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Sample records for age groups results

  1. Health practice correlates in three adult age groups: results from two community surveys.

    PubMed

    Rakowski, W; Lefebvre, R C; Assaf, A R; Lasater, T M; Carleton, R A

    1990-01-01

    Independently done surveys of a target population can make an important contribution to knowledge about the determinants of personal health behavior by highlighting variables that consistently emerge as significant predictors. This investigation examined the correlates of four health practice and knowledge indices related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in two baseline community surveys of the Pawtucket Heart Health Program (N = 2,413; N = 2,808). An additional dimension was the use of three adult age groups (18-29, 30-49, 50-64) in conducting the analyses. Results of both surveys showed that sex was the strongest correlate of the four indices--knowledge of CVD, encouraging health practice changes in others, dietary intake, and exercise. The four indices related to CVD were also associated with years of education, primary language, and whether or not a recent cholesterol measurement had been obtained, although these relationships were not as consistent as the results for sex. Overall, about half of each survey's significant associations were also found in the other survey (survey 1, 30 of 62; survey 2, 30 of 56). Consistency of significant results between surveys was best for the group ages 30-49. In either survey, it was rare for an association between a predictor and behavioral index to appear in each of the three age groups. This study supports the importance of the subjects' sex in research on personal health practices, suggests the potential for independence even among health-related indices pertinent to a single type of illness, and emphasizes the usefulness of utilizing independent samples to identify important correlates of health behavior. PMID:2120725

  2. High alcohol consumption in middle aged adults is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socioeconomic group. Results from the GAZEL cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sabia, Séverine; Guéguen, Alice; Berr, Claudine; Berkman, Lisa; Ankri, Joël; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of alcohol consumption over 10 years with cognitive performance in different socioeconomic groups. Design Prospective cohort study, the French GAZEL study. Setting France. Participants Employees of France’s national electricity and gas company. Measurements Alcohol intake was assessed annually, beginning in 1992, using questions on frequency and quantity of alcoholic beverages consumed in a week; used to define mean consumption and trajectory of alcohol intake over 10 years. Cognitive performance among participants aged ≥55 years (N=4073) was assessed in 2002–2004 using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), a measure of psychomotor speed, attention and reasoning. Occupational position at age 35 and education were used as the markers of socioeconomic position. Findings All analyses were stratified by socioeconomic position. In the low occupational group, participants consuming a mean of more than 21 drinks per week had 2.1 points lower (95% CI: −3.9, −0.3) DSST score compared to those consuming 4–14 drinks per week. In participants with primary school education, the corresponding difference was 3.6 points (95% CI: −7.1,−0.0). No association between alcohol consumption and cognitive performance was observed in the intermediate and high socioeconomic groups, defined using either occupation or education. Analysis of trajectories of alcohol consumption showed that in the low socioeconomic groups large increase or decrease in alcohol consumption was associated with lower cognitive scores compared to stable consumption. Conclusions Our results suggest that high alcohol consumption is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socioeconomic group, possibly due to greater cognitive reserve in the higher socioeconomic groups. PMID:20840170

  3. Age grouping to optimize augmentation success.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Robert W

    2010-05-01

    This article has described the different age groups that present for noninvasive injectable lip and perioral augmentation, as well as the breakdown of 3 subgroups that present within the 4 general age groups. With the fundamental understanding of these presenting groups and subgroups, the practicing augmenter will be able to better treatment plan and educate the patient on realistic and optimal aesthetic outcomes.

  4. Barriers and Motivators to Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Uptake among Different Age Groups of Men in Zimbabwe: Results from a Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Hatzold, Karin; Mavhu, Webster; Jasi, Phineas; Chatora, Kumbirai; Cowan, Frances M.; Taruberekera, Noah; Mugurungi, Owen; Ahanda, Kim; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background We conducted quantitative and qualitative studies to explore barriers and motivating factors to VMMC for HIV prevention, and to assess utilization of existing VMMC communication channels. Methods and Findings A population-based survey was conducted with 2350 respondents aged 15–49. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis between circumcision and selected demographics. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of male circumcision uptake compared to intention to circumcise. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with men purposively selected to represent a range of ethnicities. 68% and 53% of female/male respondents, respectively, had heard about VMMC for HIV prevention, mostly through the radio (71%). Among male respondents, 11.3% reported being circumcised and 49% reported willingness to undergo VMMC. Factors which men reported motivated them to undergo VMMC included HIV/STI prevention (44%), improved hygiene (26%), enhanced sexual performance (6%) and cervical cancer prevention for partner (6%). Factors that deterred men from undergoing VMMC included fear of pain (40%), not believing that they were at risk of HIV (18%), lack of partner support (6%). Additionally, there were differences in motivators and barriers by age. FGDs suggested additional barriers including fear of HIV testing, partner refusal, reluctance to abstain from sex and myths and misconceptions. Conclusions VMMC demand-creation messages need to be specifically tailored for different ages and should emphasize non-HIV prevention benefits, such as improved hygiene and sexual appeal, and need to address men's fear of pain. Promoting VMMC among women is crucial as they appear to have considerable influence over men's decision to get circumcised. PMID:24802746

  5. Recent results: biomarkers of aging.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Thomas E

    2006-12-01

    This communication reviews recent papers attempting to identify Biomarkers of Aging (BoA). A BoA is a biological parameter that will predict functional capability at some later age. Few, if any, BoA have been found and this review describes the recent search for BoA. Among others that have been put forward are IL6 and other markers of inflammation, allostatic load, and corticosterone, which have been described primarily in humans. Work in model systems as well as theoretical work are also reviewed.

  6. Speech Differences of Factory Worker Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    This article, which focuses on speech differences of age groups, is part of a larger study of occupational jargon, its characteristics and underlying features and the part it plays in reflecting the workers' knowledge of their jobs and their attitudes toward jobs in general. The project incorporated a case method of research in a china factory.…

  7. [The electrocardiogram in the paediatric age group].

    PubMed

    Sanches, M; Coelho, A; Oliveira, E; Lopes, A

    2014-09-01

    A properly interpreted electrocardiogram (ECG) provides important information and is an inexpensive and easy test to perform. It continues to be the method of choice for the diagnosis of arrhythmias. Although the principles of cardiac electrophysiology are the same, there are anatomical and physiological age-dependent changes which produce specific alterations in the paediatric ECG, and which may be misinterpreted as pathological. The intention of this article is to address in a systematic way the most relevant aspects of the paediatric ECG, to propose a possible reading scheme of the ECG and to review the electrocardiograph tracings most frequently found in the paediatric age group.

  8. [Lycopene intake by different aged women groups].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice. PMID:20839464

  9. Clobazam is equally safe and efficacious for seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome across different age groups: Post hoc analyses of short- and long-term clinical trial results.

    PubMed

    Ng, Yu-Tze; Conry, Joan; Mitchell, Wendy G; Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Isojarvi, Jouko; Lee, Deborah; Drummond, Rebecca; Chung, Steve

    2015-05-01

    The peak age at onset of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is between 3 and 5years. Patients with LGS frequently experience multiple types of treatment-refractory seizures and require lifelong therapy with several antiepileptic drugs. Here, post hoc analyses of clinical trials (phase III trial OV-1012 and open-label extension trial OV-1004) provide short- and long-term efficacy and safety data of adjunctive clobazam in patients with LGS stratified by age at baseline (≥2 to <12years, ≥12 to <17years, and ≥17years). In OV-1012, 301 patients were screened, 238 were randomized, 217 comprised the modified intention-to-treat population, and 177 completed the study. A total of 267/306 patients (61 of 68 from phase II trial OV-1002 and 206 of 238 from phase III trial OV-1012) entered the open-label extension trial. Demographics and clinical characteristics were similar between different age groups in OV-1012 and OV-1004. No differences in efficacy or adverse events were observed across age groups in OV-1012 and OV-1004. The results of these post hoc analyses show that adjunctive clobazam over the short and longterm was similarly effective and well-tolerated in both pediatric and adult patients with LGS.

  10. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  11. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  12. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  13. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  14. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  15. Language Assessment Methods for Three Age Groups of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Ann R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes results of a survey of licensed Midwestern school-based speech-language pathologists (N=326) regarding methods used to assess the language of children ages 3 to 5 years, 6 to 11 years, and 12 to 18 years. Striking similarities were found in methods used for each age group. The relationship of these methods to recommended…

  16. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  17. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    PubMed Central

    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished. PMID:23476644

  18. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention.

  19. Adult Age, Gender, and Race Group Differences in Images of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foos, Paul W.; Clark, M. Cherie; Terrell, Debra F.

    2006-01-01

    Younger and older African American and Caucasian American adults, who were matched by age ("M" age = 40.63 years), completed a survey on perceptions of aging and subjective age. The 2 groups did not differ in the age they considered someone to be old ("M" age = 74.5 years). However, when asked which age was the happiest age, African Americans…

  20. Results of LWR snubber aging research

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D P; Werry, E V; Blahnik, D E

    1992-05-01

    This report describes the aging research results and recommendations for snubbers used in commercial nuclear power plants. Snubbers are safety-related devices used to restrain undesirable dynamic loads at various piping and equipment locations in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Each snubber must accommodate a plant's normal thermal movements and must be capable of restraining the maximum off-normal dynamic loads, such as a seismic event or a transient, postulated for its specific location. The effects of snubber aging and the factors that contribute to the degradation of their safety performance need to be better understood. Thus, Phase II of Nuclear Plant Aging Research was conducted to enhance the understanding of snubber aging and its consequences. Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff and their subcontractors, Lake Engineering and Wyle Laboratories, visited eight sites (encompassing thirteen plants) to conduct interviews with NPP staff and to collect data on snubber aging, testing, and maintenance. The Phase II research methodology, evaluation, results, conclusions, and recommendations are described in the report. Effective methods for service-life monitoring of snubbers are included in the recommendations.

  1. Differences by age groups in health care spending.

    PubMed

    Fisher, C R

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents differences by age in health care spending by type of expenditure and by source of funds through 1978. Use of health care services generally increases with age. The average health bill reached $2,026 for the aged in 1978, $764 for the intermediate age group, and $286 for the young. Biological, demographic, and policy factors determine each age group's share of health spending. Public funds financed over three-fifths of the health expenses of the aged, with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 58 percent. Most of the health expenses of the young age groups were paid by private sources. PMID:10309224

  2. Predictive aging results in radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Kenneth T.; Clough, Roger L.

    1993-06-01

    We have previously derived a time-temperature-dose rate superposition methodology, which, when applicable, can be used to predict polymer degradation versus dose rate, temperature and exposure time. This methodology results in predictive capabilities at the low dose rates and long time periods appropriate, for instance, to ambient nuclear power plant environments. The methodology was successfully applied to several polymeric cable materials and then verified for two of the materials by comparisons of the model predictions with 12 year, low-dose-rate aging data on these materials from a nuclear environment. In this paper, we provide a more detailed discussion of the methodology and apply it to data obtained on a number of additional nuclear power plant cable insulation (a hypalon, a silicone rubber and two ethylene-tetrafluoroethylenes) and jacket (a hypalon) materials. We then show that the predicted, low-dose-rate results for our materials are in excellent agreement with long-term (7-9 year) low-dose-rate results recently obtained for the same material types actually aged under bnuclear power plant conditions. Based on a combination of the modelling and long-term results, we find indications of reasonably similar degradation responses among several different commercial formulations for each of the following "generic" materials: hypalon, ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene, silicone rubber and PVC. If such "generic" behavior can be further substantiated through modelling and long-term results on additional formulations, predictions of cable life for other commercial materials of the same generic types would be greatly facilitated.

  3. Pretreatment cytogenetics add to other prognostic factors predicting complete remission and long-term outcome in patients 60 years of age or older with acute myeloid leukemia: results from Cancer and Leukemia Group B 8461

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Sherif S.; Archer, Kellie J.; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Ruppert, Amy S.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Vardiman, James W.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Baer, Maria R.; Qumsiyeh, Mazin B.; Koduru, Prasad R.; Ning, Yi; Mayer, Robert J.; Stone, Richard M.; Larson, Richard A.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the relative prognostic significance of cytogenetics in 635 adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients 60 years of age or older treated on front-line protocols. Classification trees and tree-structured survival analysis (TSSA) were used to identify important cytogenetic groups, and their prognostic significance was then assessed in multivariable analysis (MVA). Overall, 48.5% achieved complete remission (CR); 6.6% survived at 5 years. Complex karyotypes with at least 3 abnormalities (complex ≥ 3) and a group including “rare aberrations” predicted lower CR rates (25% and 30%) versus other patients (56%). Compared with complex ≥ 3, the odds of CR were significantly higher for noncomplex karyotypes without rare aberrations on MVA. Cytogenetically, complex ≥ 5 predicted inferior disease-free survival on TSSA, remaining significant on MVA together with white blood cell count (WBC), sex, and age. For survival, complex ≥ 5, rare aberrations, and core-binding factor (CBF) abnormalities were prognostic (P < .001), with 5-year survivals of 0%, 0%, and 19.4%, respectively, and 7.5% for remaining patients. Together with WBC, marrow blasts, sex, and age, the cytogenetic groups remained significant on MVA. In conclusion, pretreatment cytogenetics adds to other prognostic factors in older AML patients. Patients with complex ≥ 5 appear to benefit minimally from current treatment and are better suited for investigational therapy or supportive care. (Blood. 2006;108:63-73) PMID:16522815

  4. Coupling of Temperament with Mental Illness in Four Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament. PMID:27154370

  5. Learning science in small multi-age groups: the role of age composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-06-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by pre-primary children aged 4-6. The second part included one primary class attended by students aged 6-8 in addition to the pre-primary classes. Students were involved in inquiry-based science activities. Two sources of data were used: Lesson recordings and children's assessments. The data from both sources were separately analyzed and the findings plotted. The resulting graphs indicate a linear relationship between the overall performance of the younger children in a class and the number of older ones participating in the groups in each class. It seems that the age composition of the groups can significantly affect the overall cognitive achievements of the younger children and preferentially determines the time within which this factor reaches its maximum value. The findings can be utilized in deciding the age composition of small groups in a class with the aim of facilitating the younger children's learning in science.

  6. Appendicitis in the Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, Samuel B.; Nazem, Ahmad

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 35 patients aged 2 to 20 years who were seen at the District of Columbia General Hospital and Howard University Hospital over a three-year period (1984 to 1986) was performed. All patients were operated on with a preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A normal appendix was found in 17 percent of patients, of which the majority was adolescent girls. Of those patients with acute appendicitis, 41 percent had perforated appendices, and one half of these were judged to be complicated. At diagnosis or at reoperation, one half of the patients were maintained on single-antibiotic therapy, the other half were maintained on triple-antibiotic therapy. The average hospital stay was 26.6 days, with no significant difference between those patients on single- or triple-antibiotic coverage. The average hospital stay for patients with uncomplicated appendicitis was six days. PMID:3385787

  7. [Construction of age group vegetation index and preliminary application].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhang-hua; Li, Cong-hui; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-yong; Gong, Cong-hong; Tang, Meng-ya

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper, one remote sensing index-age group vegetation index (AGVI) was put forward, and its feasibility was verified. Taking 518 groups of pine forest age group data collected in 13 counties (cities) of Sanming, Jiangle, Shaxian, Nanping, Huaan, Yunxiao, Nanping, Anxi, Putian, Changting, Jianyang, Ningde and Fuqing, Fujian Province and HJ-1 CCD multi-spectral image at the same time-phase as the basis, the spectrum differences of blue, green, red, near infrared and NDVI of each age group were analyzed, showing the characteristics of young forest>middle-aged forest>over-mature forest>mature forest>near mature forest at near infrared band and mature forest>near mature forest>over-mature forest>young forest>middle-aged forest at NDVI, thus the age group vegetation index (AGVI) was constructed; the index could increase the absolute and relative spectrum differences among age groups. For the pine forest AGVI, cluster analysis was conducted with K-mean method, showing that the division accuracy of pine forest age group was 80.45%, and the accurate rate was 90.41%. Therefore, the effectiveness of age group vegetation index constructed was confirmed.

  8. The Educational Needs of the 16-19 Age Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janne, Henri; Geminard, Lucien

    Reports for the Council of Europe were the basis for this study of the educational needs of the 16-19 age group. The first of four sections, on sociological aspects, contains five chapters: socio-cultural characteristics of the 16-19 age group; quantitative aspects of education; equality of educational opportunity; and an overview of the…

  9. School's Out! Group Day Care for the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth; Milich, Cynthia

    This report on group day care is designed to: (1) examine the kinds of group programs for school-age children which exist in Los Angeles County, (2) describe the conditions necessary for program operation, and (3) consider the issue of quality as it relates to community expansion of day care services for children of school age. The report is…

  10. The Stellar Observations Network Group - first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoci, Victoria; Grundahl, Frank; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Kjeldsen, Hans

    2015-08-01

    SONG - the Stellar Observations Network Group is a Danish-led project set to design and build a global network of 1-m telescopes to carry out detailed studies of solar-like stars using asteroseismology and to discover and characterise exo-planets and their star system. Here we present more than 100 nights of high-precision radial velocity measurements from 2014 of the subgiant mu Herculis. Preliminary analyses of the largest ground-based data set ever obtained for such as star clearly show the detection of stochastically excited pressure modes. The high quality of our data allows unique extraction of individual modes over many orders in the frequency spectrum, leading to studies of rotation, convection, near-surface effects, core structure using mixed modes and stellar activity.

  11. Parkinson's disease as a result of aging.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Manuel; Rodriguez-Sabate, Clara; Morales, Ingrid; Sanchez, Alberto; Sabate, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    It is generally considered that Parkinson's disease is induced by specific agents that degenerate a clearly defined population of dopaminergic neurons. Data commented in this review suggest that this assumption is not as clear as is often thought and that aging may be critical for Parkinson's disease. Neurons degenerating in Parkinson's disease also degenerate in normal aging, and the different agents involved in the etiology of this illness are also involved in aging. Senescence is a wider phenomenon affecting cells all over the body, whereas Parkinson's disease seems to be restricted to certain brain centers and cell populations. However, reviewed data suggest that Parkinson's disease may be a local expression of aging on cell populations which, by their characteristics (high number of synaptic terminals and mitochondria, unmyelinated axons, etc.), are highly vulnerable to the agents promoting aging. The development of new knowledge about Parkinson's disease could be accelerated if the research on aging and Parkinson's disease were planned together, and the perspective provided by gerontology gains relevance in this field.

  12. Parkinson's disease as a result of aging

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Manuel; Rodriguez-Sabate, Clara; Morales, Ingrid; Sanchez, Alberto; Sabate, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    It is generally considered that Parkinson's disease is induced by specific agents that degenerate a clearly defined population of dopaminergic neurons. Data commented in this review suggest that this assumption is not as clear as is often thought and that aging may be critical for Parkinson's disease. Neurons degenerating in Parkinson's disease also degenerate in normal aging, and the different agents involved in the etiology of this illness are also involved in aging. Senescence is a wider phenomenon affecting cells all over the body, whereas Parkinson's disease seems to be restricted to certain brain centers and cell populations. However, reviewed data suggest that Parkinson's disease may be a local expression of aging on cell populations which, by their characteristics (high number of synaptic terminals and mitochondria, unmyelinated axons, etc.), are highly vulnerable to the agents promoting aging. The development of new knowledge about Parkinson's disease could be accelerated if the research on aging and Parkinson's disease were planned together, and the perspective provided by gerontology gains relevance in this field. PMID:25677794

  13. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  14. Short-term memory development: differences in serial position curves between age groups and latent classes.

    PubMed

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2014-10-01

    In studies on the development of cognitive processes, children are often grouped based on their ages before analyzing the data. After the analysis, the differences between age groups are interpreted as developmental differences. We argue that this approach is problematic because the variance in cognitive performance within an age group is considered to be measurement error. However, if a part of this variance is systematic, it can provide very useful information about the cognitive processes used by some children of a certain age but not others. In the current study, we presented 210 children aged 5 to 12 years with serial order short-term memory tasks. First we analyze our data according to the approach using age groups, and then we apply latent class analysis to form latent classes of children based on their performance instead of their ages. We display the results of the age groups and the latent classes in terms of serial position curves, and we discuss the differences in results. Our findings show that there are considerable differences in performance between the age groups and the latent classes. We interpret our findings as indicating that the latent class analysis yielded a much more meaningful way of grouping children in terms of cognitive processes than the a priori grouping of children based on their ages.

  15. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  16. Maximum Bite Force Analysis in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Patricia; Vieira, Marilena; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF) is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI), using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo), and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil), on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups. PMID:25992105

  17. Leadership in Groups of School-Age Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Cynthia A.

    1994-01-01

    Examined correlates and predictors of leadership in school-age female groups. Subjects were fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade girls enrolled in 16 Girl Scout troops. Leadership and personal characteristics were measured. Found a consistent relationship between leadership status and a managerial leadership style. Long-term informal leadership was…

  18. Youth Assets and Delayed Coitarche across Developmental Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that assets are associated with youth abstinence, but whether these relationships are constant across developmental age groups has not been shown. Data for this study were obtained from two independent datasets collected across a 2-year period using in-person, in-home interviews of youth (52% female; 44% Caucasian,…

  19. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  20. Polycomb group proteins in hematopoietic stem cell aging and malignancies.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Karin; de Haan, Gerald

    2011-07-01

    Protection of the transcriptional "stemness" network is important to maintain a healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compartment during the lifetime of the organism. Recent evidence shows that fundamental changes in the epigenetic status of HSCs might be one of the driving forces behind many age-related HSC changes and might pave the way for HSC malignant transformation and subsequent leukemia development, the incidence of which increases exponentially with age. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are key epigenetic regulators of HSC cellular fate decisions and are often found to be misregulated in human hematopoietic malignancies. In this review, we speculate that PcG proteins balance HSC aging against the risk of developing cancer, since a disturbance in PcG genes and proteins affects several important cellular processes such as cell fate decisions, senescence, apoptosis, and DNA damage repair.

  1. Minority group status and healthful aging: social structure still matters.

    PubMed

    Angel, Jacqueline L; Angel, Ronald J

    2006-07-01

    During the last 4 decades, a rapid increase has occurred in the number of survey-based and epidemiological studies of the health profiles of adults in general and of the causes of disparities between majority and minority Americans in particular. According to these studies, healthful aging consists of the absence of disease, or at least of the most serious preventable diseases and their consequences, and findings consistently reveal serious African American and Hispanic disadvantages in terms of healthful aging. We (1) briefly review conceptual and operational definitions of race and Hispanic ethnicity, (2) summarize how ethnicity-based differentials in health are related to social structures, and (3) emphasize the importance of attention to the economic, political, and institutional factors that perpetuate poverty and undermine healthful aging among certain groups.

  2. Report on Results of Focus Groups Conducted with People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Human Services, Augusta. Bureau of Health.

    This report describes results of six focus groups of people with disabilities convened by the Maine Bureau of Health to determine the feelings, attitudes, and experiences of this population. Four groups were comprised of adults ranging in age from the early twenties to the late seventies; two groups were comprised of adolescents and young adults.…

  3. Performance of four age groups of normal elderly on the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test.

    PubMed

    Mitrushina, M; Satz, P; Chervinsky, A; D'Elia, L

    1991-05-01

    This study explored effect of age on encoding, retention, and retrieval components of memory functioning in a sample of 156 healthy, elderly subjects between the ages of 57 and 85, partitioned into four age groups. Memory assessment was based on subjects' performance on the RAVLT, which consisted of five free-recall trials, recall after interference, and recognition trial. Significant group differences in recall were found on all five learning trials, whereas rates of learning, forgetting, and recognition did not differ for four age groups. In addition, primacy/recency effect was equally strong for all groups. Results suggest faulty retrieval mechanisms, whereas encoding and retention processes did not prove to be affected by aging.

  4. Identification of Normal Blood Pressure in Different Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Chen, Yen-Lin; Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Pei, Dee; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The concept of using single criterion of normal blood pressure with systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < 90 mmHg for all ages is still disputable. The aim of the study is to identify the cutoff value of normotension in different age and sex groups. Totally, 127,922 (63,724 men and 64,198 women) were enrolled for the analysis. Finally, four fifths of them were randomly selected as the study group and the other one fifths as the validation group. Due the tight relationship with comorbidities from cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MetS) was used as a surrogate to replace the actual cardiovascular outcomes in the younger subjects. For SBP, MetS predicted by our equation had a sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 67% in males and 65%, 83% in females, respectively. At the same time, they are 61%, 73% in males and 73%, 86% in females for DBP, respectively. These sensitivity, specificity, odds ratio, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from our equations are all better than those derived from the criteria of 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg in both genders. By using the presence of MetS as the surrogate of CVD, the regression equations between SBP, DBP, and age were built in both genders. These new criteria are proved to have better sensitivity and specificity for MetS than either 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg. These simple equations should be used in clinical settings for early prevention of CVD. PMID:27057846

  5. Disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (Crossbred) males in organized herd

    PubMed Central

    Panmei, Achun; Gupta, A. K.; Shivahre, P. R.; Bhakat, M.; Singh, K. Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to analyze the disposal rate in different age groups of Karan Fries (KF) males in National Dairy Research Institute herd. Materials and Methods: Records on 1740 KF crossbred bulls born during the period 1997-2012 were collected with an objective to ascertain the effect of genetic and non-genetic (Period of birth and season of birth) factors on the disposal pattern of KF males. The percent of animals disposed from the herd due to mortality and culling was calculated by proportion using descriptive statistics. The data were subjected to Chi-square test to test the difference due to different factors. Results: Overall disposal rate for the different age groups of 0-1 m, 1-2 m, 2-3 m, 3-6 m, 6-18 m, 18 m-3 year and 3-5 year were calculated as 17.9, 16.3, 14.2, 25.8, 49.0, 37.6 and 51.65%, respectively. In the age groups, 3-6 m, 6-18 m and 3-5 year, effect of periods of birth were found to be statistically significant (p<0.01) for overall disposal rate. Across different seasons of birth, overall disposal rates differed significantly (p<0.01) in different age group except in 3-5 year age group. Differences in overall disposal rate due to genetic group were statistically significant (p<0.01) in 1-2 m, 2-3 m, 3-6 m, 6-18 m, 18-3 year and 3-5 year age groups. Conclusion: Overview of the results indicated that higher overall disposal rate in age group of 1 month was due to mortality while, in the age groups of >1 month, culling was the primary cause. PMID:27047071

  6. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  7. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Rong-liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-jun; Wang, Yu-Long; Ji, Qing-hai

    2016-01-01

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were built to analyze the outcomes and risk factors. Increasing age gradient with a 10-year interval was associated with the trend of higher proportions for male gender, grade III/IV and summary stage of distant metastases. Both CSS and OS continued to worsen with increasing age, being poorest in in the oldest age group (≥71); multivariate analysis confirmed that CSS continued to fall with each age decade, significantly starting at 60 years (HR = 7.5, 95% 1.0–54.1, p = 0.047) compared to the young group (≤20). Similarly, multivariate analysis suggested that OS continued worsening with increasing age, but starting at 40 years (HR = 3.7, 95% 1.4–10.1, p = 0.009) compared to the young group. The current study suggests that an age exceeding 60 years itself represents an unfavorable prognostic factor and high risk for cancer-specific death in DTC. PMID:27272218

  8. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  9. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated.

  10. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  11. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Worby, Colin J.; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic’s peak. We found children aged 11–12y, 13–14y and 8–10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak’s ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11–12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak’s ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8–10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8–14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation. PMID:26278132

  12. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak.

    PubMed

    Worby, Colin J; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-08-17

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic's peak. We found children aged 11-12y, 13-14y and 8-10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak's ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11-12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak's ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8-10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8-14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation.

  13. Scurvy in pediatric age group – A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009–2014) with search terms “scurvy” “vitamin C deficiency” “ascorbic acid deficiency” “scurvy and children” “scurvy and pediatric age group”. There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  14. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  15. Are lorazepam-induced deficits in attention similar to those resulting from aging?

    PubMed

    Fluck, E; Fernandes, C; File, S E

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to compare, in three tasks of attention, the impairment caused by lorazepam (1 and 2.5 mg) administered to young volunteers with the impairment that results from aging. Performance on digit cancellation (DC), digit-symbol substitution (DSS), and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) was significantly impaired by lorazepam (2.5 mg) and was significantly worse in the middle-aged group (mean +/- SEM, aged 58.9+/-0.8 years) compared with the younger, IQ-matched group (20.7+/-0.2 years). However, there were interesting differences in the extent of impairments among the three tests. In the DC test, lorazepam (2.5 mg) produced a significantly greater impairment than was seen in either the middle-aged men or middle-aged women. However, in the DSS test, the middle-aged women were significantly more impaired than either the middle-aged men or the young volunteers tested after lorazepam (2.5 mg). In the PASAT, both the lorazepam (2.5 mg) group and the middle-aged women were more impaired than the middle-aged men. These results raise the important possibility of gender differences in age-related decline of attentional processes.

  16. Justice between age groups: an objection to the prudential lifespan approach.

    PubMed

    Jecker, Nancy S

    2013-01-01

    Societal aging raises challenging ethical questions regarding the just distribution of health care between young and old. This article considers a proposal for age-based rationing of health care, which is based on the prudential life span account of justice between age groups. While important objections have been raised against the prudential life span account, it continues to dominate scholarly debates. This article introduces a new objection, one that develops out of the well-established disability critique of social contract theories. I show the implications of this critique for the prudential life span account and for the special case of age-group justice. The result is that age-based rationing based on the prudential life span approach is not supported, and that the prudential life span approach itself is not the best way to think about allocating health care between age groups. I propose an alternative approach that avoids the disability objection, and consider its implications for specific proposals for age-based rationing of health care.

  17. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436

  18. AR-aging as a new approach for enhanced results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, C.; Stemmler, R. P.

    1998-12-01

    MAR-aging steels have earned a niche in the metal market arena, especially where aerospace and outerspace applications are concerned. MAR-aging steels owe their high strength, excellent fracture toughness, and good ductility to a precipitation-hardening (aging) mechanism that has been debated by scientists for several years. Because of today’s trend toward more demanding design requirements and a continuing need to better understand the MAR-aging family of materials, six different alloys (C-200, C-250, C-300, C-350, T-250, and T-300) were selected for study using a singular processing treatment: a hot-wall zone-gradient furnace. These alloys were evaluated for the effects of a specific thermal gradient (°C/cm) from 1231 °C (2250 °F) at the hot-wall limit to about 260 °C (500 °F) at the opposite end, the cold wall. All six alloys were evaluated in terms of their microstructure, microhardness, composition, and associated properties as a result of this specific thermal processing method. In this paper, detailed observations on the C-350 alloy are presented, and the results are interpreted in terms of a new heat treatment cycle called AR-aging.

  19. Effect of Age Group on Technical-Tactical Performance Profile of the Serve in Men's Volleyball.

    PubMed

    García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical-tactical performance profile of the serve for various age groups and categories of competition in men's volleyball. The sample comprised 13,262 serves performed by 986 players in 299 sets observed in various categories of competition (U-14, U-16, U-19, national senior, and international senior). An observational design was used. The variables studied were category of competition, type of execution, and serve performance. The results showed that for higher age groups (senior categories), there were significantly fewer jump serves and poorer serve performance, regardless of players' maturity and training development. The use of the jump serves increased the serve risk while attempting to hinder the organization of the opponent attack. This paper discusses the serve evolution and the implications on the training process at the different age groups in men's volleyball. PMID:27468992

  20. Accelerated aging test results for aerospace wire insulation constructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Several wire insulation constructions were evaluated with and without continuous glow discharges at low pressure and high temperature to determine the aging characteristics of acceptable wire insulation constructions. It was known at the beginning of the test program that insulation aging takes several years when operated at normal ambient temperature and pressure of 20 C and 760 torr. Likewise, it was known that the accelerated aging process decreases insulation life by approximately 50% for each 10 C temperature rise. Therefore, the first phases of the program, not reported in these test results, were to select wire insulation constructions that could operate at high temperature and low pressure for over 10,000 hours with negligible shrinkage and little materials' deterioration.The final phase of the program was to determine accelerated aging characteristics. When an insulation construction is subjected to partial discharges the insulation is locally heated by the bombardment of the discharges, the insulation is also subjected to ozone and other deteriorating gas particles that may significantly increase the aging process. Several insulation systems using either a single material or combinations of teflon, kapton, and glass insulation constructions were tested. All constructions were rated to be partial discharge and/or corona-free at 240 volts, 400 Hz and 260 C (500 F) for 50, 000 hours at altitudes equivalent to the Paschen law. Minimum partial discharge aging tests were preceded by screening tests lasting 20 hours at 260 C. The aging process was accelerated by subjecting the test articles to temperatures up to 370 C (700 F) with and without partial discharges. After one month operation with continuous glow discharges surrounding the test articles, most insulation systems were either destroyed or became brittle, cracked, and unsafe for use. Time with space radiation as with partial discharges is accumulative.

  1. A Comparison of Speech Synthesis Intelligibility with Listeners from Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirenda, Pat; Beukelman, David R.

    1987-01-01

    The study evaluated the intelligibility of three different types of speech synthesizers (Echo II+, Votrax Personal Speech System, and DECtalk) with children at two different age groups and adults. Results are reported in terms of their educational application with communication disordered persons. (Author/DB)

  2. Locus of Control and Other Psycho-Social Parameters in Successful American Age-Group Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Edmund J., Jr.; Straub, William F.

    Psycho-social factors in successful age-group swimmers were explored in this study. The subjects were 50 female and 39 male participants in the 1975 Amateur Athletic Union National Junior Olympics who were asked to answer a set of questions from an open-ended questionnaire. The results support a picture of young persons who invest a great deal of…

  3. Smokers' expectancies for abstinence: preliminary results from focus groups.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Peter S; Wood, Sabrina B; Hall, Sharon M

    2009-06-01

    Smokers' expectancies regarding the effects of cigarette use are powerful predictors of smoking motivation and behavior. However, studies have not investigated the consequences that smokers expect when they attempt to quit smoking: abstinence-related expectancies. The primary goal of this qualitative study was to gain initial insight into smokers' expectancies for abstinence. Eight focus groups were conducted with 30 smokers diverse with respect to age, gender, and ethnoracial background. Content analyses indicated that smokers anticipate a variety of outcomes from abstinence. The most frequently reported expectancies included pharmacologic withdrawal symptoms, behavioral withdrawal symptoms, decreased monetary expense, and immediate improvement of certain aspects of physical functioning and health. Additional expectancies concerned weight gain, improved attractiveness, enhanced social functioning/self-esteem, long-term health outcomes, and loss of relationships. Finally, a number of relatively unheralded expectancies were revealed. These involved nicotine replacement therapy effectiveness, alcohol and other drug use, cue reactivity, cessation-related social support, aversion to smoking, and "political process" implications. This study provides a preliminary step in understanding smokers' expectancies for abstinence from cigarettes. PMID:19586157

  4. Behavioral Group Work in a Home for the Aged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsk, N.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Elderly people in institutions frequently become isolated and noncommunicative. By using behavioral measurements of group workers and group members, the authors have formulated ways of treatment that encourage members to participate more actively. (Author)

  5. The Ages of A-Stars. I. Interferometric Observations and Age Estimates for Stars in the Ursa Major Moving Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jeremy; White, R. J.; Boyajian, T.; Schaefer, G.; Baines, E.; Ireland, M.; Patience, J.; ten Brummelaar, T.; McAlister, H.; Ridgway, S. T.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Farrington, C.; Goldfinger, P. J.

    2015-11-01

    We have observed and spatially resolved a set of seven A-type stars in the nearby Ursa Major moving group with the Classic, CLIMB, and PAVO beam combiners on the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy Array. At least four of these stars have large rotational velocities (v{sin}i ≳ 170 {km} {{{s}}}-1) and are expected to be oblate. These interferometric measurements, the stars’ observed photometric energy distributions, and v{sin}i values are used to computationally construct model oblate stars from which stellar properties (inclination, rotational velocity, and the radius and effective temperature as a function of latitude, etc.) are determined. The results are compared with MESA stellar evolution models to determine masses and ages. The value of this new technique is that it enables the estimation of the fundamental properties of rapidly rotating stars without the need to fully image the star. It can thus be applied to stars with sizes comparable to the interferometric resolution limit as opposed to those that are several times larger than the limit. Under the assumption of coevality, the spread in ages can be used as a test of both the prescription presented here and the MESA evolutionary code for rapidly rotating stars. With our validated technique, we combine these age estimates and determine the age of the moving group to be 414 ± 23 Myr, which is consistent with, but much more precise than previous estimates.

  6. The Feasibility of a Group Bender-Gestalt Test for Preschool and Primary School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Denis P.

    1975-01-01

    Study devised and tested a method for group administration of the Bender-Gestalt Test that would be feasible for screening large groups of beginning school-age children. Results indicate that the group method of presentation can yield results as valid and reliable as the traditional individual method of administration. (Author)

  7. Does age at orchidopexy impact on the results of testicular sperm extraction?

    PubMed

    Wiser, A; Raviv, G; Weissenberg, R; Elizur, S E; Levron, J; Machtinger, R; Madgar, I

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the affect of age at the time of orchidopexy on testicular sperm extraction (TESE) results among patients with a history of cryptorchidism and azoospermia. This retrospective study compared TESE results for couples undergoing IVF treatment, among two groups of patients. Group A included patients who underwent orchidopexy at age 10 and younger, and group B included patients who had the procedure above the age of 10. A total of 42 patients were included in the study. Forty patients had bilateral cryptorchidism and two had unilateral. The overall rate of sperm recovery was 59.5%. No differences were found in the sperm retrieval, fertilization, implantation, pregnancy, or live birth rates between the groups. The results suggest that age at orchidopexy, either at 10 years of age or younger or above 10 years of age, was not a predictive factor for successful TESE. Although bilateral cryptorchidism is usually considered a testicular secretory dysfunction, it was found that sperm retrieval attempts yielded spermatozoa in almost 60% of patients with azoospermia and a history of cryptorchidism.

  8. Age, sources, and provenances of protoliths of metasedimentary rocks of the Dzheltulak group, Dzheltulak suture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikoslavinskii, S. D.; Kotov, A. B.; Kovach, V. P.; Tolmacheva, E. V.; Larin, A. M.; Sorokin, A. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Wang, K. L.; Salnikova, E. B.

    2016-06-01

    The results of Sm-Nb isotopic-geochemical studies of metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of the Dzheltulak Group of the central part of the Dzheltulak suture, as well as geochronological U-Th-Pb (LA ICP MS) studies of detrital zircons from metasedimentary rocks, which are considered as Paleoproterozoic in current stratigraphic schemes, are presented. The age of the youngest zircons is 170-190 Ma, whereas the age of the last stage of regional metamorphism is 140-150 Ma. Thus, the Dzheltulak Group hosts metasedimentary rocks, the age of the protolith of which ranges from 140-150 to 170-190 Ma. The detrital zircons derived from intrusive and metamorphic rocks of the Selenga-Stanovoi and Dzhugdzhur-Stanovoi superterranes.

  9. The age rank of the nearest pre-main-sequence groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Warrick A.; Lyo, A.-Ran; Bessell, M. S.

    2009-11-01

    We address the age rank of the nearest pre-main-sequence (PMS) associations, using low-resolution spectrophotometry to measure gravity-sensitive indices in these stars. We compare spectral index-colour sequences for the PMS populations and rank them according to the strength of their gravity-sensitive features. The age rank using the gravity method is in general agreement with the ranking of these groups suggested by colour-magnitude (CM) diagram placement. Several of the groups have a kinematic origin in the Oph-Sco-Cen OB association. For three of them, their age rank is also in agreement with epochs resulting from a formation scenario for the OB association.

  10. Expression of groups I and II metabotropic glutamate receptors in the rat brain during aging.

    PubMed

    Simonyi, Agnes; Ngomba, Richard T; Storto, Marianna; Catania, Maria V; Miller, Laura A; Youngs, Brian; DiGiorgi-Gerevini, Valeria; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Sun, Grace Y

    2005-05-10

    Age-dependent changes in the expression of group I and II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors were studied by in situ hybridization, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Male Fisher 344 rats of three ages (3, 12 and 25 months) were tested. Age-related increases in mGlu1 receptor mRNA levels were found in several areas (thalamic nuclei, hippocampal CA3) with parallel increases in mGlu1a receptor protein expression. However, a slight decrease in mGlu1a receptor mRNA expression in individual Purkinje neurons and a decline in cerebellar mGlu1a receptor protein levels were detected in aged animals. In contrast, mGlu1b receptor mRNA levels increased in the cerebellar granule cell layer. Although mGlu5 receptor mRNA expression decreased in many regions, its protein expression remained unchanged during aging. Compared to the small changes in mGlu2 receptor mRNA levels, mGlu3 receptor mRNA levels showed substantial age differences. An increased mGlu2/3 receptor protein expression was found in the frontal cortex, thalamus, hippocampus and corpus callosum in aged animals. These results demonstrate region- and subtype-specific, including splice variant specific changes in the expression of mGlu receptors in the brain with increasing age. PMID:15862522

  11. Group Treatment of Sexually Abused Latency-Age Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Lisa Y.; Gutierrez-Kovner, Victoria M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a pilot group developed to address the traumagenic stigmatization, powerlessness, betrayal, and sexualization that characterize victims of sexual abuse. Treatment modules developed within this framework focused on: group cohesiveness, discussion of specific abuse experiences, coping strategies, sexuality, victimization prevention, and…

  12. An evaluation of selective feeding by three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beck, K.; Neves, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    A tri-algal diet was fed to three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris: ages 2-3 d, 50-53 d, and 3-6 years. Changes in the relative abundance of each algal species were determined in 5-h feeding trials from feeding chambers and by gut content analyses. All age-groups rejected Scenedesmus quadricauda and preferentially selected Nannochloropsis oculata and Selenastrum capricornutum, principally on the basis of size. Changes in the relative abundance of algae in feeding chambers did not differ significantly among age-groups. Observed differences in the ingested quantities of the similar-sized N. oculata and S. capricornutum were attributed to other particle-related characteristics. Results indicate that the rainbow mussel can be fed similar-sized algae at ali ages in captive propagation facilities. When developing a suitable algal diet for rearing juvenile mussels, one probably need not investigate different species at each stage of development if the algae used are in the 2.8-8.5-??m size range.

  13. Predictive aging results for cable materials in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    In this report, we provide a detailed discussion of methodology of predicting cable degradation versus dose rate, temperature, and exposure time and its application to data obtained on a number of additional nuclear power plant cable insulation (a hypalon, a silicon rubber and two ethylenetetrafluoroethylenes) and jacket (a hypalon) materials. We then show that the predicted, low-dose-rate results for our materials are in excellent agreement with long-term (7 to 9 years), low dose-rate results recently obtained for the same material types actually aged under nuclear power plant conditions. Based on a combination of the modelling and long-term results, we find indications of reasonably similar degradation responses among several different commercial formulations for each of the following generic'' materials: hypalon, ethylenetetrafluoroethylene, silicone rubber and PVC. If such generic'' behavior can be further substantiated through modelling and long-term results on additional formulations, predictions of cable life for other commercial materials of the same generic types would be greatly facilitated. Finally, to aid utilities in their cable life extension decisions, we utilize our modelling results to generate lifetime prediction curves for the materials modelled to data. These curves plot expected material lifetime versus dose rate and temperature down to the levels of interest to nuclear power plant aging. 18 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. The Pros and Cons of Mixed-Age Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodish, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Recently, numerous larger schools have tried to capture the potential advantages of a wide age range in their classrooms. The nongraded organizational system recognizes and plans for varied student abilities, provides for different rates of progress, and adjusts to individual emotional and social needs. Both advantages and disadvantages are…

  15. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  16. MULTI-AGE GROUPING--ENRICHING THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES OF CHILDREN OCCUR NATURALLY IN PLAY AND IN MANY SCHOOL ACTIVITIES, FOR EXAMPLE, STUDENT COUNCIL MEETINGS, CLUBS, AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS. THESE ACTIVITIES DEMAND THE VARIETY OF AGES, TALENTS, INTERESTS, AND EXPERIENCES REPRESENTED BY THE WHOLE RANGE OF STUDENTS IN A SCHOOL. IT IS QUESTIONED WHETHER ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES WOULD NOT…

  17. Luminous AGB Stars beyond the Local Group: Tracers of Intermediate-age Populations in the Cen A Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crnojević, D.; Rejkuba, M.; Grebel, E. K.; da Costa, G.; Jerjen, H.

    2011-09-01

    We investigate the resolved stellar content of three predominantly old and metal-poor early-type dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A group (at a distance of ˜4 Mpc). Our goal is to estimate the fraction of the intermediate-age populations (IAPs) and the period of most recent star formation from their luminous AGB stars. We combine optical HST/ACS and near-infrared VLT/ISAAC images to identify AGB star candidates. The first dataset provides high-resolution photometry while the second one permits us to disentangle the galaxies’ stellar content from the foreground contamination and to characterize the IAPs. The IAP fraction is found to be very low in the target galaxies (up to ˜15%). We compare the results to our own Local Group.

  18. Determinants of caregivers’ vaccination intention with respect to child age group: a cross-sectional survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Shin, Kyung-Ah; Park, Kisoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined how knowledge, risk perception, health beliefs and multidimensional health locus of control (HLC) were associated with caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their child, and how these associations varied across child age groups. Setting South Korea. Methods The cross-sectional survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview among 1017 nationally representative caregivers who had children aged 12 or younger. The outcome variable was caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their children. Results Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that risk perception was negatively associated with vaccination intention only among the age group 4–6 (β=−0.127, p<0.05). Perceived benefit was the only significant predictor of the outcome variables for all three age groups. In contrast, perceived barrier was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=−0.104, p<0.05). Internal HLC was positively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=0.151, p<0.001), while chance HLC was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 0–3 (β=−0.121, p<0.05). Conclusions This study identifies key vaccination intention determinants that are differentially associated with caregivers’ children's age groups. To improve vaccination rates, it suggests the need for strategies tailored to children's age. PMID:26408283

  19. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR COMPETENCE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IS WEAKER IN THE 15-16 YR. ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP THAN IN YOUNGER AGE GROUPS (4-5 YR. AND 11-12 YR.).

    PubMed

    Haga, Monika; Gísladóttír, Thórdís; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2015-12-01

    Developing motor competence and physical fitness can affect the maintenance of a sufficient level of physical activity in children and adolescents. This study assesses the relationship between motor competence and physical fitness from childhood through early adolescence. A cross-sectional sample of 194 participants from 4 to 16 years old were divided into three groups; 4-6 yr. (n=42, M age=5.2, SD 0.6), 11-12 yr. (n=58, M age=12.4, SD=0.3), and 15-16 yr. (n=94, M age=15.9, SD=0.4). To assess motor competence, each child completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). To measure physical fitness, three tasks (strength, speed, and endurance) were selected from the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF). To analyze the significance of the difference between the correlation coefficient in the three age groups (samples) (4-6, 11-12, and 15-16 yr.), Fischer r-to-z transformation was used. The correlation (Pearson's) between motor competence and physical fitness in the age groups was statistically higher for the youngest age groups (4-6 and 11-12 yr.) and the adolescent group (age 15-16). The differences between the two youngest age groups were not statistically significant. The results demonstrate that the correlation between motor competence and physical fitness decreases with age. PMID:26595203

  1. Determinants of dental care utilization for diverse ethnic and age groups.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P L; Andersen, R M

    1997-05-01

    Dental services utilization in the past 12 months was compared across population-based samples of African-American, Navajo, Lakota, Hispanic, and White adults participating in the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II) at USA research locations. Bivariate results revealed that ethnic minority groups in both age cohorts reported significantly fewer dental visits in the past 12 months compared with White adults. When dentate status was controlled for, age cohort differences were not significant in Baltimore (African-American and White) and San Antonio (Hispanic and White) research locations. In contrast, older Native Americans (65-74 years) reported visiting the dentist significantly less often compared with their middle-aged (35-44 years) counterparts. Multivariate results indicated that generalizable variables were associated with dental contact in every ICS-II USA ethnic group (i.e., dentate, usual source of dental care, oral pain). Among the diverse ethnic groups, other determinants presented a varied pattern of risk factors for underutilizing dental care. Information on ethnic-specific risk factors can be used to design culturally appropriate and acceptable oral health promotion programs. Generalizable risk factors across ethnic groups inform oral health policy-makers about changing national priorities for promoting oral health. PMID:9549991

  2. The Global Oscillation Network Group site survey, 2: Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Frank; Fischer, George; Forgach, Suzanne; Grier, Jennifer; Leibacher, John W.; Jones, Harrison P.; Jones, Patricia B.; Kupke, Renate; Stebbins, Robin T.; Clay, Donald W.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Project will place a network of instruments around the world to observe solar oscillations as continuously as possible for three years. The Project has now chosen the six network sites based on analysis of survey data from fifteen sites around the world. The chosen sites are: Big Bear Solar Observatory, California; Mauna Loa Solar Observatory, Hawaii; Learmonth Solar Observatory, Australia; Udaipur Solar Observatory, India; Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife; and Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Chile. Total solar intensity at each site yields information on local cloud cover, extinction coefficient, and transparency fluctuations. In addition, the performance of 192 reasonable networks assembled from the individual site records is compared using a statistical principal components analysis. An accompanying paper descibes the analysis methods in detail; here we present the results of both the network and individual site analyses. The selected network has a duty cycle of 93.3%, in good agreement with numerical simulations. The power spectrum of the network observing window shows a first diurnal sidelobe height of 3 x 10(exp -4) with respect to the central component, an improvement of a factor of 1300 over a single site. The background level of the network spectrum is lower by a factor of 50 compared to a single-site spectrum.

