increase in GDM/type 2 diabetes. How to turn around the growing prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy, with its short-term and long-term health effects on both mother and child, requires population-based interventions that reduce the likelihood of entering pregnancy with a raised BMI. PMID:27547412

  16. Live and Non-Live Pregnancy Outcomes among Women with Depression and Anxiety: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Lu; West, Joe; Fiaschi, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Background Women taking antidepressant or anti-anxiety medications during early pregnancy have high risks of non-live pregnancy outcomes, although the contribution of the underlying illnesses to these risks remains unclear. We examined the impacts of antenatal depression and anxiety and of commonly prescribed treatments on the risks of non-live pregnancy outcomes. Methods We identified all pregnancies and their outcome (live birth, perinatal death, miscarriage or termination) among women aged 15–45 years between 1990 and 2009 from a large primary care database in the United Kingdom. Women were grouped according to whether they had no history of depression and anxiety, a diagnosis of such illness prior to pregnancy, illness during pregnancy and illness during pregnancy with use of medication (stratified by medication type). Multinomial logistic regression models were used to compare risks of non-live outcomes among these groups, adjusting for major socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Results Among 512,574 pregnancies in 331,414 women, those with antenatal drug exposure showed the greatest increased risks for all non-live pregnancy outcomes, relative to those with no history of depression or anxiety, although women with prior (but not currently medicated) illness also showed modest increased risks. Compared with un-medicated antenatal morbidity, there was weak evidence of an excess risk in women taking tricyclic antidepressants, and stronger evidence for other medications. Conclusions Women with depression or anxiety have higher risks of miscarriage, perinatal death and decisions to terminate a pregnancy if prescribed psychotropic medication during early pregnancy than if not. Although underlying disease severity could also play a role, avoiding or reducing use of these drugs during early pregnancy may be advisable. PMID:22937052

  17. Effects of Vivax Malaria Acquired Before 20 Weeks of Pregnancy on Subsequent Changes in Fetal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Machado Filho, Amantino C.; da Costa, Elenice P.; da Costa, Emely P.; Reis, Iracema S.; Fernandes, Emanoela A. C.; Paim, Bernardo V.; Martinez-Espinosa, Flor E.

    2014-01-01

    The resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), fetal biometry, fetal heart rate (FHR), placental thickness, and hemoglobin levels were compared in 30 Plasmodium vivax-infected women between 14 and 20 weeks of pregnancy and a control group. Evaluations were performed at the moment of the malaria diagnosis and 26 weeks of pregnancy. The malaria group had lower levels of hemoglobin and greater placental thickness in both assessments, higher FHR in the first evaluation, and lower values on fetal biometry in the second assessment. There were no differences when comparing RI and PI on umbilical arteries between the two groups. Birth weight and height were lower in newborns in the malaria group than the control group. The results suggest that P. vivax infections at an earlier gestational age do not affect umbilical arteries blood flow but do affect fetal biometry in the second trimester of pregnancy and at birth. PMID:24420773

  18. The Association of Sexual Intercourse During Pregnancy With Labor Onset

    PubMed Central

    Kafaei Atrian, Mahboobeh; Sadat, Zohre; Rasolzadeh Bidgoly, Mahbobeh; Abbaszadeh, Fatemeh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy is one of the most critical periods in women's lives. Sexual relationships change in this period. Monitoring of uterine contractions has been shown increase in uterine activity after sexual intercourse in pregnant women. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the association of sexual intercourse during pregnancy with labor onset. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 120 pregnant women with signs of labor onset at referral hospitals of Kashan University of Medical Sciences between November and March 2012. Signs of labor onset included labor pain, bloody show, or rupture of membrane. Subjects were investigated in two groups regarding history of coitus in the last week of pregnancy. A questionnaire containing demographic questions, obstetrical history, and sexual activity was completed by trained midwife through face-to-face interview. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and t-test were used to check the homogeneity of the two groups for basic and confounding variables. Independent-samples t-test was used to compare differences between groups in terms of mean gestational age. Results: There was no significant difference between groups in age (P = 0.434), body mass index (P = 0.705), neonatal weight (P = 0.421), maternal education (P = 0.963), occupation (P = 0.381), and parity (P = 0.925). Gestational age at the time of delivery was significantly lower in intercourse group in comparison with control group based on last menstrual period (P = 0.012) and ultrasonography (P = 0.002). There was no correlation between intercourse and cause of admission (P = 0.720). Type of delivery (cesarean section or vaginal delivery) was not affected by intercourse (P = 0.820) or contact with semen (P = 0.841). Results showed no significant difference in neonatal weight based on presence of sexual intercourse (P = 0.422) or contact with semen (P = 0.583) at the last week of pregnancy. Conclusions: Sexual activity in last week of pregnancy