  3. Diversity, Group Identity, and Citizenship Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide immigration and quests for rights by minority groups have caused social scientists and educators to raise serious questions about liberal assimilationist conceptions of citizenship that historically have dominated citizenship education in nation-states. The author of this article challenges liberal assimilationist conceptions of…

  4. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  5. Determination of equivalent breast phantoms for different age groups of Taiwanese women: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shang-Lung; Chu, Tieh-Chi; Lin, Yung-Chien; Lan, Gong-Yau; Yeh, Yu-Hsiu; Chen, Sharon; Chuang, Keh-Shih

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab is one of the mostly used phantoms for studying breast dosimetry in mammography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalence between exposure factors acquired from PMMA slabs and patient cases of different age groups of Taiwanese women in mammography. Methods: This study included 3910 craniocaudal screen/film mammograms on Taiwanese women acquired on one mammographic unit. The tube loading, compressed breast thickness (CBT), compression force, tube voltage, and target/filter combination for each mammogram were collected for all patients. The glandularity and the equivalent thickness of PMMA were determined for each breast using the exposure factors of the breast in combination with experimental measurements from breast-tissue-equivalent attenuation slabs. Equivalent thicknesses of PMMA to the breasts of Taiwanese women were then estimated. Results: The average {+-} standard deviation CBT and breast glandularity in this study were 4.2 {+-} 1.0 cm and 54% {+-} 23%, respectively. The average equivalent PMMA thickness was 4.0 {+-} 0.7 cm. PMMA slabs producing equivalent exposure factors as in the breasts of Taiwanese women were determined for the age groups 30-49 yr and 50-69 yr. For the 4-cm PMMA slab, the CBT and glandularity values of the equivalent breast were 4.1 cm and 65%, respectively, for the age group 30-49 yr and 4.4 cm and 44%, respectively, for the age group 50-69 yr. Conclusions: The average thickness of PMMA slabs producing the same exposure factors as observed in a large group of Taiwanese women is less than that reported for American women. The results from this study can provide useful information for determining a suitable thickness of PMMA for mammographic dose survey in Taiwan. The equivalence of PMMA slabs and the breasts of Taiwanese women is provided to allow average glandular dose assessment in clinical practice.

  6. Capturing heterogeneous group differences using mixture-of-experts: Application to a study of aging.

    PubMed

    Eavani, Harini; Hsieh, Meng Kang; An, Yang; Erus, Guray; Beason-Held, Lori; Resnick, Susan; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-01-15

    In MRI studies, linear multi-variate methods are often employed to identify regions or connections that are affected due to disease or normal aging. Such linear models inherently assume that there is a single, homogeneous abnormality pattern that is present in all affected individuals. While kernel-based methods can implicitly model a non-linear effect, and therefore the heterogeneity in the affected group, extracting and interpreting information about affected regions is difficult. In this paper, we present a method that explicitly models and captures heterogeneous patterns of change in the affected group relative to a reference group of controls. For this purpose, we use the Mixture-of-Experts (MOE) framework, which combines unsupervised modeling of mixtures of distributions with supervised learning of classifiers. MOE approximates the non-linear boundary between the two groups with a piece-wise linear boundary, thus allowing discovery of multiple patterns of group differences. In the case of patient/control comparisons, each such pattern aims to capture a different dimension of a disease, and hence to identify patient subgroups. We validated our model using multiple simulation scenarios and performance measures. We applied this method to resting state functional MRI data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, to investigate heterogeneous effects of aging on brain function in cognitively normal older adults (>85years) relative to a reference group of normal young to middle-aged adults (<60years). We found strong evidence for the presence of two subgroups of older adults, with similar age distributions in each subgroup, but different connectivity patterns associated with aging. While both older subgroups showed reduced functional connectivity in the Default Mode Network (DMN), increases in functional connectivity within the pre-frontal cortex as well as the bilateral insula were observed only for one of the two subgroups. Interestingly, the subgroup

  7. Surface acoustic wave stabilized oscillators: Additional aging results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Updated aging data for SAW oscillators with aluminum transducers on ST-cut quartz, for gold transducers on ST-cut quartz, and for aluminum transducers on SiO2/LiTaO3. Devices with gold transducers age differently (both and shape of curve) from those having a aluminum transducers indicating the transducer metallization can represent an important aging mechanism.

  8. Dermatological disease in the older age group: a cross-sectional study in aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Maneka S; Vandal, Alain C; Jarrett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of dermatological disease in aged care facilities, and the relationship between cognitive or physical disability and significant disease. Setting 2 large aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand, each providing low and high level care. Participants All 161 residents of the facilities were invited to participate. The only exclusion criterion was inability to obtain consent from the individual or designated guardian. 88 participants were recruited—66 females (75%), 22 males (25%) with average age 87.1 years (SD 5.5 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary—presence of significant skin disease (defined as that which in the opinion of the investigators needed treatment or was identified as a patient concern) diagnosed clinically on full dermatological examination by a dermatologist or dermatology trainee. Secondary—functional and cognitive status (Rehabilitation Complexity Scale and Abbreviated Mental Test Score). Results 81.8% were found to have at least one significant condition. The most common disorders were onychomycosis 42 (47.7%), basal cell carcinoma 13 (14.8%), asteototic eczema 11 (12.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ 9 (10.2%). Other findings were invasive squamous cell carcinoma 7 (8%), bullous pemphigoid 2 (2.3%), melanoma 2 (2.3%), lichen sclerosus 2 (2.3%) and carcinoma of the breast 1 (1.1%). Inflammatory disease was more common in those with little physical disability compared with those with serious physical disability (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6, p=0.04). No significant association was found between skin disease and cognitive impairment. Conclusions A high rate of dermatological disease was found. Findings ranged from frequent but not life-threatening conditions (eg, onychomycosis), to those associated with a significant morbidity (eg, eczema, lichen sclerosus and bullous pemphigoid), to potentially life-threatening (eg, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and breast cancer

  9. Support Groups for Suicide Survivors: Results of a Survey of Group Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerel, Julie; Padgett, Jason H.; Reed, Gerald A., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    To update and expand Rubey and McIntosh's (1996) survivors of suicide support groups report, SPAN USA completed a survey of U.S. support group leaders (n = 100; 24% completion). There are now more survivor groups (from 280 to 417), and the majority of groups now have a survivor leader (78% vs. 25%). Groups continue to be small (88% less than 10…

  10. Distribution and determinants of functioning and disability in aged adults - results from the German KORA-Age study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Today industrialized countries face a burgeoning aged population. Thus, there is increasing attention on the functioning and disabilities of aged adults as potential determinants of autonomy and independent living. However, there are few representative findings on the prevalence and determinants of disability in aged persons in the German population. The objective of our study is to examine the frequency, distribution and determinants of functioning and disability in aged persons and to assess the contribution of diseases to the prevalence of disability. Methods Data originate from the MONICA/KORA study, a population-based epidemiological cohort. Survivors of the original cohorts who were 65 and older were examined by telephone interview in 2009. Disability was assessed with the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Minimal disability was defined as HAQ-DI > 0. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders and additive regression to estimate the contribution of diseases to disability prevalence. Results We analyzed a total of 4117 persons (51.2% female) with a mean age of 73.6 years (SD = 6.1). Minimal disability was present in 44.7% of all participants. Adjusted for age and diseases, disability was positively associated with female sex, BMI, low income, marital status, physical inactivity and poor nutritional status, but not with smoking and education. Problems with joint functions and eye diseases contributed most to disability prevalence in all age groups. Conclusions In conclusion, this study could show that there are vulnerable subgroups of aged adults who should receive increased attention, specifically women, those with low income, those over 80, and persons with joint or eye diseases. Physical activity, obesity and malnutrition were identified as modifiable factors for future targeted interventions. PMID:23410010

  11. Correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and chronological age in a group of Iranian females

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients. PMID:26604958

  12. Changes in the constraints of semantic and syntactic congruity on memory across three age groups.

    PubMed

    Toyota, H

    2001-06-01

    20 college undergraduates, 25 sixth-grade, and 31 second-grade students studied targets embedded in three types of sentence contexts and then performed free recall and cued recall tests. Although there were no differences in performance of free recall among sentence types within each age group, the differences in cued recall among sentence types were observed. For sixth graders and undergraduates, both semantically congruous/syntactically congruous sentences and semantically incongruous/syntactically congruous sentences led to a better cued recall of targets than semantically incongruous/syntactically incongruous sentences. Second graders performed better in a cued recall of targets in semantically congruous/syntactically congruous sentences than for the other two sentence types. The results were interpreted as indicating changes across age groups in constraints of semantic and syntactic congruity on the spreading activation of targets in memory. PMID:11453195

  13. Performance trends in age group breaststroke swimmers in the FINA World Championships 1986-2014.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2016-10-31

    Performance trends in breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level in pool competitions are well investigated for elite swimmers, but not for age group swimmers. This study investigated trends in participation, performance and sex difference in performance in a total of 35,143 (16,160 women and 18,983 men) age group breaststroke swimmers aged 25-29 to 95-99 years competing in the FINA World Masters Championships between 1986 and 2014. Trends in participation were analysed using linear regression analyses and trends in performance were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses with sex, distance and calendar year as fixed variables. Women and men improved performance in all age groups. For age groups 25-29 to 85-89 years, men were faster than women. For age groups 90-94 to 95-99 years, men were not faster than women. Sex and distance showed a significant interaction for all distances in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years. In 50 m, women reduced the gap to men in age groups 40-44 to 70-74 years and in 100 m and 200 m, women reduced the gap in age groups 50-54 to 60-64 years. In summary, (i) women and men improved performance in all race distances and in all age groups, (ii) men were faster than women from 25 to 89 years, but not from 90 to 99 years, and (iii), women reduced the gap to men between ~40 and ~75 years, but not in younger (<40 years) or older (>75 years) age groups. Based on these findings for a time period of nearly 30 years, we may assume a further increase in participation and a further improvement in performance in the near future in age group breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level.

  14. Using Korotkoff Sounds to Detect the Degree of Vascular Compliance in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The principle behind the generation of the Korotkoff sounds is the turbulence of blood flowing through a partially occluded area in the artery. With increasing age, the vascular wall compliance is expected to decrease, which is due to the thickening of the vessel wall, due to which the amplitude of the transmitted Korotkoff sounds is decreased. There is also an accompanying rise in the systolic B.P. and pulse pressure. Aim To record and compare the amplitudes of the intermediate Korotkoff sounds and the blood pressures in individuals of the two age groups, and calculate the pulse pressure and determine whether they vary in relation to the amplitude of the intermediate Korotkoff sounds recorded. Materials and Methods The cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 young subjects (15-25 years) and 50 older subjects (50-70 years). The mid arm circumference was measured using a tape. A phonoarteriogram was placed over the left brachial artery and the sphygmomanometer cuff was tied 2cm above the cubital fossa of the left arm. The blood pressure was recorded using the Lab Tutor software. The Korotkoff sounds picked up and transmitted by the phonoarteriogram are represented as distinct lines on the graphical recording. Statistical Analysis Independent samples t-test to look for significant mean amplitude differences and for correlating mean amplitude and pulse pressure. Null hypothesis rejected at p<0.05. Data analysed using the SPSS software version 20.0 (SPSS Inc.). Results There was a significant difference in the mean amplitudes of Korotkoff sounds among the different age groups (p=0.001) and subject categories (p=0.043 among males, p=0.037 among females). A significant difference in pulse pressures was also seen among different age groups and subject categories. The decrease in the amplitudes of Korotkoff sounds in the older age group accompanies the increase in pulse pressures seen in this group and the same was seen among the different age groups within

  15. Age-Related Alterations of Plasma Lipid Peroxidation and Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Different Ethnic Groups of Gorgan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mansourian, Azad Reza; Veghari, Gholam Reza; Rabiee, Mohammad Reza

    Free radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of ageing. The free radical theory of ageing postulates that ageing is caused by free radical reactions. These highly reactive species can cause oxidative damage in the cell. The purposive of this study was to investigate the alteration in plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen healthy people. We measured plasma lipid peroxidation levels (lipid peroxidation expressed as malondialdehyde) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. Study include 350 (175 Fars and 175 Turkmen male) apparently healthy individuals. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were determined in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen consisting of healthy individuals between 26-60 years of age {26-30 (n = 30), 3-35 (n = 30), 36-40 (n = 30), 41-45 (n = 30), 46-50 (n = 25), 51-55 (n = 15) and 56-60 (n = 15)}, respectively. The data was analyzed by Student` t-test. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma lipid peroxidation levels in Fars and Turkmen people with 41-45 ages (group 4) and 36-40 ages (group 3) were significantly lower and higher than in the other age groups (Fars groups 1, 2 and 3, Turkmen groups 1, 2), respectively (p< 0.05). There were no significant relation between the age group 4 (Fars people) and the age groups 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). There were no significant relation between the age groups 3 (Turkmen people) and the age groups 4, 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). We found age-related differences in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and plasma lipid peroxidation levels. The results indicate that the balance between antioxidant and prooxidant factors in free radical metabolism shifts towards increased lipid peroxidation with advancing age in 2 ethnic groups. This situation maybe begin in Turkmen people earlier than Fars people. The ethnic origin, diet, heavy working and life style factors of the two populations may explain

  16. Increase in participation but decrease in performance in age group mountain marathoners in the 'Jungfrau Marathon': a Swiss phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Zingg, Matthias A; Rüst, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    Participation and performance trends for age group marathoners have been investigated for large city marathons such as the 'New York City Marathon' but not for mountain marathons. This study investigated participation and trends in performance and sex difference in the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' held in Switzerland from 2000 to 2014 using single and mixed effects regression analyses. Results were compared to a city marathon (Lausanne Marathon) also held in Switzerland during the same period. Sex difference was calculated using the equation ([race time in women] - [race time in men]/[race time in men] × 100). Changes in sex differences across calendar years and were investigated using linear regression models. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', participation in all female and male age groups increased with exception of women in age groups 18-24 and men in age groups 30-34, 40-44 and 60-64 years where participation remained unchanged. In 'Lausanne Marathon', participation increased in women in age groups 30-34 to 40-44 years. In men, participation increased in age groups 25-29 to 44-44 years and 50-54 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon' runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 to 70-74 years. In 'Lausanne Marathon', runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 and 30-34 to 65-69 years, but not for 25-29, 70-74 and 75-79 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', sex difference increased in age groups 25-29 (from 4 to 10 %) and 60-64 years (from 3 to 8 %) but decreased in age group 40-44 years (from 12 to 6 %). In 'Lausanne Marathon', the sex difference showed no changes. In summary, participation increased in most female and male age groups but performance decreased in most age groups for both the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' and the city marathon 'Lausanne Marathon'. The sex differences were lower in the 'Jungfrau Marathon' (~6-7 %) compared to the 'Lausanne Marathon' where the sex difference was ~10-12 % from age groups 18-24 to 55

  17. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  18. Age Differences and Changes of Coping Behavior in Three Age Groups: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Rott, Christoph; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With increasing age, older adults are more likely to be challenged by an increasing number of physical, functional and social losses. As a result, coping with losses becomes a central theme in very late life. This study investigated age differences and age changes in active behavioral, active cognitive and avoidance coping and related coping to…

  19. Predicting mortality from burns: the need for age-group specific models.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sandra L; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2014-09-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000 to 2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. "One size fits all" models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  20. Predicting Mortality from Burn Injuries: The need for age-group specific models

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sandra L.; Lawless, MaryBeth; Curri, Terese; Sen, Soman; Greenhalgh, David G.; Palmieri, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional burn mortality models are derived using all age groups. We hypothesized that age variably impacts mortality after burn and that age-specific models for children, adults, and seniors will more accurately predict mortality than an all-ages model. We audited data from the American Burn Association (ABA) National Burn Repository (NBR) from 2000-2009 and used mixed effect logistic regression models to assess the influence of age, total body surface area (TBSA) burn, and inhalation injury on mortality. Mortality models were constructed for all ages and age-specific models: children (<18 years), adults (18-60 years), and seniors (>60 years). Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC). Main effect and two-way interactions were used to construct age-group specific mortality models. Each age-specific model was compared to the All Ages model. Of 286,293 records 100,051 had complete data. Overall mortality was 4% but varied by age (17% seniors, <1% children). Age, TBSA, and inhalation injury were significant mortality predictors for all models (p<0.05). Differences in predicted mortality between the All Ages model and the age-specific models occurred in children and seniors. In the age-specific pediatric model, predicted mortality decreased with age; inhalation injury had greater effect on mortality than in the All Ages model. In the senior model mortality increased with age. Seniors had greater increase in mortality per 1% increment in burn size and 1 year increase in age than other ages. The predicted mortality in seniors using the senior-specific model was higher than in the All Ages model. “One size fits all” models for predicting burn outcomes do not accurately reflect the outcomes for seniors and children. Age-specific models for children and seniors may be advisable. PMID:24846014

  1. Clinical Implications for Muscle Strength Differences in Women of Different Age and Racial Groups: The WIN Study

    PubMed Central

    Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Ferro, Emerenciana; Morrow, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Reduction in muscle strength is strongly associated with functional decline in women, and women with lower quadriceps strength adjusted for body weight are more likely to develop knee osteoarthritis. Objective To compare body weight--adjusted strength among women of different age/racial groups. Study Design Cross-sectional study of muscle strength in 918 women aged 20--83 (M ± SD = 52 ± 13). Methods An orthopedic examination was conducted including measurement of handgrip and lower extremity strength (hip abductors/external rotators, knee flexors/extensors). Data were grouped into young (20--39 years, n = 139), middle (40--54 years, n = 300), and older (55+ years, n = 424) ages for white (n = 699) and African American (AA) (n = 164) women. Means and standard deviations for strength adjusted for body weight were calculated for each age and racial group and compared using 2-way multivariate analysis of variance and post hoc tests. Results No significant age-by-race interaction (P = .092) but significant main effects for age and race (P < .001). Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences in knee extensor and flexor strength between all age groups. For grip and hip external rotator strength, significant differences were found between the middle and older groups. Differences in hip abductor strength were found between the young and middle-aged groups. AA women had lower strength than white women in all muscle groups (P < .05) except hip external rotators. Conclusions Strength decreased with age in all muscle groups but magnitude of decrease varied by muscle. Strengthening programs should target different muscles, depending on a woman's age and race. PMID:21666779

  2. UCM Meteor and Fireball Research group: Results 2012--2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocaña, F.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Izquierdo, J.; Pascual, S.; Palos, M. F.; Oré, S.; Rodríguez-Coira, G.; Zamora, S.; Lorenzo, C.; San Juan, R.; Muñoz-Ibáñez, B.; Vázquez, C.; Alonso-Moragón, A.; Gallego, J.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Madiedo, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    Most of the activity of the group is based on the Fireball Detection Station located at the Observatorio UCM, a system consisting of 6 high-sensitivity videocameras covering the whole sky with wide-angle lenses during nighttime. Another 15 cameras have been placed by the researchers between 10 and 200 km away from Madrid for multiple station observations. It works as a node in the SPanish Meteor and Fireball Network (SPMN), a network of similar stations covering the atmosphere over Spain. Besides the continuous monitoring, the group has worked on the recording and analysis of some meteor showers. Most of the attention was focused on the Draconids 2011 campaign at Observatorio de Sierra Nevada (Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M., Madiedo, J. M., Williams, I. P., et al. 2013, MNRAS, 433, 560; Ocaña, F., Palos, M. F., Zamorano, J., et al. 2013, Proceedings of the International Meteor Conference, 31st IMC, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain, 2012, 70), and the 2012 Geminids balloon-borne mission over Spain (Sánchez de Miguel, A., Ocaña, F., Madiedo, J. M., et al. 2013, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 44, 2202). The products of the station have been used for undergraduate thesis projects at the Physics Faculty (Ocaña, F., 2011, UCM e-prints, 13292) and other undergraduate projects. In 2013 the station received new equipment thanks to the Certamen Arquímedes award, complementing the detection with spectroscopic and frame-integrating devices.

  3. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  4. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  5. New Findings for Maternal Mortality Age Patterns: Aggregated Results for 38 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Ann K.; Winfrey, William; Ross, John

    2013-01-01

    Background With recent results showing a global decline in overall maternal mortality during the last two decades and with the target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals only four years away, the question of how to continue or even accelerate the decline has become more pressing. By knowing where the risk is highest as well as where the numbers of deaths are greatest, it may be possible to re-direct resources and fine-tune strategies for greater effectiveness in efforts to reduce maternal mortality. Methods We aggregate data from 38 Demographic and Health Surveys that included a maternal mortality module and were conducted in 2000 or later to produce maternal mortality ratios, rates, and numbers of deaths by five year age groups, separately by residence, region, and overall mortality level. Findings The age pattern of maternal mortality is broadly similar across regions, type of place of residence, and overall level of maternal mortality. A “J” shaped curve, with markedly higher risk after age 30, is evident in all groups. We find that the excess risk among adolescents is of a much lower magnitude than is generally assumed. The oldest age groups appear to be especially resistant to change. We also find evidence of extremely elevated risk among older mothers in countries with high levels of HIV prevalence. Conclusions The largest number of deaths occurs in the age groups from 20-34, largely because those are the ages at which women are most likely to give birth so efforts directed at this group would most effectively reduce the number of deaths. Yet equity considerations suggest that efforts also be directed toward those most at risk, i.e., older women and adolescents. Because women are at risk each time they become pregnant, fulfilling the substantial unmet need for contraception is a cross-cutting strategy that can address both effectiveness and equity concerns. PMID:23613716

  6. Age and group residence but not maternal dominance affect dominance rank in young domestic horses.

    PubMed

    Komárková, M; Bartošová, J; Dubcová, J

    2014-11-01

    We present a study focused on those factors influencing dominance position in young horses, with emphasis on the role of the mother. Horses, as other group-living polygynous mammals, form stable linear dominance hierarchies based on agonistic interactions. Higher dominance positions are believed to be connected, in both sexes, to better condition and higher reproductive success. Many variables play a role in forming the dominant-submissive relationships between horses; however, the maternal effect on the dominance position of the offspring still remains unclear, as do the possible mechanisms of transference ("inheritance"). We hypothesized that the maternal dominance position, plus differences in suckling parameters or maternal style, may be responsible for later outcome of the offspring's dominance position, characterized by 2 variables: index of fighting success (CB); and rate of winning encounters (RW). Our study animals were 8 groups of Kladruby horses, loose-housed lactating mares with foals (n = 66 mare-foal pairs); and subsequently 4 groups of the same foals at 3 yr of age. Our results revealed the impact of age on the dominance position of the young horses (P < 0.001 for CB, and P < 0.01 for RW), and residence in the group (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively); not the maternal dominance position. Older foals reached higher dominance positions, independent of the dominance position, age, or experience of the mother; therefore, we did not find support for direct inheritance of maternal rank. Nevertheless, the foals born to the same mare in 2 consecutive seasons (n = 16 mares) revealed fair repeatability in the dominance position they obtained at 3 yr of age (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.46). This suggests an important constant effect of the mother on the social success of her progeny; however, we did not find a significant effect of any of the tested variables describing maternal characteristics or maternal care. Dominance position depended

  7. Age and group residence but not maternal dominance affect dominance rank in young domestic horses.

    PubMed

    Komárková, M; Bartošová, J; Dubcová, J

    2014-11-01

    We present a study focused on those factors influencing dominance position in young horses, with emphasis on the role of the mother. Horses, as other group-living polygynous mammals, form stable linear dominance hierarchies based on agonistic interactions. Higher dominance positions are believed to be connected, in both sexes, to better condition and higher reproductive success. Many variables play a role in forming the dominant-submissive relationships between horses; however, the maternal effect on the dominance position of the offspring still remains unclear, as do the possible mechanisms of transference ("inheritance"). We hypothesized that the maternal dominance position, plus differences in suckling parameters or maternal style, may be responsible for later outcome of the offspring's dominance position, characterized by 2 variables: index of fighting success (CB); and rate of winning encounters (RW). Our study animals were 8 groups of Kladruby horses, loose-housed lactating mares with foals (n = 66 mare-foal pairs); and subsequently 4 groups of the same foals at 3 yr of age. Our results revealed the impact of age on the dominance position of the young horses (P < 0.001 for CB, and P < 0.01 for RW), and residence in the group (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively); not the maternal dominance position. Older foals reached higher dominance positions, independent of the dominance position, age, or experience of the mother; therefore, we did not find support for direct inheritance of maternal rank. Nevertheless, the foals born to the same mare in 2 consecutive seasons (n = 16 mares) revealed fair repeatability in the dominance position they obtained at 3 yr of age (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.46). This suggests an important constant effect of the mother on the social success of her progeny; however, we did not find a significant effect of any of the tested variables describing maternal characteristics or maternal care. Dominance position depended

  8. False Memory in Aging Resulting From Self-Referential Processing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Referencing the self is known to enhance accurate memory, but less is known about how the strategy affects false memory, particularly for highly self-relevant information. Because older adults are more prone to false memories, we tested whether self-referencing increased false memories with age. Method. In 2 studies, older and younger adults rated adjectives for self-descriptiveness and later completed a surprise recognition test comprised of words rated previously for self-descriptiveness and novel lure words. Lure words were subsequently rated for self-descriptiveness in order to assess the impact of self-relevance on false memory. Study 2 introduced commonness judgments as a control condition, such that participants completed a recognition test on adjectives rated for commonness in addition to adjectives in the self-descriptiveness condition. Results. Across both studies, findings indicate an increased response bias to self-referencing that increased hit rates for both older and younger adults but also increased false alarms as information became more self-descriptive, particularly for older adults. Discussion. Although the present study supports previous literature showing a boost in memory for self-referenced information, the increase in false alarms, especially in older adults, highlights the potential for memory errors, particularly for information that is strongly related to the self. PMID:23576449

  9. Benefits of gregarious feeding by aposematic caterpillars depend on group age structure.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stuart A; Stastny, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Gregarious feeding is a common feature of herbivorous insects and can range from beneficial (e.g. dilution of predation risk) to costly (e.g. competition). Group age structure should influence these costs and benefits, particularly when old and young larvae differ in their feeding mode or apparency to predators. We investigated the relative value of gregarious feeding by aposematic larvae of Uresiphita reversalis that we observed feeding in groups of mixed ages and variable densities on wild Lupinus diffusus. In a manipulative field experiment, the survivorship and growth of young larvae were enhanced in the presence of older conspecifics, but not in large groups of similarly aged larvae. Estimates of insect damage and induced plant responses suggest that mixed-age groups enhance plant quality for young larvae while avoiding competition. We conclude that benefits of gregariousness in this species are contingent on group age structure, a finding of significance for the ecology and evolution of gregariousness and other social behaviours.

  10. US CLIVAR Extremes Working Group Results, Recommendations, and Recourses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotjahn, R.

    2015-12-01

    The topic of extreme weather and climate is very broad. One can easily list a dozen different types of atmospheric extreme phenomena. In addition, some extreme phenomena have multiple types of extremes as well as categories of extremes. The first US CLIVAR working group on extremes (EWG) chose to narrow the extreme phenomena to temperature and precipitation extremes having a time scale of a few days to a week. The primary extremes considered were short term heat waves, cold air outbreaks, and extreme precipitation not from tropical cyclones. All of these have produced multi-billion dollar losses in recent years. Even this subset of extremes is very broad, so additional focus was placed upon the large scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs) that accompany these extremes. This working group was most active from its inception in 2012 until its nominal ending in 2015. Additional work continues, including follow-on activities spawned or informed by the EWG. In this talk, the EWG activities are summarized in four areas: data for extremes, statistical analyses applicable to extremes, synoptic-dynamics of these extremes, and simulation of these extremes in climate models. The emphasis will be upon knowledge gaps and recommended further actions in these four areas. The recommendations span basic science through applications. The EWG participation included input into the US CLIVAR science plan, as one of the four research challenges there being 'extremes'. A scientific session at this AGU meeting was a direct outgrowth of the EWG 2013 workshop. Other follow-on work includes consultation with various national and international efforts in extremes. Finally, some possible future applications of the EWG efforts, such as adequate datasets and climate model diagnostic tools, will be mentioned that may inform providers of information having direct interest to end-users.

  11. Structural aging program -- a summary of activities, results, and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Research has been conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. The purpose was to identify potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments. Primary program accomplishments have included formulation of a Structural Materials Information Center that contains data and information on the time variation of material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors for 144 materials, an aging assessment methodology to identify critical structures and degradation factors that can potentially impact their performance, guidelines and evaluation criteria for use in condition assessments of reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current condition assessments and estimations of future performance of reinforced concrete nuclear power plant structures. In addition, the Structural Aging Program conducted in-depth evaluations of several nondestructive evaluation and repair-related technologies to develop guidance on their applicability.

  12. A comparison of participation and performance in age-group finishers competing in and qualifying for Ironman Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Michael; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Background Athletes intending to compete in Ironman Hawaii need to qualify in an age-group based qualification system. We compared participation and top ten performances of athletes in various age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Methods Finishes in Ironman Hawaii and in its qualifier races in 2010 were analyzed in terms of performance, age, and sex. Athletes were categorized into age groups from 18–24 to 75–79 years and split and race times were determined for the top ten athletes in each age group. Results A higher proportion of athletes aged 25–49 years finished in the qualifier races than in Ironman Hawaii. In athletes aged 18–24 and 50–79 years, the percentage of finishes was higher in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. For women, the fastest race times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for those aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 25–29 (P<0.05), and 60–64 (P<0.05) years. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for 18–24, 25–29, 40–44, 50–54, and 60–64 years (P<0.05) in age groups. For men, finishers aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 40–44 (P<0.001), 50–54 (P<0.01), 55–59 (P<0.001), 60–64 (P<0.01), and 65–69 (P<0.001) years were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for those aged 18–24 and those aged 40 years and older (P<0.05). Conclusion There are differences in terms of participation and performance for athletes in different age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Triathletes aged 25–49 years and men generally were underrepresented in Ironman Hawaii compared with in its Ironman qualifier races. These athletes may have had less chance to qualify for Ironman Hawaii than female athletes or younger (<25

  13. Constraining the age of the Mitu Group, South-East Peru: U-Pb ages of detrital and igneous zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitsma, Mariël.; Schaltegger, Urs; Spikings, Richard; Winkler, Wilfried; Carlotto, Victor

    2010-05-01

    Inverted extensional basins with continental deposits of the Mitu Group straddle the Eastern Cordillera of Peru. The present study investigates the Mitu Group of south-east Peru (13-16°S), which consists of continental clastic sedimentary rocks and interbedded basaltic to andesitic lavas. There is a paucity of geochemical and geochronological data from the Mitu Group, and the interpretation of its evolution is complicated by i) rapid changes in fault structure along-strike of the graben system, and ii) inversion during Andean orogenesis. Due to dominating coarse-grained clastics, the Mitu Group is devoid of fossils and its age is poorly bracketed to the Permo-Triassic, based on its stratigraphic relationships with the underlying Copacabana and overlying Pucará groups. The upper strata of the Copacabana Group have been constrained by palynology to the Artinskian, while marine fossils at the base of the Pucará Group indicate a Norian age. The Pucará Group is only present in northern Peru, whereas the Mitu Group has an erosional contact with overlying Cretaceous sandstones in the study area. Preliminary data suggest that the lower Mitu Group is middle Triassic, leaving a significant hiatus between the Copacabana and Mitu groups. Laser ablation ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating was utilized to characterize pre- and syn-rift detrital zircon assemblages in sandstones, as well as to date the syn-rift volcanic and plutonic activity. Detrital zircon U-Pb age histograms of medium grained sandstones in the pre-rift Ambo and Copacabana groups contain several age populations, which can be immediately linked to major events identified along the western Gondwanan margin, such as the Sunsas/Grenville (1 Ga) and Pampean (0.55 Ga) orogenies, as well as the Famatinian arc (0.45 Ga). The youngest zircon in the population assigns a maximum deposition age to the rock; these zircons are of late Mississippian age for the Ambo and latest Pennsylvanian for the Copacabana groups. The

  14. Early adulthood: an overlooked age group in national sodium reduction initiatives in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Jounghee; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Jong-Wook; Byun, Jae-Eon; Kang, Baeg-Won; Choi, Bo Youl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES South Korean's sodium consumption level is more than twice the upper limit level suggested by the WHO. Steep increases in the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Korea necessitate more effective sodium reduction programs. This study was conducted in order to compare sodium intake-related eating behaviors and key psychosocial factors according to age group and gender. SUBJECTS/METHODS Using an online survey, a total of 1,564 adults (20-59 years old) considered to be geographically representative of South Korea were recruited and surveyed. The major outcomes were perceived behaviors, knowledge, intentions, and self-efficacy related to sodium intake. RESULTS The results show that perceived behavior and level of self-efficacy related to low sodium consumption differed by age and gender. Female participants showed better behavior and intention towards low sodium intake than male counterparts. Young participants in their 20s showed the lowest intention to change their current sodium intake as well as lowest self-efficacy measures. CONCLUSIONS Future sodium reduction interventions should be developed with tailored messages targeting different age and gender groups. Specifically, interventions can be planned and implemented at the college level or for workers in their early career to increase their intention and self-efficacy as a means of preventing future health complications associated with high sodium intake. PMID:25489413

  15. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  16. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  17. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  18. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores. PMID:25540495

  19. Relationships between Gross Motor Abilities and Problematic Behaviors of Handicapped Children in Different Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Araki, Tomoko; Fujii, Shun; Itotani, Keisuke; Otani, Yoshitaka; Seiichi, Takemasa

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we examined problematic behaviors of independent-walking and non-independent-walking handicapped children in the infant, school child and adolescent development phases, using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-J) to determine if such behaviors relate to their gross motor abilities. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 86 handicapped children who were receiving physical therapy. The subjects were classified into three groups by age. Using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), each group was further divided into an independent-walking group and non-independent-walking group. Thirteen physical therapists and 8 occupational therapists, who were treating the subject children, rated the subjects using the ABC-J. [Results] Significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in the stereotypy and lethargy scores of infants. [Conclusion] For schoolchildren and adolescents, no significant differences were observed between the independent-walking and the non-independent-walking groups in their problematic behavior scores.

  20. Utility of Microbiological Profile of Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge in Rural Women of Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Jaya; Gupta, Sweta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Symptomatic vaginal discharge is the most frequent symptom in women of reproductive age group. Owing to social stigma majority of affected women hesitate to seek medical consultation. Therefore the actual incidence of vaginal discharge is much more than what is reported. The aim of the study is to determine the microbiological profile of symptomatic vaginal discharge in rural area and its utility in the management of genital tract infection. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive type of observational study, conducted in sexually active women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) attending the OPD/IPD of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of National Institute of Medical Sciences, Shobhanagar, Jaipur (Rajasthan), over a period of 18 months from June 2012 to December 2013. Hundred sexually active non pregnant women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) were included in the study. After taking consent general physical examination along with pelvic examination was performed. Two high vaginal swabs and blood sample were collected for various tests. Hanging drop preparation was immediately made. This was followed by gram staining and culture. Chlamydia trachomatis IgM antibody was detected by ELISA method. Results: Out of 100 women with symptomatic vaginal discharge, specific diagnosis was obtained in 89% of cases whereas no specific aetiology was found in 11% cases. Mean age was 32.60 years. Fifty-three percent patient had Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis was found in 14% cases, 16% had Chlamydia trachomatis infection while Trichomonas vaginalis infection was detected in 6% cases. Homogenous discharge was most prevalent (52%), followed by mucopurulant discharge in 23% of women. Conclusion: Patient with symptomatic vaginal discharge need to be actively managed with appropriate antimicrobial agents. Judicious management may be helpful in prevention of HIV, HPV, CIN and post infection sequelae. PMID:25954668

  1. Comparison of electroretinographic responses between two different age groups of adult Dark Agouti rats

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lin; Lo, Amy Cheuk Yin; Lai, Jimmy Shiu Ming; Shih, Kendrick Co

    2015-01-01

    AIM To describe and compare the differences in electroretinographic responses between two different age groups of adult Dark Agouti (DA) rats and to better understand the effect of age on retinal histology and function. METHODS The electroretinographic responses of two different age groups of adult DA rats were compared. Animals were divided into younger adult DA rats 10-12wk (n=8) and older adult DA rats 17-19wk (n=8). Full field electroretinography (ERG) was recorded simultaneously from both eyes after dark adaption and light adaption and parameters including the positive scotopic threshold response (pSTR), negative scotopic threshold response (nSTR), scotopic a-wave, b-wave, photopic a-wave, b-wave and photopic negative response (PhNR) were compared between groups. RESULTS The older adult rats displayed lower stimulation thresholds of the STRs (pSTR and nSTR) and higher amplitudes of pSTR, scotopic a-wave and b-wave, photopic b-wave and PhNR amplitudes, with shorter implicit times. Photopic a-wave amplitudes were however higher in the younger adult rats. CONCLUSION In summary, for the rod system, photoreceptor, bipolar cell and RGC activity was enhanced in the older adult rats. For the cone system, RGC and bipolar cell activity was enhanced, while photoreceptor activity was depressed in the older adult rats. Such age-related selective modification of retinal cell function needs to be considered when conducting ophthalmic research in adult rats. PMID:26558198

  2. Aging test results of an asphalt membrane liner

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Barnes, S.M.

    1983-07-01

    The objective of the asphalt aging study described in this report was to determine the expected performance lifetime of a catalytically airblown asphalt membrane as a seepage barrier for inactive uranium mill tailings. The study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, showed through chemical compatibility tests that the asphalt membrane is well suited for this purpose. The chemical compatibility tests were designed to accelerate the aging reactions in the asphalt and to determine the accelerated aging effect. Higher temperatures and oxygen concentrations proved to be effective acceleration parameters. By infrared spectral analysis, the asphalt was determined to have undergone 7 years of equivalent aging in a 3-month period when exposed to 40/sup 0/C and 1.7 atm oxygen pressure. However, the extent of aging was limited to a maximum penetration of 0.5% of the total liner thickness. It was concluded that the liner could be expected to be effective as a seepage barrier for at least 1000 years before the entire thickness of the liner would be degraded.

  3. Patterns of Adverse Drug Reactions in Different Age Groups: Analysis of Spontaneous Reports by Community Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yun Mi; Shin, Wan Gyoon; Lee, Ju-Yeun; Choi, Soo An; Jo, Yun Hee; Youn, So Jung; Lee, Mo Se; Choi, Kwang Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) spontaneously reported by community pharmacists and to compare the ADRs by age. Methods ADRs reported to the Regional Pharmacovigilance Center of the Korean Pharmaceutical Association by community pharmacists from January 2013 to June 2014 were included. Causality was assessed using the WHO-Uppsala Monitoring Centre system. The patient population was classified into three age groups. We analyzed 31,398 (74.9%) ADRs from 9,705 patients, identified as having a causal relationship, from a total pool of 41,930 ADRs from 9,873 patients. Median patient age was 58.0 years; 66.9% were female. Results Gastrointestinal system (34.4%), nervous system (14.4%), and psychiatric (12.1%) disorders were the most frequent symptoms. Prevalent causative drugs were those for acid-related disorders (11.4%), anti-inflammatory products (10.5%), analgesics (7.2%), and antibacterials (7.1%). Comparisons by age revealed diarrhea and antibacterials to be most commonly associated with ADRs in children (p < 0.001), whereas dizziness was prevalent in the elderly (p < 0.001). Anaphylactic reaction was the most frequent serious event (19.7%), mainly associated with cephalosporins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Among 612 ADRs caused by nonprescription drugs, the leading symptoms and causative drugs were skin disorders (29.6%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (16.2%), respectively. Conclusions According to the community pharmacist reports, the leading clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with ADRs in outpatients differed among age groups. PMID:26172050

  4. Variations of Weight of Prostate Gland in Different Age Groups of Bangladeshi Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Epsi, E Z; Khalil, M; Mannan, S; Azam, M S; Ahmed, Z; Farjan, S; Kabir, A; Ara, I; Ajmery, S; Zaman, U K; Amin, S

    2016-07-01

    Now a days, benign prostatic hyperplasia and carcinoma of the prostate are the most common disorders in men. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Department of Anatomy, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh to find out the difference in weight of the prostate gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age. The present study was performed on 67 postmortem human prostate gland collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College by non random purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadaver of age ranging from 10 to 80 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories - Group A (upto 18 years), Group B (19 to 45 years) and Group C (above 45 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the prostate gland were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the prostate gland was 10.13gm in Group A, 17.27gm in Group B and 22.50gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that mean differences of weight of the prostate were highly significant among all age groups. The weight of prostate gland was found to increase with increased age. For statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using students unpaired 't' test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of prostate gland of Bangladeshi people. PMID:27612887

  5. What makes age diverse teams effective? Results from a six-year research program.

    PubMed

    Wegge, J; Jungmann, F; Liebermann, S; Shemla, M; Ries, B C; Diestel, S; Schmidt, K-H

    2012-01-01

    Based on a new model of productivity in age diverse tams, findings from a six-year research program are reported in which data from more than 745 natural teams with 8,848 employees in three different fields (car production, administrative work, financial services) were collected. Moreover, central assumptions of this model were tested with a representative survey of the German workforce (N = 2,000). Results support both significant advantages and disadvantages for age-mixed teams. Based on the findings, the following preconditions for the effectiveness of age diverse teams are identified: high task complexity, low salience and high appreciation of age diversity, a positive team climate, low age-discrimination, ergonomic design of work places, and the use of age differentiated leadership. Based on these insights, we developed a new training for supervisors, which addresses the aforementioned aspects and seeks to improve team performance and health of team members. It was found that the training reduces age stereotypes, team conflicts and enhances innovation. Thus, we can conclude that effective interventions for a successful integration of elderly employees in work groups are available and that combinations of measures that address ergonomic design issues, team composition and leadership are to be strongly recommended for practice.

  6. Age groups of antarctic krill, Euphausia superba dana, in the Prydz Bay region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong; Sun, Song; Wang, Ke; Li, Chao-Iun

    2000-06-01

    Age groups of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba Dana) in the Prydz Bay region were studied by distribution mixture analysis based on length/frequency data collected by R/V Jidi during the 1989/1990 and 1990/1991 austral summer. Five age groups were determined, i.e. 1+, 2+, 3+, 4+, and 5+, or six age groups in all, if the 0+ larvae were included. The mean body length of 1+ to 5+ age groups was 25.70 mm, 40.47 mm, 45.52 mm, 50.52 mm and 54.52 mm respectively. Supposing the difference in body length between successive age groups is a reflection of the early growth, the maximum growth rate occurred during the period from 1+ juveniles to 2+ subadults (14.77 mm/a). From 2+ subadults to 3+ adults the growth rate dropped steeply (5.05 mm/a) because at this stage, increase of body length was substituted, to a great extent, by the growth of sexual products. From 3+ onwards the growth rate was maintained at a relatively low level and decreased slowly with age. The relative abundance of age groups 1+ and 2+, in our sample must be much lower than that in the real population owing to both the large mesh size we used and the distribution difference between juveniles and adults. If we left aside 1+ and 2+ age groups and just looked at the relative abundance of adults, we found that age group 3+ dominated the adult population and that the relative abundance decreased sharply with increasing age. If this situation is normal, one can expect an extremely high mortality rate in adults, 82.6% from 3+ to 4+ and 94.0% from 4+ to 5+. This is reasonably expectable for the Prydz Bay region.

  7. [Comparative study of 2 groups of paranoid syndromes appearing at different ages].

    PubMed

    Gilliéron, E; Müller, C

    1976-01-01

    Clinical study of two groups of females beyond age of 65, institutionalized for delusional manifestations of schizophrenic nature and presenting also, at the time of examination, a pronounced paranoid state. In the first group: the manifestations had arisen before the age of 45. In the second group, after the age of 65. This study has demonstrated certain psychopathological characteristics suggesting the presence of personality problems definitely more profound in patients of the first group: autistic state, asthenia, thought disorder, incoherence and vagueness of delusional subjects, ordinarily much more unreal are characteristics of the first group in comparison to the second. This seems to bring evidence that these two paranoid states (paranoid schizophrenia in adult age and paranoid state in senility) are, at first sight, pathological entities based on personality problems of very different intensity.

  8. How do groups work? Age differences in performance and the social outcomes of peer collaboration.

    PubMed

    Leman, Patrick J

    2015-05-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were awarded to the best performing individuals. Findings, both in terms of social outcomes and performance in the quiz, indicated that the 8-year olds viewed the benefits of group membership in terms of the opportunities to receive information from other members. The 13-year olds, in contrast, viewed group collaboration as a constructive process where success was connected with group cohesiveness.

  9. [Comparative characteristics of antioxidant status in women with diabetes type 2 of different age groups].

    PubMed

    Ishonina, O G; Mikashinovich, Z I; Olempieva, E V; Kovalenko, T D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic processes in women with diabetes mellitus type 2 of different age groups. It is established that hyperglycemia in aged women is characterized by the development of pronounced oxidative stress, which is the result of changes in the primary structure of protein molecules due to non enzymatic glycosylation of amino acid residues in the active sites. It is known that observed depletion of reduced glutathione pool is associated with high risk of genotoxicity, because it correlates with activation of mitochondrial, chromatin dysfunction and fragmentation of the DNA. In addition, hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids formation leads to necrosis and apoptosis. It can be assumed that the diabetes mellitus type 2 triggers processes of apoptosis, which leads to the activation of aging programs and increase the mortality of patients. Obviously, the change in the concentration of thiol antioxidants, as well as the change in concentration of LPO molecular products may be one of the criteria for evaluation of aging and the efficiency of the treatment of patients.

  10. Cortisol Responses to a Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents: Variations by Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; McQuillan, Mollie T.; Mirous, Heather J.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N = 191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of 5 adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  11. A self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young moving groups in the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2015-11-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young ( ≲ 200 Myr), nearby ( ≲ 100 pc) moving groups in the solar neighbourhood based on homogeneous fitting of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones using the τ2 maximum-likelihood fitting statistic of Naylor & Jeffries in the MV, V - J colour-magnitude diagram. The final adopted ages for the groups are as follows: 149^{+51}_{-19} {Myr} for the AB Dor moving group, 24 ± 3 Myr for the β Pic moving group (BPMG), 45^{+11}_{-7} {Myr} for the Carina association, 42^{+6}_{-4} {Myr} for the Columba association, 11 ± 3 Myr for the η Cha cluster, 45 ± 4 Myr for the Tucana-Horologium moving group (Tuc-Hor), 10 ± 3 Myr for the TW Hya association and 22^{+4}_{-3} {Myr} for the 32 Ori group. At this stage we are uncomfortable assigning a final, unambiguous age to the Argus association as our membership list for the association appears to suffer from a high level of contamination, and therefore it remains unclear whether these stars represent a single population of coeval stars. Our isochronal ages for both the BPMG and Tuc-Hor are consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary (LDB) ages, which unlike isochronal ages, are relatively insensitive to the choice of low-mass evolutionary models. This consistency between the isochronal and LDB ages instils confidence that our self-consistent, absolute age scale for young, nearby moving groups is robust, and hence we suggest that these ages be adopted for future studies of these groups. Software implementing the methods described in this study is available from http://www.astro.ex.ac.uk/people/timn/tau-squared/.

  12. Spectrum of Aortic Valve Abnormalities Associated with Aortic Dilation Across Age Groups in Turner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Laura J.; Baba, Ridhwan Y.; Arai, Andrew E.; Bandettini, W. Patricia; Rosing, Douglas R.; Bakalov, Vladimir; Sachdev, Vandana; Bondy, Carolyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital aortic valve fusion is associated with aortic dilation, aneurysm and rupture in girls and women with Turner syndrome (TS). Our objective was to characterize aortic valve structure in subjects with TS, and determine the prevalence of aortic dilation and valve dysfunction associated with different types of aortic valves. Methods and Results The aortic valve and thoracic aorta were characterized by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in 208 subjects with TS in an IRB-approved natural history study. Echocardiography was used to measure peak velocities across the aortic valve, and the degree of aortic regurgitation. Four distinct valve morphologies were identified: tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) 64%(n=133), partially fused aortic valve (PF) 12%(n=25), bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) 23%(n=47), and unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) 1%(n=3). Age and body surface area (BSA) were similar in the 4 valve morphology groups. There was a significant trend, independent of age, towards larger BSA-indexed ascending aortic diameters (AADi) with increasing valve fusion. AADi were (mean +/− SD) 16.9 +/− 3.3 mm/m2, 18.3 +/− 3.3 mm/m2, and 19.8 +/− 3.9 mm/m2 (p<0.0001) for TAV, PF and BAV+UAV respectively. PF, BAV, and UAV were significantly associated with mild aortic regurgitation and elevated peak velocities across the aortic valve. Conclusions Aortic valve abnormalities in TS occur with a spectrum of severity, and are associated with aortic root dilation across age groups. Partial fusion of the aortic valve, traditionally regarded as an acquired valve problem, had an equal age distribution and was associated with an increased AADi. PMID:24084490

  13. Does whom you work with matter? Effects of referent group gender and age composition on managers' compensation.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, Cheri; Atwater, Leanne E

    2003-08-01

    Much research has examined gender and age effects on compensation, concluding that a wage gap exists favoring men and negative stereotypes against older workers persist. Although the effect of an employee's gender or age has been widely studied, little work has examined the impact of the demographic characteristics of a focal employee's immediate referent groups (e.g., subordinates, peers, or supervisors) on pay. The effect of the gender and age composition of a focal manager's subordinates, peers, and supervisor on the manager's compensation levels was investigated in a sample of 2,178 managers across a wide range of organizations and functional areas. After controlling for a number of human capital variables, results indicated that not only does a wage gap favoring men exist, but also managerial pay is lower when managers' referent groups are largely female, when subordinates are outside the prime age group, and when peers and supervisors are younger. PMID:12940411

  14. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  15. An Examination of Group-Based Treatment Packages for Increasing Elementary-Aged Students' Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeny, John C.; Silber, Jennifer M.

    2006-01-01

    Reading fluency has been described as one of the essential ingredients for ensuring that students become successful readers. Unfortunately, a large number of elementary-aged students in this country do not fluently read age-appropriate material. Because of this, small-group interventions are practical and more time efficient than individualized…

  16. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive…

  17. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  18. Age Group Differences in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Functional Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.; Kim, Johnny S.

    2007-01-01

    This study used data from the 2000 interview wave of the Health and Retirement Study to examine age group differences in the likelihood of self-reported depressive symptomatology among a nationally representative sample of 3,035 adults age 55 years or older who had at least one activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily…

  19. The Effects of Music on Age Group Swimmers' Motivation and Practice Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckel, Bryan D.

    This study examined the effects of music on the motivation of 22 female and 5 male swimmers ages 10-13 years. These age-group swimmers practiced 2.0-2.5 hours per day and had six training sessions per week. Using observation logs, surveys, and open-ended questions, the study analyzed swimmers' perceptions of, and behavior when, listening to music…

  20. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  1. The associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Zoer, I; Ruitenburg, M M; Botje, D; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups. A questionnaire was sent to 2021 employees of a Dutch railway company. Six aspects of psychosocial workload (work pressure, mental workload, emotional workload, autonomy, social support from colleagues and social support from supervisors) and three mental health outcomes (work-related fatigue, stress and burnout) were assessed. Associations between the aspects of psychosocial workload (distributed into tertiles) and health complaints were analysed by logistic regression analysis in four age groups (22-35, 36-45, 46-55 and 56-66 years old). In all age groups, worse work pressure was a significant risk factor for having mental health complaints. Worse emotional load in the younger employees and lack of social support in older employees were associated with a higher risk of having mental health complaints. Age-specific preventive measures should be implemented on both individual and group levels. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: With an ageing workforce, understanding relationships between age and work-related health ailments is increasingly important. This study found that emotional workload in younger and lack of social support in older employees were associated with a higher risk of mental health complaints. Work pressure was a risk factor in all age groups.

  2. The Effect of Donor Age on Corneal Transplantation Outcome: Results of the Cornea Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether graft survival over a 5-year follow-up period using corneal tissue from donors older than 65 years of age is similar to graft survival using corneas from younger donors. Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial Participants 1090 subjects undergoing corneal transplantation for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema); 11 subjects with ineligible diagnoses were not included Methods 43 participating eye banks provided corneas from donors in the age range of 12 to 75 with endothelial cell densities of 2300 to 3300 cells/mm2, using a random approach without respect to recipient factors. The 105 participating surgeons at 80 sites were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and post-operative care were performed according to the surgeons’ usual routines. Subjects were followed for five years. Main Outcome Measures Graft failure, defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque as to compromise vision for a minimum of three consecutive months. Results The 5-year cumulative probability of graft survival was 86% in both the <66.0 donor age group and the ≥66.0 donor age group (difference = 0%, upper limit of one-sided 95% confidence interval = 4%). In a statistical model with donor age as a continuous variable, there was not a significant relationship between donor age and outcome (P=0.11). Three graft failures were due to primary donor failure, 8 to uncorrectable refractive error, 48 to graft rejection, 46 to endothelial decompensation (23 of which had a prior, resolved episode of probable or definite graft rejection), and 30 to other causes. The distribution of the causes of graft failure did not differ between donor age groups. Conclusions Five-year graft survival for cornea transplants at moderate risk for failure is similar using corneas from donors ≥ 66.0 years and donors < 66.0 years. Surgeons and

  3. The effect of gender on the early results of coronary artery bypass surgery in the younger patients' group

    PubMed Central

    Uncu, Hasan; Acipayam, Mehmet; Altinay, Levent; Doğan, Pinar; Davarcı, Isil; Özsöyler, İbrahim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In this retrospective study, we aimed to determine the risk factors for coronary artery bypass surgery in patients under 45 years of age, and evaluate the early postoperative results and the effect of gender. Methods A total of 324 patients under 45 years of age who undergone on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery between April 12, 2004 and January 10, 2012 were included to the study. Patients divided into groups as follows: Group 1 consisted of 269 males (mean age 41.3), Group 2 consisted of 55 females (mean age 41.6). Preoperative risk factors, intraoperative and postoperative data and early mortality rates of the groups were compared. Results Smoking rate was significantly higher in Group 1. Diabetes mellitus incidence and body mass index were significantly higher in Group 2 (P values P=0.01; P=0.0001; P=0.04 respectively). The aortic cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass time and number of grafts per patient were significantly higher in Group 1 (P values P=0.04; P=0.04; P=0.002 respectively). There were no deaths in either group. Conclusion We found that gender has no effect on early mortality rates of the coronary bypass surgery patients under 45 years. PMID:25714211

  4. Quantifying the impact of expanded age group campaigns for polio eradication.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bradley G; Behrend, Matthew R; Klein, Daniel J; Upfill-Brown, Alexander M; Eckhoff, Philip A; Hu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    A priority of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) 2013-2018 strategic plan is to evaluate the potential impact on polio eradication resulting from expanding one or more Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs) to children beyond age five-years in polio endemic countries. It has been hypothesized that such expanded age group (EAG) campaigns could accelerate polio eradication by eliminating immunity gaps in older children that may have resulted from past periods of low vaccination coverage. Using an individual-based mathematical model, we quantified the impact of EAG campaigns in terms of probability of elimination, reduction in polio transmission and age stratified immunity levels. The model was specifically calibrated to seroprevalence data from a polio-endemic region: Zaria, Nigeria. We compared the impact of EAG campaigns, which depend only on age, to more targeted interventions which focus on reaching missed populations. We found that EAG campaigns would not significantly improve prospects for polio eradication; the probability of elimination increased by 8% (from 24% at baseline to 32%) when expanding three annual SIAs to 5-14 year old children and by 18% when expanding all six annual SIAs. In contrast, expanding only two of the annual SIAs to target hard-to-reach populations at modest vaccination coverage-representing less than one tenth of additional vaccinations required for the six SIA EAG scenario-increased the probability of elimination by 55%. Implementation of EAG campaigns in polio endemic regions would not improve prospects for eradication. In endemic areas, vaccination campaigns which do not target missed populations will not benefit polio eradication efforts.

  5. Sternal Gland Scent-Marking Signals Sex, Age, Rank, and Group Identity in Captive Mandrills.

    PubMed

    Vaglio, Stefano; Minicozzi, Pamela; Romoli, Riccardo; Boscaro, Francesca; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Moneti, Gloriano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2016-02-01

    Mandrills are one of the few Old World primates to show scent-marking. We combined ethological and chemical approaches to improve our understanding of this behavior in 3 zoo-managed groups. We observed the olfactory behavior performed by adults and adolescents (N = 39) for 775h. We investigated the volatile components of sternal scent-marks using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared volatile profiles with traits of the signaler. Males marked more than females and within each sex the frequency of scent-marking was related to age and dominance status, but alpha males scent-marked most frequently and particularly in specific areas at the enclosure boundaries. We identified a total of 77 volatile components of sternal gland secretion, including compounds functioning as male sex pheromones in other mammals, in scent-marks spontaneously released on filter paper by 27 male and 18 female mandrills. We confirmed our previous findings that chemical profiles contain information including sex, male age and rank, and we also found that odor may encode information about group membership in mandrills. Our results support the hypotheses that scent-marking signals the status of the dominant male as well as playing territorial functions but also suggest that it is part of sociosexual communication. PMID:26708734

  6. The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Dai, K

    1991-03-01

    Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

  7. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  8. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-06-04

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively.

  9. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  10. Prevalence, Formation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of Interdisciplinary Student Aging Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine J.; Vandenberg, Edward V.; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and…

  11. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  12. An Approach to the Management of Gonorrhea in the Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Alice Faye

    1981-01-01

    Gonorrhea is becoming more important to the pediatrician. Not only is the incidence of this disease greatest in the adolescent group, but it has become more frequent in young children as well. The author outlines an approach to managing gonococcal disease in the pediatric and adolescent age groups. PMID:7193742

  13. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  14. Curriculum Construction for Non-formal Education for the Age-Group 15-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitra, Satyen

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the need for nonformal education curriculum development for illiterate Indians in the 15-25 age group. Certain characteristics of this group are noted and curriculum development is discussed in terms of definition, components, objectives, content, methods, and evaluation. (SH)

  15. Attitudes about Aging Well among a Diverse Group of Older Americans: Implications for Promoting Cognitive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Tseng, Winston; Wu, Bei; Beard, Renee L.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Ivey, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine perceptions about aging well in the context of cognitive health among a large and diverse group of older adults. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups were conducted with older adults living in the community ( N = 396; White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic). Participant descriptions …

  16. The Isochronal Age Scale of Young Moving Groups in the Solar Neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2016-01-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young (<~ 200 Myr), nearby (<~ 100 pc) moving groups, which is consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary ages for both the β Pic and Tucana-Horologium moving groups. This age scale was derived using a set of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones that incorporate an empirical colour-T eff relation and bolometric corrections based on the observed colours of Pleiades members, with theoretical corrections for the dependence on logg. Absolute ages for young, nearby groups are vital as these regions play a crucial role in our understanding of the early evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars, as well as providing ideal targets for direct imaging and other measurements of dusty debris discs, substellar objects and, of course, extrasolar planets.

  17. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity.

    PubMed

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  18. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  19. Fresh frozen plasma in the pediatric age group and in congenital coagulation factor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Muntean, Wolfgang

    2002-10-31

    Generally, the rules of good practice in transfusion medicine apply also to the pediatric age group. However, the frequency of specific diseases that might necessitate the administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) differs from that in adults. Physiologic differences to the later age exist in the neonatal period and in young infants, especially with respect to the hemostatic system, that must be recognized when considering administration of FFP. The plasma levels of many procoagulant factors and important anticoagulants are lower in neonates than in other age groups. Despite these findings, healthy neonates show no easy bruising, no increased bleeding during surgery, and excellent wound healing. The same discrepancy obtains between in vitro and clinical findings with primary hemostasis in neonates. The good primary hemostasis in neonates despite poor in vitro platelet function seems to be due mainly to a very high von Willebrand factor and the presence of more high-multimeric subunits of von Willebrand factor than later in life. We must assume that these particular plasma levels of procoagulant and anticoagulant proteins are essential for the correct function of neonatal hemostasis. Evidence that the hemostatic system of neonates works best with physiologic concentrations of procoagulants and anticoagulants can also be inferred from studies where the administration of clotting factor concentrates gave poor results.Since healthy neonates and young infants have excellent hemostasis, there is absolutely no indication to 'correct' these values to adult's norms prior to invasive procedures by administering FFP. Indications for FFP, met more frequently in the pediatric age group than later in life, are exchange transfusion and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Indications applying equally to adults are other extracorporeal life support systems, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hepatic coagulopathy, and 'complex unclear coagulopathies'. In congenital clotting

  20. Unintended consequences of cigarette price changes for alcohol drinking behaviors across age groups: evidence from pooled cross sections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Raising prices through taxation on tobacco and alcohol products is a common strategy to raise revenues and reduce consumption. However, taxation policies are product specific, focusing either on alcohol or tobacco products. Several studies document interactions between the price of cigarettes and general alcohol use and it is important to know whether increased cigarette prices are associated with varying alcohol drinking patterns among different population groups. To inform policymaking, this study investigates the association of state cigarette prices with smoking, and current, binge, and heavy drinking by age group. Methods The 2001-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys (n = 1,323,758) were pooled and analyzed using multiple regression equations to estimate changes in smoking and drinking pattern response to an increase in cigarette price, among adults aged 18 and older. For each outcome, a multiple linear probability model was estimated which incorporated terms interacting state cigarette price with age group. State and year fixed effects were included to control for potential unobserved state-level characteristics that might influence smoking and drinking. Results Increases in state cigarette prices were associated with increases in current drinking among persons aged 65 and older, and binge and heavy drinking among persons aged 21-29. Reductions in smoking were found among persons aged 30-64, drinking among those aged 18-20, and binge drinking among those aged 65 and older. Conclusions Increases in state cigarette prices may increase or decrease smoking and harmful drinking behaviors differentially by age. Adults aged 21-29 and 65 and older are more prone to increased drinking as a result of increased cigarette prices. Researchers, practitioners, advocates, and policymakers should work together to understand and prepare for these unintended consequences of tobacco taxation policy. PMID:22784412

  1. Micromorphology of past urban soils: method and results (France, Iron Age - Middle Age)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammas, Cécilia

    2014-05-01

    Urban soils in French protohistoric and Roman towns and present-day towns of roman origin are several meters thick accumulations, with great spatial and vertical variability due to long duration of occupation. In order to improve our knowledge of both sedimentary and pedological characteristics as well as formation processes of urban soils, micromorphological analysis was carried out on buried towns. The studied sites include Iron Age towns (floodplain sites: Lattes or Lattara, Le Cailar; oppidum: Pech-Maho in the south of France), a roman buried town (Famars or Fanum Martis, North of France), and various towns occupied from the Roman period until now (urban and periurban sites in Paris, Strasbourg, Mâcon… North and East of France). Original method and sampling strategy were elaborated in order to try to encompass both spatial and vertical variability as well as the "mitage" of the present-day cities. In Lattes, representative elementary urban areas such as streets, courtyard, and houses were sampled for micromorphology during extensive excavation. These analyses revealed specific microscopic features related to complex anthropogenic processes (craft and domestic activities discarding, trampling, backfill, building), moisture and heat, and biological activity, which defined each kind of area. Comparison between well preserved buried town and current cities of roman origin, where the sequence of past urban soils is preserved in few place ("mitage") help to identify past activities, building rhythms as well as specific building materials. For example, in Paris, compacted sandy backfills alternate with watertight hardfloors during the Roman period (soils similar to Technosols). At the opposite, various kinds of loose bioturbated laminated dark earth resulting from activities such as craft refuses, backfills, compost or trampled layers were discriminated for Early Medieval Period (soils similar to Cumulic Anthroposol). Moreover, biological activity is usually

  2. What it Takes to Successfully Implement Technology for Aging in Place: Focus Groups With Stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Eveline JM; Luijkx, Katrien G; Vrijhoef, Hubertus JM

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in empowering older adults to age in place by deploying various types of technology (ie, eHealth, ambient assisted living technology, smart home technology, and gerontechnology). However, initiatives aimed at implementing these technologies are complicated by the fact that multiple stakeholder groups are involved. Goals and motives of stakeholders may not always be transparent or aligned, yet research on convergent and divergent positions of stakeholders is scarce. Objective To provide insight into the positions of stakeholder groups involved in the implementation of technology for aging in place by answering the following questions: What kind of technology do stakeholders see as relevant? What do stakeholders aim to achieve by implementing technology? What is needed to achieve successful implementations? Methods Mono-disciplinary focus groups were conducted with participants (n=29) representing five groups of stakeholders: older adults (6/29, 21%), care professionals (7/29, 24%), managers within home care or social work organizations (5/29, 17%), technology designers and suppliers (6/29, 21%), and policy makers (5/29, 17%). Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Stakeholders considered 26 different types of technologies to be relevant for enabling independent living. Only 6 out of 26 (23%) types of technology were mentioned by all stakeholder groups. Care professionals mentioned fewer different types of technology than other groups. All stakeholder groups felt that the implementation of technology for aging in place can be considered a success when (1) older adults’ needs and wishes are prioritized during development and deployment of the technology, (2) the technology is accepted by older adults, (3) the technology provides benefits to older adults, and (4) favorable prerequisites for the use of technology by older adults exist. While stakeholders seemed to have identical aims, several underlying

  3. The Onset of STI Diagnosis through Age 30: Results from the Seattle Social Development Project Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.; Kosterman, Rick; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine (1) whether onset of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through age 30 differed for youths who received a social developmental intervention during elementary grades compared to those in the control condition; (2) potential social-developmental mediators of this intervention; and (3) the extent to which these results differed by ethnicity. Design A nonrandomized controlled trial followed participants to age 30, 18 years after the intervention ended. Three intervention conditions were compared: a full intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 1 through 6; a late intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 5 and 6 only; and a no-treatment control group. Setting Eighteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle. Analysis Sample 608 participants in three intervention conditions interviewed from age 10 through 30. Interventions Teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops. Outcome Cumulative onset of participant report of STI diagnosis. Intervention Mechanisms Adolescent family environment, bonding to school, antisocial peer affiliation, early sex initiation, alcohol use, cigarette use, and marijuana use were tested. Analysis and Results Complementary log-log survival analysis found significantly lower odds of STI onset for the full intervention compared to the control condition. The lowering of STI onset risk was significantly greater for African Americans and Asian Americans compared to European Americans. Family environment, school bonding and delayed initiation of sexual behavior mediated the relationship between treatment and STI hazard. Conclusions A universal intervention for urban elementary school children, focused on classroom management and instruction, children’s social competence, and parenting practices may reduce the onset of STI through age 30, especially for African

  4. Associations of gender and age groups on the knowledge and use of drug information resources by American pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Manuel J.; Clauson, Kevin A.; Gershman, Jennifer; Polen, Hyla H.

    Objective To explore knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists and identify patterns influenced by gender and age-group classification. Methods A survey questionnaire was mailed nationwide to 1,000 practitioners working in community (n = 500) and hospital (n = 500) settings who answer drug information questions as part of their expected job responsibilities. Responses pertaining to drug information resource use and knowledge of different types of drug-related queries, resource media preferences, and perceived adequacy of resources maintained in the pharmacy were analyzed by gender and age group. The t statistic was used to test for significant differences of means and percentages between genders and between age groups. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize other findings. Results Gender and age group classification influenced patterns of knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists. They also affected pharmacists’ perceptions of the most common types of questions prompting them to consult a drug information reference, as well as the resources consulted. Micromedex, exclusively available in electronic format, was the most commonly consulted resource overall by pharmacists. Lexi-Comp Online was the leading choice by women, preferred over Micromedex, but was not one of the top two resources selected by men. Conclusions This study successfully identified the influence of gender and age-group classification in assessing drug information resource knowledge and use of general and specific types of drug-related queries. PMID:24155853

  5. The Age of the Ursa Major Moving Group from Interferometric Measurements of Its A-type Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jeremy; White, Russel J.; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Schaefer, Gail; Baines, Ellyn K.; Ireland, Michael; Patience, Jenny; McAlister, Harold A.; Ten Brummelaar, Theo

    2015-01-01

    A set of six A-type stars in the nearby Ursa Major moving group have been observed and spatially resolved with the CHARA Array, using the Classic and/or CLIMB beam combiners. At least four of these stars are rapidly rotating (vsini ≥ 170 kms-1) and are expected to be oblate. These interferometric measurements and the stars' observed photometric energy distributions (PEDs) are used to construct oblate star models from which stellar properties (R(θ), T(θ), etc.) are determined. The results are compared with MESA stellar evolution models to determine mass and age. This analysis provides an independently determined mean age estimate for the Ursa Major moving group of 490 Myr with a standard deviation of 98 Myr, consistent with previous age estimates. This validated technique can be used to provide independent age estimates of field A-stars, including those that host directly imaged substellar companions (e.g. HR 8799, κ And).

  6. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide results in cognitive deficits in age-increasing offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Hao, L Y; Hao, X Q; Li, S H; Li, X H

    2010-03-31

    Studies have suggested that maternal infection/inflammation maybe a major risk factor for neurodevelopmental brain damage. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of prenatal exposure to a low level of inflammatory stimulation lipopolysaccharide (LPS) repeatedly on spatial learning and memory performances in rat offspring's lifetime. Sixteen pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups. The rats in the LPS group were treated i.p. with LPS (0.79 mg/kg) at gestation day 8, 10 and 12; meanwhile the rats in the control group were treated with saline. After delivery, the rat offspring at 3- (young), 10- (adult) and 20-mon-old (aged) were allocated. Spatial learning and memory abilities were tested by Morris water maze. The structure of hippocampal CA1 region was observed by light microscopy. The expression of synaptophysin (SYP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in hippocampal CA1 region were measured by immunohistochemistry. Results showed that the rat offspring of LPS group needed longer escape latency and path-length in the Morris water maze and presented a significant neuron loss, decreased expression of SYP, increased expression of GFAP in CA1 region in histological studies. All these changes were more significant with the age increasing. These findings support the hypothesis that maternal systemic inflammation may alter the state of astrocytes in rat offspring for a long time, the alteration may affect neurons and synapse development in neural system, increase the neurons' vulnerability to environment especially as the age increasing, at last result in distinct learning and memory impairment. PMID:20074621

  7. Population Biology of Intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Individuals in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  8. Population biology of intestinal enterococcus isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Tedim, Ana P; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  9. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    DOE PAGES

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for twomore » interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. Lastly, the co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.« less

  10. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Z B; Luan, J H; Miller, M K; Yu, C Y; Liu, C T

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  11. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  12. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  13. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications. PMID:26892834

  14. Age group estimation in free-ranging African elephants based on acoustic cues of low-frequency rumbles

    PubMed Central

    Stoeger, Angela S.; Zeppelzauer, Matthias; Baotic, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Animal vocal signals are increasingly used to monitor wildlife populations and to obtain estimates of species occurrence and abundance. In the future, acoustic monitoring should function not only to detect animals, but also to extract detailed information about populations by discriminating sexes, age groups, social or kin groups, and potentially individuals. Here we show that it is possible to estimate age groups of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) based on acoustic parameters extracted from rumbles recorded under field conditions in a National Park in South Africa. Statistical models reached up to 70 % correct classification to four age groups (infants, calves, juveniles, adults) and 95 % correct classification when categorising into two groups (infants/calves lumped into one group versus adults). The models revealed that parameters representing absolute frequency values have the most discriminative power. Comparable classification results were obtained by fully automated classification of rumbles by high-dimensional features that represent the entire spectral envelope, such as MFCC (75 % correct classification) and GFCC (74 % correct classification). The reported results and methods provide the scientific foundation for a future system that could potentially automatically estimate the demography of an acoustically monitored elephant group or population. PMID:25821348

  15. JCCC's Environmental Scan: Results of Focus Groups Conducted with Johnson County Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Karen A.

    This report presents questions and typical responses from focus group discussions conducted at Johnson County Community College (JCCC, Kansas) in March 1999. A total of 23 individuals of varying ages from all geographic regions in Johnson County participated in three focus groups, designed as a follow-up to a phone survey about constituency…

  16. Nutritional deficiencies in the pediatric age group in a multicultural developed country, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Haimi, Motti; Lerner, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide. Diseases and morbid conditions have been described to result from nutritional deficiencies. It is essential to address nutrient deficiencies as these may lead to chronic long-term health problems such as rickets, iron deficiency anemia, goiter, obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, cancer and osteoporosis. In the present review we surveyed the extent and severity of nutritional deficiencies in Israel through a selective and comprehensive Medline review of previous reports and studies performed during the last 40 years. Israeli populations have multiple nutritional deficiencies, including iron, calcium, zinc, folic acid, and vitamins B12, C, D and E, spanning all age groups, several minorities, and specific regions. In Israel, some of the nutrients are mandatorily implemented and many of them are implemented voluntarily by local industries. We suggest ways to prevent and treat the nutritional deficiencies, as a step to promote food fortification in Israel. PMID:24868510

  17. Nutritional deficiencies in the pediatric age group in a multicultural developed country, Israel.

    PubMed

    Haimi, Motti; Lerner, Aaron

    2014-05-16

    Nutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide. Diseases and morbid conditions have been described to result from nutritional deficiencies. It is essential to address nutrient deficiencies as these may lead to chronic long-term health problems such as rickets, iron deficiency anemia, goiter, obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, cancer and osteoporosis. In the present review we surveyed the extent and severity of nutritional deficiencies in Israel through a selective and comprehensive Medline review of previous reports and studies performed during the last 40 years. Israeli populations have multiple nutritional deficiencies, including iron, calcium, zinc, folic acid, and vitamins B12, C, D and E, spanning all age groups, several minorities, and specific regions. In Israel, some of the nutrients are mandatorily implemented and many of them are implemented voluntarily by local industries. We suggest ways to prevent and treat the nutritional deficiencies, as a step to promote food fortification in Israel.

  18. The onset of STI diagnosis through age 30: results from the Seattle Social Development Project Intervention.

    PubMed

    Hill, Karl G; Bailey, Jennifer A; Hawkins, J David; Catalano, Richard F; Kosterman, Rick; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine (1) whether the onset of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through age 30 differed for youths who received a social developmental intervention during elementary grades compared to those in the control condition; (2) potential social-developmental mediators of this intervention; and (3) the extent to which these results differed by ethnicity. A nonrandomized controlled trial followed participants to age 30, 18 years after the intervention ended. Three intervention conditions were compared: a full-intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 1 through 6; a late intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 5 and 6 only; and a no-treatment control group. Eighteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle are the setting of the study. Six hundred eight participants in three intervention conditions were interviewed from age 10 through 30. Interventions include teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops. Outcome is the cumulative onset of participant report of STI diagnosis. Adolescent family environment, bonding to school, antisocial peer affiliation, early sex initiation, alcohol use, cigarette use, and marijuana use were tested as potential intervention mechanisms. Complementary log-log survival analysis found significantly lower odds of STI onset for the full-intervention compared to the control condition. The lowering of STI onset risk was significantly greater for African Americans and Asian Americans compared to European Americans. Family environment, school bonding, and delayed initiation of sexual behavior mediated the relationship between treatment and STI hazard. A universal intervention for urban elementary school children, focused on classroom management and instruction, children's social competence, and parenting practices may reduce the onset of STI

  19. Differences on Six Horn Abilities for 14 Age Groups between 15-16 and 75-94 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Six abilities derived from the fluid and crystallized intelligence theory of J. L. Horn were studied with 1,193 individuals in age groups between 15 and 94 years. Results supported Horn's classification of crystallized and quantitative as maintained abilities and of fluid and broad visualization as vulnerable abilities. (SLD)

  20. [CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RETINA IN CHRONIC STRESS IN LABORATORY RATS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS].

    PubMed

    Nesterova, A A; Yermilov, V V; Tiurenkov, I N; Smirnov, A V; Grigoriyeva, N V; Zagrebin, V L; Rogova, L N; Antoshkin, O N; Dovgalyov, A O

    2016-01-01

    The retina was studied in albino laboratory male rats of two age groups (12 and 24 months), 10 animals in each subjected to chronic combined stress. The stress was caused in animals by simultaneous exposure to pulsed light, loud sound, swinging and restriction of mobility for 7 days, 30 mm daily. The retina of intact rats of the corresponding age groups (n = 20) served as control. Enucleated eyes of stressed and control animals were processed with standard histological technique and stained with Nissl's method and hematoxylin-eosin. The retina of the stressed animals of both age groups showed the decrease in the number of cells and the disarrangement of its layers, most pronounced in the layers of photoreceptor neurons and ganglion cells. The comparative morphometric analysis demonstrated a reduction of the layer thickness and cell numerical density in the retina of stressed animals, both young (12 months) and old (24 months), as compared to that of control animals. PMID:27487662

  1. Osteoporosis knowledge, calcium intake, and weight-bearing physical activity in three age groups of women.

    PubMed

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women and compare knowledge to calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity (WBPA). In this cross-sectional study, knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA were assessed using probe interviews, a food frequency and an activity questionnaire, respectively. Seventy-five white women were separated into three groups: young (25-35 years), middle aged (36-46 years) and postmenopausal (50+ years). Concept maps were used to assess knowledge (concepts, integration and misconceptions). Calcium intakes from diet, supplements and fortified orange juice were estimated as were minutes of daily WBPA. Analysis of covariance was used to compare knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA by age group. Covariates included education, family history, physical problems making exercise difficult, and lactose intolerance. Chi square analysis was used to determine differences in these covariates across age groups. Correlations and regression analysis were used to determine relationships between knowledge and behaviors. Knowledge scores averaged 32-44 points (183 possible). Average calcium intake in all groups exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake's recommended Adequate Intake but 20-24% consumed less than 60% of the AI. Housework, walking at work, and standing at home and work accounted for 90% of WBPA. Knowledge about osteoporosis was limited and not associated with age, WBPA or calcium intake. Calcium intake and WBPA were not associated with age. Practitioners need to provide explicit information on osteoporosis and risk reducing behaviors to women of all ages. PMID:12238730

  2. Swimming Training Assessment: The Critical Velocity and the 400-m Test for Age-Group Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Zacca, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Ricardo Jorge P; Pyne, David B; Castro, Flávio Antônio de S

    2016-05-01

    To verify the metabolic responses of oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentrations [La], and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) when swimming at an intensity corresponding to the critical velocity (CV) assessed by a 4-parameter model (CV4par), and to check the reliability when using only a single 400-m maximal front crawl bout (T400) for CV4par assessment in age-group swimmers. Ten age-group swimmers (14-16 years old) performed 50-, 100-, 200-, 400- (T400), 800-, and 1,500-m maximal front crawl bouts to calculate CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured immediately after bouts. Swimmers then performed 3 × 10-minute front crawl (45 seconds rest) at CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured after 10 minutes of rest (Rest), warm-up (Pre), each 10-minute repetition, and at the end of the test (Post). CV4par was 1.33 ± 0.08 m·s. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were similar between first 10-minute and Post time points in the 3 × 10-minute protocol. CV4par was equivalent to 92 ± 2% of the mean swimming speed of T400 (v400) for these swimmers. CV4par calculated through a single T400 (92%v400) showed excellent agreement (r = 0.30; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.05 m·s, p = 0.39), low coefficient of variation (2%), and root mean square error of 0.02 ± 0.01 m·s when plotted against CV4par assessed through a 4-parameter model. These results generated the equation CV4par = 0.92 × v400. A single T400 can be used reliably to estimate the CV4par typically derived with 6 efforts in age-group swimmers.

  3. A Search for Impact Debris in the Pliocene Age Sirius Group, Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Ralph P.; Boyd, Hiram

    2003-01-01

    The Sirius Group is a mixed sequence of interbedded diamictite and mudstone of Pliocene age found at scattered locations along the length of the Transantarctic Mountains. Sirius Group rocks are usually considered tillites, but contain some very "un-tillite" elements. Within section and from site to site, Sirius Group rocks vary considerably in terms of texture and relative abundance of clast lithologies, recording a history that includes shifting influences of glacial, lacustrine, fluvial and wetland processes. The colorful heritage of the Sirius Group has generated a lot of interest due to its potential as a record of changes in the behavior of the East Antarctic icesheet during a climatologically interesting period.

  4. Dynamics of telomere length in different age groups in a Latvian population.

    PubMed

    Zole, Egija; Pliss, Liana; Ranka, Renate; Krumina, Astrida; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2013-12-01

    The shortening of telomeres with ageing is a well-documented observation; however, the reported number of nucleotides in telomeres varies between different laboratories and studies. Such variability is likely caused by ethnic differences between the populations studied. Until now, there were no studies that investigated the variability of telomere length in a senescent Latvian population of the most common mitochondrial haplogroups, defined as H (45%), U (25%), Y chromosomal N1c (40%) and R1a1 (40%). Telomere length was determined in 121 individuals in different age groups, including a control group containing individuals of 20-40 years old and groups of individuals between 60-70 years old, 71-80 years old, 81-90 years old, and above 90 years old. Telomere length was determined using the Southern blot telomeric restriction fragment assay (TRF). Decreased telomere length with ageing was confirmed, but a comparison of centenarians and individuals between 60-90 years of age did not demonstrate a significant difference in telomere length. However, significant variability in telomere length was observed in the control group, indicating probable rapid telomere shortening in some individuals that could lead up to development of health status decline appearing with ageing. Telomere length measured in mononuclear blood cells (MNC) was compared with the telomere length measured in whole peripheral white blood cells (WBC) using TRF. Telomere length in MNC was longer than in WBC for the control group with individuals 20 to 40 years old; in contrast, for the group of individuals aged 65 to 85 years old, measured telomere length was shorter in MNC when compared to WBC.

  5. Depositional ages of clastic metasediments from Samos and Syros, Greece: results of a detrital zircon study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, Kersten; Bröcker, Michael; Berndt, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Siliciclastic metasediments from the islands of Samos and Syros, Cycladic blueschist unit, Greece, were studied to determine maximum sedimentation ages. Four samples from the Ampelos unit on Samos yielded age distribution spectra that range from ~320 Ma to ~3.2 Ga with a dominance of Cambrian-Neoproterozoic zircons (500-1,100 Ma). The youngest well-constrained age groups cluster at 500-550 Ma. Our results allow to link the Samos metasediments with occurrences showing similar age distribution patterns elsewhere in the eastern Mediterranean region (Greece, Turkey, Libya, Israel and Jordan) that record the influx of `Pan-African' detritus. The lack of post-500-Ma zircons in the Samos samples is in marked contrast to the data from Syros that indicates Triassic to Cretaceous depositional ages. The samples from Syros were collected from the matrix of a meta-ophiolitic mélange that is exposed near the top of the metamorphic succession as well as from outcrops representing the basal part of the underlying marble-schist sequence. The zircon populations from Syros were mainly supplied by Mesozoic sources dominated by Triassic protolith ages. Subordinate is the importance of pre-Triassic zircons, but this may reflect bias induced by the research strategy. Sediment accumulation continued until Late Cretaceous time, but the overall contribution of Jurassic to Cretaceous detritus is more limited. Zircon populations are dominated by grains with small degree of rounding suggesting relatively short sediment transportation. Available observations are in accordance with a model suggesting deposition close to the magmatic source rocks.

  6. Influence of increasing slaughter age of chickens on meat quality, welfare, and technical and economic results.

    PubMed

    Baéza, E; Arnould, C; Jlali, M; Chartrin, P; Gigaud, V; Mercerand, F; Durand, C; Méteau, K; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Berri, C

    2012-06-01

    Because of the increasing demand for raw cuts and processed products, there is a trend to producing very heavy broilers. Breeds that are used for such kinds of production have been intensively selected for growth rate and breast meat yield, and birds are reared for a longer period than standard broilers. This study was to evaluate the effects of increasing slaughter age on technical and economic factors, including production efficiency and environmental costs, bird welfare, and breast meat quality in a modern heavy broiler line. Five groups of 300 male Ross 708 chickens were reared until slaughter ages of 35, 42, 49, 56, or 63 d. Increasing age at slaughter from 35 to 63 d resulted in a 7.4-fold increase (P < 0.01) in mortality rate (5.21 vs. 0.70%). It also increased (P < 0.001) the slaughter weight and ADFI of birds 2.5- and 1.4-fold, respectively, without affecting their G:F. Under our experimental conditions, economic profit evaluated through the net gain reached a maximum at 42 d. The moisture and ammonium content of litter increased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) rapidly during rearing concomitantly with increased (P < 0.05) occurrence and severity of contact dermatitis and decreased (P < 0.05) walking ability and activity of birds. Thermal comfort also decreased (P < 0.05) greatly as early as 42 d of age. Changes in carcass quality occurred mainly between 35 and 56 d of age, with a progressive increase (P < 0.001) in breast and leg yield, whereas body fatness was barely affected by age. Major changes in breast meat traits were observed between 35 and 49 d of age, with an increase in muscle pH at 15 min (P < 0.01) and 24 h (P < 0.001) postmortem and reduced (P < 0.001) lightness and drip loss. The protein and lipid content of raw breast meat also increased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) with age. Taking into account the main aspects of sustainability, we could recommend slaughtering chickens of heavy line at 42 d of age.

  7. Metabolomic profiling reveals severe skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of metabolism in aged FBN rats.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Sean M; Dugle, Janis E; Kennedy, Adam D; McDunn, Jonathan E; Kline, William; Guo, Lining; Guttridge, Denis C; Pereira, Suzette L; Edens, Neile K

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles exhibit age-related adaptive and pathological remodeling. Several muscles in particular undergo progressive atrophy and degeneration beyond median lifespan. To better understand myocellular responses to aging, we used semi-quantitative global metabolomic profiling to characterize trends in metabolic changes between 15-month-old adult and 32-month-old aged Fischer 344 × Brown Norway (FBN) male rats. The FBN rat gastrocnemius muscle exhibits age-dependent atrophy, whereas the soleus muscle, up until 32 months, exhibits markedly fewer signs of atrophy. Both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were analyzed, as well as plasma and urine. Compared to adult gastrocnemius, aged gastrocnemius showed evidence of reduced glycolytic metabolism, including accumulation of glycolytic, glycogenolytic, and pentose phosphate pathway intermediates. Pyruvate was elevated with age, yet levels of citrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide were reduced, consistent with mitochondrial abnormalities. Indicative of muscle atrophy, 3-methylhistidine and free amino acids were elevated in aged gastrocnemius. The monounsaturated fatty acids oleate, cis-vaccenate, and palmitoleate also increased in aged gastrocnemius, suggesting altered lipid metabolism. Compared to gastrocnemius, aged soleus exhibited far fewer changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but did show reductions in several glycolytic intermediates, fumarate, malate, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Plasma biochemicals showing the largest age-related increases included glycocholate, heme, 1,5-anhydroglucitol, 1-palmitoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine, palmitoleate, and creatine. These changes suggest reduced insulin sensitivity in aged FBN rats. Altogether, these data highlight skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of glucose and lipid metabolism consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction in aged FBN rats. PMID:24652515

  8. Does the Great Valley Group contain Jurassic strata? Reevaluation of the age and early evolution of a classic forearc basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Surpless, K.D.; Graham, S.A.; Covault, J.A.; Wooden, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of Cretaceous detrital zircon in Upper Jurassic strata of the Great Valley Group may require revision of the lower Great Valley Group chronostratigraphy, with significant implications for the Late Jurassic-Cretaceous evolution of the continental margin. Samples (n = 7) collected from 100 km along strike in the purported Tithonian strata of the Great Valley Group contain 20 Cretaceous detrital zircon grains, based on sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe age determinations. These results suggest that Great Valley Group deposition was largely Cretaceous, creating a discrepancy between biostratigraphy based on Buchia zones and chronostratigraphy based on radiometric age dates. These results extend the duration of the Great Valley Group basal unconformity, providing temporal separation between Great Valley forearc deposition and creation of the Coast Range Ophiolite. If Great Valley forearc deposition began in Cretaceous time, then sediment by passed the developing forearc in the Late Jurassic, or the Franciscan subduction system did not fully develop until Cretaceous time. In addition to these constraints on the timing of deposition, pre-Mesozoic detrital zircon age signatures indicate that the Great Valley Group was linked to North America from its inception. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  9. Analysis of spirometry results in hospitalized patients aged over 65 years

    PubMed Central

    Wróblewska, Izabela; Oleśniewicz, Piotr; Kurpas, Donata; Sołtysik, Mariusz; Błaszczuk, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and objective The growing population of the elderly, as well as the occurrence of coexisting diseases and polypharmacy, is the reason why diseases of patients aged $65 years belong to the major issues of the contemporary medicine. Among the most frequent diseases of the elderly, there are respiratory system diseases. They are difficult to diagnose because of the patient group specificity, which is the reason for increased mortality among seniors, caused by underdiagnosis. The study objective was to assess the factors influencing spirometry results in hospitalized patients aged ≥65 years with respiratory system disorders. Material and methods In the research, 217 (100%) patients aged ≥65 years who underwent spirometry at the Regional Medical Center of the Jelenia Góra Valley Hospital in Poland were analyzed. In the statistical analysis, the STATISTICA 9.1 program, the t-test, the Shapiro–Wilk test, the ANOVA test, and the Scheffé’s test were applied. Results The majority of the patients (59.4%) were treated in the hospital. The most frequent diagnosis was malignant neoplasm (18%). The study showed a statistically significant dependence between the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC parameters and the time of hospitalization, as well as between the FVC and FEV1 parameters and the age of patients. The FVC parameter values turned out to be dependent on the main diagnosis. Highest results were noted in patients with the diagnosis of sleep apnea or benign neoplasm. A low FVC index can reflect restrictive ventilation defects, which was supported by the performed analyses. Highest FEV1/FVC values were observed in nonsmokers, which confirms the influence of nicotine addiction on the incidence of respiratory system diseases. Conclusion The respondents’ sex and the established diagnosis statistically significantly influenced the FVC index result, and the diet influenced the FEV1/FVC parameter result

  10. Calibrating the Lower Cretaceous Time Scale with U-Pb Zircon Ages from the Great Valley Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimokawa, A.; Coleman, D. S.; Bralower, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    U-Pb dating of zircons from the Great Valley Group in northern California provides an opportunity to improve the resolution and reliability of the Early Cretaceous Time Scale and enhance its global range and applicability. Well established calcareous nannofossil and macrofossil biostratigraphy, enabled by good preservation, allows for the Great Valley Group to be anchored within the global Geologic Time Scale. Interlayered bentonites contain zircon, which when analyzed via U-Pb ID-TIMS can yield high precision ages. Our understanding of Early Cretaceous events - such as the Cretaceous Normal Polarity Super-Chron and oceanic anoxic events - will be improved by a refined time scale, particularly since the Early Cretaceous is one of the periods most lacking in high-precision radiometric points in the entire Mesozoic. Prior to this study, no U-Pb zircon analyses from the Great Valley Group involved the thermal annealing-chemical abrasion technique. Here, two new TA-CA ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon ages from the McCarty Creek section of the Great Valley Group are presented. The first bentonite is lower Valanginian, from an interval that cannot be biostratigraphically distinguished between NK-3 (Calcicalathina oblongata) and NK-4 (Cruciellipsis cuvillieri) nannofossil biozones, and four concordant dates yield an age of 137.22±0.098Ma. This age corroborates the GTS2008 lower Valanginian boundary age of 140.2Ma, and calls into question previously published Great Valley Group late Berriasian ages: 136.9±0.3Ma for a bentonite from the Stony Creek section, and 137.1±0.6Ma for a bentonite from the Grindstone Creek section. These ages appear to be too young, perhaps as a result of lead loss - the effects of which can be vastly minimized by chemical abrasion. Very preliminary results of re-dating the same aforementioned Grindstone Creek horizon yield an older age of 138.4Ma. The second bentonite is lower Aptian (Chiastozygus litterarius (NK-6) biozone) and three concordant dates yield

  11. Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marmontel, M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Kochman, H.I.; Humphrey, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Growth layers were observed in histological preparations of bones of known-age, known minimum-age, and tetracycline-marked free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), substantiating earlier preliminary findings of other studies. Detailed analysis of 17 new case histories showed that growth-layer group (GLG) counts in the periotic bone were consistent with known age, or time since tetracycline administration, but were less reliable in other bones. GLG counts were also made in periotic bones of 1,196 Florida manatees of unknown age found dead from 1974 through 1991. These counts were conducted in order to assess variability and to determine relationships among estimated age, size, sex, and degree of bone resorption. Resorption can interfere with accuracy of GLG counts. This effect does not occur until ages greater than about 15 yr and body lengths greater than 300 cm are attained. GLGs were also observed in periotic bones of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) but were not validated against known-age specimens. Use of GLG counts in the periotic bone is suitable for application to studies of population dynamics and other age-related aspects of manatee biology.

  12. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  13. Age specific trends in asthma mortality in England and Wales, 1983-95: results of an observational study.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, M. J.; Cogman, G. R.; Holgate, S. T.; Johnston, S. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in asthma mortality by age group in England and Wales during 1983-95. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: England and Wales. SUBJECTS: All deaths classified as having an underlying cause of asthma registered from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Time trends for age specific asthma deaths. RESULTS: Deaths in the age group 5-14 years showed an irregular downward trend during 1983-95; deaths in the age groups 15-44, 45-64, and 65-74 years peaked before 1989 and then showed a downward trend; and deaths in the age group 75-84 years peaked between 1988 and 1993 and subsequently dropped. Trends were: age group 5-14 years, 6% (95% confidence interval 3% to 9%); 15-44 years, 6% (5% to 7%); 45-64 years, 5% (4% to 6%); 65-74 years, 2% (1% to 3%). Deaths in the 75-84 and 85 and over categories plateaued. CONCLUSIONS: There are downward trends in asthma mortality in Britain, which may be due to increased use of prophylactic treatment. PMID:9167558

  14. Age-related pregnancy results and further examination of bitches after aglepristone treatment of pyometra.

    PubMed

    Jurka, P; Max, A; Hawryńska, K; Snochowski, M

    2010-06-01

    The cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra complex is one of the most common uterine diseases in bitches. The appearance of pharmacological preparations containing anti-progestagens created new possibilities for pyometra treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the curative effect of the anti-progestagen aglepristone treatment of pyometra in bitches of different ages. Twenty four bitches of different breeds, aged from 0.8 to 9.5 years (21-48 kg) exhibiting clinical pyometra symptoms (two groups - I < or = 5 years, n = 14 and II >5 years, n = 10) were evaluated. Information about the general reproductive health was collected up to 54 months after anti-progestagen treatment. Remission of clinical symptoms and return of blood chemistry results and total leucocyte count to referential values were achieved in all cases within 14 days of treatment. Bitches were naturally mated at the first, and when unsuccessful, the second oestrus after treatment. In group I, no recurrence of pyometra symptoms was observed during following cycle(s). Eight bitches (57.1%) had a full-term pregnancy and the number of newborn pups ranged from 1 to 12. None of the bitches from the group II became pregnant. In conclusion, the basic indication for conservative pharmacological treatment of pyometra is preserving female fertility and obtaining offspring. The important conditions for successful aglepristone treatment are: the young age (up to 5 years) and the lack of detectible ovarian cysts. It seems necessary to mate bitches in the first or second oestrus after finishing treatment. The efficacy of treatment can be measured by the after-treatment pregnancy rate. PMID:19055567

  15. Outcome Differences Across Age Groups. Data Notes. Volume 3, Number 2, March/April 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clery, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Using data from Achieving the Dream: Community College Count, this issue examines the differing developmental needs and enrollment and persistence patterns of Achieving the Dream students across different age groups. The data show older students in Achieving the Dream colleges tended to achieve higher grades and perform better academically than…

  16. Metabolic Effects of Chronic Heavy Physical Training on Male Age Group Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, Garret P.; And Others

    This study attempts to appraise the effectiveness of chronic heavy exercise on 13 male swimmers from 10 to 17 years of age. The experimental group trained six days a week, often with more than one workout per day. During this period, the principles of interval training were employed in conjunction with high-intensity swimming. At the completion of…

  17. [Detection of influenza B virus antibodies in different age groups using hemagglutination inhibition tests].

    PubMed

    Sonuvar, S; Kocabeyoğlu, O; Emekdaş

    1991-01-01

    Antibody levels against influenza B virus were investigated by using hemagglutination-inhibition (HA-I) tests in 402 sera obtained from different age groups. Hemagglutination antigens were obtained by production of influenza B virus (B/Singapur/LLC 6201) in trypsinized Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell cultured and they were used in tests. In 355 out of 402 sera (88.3%) antibodies against influenza B virus were detected at titers varying between 1/20 and 1/1280. However in 47 sera (11.7%) no antibodies were detected at 1/20 titer. High titers of antibody (1/640-1/1280) were not detected in none of the sera obtained from an age group between 1 and 14. However high titer antibodies were detected in 15.6% of the sera from an age group between 26 and 35, in the 17.3% of the sera from a group above 50 years of age. Our findings suggest that the increase in the rates of seropositivity against influenza B virus depends on getting older and, that the infections by this virus may be widely seen in our country.

  18. Bringing the Montessori Three-Year Multi-Age Group to the Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes the benefits of including the ninth grade within the 3-year multi-age group setting within a Montessori farm school. Notes how seventh, eighth, and ninth grades work together in one family cluster, allowing 15-year-olds to avoid the pecking order of the high school freshman year while developing personal leadership, confidence, and a…

  19. Young patients', parents', and survivors' communication preferences in paediatric oncology: Results of online focus groups

    PubMed Central

    Zwaanswijk, Marieke; Tates, Kiek; van Dulmen, Sandra; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; Kamps, Willem A; Bensing, Jozien M

    2007-01-01

    Background Guidelines in paediatric oncology encourage health care providers to share relevant information with young patients and parents to enable their active participation in decision making. It is not clear to what extent this mirrors patients' and parents' preferences. This study investigated communication preferences of childhood cancer patients, parents, and survivors of childhood cancer. Methods Communication preferences were examined by means of online focus groups. Seven patients (aged 8–17), 11 parents, and 18 survivors (aged 8–17 at diagnosis) participated. Recruitment took place by consecutive inclusion in two Dutch university oncological wards. Questions concerned preferences regarding interpersonal relationships, information exchange and participation in decision making. Results Participants expressed detailed and multi-faceted views regarding their needs and preferences in communication in paediatric oncology. They agreed on the importance of several interpersonal and informational aspects of communication, such as honesty, support, and the need to be fully informed. Participants generally preferred a collaborative role in medical decision making. Differences in views were found regarding the desirability of the patient's presence during consultations. Patients differed in their satisfaction with their parents' role as managers of the communication. Conclusion Young patients' preferences mainly concur with current guidelines of providing them with medical information and enabling their participation in medical decision making. Still, some variation in preferences was found, which faces health care providers with the task of balancing between the sometimes conflicting preferences of young cancer patients and their parents. PMID:17996108

  20. National Assessment of Educational Progress. 1969-70 Citizenship: Group Results for Sex, Region, and Size of Community. National Assessment Report 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Vincent N.; And Others

    Information on assessment of citizenship achievement is presented in this report which compares 1970 first assessment results for the two sexes, four regions of the country, and four community sizes. Age groups assessed were 9, 13, 17, and 26 through 35 age group; geographical regions were Northeastern, Central, Western, and Southeastern; and…

  1. Stereopsis Results at 4.5 Years of Age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Stout, Ann U.; Lynn, Michael J.; Yen, Kimberly G.; Kruger, Stacey J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether stereopsis of infants treated for monocular cataracts varies with the type of optical correction used. Design Randomized prospective clinical trial Methods The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study randomized 114 patients with unilateral cataracts at age 1 to 7 months to either primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens correction. At 4.5 years of age a masked examiner assessed stereopsis on these patients using three different tests: 1) Frisby; 2) Randot Preschool; and 3) Titmus fly. Results Twenty-eight patients (25%) had a positive response to at least one of the stereopsis tests. There was no statistically significant difference in stereopsis between the two treatment groups. Frisby (contact lens, 6 (11%); IOL, 7 (13%); p=0.99), Randot (contact lens, 3 (6%); IOL, 1 (2%); p=0.62) or Titmus: (contact lens, 8 (15%); IOL, 13 (23%); p=0.34). The median age at surgery for patients with stereopsis was younger than for those without stereopsis (1.2 versus 2.4 months; p=0.002). The median visual acuity for patients with stereopsis was better than for those without stereopsis (20/40 vs. 20/252; p=0.0003). Conclusion The type of optical correction did not influence stereopsis outcomes. However, two other factors did: age at surgery and visual acuity in the treated eye at age 4.5 years. Early surgery for unilateral congenital cataract and the presence of visual acuity better than or equal to 20/40 appear to be more important than the type of initial optical correction used for the development of stereopsis. PMID:25261241

  2. The yo-yo intermittent recovery test in junior basketball players according to performance level and age group.

    PubMed

    Vernillo, Gianluca; Silvestri, Adriano; La Torre, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) ability to discriminate between elite, subelite junior basketball players, and a group of nonathletic healthy male athletes at 3 different age groups (U-14 to U-17). In a cross-sectional design, 119 age-matched participants spread over 3 groups, elite (n = 46), subelite (n = 42) junior basketball players, and nonathletic healthy male athletes (n = 31), were evaluated over a 5-week period. The participants undertook 2 familiarization trials of the Yo-Yo test performance and 3 test sessions on an indoor basketball court. When controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, the results showed that elite athletes had a significantly higher Yo-Yo performance compared with the subelite athletes (1,271 ± 385 vs. 861 ± 428 m; p < 0.0017; effect size [ES] 1.0 ± 0.35) and the nonathletic group (1,271 ± 385 vs. 738 ± 345 m; p < 0.0017; ES 1.45 ± 0.38). No statistical differences (p > 0.0017; ES from 0.02 to 0.39) were noted between participants' performance levels across age groups. Typical between-performance levels and -age groups differences in the Yo-Yo IR1 were observed. However, when controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, this study demonstrates that the Yo-Yo test is accurate only to discriminate elite junior basketball players but cannot be used to differentiate the basketball-specific aerobic performance for age.