  19. Methamphetamines and Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Tricia E.; Schuetter, Renee; Tellei, Jacqueline; Sauvage, Lynnae

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Methamphetamine (MA) is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs in pregnancy, yet studies on MA-exposed pregnancy outcomes have been limited because of retrospective measures of drug use, lack of control for confounding factors: other drug use, including tobacco; poverty; poor diet; and lack of prenatal care. This study presents prospective collected data on MA use and birth outcomes, controlling for most confounders. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of women obtaining prenatal care from a clinic treating women with substance use disorders, on whom there are prospectively obtained data on MA and other drug use, including tobacco. MA-exposed pregnancies were compared with non-MA exposed pregnancies as well as non-drug exposed pregnancies, using univariate and multivariate analysis to control for confounders. Results One hundred forty-four infants were exposed to MA during pregnancy, 50 had first trimester exposure only, 45 had continuous use until the second trimester, 29 had continuous use until the third trimester, but were negative at delivery and 20 had positive toxicology at delivery. There were 107 non MA-exposed infants and 59 infants with no drug exposure. Mean birth weights were the same for MA-exposed and non-exposed infants (3159 g vs. 3168 g p=0.9), though smaller than those without any drug exposure (3159 vs. 3321 p=0.04), Infants with positive toxicology at birth (meconium or urine) were smaller than infants with first trimester exposure only (2932 g vs. 3300 g p=0.01). Gestation was significantly shorter among the MA-exposed infants compared to non-exposed infants (38.5 vs. 39.1 weeks p=0.045) and those with no drug exposure (38.5 vs. 39.5 p=0.0011), The infants with positive toxicology at birth had a clinically relevant shortening of gestation (37.3 weeks vs. 39.1 p=0.0002). Conclusions MA use during pregnancy is associated with shorter gestational ages and lower birth weight, especially if used continuously

  20. Age-Related Differences in Functional Nodes of the Brain Cortex – A High Model Order Group ICA Study

    PubMed Central

    Littow, Harri; Elseoud, Ahmed Abou; Haapea, Marianne; Isohanni, Matti; Moilanen, Irma; Mankinen, Katariina; Nikkinen, Juha; Rahko, Jukka; Rantala, Heikki; Remes, Jukka; Starck, Tuomo; Tervonen, Osmo; Veijola, Juha; Beckmann, Christian; Kiviniemi, Vesa J.

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI measured with blood oxygen dependent (BOLD) contrast in the absence of intermittent tasks reflects spontaneous activity of so-called resting state networks (RSN) of the brain. Group level independent component analysis (ICA) of BOLD data can separate the human brain cortex into 42 independent RSNs. In this study we evaluated age-related effects from primary motor and sensory, and, higher level control RSNs. One hundred sixty-eight healthy subjects were scanned and divided into three groups: 55 adolescents (ADO, 13.2 ± 2.4 years), 59 young adults (YA, 22.2 ± 0.6 years), and 54 older adults (OA, 42.7 ± 0.5 years), all with normal IQ. High model order group probabilistic ICA components (70) were calculated and dual-regression analysis was used to compare 21 RSN's spatial differences between groups. The power spectra were derived from individual ICA mixing matrix time series of the group analyses for frequency domain analysis. We show that primary sensory and motor networks tend to alter more in younger age groups, whereas associative and higher level cognitive networks consolidate and re-arrange until older adulthood. The change has a common trend: both spatial extent and the low frequency power of the RSN's reduce with increasing age. We interpret these result as a sign of normal pruning via focusing of activity to less distributed local hubs. PMID:20953235