  3. The yo-yo intermittent recovery test in junior basketball players according to performance level and age group.

    PubMed

    Vernillo, Gianluca; Silvestri, Adriano; La Torre, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) ability to discriminate between elite, subelite junior basketball players, and a group of nonathletic healthy male athletes at 3 different age groups (U-14 to U-17). In a cross-sectional design, 119 age-matched participants spread over 3 groups, elite (n = 46), subelite (n = 42) junior basketball players, and nonathletic healthy male athletes (n = 31), were evaluated over a 5-week period. The participants undertook 2 familiarization trials of the Yo-Yo test performance and 3 test sessions on an indoor basketball court. When controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, the results showed that elite athletes had a significantly higher Yo-Yo performance compared with the subelite athletes (1,271 ± 385 vs. 861 ± 428 m; p < 0.0017; effect size [ES] 1.0 ± 0.35) and the nonathletic group (1,271 ± 385 vs. 738 ± 345 m; p < 0.0017; ES 1.45 ± 0.38). No statistical differences (p > 0.0017; ES from 0.02 to 0.39) were noted between participants' performance levels across age groups. Typical between-performance levels and -age groups differences in the Yo-Yo IR1 were observed. However, when controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, this study demonstrates that the Yo-Yo test is accurate only to discriminate elite junior basketball players but cannot be used to differentiate the basketball-specific aerobic performance for age. PMID:22076093

  4. EVALUATION OF TERMINAL VERTEBRAL PLATE ON CERVICAL SPINE AT DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH INTERVERTEBRAL DISC THICKNESS

    PubMed Central

    Luiz Vieira, Juliano Silveira; da Silva Herrero, Carlos Fernando Pereira; Porto, Maximiliano Aguiar; Nogueira Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Garcia, Sérgio Britto; Zambelli Ramalho, Leandra Náira; Aparecido Defino, Helton Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate, by means of histomorphometry, terminal vertebral plate thickness, intervertebral disc thickness and its correlation on different age groups, seeking to identify its correlation. Methods: C4-C5 and C5-C6 cervical segments removed from human cadavers of both genders were assessed and divided into five groups of 10-year age intervals, from 21 years old. TVP and intervertebral disc thickness evaluation was made by means of histomorphometry of histological slides stained with hematoxylin and eosyn. Lower C4 TVP, upper C5 TVP, and upper C6 TVP de were compared between each other and to the interposed intervertebral disc thickness between relevant TVP. Results: The thickness of terminal vertebral plates adjacent to the same ID did not show statistic differences. However, the comparison of upper and lower vertebral plates thickness on the same cervical vertebra (C5), showed statistical difference on all age groups studied. We found a statistical correlation coefficient above 80% between terminal vertebral plate and adjacent intervertebral disc, with a proportional thickness reduction of both structures on the different cervical levels studied, and also on the different age groups assessed. Conclusion: Terminal vertebral plate shows a morphologic correlation with the intervertebral disc next to it, and does not show correlation with the terminal vertebral plate on the same vertebra. PMID:26998448

  5. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Katharine; Thambinayagam, Ananthy; Pillay, Yogan; Loykissoonlal, Dayanund; Bonnecwe, Collen; Barron, Peter; Kiwango, Eva; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15–49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa’s efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC. Methods and Findings The study team populated the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0) with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM), as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20–34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15–24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15–29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15–34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program’s cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections. Conclusion The VMMC program’s impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15–34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25–34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them

  6. Cold Chain and Consumers’ Practices: Exploratory Results of Focus Group Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Fasolato, Luca; Cardazzo, Barbara; Berti, Giulia; Novelli, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative survey was to gain an insight into the ways consumers purchase, transport and storage fresh and frozen food. In particular, this paper considered consumers’ behaviour and the knowledge they have about cold chain. An explorative study was held using focus group interviews (n. 4) as the method for data collection. The sampling group was composed of 24 consumers (4 males and 20 females) and the age ranged from 33 to 78. Data revealed that food safety knowledge is at a fairly good level, however consumer practices in certain cases were inappropriate particularly with respect to transport from the store to home, storage and thaw. Consumers were particularly concerned about frozen food that should not be thawed during shopping or transportation. Knowledge about eggs storage seemed to be dodgy as well. Due to the restricted extent of the sample survey the results cannot be generalized to the whole Italian population; still, this method is particularly useful for discovering not only what people think but why they think that way. PMID:27800367

  7. Effects of Lowering the Minimum Alcohol Purchasing Age on Weekend Assaults Resulting in Hospitalization in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Davie, Gabrielle; McElduff, Patrick; Connor, Jennie; Langley, John

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effects on assault rates of lowering the minimum alcohol purchasing age in New Zealand from 20 to 18 years. We hypothesized that the law change would increase assaults among young people aged 18 to 19 years (the target group) and those aged 15 to 17 years via illegal sales or alcohol supplied by older friends or family members. Methods. Using Poisson regression, we examined weekend assaults resulting in hospitalization from 1995 to 2011. Outcomes were assessed separately by gender among young people aged 15 to 17 years and those aged 18 to 19 years, with those aged 20 and 21 years included as a control group. Results. Relative to young men aged 20 to 21 years, assaults increased significantly among young men aged 18 to 19 years between 1995 and 1999 (the period before the law change), as well as the postchange periods 2003 to 2007 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05, 1.39) and 2008 to 2011 (IRR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.37). Among boys aged 15 to 17 years, assaults increased during the postchange periods 1999 to 2003 (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.49) and 2004 to 2007 (IRR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.45). There were no statistically significant effects among girls and young women. Conclusions. Lowering the minimum alcohol purchasing age increased weekend assaults resulting in hospitalization among young males 15 to 19 years of age. PMID:24922142

  8. Aging results in an unusual expression of Drosophila heat shock proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, J.E.; Walton, J.K.; Dubitsky, R.; Bensch, K.G. )

    1988-06-01

    The authors used high-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to evaluate the effect of aging on the heat shock response in Drosophila melanogaster. Although the aging process is not well understood at the molecular level, recent observations suggest that quantitative changes in gene expression occur as these fruit flies approach senescence. Such genetic alterations are in accord with our present data, which clearly show marked differences in the synthesis of heat shock proteins between young and old fruit flies. In 10-day-old flies, a heat shock of 20 min results in the expression of 14 new proteins as detectable by two-dimensional electrophoresis of ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled polypeptides, whereas identical treatment of 45-day-old flies leads to the expression of at least 50 new or highly up-regulated proteins. In addition, there is also a concomitant increase in the rate of synthesis of a number of the normal proteins in the older animals. Microdensitometric determinations of the low molecular weight heat shock polypeptides on autoradiographs of five age groups revealed that their maximum expression occurs at 47 days for a population of flies with a mean life span of 33.7 days. Moreover, a heat shock effect similar to that observed in senescent flies occurs in young flies fed canavanine, an arginine analogue, before heat shock.

  9. Coronary, aortic and cerebral atherosclerosis in swine of 3 age-groups: implications*

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, H. L.; Luginbühl, H.; Pivnik, L.

    1970-01-01

    Coronary, aortic and intercranial atherosclerosis has been compared in swine maintained under the following conditions: (1) adequate food and housing but animals held in test social situations for 1 year; postmortem examination at ages of 13 to 15 months; (2) food and management designed for high productivity; postmortem examination at ages of 6 to 9 years; (3) an outdoor system of husbandry and a cooked garbage diet; postmortem examination at ages of 8 to 14 years. Extramural coronary, aortic and intracranial atherosclerosis was most advanced in swine that were fed garbage. Cerebral infarction (cerebromalacia) also was most advanced in these swine but developed in swine of the younger groups in which it was associated with atherosclerosis of small intracranial extracerebral arteries rather than with stenosis of the larger intracranial extracerebral arteries as in the oldest swine. The lesions of atherosclerosis in swine of these 3 age-groups form a continuous series and are morphologically identical with corresponding stages of atherosclerosis of man. It is concluded that swine can replace non-human primates as subjects for studies of atherosclerotic vascular disease, and that experimental designs must allow for age and behaviour patterns of the species. ImagesFIG. 4-7FIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:5310139

  10. Physical fitness profile of professional Italian firefighters: differences among age groups.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Cignitti, Lamberto; Cortis, Cristina; Capranica, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Firefighters perform many tasks which require a high level of fitness and their personal safety may be compromised by the physiological aging process. The aim of the study was to evaluate strength (bench-press), power (countermovement jump), sprint (20 m) and endurance (with and without Self Contained Breathing Apparatus - S.C.B.A.) of 161 Italian firefighters recruits in relation to age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr; 31-35 yr; 36-40 yr; 41-42 yr). Descriptive statistics and an ANOVA were calculated to provide the physical fitness profile for each parameter and to assess differences (p < 0.05) among age groups. Anthropometric values showed an age-effect for height and BMI, while performances values showed statistical differences for strength, power, sprint tests and endurance test with S.C.B.A. Wearing the S.C.B.A., 14% of all recruits failed to complete the endurance test. We propose that the firefighters should participate in an assessment of work capacity and specific fitness programs aimed to maintain an optimal fitness level for all ages.

  11. Greater Perceived Age Discrimination in England than the United States: Results from HRS and ELSA

    PubMed Central

    Zaninotto, Paola; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined cross-national differences in perceptions of age discrimination in England and the United States. Under the premise that the United States has had age discrimination legislation in place for considerably longer than England, we hypothesized that perceptions of age discrimination would be lower in the United States. Methods. We analyzed data from two nationally representative studies of aging, the U.S. Health and Retirement Study (n = 4,818) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n = 7,478). Respondents aged 52 years and older who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination were significantly higher in England than the United States, with 34.8% of men and women in England reporting age discrimination compared with 29.1% in the United States. Associations between perceived age discrimination and older age and lower levels of household wealth were observed in both countries, but we found differences between England and the United States in the relationship between perceived age discrimination and education. Discussion. Our study revealed that levels of perceived age discrimination are lower in the United States than England and are less socially patterned. This suggests that differing social and political circumstances in the two countries may have an important role to play. PMID:26224759

  12. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multifamily Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore multiple family members' perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthful eating and physical activity in the home. Design: Ten multifamily focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting and Participants: Community setting with primarily black and white families. Family members (n = 103) were aged 8 to 61…

  13. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in Antarctic Meteorites: Preliminary Results on Terrestrial Ages and Temporal Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlovich, E.; Vogt, S.; Wolf, S. F.; Elmore, D.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1993-07-01

    the production rates for these radionuclides in this group of meteorites to be 18.2 +/- 2.3 and 58 +/- 13 dpm/kg respectively, consistent with production rates cited for falls [8]. Cosmic ray exposure ages using the ^10Be/^21Ne method outlined by Graf et al. [9] substantially agree with ages calculated from noble gases alone. Similar agreements are obtained between cosmic ray exposure ages based solely on noble gases and those calculated using ^26Al/^21Ne [9]. We calculated terrestrial ages using the secular equilibrium distribution for ^36Cl of 22.8 +/- 3.1 dpm/kg [10]. Our results are similar to those seen by Nishiizumi et al. [10], with a few ages ranging up to several hundred thousand years. It is worth noting that the Yamato meteorites measured in the present study, all of which happen to have been collected in the 1979 recovery effort ("Y79"), have a much older terrestrial age distribution (median age of 140 ka) than the Yamato distribution shown in [10]. We find it interesting that our Yamato age distribution is, however, consistent with the distribution of Y79 ages (median age, 110 ka) listed in [10], and that non-Y79 Yamato meteorites (median age in [10], 22 ka) seem to be responsible for a disproportionate number of the youngest Yamato meteorites. This possible collection area phenomenon is under investigation. Preliminary statistical analysis of the results using the preliminary terrestrial ages calculated here, trace-element data [3,4,11], and the methods elucidated in [2] is consistent with the notion that the meteorite flux sampled by the Earth has changed as a function of time. The latest results will be presented in Vail. References: [1] Koeberl C. and Cassidy W. A. (1991) GCA, 55, 3-18. [2] Lipschutz M. E. and Samuels S. M. (1991) GCA, 55, 19-34. [3] Wolf S. F. and Lipschutz M. E. (1992) LPS XXIII, 1545-1546. [4] Dodd R. T. et al. (1993) JGR, submitted. [5] Wetherill G. W. (1986) Nature, 319, 357-358. [6] Schultz L., personal communication. [7

  14. Food groups and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from a Jordanian case-control study.

    PubMed

    Abu Mweis, Suhad S; Tayyem, Reema F; Shehadah, Ihab; Bawadi, Hiba A; Agraib, Lana M; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed

    2015-07-01

    The role of diet in colorectal cancer (CRC) in Jordan has not been studied previously. This study aimed at examining the association between food groups (including grains, fruits, vegetables, milk, and meat and legumes) and CRC risk in Jordan. We compared intakes of the different food groups among CRC patients (n=167) and matched controls (n=240) by age, sex, occupation, and marital status. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of quartiles of intakes of the different food groups with CRC risk. In addition, the association of selected food items with CRC risk was examined. Odds ratios (ORs) for the fourth versus the first quartile of intake were 2.92 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-6.08] for grains, 1.66 (95% CI: 0.81-3.40) for vegetables, 0.55 (95% CI: 0.26-1.16) for fruits, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.46-1.97) for milk, and 1.43 (95% CI: 0.68-2.98) for meat and legumes. In a comparison of the highest with the lowest weekly frequency of consumption, there was a direct association between the risk of CRC and the frequency of consumption of chicken (OR=2.52, 95% CI: 1.33-4.77). An increase in risk was observed with increased consumption of white bread (OR=3.13, 95% CI: 1.18-9.25), whereas consumption of whole bread was associated with a decreased risk for CRC (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.84). Our results support a role of diet in CRC. Direct associations were found for grains, white bread, and chicken, whereas an inverse relation was reported for whole bread.

  15. Alteration of functional state of peripheral blood erythrocytes in women of different age groups at dislipidemia conditions.

    PubMed

    Ratiani, L; Intskirveli, N; Ormotsadze, G; Sanikidze, T

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was identification of statistically reliable correlations and the cause-effect relationships between viability of red blood cells and dislipidema parametres and/or metabolic disorders, induced by age related alterations of estrogen content, in women of different ages (reproductive, menopausal) On the basis of the analysis of research results we can conclude that in the different age groups of women with atherosclerosis-induced cardiovascular diseases revealed estrogen-related dependence between Tg-s and HDL content, functional status of phereperial blood erytrotcites and severity of dislipidemia. The aterogenic index Tg/HD proved to be sensitive marker of dislipidemia in reproductive aging women, but does't reflect disorders of lipid metabolism in postmenosal women. It was proved the existence of reliable corelation between red blood cells dysfunction indicator, spherulation quality, and atherogenic index Tg/HDL highlights; however, the correlation coefficient is 2 times higher in the reproductive age as in menopause. Spherulation quality of red blood cells at low HDL content showd fast growth rate in reproductive-aged women, and was unsensetive to HDL content in postmenopasal women. It was concluded that age-related lack of estrogens in postmenopausal women indirectly contributes to decrease protection of red blood cells against oxidative damage, reduces their deformabelity and disturbances the rheological properties. So, Spherulation quality of red blood cells may be used as a diagnostic marker of severity of atherosclerosis.

  16. [Measles outbreak in the adult age group: evaluation of 28 cases].

    PubMed

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Akın, Hicran; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Kalkan, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the age group affected from measles has widened and the disease has become more common among adolescents and young adults. The number of measles case reports have increased in our country, particularly from 2010-2011, and measles outbreaks occurred in various regions in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographical and epidemiological characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, and complications of adult patients with measles who were affected during the outbreak. A total of 28 patients (25 male, 3 female; age range: 19-39 years, median age: 24) who were hospitalized and followed-up in our clinic between January 2013 and June 2013, were evaluated. In the serum sample of the index case, measles-specific IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA, and measles virus RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then genotyping was performed to detect the epidemiological relationship. In all of the other cases, measles IgM and IgG antibodies were screened by ELISA. The most common symptoms on admission included high fever (n= 28, 100%), malaise (n= 25, 89%), sore throat (n= 25, 89%), headache (n= 20, 71%) and cough (n= 18, 64%). At physical examination, rash (n= 28, 100%), lymphadenopathy (n= 11, 39%) and conjunctivitis (n= 10, 36%) were in the foreground, and Koplik spots were detected in five (18%) cases. The most common laboratory findings were; increased level of C-reactive protein (n= 15, 54%), leukopenia (n= 12, 43%) and increased serum levels of aminotransferases (n= 12, 43%), and thrombocytopenia was detected in five (18%) patients. One or more complications (secondary bacterial pneumonia in 5, diarrhea in 4, hepatitis in 3 and otitis in 2 cases) developed in the eight (29%) patients. Measles RT-PCR and IgM tests yielded positive results for the index case, and the isolate was identified as D8 strain by genotyping. Measles lgM antibodies were also positive in all of the other cases. The hospitalization period was

  17. [Measles outbreak in the adult age group: evaluation of 28 cases].

    PubMed

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Akın, Hicran; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Kalkan, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the age group affected from measles has widened and the disease has become more common among adolescents and young adults. The number of measles case reports have increased in our country, particularly from 2010-2011, and measles outbreaks occurred in various regions in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographical and epidemiological characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, and complications of adult patients with measles who were affected during the outbreak. A total of 28 patients (25 male, 3 female; age range: 19-39 years, median age: 24) who were hospitalized and followed-up in our clinic between January 2013 and June 2013, were evaluated. In the serum sample of the index case, measles-specific IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA, and measles virus RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then genotyping was performed to detect the epidemiological relationship. In all of the other cases, measles IgM and IgG antibodies were screened by ELISA. The most common symptoms on admission included high fever (n= 28, 100%), malaise (n= 25, 89%), sore throat (n= 25, 89%), headache (n= 20, 71%) and cough (n= 18, 64%). At physical examination, rash (n= 28, 100%), lymphadenopathy (n= 11, 39%) and conjunctivitis (n= 10, 36%) were in the foreground, and Koplik spots were detected in five (18%) cases. The most common laboratory findings were; increased level of C-reactive protein (n= 15, 54%), leukopenia (n= 12, 43%) and increased serum levels of aminotransferases (n= 12, 43%), and thrombocytopenia was detected in five (18%) patients. One or more complications (secondary bacterial pneumonia in 5, diarrhea in 4, hepatitis in 3 and otitis in 2 cases) developed in the eight (29%) patients. Measles RT-PCR and IgM tests yielded positive results for the index case, and the isolate was identified as D8 strain by genotyping. Measles lgM antibodies were also positive in all of the other cases. The hospitalization period was

  18. Are vocabulary tests measurement invariant between age groups? An item response analysis of three popular tests.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mark C; Berry, Jane M; Freeman, Sara P

    2014-12-01

    Relatively high vocabulary scores of older adults are generally interpreted as evidence that older adults possess more of a common ability than younger adults. Yet, this interpretation rests on empirical assumptions about the uniformity of item-response functions between groups. In this article, we test item response models of differential responding against datasets containing younger-, middle-aged-, and older-adult responses to three popular vocabulary tests (the Shipley, Ekstrom, and WAIS-R) to determine whether members of different age groups who achieve the same scores have the same probability of responding in the same categories (e.g., correct vs. incorrect) under the same conditions. Contrary to the null hypothesis of measurement invariance, datasets for all three tests exhibit substantial differential responding. Members of different age groups who achieve the same overall scores exhibit differing response probabilities in relation to the same items (differential item functioning) and appear to approach the tests in qualitatively different ways that generalize across items. Specifically, younger adults are more likely than older adults to leave items unanswered for partial credit on the Ekstrom, and to produce 2-point definitions on the WAIS-R. Yet, older adults score higher than younger adults, consistent with most reports of vocabulary outcomes in the cognitive aging literature. In light of these findings, the most generalizable conclusion to be drawn from the cognitive aging literature on vocabulary tests is simply that older adults tend to score higher than younger adults, and not that older adults possess more of a common ability.

  19. Morphological study of extrauterine length of the fallopian tube at different age group in Bangladeshi people.

    PubMed

    Ara, Z G; Islam, M S; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Zaman, U K; Rahman, M M; Sen, S

    2010-01-01

    This cross sectional descriptive study was done to see the length of the right & left fallopian tube in Bangladeshi female and to increase the knowledge regarding variational anatomy in our country. Sixty post mortem specimens containing uterus, uterine tube, ureter and surrounding structures were collected by non random or purposive sampling technique from cadavers of different age groups and fixed in 10% formol saline solution. This study was carried out in the department of Anatomy of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from July 2006 to June 2007. Gross and fine dissection was carried out to study the length of fallopian tube (right & left). In this study our findings were compared with those of the standard text books. Maximum length of fallopian tube was found in middle age group (B = 13 to 45 years). It is about 9.19 cm in right side and 8.82 cm in left side. It is also important to note that more kinking was observed in middle age group. PMID:20046169

  20. Aging in Sensory and Motor Neurons Results in Learning Failure in Aplysia californica

    PubMed Central

    Kempsell, Andrew T.; Fieber, Lynne A.

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and molecular mechanisms of age-related memory loss are complicated by the complexity of vertebrate nervous systems. This study takes advantage of a simple neural model to investigate nervous system aging, focusing on changes in learning and memory in the form of behavioral sensitization in vivo and synaptic facilitation in vitro. The effect of aging on the tail withdrawal reflex (TWR) was studied in Aplysia californica at maturity and late in the annual lifecycle. We found that short-term sensitization in TWR was absent in aged Aplysia. This implied that the neuronal machinery governing nonassociative learning was compromised during aging. Synaptic plasticity in the form of short-term facilitation between tail sensory and motor neurons decreased during aging whether the sensitizing stimulus was tail shock or the heterosynaptic modulator serotonin (5-HT). Together, these results suggest that the cellular mechanisms governing behavioral sensitization are compromised during aging, thereby nearly eliminating sensitization in aged Aplysia. PMID:25970633

  1. Prevalence and intensity of dentition defects and secondary deformations in the population of 15-40 age group.

    PubMed

    Kraveishvili, S; Shonia, N; Sakvarelidze, Z; Sakvarelidze, N

    2014-01-01

    Partial secondary adentia together with caries and parodont diseases is among the most widespread diseases of dentofacial system, correlated, in addition, to the number of lost teeth, with the age. Result in speech and chewing functions' disorders, change of face shape, esthetic and psychosocial inferiority, pathologies of digestive and other systems, formation of the chronic infection areas, changes of reactivity etc,. Improvement of the methods of prevention and treatment of the above diseases is one of the most significant problems in the dentistry. Effectiveness of dental assistance organization and planning is based on the epidemiological studies. In Georgia, epidemiological studies were conducted in the populations of various age groups in previous years though, according to our data, no studies of dentition defects and deformations were conducted in the recent decades. Goal of our research was study of prevalence and severity of dentition defects and deformations, regarding sizes of existing defects, their localization, causes and types of deformation in different age groups, for development of specialized dentistry assistance plans and prevention programs. We have studied 147 patients of ages between 15 and 40 years. We have developed special questionnaire. Researches showed that in the studied age group (15-40), 62% (96 patients), i.e. more than half of studied 147 patients had secondary adentia. Most of them had the defects in the buccal teeth area. 112 of studied 147 patients required orthopedic treatment but only 18 (16%) of them have visited the clinic for this purpose while 94 (83.9%) of them were unaware about need of prothetic assistance. Regarding significance of the mentioned problem, the obtained results show the need of timely orthopedic intervention for the purpose of prevention of further complications. As a result, a specialized dental assistance plan and prevention measures' program has been developed to prevent further complications.

  2. Effect of Young Maternal Age on Obstetric and Perinatal Outcomes: Results from the Tertiary Center in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Oya; Yılmaz, Ertuğrul; Tosun, Özgür; Kumru, Pınar; Arınkan, Arzu; Mahmutoğlu, Didar; Selçuk, Selçuk; Dolgun, Zehra Nihal; Arısoy, Resul; Erdoğdu, Emre; Tarhan, Nazan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Young maternal age is variously defined in studies of its effect on obstetrics and perinatal outcomes. Also, pregnancy has been reported as the leading cause of death in adolescent girls in low- and middle-income countries. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether young maternal age was associated with an increased risk of obstetrics and perinatal adverse outcomes. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: This case-control study was derived from a database of the medical records between January 2008 and December 2012. In the present study, 1374 teenage pregnancy and 1294 adult pregnancy cases were included. After restriction of analyses to singleton primiparous women, 1282 teenage pregnancy and 735 adult pregnancy cases were analyzed. Maternal age was separated into three groups: 15 and less, 16–19, and 20–34 years. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were derived through logistic regression models for the potential confounding factors. Results: Adolescents aged 15 years and younger had higher risks of preterm delivery, early preterm delivery, intrauterine fetal death and neonatal death compared with women aged 20 to 34 years after adjustment for confounding factors. In addition, both groups of adolescents had higher risks for anemia and episiotomy and lower risk of cesarean delivery. The rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, chronic diseases, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were higher in the adult group. Conclusion: Younger maternal age was correlated with increased risks of preterm delivery, fetal and neonatal death and anemia. PMID:27308080

  3. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1-5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6-11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12-17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18-59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1-5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6-11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12-17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  4. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W.; Crout, Richard J.; Weyant, Robert J.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1–5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6–11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12–17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18–59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1–5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6–11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12–17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  5. Results from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program: Their use in inspection activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.; Taylor, J. )

    1990-09-01

    The US NCR's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has determined the susceptibility to aging of components and systems, and the potential for aging to impact plant safety and availability. The NPAR Program also identified methods for detecting and mitigating aging in components. This report describes the NPAR results which can enhance NRC inspection activities. Recommendations are provided for communicating pertinent information to NRC inspectors. These recommendations are based on a detailed assessment of the NRC's Inspection Program, and feedback from resident and regional inspectors as described within. Examples of NPAR report summaries and aging inspection guides for components and systems are included. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Beyond the "Classic" Nurture Group Model: An Evaluation of Part-Time and Cross-Age Nurture Groups in a Scottish Local Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Karen; Lee, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This study begins to explore ways in which the principles underpinning the traditional "nurture group" model could be altered and age ranges extended while continuing to deliver the proven success of nurture groups in promoting children's social and emotional development. Part-time nurture groups were established in four different primary schools…

  7. Quality of Life in Patients of Different Age Groups before and after Coronary Artery By-Pass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovic-Markovic, Snežana; Peric, Dejan; Rasic, Dragisa; Novakovic, Tatjana; Dejanovic, Bogdan; Borzanovic, Milorad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study evaluates the changes in quality of life (QOL) six months after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) related to the patients’ age. Methods: The total of 243 consecutive patients completed the Nottingham Health Profile Questionnaire part 1 before and six months after CABG. Postoperative questionnaire was completed by 226 patients. Patients were divided into four examined groups (<50, 50–59, 60–69 and ≥70 years), according to their age. Results: Six months after CABG, the quality of life in different sections has been significantly improved in most patients.The analysis of the relation between the age and the changes in QOL of patients six months after CABG showed a significant correlation among the patients’ age and the improvement of QOL in the sections of physical mobility (r = 0.18, p = 0.008), social isolation (r = 0.17, p = 0.01) and energy ( r = 0.21, p = 0.002). The most prominent improvement was found in older patients. The age was not an independent predictor of QOL deterioration after CABG. Conclusions: The most noticeable improvement of QOL six months after CABG was found in older patients. Age is not the independent predictor of deterioration of QOL after CABG. PMID:26328597

  8. Creating Composite Age Groups to Smooth Percentile Rank Distributions of Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Francesca; Olson, Amy; Bansal, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    Individually administered tests are often normed on small samples, a process that may result in irregularities within and across various age or grade distributions. Test users often smooth distributions guided by Thurstone assumptions (normality and linearity) to result in norms that adhere to assumptions made about how the data should look. Test…

  9. Validation of the FRAIL scale in Mexican elderly: results from the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Díaz de León González, Enrique; Gutiérrez Hermosillo, Hugo; Martinez Beltran, Jesus Avilio; Medina Chavez, Juan Humberto; Palacios Corona, Rebeca; Salinas Garza, Deborah Patricia; Rodriguez Quintanilla, Karina Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Background The aging population in Latin America is characterized by not optimal conditions for good health, experiencing high burden of comorbidity, which contribute to increase the frequency of frailty; thus, identification should be a priority, to classify patients at high risk to develop its negative consequences. Aim The objective of this analysis was to validate the FRAIL instrument to measure frailty in Mexican elderly population, from the database of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). Materials and methods Prospective, population study in Mexico, that included subjects of 60 years and older who were evaluated for the variables of frailty during the year 2001 (first wave of the study). Frailty was measured with the five-item FRAIL scale (fatigue, resistance, ambulation, illnesses, and weight loss). The robust, pre-frail or intermediate, and the frail group were considered when they had zero, one, and at least two components, respectively. Mortality, hospitalizations, falls, and functional dependency were evaluated during 2003 (second wave of the study). Relative risk was calculated for each complications, as well as hazard ratio (for mortality) through Cox regression model and odds ratio with logistic regression (for the rest of the outcomes), adjusted for covariates. Results The state of frailty was independently associated with mortality, hospitalizations, functional dependency, and falls. The pre-frailty state was only independently associated with hospitalizations, functional dependency, and falls. Conclusions Frailty measured through the FRAIL scale, is associated with an increase in the rate of mortality, hospitalizations, dependency in activities of daily life, and falls. PMID:26646253

  10. Cephalometric effects of face mask/expansion therapy in Class III children: a comparison of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Kapust, A J; Sinclair, P M; Turley, P K

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue effects of face mask/expansion therapy and to examine the effect of age on treatment response. Pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric radiographs from 63 subjects (4 to 13 years) who had a Class III malocclusion were analyzed. Serial cephalometric tracings of 32 subjects with Class I occlusion made at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 years were used as controls. Landmarks were digitized on each tracing and treatment effects were measured by using cranial base and maxillary superimposition techniques. Annual rate differences were compared with t tests for the combined treated group (N = 63) and between stratified treated groups (4 to 7 years N = 15, 7 to 10 years N = 32, 10 to 14 years N = 16). The treated group (N = 63) demonstrated significant (p < 0.001) hard and soft tissue changes that resulted from treatment. Skeletal change was primarily a result of anterior and vertical movement of the maxillae. Mandibular position was directed in a downward and backward vector. Orthodontic changes contributed to the correction, and soft tissue effects resulted in a more convex profile. Minimal significant differences were observed between age groups when comparing angular and linear measurements alone. However, when analyzing the algebraic sum of treatment effects (Johnston analysis), significantly (p < 0.01) greater differences were observed in apical base change (ABCH) and total molar correction (6/6) in the younger age groups. This study demonstrates that face mask/expansion therapy produces dentofacial changes that combine to improve the Class III malocclusion. Although early treatment may be most effective, face mask therapy can provide a viable option for older children as well.

  11. Schwannoma of Upper Lip: Report of a Rare Case in a Rare Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Hajong, Debobratta; Naku, Narang; Sharma, Girish; Boruah, Manash

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma is a benign, encapsulated perineural tumour originating from the schwann cells of the neural sheath of peripheral motor and sensory nerves. It may develop at any age but is extremely rare in paediatric age group. The tumour is frequently located on the head and neck region, the tongue being the most common site followed by the palate, floor of mouth, buccal mucosa, lips and jaws. Schwannomas rarely occur in the lip area and it is exceedingly rare in the upper lip. The lesion is usually solitary but can be multiple when associated with neurofibromatosis. The diagnosis is usually confirmed after biopsy and anti-S100 protein immuno-histochemical staining is usually used to identify the tumour. In the present study the patient was a 14-year-old young girl with the schwannoma on the upper lip which is probably the third such case in a paediatric age group being reported and was excised without any recurrence at 2 year after excision. PMID:27656503

  12. Schwannoma of Upper Lip: Report of a Rare Case in a Rare Age Group.

    PubMed

    Hajong, Ranendra; Hajong, Debobratta; Naku, Narang; Sharma, Girish; Boruah, Manash

    2016-08-01

    Schwannoma is a benign, encapsulated perineural tumour originating from the schwann cells of the neural sheath of peripheral motor and sensory nerves. It may develop at any age but is extremely rare in paediatric age group. The tumour is frequently located on the head and neck region, the tongue being the most common site followed by the palate, floor of mouth, buccal mucosa, lips and jaws. Schwannomas rarely occur in the lip area and it is exceedingly rare in the upper lip. The lesion is usually solitary but can be multiple when associated with neurofibromatosis. The diagnosis is usually confirmed after biopsy and anti-S100 protein immuno-histochemical staining is usually used to identify the tumour. In the present study the patient was a 14-year-old young girl with the schwannoma on the upper lip which is probably the third such case in a paediatric age group being reported and was excised without any recurrence at 2 year after excision. PMID:27656503

  13. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was −4.727% (95% CI: −4.821% to −4.634%) per year for men and −6.633% (95% CI: −6.751% to −6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994–2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20–24 years old and 15–24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  14. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was -4.727% (95% CI: -4.821% to -4.634%) per year for men and -6.633% (95% CI: -6.751% to -6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994-2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20-24 years old and 15-24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  15. Focus Groups with Working Parents of School-Aged Children: What's Needed to Improve Family Meals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Rydell, Sarah; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Garwick, Ann; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Dudovitz, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To conduct focus groups to identify parents' perceptions of barriers to family meals and elucidate ideas to guide the development of interventions to overcome barriers. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 27 working parents in urban community settings. Results: Parents reported enjoying the sharing/bonding…

  16. [Psychophysiological characteristics of professional burnout syndrome in doctors of various specialties and different age groups].

    PubMed

    Parfenov, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    Based on clinical psychopathology, psycho-physiological and medical tests the risk factors of professional burnout among medical professionals of all ages were revealed and the assessment of their impact on the formation of adverse functional status of physicians under research was conducted. The role of psycho-physiological factors (neuro-psychological stability, coping strategies, psychological defense mechanisms, psychosemantic self-relation space, asthenic, obsessive-phobic, hypothymic, anancastic symptoms, the dynamic characteristics of the inhibitory processes, and emotional lability) in the formation of professional burnout among medical specialists of young, middle and elderly age was defined. Neurophysiological markers of professional burnout among medical specialists of young, middle and old age, which are characterized by lower levels of reserve capacity of the cerebral cortex of alpha-rhythm, the prevalence and strength of excitation and balance of beta-rhythm were examined. It was shown that clinical examination of medical specialists of different age groups with symptoms of professional burnout should include the clinical-psychopathological and psychophysiological examinations to determine the psychopathological and personal features, psychological and emotional states of the border areas, which help to identify reactive neurotic disorders and conduct its targeted correction.

  17. Risk groups in children under six months of age using self-organizing maps.

    PubMed

    Schilithz, A O C; Kale, P L; Gama, S G N; Nobre, F F

    2014-06-01

    Fetal and infant growth tends to follow irregular patterns and, particularly in developing countries, these patterns are greatly influenced by unfavorable living conditions and interactions with complications during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify groups of children with different risk profiles for growth development. The study sample comprised 496 girls and 508 boys under six months of age from 27 pediatric primary health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were obtained through interviews with the mothers and by reviewing each child's health card. An unsupervised learning, know as a self-organizing map (SOM) and a K-means algorithm were used for cluster analysis to identify groups of children. Four groups of infants were identified. The first (139) consisted of infants born exclusively by cesarean delivery, and their mothers were exclusively multiparous; the highest prevalences of prematurity and low birthweight, a high prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and a low proportion of hospitalization were observed for this group. The second (247 infants) and the third (298 infants) groups had the best and worst perinatal and infant health indicators, respectively. The infants of the fourth group (318) were born heavier, had a low prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding, and had a higher rate of hospitalization. Using a SOM, it was possible to identify children with common features, although no differences between groups were found with respect to the adequacy of postnatal weight. Pregnant women and children with characteristics similar to those of group 3 require early intervention and more attention in public policy. PMID:24725333

  18. Mathematical results new and revisited on the distribution of groundwater age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginn, T. R.; Massoudieh, A.; Foglia, L.

    2009-12-01

    The equation governing the distribution of groundwater age under transient, 3D flow conditions is analyzed under several simplifying cases to illustrate some relations among groundwater age equations and some results about steady-state and transient age distributions. First linkages are made among the various groundwater age equations recently published, showing them all to be different simplifications of the same equation. The most basic analysis in 1D shows that groundwater age is at lease inverse-Gaussian distributed. More generally, steady state age moments, when they exist, are given by breakthrough curve moments and this allows us to use the temporal moment results from the solute transport literature as steady state age moments. In particular, age moment equations with arbitrary diffusive mass transfer (two-domain, radial microscopic, powerlaw) at steady state are already available as the temporal flux moment equations for solute transport under analogous boundary conditions. Lastly transient simulations of age in 1D are calculated to illustrate several aspects of the evolution of groundwater age distributions in time in the presences of multidomain diffusive transport.

  19. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children's Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Wiegand, Ryan E; Omedo, Martin; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization recommendations for the timing and target population for mass drug administration (MDA) for schistosomiasis are based on the prevalence of infection in school children within a given community. In a large study comparing MDA approaches for Schistosoma mansoni control, we evaluated whether prevalence of infection and egg burdens in 9- to 12-year-old students reflected infection levels in young children and adults in the same community. Cross-sectional surveys of preadolescents (9-12 years old) were compared with those of first year students (5-8 years old) in 225 villages and adults (20-55 years old) in 150 villages along the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Village schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity levels in preadolescents strongly correlated (P < 0.0001) with prevalence and infection intensity for other age groups in the community. Our findings suggest that S. mansoni prevalence and intensity among 9- to 12-year-olds are valid for community sampling purposes in mapping for MDAs.

  20. Predictive Value of School-Aged Children's Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Egg Intensity for Other Age Groups in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwinzi, Pauline N M; Muchiri, Geoffrey; Wiegand, Ryan E; Omedo, Martin; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M S; Montgomery, Susan P; Secor, W Evan

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization recommendations for the timing and target population for mass drug administration (MDA) for schistosomiasis are based on the prevalence of infection in school children within a given community. In a large study comparing MDA approaches for Schistosoma mansoni control, we evaluated whether prevalence of infection and egg burdens in 9- to 12-year-old students reflected infection levels in young children and adults in the same community. Cross-sectional surveys of preadolescents (9-12 years old) were compared with those of first year students (5-8 years old) in 225 villages and adults (20-55 years old) in 150 villages along the Kenyan shores of Lake Victoria. Village schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity levels in preadolescents strongly correlated (P < 0.0001) with prevalence and infection intensity for other age groups in the community. Our findings suggest that S. mansoni prevalence and intensity among 9- to 12-year-olds are valid for community sampling purposes in mapping for MDAs. PMID:26416108

  1. Visceral adipose tissue influences on coronary artery calcification at young and middle-age groups using computed tomography angiography

    PubMed Central

    Abazid, Rami M.; Kattea, M. Obadah; Sayed, Sawsan; Saqqah, Hanaa; Qintar, Mohammed; Smettei, Osama A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of excessive visceral adipose tissue (VAT) on subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and coronary artery calcifications (CAC) in young and middle-age groups using multislice computed tomography. Methods: This study is a single center, cross-sectional study. Eligible patients (n = 159), who under the age of 61 years, with chest pain and mild to moderate probability to have coronary artery disease (CAD) were enrolled. Coronary calcium score and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) were measured at the level of the left main coronary artery while VAT was measured at the level of the iliac crest. Results: The average age was (48 ± 8 years). The mean VAT was (38 ± 21 cm2) with no significant difference between men and women (38 ± 22 vs. 37 ± 19 P = 0.8) respectively. Student's t-test analysis showed significantly higher VAT in patients with detectable CAC than patients with no CAC (48 ± 24 vs. 33 ± 18 P = 0.00002), respectively. Univariate regression analysis showed that VAT and EAT, are strong predictor for CAC (hazard ratio [HR] 1.034, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.016–1.052]. P <0.001 and [HR] 1.344, 95% CI: [1.129–1.601] P = 0.001), respectively. Conclusion: Excessive VAT is significantly associated with positive CAC. VAT can strongly predict subclinical CAD in individuals at young and middle-age groups. PMID:26229760

  2. Abortion index and mortality of offspring among women of different age, caste and population groups of north Indian Muslims.

    PubMed

    Ara, Gulshan; Siddique, Yasir Hasan; Beg, Tanveer; Afzal, Mohammad

    2008-05-01

    The Muslims of Aligarh city are predominantly Sunnis, although there are also a considerable number of Shias. Among the Sunnis, approximately a quarter belong to Syed, Sheikh, Moghal and Pathan groups, and three-quarters belong to various lower biradaris. In the present study, 304 women attending the Primary Health Centre of the J. N. Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Uttar Pradesh, were surveyed and the following recorded among Muslim women of high-rank (Ashraf) and low-rank (Ajlaf) castes: incidence of marriage, age of the mother at the time of marriage, present age of the mother, abortions, still births, pre-reproductive mortality and overall mortality. The Ashraf are comprised of the Sheikh, Syed and Pathan, whereas the Ajlafs have Qureshi, Saifi and Ansari biradaris. Maternal age was scored as above and below 45 years in each biradari. Significant effects of maternal age were seen on mortality of offspring, whereas populations did not show consistent differences, except when Ashrafs and Ajlafs were considered separately. The results show higher mortality and abortions for various groups. This may be due to various biological and socio-cultural factors, including hidden inbreeding in the remote past.

  3. Predictors of health practices within age-sex groups: National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences, 1979.

    PubMed Central

    Rakowski, W

    1988-01-01

    Health promotion-disease prevention programs share with health behavior research the common objective of identifying population subgroups toward whom services can be targeted. For this report, six age-sex groups were examined to determine similarities and differences in the predictors of eight health practice indices. Data were from the 1979 National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences. Results showed very little similarity of predictors across the three age cohorts (20-34, 35-49, 50-64), between men and women, and among the six age-sex groups. No predictor achieved significance consistently for several health practices in any of the six groups, although years of education made the best showing. The lack of overlap among predictors helps to explain why health promotion messages and recruitment strategies may not appeal to as diverse an audience as initially intended. Possible explanations for the absence of similar predictors include differences in the nature of the various practices themselves, absence of data on intentions behind a person's behavior, and the "over-determined" character of an individual person's behavior. PMID:3136496

  4. Perceptions of mental workload in Dutch university employees of different ages: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As academic workload seems to be increasing, many studies examined factors that contribute to the mental workload of academics. Age-related differences in work motives and intellectual ability may lead to differences in experienced workload and in the way employees experience work features. This study aims to obtain a better understanding of age differences in sources of mental workload. 33 academics from one faculty discussed causes of workload during focus group interviews, stratified by age. Findings Among our participants, the influence of ageing seems most evident in employees’ actions and reactions, while the causes of workload mentioned seemed largely similar. These individual reactions to workload may also be driven by differences in tenure. Most positively assessed work characteristics were: interaction with colleagues and students and autonomy. Aspects most often indicated as increasing the workload, were organisational aspects as obstacles for ‘getting the best out of people’ and the feeling that overtime seems unavoidable. Many employees indicated to feel stretched between the ‘greediness’ of the organisation and their own high working standards, and many fear to be assigned even less time for research if they do not meet the rigorous output criteria. Moreover, despite great efforts on their part, promotion opportunities seem limited. A more pronounced role for the supervisor seems appreciated by employees of all ages, although the specific interpretation varied between individuals and career stages. Conclusions To preserve good working conditions and quality of work, it seems important to scrutinize the output requirements and tenure-based needs for employee supervision. PMID:23506458

  5. Immigrant Differences in School-Age Children's Verbal Trajectories: A Look at Four Racial/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Tama; Xue, Yange; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    This study explored inter- and intraindividual immigrant group differences in children's English verbal ability over ages 6-16 in 4 racial/ethnic groups--White Americans, Black Americans, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans (N=2,136). Although all children's mean verbal scores increased with age, immigrant children (except for Black Americans)…

  6. Causes of dysphagia among different age groups: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Roden, Dylan F; Altman, Kenneth W

    2013-12-01

    Dysphagia is a common problem that has the potential to result in severe complications such as malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. Based on the complexity of swallowing, there may be many different causes. This article presents a systematic literature review to assess different comorbid disease associations with dysphagia based on age. The causes of dysphagia are different depending on age, affecting between 1.7% and 11.3% of the general population. Dysphagia can be a symptom representing disorders pertinent to any specialty of medicine. This review can be used to aid in the diagnosis of patients presenting with the complaint of dysphagia.

  7. Tracking 10-year competitive winning performance of judo athletes across age groups.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Takito, Monica Y; Mazzei, Leandro; Miarka, Bianca; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-08-01

    Little information is available concerning early specialization and competitive success in judo across the early training years. Thus, the present objective was to verify the stability of individual competitive performance of a state-level championship for judo athletes who had been previously successful. For this, 406 athletes from six age groups (9 to 20+ years old) of each sex were followed for 10 years. Using recorded data from the São Paulo State Judo Federation beginning in 1999, the scores and standings for these judo players were analyzed. The proportion of medal winners during this period was not constant, differing from the grand mean in all groups of both 204 males and 202 females. At the end of this period, only 7% of the male and 5% of the female athletes had maintained their competitive levels. Successful competitive performance in early judo competition was not associated with success later in adulthood. PMID:21987915

  8. Tracking 10-year competitive winning performance of judo athletes across age groups.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Takito, Monica Y; Mazzei, Leandro; Miarka, Bianca; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-08-01

    Little information is available concerning early specialization and competitive success in judo across the early training years. Thus, the present objective was to verify the stability of individual competitive performance of a state-level championship for judo athletes who had been previously successful. For this, 406 athletes from six age groups (9 to 20+ years old) of each sex were followed for 10 years. Using recorded data from the São Paulo State Judo Federation beginning in 1999, the scores and standings for these judo players were analyzed. The proportion of medal winners during this period was not constant, differing from the grand mean in all groups of both 204 males and 202 females. At the end of this period, only 7% of the male and 5% of the female athletes had maintained their competitive levels. Successful competitive performance in early judo competition was not associated with success later in adulthood.

  9. Some results on the ageing of wire chambers with dimethyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibaly, Mohammed; Chrusch, Peter; Hilgenberg, Gregory; Majewski, Stan; Wojcik, Randolph; Weintraub, Randy; Sauli, Fabio

    1988-12-01

    Ageing results of three test wire detectors when filled with dimethyl ether (DME) are presented. DME gas was analyzed before and during the tests for the presence of electronegative impurities, such as Freons. A strong dependence of the rate of ageing on the wire composition was observed. The resistive wires, such as Stablohm and Nicotin, produced fast ageing. Also, even the best available purified DME, as of today, used with gold-plated wires, produced some slow ageing. The rate of amplitude decrease depended on the Freon impurity level.

  10. Preparing Corrections Staff for the Future: Results of a 2-Day Training About Aging Inmates.

    PubMed

    Masters, Julie L; Magnuson, Thomas M; Bayer, Barbara L; Potter, Jane F; Falkowski, Paul P

    2016-04-01

    The aging of the prison population presents corrections staff with unique challenges in knowing how to support inmates while maintaining security. This article describes a 2-day training program to introduce the aging process to select staff at all levels. While the results of a pre-posttest measure, using a modified version of Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz, did not produce a statistically significant difference at the conclusion of the training, attendees did express satisfaction with the training and their newfound insight into the challenges faced by aging inmates. They also offered recommendations for future training to include more practical suggestions for the work environment.

  11. Expression of ERα and PR in Various Morphological Patterns of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding-Endometrial causes in Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pallavi; Chaurasia, Amrita; Dhingra, Vishal; Misra, Vatsala

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) is most common gynaecological problem but its management is not well defined. So FIGO/PALMCOEIN classification was developed to provide clear management options as treatment is different in PALM and AUB-E group. FIGO/PALM-COEIN classification and immunohistochemistry with ERα and PR expression in AUB-E group will be helpful in management of these patients, thus preventing surgical interventions. Aim To study histomorphological classification according to FIGO/PALM-COEIN classification in patients presenting with AUB into PALM and AUB-E group. To study the receptor expression of ERα and PR in AUB-E group. Materials and Methods This cross sectional study was performed in patients presenting with AUB in reproductive age group (15-45 years). Six hundred endometrial specimens were stained with H&E for histolomorphological examination and classified as per FIGO/PALM-COEIN classification of AUB in non-gravid women in reproductive age group. Fifty endometrial biopsies were of pregnancy and pregnancy related complications and were excluded from study. A total of 550 samples were evaluated in present study. IHC for quantification of ERα and PR expression was carried out in AUB-E (100) cases and control group endometrium (20) cases due to technical constraints. Statistical Analysis Unpaired student t-test was performed. p-value ≤ 0.05 was taken as critical level of significance. Results Endometrial (58.19%) (AUB-E) causes were most common cause of AUB. Most common morphology was AUB-E (Proliferative endometrium), AUB-L (Leiomyoma) and AUB-E (Secretory endometrium) respectively. Statistically significant expression of ERα and PR was found in AUB-E endometrium as compared to control group endometrium. In Non secretory/Proliferative endometrium AUB-E group. Proliferative endometrium and hyperplasia without atypia had significant expression of ERα and PR in glands and stroma when compared with proliferative phase control group

  12. Trends and correlates of age at menarche in Colombia: Results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Erica C; Herrán, Oscar F; Villamor, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Surveillance of age at menarche could provide useful information on the impact of changing environmental conditions on child health. Nevertheless, nationally representative data are exceedingly rare. The aim of this study was to examine trends and sociodemographic correlates of age at menarche of Colombian girls. The study sample included 15,441 girls born between 1992 and 2000 who participated in the Colombian National Nutrition Survey of 2010. We estimated median menarcheal age using Kaplan-Meier time-to-event analyses. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated with Cox regression models. The median age at menarche was 12.6 years. There was an estimated decline of 0.54 years/decade (P<0.001) over the birth years; this decline was only observed among girls from urban areas, and was more pronounced among girls from wealthier versus poorer families. Child height and BMI, maternal BMI and education, and family wealth were each inversely associated with menarcheal age whereas food insecurity and number of children in the household were positively associated with age at menarche. In conclusion, a negative trend in age at menarche is ongoing in Colombia, especially in groups most likely to benefit from socioeconomic development.

  13. Growth curves for Turkish Girls with Turner Syndrome: Results of the Turkish Turner Syndrome Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Darendeliler, Feyza; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Bereket, Abdullah; Baş, Firdevs; Bundak, Rüveyde; Sarı, Erkan; Küçükemre Aydın, Banu; Darcan, Şükran; Dündar, Bumin; Büyükinan, Muammer; Kara, Cengiz; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M.; Adal, Erdal; Akıncı, Ayşehan; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Demirel, Fatma; Çelik, Nurullah; Özkan, Behzat; Özhan, Bayram; Orbak, Zerrin; Ersoy, Betül; Doğan, Murat; Ataş, Ali; Turan, Serap; Gökşen, Damla; Tarım, Ömer; Yüksel, Bilgin; Ercan, Oya; Hatun, Şükrü; Şimşek, Enver; Ökten, Ayşenur; Abacı, Ayhan; Döneray, Hakan; Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Keskin, Mehmet; Önal, Hasan; Akyürek, Nesibe; Bulan, Kezban; Tepe, Derya; Emeksiz, Hamdi Cihan; Demir, Korcan; Kızılay, Deniz; Topaloğlu, Ali Kemal; Eren, Erdal; Özen, Samim; Demirbilek, Hüseyin; Abalı, Saygın; Akın, Leyla; Eklioğlu, Beray Selver; Kaba, Sultan; Anık, Ahmet; Baş, Serpil; Ünüvar, Tolga; Sağlam, Halil; Bolu, Semih; Özgen, Tolga; Doğan, Durmuş; Çakır, Esra Deniz; Şen, Yaşar; Andıran, Nesibe; Çizmecioğlu, Filiz; Evliyaoğlu, Olcay; Karagüzel, Gülay; Pirgon, Özgür; Çatlı, Gönül; Can, Hatice Dilek; Gürbüz, Fatih; Binay, Çiğdem; Baş, Veysel Nijat; Sağlam, Celal; Gül, Davut; Polat, Adem; Açıkel, Cengizhan; Cinaz, Peyami

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Children with Turner syndrome (TS) have a specific growth pattern that is quite different from that of healthy children. Many countries have population-specific growth charts for TS. Considering national and ethnic differences, we undertook this multicenter collaborative study to construct growth charts and reference values for height, weight and body mass index (BMI) from 3 years of age to adulthood for spontaneous growth of Turkish girls with TS. Methods: Cross-sectional height and weight data of 842 patients with TS, younger than 18 years of age and before starting any therapy, were evaluated. Results: The data were processed to calculate the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 97th percentile values for defined ages and to construct growth curves for height-for-age, weight-for-age and BMI-for-age of girls with TS. The growth pattern of TS girls in this series resembled the growth pattern of TS girls in other reports, but there were differences in height between our series and the others. Conclusion: This study provides disease-specific growth charts for Turkish girls with TS. These disease-specific national growth charts will serve to improve the evaluation of growth and its management with growth-promoting therapeutic agents in TS patients. PMID:26831551

  14. Host age, social group, and habitat type influence the gut microbiota of wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Genevieve; Malone, Matthew; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; White, Bryan; Nelson, Karen E; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Knight, Rob; Leigh, Steven R; Amato, Katherine R

    2016-08-01

    The gut microbiota contributes to host health by maintaining homeostasis, increasing digestive efficiency, and facilitating the development of the immune system. The composition of the gut microbiota can change dramatically within and between individuals of a species as a result of diet, age, or habitat. Therefore, understanding the factors determining gut microbiota diversity and composition can contribute to our knowledge of host ecology as well as to conservation efforts. Here we use high-throughput sequencing to describe variation in the gut microbiota of the endangered ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR) in southwestern Madagascar. Specifically, we measured the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota in relation to social group, age, sex, tooth wear and loss, and habitat disturbance. While we found no significant variation in the diversity of the ring-tailed lemur gut microbiota in response to any variable tested, the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota was influenced by social group, age, and habitat disturbance. However, effect sizes were small and appear to be driven by the presence or absence of relatively low abundance taxa. These results suggest that habitat disturbance may not impact the lemur gut microbiota as strongly as it impacts the gut microbiota of other primate species, highlighting the importance of distinct host ecological and physiological factors on host-gut microbe relationships. Am. J. Primatol. 78:883-892, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Host age, social group, and habitat type influence the gut microbiota of wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Genevieve; Malone, Matthew; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; White, Bryan; Nelson, Karen E; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Knight, Rob; Leigh, Steven R; Amato, Katherine R

    2016-08-01

    The gut microbiota contributes to host health by maintaining homeostasis, increasing digestive efficiency, and facilitating the development of the immune system. The composition of the gut microbiota can change dramatically within and between individuals of a species as a result of diet, age, or habitat. Therefore, understanding the factors determining gut microbiota diversity and composition can contribute to our knowledge of host ecology as well as to conservation efforts. Here we use high-throughput sequencing to describe variation in the gut microbiota of the endangered ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR) in southwestern Madagascar. Specifically, we measured the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota in relation to social group, age, sex, tooth wear and loss, and habitat disturbance. While we found no significant variation in the diversity of the ring-tailed lemur gut microbiota in response to any variable tested, the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota was influenced by social group, age, and habitat disturbance. However, effect sizes were small and appear to be driven by the presence or absence of relatively low abundance taxa. These results suggest that habitat disturbance may not impact the lemur gut microbiota as strongly as it impacts the gut microbiota of other primate species, highlighting the importance of distinct host ecological and physiological factors on host-gut microbe relationships. Am. J. Primatol. 78:883-892, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27177345

  16. Age and sex differences in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma: results from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Registry (1973-2008).

    PubMed

    Mathieu, L N; Kanarek, N F; Tsai, H-L; Rudin, C M; Brock, M V

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors driving sex disparity in esophageal cancer are unclear. Recent molecular evidence suggests hormonal factors. We conducted a national descriptive epidemiological study to assess the hypothesis that estrogen exposure could explain the male predominance in observed esophageal adenocarcinoma incidence. We analyzed the esophageal cancer incidence trends by histology and sex from 1973 to 2008 in nine population-based cancer registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 Registry Database. We used age as a proxy for estrogen exposure in females. The collective age groups annual percentage change in esophageal adenocarcinoma for females is positive (0.03%; 95% confidence interval: 0.02, 0.03%) during the study period. Interestingly, the esophageal adenocarcinoma annual percentage change in incidence rates for females during the same time period is significantly negative from ages 50-54 to ages 60-64. Even though the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma rises in both males and females, the male-to-female ratio across age peaks in the 50-54 years then decreases. Furthermore, the esophageal adenocarcinoma age-adjusted incidence rate in postmenopausal females age 80 and above increases with age unlike their male counterparts. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that the endocrine milieu in pre- and perimenopausal females serves as a protective factor against esophageal adenocarcinoma, and with loss of estrogen or because of the increasing time period away from estrogen exposure, the rate of esophageal adenocarcinoma incidence increases in the older postmenopausal female. Because females comprise the largest portion of the elderly population with esophageal adenocarcinoma, these findings are significant.

  17. Fibrin network pattern changes of platelet-rich fibrin in young versus old age group of individuals: A cell block cytology study

    PubMed Central

    Yajamanya, Shravanthi Raghav; Chatterjee, Anirban; Babu, Chaitanya Nischay; Karunanithi, Deepika

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate variations in fibrin network patterns of the platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in different age groups. Materials and Methods: Ninety-five patients were divided into three age groups: Group 1: (20–39 years); Group 2: (40–59 years); and Group 3: (60 years and above). PRF was prepared from blood samples of all patients and were subjected to cell block cytology method of histological analysis and slides were prepared to histologically assess the age-related changes in (i) fibrin network patterns in terms of density and (ii) entrapment of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) within fibrin meshwork. Results: Two types of fibrin network pattern arrangements noticed: Dense and loose types in three age groups. However, there was a noticeable decrease in the dense type of fibrin network with progressing age and increase in the loose type of fibrin arrangement. Furthermore, variation in a number of platelets and WBCs entrapped within fibrin network in relation to age was noticed. Conclusion: From the current study it can be concluded that age can be considered as one of the influencing factors on quality of PRF in terms of fibrin network patterns and hence, platelet and WBCs entrapment within these fibrin networks. PMID:27143826

  18. Effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial risk in pregnancy: Results from a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ickovics, Jeannette R.; Reed, Elizabeth; Magriples, Urania; Westdahl, Claire; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2012-01-01

    Few interventions have succeeded in reducing psychosocial risk among pregnant women. The objective of this study was to determine whether an integrated group prenatal care intervention already shown to improve perinatal and sexual risk outcomes can also improve psychosocial outcomes compared to standard individual care. This randomised controlled trial included pregnant women ages 14–25 from two public hospitals (N = 1047) who were randomly assigned to standard individual care, group prenatal care or integrated group prenatal care intervention (CenteringPregnancy Plus, CP+). Timing and content of visits followed obstetrical guidelines, from 18-week gestation through birth. Each 2-h group prenatal care session included physical assessment, education/skills building and support via facilitated discussion. Using intention-to-treat models, there were no significant differences in psychosocial function; yet, women in the top tertile of psychosocial stress at study entry did benefit from integrated group care. High-stress women randomly assigned to CP+ reported significantly increased self-esteem, decreased stress and social conflict in the third trimester of pregnancy; social conflict and depression were significantly lower 1-year postpartum (all p-values <0.02). CP+ improved psychosocial outcomes for high-stress women. This ‘bundled’ intervention has promise for improving psychosocial outcomes, especially for young pregnant women who are traditionally more vulnerable and underserved. PMID:21318932

  19. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory based testing

    PubMed Central

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching to sample memory test. Despite differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments. PMID:23263675

  20. Markov models of breast tumor progression: some age-specific results.

    PubMed

    Duffy, S W; Day, N E; Tabár, L; Chen, H H; Smith, T C

    1997-01-01

    Researchers have noted that mammographic screening has a reduced effect on breast cancer mortality in women in their forties compared to older women. Explanations for this include poorer sensitivity in younger women due to denser breast tissue, as well as more rapid tumor progression, giving a shorter mean sojourn time (the average duration of the preclinical screen-detectable period). To test these hypotheses, we developed a series of Markov-chain models to estimate tumor progression rates and sensitivity. Parameters were estimated using tumor data from the Swedish two-county trial of mammographic screening for breast cancer. The mean sojourn time was shorter in women aged 40-49 compared to women aged 50-59 and 60-69 (2.44, 3.70, and 4.17 years, respectively). Sensitivity was lower in the 40-49 age group compared to the two older groups (83%, 100%, and 100%, respectively). Thus, both rapid progression and poorer sensitivity are associated with the 40-49 age group. We also modeled tumor size, node status, and malignancy grade together with subsequent breast cancer mortality and found that, to achieve a reduction in mortality commensurate with that in women over 50, the interscreening interval for women in their forties should be less than two years. We conclude that Markov models and the use of tumor size, node status, and malignancy grade as surrogates for mortality can be useful in design and analysis of future studies of breast cancer screening.

  1. Markov models of breast tumor progression: some age-specific results.

    PubMed

    Duffy, S W; Day, N E; Tabár, L; Chen, H H; Smith, T C

    1997-01-01

    Researchers have noted that mammographic screening has a reduced effect on breast cancer mortality in women in their forties compared to older women. Explanations for this include poorer sensitivity in younger women due to denser breast tissue, as well as more rapid tumor progression, giving a shorter mean sojourn time (the average duration of the preclinical screen-detectable period). To test these hypotheses, we developed a series of Markov-chain models to estimate tumor progression rates and sensitivity. Parameters were estimated using tumor data from the Swedish two-county trial of mammographic screening for breast cancer. The mean sojourn time was shorter in women aged 40-49 compared to women aged 50-59 and 60-69 (2.44, 3.70, and 4.17 years, respectively). Sensitivity was lower in the 40-49 age group compared to the two older groups (83%, 100%, and 100%, respectively). Thus, both rapid progression and poorer sensitivity are associated with the 40-49 age group. We also modeled tumor size, node status, and malignancy grade together with subsequent breast cancer mortality and found that, to achieve a reduction in mortality commensurate with that in women over 50, the interscreening interval for women in their forties should be less than two years. We conclude that Markov models and the use of tumor size, node status, and malignancy grade as surrogates for mortality can be useful in design and analysis of future studies of breast cancer screening. PMID:9709283

  2. Factors Influencing Menarcheal Age: Results From the Cohort of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Gholami, Roya; Moslehi, Nazanin; Azizi, Feriedon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Menarche is considered as a milestone in the women’s reproductive life. Most existing studies on factors influencing menarcheal age had cross-sectional designs and their finding were controversial. Objectives: We aimed to determine some factors affecting the age at menarche in a cohort study with an average of ten-year follow-up; the study was conducted within the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS). Materials and Methods: For the purpose of the present study, we recruited all the females aged 12 to 18 years participated in TLGS whose menarche had not begun at the initiation of the study, but occurred during their follow-up. The effect of premenarcheal status of various factors including socioeconomic and anthropometric parameters, physical activity, energy expenditure, and exposure to tobacco smoke on menarcheal age was explored. Results: The mean of age at menarche was 13.06 ± 1.24 years. There were significant statistical associations between age of the participants’ mothers at menarche (r = 0.66, P < 0.001), maternal education (r = -0.04, P = 0.002), and body mass index (BMI) before menarcheal (r = 0.25, P = 0.027) with age at menarche. There was no significant correlation between age at menarche, with either of maternal employment, premenarcheal physical activity, energy expenditure, and passive smoking. Conclusions: Among various factor influencing menarcheal age, premenarcheal BMI is modifiable, and considering its significance, could prevent early or late menarches. PMID:25237321

  3. Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test Result Is Associated with Age and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Newberry, Carolyn; Tierney, Ann; Pickett-Blakely, Octavia

    2016-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is associated with chronic gastrointestinal diseases and structural/functional abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. SIBO's association with clinical characteristics is unclear. This study investigates the association between clinical factors and SIBO according to lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) result. Methods. A cross-sectional study in a university-based gastroenterology practice was performed. Data was abstracted from the medical records of subjects undergoing LHBT from 6/1/2009 to 6/1/2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between predictor variables: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and positive LHBT, the outcome of interest. Results. LHBT was performed in 791 subjects. Fifty-four percent had a positive LHBT. There was no statistically significant difference between the LHBT results according to age or BMI. In females, the likelihood of a positive LHBT increased with age (OR 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01–1.03). In males, the likelihood of a positive LHBT result decreased with age (OR 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97–1.00). Conclusion. There was an association between age, with respect to sex, and a positive LHBT. With increased age in females, the odds of a positive LHBT increased, while, in men, the odds of a positive LHBT decreased with age. PMID:27073800

  4. Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test Result Is Associated with Age and Gender.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Carolyn; Tierney, Ann; Pickett-Blakely, Octavia

    2016-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is associated with chronic gastrointestinal diseases and structural/functional abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. SIBO's association with clinical characteristics is unclear. This study investigates the association between clinical factors and SIBO according to lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) result. Methods. A cross-sectional study in a university-based gastroenterology practice was performed. Data was abstracted from the medical records of subjects undergoing LHBT from 6/1/2009 to 6/1/2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between predictor variables: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and positive LHBT, the outcome of interest. Results. LHBT was performed in 791 subjects. Fifty-four percent had a positive LHBT. There was no statistically significant difference between the LHBT results according to age or BMI. In females, the likelihood of a positive LHBT increased with age (OR 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.03). In males, the likelihood of a positive LHBT result decreased with age (OR 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-1.00). Conclusion. There was an association between age, with respect to sex, and a positive LHBT. With increased age in females, the odds of a positive LHBT increased, while, in men, the odds of a positive LHBT decreased with age. PMID:27073800

  5. Hydroacoustic separation of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Stetter S.L.; Rudstam, L. G.; Stritzel, Thomson J.L.; Parrish, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Separate assessment of young-of-year (YOY) and yearling-and-older (YAO) fish is desirable from both ecological and management perspectives. Acoustic assessments provide information on fish population size structure in the target strength (TS) distribution, but interpretation of TS distributions must be done carefully, as single age groups can produce multiple TS modes. We assessed the ability of in situ TS distributions to identify Lake Champlain rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in June, July, and September of 2001 using mobile and stationary surveys, knowledge of vertical distribution preferences, and predicted TS from trawl catches. YAO rainbow smelt (93-179 mm total length) had wide TS distributions between -60 and -35 dB in all 3 months with two modes at approximately -50 and -40 dB. Most stationary survey single-fish tracks attributed to YAO had targets in both TS modes and a wide TS range often over 15 dB. Between June and September, YOY rainbow smelt TS increased, but single-fish tracks were unimodal, and the TS range was smaller (6 dB). Overlap in TS attributed to YOY and YAO increased from no overlap in June (YOY TS -76 to -61 dB, 15-25 mm) to moderate overlap in July (-76 to -50 dB, 25-63 mm) to considerable overlap in September (-68 to -45 dB, 33-80 mm). In June and July, the TS distribution changed abruptly at the thermocline, indicating almost complete separation of the two groups. A more gradual TS transition was evident in September, indicating substantial overlap between YOY and YAO. Separate estimates can be obtained in September by decomposing TS overlap into components attributed to YOY and YAO rainbow smelt. However, this decomposition introduces additional uncertainty and an assessment in July or possibly August is preferable to obtain separate abundance estimates of YOY and YAO. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hospital Versus Home Death: Results from the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Tovalín-Ahumada, Horacio; Nates, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Context Characterizing where people die is needed to inform palliative care programs in Mexico. Objectives To determine whether access to health care influences the place of death of older Mexicans and examine the modifying effects of demographic and clinical characteristics. Methods We analyzed 2001 baseline and 2003 follow-up data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Cases included adults who completed the baseline interview and died before the follow-up interview and for whom a proxy interview was obtained in 2003. The main outcome variable was the place of death (hospital vs. home). The predictors of the place of death were identified using logistic regression analysis. Results The study group included 473 deceased patients; 52.9% died at home. Factors associated with hospital death were having spent at least one night in a hospital during the last year of life (odds ratio [OR]: 6.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.29, 13.78) and dying in a city other than the city of usual residence (OR: 4.68, 95% CI: 2.56, 8.57). Factors associated with home death were not having health care coverage (OR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.34, 5.88), living in a city of less than 100,000 residents (OR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.43, 4.17), and older age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05). Conclusion Older Mexicans with access to health care services were more likely to die in the hospital even after controlling for important clinical and demographic characteristics. Findings from the study may be used to plan the provision of accessible end-of-life hospital and home-based services. PMID:21146354

  7. [Living the aging in Senegal Perceptions/representations and coping strategies of persons of age three: results of investigations retrospective].

    PubMed

    Kâ, Ousseynou; Faye, Atoumane; Mbaye, El Hadji; Tall, Alioune Badara; Gaye, Awa; Sow, Papa Gallo; Ba, Cheikh Tidiane

    2016-03-01

    In Senegal, due to the young age of the population (60%) the concerns of the old tend to be put in the background. And yet, problems related to old age are a reality. These problems come up not in terms of demography (the old represent only 4.7% of the population), but in terms of the breaking-up of the social fabric, urbanization and the dismantling of the solidarity and poverty networks. This work is based on a collection of qualitative data from three studies conducted between 2008 and 2011 with the elderly to assess their real- life experiences, their perception of aging, their challenges and coping strategies. The results showed a transformation in the role and status of the old; this transformation being caused by social and society-related mutations. As a result, the inter-generation solidarity links have much loosened in the urban areas making the old people more vulnerable (in economic, social, health terms), especially those in charge of a family. The situation has been made worse by the unemployment affecting their offspring. In addition, the old people, who are often suffering from chronic diseases, find it hard to take charge of their medical expenses, despite the institution of the National Sesame Health Plan for the old or free health care policy. This has made them even more vulnerable. Yet before this precarious situation, the elderly develop strategies to cope with difficulties. Some recommendations have been made with a view to improving their lives and socioeconomic condition. PMID:26852947

  8. Cross-year peer tutoring on internal medicine wards: results of a qualitative focus group analysis

    PubMed Central

    Krautter, Markus; Andreesen, Sven; Köhl-Hackert, Nadja; Hoffmann, Katja; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Background Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective. Purpose To provide insights into students’ experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors. Methods A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80). The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants). The discussions were analyzed using content analysis. Results The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students’ anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available. Conclusion On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students’ support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor–student working alliance acts through its flat hierarchy. Nevertheless, tutors cannot represent an adequate substitute for experienced physicians. PMID:25278789

  9. Evaluation of the results from arthroscopic surgical treatment of rotator cuff injuries in patients aged 65 years and over☆

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; Santos, Pedro Doenux; Checchia, Sergio Luiz; Cohen, Carina; Giora, Taís Stedile Busin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the results from arthroscopic surgical treatment of rotator cuff injuries in patients aged 65 years and over. Methods Between 1998 and 2009, 168 patients underwent operations. Five cases were excluded. The remaining 163 patients were stratified according to their age group: 65–69 years (49.1%), 70–74 (26.4%) and 75 years and over (24.5%). Their mean age was 71 years (range: 65–83). There were 63 male patients (38.7%). The mean length of time with pain, from the onset of symptoms to the surgery, was 23 months (range: 2 days to 240 months). Sixty-two patients (38%) reported histories of trauma and 26 (16%) reported that their pain worsened through exertion. Results From the UCLA criteria, 80.4% of the results were excellent, 16% good, 1.8% fair and 1.8% poor. Complications occurred in 11%. The final clinical result did not show any correlation with age progression, injury size or tendons affected. However, there was a significant association (p < 0.001) between the presence of trauma and larger injuries. The length of time between the onset of symptoms and the surgical procedure had a significant relationship (p < 0.027) with the postoperative results: the longer this time was, the worse the results were. Conclusion Arthroscopic treatment of rotator cuff injuries in patients aged 65 years and over presented excellent and good results in 96.4% of the cases, according to the UCLA assessment, with a low complication rate. Advanced age did not show any influence on the postoperative clinical evolution, but the earlier the surgical treatment was instituted, the better the results were. PMID:26229935

  10. Results of interlaboratory comparison of fission-track age standards: Fission-track workshop-1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, D.S.; Duddy, I.R.; Green, P.F.; Hurford, A.J.; Naeser, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    Five samples were made available as standards for the 1984 Fission Track Workshop held in the summer of 1984 (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York). Two zircons, two apatites and a sphene were distributed prior to the meeting to 40 different laboratories. To date, 24 different analysts have reported results. The isotopic ages of the standards ranged from 16.8 to 98.7 Myr. Only the statement that the age of each sample was less than 200 Myr was provided with the set of standards distributed. Consequently, each laboratory was required to use their laboratory's accepted treatment (irradiation level, etching conditions, counting conditions, etc.) for these samples. The results show that some workers have serious problems in achieving accurate age determinations. This emphasizes the need to calibrate experimental techniques and counting procedures against age standards before unknown ages are determined. Any fission-track age determination published or submitted for publication can only be considered reliable if it is supported by evidence of consistent determinations on age standards. Only this can provide the scientific community with the background to build up confidence concerning the validity of the fission-track method. ?? 1985.

  11. [Health Care Insurance in France: its impact on income distribution between age and social groups].

    PubMed

    Fourcade, N; Duval, J; Lardellier, R

    2013-08-01

    Our study, based on microsimulation models, evaluates the redistributive impact of health care insurance in France on income distribution between age and social groups. This work sheds light on the debate concerning the respective role of the public health care insurance (PHI) and the private supplemental health care insurance (SHI) in France. The analysis points out that the PHI enables the lowest-income households and the pensioners a better access to health care than they would have had under a complete private SHI. Due to the progressivity of taxes, low-income households contribute less to the PHI and get higher benefits because of a weaker health. Pensioners have low contributions to public health care finance but the highest health care expenditures.

  12. [Peculiarities of cardiovascular system pathology depending on psychological profile in patients of senior age groups].

    PubMed

    Prokhorenko, I O

    2013-01-01

    Interrelations between peculiarities of psychological profile of patients of senior age groups (according to Cattel), level of stress hormones in blood and background pathology of cardiovascular system were studied. Levels of catecholamine and corticosteroids in dynamics, rate of magnesium in erythrocytes and calcium in plaques of coronary arteries as well as fats, Holter ECG, daily profiles of blood pressure, vasomotor function of endothelium and microcirculation were analysed. It is established that stress hormones indirectly determine original form of stress reaction depending on patients' psychological profile. This contributes to the development of one or another form of cardiovascular system pathology. Excessive alcohol intake also promotes progression of cardiovascular system pathology. Depression, being a reflection of disbalance of stress hormones levels, can be used as a marker of unfavourable course of cardiovascular pathology.

  13. Ileal perforation associated with dengue in the paediatric age group: an uncommon presentation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Gupta, Archika; Pandey, Anand; Kureel, Shiv Narain

    2016-01-01

    Acute abdomen in dengue, a common arboviral disease found in tropical and subtropical countries, is not uncommon and can occasionally present as acute surgical emergency requiring urgent surgical intervention. The spectrum of acute abdomen presenting as surgical emergency in dengue infection that raises suspicion of an abdominal catastrophe includes acute appendicitis, acute cholecystitis, appendicitis and, rarely, intestinal perforation. All cases of intestinal perforation including appendicular, gastric and jejunal perforation have been reported in adult patients during the course of dengue infection. However, intestinal perforation during the course of dengue infection in the paediatric age group has never been reported. We report two cases of ileal perforation in children occurring during the course of dengue infection. PMID:27485879

  14. Elevated fracture of skull in pediatric age group: A series of five patients with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jayendra; Prakash, Anand; Harsh, Viraat; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Elevated fractures of skull in pediatric age group are rarely reported in the literature. In view of rarity, we present a series of five cases of elevated skull fracture in pediatric age group. Over a period of 1-year, we operated on five such cases. In this article, we have discussed the mode, mechanism and extent of injury, its clinico-radiological findings, course of the disease, and the management outcome. Four out of five cases improved after surgery and did not suffer any complications. Early recognition and appropriate management of compound elevated fracture in pediatric age group comes with good outcome and prevents unwanted morbidity and mortality. PMID:26889296

  15. Organ Donation in the 50+ Age Demographic: Survey Results on Decision Rationale and Information Preferences.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, Alexander; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Myer, Kevin A; Mullins, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    The rate of organ donation by older potential donors is significantly declining even though recent studies show positive clinical outcomes with organs transplanted from older donors. This study examined the 50+ age demographic to identify the rationale for donation decisions, preferred media methods of donation information delivery, and responsiveness to an age-tailored donation message. Results from 579 surveys, 87% from the 50+ age demographic, found respondents prone to self-select themselves as medically ineligible based on current medication and health status, even though they might be medically suitable donors. Their incentive to pursue additional information on donation is limited except when motivated by personal accounts within their families and communities. In addition, even when computer literate, they continue to favor the printed or spoken word for donation information delivery. The results suggest an opportunity for those working with older adults to develop more personalized, localized donation education programs targeting this age demographic.

  16. An analysis of the rollover backstroke turn by age-group swimmers.

    PubMed

    Blanksby, Brian; Skender, Simon; Elliott, Bruce; McElroy, Keith; Landers, Grant

    2004-01-01

    Kinetic (3-D force plate), kinematic (videography) and temporal characteristics of backstroke turns by 20 male and 16 female swimmers were recorded to identify and describe key elements of backstroke turning performance. Data were recorded during a 50 m maximum effort swim in a 25 metre pool. A Pearson product moment correlation matrix revealed that the 5 m RTT was significantly correlated with anthropometric measures of height, mass, trochanteric height and age; kinetic measures of horizontal impulse and peak force; and kinematic measures of wall contact time and peak velocity. The stepwise multiple regression equation to predict 5 m RTT was: 19.6-0.75 trochanteric height-1.8 wall exit velocity-0.03 peak vertical force. Four key factors were identified from a principle components factor analysis--anthropometry and force, post-turn velocity, force preparation and rotational skills. Implications from the findings were that age-group backstrokers should 'hit the wall hard' with relatively extended legs to reduce swim distance and push-off deceleration; use minimal wall contact time, and maximise forces to develop high horizontal velocities in a streamlined position. PMID:15079984

  17. The dental health of a group of adults approaching retirement age in Hertfordshire, England.

    PubMed

    Clouting, D W

    1989-12-01

    A socio-dental investigation involving a clinical examination and structured interview was carried out during 1986 on a sample of 83 people aged between 55 and 64 years in Hertfordshire. The sample was not representative of the population; subjects were employed on the staff of two retailing chains. The main purpose of the study was to estimate likely future needs of older people in such a sample. The clinical examination showed a proportion of individuals with natural and heavily restored teeth. Most subjects had one or more exposed non-carious root surfaces. The periodontal condition of the sample was favourable. Problems could occur in the future as this group ages if their currently favourable dental health deteriorates and root surfaces become carious in large numbers or the periodontal condition worsens. Conservative treatment, if required in the future, especially for housebound people, may be a problem unless domiciliary services are planned to this end. A preventive approach may help to limit operative requirements. PMID:2696575

  18. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in Brazilian Samples of Different Age Groups: Findings from Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Brietzke, Elisa; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Kristensen, Christian Haag; Arteche, Adriane Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is internationally accepted as a key tool for the assessment of childhood abuse and neglect experiences. However, there are relative few psychometric studies available and some authors have proposed two different factor solutions. We examined the dimensional structure and internal consistency of the Brazilian version of the CTQ. A total of 1,925 participants from eight different clinical and non-clinical samples including adolescents, adults and elders were considered in this study. First, we performed Confirmatory Factor Analysis to investigate the goodness of fit of the two proposed competitive factor structure models for the CTQ. We also investigated the internal consistency of all factors. Second, multi-group analyses were used to investigate measurement invariance and population heterogeneity across age groups and sex. Our findings revealed that the alternative factor structure as opposed to the original factor structure was the most appropriate model within adolescents and adults Brazilian samples. We provide further evidence for the validity and reliability of the CTQ within the Brazilian samples and report that the alternative model showed an improvement in fit indexes and may be a better alternative over the original model. PMID:24475237

  19. Multilevel selection with kin and non-kin groups, experimental results with Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Muir, William M; Bijma, P; Schinckel, A

    2013-06-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing multilevel selection in Japanese quail for 43 days weight and survival with birds housed in either kin (K) or random (R) groups. Multilevel selection significantly reduced mortality (6.6% K vs. 8.5% R) and increased weight (1.30 g/MG K vs. 0.13 g/MG R) resulting in response an order of magnitude greater with Kin than Random. Thus, multilevel selection was effective in reducing detrimental social interactions, which contributed to improved weight gain. The observed rates of response did not differ significantly from expected, demonstrating that current theory is adequate to explain multilevel selection response. Based on estimated genetic parameters, group selection would always be superior to any other combination of multilevel selection. Further, near optimal results could be attained using multilevel selection if 20% of the weight was on the group component regardless of group composition. Thus, in nature the conditions for multilevel selection to be effective in bringing about social change maybe common. In terms of a sustainability of breeding programs, multilevel selection is easy to implement and is expected to give near optimal responses with reduced rates of inbreeding as compared to group selection, the only requirement is that animals be housed in kin groups.

  20. First results on the representation theory of the Ultrahyperbolic BMS group UHB(2, 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melas, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    The Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group B is the common asymptotic group of all asymptotically flat (lorentzian) space-times, and is the best candidate for the universal symmetry group of General Relativity (G.R.). B admits generalizations to real space-times of any signature, to complex space-times, and supersymmetric generalizations for any space— time dimension. With this motivation McCarthy constructed the strongly continuous unitary irreducible representations (IRs) of B some time ago, and he identified B(2,2) as the generalization of B appropriate to the to the ultrahyperbolic signature (+,+,-,-) and asymptotic flatness in null directions. We continue this programme by introducing a new group UHB(2, 2) in the group theoretical study of ultrahyperbolic G.R. which happens to be a proper subgroup of B(2, 2). We report on the first general results on the representation theory of UHB(2, 2). In particular the main general results are that the all little groups of UHB(2, 2) are compact and that the Wigner-Mackeys inducing construction is exhaustive despite the fact that UHB(2, 2) is not locally compact in the employed Hilbert topology.

  1. Hormonal monitoring of age at sexual maturation in female Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii) in their family groups.

    PubMed

    Dettling, A; Pryce, C R

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether or not sexual maturation is attained in the family group in captive-born Goeldi's monkey (Callimico goeldii) and if so, at what age and body weight. To monitor ovarian activity in 14 female Goeldi's monkeys, urinary content of pregnanediol-3alpha-glucuronide (PdG) was determined using radioimmunoassay. Urinary samples were collected between the ages of 6 and 70 weeks. Subjects became sexually mature while still housed in their family groups, at a median age of 57 weeks (48-< 70 weeks). Median body weight at the age of sexual maturity was 473 g (N=10; 420-543 g). This corresponded to 90% of the median non-pregnant body weight of breeding females in our colony (526 g, N=8). Therefore, Goeldi's monkey is similar to Leontopithecus but different from Cebuella, Callithrix, and Saguinus, in terms of daughters ovulating in the family group and at a relatively young age.

  2. New Ages on Old Arc Rocks, Preliminary Results From the Southern IBM Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohler, D.; Reagan, M.; Heizler, M.; Hickey-Vargas, R.

    2001-12-01

    The first results of our reevaluation of the geochemistry and geochronology of Eocene to Miocene volcanic rocks from the southern Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) arc include preliminary 40Ar/39Ar ages on rocks from Guam, and DSDP sites 447, 448, 458, 459B. Our new 40Ar/39Ar age of 44 Ma on a boninite series basalt from the Facpi formation, supports earlier work by Meijer et al. (1983, AGU Mono. 27, p349) who obtained a 44 Ma K-Ar age on a similar basalt from the same area in western Guam. Our 40Ar/39Ar age of 20 Ma age on a tholeiite dike in the southern portion of the Facpi formation is in the range of K-Ar ages in Cosca et al. (1998 Is. Arc 7 p.579) and Meijer et al. (1983) of 36 Ma to 16 Ma for the Facpi. These ages are younger than the Late Middle Eocene age assigned to the Facpi, and indicates either that a previously unrecognized unit of tholeiitic arc volcanics exists in southern Guam, or that zeolite facies metamorphism reset the ages. If the former is true, then this unit has ages within the gap in arc volcanism previously postulated for the late Oligocene and early Miocene on Guam. Our preliminary results on DSDP cores when combined with 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar dates from Cosca et al. (1998,), and older K-Ar ages from Meijer et al. (1983) suggest that tholeiitic to boninitic volcanism occurred at site 458 and perhaps 459 to east of Guam at about 50 Ma. Similarly, Cosca et al. (1998), showed that volcanism along the Palau-Kyushu ridge dates back to about 50 Ma. Thus, magmatism appears to have occurred around 5 Ma later on Guam than to the east and west, which is consistent with a center of Eocene forearc spreading near Guam. A single preliminary 40Ar/39Ar age of 20 Ma for a relatively intact diabase at site 447 and dates reported in Fujioka et al., (1999, Geology 27, p.1135) and Hickey-Vargas (1998 JGR 103, p. 20963) presents the possibility that volcanism continued in the West Philippine Basin into the early Miocene.

  3. Age constraints for Paleoproterozoic glaciation in the Lake Superior Region: Detrital zircon and hydrothermal xenotime ages for the Chocolay Group, Marquette Range Supergroup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallini, D.A.; Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    A geochronological study of the Chocolay Group at the base of the Paleoproterozoic Marquette Range Supergroup in Michigan, Lake Superior Region, is attempted for the first time, Age data from detrital zircon grains and hydrothermal xenotime from the basal glaciogenic formation, the Enchantment Lake Formation, and the stratigraphically higher Sturgeon Quartzite and its equivalent, the Sunday Quartzite, provide maximum and minimum age constraints for the Chocolay Group. The youngest detrital zircon population in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2317 ?? 6 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2306 ?? 9 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2647 ?? 5 Ma. The oldest hydrothermal xenotime age in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2133 ?? 11 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2115 ?? 5 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2207 ?? 5 Ma. The radiometric age data in this study implies the depositional age of the Chocolay Group is constrained to ???2.3-2.2 Ga, which proves its correlation with part of the Huronian Supergroup in the Lake Huron Region, Ontario, and reveals the unconformity that separates the Chocolay Group from the overlying Menominee Group is up to 325 million years in duration. The source(s) of the ??? 2.3 Ga detrital zircon populations in the Enchantment Lake Formation and Sturgeon Quartzite remains an enigma because no known rock units of this age are known in the Michigan area. It is speculated that once widespread volcano-sedimentary cover sequences in Michigan were removed or concealed prior to Chocolay Group deposition. The hydrothermal xenotime ages probably reflect basinal hydrothermal fluid flow associated with the period of extension involving rifting and major dyke formation, that affected the North American provinces between 2.2 and 2.1 Ga. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  4. A Clinico-Etiological Study of Dermatoses in Pediatric Age Group in Tertiary Health Care Center in South Gujarat Region

    PubMed Central

    Jawade, Sugat A; Chugh, Vishal S; Gohil, Sneha K; Mistry, Amit S; Umrigar, Dipak D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dermatologic conditions have different presentation and management in pediatric age group from that in adult; this to be studied separately for statistical and population based analysis. Objective: To study the pattern of various dermatoses in infants and children in tertiary health care center in South Gujarat region. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study; various dermatoses were studied in pediatric patients up to 14 years of age attending the Dermatology OPD of New Civil Hospital, Surat, Gujarat over a period of 12 months from June 2009 to June 2010. All patients were divided into four different study groups: <1 month (neonates), 1 month to 1 year, >1 to 6 years and 7 to 14 years. Results: There were 596 boys and 425 girls in total 1021 study populations. Majority of the skin conditions in neonates were erythema toxicum neonatorum (12.97%), scabies (9.92%), mongolian spot (9.16%), and seborrheic dermatitis (7.63%). In > 1 month to 14 years age group of children among infectious disorder, children were found to be affected most by scabies (24.49%), impetigo (5.96%), pyoderma (5.62%), molluscum contagiosum (5.39%), tinea capitis (4.49%), leprosy (2.02%), and viral warts (1.35%) while among non-infectious disorders, they were affected by atopic dermatitis (4.27%), pityriasis alba (4.16%), seborrheic dermatitis (3.60%), pityriasis rosea (3.15%), others (3.01%), phrynoderma (2.70%), lichen planus (2.58%), contact dermatitis (1.57%) and ichthyosis (1.45%). Conclusion: There is a need to emphasize on training the management of common pediatric dermatoses to dermatologists, general practitioners and pediatricians for early treatment. PMID:26677296

  5. Factors associated with hospitalization risk among community living middle aged and older persons: Results from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA).

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Jenny; Fransson, Eleonor I; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Reynolds, Chandra A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl Aslan, Anna K

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to: (1) describe and compare individual characteristics of hospitalized and not hospitalized community living persons, and (2) to determine factors that are associated with hospitalization risk over time. We conducted a prospective study with a multifactorial approach based on the population-based longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA). A total of 772 Swedes (mean age at baseline 69.7 years, range 46-103, 59.8% females) answered a postal questionnaire about physical and psychological health, personality and socioeconomic factors. During nine years of follow-up, information on hospitalizations and associated diagnoses were obtained from national registers. Results show that 484 persons (63%) had at least one hospital admission during the follow-up period. The most common causes of admission were cardiovascular diseases (25%) and tumors (22%). Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age, sex and dependency within twin pairs, showed that higher age (HR=1.02, p<0.001) and more support from relatives (HR=1.09, p=0.028) were associated with increased risk of hospitalization, while marital status (unmarried (HR=0.75, p=0.033) and widow/widower (HR=0.69, p<0.001)) and support from friends (HR=0.93, p=0.029) were associated with lower risk of hospitalization. Social factors were important for hospitalization risk even when medical factors were controlled for in the analyses. Number of diseases was not a risk in the final regression model. Hospitalization risk was also different for women and men and within different age groups. We believe that these results might be used in future interventions targeting health care utilization.

  6. Lumbar Interbody Fusion Outcomes in Degenerative Lumbar Disease : Comparison of Results between Patients Over and Under 65 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Dae-Jean; Jun, Jae-Kyun; Kim, Ki-Tack

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of lumbar interbody fusion and its correlation with various factors (e.g., age, comorbidities, fusion level, bone quality) in patients over and under 65 years of age who underwent lumbar fusion surgery for degenerative lumbar disease. Methods One-hundred-thirty-three patients with lumbar degenerative disease underwent lumbar fusion surgery between June 2006 and June 2007 and were followed for more than one year. Forty-eight (36.1%) were older than 65 years of age (group A) and 85 (63.9%) were under 65 years of age (group B). Diagnosis, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, and perioperative complications were recorded. The analysis of clinical outcomes was based on the visual analogue scale (VAS). Radiological results were evaluated using plain radiographs. Clinical outcomes, radiological outcomes, length of hospital stay, and complication rates were analyzed in relation to lumbar fusion level, the number of comorbidities, bone mineral density (BMD), and age. Results The mean age of the patients was 61.2 years (range, 33-86 years) and the mean BMD was -2.2 (range, -4.8 to -2.8). The mean length of hospital stay was 15.0 days (range, 5-60 days) and the mean follow-up was 23.0 months (range, 18-30 months). Eighty-five (64.0%) patients had more than one preoperative comorbidities. Perioperative complications occurred in 27 of 133 patients (20.3%). The incidence of overall complication was 22.9% in group A, and 18.8% in group B but there was no statistical difference between the two groups. The mean VAS scores for the back and leg were significantly decreased in both groups (p < 0.05), and bony fusion was achieved in 125 of 133 patients (94.0%). There was no significant difference in bony union rates between groups A and B (91.7% in group A vs. 95.3% in group B, p = 0.398). In group A, perioperative complications were more common with the increase in fusion level (p = 0.027). Perioperative complications in

  7. Age, Ageing and Skills: Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 132

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paccagnella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the link between age and proficiency in information-processing skills, based on information drawn from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). The data reveal significant age-related differences in proficiencies, strongly suggesting that proficiency tends to "naturally" decline with age. Age…

  8. Age at First Drink, Drinking, Binge Drinking and DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder among Hispanic National Groups in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A.; Vaeth, Patrice A. C.; Reingle, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper examines age at first drink and adult drinking, binge drinking and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) among U.S. Hispanic national groups. Methods Respondents come from two independent studies. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey used a multistage cluster sample design to interview 5,224 individuals 18 years of age and older selected from the household population in: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston and Los Angeles. Respondents in the border area (N=1,307) constituted a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on U.S. counties that border Mexico. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents' homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. Results U.S. born Hispanics begin drinking at a younger age than those who are foreign born, independent of national group. Among foreign born Hispanics, age of arrival in the U.S. is not associated with age at first drink. Results support the hypothesis that a younger age at first drink is associated with a higher mean volume of drinking, a higher probability of bingeing and a higher probability of DSM-5 AUD. But the results do not show a clear pattern by which a particular national group would consistently show no associations or stronger associations between age at first drink and the alcohol-related outcomes under consideration. Conclusions An earlier age at first drinking is positively associated with heavier drinking patterns among U.S. Hispanics. However, as in other areas of alcohol epidemiology, here too there is considerable variation in age at first drink and drinking across Hispanic national groups. PMID:24689445

  9. Effectiveness of a low-threshold physical activity intervention in residential aged care – results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cichocki, Martin; Quehenberger, Viktoria; Zeiler, Michael; Adamcik, Tanja; Manousek, Matthias; Stamm, Tanja; Krajic, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Research on effectiveness of low-threshold mobility interventions that are viable for users of residential aged care is scarce. Low-threshold is defined as keeping demands on organizations (staff skills, costs) and participants (health status, discipline) rather low. The study explored the effectiveness of a multi-faceted, low-threshold physical activity program in three residential aged-care facilities in Austria. Main goals were enhancement of mobility by conducting a multi-faceted training program to foster occupational performance and thus improve different aspects of health-related quality of life (QoL). Participants and methods The program consisted of a weekly session of 60 minutes over a period of 20 weeks. A standardized assessment of mobility status and health-related QoL was applied before and after the intervention. A total of 222 of 276 participants completed the randomized controlled trial study (intervention group n=104, control group n=118; average age 84 years, 88% female). Results Subjective health status (EuroQoL-5 dimensions: P=0.001, d=0.36) improved significantly in the intervention group, and there were also positive trends in occupational performance (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure). No clear effects were found concerning the functional and cognitive measures applied. Conclusion Thus, the low-threshold approach turned out to be effective primarily on subjective health-related QoL. This outcome could be a useful asset for organizations offering low-threshold physical activity interventions. PMID:26056438

  10. Age-Adjusted PSA Levels in Prostate Cancer Prediction: Updated Results of the Tyrol Prostate Cancer Early Detection Program

    PubMed Central

    Heidegger, Isabel; Fritz, Josef; Klocker, Helmut; Pichler, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Objective To reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies in patients with benign prostatic disease, however, without missing significant PCa the present study re-evaluates the age-dependent PSA cut-offs in the Tyrol Prostate Cancer (PCa) early detection program. Patients and Methods The study population included 2225 patients who underwent prostate biopsy due to elevated PSA levels at our department. We divided our patient collective into four age groups: ≤49 years (n = 178), 50-59 years (n = 597), 60-69 years (n = 962) and ≥70 years (n = 488). We simulated different scenarios for PSA cut-off values between 1.25 and 6 ng/mL and fPSA% between 15 and 21% for all four age groups and calculated sensitivity, specificity, confidence intervals and predictive values. Results PCa was detected in 1218 men (54.7%). We found that in combination with free PSA ≤21% the following PSA cut-offs had the best cancer specificity: 1.75 ng/ml for men ≤49 years and 50-59 years, 2.25 ng/ml for men aged 60-69 years and 3.25 ng/ml for men ≥70 years. Using these adjusted PSA cut-off values all significant tumors are recognized in all age groups, yet the number of biopsies is reduced. Overall, one biopsy is avoided in 13 to 14 men (number needed to screen = 13.3, reduction of biopsies = 7.5%) when decision regarding biopsy is done according to the “new” cut-off values instead of the “old” ones. For the different age groups the number needed to screen to avoid one biopsy varied between 9.2 (≤49 years) and 17.4 (50-59 years). Conclusion With “new”, fine-tuned PSA cut-offs we detect all relevant PCa with a significant reduction of biopsies compared to the “old” cut-off values. Optimization of age-specific PSA cut-offs is one step towards a smarter strategy in the Tyrol PCa Early Detection Program. PMID:26218594

  11. Paranodal reorganization results in the depletion of transverse bands in the aged central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Mark N.; Pomicter, Anthony D.; Velazco, Cristine S.; Henderson, Scott C.; Dupree, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Paranodal axo-glial junctional complexes anchor the myelin sheath to the axon and breakdown of these complexes presumably facilitates demyelination. Myelin deterioration is also prominent in the aging central nervous system (CNS); however, the stability of the paranodal complexes in the aged CNS has not been examined. Here, we show that transverse bands, prominent components of paranodal junctions, are significantly reduced in the aged CNS; however, the number of paired clusters of both myelin and axonal paranodal proteins is not altered. Ultrastructural analyses also reveal that thicker myelin sheaths display a “piling” of paranodal loops, the cytoplasm-containing sacs that demarcate the paranode. Loops involved in piling are observed throughout the paranode and are not limited to loops positioned in either the nodal- or juxtanodal-most regions. Here, we propose that as myelination continues, previously anchored loops lose their transverse bands and recede away from the axolemma. Newly juxtaposed loops then lose their transverse bands, move laterally to fill in the gap left by the receded loops and finally reform their transverse bands. This paranodal reorganization results in conservation of paranodal length, which may be important in maintaining ion channel spacing and axonal function. Furthermore, we propose that transverse band reformation is less efficient in the aged CNS, resulting in the significant reduction of these junctional components. Although demyelination was not observed, we propose that loss of transverse bands facilitates myelin degeneration and may predispose the aged CNS to a poorer prognosis following a secondary insult. PMID:20888080

  12. Paranodal reorganization results in the depletion of transverse bands in the aged central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Mark N; Pomicter, Anthony D; Velazco, Cristine S; Henderson, Scott C; Dupree, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    Paranodal axo-glial junctional complexes anchor the myelin sheath to the axon and breakdown of these complexes presumably facilitates demyelination. Myelin deterioration is also prominent in the aging central nervous system (CNS); however, the stability of the paranodal complexes in the aged CNS has not been examined. Here, we show that transverse bands, prominent components of paranodal junctions, are significantly reduced in the aged CNS; however, the number of paired clusters of both myelin and axonal paranodal proteins is not altered. Ultrastructural analyses also reveal that thicker myelin sheaths display a "piling" of paranodal loops, the cytoplasm-containing sacs that demarcate the paranode. Loops involved in piling are observed throughout the paranode and are not limited to loops positioned in either the nodal- or juxtanodal-most regions. Here, we propose that as myelination continues, previously anchored loops lose their transverse bands and recede away from the axolemma. Newly juxtaposed loops then lose their transverse bands, move laterally to fill in the gap left by the receded loops and finally reform their transverse bands. This paranodal reorganization results in conservation of paranodal length, which may be important in maintaining ion channel spacing and axonal function. Furthermore, we propose that transverse band reformation is less efficient in the aged CNS, resulting in the significant reduction of these junctional components. Although demyelination was not observed, we propose that loss of transverse bands facilitates myelin degeneration and may predispose the aged CNS to a poorer prognosis following a secondary insult. PMID:20888080

  13. The value of evaluating parenting groups: a new researcher's perspective on methods and results.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Judy

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this research project was to evaluate the impact of the Solihull Approach Understanding Your Child's Behaviour (UYCB) parenting groups on the participants' parenting practice and their reported behaviour of their children. Validated tools that met both the Solihull Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) and academic requirements were used to establish what changes, if any, in parenting practice and children's behaviour (as perceived by the parent) occur following attendance of a UYCB parenting group. Independent evidence of the efficacy of the Solihull Approach UYCB programme was collated. Results indicated significant increases in self-esteem and parenting sense of competence; improvement in the parental locus of control; a decrease in hyperactivity and conduct problems and an increase in pro-social behaviour, as measured by the 'Strength and Difficulties' questionnaire. The qualitative and quantitative findings corroborated each other, demonstrating the impact and effectiveness of the programme and supporting anecdotal feedback on the success of UYCB parenting groups. PMID:23821879

  14. The value of evaluating parenting groups: a new researcher's perspective on methods and results.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Judy

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this research project was to evaluate the impact of the Solihull Approach Understanding Your Child's Behaviour (UYCB) parenting groups on the participants' parenting practice and their reported behaviour of their children. Validated tools that met both the Solihull Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) and academic requirements were used to establish what changes, if any, in parenting practice and children's behaviour (as perceived by the parent) occur following attendance of a UYCB parenting group. Independent evidence of the efficacy of the Solihull Approach UYCB programme was collated. Results indicated significant increases in self-esteem and parenting sense of competence; improvement in the parental locus of control; a decrease in hyperactivity and conduct problems and an increase in pro-social behaviour, as measured by the 'Strength and Difficulties' questionnaire. The qualitative and quantitative findings corroborated each other, demonstrating the impact and effectiveness of the programme and supporting anecdotal feedback on the success of UYCB parenting groups.

  15. One-at-a-time versus grouped presentation of mug book pictures: some surprising results.

    PubMed

    Stewart, H A; McAllister, H A

    2001-12-01

    Eyewitnesses to a simulated crime attempted to identify the perpetrator from a computerized mug book. The 208 mug book pictures were presented either 1 mug shot per page or in groups of 12 mug shots per page. Half of the mug books were arranged by similarity to the perpetrator as determined by a facial recognition algorithm, and half were randomly arranged. In contrast to past findings with photospreads, false-positive identifications were significantly higher using the one-at-a-time procedure than the grouped procedure. Results suggest that the best practice for mug books may be the use of groups of pictures per page rather than the one-at-a-time procedure long advocated by experts for use in lineups and photospreads.

  16. The Effect of Reminiscence Group Work on Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem and Mood of Ageing People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Puyenbroeck, Joris; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the effects of reminiscence group work on the subjective well-being of ageing people with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The content of the successive group work sessions was manipulated as follows: a control-phase with three "current topics" sessions, an experimental phase with six "reminiscence" sessions and…

  17. Gastric emptying scintigraphy results in children are affected by age, anthropometric factors, and study duration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standardized 4-hour adult-based gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES) protocol is increasingly being used in children to evaluate for gastroparesis. We sought to determine the effect of age, anthropometrics, and study duration on GES results using this protocol in children. Retrospective review of c...

  18. Changes across age groups in self-choice elaboration and incidental memory.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Hiroshi; Tatsumi, Tomoko

    2003-04-01

    This study investigated differences in the self-choice elaboration and an experimenter-provided elaboration on incidental memory of 7- to 12-yr.-olds. In a self-choice elaboration condition 34 second and 25 sixth graders were asked to choose one of the two sentence frames into which each target could fit more congruously, whereas in an experimenter-provided elaboration they were asked to judge the congruity of each target to each frame. In free recall, sixth graders recalled targets in bizarre sentence frames better than second graders for self-choice elaboration condition. An age difference was not found for the experimenter-provided elaboration. In cued recall self-choice elaboration led to better performance of sixth graders for recalling targets than an experimenter-provided elaboration in both bizarre and common sentence frames. However, the different types of elaboration did not alter the recall of second graders. These results were interpreted as showing that the effectiveness of a self-choice elaboration depends on the subjects' age and the type of sentence. PMID:12776835

  19. Standards of Fair Play in Same- and Mixed-Age Groups of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, William G.

    The present study investigated the hypothesis that children do not use the same standards of fair play in mixed-age situations as in same-age situations. It was further hypothesized that in mixed-age encounters, younger children would use cues associated with older children (i.e., physical size) as a basis for reward deservingness. Older children,…

  20. Blood pressure categories and long-term risk of cardiovascular disease according to age group in Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Akira; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2012-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) categories defined by systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) are commonly used. However, the BP category-specific risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been thoroughly investigated in different age groups. The aim of this study was to assess long-term CVD risk and its impact according to BP categories and age group. Pooling individual data from 10 cohorts, we studied 67 309 Japanese individuals (40-89 years old) who were free of CVD at baseline: we categorized them as belonging to three age groups: 'middle-aged' (40-64 years), 'elderly' (65-74 years) and 'very elderly' (75-89 years). BP was classified according to the 2009 Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Cox models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for CVD deaths. We observed 1944 CVD deaths over a mean follow-up of 10.2 years. In all age groups, the overall relationship between BP category and CVD risk was positive, with a greater strength observed for younger age groups. We observed a trend of increased risk from SBP/DBP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg in the very elderly, and a significant increase from SBP/DBP ≥ 120/80 mm Hg in the other age groups. The population attributable fractions (PAFs) of CVD death in reference to the SBP/DBP<120/80 mm Hg category ranged from 23.4% in the very elderly to 60.3% in the middle-aged. We found an overall graded increase in CVD risk with higher BP category in the very elderly. The PAFs suggest that keeping BP levels low is an important strategy for primary CVD prevention, even in an elderly population.

  1. Modeling dengue fever risk based on socioeconomic parameters, nationality and age groups: GIS and remote sensing based case study.

    PubMed

    Khormi, Hassan M; Kumar, Lalit

    2011-10-15

    Dengue fever (DF) and its impacts are growing environmental, economic, and health concerns in Saudi Arabia. In this study, we have attempted to model areas with humans at risk of dengue fever prevalence, depending on the spatial relationship between dengue fever cases and different socioeconomic parameters. We have developed new methods to verify the quality of neighborhoods from high resolution satellite images based on several factors such as density of houses in each neighborhood in each district, width of streets, and roof area of houses. In the absence of detailed neighborhood quality information being available for each district, we felt this factor would best approximate the reality on the ground at local scales. Socioeconomic parameters, such as population numbers, population density, and neighborhood quality were analyzed using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to create a prediction model identifying levels of risk of dengue and to describe the association between DF cases and the related socio-economic factors. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize dengue fever victims among Saudis and non-Saudis in various age groups. The results show that there was a strong positive association between dengue fever cases and socioeconomic factors (R²=0.80). The prevalence among Saudis was higher compared to non-Saudis in 2006 and 2007, while the prevalence among non-Saudis was higher in 2008, 2009 and 2010. For age groups, DF was more prevalent in adults between the ages of 16 and 60, accounting for approximately 74% of all reported cases in 2006, 67% in 2007, 81% in 2008, 87% in 2009, and 81% in 2010.

  2. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Lymphocytes from Different Age Groups of Bolivian Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis)

    PubMed Central

    Nehete, Pramod N.; Hanley, Patrick W.; Nehete, Bharti P.; Yang, Guojun; Ruiz, Julio C.; Williams, Lawrence; Abee, Christian R.; Sastry, K. Jagannadha

    2013-01-01

    Due to many physiological and genetic characteristic similarities to humans, squirrel monkeys provide an ideal animal model specifically for studying malaria, and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease). While squirrel monkeys three years and older are generally considered adult subjects suitable for use in medical research studies, little is known about the functional properties of lymphocytes in relation to the age of these animals, which could significantly impact the quality and quantity of innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we investigated differences in the phenotype and function of lymphocytes subsets of young (3–4 years), adult (8–10 years) and aged (16–19 years) squirrel monkeys. In general, animals in all three age groups exhibited comparable numbers of different lymphocyte subsets except for CD20+ B cells that were significantly lower in aged relative to young animals and T cells subsets expressing both CD4 and CD8 (double positive) were significantly higher in aged relative to young animals. With increasing age, phenotypic differences in central and effector memory T cells subsets were observed, that were more pronounced for the CD8+ T cells. Despite equal proportions of CD3+ T cells among the three age groups, responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to T cell mitogens PHA and Con A showed lower IFN-γ producing cells in the aged group than that in the young group. Furthermore, aged animals showed significantly higher plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-12. These findings suggest that while the squirrel monkeys in general share phenotypic and functional similarities of lymphocyte subsets with humans in relation to age, specific differences exist in immune function of lymphocytes between young and old animals that could potentially impact experimental outcomes for which the measurement of immunologic endpoints are critical. PMID:24282512

  3. Reporting genetic results in research studies: summary and recommendations of an NHLBI working group.

    PubMed

    Bookman, Ebony B; Langehorne, Aleisha A; Eckfeldt, John H; Glass, Kathleen C; Jarvik, Gail P; Klag, Michael; Koski, Greg; Motulsky, Arno; Wilfond, Benjamin; Manolio, Teri A; Fabsitz, Richard R; Luepker, Russell V

    2006-05-15

    Prospective epidemiologic studies aid in identifying genetic variants associated with diseases, health risks, and physiologic traits. These genetic variants may eventually be measured clinically for purposes of diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. As evidence of the potential clinical value of such information accrues, research studies face growing pressure to report these results to study participants or their physicians, even before sufficient evidence is available to support widespread screening of asymptomatic persons. There is thus a need to begin to develop consensus on whether and when genetic findings should be reported to participants in research studies. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a Working Group on Reporting Genetic Results in Research Studies to discuss if, when, and how genetic information should be reported to study participants. The Working Group concluded that genetic test results should be reported to study participants when the associated risk for the disease is significant; the disease has important health implications such as premature death or substantial morbidity or has significant reproductive implications; and proven therapeutic or preventive interventions are available. Finally, the Working Group recommended procedures for reporting genetic research results and encouraged increased efforts to create uniform guidelines for this activity.

  4. Group medical visits can deliver on patient-centred care objectives: results from a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient-centred care emerged in the late 1960s as a framework to guide providers and decision-makers towards the provision of more effective health care and better outcomes. An important body of literature has since emerged, reporting mixed results in terms of outcomes. To date, assessments of the effectiveness of patient-centred approaches have focused one-on-one consultations. The purpose of this article is to explore dimensions identified as key in the patient-centred literature in the context of primary health care services delivered in a group setting. Group Medical Visits (GMVs) offer a novel format for the delivery of patient-centred primary health care services, especially for patients living with complex morbidities. Methods Drawing on a large study of GMVs, we report on key format and process-oriented elements identified in GMVs, and on their link to improved outcomes. For the purpose of this study, we interviewed 34 providers and 29 patients who have been engaged in GMVs, delivered in rural, northern and First Nation communities in British Columbia, Canada. Results Our analysis shows that the delivery of PHC in a group format results in a shift in the role of the provider, from that of an adjudicator involved in imparting norms of self-care, to that of a facilitator who assists the group in defining norms of self-care that are based on medical knowledge but also on the broader context of patients’ lived experience and on their pragmatic experience. In a group process, peer-patients take on the role of promoting these norms to other patients. This results in a significant shift in the role of the provider, increased trust, increased knowledge for the providers and the patients and better patient self-management. Our results also show increase satisfaction for patients and providers. Conclusions GMVs offer an alternative format for the provision of PHC that brings together the benefit of a group process and of a clinical encounter. This format

  5. Predictability and Reliability of Different Anterio-Posterior Skeletal Discrepancy Indicators in Different Age Groups - A Cephalometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rana; Gupta, Abhishek; Joshi, Rishi; Tiwari, Anil; Sen, Priyank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The lateral cephalometric skeletal discrepancy indicators play a major role in diagnosing and preparing a case for orthognathic surgeries and the dentofacial corrections. Aim The study was aimed to check the reliability and the predictability of different anterio-posterior skeletal discrepancy indicators in different age groups and to derive the most reliable indicator for the orthodontic diagnosis. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 100 subjects including 29 adolescent (15 males and 14 females) and 71 adult (41 males and 30 females) subjects with the mean age of 19.05 ± 5.78 years. All the subjects had Angle’s Class I molar relationship. The lateral cephalograms of the sample were taken under the standard setting and hand tracing of the cephalometric radiographs using a sharp 4H pencil were made on acetate tracing paper. The anterio-posterior cephalometric indicators like β-angle, Wits appraisal (mm), Sella- Nasion plane to Point A and Point B distance (SN-AB mm) and Maxillo-Mandibular plane angle bisector to Point A and Point B distance (MM-AB mm) were measured. Intra-examiner reliability of tracings was evaluated using Intra Class Correlation (ICC) test. Mann Whitney U-test was applied for comparison of parameters between different malocclusion groups. Concurrent validity of various parameters was calculated using Cohen’s kappa. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The comparison of intra-examiner reliability of tracings in Angle’s Class I adolescent group showed, MM-AB to have an almost perfect agreement followed by Wits. Intra-examiner reliability of tracings in Angle’s Class I adult group showed moderate agreement for Wits and MM-AB showed almost perfect agreement and all the parameters showed statistically significant ICC. Comparison of parameters between adolescent and adult, Angle’s Class I malocclusion group showed significant difference between adolescent and

  6. Accuracy of Cameriere, Haavikko, and Willems radiographic methods on age estimation on Bosnian-Herzegovian children age groups 6-13.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Cameriere, Roberto; Nakaš, Enita; Galić, Elizabeta; Selimović, Edin; Brkić, Hrvoje

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the accuracy of the Cameriere European formula (Cameriere), adopted Haavikko method from 1974 (Haavikko), and revisited Demirjian method by Willems (Willems) for age estimation on orthopantomograms (OPGs) of Bosnian-Herzegovian (BH) children age groups 6-13 years. The accuracy was determined as difference between estimated dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA) and the absolute accuracy (absolute difference) was assessed by analyzing OPGs of 591 girls and 498 boys. The Cameriere method overestimated the mean age by 0.09 year for girls and underestimated by -0.02 year for boys. The Haavikko method underestimated the mean age by -0.29 year for girls and -0.09 year for boys. The Willems method overestimated the mean age by 0.24 year in girls and by 0.42 year in boys. The absolute accuracies were 0.53 year for girls and 0.55 year for boys for Cameriere method; for Haavikko method, 0.59 year for girls and 0.62 year for boys; and for Willems method 0.69 year for girls and 0.67 year for boys. In conclusion, Cameriere method is the most accurate for estimating the age of BH children age groups 6-13 years using OPGs, following adopted Haavikko method and Willems method.

  7. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    PubMed

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  8. Dental computed tomographic imaging as age estimation: morphological analysis of the third molar of a group of Turkish population.

    PubMed

    Cantekin, Kenan; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmis

    2013-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is capable of providing accurate and measurable 3-dimensional images of the third molar. The aims of this study were to analyze the development of the mandibular third molar and its relation to chronological age and to create new reference data for a group of Turkish participants aged 9 to 25 years on the basis of cone-beam CT images. All data were obtained from the patients' records including medical, social, and dental anamnesis and cone-beam CT images of 752 patients. Linear regression analysis was performed to obtain regression formulas for dental age calculation with chronological age and to determine the coefficient of determination (r) for each sex. Statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between age and third-molar development for the males (r2 = 0.80) and the females (r2 = 0.78). Computed tomographic images are clinically useful for accurate and reliable estimation of dental ages of children and youth.

  9. Implications of Extending the ADHD Age-of-Onset Criterion to Age 12: Results from a Prospectively Studied Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanczyk, Guilherme; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Kollins, Scott H.; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether including children with onset of symptoms between ages 7 and 12 years in the ADHD diagnostic category would: (a) increase the prevalence of the disorder at age 12, and (b) change the clinical and cognitive features, impairment profile, and risk factors for ADHD compared with findings in the literature based on the…

  10. HIV knowledge and attitudes among providers in aging: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Anne K

    2011-09-01

    Within 5 years, half the U.S. HIV-infected population will be over age 50, and providers caring for older adults must deal with this reality. This study assessed attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among physicians with a geriatrics specialty, and nurses and social workers who specialize in gerontology. A survey mailed in 2008 to a random sample of U.S. providers yielded a 60% response rate. Main outcome measures included: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS, and knowledge of issues related to HIV in older adults. General knowledge of HIV/AIDS was good with scores of 89%, 84%, and 81% for physicians, nurses, and social workers, respectively; groups differed significantly (F(2, 483)=18.626, p<0.0005). Attitudes were positive, with a significant main effect of profession on the attitude subscales (F(4, 952)=6.84, p<0.0005). Eighty-three percent of the sample were unaware that dementia due to HIV may be reversible; no significant differences by profession (χ(2)=4.50, p=0.105). The sample had difficulty ranking the four most common risk factors for HIV infection in older adults, with no significant differences among the professions (F(2, 483)=1.22, p=0.296). Only 6% of the sample correctly ranked all four risk factors. Estimates of the percent of U.S. AIDS cases in people over age 50 varied widely; few answered correctly, with no significant differences by professional group (F(2,319)=2.82, p=0.06). These findings highlight the need for further education among providers who specialize in aging.

  11. Drum-Assisted Recovery Therapy for Native Americans (DARTNA): results from a pretest and focus groups.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Daniel L; Venner, Kamilla L; Duran, Bonnie; Annon, Jeffrey J; Hale, Benjamin; Funmaker, George

    2014-01-01

    Drum-Assisted Recovery Therapy for Native Americans (DARTNA) is a substance abuse treatment intervention for American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). This article provides results from 1) an initial pretest of DARTNA provided to 10 AI/AN patients with histories of substance use disorders, and 2) three subsequent focus groups conducted among AI/AN DARTNA pretest participants, substance abuse treatment providers, and the DARTNA Community Advisory Board. These research activities were conducted to finalize the DARTNA treatment manual; participants also provided helpful feedback which will assist toward this goal. Results suggest that DARTNA may be beneficial for AI/ANs with substance use problems.

  12. Zircon U-Pb age constraints on the Paleoproterozoic sedimentary basement of the Ediacaran Porongos Group, Sul-Riograndense Shield, southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertille, Juliana; Hartmann, Léo Afraneo; Philipp, Ruy Paulo

    2015-11-01

    Thick quartzites record significant information on cratonic environments during long geological periods. The capacity to resist weathering and deformation turn the quartzite covers especially useful in the provenance studies of Precambrian basins. Provenance of 194 detrital zircon grains from two samples of thick quartzite cover on the Paleoproterozoic Encantadas Complex displays mostly Paleoproterozoic (95%) and minor Archean (5%) sources. The results indicate that sediments were derived from the La Plata Craton with the maximum depositional age at 2.03 Ga possibly up to 1.7 Ga. In comparison, the adjacent Porongos Group has provenance data of 61 detrital zircon grains indicating mostly Mesoproterozoic (69%), subordinately Paleoproterozoic (26%) and minor Archean ages (5%). Considering previous published data, the Porongos Group is Ediacaran in age and probably chronocorrelated with sedimentary basins from the Tandilia Belt (Argentina). Therefore, the quartzite cover and the Porongos Group require distinct evolution in time and in tectonic environment.

  13. The relative age effect in the German Football TID Programme: biases in motor performance diagnostics and effects on single motor abilities and skills in groups of selected players.

    PubMed

    Votteler, Andreas; Höner, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the disturbing effects of relative age on the talent identification process in the talent development programme of the German Football Association. The bias in the selection rate was examined via the extent of relative age effects. The bias in motor performance diagnostics was analysed by comparing the motor performance of selected players with normal motor development. The mechanisms underlying the relative age biases in motor performance were examined by modelling the direct and indirect effects of relative age on single motor performance tests for sprint, running agility, dribbling and ball passing and control. Data from 10,130 selected football players from the U12 to U15 age groups were collected in autumn 2010. The birth distribution differed significantly from the reference population with approximately 61% of the players born in the first half of the year. The selection probability was approximately two times higher for players born in the first quarter of the year than for players born in the last quarter. Revised motor performance diagnostics showed better results on average for relatively younger players. Path analysis revealed significant direct and indirect relative age effects for physiologically demanding tests and almost no effects for technically demanding tests. Large sample sizes allowed high resolution in relative age with additional informational content and multivariate modelling of the complex relationships among relative age, physical development and motor performance. The results are discussed on how relative age affects the effectiveness and fairness of talent identification and development processes.

  14. Reducing Aggressive Behavior in Boys with a Social Cognitive Group Treatment: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Manen, Teun G.; Prins, Pier J.M.; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a social cognitive intervention program for Dutch aggressive boys and to compare it with a social skills training and a waitlist control group. Method: A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study with 97 aggressive boys (aged 9-13 years) was presented. An 11 session group treatment, a social…

  15. SELF CONCEPT CHANGES AMONG ALCOHOLIC PATIENTS IN MADISON (INDIANA) STATE HOSPITAL RESULTING FROM PARTICIPATION TRAINING IN GROUP DISCUSSION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SHAY, EARL R.

    TO INVESTIGATE THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS ON THE SELF CONCEPT OF PARTICIPATION TRAINING IN GROUP DISCUSSION, 18 INSTITUTIONALIZED MALE ALCOHOLICS (AVERAGE AGE 42.5 YEARS, SCHOOL GRADE ACHIEVEMENT 11.2 YEARS) UNDERWENT THREE HOUR SESSIONS OF GROUP DISCUSSION DURING 12 DAYS IN FEBRUARY 1963, FOLLOWING A CONTROL PERIOD OF 11.8 DAYS. THE BULTER-HAIGH…

  16. Knockdown of prodynorphin gene prevents cognitive decline, reduces anxiety, and rescues loss of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor function in aging.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Caroline; Tse, Yiu Chung; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Chabot, Jean-Guy; Herzog, Herbert; Schwarzer, Christoph; Wong, Tak Pan; Quirion, Rémi

    2013-07-31

    Expression of dynorphin, an endogenous opioid peptide, increases with age and has been associated with memory impairments in rats. In human, prodynorphin (Pdyn) gene polymorphisms might be linked to cognitive function in the elderly. Moreover, elevated dynorphin levels have been reported in postmortem samples from Alzheimer's disease patients. However, the cellular and molecular processes affected by higher dynorphin levels during aging remain unknown. Using Pdyn(-/-) mice, we observed significant changes in the function and expression of Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR). Compared with age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates, we found increased expression of mGluR1α and mGluR5 in the hippocampus and cortex of old, but not young, Pdyn(-/-) mice. Increased Group 1 mGluR expression in aged Pdyn(-/-) mice was associated with enhanced mGluR-mediated long-term depression, a form of synaptic plasticity. Notably, whereas aged WT mice developed spatial and recognition memory deficits, aged Pdyn(-/-) mice performed similarly as young mice. Pharmacological treatments with 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide, a positive modulator of mGlu5 receptors, or norbinaltorphimine, an antagonist for dynorphin-targeted κ-opioid receptor, rescued memory in old WT mice. Conversely, mGlu5 receptor antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride impaired spatial memory of old Pdyn(-/-) mice. Intact cognition in aged Pdyn(-/-) mice paralleled with increased expression of Group 1 mGluR-related genes Homer 1a and Arc. Finally, aged Pdyn(-/-) mice displayed less anxiety-related behaviors than age-matched WT mice. Together, our results suggest that elevated Pdyn expression during normal aging reduces mGluR expression and signaling, which in turn impairs cognitive functions and increases anxiety.

  17. Absolute age constraints on the age and tectonics of the Middle and Late Proterozoic Pahrump Group, southern Death Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Calzia, J.P. ); Troxel, B.W.

    1993-04-01

    The Pahrump Group unconformably overlies 1.35 Ga granite, is unconformably overlain by the Late Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite, and is divided into the Crystal Spring Formation, the Beck Spring Dolomite, and the Kingston Peak Formation. Contacts between these formations are gradational through several meters of interbedded clastic and carbonate rocks. Lithologic data, sedimentary structures, and fossil assemblages suggest that the Pahrump Group, from middle Crystal Spring to lower Kingston Peak time, was deposited in an intratidal to supratidal environment. Diamictite, volcanic ash, and mono lithologic megabreccia suggest that the middle and the upper members of the Kingston Peak Formation were deposited in a higher energy sedimentary and tectonic environment. Dikes and sills of 1.08 Ga diabase intrude the gneiss and all members of the Crystal Spring Formation; erosional clasts of diabase first appear in the middle Kingston Peak Formation. The diabase sills are up to 450 m thick and have caused at least 20 percent inflation of the Crystal Spring, Beck Spring, and lower Kingston Peak formations. If these sedimentary rocks were deposited at or above wave base, evidence of intraplate rifting or gross stratigraphic inflation is not recorded in the Pahrump stratigraphy until middle and upper Kingston Peak time. Therefore, the stratigraphic and petrologic data suggest that the diabase was emplaced in the Crystal Spring Formation during post-lower but pre-middle Kingston Peak time. The Beck Spring Dolomite and the lower Kingston Peak Formation are older than 1.08 Ga; the contact between the lower and the middle Kingston Peak Formation is a regional disconformity that marks significant changes in the depositional and the tectonic environments of the Pahrump Group at about 1.08 Ga.

  18. Exploring Somali women's reproductive health knowledge and experiences: results from focus group discussions in Mogadishu.

    PubMed

    Gure, Faduma; Yusuf, Marian; Foster, Angel M

    2015-11-01

    With a total fertility ratio of 6.7 children per woman, a maternal mortality ratio over 1,000 deaths per 100,000 live births, high rates of sexual and gender-based violence, and the lowest contraceptive prevalence rate in the world, women's reproductive health indices in Somalia prove alarming. The voices of women living in Somalia have long been neglected and we undertook this qualitative study to explore women's reproductive health knowledge and experiences. In 2014, we conducted four focus group discussions with 21 married and unmarried women of reproductive age living in Mogadishu, Somalia. Discussions took place in Somali and we used a constant comparative approach to analyse the discussions for content and themes. Our findings reveal that misinformation, restrictive policies, mistrust of clinicians, and prohibitively expensive services shape women's experiences and health-seeking behaviours. Women identified the need for culturally resonant reproductive health information and services as a significant priority. As Somalia begins to emerge from over two decades of civil war, it is imperative that comprehensive reproductive health issues are included on the national agenda and that women's perspectives are incorporated into future policies and interventions. PMID:26719005

  19. Atypical coastal environmental change during Copper Age - Bronze Age transition (Rio de Moinhos, NW Portugal) - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja, Helena; Danielsen, Randi

    2015-04-01

    for its infilling. Furthermore dating of wooden remains of what was interpreted as a fish trap, found on the sediment surface gave the age 2055-1770 cal BP (Roman Period). The old age of the top level may hence be the result of truncation of the sediment sequence at least in parts of the platform. Landwards, the Roman period is represented by fine and dark sediments similar to those of Rio de Moinhos beach, found in deeper cores. Acknowledgments This research is included in the project PTDC/EPH-ARQ/5204/2012 supported by FCT (Foundation for Science and Technology, Portugal). It is financed also by COMPETE and PEsT-C/MAR/LA0015/2013.

  20. School-age adopted Chinese girls' behavioral adjustment, academic performance, and social skills: longitudinal results.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2009-04-01

    Longitudinal data on 177 school-age adopted Chinese girls (Time 1: mean age = 8.92 years, SD = 1.76; Time 2: mean age = 11.18 years, SD = 1.79) were analyzed to determine their long-term outcomes in behavioral adjustment, academic performance (measured with the Child Behavior Checklist/6-18), and social skills (measured with the Social Skills Rating System) and how these outcomes were related to preadoption adversity. More than 90% of the girls were adopted at 24 months or younger (M = 19.25, SD = 21.67). Results revealed that over a 2-year period, there was a moderate to strong stability in the children's behavioral adjustment and academic performance. However, there was a significant increase in the number of children with deviant internalizing problems. At both times, higher degrees of preadoption adversity were related to more internalizing problems and poorer academic performance. Children who were adopted at older ages had poorer academic performance. Children who were older had a lower level of assertion and a higher level of responsibility. Children's attention problems at Time 1 mediated the effect of preadoption adversity on academic performance at Time 2.

  1. Bilateral deep neck space infection in the paediatric age group: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Songu, M; Demiray, U; Adibelli, Z H; Adibelli, H

    2011-06-01

    Deep neck space infections can occur at any age but require more intimate management in the paediatric age group because of their rapidly progressive nature. Concurrent abscess in distinct neck spaces has rarely been reported in healthy children. Herewith, a rare case of bilateral neck abscess is reported in a 16-month-old female and the clinical presentation and management are discussed with a review of the literature.

  2. Structural Validity of the Movement ABC-2 Test: Factor Structure Comparisons across Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Joerg; Henderson, Sheila E.; Sugden, David A.; Barnett, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Movement ABC test is one of the most widely used assessments in the field of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Improvements to the 2nd edition of the test (M-ABC-2) include an extension of the age range and reduction in the number of age bands as well as revision of tasks. The total test score provides a measure of motor…

  3. A Note on Sex Differences in Mental Rotation in Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Eid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A large number of studies have reported average performance differences in favor of males in mental rotation tasks. However, it is still unclear to what extent the magnitude of the sex differences varies across age, and whether the differences increase with age. In this study, we reanalyzed data from a cross-sectional investigation of N = 1624…

  4. Pharyngeal Pressure Generation during Tongue-Hold Swallows across Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Macrae, Phoebe; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effects of the tongue-hold swallowing maneuver on pharyngeal pressure generation in healthy young and elderly research volunteers. Method: Sixty-eight healthy research volunteers (young, n = 34, mean age = 26.8 years, SD = 5.5; elderly, n = 34, mean age = 72.6 years, SD = 4.8; sex equally represented) performed 5…

  5. Genetic determination of telomere size in humans: A twin study of three age groups

    SciTech Connect

    Slagboom, P.E.; Droog, S.; Boomsma, D.I.

    1994-11-01

    Reduction of telomere length has been postulated to be a casual factor in cellular aging. Human telomeres terminate in tandemly arranged repeat arrays consisting of the (TTAGGG) motif. The length of these arrays in cells from human mitotic tissues is inversely related to the age of the donor, indicating telomere reduction with age. In addition to telemore length differences between different age cohorts, considerable variation is present among individuals of the same age. To investigate whether this variation can be ascribed to genetic influences, we have measured the size of terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) in HaeIII-digested genomic DNA from 123 human MZ and DZ twin pairs 2-95 years of age. The average rate of telomere shortening was 31 bp/year, which is similar to that observed by others. Statistical analysis in 115 pairs 2-63 years of age indicates a 78% heritability for mean TRF length in this age cohort. The individual differences in mean TRF length in blood, therefore, seem to a large extent to be genetically determined. 24 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Topical treatment of acne with a tetracycline preparations: results of a multi-group study.

    PubMed

    Frank, S B

    1976-03-01

    This report presents the results of a 13-week study done on 300 patients with acne vulgaris treated with a tetracycline topical lotion alone. The vehicle used was an aqueous-ethanol solution containing the penetration enhancer, n-decyl methyl sulfoxide. On a 0-8 grading scale, 81% of the patients improved by one or more grade points, 57% by two or more points and 31% by three or more points. Analysis indicated that concomitant variables such as severity, age, type of acne, sex and season of the year did not alter the conclusion as to efficacy. Detailed statistical analysis indicates that the conclusion is valid that the tetracycline preparation is beneficial in the treatment of acne vulgaris. No adverse reactions were observed in the patients treated. Hemograms, blood studies and urinalyses were completed on 37 patients. No disturbing trends were uncovered.

  7. [Quantity and quality of the aged population in Japan: the use of life tables for the assessment of group vitality].

    PubMed

    Soda, T

    1980-01-01

    Due to the gradual increase in standard of living and the development of health and welfare services, man has succeeded in decreasing the death rate for all age groups with the consequent prolongation of the lifespan as a whole. On the other hand, however, the quantitative accumulation of the elderly is causing serious anxiety among all groups of people. Thus, concern about care for the aged is very high. The author is not quite so pessimistic but it is expected that there will be a qualitative improvement in the productive activities of the elderly along with an increased lifespan. Though there is not yet sufficient data to confirm improvement in the physical and mental activities of this segment of Japanese population, there are life table functions related to life expectancy, increase of mortality rate, etc. as qualitative indicators of survival or productive ability for the aged. In Japan prior to World War 2, people between 15-60 were usually regarded as the productive age population. Life expectancy of males at age 60 was 12.6 years in the 6th life tables compiled for 1935-6. The same phenomenon of prolongation of the productive age period was also recognized in connection with other values. If the borderline age dividing productive and nonproductive elderly populations will move toward a higher age in the future, the proportion of nonproductive elderly as a percentage of the total as well as of the productive population will decrease markedly as compared to when the elderly borderline is fixed at the same age. It is advised that new ways be found to allocate the expanded labor force found among this group for providing some necessary services and functions. (author's modified)

  8. EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS FROM ARTHROSCOPIC REPAIR ON ROTATOR CUFF INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS UNDER 50 YEARS OF AGE

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze, Marcelo; Santos, Pedro Doneux; da Silva, Luciana Andrade; do Val Sella, Guilherme; Santos, Ruy Mesquita Maranhão; de Souza, Adriano; Checchia, Sérgio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the results from arthroscopic surgical treatment of rotator cuff injuries among patients under 50 years of age. Methods: Sixty-three patients with rotator cuff injuries who underwent arthroscopic surgical treatment performed by the Shoulder and Elbow Group of the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in the Fernandinho Simonsen wing of Santa Casa Medical School, São Paulo, between August 1998 and December 2007, were reassessed. The study included all patients with rotator cuff injuries who were under 50 years of age and had been followed up postoperatively for at least 24 months. Results: According to the UCLA evaluation criteria, 59 patients (92%) showed excellent and good results; five (8%) showed fair results; and none showed poor results. The postoperative evaluation showed that the mean range of motion was 145° for elevation, 47° for lateral rotation and T10 for medial rotation. Unsatisfactory results were associated with prolonged duration of the injury, with a statistically significant relationship. Conclusion: Arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff injuries in young patients produces excellent or good results for most patients. PMID:27047819

  9. Impact of extreme temperatures on daily mortality in Madrid (Spain) among the 45-64 age-group.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio

    2006-07-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between extreme temperatures and mortality among persons aged 45-64 years. Daily mortality in Madrid was analysed by sex and cause, from January 1986 to December 1997. Quantitative analyses were performed using generalised additive models, with other covariables, such as influenza, air pollution and seasonality, included as controls. Our results showed that impact on mortality was limited for temperatures ranging from the 5th to the 95th percentiles, and increased sharply thereafter. During the summer period, the effect of heat was detected solely among males in the target age group, with an attributable risk (AR) of 13.3% for circulatory causes. Similarly, NO(2) concentrations registered the main statistically significant associations in females, with an AR of 15% when circulatory causes were considered. During winter, the impact of cold was exclusively observed among females having an AR of 7.7%. The magnitude of the AR indicates that the impact of extreme temperature is by no means negligible.

  10. Comparison of the effects of extreme temperatures on daily mortality in Madrid (Spain), by age group: The need for a cold wave prevention plan.

    PubMed

    Díaz, J; Carmona, R; Mirón, I J; Ortiz, C; Linares, C

    2015-11-01

    A number of studies have shown that there is a time trend towards a reduction in the effects of heat on mortality. In the case of cold, however, there is practically no research of this type and so there is no clearly defined time trend of the impact of cold on mortality. Furthermore, no other specific studies have yet analysed the time trend of the impact of both thermal extremes by age group. We analysed data on daily mortality due to natural causes (ICD-10: A00-R99) in the city of Madrid across the period 2001-2009 and calculated the impact of extreme temperatures on mortality using Poisson regression models for specific age groups. The groups of age selected coinciding with the pre-existing age-groups analyzed in previous papers. For heat waves the groups of age used were: <10 years, 10-17 years, 18-44 years, 45-64 years, 65-74 years and over-75 years. For cold waves the groups of age used were: <1 year; 1-5 years, 6-17 years, 18-44 years, 45-64 years, 65-74 years and over-75 years. <1, 1-17, 18-44, 45-66, 65-74 and over-75 years. We controlled for confounding variables, such as air pollution, noise, influenza, pollen, pressure and relative humidity, trend of the series, as well as seasonalities and autoregressive components of the series. The results of these models were compared to those obtained for the same city during the period 1986-1997 and published in different studies. Our results show a lightly reduction in the effects of heat, especially in the over-45-year age group. In the case of cold, the behaviour pattern was the opposite, with an increase in its effect. Heat adaptation and socio-economic and public-health prevention and action measures may be behind this amelioration in the effects of heat, whereas the absence of such actions in respect of low temperatures may account for the increase in the effects of cold on mortality. From a public health point of view, the implementation of cold wave prevention plans covering all age groups is thus called

  11. Low heel ultrasound parameters predict mortality in men: results from the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS)

    PubMed Central

    Pye, Stephen R.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Boonen, Steven; Gielen, Evelien; Adams, Judith E.; Ward, Kate A.; Lee, David M.; Bartfai, György; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Finn, Joseph D.; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S.; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E.; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Wu, Frederick C.; O'Neill, Terence W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: low bone mineral density measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is associated with increased mortality. The relationship between other skeletal phenotypes and mortality is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between quantitative heel ultrasound parameters and mortality in a cohort of European men. Methods: men aged 40–79 years were recruited for participation in a prospective study of male ageing: the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). At baseline, subjects attended for quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel (Hologic—SAHARA) and completed questionnaires on lifestyle factors and co-morbidities. Height and weight were measured. After a median of 4.3 years, subjects were invited to attend a follow-up assessment, and reasons for non-participation, including death, were recorded. The relationship between QUS parameters (broadband ultrasound attenuation [BUA] and speed of sound [SOS]) and mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards model. Results: from a total of 3,244 men (mean age 59.8, standard deviation [SD] 10.8 years), 185 (5.7%) died during the follow-up period. After adjusting for age, centre, body mass index, physical activity, current smoking, number of co-morbidities and general health, each SD decrease in BUA was associated with a 20% higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per SD = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–1.4). Compared with those in higher quintiles (2nd–5th), those in the lowest quintile of BUA and SOS had a greater mortality risk (BUA: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1–2.3 and SOS: HR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.2–2.2). Conclusion: lower heel ultrasound parameters are associated with increased mortality in European men. PMID:26162912

  12. Engaging Focus Group Methodology: The 4-H Middle School-Aged Youth Learning and Leading Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson

    2015-01-01

    With young people, discussing complex issues such as learning and leading in a focus group can be a challenge. To help prime youth for the discussion, we created a focus group approach that featured a fun, interactive activity. This article includes a description of the focus group activity, lessons learned, and suggestions for additional…

  13. A clinic-based study of refractive errors, strabismus, and amblyopia in pediatric age-group

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tamimi, Elham R.; Shakeel, Ayisha; Yassin, Sanaa A.; Ali, Syed I.; Khan, Umar A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this cross-sectional observational study was to determine the distribution and patterns of refractive errors, strabismus, and amblyopia in children seen at a pediatric eye care. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a Private Hospital in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from March to July 2013. During this period, a total of 1350 children, aged 1–15 years were seen at this Center's Pediatric Ophthalmology Unit. All the children underwent complete ophthalmic examination with cycloplegic refraction. Results: Refractive errors accounted for 44.4% of the cases, the predominant refractive error being hypermetropia which represented 83%. Strabismus and amblyopia were present in 38% and 9.1% of children, respectively. Conclusions: In this clinic-based study, the focus was on the frequency of refractive errors, strabismus, and amblyopia which were considerably high. Hypermetropia was the predominant refractive error in contrast to other studies in which myopia was more common. This could be attributed to the criteria for sample selection since it was clinic-based rather than a population-based study. However, it is important to promote public education on the significance of early detection of refractive errors, and have periodic screening in schools. PMID:26392796

  14. Crystal structures of human group-VIIA phospholipase A2 inhibited by organophosphorus nerve agents exhibit non-aged complexes.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Uttamkumar; Kirby, Stephen D; Srinivasan, Prabhavathi; Cerasoli, Douglas M; Bahnson, Brian J

    2009-08-15

    The enzyme group-VIIA phospholipase A2 (gVIIA-PLA2) is bound to lipoproteins in human blood and hydrolyzes the ester bond at the sn-2 position of phospholipid substrates with a short sn-2 chain. The enzyme belongs to a serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes, which react with organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. OPs ultimately exert their toxicity by inhibiting human acetycholinesterase at nerve synapses, but may additionally have detrimental effects through inhibition of other serine hydrolases. We have solved the crystal structures of gVIIA-PLA2 following inhibition with the OPs diisopropylfluorophosphate, sarin, soman and tabun. The sarin and soman complexes displayed a racemic mix of P(R) and P(S) stereoisomers at the P-chiral center. The tabun complex displayed only the P(R) stereoisomer in the crystal. In all cases, the crystal structures contained intact OP adducts that had not aged. Aging refers to a secondary process OP complexes can go through, which dealkylates the nerve agent adduct and results in a form that is highly resistant to either spontaneous or oxime-mediated reactivation. Non-aged OP complexes of the enzyme were corroborated by trypsin digest and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of OP-enzyme complexes. The lack of stereoselectivity of sarin reaction was confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a chiral column to separate and quantitate the unbound stereoisomers of sarin following incubation with enzyme. The structural details and characterization of nascent reactivity of several toxic nerve agents is discussed with a long-term goal of developing gVIIA-PLA2 as a catalytic bioscavenger of OP nerve agents. PMID:19394314

  15. The Non-carcinogenic Risk of Cadmium in Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Jafarzadeh, Saeedeh; Moradi, Bigard; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The presence of heavy metals such as cadmium in drinking water resources can be dangerous for human because of toxicity and biological accumulation. The consumption of water which contains Cd in high concentration can lead to Bone and Kidney diseases. Material and Methods: In this present study, the researcher collected 432 samples of bottled water in the popular marks in summer and winter from the surface of Bandar Abbas. The cadmium concentration was measured by atomic absorption Spectrophotometer in model DR2800 through the Dithizone method. CDI, R and HQ which are caused by Cd for adult men, women and children, have been calculated and evaluated through the equations of EPA and WHO. Results: Mean of 1.73±0.19 µg/l (M±SE) is lower than the standard of WHO and EPA. However, 33.2% of all the samples have concentrations more than the standard limit of WHO, and the concentrations of 22.4% of the samples are more than EPA’s standard. The CDI for different age groups is as following manner; Children>adult women>adult men. The CDI in children is more than twice as much as in the CDI for adult men and women. The mean of HQ order for different age groups is children>adult men>adult women. Since HQ of adult men (34E-5), adult women (31E-5) and children (84E-5), is lower than 1. Conclusion: It can be said that the population of Bandar Abbas is in a safe area regarding the HQ of the bottled water’s cadmium. PMID:25872158

  16. Difference in adult food group intake by sex and age groups comparing Brazil and United States nationwide surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International comparisons of dietary intake are an important source of information to better understand food habits and their relationship to nutrition related diseases. The objective of this study is to compare food intake of Brazilian adults with American adults identifying possible dietary factors associated with the increase in obesity in Brazil. Methods This research used cross-national analyses between the United States and Brazil, including 5,420 adults in the 2007–2008 What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 26,390 adults in the 2008–2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey, Individual Food Intake. Dietary data were collected through 24 h recalls in the U.S. and through food records in Brazil. Foods and beverages were combined into 25 food categories. Food intake means and percentage of energy contribution by food categories to the population’s total energy intake were compared between the countries. Results Higher frequencies of intake were reported in the United States compared to Brazil for the majority of food categories except for meat, rice and rice dishes; beans and legumes; spreads; and coffee and tea. In either country, young adults (20-39 yrs) had greater reports of meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes; pizza and pasta; and soft drinks compared to older adults (60 + yrs). Meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes (13%), breads (11%), sweets and confections (8%), pizza and pasta (7%), and dairy products (6%) were the top five food category sources of energy intake among American adults. The top five food categories in Brazil were rice and rice dishes (13%), meat (11%), beans and legumes (10%), breads (10%), and coffee and tea (6%). Thus, traditional plant-based foods such as rice and beans were important contributors in the Brazilian diet. Conclusion Although young adults had higher reports of high-calorie and nutrient-poor foods than older adults in both countries, Brazilian young adults did not

  17. Preliminary results in the redox balance in healthy cats: influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Cristina; Pereira, Victor; Abuelo, Angel; Guimarey, Rebeca; García-Vaquero, Marco; Benedito, José L; Hernández, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) impairs organic function and is considered causally related to cellular senescence and death. This study aims to evaluate if the redox balance varies in relation to age and gender in healthy cats. To quantify the oxidative status of this species we determined the oxidative damage as serum reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and the total serum antioxidant capacity (SAC). In addition, we used the ratio of ROM to SAC as a measure of the oxidative balance, with higher values meaning higher oxidative stress (oxidative stress index). Our results suggest that the male population is at oxidative risk when compared with females, especially between the age of 2 and 7 years. Nutritional strategies in this population looking for additional antioxidant support would probably avoid the oxidative stress status that predisposes to chronic processes in senior male cats. Further clinical trials in this field are recommended.

  18. Stellar rotation at young ages: new results from Corot's monitoring NGC 2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favata, F.; Micela, G.; Alencar, S.; Aigrain, S.; Zwintz, K.

    2010-11-01

    Stellar rotation at young ages: new results from Corot's Angular momentum is one of the driving forces in the early evolution of stars. Issues such as the coupling between the star and the accretion disk (the so-called disk regulation paradigm), are traced by the evolution of rotational momentum, but affect the star-forming process as a whole. One of the features observed in star-forming regions (e.g. ONC and NGC 2264) of age between 1 and few Myr, for masses above 0.25 solar masses, is a bimodality of the rotational period distribution, with a peak around 1 day and the other at around 4 to 7 days. This bimodality has been interpreted as the smoking gun of the disk-locking mechanism (with the fast rotators having lost their disk and the slow ones still being regulated by their disks).

  19. Voting in Group Support Systems: Theory, Implementation, and Results from an Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Kung-E

    2009-01-01

    Group decision making is essential in organizations. Group Support Systems (GSS) can aide groups in making decisions by providing tools and process support. GSS is especially useful for geographically or temporally distributed groups. Researchers of GSS have pointed out that convergence processes are hard to accomplish in GSS. Voting tools in GSS…

  20. Implications of IODP Expedition 349 Age Results for the Spreading History of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briais, Anne

    2016-04-01

    The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349 in the South China Sea drilled three sites (U1431, U1433, and U1434) into the basaltic crustal basement near the fossil spreading center in the East and Southwest Subbasins. These results provided age constraints on the termination of seafloor spreading in the South China Sea (SCS) basin. Shipboard biostratigraphic analysis of microfossils from the sediment immediately above or between flows in the basaltic basement indicates early Miocene ages: 16.7-17.6 Ma for Site U1431 in the East Subbasin, ~18-21 Ma for Site U1433 in the Southwest Subbasin. Since Expedition 349, Ar/Ar dating of basalt samples from these two sites have confirmed these ages in the east, and have provided an age of 17 Ma in the Southwest. The similarity in crustal age between sites suggests that the last stages of spreading have been coeaval in both the East and Southwest Subbasins, forming a single mid-ocean ridge system with a series of transform faults and discontinuities between the two subbasins. Expedition 349 also drilled Site U1435 on a bathymetric high along the northwestern continent-ocean boundary. Onboard core description, biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy revealed that sediment at this site shows a sharp discontinuity at about 33 Ma, interpreted to represent the breakup unconformity and date the beginning of seafloor spreading in the East Subbasin. The results of IODP Exp. 349, as well as results from deep-towed magnetic surveys, thus imply that oceanic seafloor spreading in the SCS, from 33 to ~16-18 Ma, is coeval with a large part of the left-lateral motion along the Ailao Shan-Red River Fault Zone (dated 34 to 17 Ma). This episode of the extension of the South China Sea basin is therefore more likely driven by the extrusion of the Indochina tectonic block resulting from the collision of India with Eurasia than by the subduction of a proto-South China Sea to the south.

  1. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among High-Risk Age Groups in South Korea, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ju; Cha, Go-Woon; Ju, Young Ran; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Jeong, Young Eui

    2016-01-01

    After an extensive vaccination policy, Japanese encephalitis (JE) was nearly eliminated since the mid-1980s in South Korea. Vaccination in children shifted the affected age of JE patients from children to adults. However, an abrupt increase in JE cases occurred in 2010, and this trend has continued. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the JE virus (JEV) among high-risk age groups (≥40 years) in South Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to JEV in 945 subjects within four age groups (30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years) in 10 provinces. Of the 945 enrolled subjects, 927 (98.1%) exhibited antibodies against JEV. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies according to sex, age, or occupation. However, there were significant differences in the plaque reduction rate according to age and occupation; oldest age group had a higher reduction rate, and subjects who were employed in agriculture or forestry also had a higher value than the other occupations. We also found that three provinces (Gangwon, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam) had a relatively lower plaque reduction rate than the other locations. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were conducted to determine recent viral infections and 12 (1.3%) subjects were found to have been recently infected by the virus [corrected]. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicated that the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies has been maintained at very high levels among adult age groups owing to vaccination or natural infections, or both. In the future, serosurveillance should be conducted periodically using more representative samples to better understand the population-level immunity to JE in South Korea.

  2. Metabolic Dysfunction Consistent with Premature Aging Results from Deletion of Pim Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Din, Shabana; Konstandin, Mathias H; Johnson, Bevan; Emathinger, Jacqueline; Völkers, Mirko; Toko, Haruhiro; Collins, Brett; Ormachea, Lucy; Samse, Kaitlen; Kubli, Dieter A; De La Torre, Andrea; Kraft, Andrew S; Gustafsson, Asa B; Kelly, Daniel P; Sussman, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The senescent cardiac phenotype is accompanied by changes in mitochondrial function and biogenesis causing impairment in energy provision. The relationship between myocardial senescence and Pim kinases deserves attention since Pim-1 kinase is cardioprotective, in part, by preservation of mitochondrial integrity. Study of the pathological effects resulting from genetic deletion of all Pim kinase family members could provide important insight regarding cardiac mitochondrial biology and the aging phenotype. Objective Demonstrate myocardial senescence is promoted by loss of Pim leading to premature aging and aberrant mitochondrial function. Methods and Results Cardiac myocyte senescence was evident at three months of age in Pim Triple KnockOut (PTKO) mice, where all three isoforms of Pim kinase family members are genetically deleted. Cellular hypertrophic remodeling and fetal gene program activation was followed by heart failure at six months in PTKO mice. Metabolic dysfunction is an underlying cause of cardiac senescence and instigates a decline in cardiac function. Altered mitochondrial morphology is evident consequential to Pim deletion together with decreased ATP levels and increased phosphorylated AMPK, exposing an energy deficiency in PTKO mice. Expression of the genes encoding master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, PPARγ coactivator-1 (PGC-1) α and β were diminished in PTKO hearts, as were downstream targets included in mitochondrial energy transduction, including fatty acid oxidation. Reversal of the dysregulated metabolic phenotype was observed by overexpressing c-Myc, a downstream target of Pim kinases. Conclusion Pim kinases prevent premature cardiac aging and maintain a healthy pool of functional mitochondria leading to efficient cellular energetics. PMID:24916111

  3. Aging and physical mobility in group-housed Old World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shively, Carol A; Willard, Stephanie L; Register, Thomas C; Bennett, Allyson J; Pierre, Peter J; Laudenslager, Mark L; Kitzman, Dalane W; Childers, Martin K; Grange, Robert W; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2012-10-01

    While indices of physical mobility such as gait speed are significant predictors of future morbidity/mortality in the elderly, mechanisms of these relationships are not understood. Relevant animal models of aging and physical mobility are needed to study these relationships. The goal of this study was to develop measures of physical mobility including activity levels and gait speed in Old World monkeys which vary with age in adults. Locomotor behaviors of 21 old ([Formula: see text] = 20 yoa) and 24 young ([Formula: see text] = 9 yoa) socially housed adult females of three species were recorded using focal sample and ad libitum behavior observation methods. Self-motivated walking speed was 17% slower in older than younger adults. Likewise, young adults climbed more frequently than older adults. Leaping and jumping were more common, on average, in young adults, but this difference did not reach significance. Overall activity levels did not vary significantly by age, and there were no significant age by species interactions in any of these behaviors. Of all the behaviors evaluated, walking speed measured in a simple and inexpensive manner appeared most sensitive to age and has the added feature of being least affected by differences in housing characteristics. Thus, walking speed may be a useful indicator of decline in physical mobility in nonhuman primate models of aging.

  4. Alarm signals of the great gerbil: Acoustic variation by predator context, sex, age, individual, and family group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Jan A.; McCowan, Brenda; Collins, Kellie C.; Hooper, Stacie L.; Rogovin, Konstantin

    2005-10-01

    The great gerbil, Rhombomys opinus, is a highly social rodent that usually lives in family groups consisting of related females, their offspring, and an adult male. The gerbils emit alarm vocalizations in the presence of diverse predators with different hunting tactics. Alarm calls were recorded in response to three predators, a monitor lizard, hunting dog, and human, to determine whether the most common call type, the rhythmic call, is functionally referential with regard to type of predator. Results show variation in the alarm calls of both adults and subadults with the type of predator. Discriminant function analysis classified an average of 70% of calls to predator type. Call variation, however, was not limited to the predator context, because signal structure also differed by sex, age, individual callers, and family groups. These variations illustrate the flexibility of the rhythmic alarm call of the great gerbil and how it might have multiple functions and communicate in multiple contexts. Three alarm calls, variation in the rhythmic call, and vibrational signals generated from foot-drumming provide the gerbils with a varied and multi-channel acoustic repertoire.

  5. Patient perspectives on the impact of Crohn’s disease: results from group interviews

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Beth-Ann; Thomas, Rosemarie; Lomax, Kathleen G; Dudley-Brown, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Aim To understand the impact of Crohn’s disease (CD) on various aspects of daily life from the perspective of patients living with CD. Awareness of the disease and biologic therapies, patient satisfaction and adherence, and physician (provider) relationships were also assessed. Background CD is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that substantially impacts patients’ physical and emotional well-being. For patients eligible for biologic therapy, anti-tumor necrosis factor agents represent an important addition to the available therapies for CD. Methods The study sample included biologic-naïve and biologic-experienced patients who had self-reported moderate to severe CD, were under the care of a specialist, and agreed to film a video diary and participate in a focus group. Data from the videos and group interviews were collected from May to June of 2009 and summarized qualitatively by grouping similar answers and quotations. Results Of the 44 participants who submitted video diaries, 23 were biologic-experienced and 21 were biologic-naïve. Participants stated that CD caused fear and embarrassment, that they were reluctant to share the full impact of CD with family and providers, and that they relied on their provider for treatment decisions. Many participants accepted a new state of normalcy if their current medication helped their most bothersome symptoms without providing sustained remission. Participants receiving biologic therapy generally were more informed, more satisfied, and more likely to adhere to treatment regimens. Conclusion Participants’ responses suggest a need for more patient education and more collaborative relationships between patients and providers (physicians) regarding treatment decisions. PMID:22879737

  6. Influence of Perceived Stress on Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Einstein Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Katz, Mindy J; Derby, Carol A; Wang, Cuiling; Sliwinski, Martin J; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Zwerling, Jessica L; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a potentially remediable risk factor for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Our objective is to determine whether perceived stress predicts incident aMCI and to determine if the influence of stress on aMCI is independent of known aMCI risk factors, particularly demographic variables, depression, and apolipoprotein genotype. The Einstein Aging Study is a longitudinal community-based study of older adults. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered annually in the Einstein Aging Study to participants (N=507; 71 developed incident aMCI; mean follow-up time=3.6 y, SD=2.0) who were aged 70 years and older, free of aMCI and dementia at baseline PSS administration, and had at least 1 subsequent annual follow-up. Cox hazard models were used to examine time to aMCI onset adjusting for covariates. High levels of perceived stress are associated with a 30% greater risk of incident aMCI (per 5-point increase in PSS: hazard ratio=1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.58) independent of covariates. The consistency of results after covariate adjustment and the lack of evidence for reverse causation in longitudinal analyses suggest that these findings are robust. Understanding of the effect of perceived stress on cognition may lead to intervention strategies that prevent the onset of aMCI and Alzheimer dementia.

  7. Influence of Perceived Stress on Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Einstein Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Katz, Mindy J; Derby, Carol A; Wang, Cuiling; Sliwinski, Martin J; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Zwerling, Jessica L; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a potentially remediable risk factor for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Our objective is to determine whether perceived stress predicts incident aMCI and to determine if the influence of stress on aMCI is independent of known aMCI risk factors, particularly demographic variables, depression, and apolipoprotein genotype. The Einstein Aging Study is a longitudinal community-based study of older adults. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered annually in the Einstein Aging Study to participants (N=507; 71 developed incident aMCI; mean follow-up time=3.6 y, SD=2.0) who were aged 70 years and older, free of aMCI and dementia at baseline PSS administration, and had at least 1 subsequent annual follow-up. Cox hazard models were used to examine time to aMCI onset adjusting for covariates. High levels of perceived stress are associated with a 30% greater risk of incident aMCI (per 5-point increase in PSS: hazard ratio=1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.58) independent of covariates. The consistency of results after covariate adjustment and the lack of evidence for reverse causation in longitudinal analyses suggest that these findings are robust. Understanding of the effect of perceived stress on cognition may lead to intervention strategies that prevent the onset of aMCI and Alzheimer dementia. PMID:26655068

  8. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of 19 games…

  9. Perceptions of Retirement Affect Career Commitment: The Mediating Role of Retirement System Satisfaction for Two Teacher Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Justin L.; Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated a sample of California elementary, intermediate, and high school employed teachers (N = 247) to assess the effects of retirement perceptions on career commitment among teachers who are in different age groupings. Using path analysis, the influence of five retirement perceptions variables was examined: concerns about…

  10. An Investigation of the Usability of the Stylus Pen for Various Age Groups on Personal Digital Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Xiangshi; Zhou, Xiaolei

    2011-01-01

    Many handheld devices with stylus pens are available in the market; however, there have been few studies which examine the effects of the size of the stylus pen on user performance and subjective preferences for handheld device interfaces for various age groups. Two experiments (pen-length experiment and pen-tip width/pen-width experiment) were…

  11. Effectiveness of a School-Based Early Intervention CBT Group Programme for Children with Anxiety Aged 5-7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruocco, Sylvia; Gordon, Jocelynne; McLean, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Early manifestations of anxiety in childhood confer significant distress and life interference. This study reports on the first controlled trial of the "Get Lost Mr. Scary" programme, a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group intervention for children with anxiety aged 5-7 years. Participants were 134 children (65 males and 69 females) drawn…

  12. Gender Differences in Physical Health and Psychosocial Well Being among Four Age-Groups of Elderly People in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, Sara; Bernstein, Judith H.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the well-established gender differences in physical and psychosocial well being in adulthood persist throughout different age groups of elderly persons, in order to support one of two opposing hypotheses: the convergence and divergence hypotheses. Data were collected by structured…

  13. Structuring Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Comparing Scripting by Assigning Roles with Regulation by Cross-Age Peer Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The present study focuses on comparing the impact of role assignment and cross-age peer tutors on students' level of knowledge construction in 15 asynchronous discussion groups of nine students each in a first-year university course (N=135). Content analysis was applied to analyse the level of knowledge construction in students' online postings.…

  14. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  15. Planning and Decision Making about the Future Care of Older Group Home Residents and Transition to Residential Aged Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, C.; Bowers, B.; Webber, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Planning for future care after the death of parental caregivers and adapting disability support systems to achieve the best possible quality of life for people with intellectual disability as they age have been important issues for more than two decades. This study examined perceptions held by family members, group home staff and…

  16. Magnetic Fabric of the Itararé Group, Paraná Basin Brazil: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo, M. B.; Bilardello, D.; Santos, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    The late Paleozoic Itararé Group and equivalent beds in the Paraná Basin of Brazil extend into Paraguay, Argentina, and Uruguay. The Itararé Group contains the most extensive lithological record of Gondwana glaciation in the world. The succession has a maximum subsurface thickness of around 1400 m and extends over a total area greater than 1 million km2. The lower boundary of the Itararé Group is nonconformable with Precambrian to early Paleozoic crystalline basement and with Devonian strata of the Furnas and Ponta Grossa Formations, which together constitute the base of the Gondwana supersequence of the Paraná Basin. This boundary encompasses a hiatus that is loosely estimated in 45 Ma. The upper contact with the overlying Rio Bonito Formation is described as conformable to partially erosional. We performed our study on 13 sites from sedimentary rocks (sandstones and siltites) from the Itararé beds in the Brazilian portion of the Paraná Basin (mainly in São Paulo State). Magnetic fabrics were determined on oriented cylindrical specimens (2.54 cm x 2.2 cm) using the anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Rock-magnetic analyses reveal that magnetite is the main magnetic mineral. In one of the sampled site, however, the ferromagnetic minerals are both magnetite and hematite. Regarding the eingenvector orientations, the sites usually gave good results. The analysis at the individual-site scale defines three AMS fabric types. The first type (7 sites) shows Kmin perpendicular to the bedding plane while Kmax and Kint are scattered within the bedding plane itself. This fabric is usually interpreted as primary (sedimentary-compactional), typical of undeformed sediments. The second type (5 sites) shows good clustering of the AMS principal axes with Kmin still sub-perpendicular to the bedding plane. The third type, pertaining to an intensely folded site previously interpreted as slumped, is characterized in geographic coordinates by well

  17. Assigning cases to groups using taxometric results: an empirical comparison of classification techniques.

    PubMed

    Ruscio, John

    2009-03-01

    Determining whether individuals belong to different latent classes (taxa) or vary along one or more latent factors (dimensions) has implications for assessment. For example, no instrument can simultaneously maximize the efficiency of categorical and continuous measurement. Methods such as taxometric analysis can test the relative fit of taxonic and dimensional models, but it is not clear how best to assign individuals to groups using taxometric results. The present study compares the performance of two classification techniques-Bayes' theorem and a base-rate technique--across a wide range of data conditions. The base-rate technique achieves greater classification accuracy and a more even balance between sensitivity and specificity. In addition, the base-rate classification technique is easier to implement than Bayes' theorem and is more versatile in that it can be used when the context of assessment requires that cases be classified despite the absence of latent classes.

  18. The FARMING approach: main results and perspectives of the French FARMING groups.

    PubMed

    Jullien, T; Reales, N; Gallay, F; Lepicard, S

    2005-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident led to a long-term crisis that affected agriculture, food and living conditions in complex ways, and that modified the usual economical, political and social relations between public and private stakeholders at local, national and international level. The EC FARMING project aims to create a European stakeholder network to consider possible rehabilitation strategies for rural areas contaminated after a nuclear accident. The Institute of Patrimonial Strategies of the National Institute on Agronomy had responsibility for setting up the French stakeholder group. The objective was to develop favourable conditions and ways whereby stakeholders could deal with such a complex situation as a nuclear emergency and develop rehabilitation strategies. The results from the 3-year work programme on both strategic and technical aspects, showed an increasing commitment from the stakeholders that led to the building up of a common understanding of what a nuclear accident could be and how it could be dealt with.

  19. Electronic quasiparticles in the quantum dimer model: Density matrix renormalization group results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junhyun; Sachdev, Subir; White, Steven R.

    2016-09-01

    We study a recently proposed quantum dimer model for the pseudogap metal state of the cuprates. The model contains bosonic dimers, representing a spin-singlet valence bond between a pair of electrons, and fermionic dimers, representing a quasiparticle with spin-1/2 and charge +e . By density matrix renormalization group calculations on a long but finite cylinder, we obtain the ground-state density distribution of the fermionic dimers for a number of different total densities. From the Friedel oscillations at open boundaries, we deduce that the Fermi surface consists of small hole pockets near (π /2 ,π /2 ) , and this feature persists up to a doping density of 1/16. We also compute the entanglement entropy and find that it closely matches the sum of the entanglement entropies of a critical boson and a low density of free fermions. Our results support the existence of a fractionalized Fermi liquid in this model.

  20. Girls arrested for murder: an empirical analysis of 32 years of U.S. data by offender age groups.

    PubMed

    Heide, Kathleen M; Sellers, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) have used small samples and have concentrated on adolescent male offenders. As a result, little is known about the population of female juveniles arrested for murder. This study utilized the Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) database to investigate age differences between younger (aged 6-12 years) and older (aged 13-17 years) females arrested for murder in the United States from 1976 to 2007. As predicted, six variables used to test seven hypotheses with respect to younger and older female JHOs in single victim incidents were significant (victim age, victim gender, victim offender relationship, murder weapon, offender count, and homicide circumstance). Regression analysis revealed that younger girls were seven times more likely than older girls to kill children aged 0-12 years. Girls aged 6-12 years were five times more likely than their teen counterparts to be involved in conflict-related homicides as opposed to crime-related homicides. Although approximately the same percentages of younger and older girls killed infants under the age of 1, the victims were significantly different for the two offender age groups. This article concludes with a discussion of our findings and directions for future research.

  1. Recent fracture mechanics results from NASA research related to the aging commercial transport fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is conducting the Airframe Structural Integrity Program in support of the aging commercial transport fleet. This interdisciplinary program is being worked in cooperation with the U.S. airframe manufacturers, airline operators, and the FAA. Advanced analysis methods are under development to predict the fatigue crack growth in complex built-up shell structures. Innovative nondestructive examination technologies are also under development to provide large area inspection capability to detect corrosion, disbonds, and fatigue cracks. Recent fracture mechanics results applicable to predicting the growth of cracks initiating at the rivets of fuselage splice joints are reviewed.

  2. 40 CFR 97.721 - Recordation of TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recordation of TR SO2 Group 2... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program § 97.721 Recordation of TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations and auction results. (a) By November 7, 2011, the Administrator will record in each TR SO2 Group...

  3. 40 CFR 97.721 - Recordation of TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation of TR SO2 Group 2... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 2 Trading Program § 97.721 Recordation of TR SO2 Group 2 allowance allocations and auction results. (a) By November 7, 2011, the Administrator will record in each TR SO2 Group...

  4. 40 CFR 97.621 - Recordation of TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation of TR SO2 Group 1... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program § 97.621 Recordation of TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations and auction results. (a) By November 7, 2011, the Administrator will record in each TR SO2 Group...

  5. 40 CFR 97.621 - Recordation of TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations and auction results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recordation of TR SO2 Group 1... SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS TR SO2 Group 1 Trading Program § 97.621 Recordation of TR SO2 Group 1 allowance allocations and auction results. (a) By November 7, 2011, the Administrator will record in each TR SO2 Group...

  6. Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services Among American Indians by Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Roh, Soonhee; Brown-Rice, Kathleen A; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Yee-Melichar, Darlene; Talbot, Elizabeth P

    2015-11-01

    This study examined determinants of attitudes toward mental health services with a sample of American Indian younger-old-adults (aged 50-64, n = 158) and American Indian older-old adults (aged 65 and older, n = 69). Adapting Andersen's behavioral model of healthcare utilization, predisposing factors, mental health needs, and enabling factors were considered as potential predictors. Female and those with higher levels of social support tend to report more positive attitudes toward mental health services. Culture-influenced personal belief was associated with negative attitudes toward mental health services among American Indian younger-old -adults. Age and higher chronic medical conditions were significantly related to negative attitudes toward mental health services. Health insurance was positively associated with positive attitudes toward mental health services in the American Indian older-old adults. Findings indicate that practitioners should engage how culture, social support, and chronic conditions influence the response to mental health needs when working with older American Indians. PMID:25862435

  7. The Autobiographical Group: A Tool for the Reconstruction of Past Life Experience with the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botella, Luis; Feixas, Guillem

    1993-01-01

    Used guided autobiography to foster reconstruction of past life experiences among 12 older adults in Barcelona, Spain. Found a significant and gradual change in the construing system of those participants in autobiographical group as compared to control group of 10 older adults. Distance of elements self-ideal/self and self-ideal/others…

  8. Age Difference and Face-Saving in an Inter-Generational Problem-Based Learning Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    This study used grounded theory methodology to investigate whether learning in a problem-based learning (PBL) group was influenced by student demographic diversity. Data comprised observations, in the form of video footage, of one first-year PBL group carried out over the period of an academic year, along with student interviews. Using the…

  9. Effective Group Work for Elementary School-Age Children Whose Parents Are Divorcing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLucia-Waack, Janice; Gerrity, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Parental divorce is the issue of most concern for elementary school children. This article describes interventions for children-of-divorce groups for elementary school children. Suggests guidelines related to goal setting; securing agency and parental consent; leadership planning; recruitment, screening, and selection of members; group member…

  10. Enhancing School Asthma Action Plans: Qualitative Results from Southeast Minnesota Beacon Stakeholder Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egginton, Jason S.; Textor, Lauren; Knoebel, Erin; McWilliams, Deborah; Aleman, Marty; Yawn, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study explores ways southeast Minnesota schools currently address asthma problems, identifies areas for improvement, and assesses the potential value of asthma action plans (AAPs) in schools. Methods: Focus groups were used to query stakeholder groups on asthma care in schools. Groups were held separately for elementary school…

  11. Cognitive and academic outcomes after pediatric liver transplantation: Functional Outcomes Group (FOG) results.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, L G; Neighbors, K; Martz, K; Zelko, F; Bucuvalas, J C; Alonso, E M

    2011-02-01

    This multicenter study examined prevalence of cognitive and academic delays in children following liver transplant (LT). One hundred and forty-four patients ages 5-7 and 2 years post-LT were recruited through the SPLIT consortium and administered the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd Edition (WPPSI-III), the Bracken Basic Concept Scale, Revised (BBCS-R), and the Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th edition (WRAT-4). Parents and teachers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Participants performed significantly below test norms on intelligence quotient (IQ) and achievement measures (Mean WPPSI-III Full Scale IQ = 94.7 ± 13.5; WRAT-4 Reading = 92.7 ± 17.2; WRAT-4 Math = 93.1 ± 15.4; p < 0001). Twenty-six percent of patients (14% expected) had 'mild to moderate' IQ delays (Full Scale IQ = 71-85) and 4% (2% expected) had 'serious' delays (Full Scale IQ ≤ 70; p < 0.0001). Reading and/or math scores were weaker than IQ in 25%, suggesting learning disability, compared to 7% expected by CDC statistics (p < 0.0001). Executive deficits were noted on the BRIEF, especially by teacher report (Global Executive Composite = 58; p < 0.001). Results suggest a higher prevalence of cognitive and academic delays and learning problems in pediatric LT recipients compared to the normal population. PMID:21272236

  12. Turbulent magnetic Prandtl number in helical kinematic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence: two-loop renormalization group result.

    PubMed

    Jurčišinová, E; Jurčišin, M; Remecký, R; Zalom, P

    2013-04-01

    Using the field theoretic renormalization group technique, the influence of helicity (spatial parity violation) on the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number in the kinematic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is investigated in the two-loop approximation. It is shown that the presence of helicity decreases the value of the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number and, at the same time, the two-loop helical contribution to the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number is at most 4.2% (in the case with the maximal helicity) of its nonhelical value. These results demonstrate, on one hand, the potential importance of the presence of asymmetries in processes in turbulent environments and, on the other hand, the rather strong stability of the properties of diffusion processes of the magnetic field in the conductive turbulent environment with the spatial parity violation in comparison to the corresponding systems without the spatial parity violation. In addition, obtained results are compared to the corresponding results found for the two-loop turbulent Prandtl number in the model of passively advected scalar field. It is shown that the turbulent Prandtl number and the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number, which are the same in fully symmetric isotropic turbulent systems, are essentially different when one considers the spatial parity violation. It means that the properties of the diffusion processes in the turbulent systems with a given symmetry breaking can considerably depend on the internal tensor structure of advected quantities.

  13. Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: results from a nationally representative United States sample.

    PubMed

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Afifi, Tracie O; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time.

  14. Planning Self-Managed Work Groups. Features of Self-Managed Work Groups. Results of Using Self-Managed Work Groups. Issues and Implications in Using Self-Managed Work Groups. Status of Ohio Manufacturing Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smylie, Patrick E.; Jacobs, Ronald L.

    A study was conducted to describe the present status of self-managed work groups in Ohio manufacturing companies. Data for the study were gathered through lengthy interviews and site visits with 45 manufacturing companies in the state, 24 employing 2,000-14,000 workers and 21 employing 300 to 1,900 workers. The results of the study are presented…

  15. The Economic and Epidemiological Impact of Focusing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention on Specific Age Groups and Regions in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Since its launch in 2010, the Tanzania National Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) Program has focused efforts on males ages 10–34 in 11 priority regions. Implementers have noted that over 70% of VMMC clients are between the ages of 10 and 19, raising questions about whether additional efforts would be required to recruit men age 20 and above. This analysis uses mathematical modeling to examine the economic and epidemiological consequences of scaling up VMMC among specific age groups and priority regions in Tanzania. Methods and Findings Analyses were conducted using the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), a compartmental model implemented in Microsoft Excel 2010. The model was populated with population, mortality, and HIV incidence and prevalence projections from external sources, including outputs from Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM). A separate DMPPT 2.0 model was created for each of the 11 priority regions. Tanzania can achieve the most immediate impact on HIV incidence by circumcising males ages 20–34. This strategy would also require the fewest VMMCs for each HIV infection averted. Circumcising men ages 10–24 will have the greatest impact on HIV incidence over a 15-year period. The most cost-effective approach (lowest cost per HIV infection averted) targets men ages 15–34. The model shows the VMMC program is cost saving in all 11 priority regions. VMMC program cost-effectiveness varies across regions due to differences in projected HIV incidence, with the most cost-effective programs in Njombe and Iringa. Conclusions The DMPPT 2.0 results reinforce Tanzania’s current VMMC strategy, providing newfound confidence in investing in circumcising adolescents. Tanzanian policy makers and program implementers will continue to focus scale-up of VMMC on men ages 10–34 years, seeking to maximize program impact and cost-effectiveness while acknowledging trends in demand among the younger and older age groups

  16. Stratified at Seven: In-Class Ability Grouping and the Relative Age Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    There is an established body of evidence indicating that a pupil's relative age within their school year cohort is associated with academic attainment throughout compulsory education. In England, autumn-born pupils consistently attain at higher levels than summer-born pupils. Analysis here investigates a possible channel of this relative age…

  17. Act Smart. HIV/AIDS Education Curriculum for Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.

    This Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education curriculum was developed for boys and girls, ages 6 to 17 years. It is a supplement to a similar program, "SMART Moves," aimed at prevention of drug abuse and premature sexual activity. The Act SMART prevention team should consist of a staff facilitator…

  18. The Evolution of a Therapeutic Group Approach to School-Age Pregnant Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braen, Bernard B.

    This report evaluates the Young Mothers' Educational Development Program sponsored by the State University of New York, for pregnant girls between the ages of 16 and 21. The program provided needed services in the areas of obstetrics, pediatrics, education, social work, nursing, and psychology. The girls were Black, Caucasian, and Indian.…

  19. Invariance of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model Across Gender and Age Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the likelihood of a TAME (extended technology acceptance model), in which the interrelationships among computer self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, intention to use and self-reported use of computer-mediated technology were tested. In addition, the gender- and age-invariant of its causal structure were evaluated. The…

  20. Body Build Stereotypes and Self-Identification in Three Age Groups of Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, David; Hinsdale, Gary

    1978-01-01

    Body build stereotypes of average-weight and heavy females, ages 6, 15, and 19, were studied through adjective checklists and drawings of endomorphs, ectomorphs, and mesomorphs. Mesomorph drawings were favored and the endomorphs least liked. But heavy subjects rejected for themselves behavioral stereotypes previously applied to the endomorph…

  1. Characteristics of Talented Dancers and Age Group Differences: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Imogen J.; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.; Redding, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the characteristics of talented dancers in relation to age. Physical (handgrip muscular strength, leg muscular power, hamstring flexibility and external hip rotation), psychological (passion, self-esteem and anxiety) and social (the motivational climate) characteristics were assessed in 334 students enrolled…

  2. The Hierarchical Factor Model of ADHD: Invariant across Age and National Groupings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Sorge, Geoff B.; Flora, David B.; Chen, Wai; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Thompson, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary; Asherson, Philip; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factor structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of 1,373 children and adolescents with ADHD and their 1,772 unselected siblings recruited from different countries across a large age range. Hierarchical and correlated factor analytic models were compared separately in the ADHD and…

  3. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a new combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine: results of a multicentre trial. The Cooperative Group for the Study of MMR vaccines.

    PubMed

    Crovari, P; Gabutti, G; Giammanco, G; Dentico, P; Moiraghi, A R; Ponzio, F; Soncini, R

    2000-06-15

    A large single blind, multi-centre study involving 1779 children was performed in Italy. Infants, aged between 12 and 27 months were divided between two groups: group A received a single dose of a new MMR vaccine, 'Priorix'(3), while group B received a widely used MMR vaccine, Triviraten(4). Solicited local and general symptoms were recorded using diary cards and antibody levels were measured, prior to and 60 days post-vaccination, using ELISA assays. The incidence of solicited symptoms (evaluated in 1754 subjects) was comparable between groups, with the exception of fever which was significantly lower in group B. Immunogenicity was evaluated in 686 subjects. Of note, was the significantly higher anti-mumps seroconversion rate (p<0.001) observed in group A (97.0%) compared to group B (35.4%). However the anti-measles and anti-rubella seroconversion rates were equivalent between groups. Significantly higher (p<0.001) post-vaccination GMTs were in group A vs group B for anti-measles (2830 vs 784 IU/ml) and anti-mumps (1640 vs 469 U/ml), however the anti-rubella GMTs were significantly higher (p<0.001) in group B (117.6 IU/ml) compared to group A (92.6 IU/ml). The persistence of antibodies in 35 subjects was assessed 1 year after vaccination and the results showed no appreciable decline in titres with either vaccine. The trial demonstrates 'Priorix' is well tolerated and highly immunogenic.

  4. [Nutritional intakes in a group of infants aged six to fourteen months].

    PubMed

    Nasraoui, A; Hamdaoui, M; Achour, A; Nagati, K

    1999-03-01

    Infant feeding poses many challenges, such as the rapid growth of the child and the immature nature of his or her body¿s systems. Foods that are poorly suited to such immaturity can lead to functional problems and even sometimes-serious allergies. Infant nutritional intake is also influenced by environmental, socioeconomic, and cultural factors. Of these factors, the eating habits of Tunisians, with a tendency to overconsume cereal- and sugar-based products, is of particular concern. The authors examined the nutritional intakes of 342 healthy infants aged 6-14 months from the Tunis region. The 180 boys and 162 girls were recruited in 5 primary health centers in Tunis, as well as from several suburbs. These centers were chosen at random from among the region¿s 144 centers. Energy intakes are close to those recommended for infants aged 8-14 months, yet low for those aged 6-8 months. Protein supply is about 2.5 g/kg weight/day. Lipids consumed cover more than 35% of the energy supply for infants aged 6-8 and 12-14 months. Glucidic consumption is slightly higher for babies aged 8-12 months who have an energy supply covered sometimes by more than 60% of glucid. With regard to key vitamin and mineral supplies, there are deficits in vitamins C and D, as well as in calcium. There is a good supply of iron. The observed disequilibria in nutritional intake are not alarming, but parents need to be aware of them in order to reduce the risks of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. PMID:10392033

  5. [Focus on risk assessment in health environments: results and perspectives of a multicenter working group].

    PubMed

    Polato, R; Bacis, M; Belotti, L; Biggi, N; Campagna, M; Carrer, P; Cologni, L; Gattini, V; Lodi, V; Magnavita, N; Micheloni, G; Negro, C; Placidi, D; Puro, V; Tonelli, F; Porru, S

    2010-01-01

    The hospital risk assessment (VdR) is certainly a relevant issue concerning the activities of prevention for the health of healthcare workers in relation to biological risk. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-date of the issue, based on the suggestions of recent literature about the rules ratified by the new legislative decree and data supplied by the Group of 10 Hospitals participated in this multicenter study. From the analysis of data on healthcare settings (HCS) participating in the project the following considerations can be formulated: i) All HCS considered VdR from biological agents. The method recommended in the Guidelines SIMLII 2005 is the most followed ii) To grading the risk, the use of invasive procedures for carrying out the analysis results is a necessary element iii) the operators classified as exposed to biological risk, and therefore subject to health surveillance, represent almost all of workforce in 7 out of 10 HCS. The subgroup believes that VdR must be conducted in close collaboration with the occupational physician and should represent a worthwhile investment with spin-off character on prevention, decision making, empowering. The presence of environmental requirements and organizational procedures should be considered, so that HCS is enabled for an effective risk management, without which risk assessments cannot be performed. The method of VdR mentioned in the guidelines MLIS 2005, besides being the most widely used by the company participating in the study, still has practical reasons and opportunities to justify its use. The HCS group felt the need to propose an implementation of the definition of invasive procedures and EPP, together with individual assessment. Flexibility was suggested in identifying different levels of risk with the involvement of occupational physicians, especially in the presence of EPP, also in order to plan content and frequency of health surveillance.

  6. [Focus on risk assessment in health environments: results and perspectives of a multicenter working group].

    PubMed

    Polato, R; Bacis, M; Belotti, L; Biggi, N; Campagna, M; Carrer, P; Cologni, L; Gattini, V; Lodi, V; Magnavita, N; Micheloni, G; Negro, C; Placidi, D; Puro, V; Tonelli, F; Porru, S

    2010-01-01

    The hospital risk assessment (VdR) is certainly a relevant issue concerning the activities of prevention for the health of healthcare workers in relation to biological risk. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-date of the issue, based on the suggestions of recent literature about the rules ratified by the new legislative decree and data supplied by the Group of 10 Hospitals participated in this multicenter study. From the analysis of data on healthcare settings (HCS) participating in the project the following considerations can be formulated: i) All HCS considered VdR from biological agents. The method recommended in the Guidelines SIMLII 2005 is the most followed ii) To grading the risk, the use of invasive procedures for carrying out the analysis results is a necessary element iii) the operators classified as exposed to biological risk, and therefore subject to health surveillance, represent almost all of workforce in 7 out of 10 HCS. The subgroup believes that VdR must be conducted in close collaboration with the occupational physician and should represent a worthwhile investment with spin-off character on prevention, decision making, empowering. The presence of environmental requirements and organizational procedures should be considered, so that HCS is enabled for an effective risk management, without which risk assessments cannot be performed. The method of VdR mentioned in the guidelines MLIS 2005, besides being the most widely used by the company participating in the study, still has practical reasons and opportunities to justify its use. The HCS group felt the need to propose an implementation of the definition of invasive procedures and EPP, together with individual assessment. Flexibility was suggested in identifying different levels of risk with the involvement of occupational physicians, especially in the presence of EPP, also in order to plan content and frequency of health surveillance. PMID:21061702

  7. Lipid domains in intact fiber-cell plasma membranes isolated from cortical and nuclear regions of human eye lenses of donors from different age groups.

    PubMed

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2015-03-01

    The results reported here clearly document changes in the properties and the organization of fiber-cell membrane lipids that occur with age, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of lens membranes of clear lenses from donors of age groups from 0 to 20, 21 to 40, and 61 to 80 years. The physical properties, including profiles of the alkyl chain order, fluidity, hydrophobicity, and oxygen transport parameter, were investigated using EPR spin-labeling methods, which also provide an opportunity to discriminate coexisting lipid domains and to evaluate the relative amounts of lipids in these domains. Fiber-cell membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments: bulk lipid domain, which appears minimally affected by membrane proteins, and two domains that appear due to the presence of membrane proteins, namely boundary and trapped lipid domains. In nuclear membranes the amount of boundary and trapped phospholipids as well as the amount of cholesterol in trapped lipid domains increased with the donors' age and was greater than that in cortical membranes. The difference between the amounts of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins in nuclear and cortical membranes increased with the donors' age. It was also shown that cholesterol was to a large degree excluded from trapped lipid domains in cortical membranes. It is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes was greater than that of cortical membranes for all age groups. The amount of lipids in domains of low oxygen permeability, mainly in trapped lipid domains, were greater in nuclear than cortical membranes and increased with the age of donors. These results indicate that the nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes were less permeable to oxygen than cortical membranes and become less permeable to oxygen with age. In clear lenses, age-related changes in the lens lipid and protein composition and organization appear to occur in ways that increase fiber

  8. Lipid Domains in Intact Fiber-Cell Plasma Membranes Isolated from Cortical and Nuclear Regions of Human Eye Lenses of Donors from Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O’Brien, William J.; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2015-01-01

    The results reported here clearly document changes in the properties and the organization of fiber-cell membrane lipids that occur with age, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of lens membranes of clear lenses from donors of age groups from 0 to 20, 21 to 40, and 61 to 80 years. The physical properties, including profiles of the alkyl chain order, fluidity, hydrophobicity, and oxygen transport parameter, were investigated using EPR spin-labeling methods, which also provide an opportunity to discriminate coexisting lipid domains and to evaluate the relative amounts of lipids in these domains. Fiber-cell membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments: bulk lipid domain, which appears minimally affected by membrane proteins, and two domains that appear due to the presence of membrane proteins, namely boundary and trapped lipid domains. In nuclear membranes the amount of boundary and trapped phospholipids as well as the amount of cholesterol in trapped lipid domains increased with the donors’ age and was greater than that in cortical membranes. The difference between the amounts of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins in nuclear and cortical membranes increased with the donors’ age. It was also shown that cholesterol was to a large degree excluded from trapped lipid domains in cortical membranes. It is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes was greater than that of cortical membranes for all age groups. The amount of lipids in domains of low oxygen permeability, mainly in trapped lipid domains, were greater in nuclear than cortical membranes and increased with the age of donors. These results indicate that the nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes were less permeable to oxygen than cortical membranes and become less permeable to oxygen with age. In clear lenses, age-related changes in the lens lipid and protein composition and organization appear to occur in ways that increase fiber

  9. Patch test results in schoolchildren. Results from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) and the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG)

    PubMed

    Brasch, J; Geier, J

    1997-12-01

    Our aim was to explore the current spectrum of contact allergens in schoolchildren, as a basis for diagnosis and prevention of allergic contact dermatitis. Results of patch tests in children 6-15 years old, performed in the years 1990-1995 by 22 centres of the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group and filed by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology, were analysed and evaluated retrospectively, including epidemiologic data. Children with positive tests (62 out of 156 boys and 108 out of 260 girls tested) had a higher frequency of allergic contact dermatitis and a lower frequency of atopic dermatitis than patch test negative ones. 16 distinct allergens elicited positive reactions in > or = 1% of the children tested. Reactions to nickel sulfate occurred in 15.9% of all children tested, but in 25.0% of girls 14/15 years old, and in only 4.5% of boys 6-13 years old. Double-sensitizations with cobalt salts, potassium dichromate and palladium were seen. Mercury compounds were found in 2nd place (thimerosal: all children: 11.3%; 6-13 years old: 14.3%; 14/15 years old: 8.0%), followed by fragrance allergens. We conclude that contact allergy in children is related to their sex and age. Prophylaxis against nickel, mercury, and fragrance allergy needs to be improved. A shortened standard series may be sufficient for testing children.

  10. Effect of occupation-based groups on self-concept of children aged 5-8: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Scurlock, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this pilot study was to ascertain the effectiveness of an occupation-based after-school program for improving self-concept in children, ages five through eight. Fifty-four randomly selected children ages five through eight from two schools (one being the control group) with similar socioeconomic status along the Ohio River were involved in this research study. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PCSA; Harter & Pike, 1984) was administered to all participants (N = 54), four subtests were analyzed: cognitive competence, social competence with peers, physical competence in sports, and maternal acceptance. The experimental group (n = 25) attended occupation-based groups two times a week after school. The control group (n = 29) did not participate in an after-school program. Data from pre-test and post-test were analyzed using a t-test. Findings demonstrated that the experimental group improved their self-concept scores when compared to the control group in the areas of peer acceptance and cognitive competence. This would offer tentative evidence that an after-school program directed by occupational therapists that is designed to improve self-concept may be successful. PMID:25338266

  11. Accident and emergency attendances by children under the age of 1 year as a result of injury

    PubMed Central

    Macgregor, D

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine all accident and emergency (A&E) department attendances by children under the age of 1 year over a period of 12 months. Also to try to identify the prevalence and severity of accident types in small children and to suggest ways to reduce such accidents. Methods: The A&E department of the Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital (RACH) serves a population of over half a million. All children under 1 year of age attending this department in the year 2000 had their case notes reviewed by the author and the cause, type, and severity of the illness or injury noted. Results: During the 12 month audit period 1416 new cases under the age of 1 year presented to RACH, 790 of which presented directly to A&E. Six hundred and eighteen (78%) were self referred and 116 children attended A&E on more than one occasion during the year. Four hundred and thirty four (55%) of the A&E attendances were classed as "accidents", the remainder were mainly for medical conditions such as respiratory distress. Two hundred and sixty four (61%) were caused by falls and 38% were admitted for inpatient management. Two hundred and twenty nine (29%) required radiographs, which revealed 30 fractures. Thirty seven children sustained scalds/burns and there were 33 accidental ingestions. Six cases were judged to be non-accidental. Conclusions: There is a surprisingly high rate of "accidental" injury in this age group, bringing into question the effectiveness of current accident prevention strategies. Perhaps specific prevention advice should be targeted at parents and carers of young children. There should always be a high index of suspicion for non-accidental injury. PMID:12533361

  12. Archean Age Fossils from Northwestern Australia (Approximately 3.3 to 3.5 GA, Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Penny A. Morris

    1999-01-01

    Archean aged rocks from the Pilbara Block area of western Australia (Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation, -3.3-3.5 Ga) contain microfossils that are composed of various sizes of spheres and filaments. The first descriptions of these microfossils were published in the late 1970's (Dunlop, 1978; Dunlop, et. al., 1978). The authenticity of the microfossils is well established. The small size of the microfossils prevents isotope dating, at least with the present technology. Microbiologists, however, have established guidelines to determine the authenticity of the Archean aged organic remains (Schopf, Walter, 1992).

  13. [The changed picture of the aged in advertising--results of a recent study 1985].

    PubMed

    Dennersmann, U; Ludwig, R

    1986-01-01

    The proportion of advertisements relevant to older people in selected papers has increased. Advertisements including this age group have increased considerably, especially in TV and women's magazines. The image of older people is more positive, to the extent that they are not so isolated. Also the enlarged number of illustrations with married couples, job-fellows or social gatherings shows that these three important spheres of life are also fully assigned to older people. Professions are also being seen more often. The outcome of "Markenkompass 1982" shows that older people are far more receptive to advertising than younger ones. As a consequence of this it should be noted that in 1985 advertising experts more often aroused additional demands from this open-mindedness, for example out of ties with tradition, and gave the older people they depicted a more open character than in 1975. If we look at the function older people in advertising, this up-to-date character is nevertheless coupled with the stereotype attributes of wisdom and experience and therefore receives a more positive valuation. The presentation of older people in advertising is, by the way, very realistic. The conspectus now shows a much more positive "image of the old" than was to be found ten years ago. An analysis of the products offered, however, shows that the advertising experts still regard the older primarily as consumers of medical products, even if in a reduced form.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Influence of age on Salvia divinorum use: results of an Internet survey.

    PubMed

    Nyi, Pearl P; Lai, Emily P; Lee, Diana Y; Biglete, Shannon A; Torrecer, Gilsky I; Anderson, Ilene B

    2010-09-01

    An Internet-based survey of Salvia divinorum ("salvia") users was conducted to identify correlates surrounding its use. Salvia-knowledgeable persons were recruited via "social networking Internet websites" (n = 23) where notices were posted on recreational salvia group message boards (n = 69). Data collection included demographics, use circumstances, experiences, and age (current and at first salvia use). A total of 219 surveys were analyzed. Salvia users who were young adults (< or = 21 yrs) at first use favored salvia for fun (OR = 1.94, CI = 1.08-3.49, p = 0.03) or to relieve boredom (OR = 2.06 CI = 1.09-3.91, p = 0.02), while salvia users who were adults (> or = 22 yrs) at first use favored salvia for spiritual effects (OR = 2.63, CI = 1.02-6.75, p = 0.04). Being an adult at first use was associated with higher odds of concurrent marijuana (OR = 2.68, CI = 1.50-4.78, p = 0.0007) or tobacco use (OR = 1.94, CI = 1.05-3.60, p = 0.03). Over half of all respondents reported use reduction or cessation in the past 12 months (114 of 219, 52%), citing dislike of the high (33.3%) or loss of interest in salvia (28.9%). Reports of cessation suggest salvia use may be more attributed to curiosity than continual abuse. PMID:21053761

  15. Diabetes, Depressive Symptoms, and Inflammation in Older Adults: Results from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Todd A.; de Groot, Mary; Harris, Tamara; Schwartz, Frank; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kanaya, Alka

    2013-01-01

    Objective Up-regulated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) are common to both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and elevated depressive symptoms, yet little attention has been given to the biological mechanisms associated with these co-morbidities. This study examined the association between inflammation and both T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Methods Baseline data were analyzed from 3,009 adults, aged 70–79, participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Diabetes was assessed per self-report, medication use, fasting glucose and/or glucose tolerance tests. Elevated depressive symptoms were categorized using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (cut-score≥20). Log-transformed IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP were analyzed using ANCOVA. Results Participants with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms (T2DM+DEP n=14) demonstrated significantly (p<.05) higher IL-6 compared to (T2DM Only n=628), (DEP Only n=49), and (No T2DM or DEP n=2,067) groups following covariate adjustment. Similarly, participants with T2DM+DEP (n=14) had significantly (p<.05) higher CRP, after covariate adjustment, compared to DEP Only (n=50) and No T2DM or DEP groups (n=2,153). No association was observed for TNF-α. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that inflammation is associated with T2DM and elevated depressive symptoms. Participants with T2DM+DEP demonstrated the highest IL-6 levels compared to all other groups. Greater CRP levels were also observed in T2DM, but not elevated depressive symptoms, which may suggest that differential associations between T2DM and depressive symptoms exist for various inflammatory markers. Further investigation into these associations could aid in understanding the biological pathways underlying both T2DM and depressive symptoms. PMID:24182629

  16. Long-term aging of cast stainless steels: Mechanisms and resulting properties

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.

    1987-09-01

    Mechanical property data are presented from Charpy-impact, tensile, and J-R curve tests for several heats of cast stainless steel aged up to 10,000 h at 450, 400, 350, 320, and 290/sup 0/C. The results indicate that thermal aging increases the tensile strength and decreases the impactenergy, J/sub IC/ and tearing modulus of the steels. Also, the ductile-to-brittle transition curve shifts to higher temperatures. The low-carbon CF-3 steels were the most resistant and the molybdenum-containing high-carbon CF-8M steels were the most susceptible to low-temperature embrittlement. The influence of nitrogen content and distribution of ferrite on loss of toughness are discussed. Data also indicate that existing correlations do not accurately represent the embrittlement behavior over the temperature range 280 to 450/sup 0/C, i.e., extrapolation of high-temperature data to reactor temperatures may not be valid for some compositions of cast stainless steels. 13 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Does the Age and Familiarity of the Informant Group Influence the Tendency of 3- and 4-year-old Children to Conform?

    PubMed

    McGuigan, Nicola; Stevenson, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The authors' aim was to explore whether the age and the familiarity of the individuals comprising a group majority influenced the tendency of 3- and 4-year-old children to conform. Participants were presented with 2 variants of a novel task in which they were required to judge which of 3 line-drawn tigers had the greatest number of stripes. The participants made their judgments in 2 contexts, first after viewing 5 informants perform the task incorrectly, and second without viewing the responses of other individuals. The informants comprised a group of familiar children, a group of unfamiliar children, a group of familiar adults, or a group of unfamiliar adults. The results showed that the children displayed selective conformity with respect to informant age, readily adopting the incorrect response when it was indicated by an adult majority, but failing to do so when the same incorrect response was indicated by a majority of children. In contrast the familiarity of the individuals comprising the majority had little influence on the tendency of children to conform. These results suggest that children are not blanket conformists, rather they respond selectively depending on characteristics of the individuals comprising the group majority. PMID:27341477

  18. LISA Pathfinder Discharge Working Group: Activities, Results, and Lessons Learned for LISA/NGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, T.; Bergner, P.; Hechenblaikner, G.; Brandt, N.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the European Space Agency (ESA) entrusted Astrium GmbH to identify the root cause and corrective measures for the shortcomings of the LISA Pathfinder discharge system baseline that were identified during the system level testing in the torsion pendulum at the University of Trento. The main goal was to maximize the discharge system robustness under the given constraint to minimize the impact on manufacturing and the AIT process of the existing flight hardware. Astrium GmbH set-up a dedicated discharge working group (DWG) for 9 months, bringing together the expertise of surface scientists (DLR Stuttgart, Uni Würzburg, Uni Modena, BEAR Trieste) with the existing significant knowledge in the LTP community (Uni Trento, Imperial College London, CGS, Selex Galileo, TWT GmbH, ESA). The findings resulted in a recommendation to modify the baseline discharge system of LISA Pathfinder, including the definition of dedicated manufacturing and AIT requirements. These findings have relevance also for LISA/NGO, since they allow for a significantly more robust discharge system design.

  19. Polypeptide motions are dominated by peptide group oscillations resulting from dihedral angle correlations between nearest neighbors.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, James E; Jha, Abhishek K; Sosnick, Tobin R; Freed, Karl F

    2007-01-23

    To identify basic local backbone motions in unfolded chains, simulations are performed for a variety of peptide systems using three popular force fields and for implicit and explicit solvent models. A dominant "crankshaft-like" motion is found that involves only a localized oscillation of the plane of the peptide group. This motion results in a strong anticorrelated motion of the phi angle of the ith residue (phi(i)) and the psi angle of the residue i - 1 (psi(i-1)) on the 0.1 ps time scale. Only a slight correlation is found between the motions of the two backbone dihedral angles of the same residue. Aside from the special cases of glycine and proline, no correlations are found between backbone dihedral angles that are separated by more than one torsion angle. These short time, correlated motions are found both in equilibrium fluctuations and during the transit process between Ramachandran basins, e.g., from the beta to the alpha region. A residue's complete transit from one Ramachandran basin to another, however, occurs in a manner independent of its neighbors' conformational transitions. These properties appear to be intrinsic because they are robust across different force fields, solvent models, nonbonded interaction routines, and most amino acids. PMID:17223689

  20. Results of field verification tests in the Tight Mesaverde Group: Piceance Basin, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kukal, G.C.; Price, E.H.; Hill, R.E.; Monson, E.R.

    1992-08-01

    The Piceance Basin of western Colorado contains a major potential natural gas resource in Mesaverde blanket and lenticular low permeability gas sands. The basin has been a pilot study area for government sponsored tight gas sand research for over 20 years. This work culminated in the Multiwell Experiment (MWX), a field laboratory consisting of three closely spaced wells, designed by the Department of Energy to study the reservoir and production characteristics of the low permeability sands of the Mesaverde Group in the Rulison Field near Rifle, Colorado. The purpose of this study is to compare geologic, production and reservoir characteristics of the existing Mesaverde producing areas in the Piceance Basin with those same characteristics at the Multiwell site. This study has been performed in two sequential parts, Phase I and Phase II. In Phase I the geologic, production and reservoir engineering parameters were developed for the existing Mesaverde gas producing areas through analysis of log suites, well completion information and production histories. The southern part of the basin was partitioned into three areas having similar geologic and production characteristics. Phase II consisted of field verification tests with cooperative industry partners in which new subsurface geologic and production information was collected in the partitioned areas to be compared with that at MWX. This report presents the results of Phase II investigations.

  1. Results of field verification tests in the Tight Mesaverde Group: Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Kukal, G.C.; Price, E.H.; Hill, R.E.; Monson, E.R.

    1992-08-01

    The Piceance Basin of western Colorado contains a major potential natural gas resource in Mesaverde blanket and lenticular low permeability gas sands. The basin has been a pilot study area for government sponsored tight gas sand research for over 20 years. This work culminated in the Multiwell Experiment (MWX), a field laboratory consisting of three closely spaced wells, designed by the Department of Energy to study the reservoir and production characteristics of the low permeability sands of the Mesaverde Group in the Rulison Field near Rifle, Colorado. The purpose of this study is to compare geologic, production and reservoir characteristics of the existing Mesaverde producing areas in the Piceance Basin with those same characteristics at the Multiwell site. This study has been performed in two sequential parts, Phase I and Phase II. In Phase I the geologic, production and reservoir engineering parameters were developed for the existing Mesaverde gas producing areas through analysis of log suites, well completion information and production histories. The southern part of the basin was partitioned into three areas having similar geologic and production characteristics. Phase II consisted of field verification tests with cooperative industry partners in which new subsurface geologic and production information was collected in the partitioned areas to be compared with that at MWX. This report presents the results of Phase II investigations.

  2. Chicago's Two Public School Systems: Standardized Test Results Compared by Racial/Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James H.

    Throughout the Chicago Public Schools systematic differences exist between the performance of children of different racial and ethnic groups. In most schools where students of more than one group are found, Asians and Whites test at higher levels than Blacks and Hispanics. When income level and school type are controlled, small differences are…

  3. The Comparability of Focus Group and Survey Results: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Victoria M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Focus group findings were compared with survey findings for three studies in which both methods were used. Studies conducted on voluntary sterilization in Guatemala, Honduras, and Zaire with over 2,000 subjects confirm that focus groups yield information similar to that obtained from surveys and are useful in program planning. (SLD)

  4. Assessment Results and Student Achievement; a Correlation Study Regarding Ability Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonaker, Richard V.

    2013-01-01

    School leaders face increased pressure to identify instructional and administrative practices that increase student achievement. However, achievement gaps persist between disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged student groups. This study highlighted relationships between ability grouping and academic achievement in a suburban school district.…

  5. A Comparative Study of the Perceived Stress of Springboard Diving by Age and Sex Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, R. Gary

    Three measures--physiological, behavioral, and phenomenological in nature--were used to register inexperienced springboard divers' perceptions of stress when faced with the execution of a forward dive from three standard heights; pool deck, one-meter and three-meter springboards. Forty-eight subjects were divided into four groups representing…

  6. Development of an Outreach Group for Children Ages Five through Thirteen Who Have Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Corinne

    This practicum took place at a spouse abuse shelter located in a county classified as urban in the southeast United States. It was found that once a family left the shelter, support groups were not available to help the children with feelings related to living in a home where domestic violence has occurred. Most of these children were already…

  7. Fears and Related Anxieties across Three Age Groups of Mexican American and White Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared levels and types of fears and anxieties in a sample of Mexican American children and adolescents with disabilities to a group of White children and adolescents with similar disabilities. Students (N = 238), parents, and teachers completed the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (T. H. Ollendick, 1983) and the Revised…

  8. Generic Tobacco Use among Four Ethnic Groups in a School Age Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Moor, Carl; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared generic tobacco use among Hispanic, White, Black, and Asian youths (N=4,980) in grades 4, 7, 10, and 12. Found prevalence of regular use was highest among Whites, followed by Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Marijuana, alcohol, and other drug use explained approximately 40 percent of variance in tobacco use in each ethnic group. Other…

  9. Bill Gates' Great-Great-Granddaughter's Honeymoon: An Astronomy Activity for Several Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    When students finish a unit or course on the planets these days, they are often overwhelmed with facts, comparisons, and images. A good culminating activity, to help them organize their thinking (and review), is to have them divide into small groups (travel agencies) and come up with their top ten solar system "tourist sights" for future space…

  10. Results of interlaboratory comparison of fission track ages for 1992 fission track workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, D.S.; Crowley, K.D.; Dokka, R.K.; Galbraith, R.F.; Kowallis, B.J.; Naeser, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    Two apatites and one sphene were made available to the fission track research community for analysis prior to the 1992 Fission Track Workshop held in Philadelphia, U.S.A., 13-17 July. Eighteen laboratories throughout the world received aliquots of apatite and sphene. To date, analyses by 33 different scientists have been representing 15 different laboratories. With respect to the previous two interlaboratory comparisons, there is a noticeable improvement in the accuracy of the age results (Naeser and Cebula, 1978; Naeser et al., 1981; Miller et al., 1985;Miller et al.1990). Ninety-four percent of the analysis used the external detector method (EDM) combined with the zeta technique while the remaining individuals used the population method (POP). Track length measurements (requested for the first time in the interlaboratory comparison studies) were in relatively good agreement. ?? 1993.

  11. Aging results for PRD 49 III/epoxy and Kevlar 49/epoxy composite pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamstad, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kevlar 49/epoxy composite is growing in use as a structural material because of its high strength-to-weight ratio. Currently, it is used for the Trident rocket motor case and for various pressure vessels on the Space Shuttle. In 1979, the initial results for aging of filament-wound cylindrical pressure vessels which were manufactured with preproduction Kevlar 49 (Hamstad, 1979) were published. This preproduction fiber was called PRD 49 III. This report updates the continuing study to 10-year data and also presents 7.5-year data for spherical pressure vessels wound with production Kevlar 49. For completeness, this report will again describe the specimens of the original study with PRD 49 as well as specimens for the new study with Kevlar 49.

  12. Do socioeconomic factors shape weight and obesity trajectories over the transition from midlife to old age? Results from the French GAZEL cohort study123

    PubMed Central

    Sabia, Séverine; Stringhini, Silvia; Kivimaki, Mika; Westerlund, Hugo; Vahtera, Jussi; Guéguen, Alice; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Nabi, Hermann; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2010-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a contemporary epidemic that does not affect all age groups and sections of society equally. Objective: The objective was to examine socioeconomic differences in trajectories of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and obesity between the ages of 45 and 65 y. Design: A total of 13,297 men and 4532 women from the French GAZEL (Gaz de France Electricité de France) cohort study reported their height in 1990 and their weight annually over the subsequent 18 y. Changes in BMI and obesity between ages 45 and 49 y, 50 and 54 y, 55 and 59 y, and 60 and 65 y as a function of education and occupational position (at age 35 y) were modeled by using linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations. Results: BMI and obesity rates increased between the ages of 45 and 65 y. In men, BMI was higher in unskilled workers than in managers at age 45 y; this difference in BMI increased from 0.82 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.99) at 45 y to 1.06 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.27) at 65 y. Men with a primary school education compared with those with a high school degree at age 45 y had a 0.75 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.00) higher BMI, and this difference increased to 1.32 (95% CI: 1.03,1.62) at age 65 y. Obesity rates were 3.35% and 7.68% at age 45 y and 9.52% and 18.10% at age 65 y in managers and unskilled workers, respectively; the difference in obesity increased by 4.25% (95% CI: 1.87, 6.52). A similar trend was observed in women. Conclusions: Weight continues to increase in the transition between midlife and old age; this increase is greater in lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:20484455

  13. Preterm Birth Results in Alterations in Neural Connectivity at Age 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Katherine M.; Vohr, Betty R.; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan R.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2010-01-01

    Very low birth weight preterm (PT) children are at high risk for brain injury. Employing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we tested the hypothesis that PT adolescents would demonstrate microstructural white matter disorganization relative to term controls at 16 years of age. Forty-four PT subjects (600 - 1250 grams birth weight) without neonatal brain injury and 41 term controls were evaluated at age 16 years with DTI, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III (WISC), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT), and the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). PT subjects scored lower than term subjects on WISC full scale (p = 0.003), verbal (p = 0.043), and performance IQ tests (p = 0.001), as well as CTOPP phonological awareness (p = 0.004), but scored comparably to term subjects on PPVT and CTOPP Rapid Naming tests. PT subjects had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple regions including bilateral uncinate fasciculi (left: p = 0.01; right: p = 0.004), bilateral external capsules (left: p < 0.001; right: p < 0.001), the splenium of the corpus callosum (p = 0.008), and white matter serving the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally (left: p < 0.001; right: p = 0.011). FA values in both the left and right uncinate fasciculi correlated with PPVT scores (a semantic language task) in the PT subjects (left: r = 0.314, p = 0.038; right: r = 0.336, p = 0.026). FA values in the left and right arcuate fasciculi correlated with CTOPP Rapid Naming scores (a phonologic task) in the PT subjects (left: r = 0.424, p = 0.004; right: r = 0.301, p = 0.047). These data support for the first time that dual pathways underlying language function are present in PT adolescents. The striking bilateral dorsal correlations for the PT group suggest that prematurely born subjects rely more heavily on the right hemisphere than typically developing adults for performance of phonological language tasks. These findings may represent either a delay in

  14. [Experiences and results in hypertension screening in women between 20 and 65 years of age in Karl-Marx-City].

    PubMed

    Voigt, G; Börker, G; Edelmann, S; Hartung, A; Hartung, G; Heyne, S; Töpfer, V

    1980-11-15

    From 1975 to 1979 in the district of the City of Karl-Marx-Stadt 91,130 females at the age between 20 and 65 years were summoned to a gynaecologico-cardiological mass examination which was supported by computer. 56,460 females underwent the examination. According to the WHO-criteria two measurements of blood pressure were carried out, when increased blood pressure was present a third one and a fourth one by an examination group. A diagnostic standard programme was used. In the second measurement of blood pressure we established 19.8% of patients with hypertension and 28.6% patients with borderline values. 52.8% of the hypertensions were known. Of 10,685 females with known or established hypertension 10.1% underwent an optimum therapy. On the basis of these results a programme for the fight against hypertension was developed for the county Karl-Marx-Stadt.

  15. Perceived exercise barriers and their associations with regular exercise across three age groups of rural women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing-Juin; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Lee, Bih-O; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to explore the differences in perceived exercise barriers across three age groups of Taiwanese rural women (30-50, 51-70, and >70 years old) and to examine the associations between perceived exercise barriers and regular exercise behavior. A total of 227 women completed the Self-Reported Exercise Behavior and the Perceived Exercise Barrier Scale. Women older than 70 reported higher physical and psychological barriers and lower administrative barriers than did the younger group. Women who did not exercise regularly tended to have a higher perception of exercise barriers.

  16. Relationship of the intake of different food groups by pregnant mothers with the birth weight and gestational age: Need for public and individual educational programs

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Zahra; Mansourian, Marjan; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the intake of different food groups by pregnant mothers and neonatal low birth weight and premature births. Materials and Methods: In this cohort, the target population was 225 pregnant women, randomly selected from different geographical areas of the city of Isfahan, Iran (from April to September, 2012). The main variables in the study were weight and gestational age of the neonates and the type and amount of different food groups used by the mothers. All nutritional variables were compared according to different groups of infants (normal, premature, and low birth weight). In the multivariate analysis, multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to identify those different food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) variables independently associated with the newborn's weight and gestational age, adjusted by maternal consumption of calcium supplementation, folic acid, and omega-3, during pregnancy. Results: A total of 214 (47.7% boys) infants with complete information were included. They had a mean gestational age of 38.72 ± 1.2 weeks. The mean birth weight was 3.11 ± 0.384 kg. The percentages of premature and low birth weight (LBW) infants were 7 and 5%, respectively. At multiple logistic regression controlling for potentially confounding factors that were significantly associated with prematurity and LBW at univariate analysis (maternal consumption of calcium supplementation, folic acid, and omega-3, during pregnancy), type of nutritional groups containing dairy products, proteins, fish, and shrimp group, as well as fruits and vegetables, had a significant positive association with increasing the gestational age (P < 0.05). The group that consumed proteins, fish, and shrimp, as well as fruits and vegetables had a significant positive association with the newborn's weight (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated the importance of proper nutrition on reducing the rates of LBW and

  17. A Novel Physiology-Based Mathematical Model to Estimate Red Blood Cell Lifespan in Different Human Age Groups.

    PubMed

    An, Guohua; Widness, John A; Mock, Donald M; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurement of red blood cell (RBC) survival in humans has improved from the original accurate but limited differential agglutination technique to the current reliable, safe, and accurate biotin method. Despite this, all of these methods are time consuming and require blood sampling over several months to determine the RBC lifespan. For situations in which RBC survival information must be obtained quickly, these methods are not suitable. With the exception of adults and infants, RBC survival has not been extensively investigated in other age groups. To address this need, we developed a novel, physiology-based mathematical model that quickly estimates RBC lifespan in healthy individuals at any age. The model is based on the assumption that the total number of RBC recirculations during the lifespan of each RBC (denoted by N max) is relatively constant for all age groups. The model was initially validated using the data from our prior infant and adult biotin-labeled red blood cell studies and then extended to the other age groups. The model generated the following estimated RBC lifespans in 2-year-old, 5-year-old, 8-year-old, and 10-year-old children: 62, 74, 82, and 86 days, respectively. We speculate that this model has useful clinical applications. For example, HbA1c testing is not reliable in identifying children with diabetes because HbA1c is directly affected by RBC lifespan. Because our model can estimate RBC lifespan in children at any age, corrections to HbA1c values based on the model-generated RBC lifespan could improve diabetes diagnosis as well as therapy in children.

  18. Psychosocial stress but not exercise increases cortisol and reduces state anxiety levels in school classes - results from a stressor applicable in large group settings.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Mirko; Müller-Alcazar, Anett; Jäger, Anika; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Both, psychosocial stress and exercise in the past have been used as stressors to elevate saliva cortisol and change state anxiety levels. In the present study, high-school students at the age of 14 were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: (1) an exercise group (n = 18), that was running 15 minutes at a medium intensity level of 65-75% HRmax, (2) a psychosocial stress group (n = 19), and (3) a control group (n = 18). The psychosocial stress was induced to the students by completing a standardized intelligence test under the assumption that their IQ scores would be made public in class. Results display that only psychosocial stress but not exercise was able to significantly increase cortisol levels but decreased cognitive state anxiety in adolescents. The psychosocial stress protocol applied here is proposed for use in future stress studies with children or adolescents in group settings, e.g., in school.

  19. Age class differences in the feeding behavior of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscataia) in the forested and nonvegetated enclosure groups.

    PubMed

    Jaman, M Firoj; Huffman, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    Age class differences in feeding behavior of primates are affected by many factors, including feeding competition, foraging skills, habitat type, food abundance and distribution, body mass, and food types. Two captive groups of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), one housed in a forested enclosure and the other in a nonvegetated enclosure, were studied to examine the effect of environmental enrichment on age class differences in feeding behavior. Although there was no significant age class difference in time spent feeding on provisioned foods in either enclosure, the feeding rate (intake of unit food/minute) of adults consuming provisioned monkey chow was significantly higher than that of immatures in both enclosures, and was faster for both age groups in the nonvegetated than in the forested enclosure. Overall, feeding time was greatly extended for individuals of both age classes in the forested enclosure compared with their counterparts in the nonvegetated enclosure. Immatures in the forested enclosure utilized a significantly greater number of plant species and food items, exploiting many food items available among the terminal branches, and spent significantly more time feeding than adults. Perhaps constrained by larger body size, adults fed more often on the ground or middle height of the trees, likely reducing competition over plant food resources between adults and immatures. The natural vegetation played an important role in extending feeding time and segregating substrate use during feeding by adults and immatures. This study revealed the benefits concerning environmental enrichment of a naturally forested enclosure, which provides captive primates the opportunity to exhibit age class and species-typical feeding behaviors of importance for their dietary maintenance and general health.

  20. Building a taxonomy of integrated palliative care initiatives: results from a focus group

    PubMed Central

    Ewert, Benjamin; Hodiamont, Farina; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen; Payne, Sheila; Groot, Marieke; Hasselaar, Jeroen; Menten, Johann; Radbruch, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Background Empirical evidence suggests that integrated palliative care (IPC) increases the quality of care for palliative patients and supports professional caregivers. Existing IPC initiatives in Europe vary in their design and are hardly comparable. InSuP-C, a European Union research project, aimed to build a taxonomy of IPC initiatives applicable across diseases, healthcare sectors and systems. Methods The taxonomy of IPC initiatives was developed in cooperation with an international and multidisciplinary focus group of 18 experts. Subsequently, a consensus meeting of 10 experts revised a preliminary taxonomy and adopted the final classification system. Results Consisting of eight categories, with two to four items each, the taxonomy covers the process and structure of IPC initiatives. If two items in at least one category apply to an initiative, a minimum level of integration is assumed to have been reached. Categories range from the type of initiative (items: pathway, model or guideline) to patients’ key contact (items: non-pc specialist, pc specialist, general practitioner). Experts recommended the inclusion of two new categories: level of care (items: primary, secondary or tertiary) indicating at which stage palliative care is integrated and primary focus of intervention describing IPC givers’ different roles (items: treating function, advising/consulting or training) in the care process. Conclusions Empirical studies are required to investigate how the taxonomy is used in practice and whether it covers the reality of patients in need of palliative care. The InSuP-C project will test this taxonomy empirically in selected initiatives using IPC. PMID:26647043

  1. Breastfeeding and problematic integration: results of a focus-group study.

    PubMed

    Koerber, Amy; Brice, Linda; Tombs, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a subset of data from nine focus groups. Participants included new and expectant mothers and their partners, friends, and relatives. The larger goal of the focus groups was to understand local infant-feeding practices of mothers in our region. The subset of data reported in this article pertains to breastfeeding failure. The experience of breastfeeding failure, as described by participants in this study, is analyzed through the lens of Babrow's (1992) concept of problematic integration. PMID:21834716

  2. Fission track ages of detrital zircons from sandstones of the Umpqua Group and Tyee Formation, Oregon coast range

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, J.A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Brandon, M.T. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    Detrital zircons from Paleogene sandstones of the Umpqua Group (UG) and the Tyee Fm (TF) yield contrasting FT age patterns which distinguish these two units and cast new light on their regional extent, correlation and provenance. In the Roseburg (Rg) area of the southern Oregon Coast Range, where most widely exposed, the UG consists of continental and marine clastic beds which overlie submarine lavas of the Coast Range Basalt. K-Ar And Ar-Ar dating of the basement basalts shows a younging trend from about 62 Ma at Rg at the south to 56 Ma at Siletz River and 53 Ma at Tillamook to the north. Detrital zircons from the Rg area are characterized by old FT ages. Of 192 grains dated, 90% are older than 90 Ma; the median age is 129 Ma. A diorite cobble from an UG conglomerate gave a zircon FT age of 105 Ma. These ages point to a source in the Jurassic plutons in the Klamath Mountains nearby to the south. The authors have determined FT cooling ages of 110 and 120 Ma for zircons from the Mt. Ashland and Grants Pass plutons. Continental and shallow marine clastic strata of the TF overly the UG beds west of Rg. The UG is not widely exposed north of Rg where it thins and pinches out above the Coast Range Basalt and is overlain by a northern turbidite facies of the TF. Three TF sandstones from the latitude of Rg and three others from west and south of Corvallis yielded distinctive and identical zircon FT age patterns characterized by young ages. Of 335 zircons dated, 80% are younger than 90 Ma; the median age is 61 Ma. This maximum age is very close to that of the overlying Tillamook and Fisher Fms. The flood of detrital zircons with young FT ages in the TF marks the abrupt change from a nearby Klamath source for the UG beds to a distant, easterly TF source in a recently uplifted plutonic-metamorphic terrane.

  3. Arthroplasty Utilization in the United States is Predicted by Age-Specific Population Groups.

    PubMed

    Bashinskaya, Bronislava; Zimmerman, Ryan M; Walcott, Brian P; Antoci, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common indication for hip and knee arthroplasty. An accurate assessment of current trends in healthcare utilization as they relate to arthroplasty may predict the needs of a growing elderly population in the United States. First, incidence data was queried from the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1993 to 2009. Patients undergoing total knee and hip arthroplasty were identified. Then, the United States Census Bureau was queried for population data from the same study period as well as to provide future projections. Arthroplasty followed linear regression models with the population group >64 years in both hip and knee groups. Projections for procedure incidence in the year 2050 based on these models were calculated to be 1,859,553 cases (hip) and 4,174,554 cases (knee). The need for hip and knee arthroplasty is expected to grow significantly in the upcoming years, given population growth predictions.

  4. Presence of the dinosaur Scelidosaurus indicates Jurassic age for the Kayenta Formation (Glen Canyon Group, northern Arizona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padian, Kevin

    1989-05-01

    The Glen Canyon Group (Moenave, Wingate, Kayenta and Navajo Formations) of northern Arizona represents an extensive outcrop of early Mesozoic age terrestrial sediments. The age of these formations has long been disputed because independent stratigraphic data from marine tie-ins, paleobotanical and palynological evidence, and radiometric calibrations have been scanty or absent. The fauna of the Kayenta Formation in particular has been problematic because it has appeared to contain both typical Late Triassic and Early Jurassic taxa Here I report that the principal evidence for Late Triassic taxa, dermal scutes previously assigned to an aetosaur, in fact belongs to the thyreophoran ornithischian dinosaur Scelidosaurus, previously known only as a washed-in form found in marine sediments in the Early Jurassic of England. The presence of this dinosaur represents the first vertebrate biostratigraphic tie-in of the Glen Canyon Group horizons with reliably dated marine deposits in Europe. Together with revised systematic assessments of other vertebrates and independent evidence from fossil pollen, it supports an Early Jurassic age for the Kayenta Formation and most or all of the Glen Canyon Group.

  5. Validation of wet mount microscopy against Trichomonas culture among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Banneheke, H; Fernandopulle, R; Gunasekara, U; Barua, A; Fernando, N; Wickremasinghe, R

    2015-06-01

    Wet mount microscopy is the most commonly used diagnostic method for trichomoniasis in clinical diagnostic services all over the world including Sri Lanka due to its availability, simplicity and is relatively inexpensive. However, Trichomonas culture and PCR are the gold standard tests. Unfortunately, neither the culture nor PCR is available for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis in Sri Lanka. Thus, it is important to validate the wet mount microscopy as it is the only available diagnostic test and has not been validated to date in Sri Lanka. The objective was to evaluate the validity and reliability of wet mount microscopy against gold standard Trichomonas culture among clinic based population of reproductive age group women in Western province, Sri Lanka. Women attending hospital and institutional based clinics were enrolled. They were interviewed and high vaginal swabs were taken for laboratory diagnosis by culture and wet mount microscopy. There were 601 participants in the age group of 15-45 years. Wet mount microscopy showed 68% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive (PPV) and 98% negative predictive values (NPV) (P=0.001, kappa=0.803) respectively against the gold standard culture. The area under the ROC curve was 0.840. Sensitivity of wet mount microscopy is low. However it has high validity and reliability as a specific diagnostic test for trichomoniasis. If it is to be used among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka, a culture method could be adopted as a second test to confirm the negative wet mount for symptomatic patients.

  6. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy in pediatric age group: Assessment of effectiveness and complications

    PubMed Central

    Ozden, Ender; Mercimek, Mehmet Necmettin

    2016-01-01

    Management of kidney stone disease in pediatric population is a challenging condition in urology practice. While the incidence of kidney stone is increasing in those group, technological innovations have conrtibuted to the development of minimally invasive treatment of urinary stone disease such as mini-percutenous nephrolitotomy (mini-PCNL), micro-PCNL, ultra mini-PCNL. In this review we tried to evaluate the effect of new teratment techniques on pediatric kidney stones. PMID:26788467

  7. Long-term (60-month) results for the implantable miniature telescope: efficacy and safety outcomes stratified by age in patients with end-stage age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, David; Freund, K Bailey; Regillo, Carl; Levy, Marc H; Garg, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of an implantable miniature telescope (IMT) in patients with bilateral, end-stage, age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A prospective, open-label, multicenter clinical trial with fellow eye controls enrolled 217 patients (mean age 76 years) with AMD and moderate-to-profound bilateral central visual acuity loss (20/80–20/800) resulting from untreatable geographic atrophy, disciform scars, or both. A subgroup analysis was performed with stratification for age (patient age 65 to <75 years [group 1; n=70] and patient age ≥75 years [group 2; n=127]), with a comparative evaluation of change in best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA), quality of life, ocular complications from surgery, adverse events, and endothelial cell density (ECD). Follow-up in an extension study was 60 months. Results Data were available for 22, 38, and 31 patients in group 1 and 42, 46, and 32 patients in group 2 at 36, 48, and 60 months, respectively. Mean BCDVA improvement from baseline to 60 months was 2.41±2.69 lines in all patients (n=76), with 2.64±2.55 lines in group 1 and 2.09±2.88 lines in group 2. Quality of life scores were significantly higher in group 1. The most common significant surgery-related ocular complications in group 1 were iritis >30 days after surgery (7/70; 10%) and persistent corneal edema (3/70; 4.3%); and in group 2 were a decrease in BCDVA in the implanted eye or IMT removal (10/127 each; 7.9%), corneal edema >30 days after surgery (9/127; 7.1%), and persistent corneal edema (6/127; 4.7%). Significant adverse events included four corneal transplants, comprising two (2.9%) in group 1 and two (1.6%) in group 2. At 60 months, one patient in group 1 (3.2%) and three patients in group 2 (9.4%) had lost ≥2 lines of vision. The IMT was removed in one (1.4%) and ten (7.9%) patients in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Mean ECD loss was 20% at 3 months. Chronic loss was 3% per

  8. The Spatio-temporal Distribution of Japanese Encephalitis Cases in Different Age Groups in Mainland China, 2004 – 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huanyu; Song, Miao; Li, Minghua; Fu, Shihong; Lv, Zhi; He, Ying; Lei, Wenwen; Wang, Bin; Lu, Xiaoqing; Liang, Guodong

    2016-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis (JE) is very prevalent in China, but the incidence of JE among children has been greatly reduced by extensive promotion of vaccinations. The incidence of JE among adults, however, has increased in some parts of China. Methods/Principal Findings Data on JE in mainland China, in terms of incidence, gender, and age, were collected between 2004 and 2014. We conducted spatial and temporal analyses on data from different age groups. Generally, children aged 0–15 years still represent the major population of JE cases in China, despite the gradual decrease in incidence over years. However, the incidence of JE among adults in several provinces is notably higher than the national average, especially during the epidemic waves in 2006, 2009, and 2013. The JE cases in the 0–15-year-old group are distributed mainly in the area south of the Yangtze River, with peak incidence occurring from July to September. In the adult group, especially for those over 40 years old, the JE cases are concentrated mainly in the area north of the Yangtze River. JE incidence in the adult group in September and October is significantly greater compared to the other groups. Further analysis using Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) reveals that the distribution of adult JE cases in the six provinces north of the Yangtze River, between north 30–35° latitude and east 110–130° longitude, is a hotspot for adult JE cases. Conclusions/Significance The rate of JE case increase for adults is much greater than for children and has become a public health issue. Therefore, studies on the necessity and feasibility of vaccinating adults who live in JE-endemic areas, but have never been vaccinated for JE, should become a new focus of JE prevention in the future. PMID:27050414

  9. Pancreatoblastoma an Unusual Occurrence of a Tumour in Paediatric Age Group: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Halder, Pankaj; Mukhopadhyay, Bedabrata; Das, Chhanda; Mukhopadhyay, Madhumita

    2016-03-01

    Pancreatoblastoma, is rare exocrine malignant tumour of childhood. We are reporting a case of three-year-old child presented to our hospital suffering from vague abdominal pain for further examination and treatment. Clinical examination revealed only a palpable abdominal mass. CT Scan revealed a huge complex space occupying lesion 9.1x8.8x9.2cm with large central cystic degeneration and lobulated enhancing peripheral solid components with foci of calcification, seem to arise from body and tail regions of pancreas. Surgery was done and mass was removed. By histopathology and immunohistochemistry it was diagnosed as pancreatoblastoma. The prognosis is very good in paediatric age, lacking evidence of metastatic disease at first presentation. Therefore early diagnosis is needed for specific treatment. The case is being reported because of its rarity. PMID:27134883

  10. [Vertebral trabecular bone in various age groups and in osteoporosis-- morphometry and bone matrix biochemistry].

    PubMed

    Diebold, J; Bätge, B; Stein, H; Müller, P K; Löhrs, U

    1990-01-01

    Vertebral trabecular bone was analysed by morphometry and bone matrix biochemistry. Trabecular bone volume (TBV) and mean trabecular plate thickness (MTPT) decreased with age. TBV was significantly correlated with MTPT and mean trabecular plate density (MTPD). The individual structure of trabecular bone could be described by both MTPT and MTPD together, but changes of these parameters, that were pathognomonic for osteopenia, were not found. By measuring TBV 3 cases of severe osteopenia were identified (TBV less than 2s of controls); 2 of them showed matrix abnormalities so far not described. In one case (a 67 year old woman without risk factors for osteoporosis) an abnormal high content of type III collagen was found, in the other case (a 44 year old woman with acromegaly) bone matrix analysis atypically revealed a significant fraction of type II collagen. Further studies will be needed to assess the pathogenetic or diagnostic importance of these new findings.

  11. Internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: findings in the pediatric age group

    SciTech Connect

    Katzberg, R.W.; Tallents, R.H.; Hayakawa, K.; Miller, T.L.; Goske, M.J.; Wood, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    Findings in 31 pediatric patients with pain and dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are reported. The average age was 14 years and the average duration of symptoms was 21.4 months. Internal derangements were found in 29 patients (94%) and degenerative arthritis in 13 (42%). In 12 patients (39%), the problem could be traced to an injury to the jaw. Secondary condylar hypoplasia was associated with the meniscal abnormality in 3 patients (10%). Further awareness of internal derangements of the TMJ in the pediatric population should permit greater recognition of their etiology. It is important that threatment be initiated as soon as possible, not only to minimize the development of osseous disease in young adults but also to prevent facial growth deformities.

  12. Comparison on three classification techniques for sex estimation from the bone length of Asian children below 19 years old: an analysis using different group of ages.

    PubMed

    Darmawan, M F; Yusuf, Suhaila M; Kadir, M R Abdul; Haron, H

    2015-02-01

    Sex estimation is used in forensic anthropology to assist the identification of individual remains. However, the estimation techniques tend to be unique and applicable only to a certain population. This paper analyzed sex estimation on living individual child below 19 years old using the length of 19 bones of left hand applied for three classification techniques, which were Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) multilayer perceptron. These techniques were carried out on X-ray images of the left hand taken from an Asian population data set. All the 19 bones of the left hand were measured using Free Image software, and all the techniques were performed using MATLAB. The group of age "16-19" years old and "7-9" years old were the groups that could be used for sex estimation with as their average of accuracy percentage was above 80%. ANN model was the best classification technique with the highest average of accuracy percentage in the two groups of age compared to other classification techniques. The results show that each classification technique has the best accuracy percentage on each different group of age. PMID:25540897

  13. [FEATURES OF CONSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUNG MALES AGED OF 17-20 YEARS, NATIVES OF THE BAIKAL REGION WITH REGARD TO THEIR FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Kolokoltsev, M M

    2016-01-01

    The study of somatotypes of the constitution is an important point in planning of the improvements of measures among the population in various regions of Russia. The purpose of the work was to reveal features of age dynamics of somatotypes of the constitution in students of youthful age of the Baikal Region by means of somatotyping according to scheme by Nikityuk B. A. and Kozlova A.I (1990) with taking into account their functional group of health. There were examined 1286 Slavic young males, natives of the Irkutsk region, aged of 17-20 years, from them, according to data of the medical examination 996 were referred to the 1st (main) and 290--to the 2nd (preparatory) functional group of health for physical exercises. There were established significant differences in somatotypes of the constitution in young men of the 1st and 2nd functional groups of health. In both functional groups there is noted a significant amount of young males with transitional somatotypes that testifies to incompleteness of growth processes of their organism. The obtained results of a somatotyping are used in the educational process for a training individualization on physical culture of students of IRGTU, and also in construction of independent physical--improving programs.

  14. [FEATURES OF CONSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUNG MALES AGED OF 17-20 YEARS, NATIVES OF THE BAIKAL REGION WITH REGARD TO THEIR FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF HEALTH].

    PubMed

    Kolokoltsev, M M

    2016-01-01

    The study of somatotypes of the constitution is an important point in planning of the improvements of measures among the population in various regions of Russia. The purpose of the work was to reveal features of age dynamics of somatotypes of the constitution in students of youthful age of the Baikal Region by means of somatotyping according to scheme by Nikityuk B. A. and Kozlova A.I (1990) with taking into account their functional group of health. There were examined 1286 Slavic young males, natives of the Irkutsk region, aged of 17-20 years, from them, according to data of the medical examination 996 were referred to the 1st (main) and 290--to the 2nd (preparatory) functional group of health for physical exercises. There were established significant differences in somatotypes of the constitution in young men of the 1st and 2nd functional groups of health. In both functional groups there is noted a significant amount of young males with transitional somatotypes that testifies to incompleteness of growth processes of their organism. The obtained results of a somatotyping are used in the educational process for a training individualization on physical culture of students of IRGTU, and also in construction of independent physical--improving programs. PMID:27430074

  15. An Antioxidant Dietary Supplement Improves Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Serum of Aged Dogs: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Sechi, Sara; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Spissu, Nicoletta; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Canello, Sergio; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Fiore, Filippo; Cocco, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Biological aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage and decreased endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms. The production of oxidants by normal metabolism damages proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, which may contribute to cognitive impairment. In this study 36 dogs were randomly divided into four groups and fed croquettes of different compositions for 6 months. We monitored derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels in dogs' plasma samples as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels at the beginning and at the end of the dietary regime. Our results showed that a dietary regime, enriched with antioxidants, induced a significant decrease of plasma levels of dROMs (p < 0.005) and a significant increase in BDNF serum levels (p < 0.005) after six months. Thus, we hypothesized a possible role of the diet in modulating pro- and antioxidant species as well as BDNF levels in plasma and serum, respectively. In conclusion the proposed diet enriched with antioxidants might be considered a valid alternative and a valuable strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline in elderly dogs. PMID:26464952

  16. Sex-specific age associations of ankle proprioception test performance in older adults: results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Seung-Uk; Simonsick, Eleanor; Deshpande, Nandini; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: this study was aimed to test the hypothesis that ankle proprioception assessed by custom-designed proprioception testing equipment changes with ageing in men and women. Methods: ankle proprioception was assessed in 289 participants (131 women) of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA); the participants aged 51–95 years and were blinded during testing. Results: the average minimum perceived ankle rotation was 1.11° (SE = 0.07) in women and 1.00° (SE = 0.06) in men, and it increased with ageing in both sexes (P < 0.001, for both). Ankle tracking performance, which is the ability to closely follow with the left ankle, a rotational movement induced on the right ankle by a torque motor, declines with ageing in both men and women (P = 0.018 and P = 0.011, respectively). Conclusions: a simple, standardised method for assessing ankle proprioception was introduced in this study using a customized test instrument, software and test protocol. Age-associated reduction in ankle proprioception was confirmed from two subtests of threshold and tracking separately for women and men. Findings in this study prompt future studies to determine whether these age-associated differences in the threshold for passive motion detection and movement tracking are evident in longitudinal study and how these specific deficits in ankle proprioception are related to age-associated chronic conditions such as knee or hip osteoarthritis and type II diabetes and affect daily activities such as gait. PMID:25637144

  17. Inequality of Experience of Dental Caries between Different Ethnic Groups of Brazilians Aged 15 to 19 Years

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Methods Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Results Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24–1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02–3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Conclusions Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education

  18. [Typing of group A streptococci isolated from urban population of different social status and age].

    PubMed

    Riapis, L A; Briko, N I; Dmitrieva, N F; Eshchina, A S; Pronskiĭ, A V; Filatov, N N; Ivanenko, A V; Salova, N Ia; Sizykh, E V; Pavlovskiĭ, S S; Skorkina, Iu A; Trofimov, D Iu; Kirillov, M Iu; Sobolev, V I

    2007-01-01

    Pulse-electrophoresis, sequencing of emm genes coding protein M and PCR analysis of speA, speB, and speC genes were used for characterization of group A streptococci (GAS) isolated in different years in Moscow and Tuapse mostly from children and military staff. It has been shown that epidemic process of streptococcal infection caused by GAS in Moscow is based on circulation of many independent clones of Streptococcus pyogenes. Obtained data on complex typing of S. pyogenes would be useful for study of molecular epidemiology of diseases caused by GAS and improvement of epidemiologic surveillance.

  19. Job-loss and morbidity in a group of employees nearing retirement age.

    PubMed

    Beale, N; Nethercott, S

    1986-06-01

    As part of a study of the morbidity of a group of workers made redundant from a meat products factory, the health of employees nearing retirement has been investigated. Consultations, episodes of illness and referrals to and attendances at hospital outpatient departments were recorded annually as the indices of morbidity. With the threat of redundancy a significant increase in morbidity was noted for the male employees but not for the female employees. It is suggested that these men adapt less easily to redundancy than the women.

  20. BMI, Overweight Status and Obesity Adjusted by Various Factors in All Age Groups in the Population of a City in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ataíde Lima, Raquel Patrícia; de Carvalho Pereira, Danielle; Cristhine Pordeus Luna, Rafaella; Rodrigues Gonçalves, Maria da Conceição; Teixeira de Lima, Roberto; Batista Filho, Malaquias; Gouveia Filizola, Rosália; de Moraes, Ronei Marcos; Rios Asciutti, Luiza Sonia; de Carvalho Costa, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In Brazil, demographic, socioeconomic and epidemiological changes over time have led to a transition in nutritional standards, resulting in a gradual reduction of malnutrition and an increased prevalence of overweight and obese individuals, similar to the situation in developed countries in previous decades. This study assessed the body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of an overweight status and obesity, adjusted for various factors, in a population in northeastern Brazil including all age groups. Methods: This is a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study using single sampling procedure composed of levels. Given the heterogeneity of the variable “income” and the relationship between income, prevalence of diseases and nutrition, a stratified sampling on blocks in the first level was used. In this, city districts were classified by income into 10 strata, according to information obtained from IBGE. A systematic sampling was applied on randomly selected blocks in order to choose the residences that would be part of the sample (second level), including 1165 participants from all age groups. Results and Discussion: The prevalence of an overweight status or obesity was adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle variables. When the Chi-square test was applied, a relationship was observed between the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity and the age group, gender, educational level and income of the participants. Regarding lifestyle parameters, only smoking was associated with the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity, in both adults and in the total sample. The results for the following groups were significant (p < 0.05): the age group from 20 to 59 years, when the individual presented an educational level greater than or equal to high school; and the age group ≥ 60 years, when the individual was female. It is noteworthy that educational level and being female were significant in adjusting for the total

  1. Patch test results with the metalworking fluid series of the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG).

    PubMed

    Geier, Johannes; Lessmann, Holger; Dickel, Heinrich; Frosch, Peter J; Koch, Patrick; Becker, Detlef; Jappe, Uta; Aberer, Werner; Schnuch, Axel; Uter, Wolfgang

    2004-09-01

    Based on the information of the interdisciplinary task force on allergy diagnostics in the metal branch, in 2001, the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG) compiled two metalworking fluid (MWF) test series with currently and previously used components, respectively. After 2 years of patch testing, we present results obtained with these series, based on data of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK). 251 metalworkers who were patch tested because of suspected MWF dermatitis in 2002 and 2003 were included in this retrospective data analysis. Of these, 206 were tested with the current MWF series and 155 with the historical MWF series. Among the current MWF allergens, monoethanolamine ranked 1st with 11.6% positive reactions. Diethanolamine (3.0%), triethanolamine (1.1%), and diglycolamine (1.9%) elicited positive reactions far less frequently. Allergic reactions to p-aminoazobenzene were frequently observed (6.0%), but the relevance of these reactions is still obscure. Positive reactions to biocides ranged from 4.5% for Bioban CS 1135 to 0.5% for iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and 2-phenoxyethanol. Concomitant reactions to formaldehyde, which caused positive reactions in 3.3%, and formaldehyde releasers occurred to varying extents without conclusive pattern. No positive reactions were seen to dibutyl phthalate, di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, tricresyl phosphate, isopropyl myristate or benzotriazole. With the historical MWF test series, positive reactions to methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN) were observed most frequently. However, sensitization via allergen sources other than MWF seems likely, as MDBGN, during the study period, has been one of the most frequent preservative allergens in cosmetics and body care products. Other historical MWF allergens comprised morpholinyl mercaptobenzothiazole (3.3%), benzisothiazolinone (BIT; 2.0%) and Bioban P 1487(1.3%). BIT is currently used in MWF again, so it was shifted to the current MWF test series

  2. Immigrant Children's Age at Arrival and Assessment Results. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Anthony; Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina

    2012-01-01

    While a number of single-country studies have been done to explore whether or not there is a "critical age" at which the arrival in a new country becomes a steep disadvantage to the immigrant student, this study aims to determine whether the steepness of the age-at-arrival/test score profile varies across origin or destination countries. As…

  3. Social Work Faculty's Knowledge of Aging: Results from a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Donna S.; Chonody, Jill M.; Krase, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Social work students have reported in previous studies that they receive insufficient coursework and training to work effectively with older adults. A critical factor in these deficiencies may be the level of knowledge of social work faculty. This study sought to assess social work faculty's knowledge of aging using the Knowledge of Aging for…

  4. Motion Analysis of Match Play in New Zealand U13 to U15 Age-Group Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Atan, Siti A; Foskett, Andrew; Ali, Ajmol

    2016-09-01

    Atan, SA, Foskett, A, and Ali, A. Motion analysis of match play in New Zealand U13 to U15 age-group soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2416-2423, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate motion analysis in 85 players (U13-U15 years) from Auckland's Metropolitan League during 2 competitive soccer matches. Five-Hz global positioning system (with interpolated 10-Hz output) units were used to measure total distance (absolute and relative) and time spent in standing, walking, low-intensity running, medium-intensity running, high-intensity running, and sprinting. Speed thresholds for each match activity were determined through mean 10-m flying sprint peak speed for each age group. Under 15 years (U15, 6600 ± 1480 m) covered more absolute distance because of longer playing time than under 14 years (U14, 5385 ± 1296 m, p = 0.001) and under 13 years (U13, 4516 ± 702.6 m, p = 0.001). However, there were no differences in relative distances covered (U15, 94.5 ± 11.2 m·min, U14, 96.1 ± 11.9 m·min, U15, 97.3 ± 17.6 m·min, p = 0.685). Maximum speed attained during the match was faster for U15 (26.5 ± 1.68 km·h) than U14 (25.4 ± 1.93 km·h, p = 0.022) and U13 (23.5 ± 1.74 km·h, p = 0.001); there were no differences in average distance per sprint, with all age groups covering ∼16 m per sprint (p = 0.603). The current findings provide useful information for developing specific training programs for young soccer players and a framework for developing age-specific soccer simulation protocols. PMID:26808854

  5. Comparisons of the galaxy age, stellar velocity dispersion and K-band luminosity distributions between grouped galaxies and isolated ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ping; Deng, Xin-Fa

    2016-02-01

    In two volume-limited Main galaxy samples of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10), we compare the age, stellar velocity dispersion and K-band luminosity distributions of grouped galaxies with those of isolated galaxies, to explore the environmental dependence of these properties of galaxies. It is found that grouped galaxies have preferentially larger stellar velocity dispersions and are preferentially older than isolated galaxies. We also note apparent difference of K-band luminosity distribution at both extremes of density in the luminous volume-limited Main galaxy sample: grouped galaxies are preferentially more luminous than isolated galaxies, while this difference in the faint volume-limited Main galaxy sample is very small.

  6. A FUNCTIONAL GROUP CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC PM 2.5 EXPOSURE: RESULTS FROM THE RIOPA STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The functional group (FG) composition of urban residential outdoor, indoor, and personal fine particle (PM2.5) samples is presented and used to provide insights relevant to organic PM2.5 exposure. PM2.5 samples (48 h) were collected during the Rel...

  7. Using Qualitative Observation To Document Group Processes in Accelerated Schools Training: Techniques and Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Katherine; Batten, Constance

    This paper describes the use of qualitative observation techniques for gathering and analyzing data related to group processes during an Accelerated Schools Model training session. The purposes for this research were to observe the training process in order better to facilitate present continuation and future training, to develop questions for…

  8. Indian Youth Speak about Tobacco: Results of Focus Group Discussions with School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Arima; Arora, Monika; Stigler, Melissa H.; Komro, Kelli A.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the findings of Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) that were conducted as a formative assessment for Project MYTRI (Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives in India), a randomized, multicomponent, school-based trial to prevent and control tobacco use among youth in India. Forty-eight FGDs were conducted with students (N…

  9. Pursuing Goals with Others: Group Identification and Motivation Resulting from Things Done versus Things Left Undone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbach, Ayelet; Henderson, Marlone D.; Koo, Minjung

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses what factors best motivate individuals to work toward shared goals. We propose that when individuals do not identify highly with a group, their contributions will mimic others': An emphasis on things done will increase their contributions toward achieving a goal, because such emphasis suggests the goal is worth pursuing.…

  10. ArtBreak Group Counseling for Children: Framework, Practice Points, and Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziff, Katherine; Ivers, Nathaniel N.; Shaw, Edward G.

    2016-01-01

    Child social/emotional development and mitigation of child stress are receiving continued emphasis in the literature. While choice-based group art studios have a long association with mental health, documentation on their potential for supporting children is limited. This article describes an elementary school counseling intervention designed to…

  11. Integrated Analysis and Visualization of Group Differences in Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity: Applications in Typical Ageing and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Langen, Carolyn D; White, Tonya; Ikram, M Arfan; Vernooij, Meike W; Niessen, Wiro J

    2015-01-01

    Structural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uni- and bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of significantly different connections comparing multiple metrics are presented. On the global level, "bi-modal comparison plots" show the distribution of uni- and bi-modal group differences and the relationship between structure and function. Differences between brain lobes are visualized using "worm plots". Group differences in connections are examined with an existing visualization, the "connectogram". These visualizations were evaluated in two proof-of-concept studies: (1) middle-aged versus elderly subjects; and (2) patients with schizophrenia versus controls. Each included two measures derived from diffusion weighted images and two from functional magnetic resonance images. The structural measures were minimum cost path between two anatomical regions according to the "Statistical Analysis of Minimum cost path based Structural Connectivity" method and the average fractional anisotropy along the fiber. The functional measures were Pearson's correlation and partial correlation of mean regional time series. The relationship between structure and function was similar in both studies. Uni-modal group differences varied greatly between connectivity types. Group differences were identified in both studies globally, within brain lobes and between regions. In the aging study, minimum cost path was highly effective in identifying group differences on all levels; fractional anisotropy and mean correlation showed smaller differences on the brain lobe and regional levels. In the schizophrenia study, minimum cost path and fractional anisotropy showed differences on the global level and within brain lobes; mean correlation showed small differences on the lobe level. Only fractional anisotropy

  12. Integrated Analysis and Visualization of Group Differences in Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity: Applications in Typical Ageing and Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Langen, Carolyn D; White, Tonya; Ikram, M Arfan; Vernooij, Meike W; Niessen, Wiro J

    2015-01-01

    Structural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uni- and bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of significantly different connections comparing multiple metrics are presented. On the global level, "bi-modal comparison plots" show the distribution of uni- and bi-modal group differences and the relationship between structure and function. Differences between brain lobes are visualized using "worm plots". Group differences in connections are examined with an existing visualization, the "connectogram". These visualizations were evaluated in two proof-of-concept studies: (1) middle-aged versus elderly subjects; and (2) patients with schizophrenia versus controls. Each included two measures derived from diffusion weighted images and two from functional magnetic resonance images. The structural measures were minimum cost path between two anatomical regions according to the "Statistical Analysis of Minimum cost path based Structural Connectivity" method and the average fractional anisotropy along the fiber. The functional measures were Pearson's correlation and partial correlation of mean regional time series. The relationship between structure and function was similar in both studies. Uni-modal group differences varied greatly between connectivity types. Group differences were identified in both studies globally, within brain lobes and between regions. In the aging study, minimum cost path was highly effective in identifying group differences on all levels; fractional anisotropy and mean correlation showed smaller differences on the brain lobe and regional levels. In the schizophrenia study, minimum cost path and fractional anisotropy showed differences on the global level and within brain lobes; mean correlation showed small differences on the lobe level. Only fractional anisotropy

  13. Integrated Analysis and Visualization of Group Differences in Structural and Functional Brain Connectivity: Applications in Typical Ageing and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Langen, Carolyn D.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Vernooij, Meike W.

    2015-01-01

    Structural and functional brain connectivity are increasingly used to identify and analyze group differences in studies of brain disease. This study presents methods to analyze uni- and bi-modal brain connectivity and evaluate their ability to identify differences. Novel visualizations of significantly different connections comparing multiple metrics are presented. On the global level, “bi-modal comparison plots” show the distribution of uni- and bi-modal group differences and the relationship between structure and function. Differences between brain lobes are visualized using “worm plots”. Group differences in connections are examined with an existing visualization, the “connectogram”. These visualizations were evaluated in two proof-of-concept studies: (1) middle-aged versus elderly subjects; and (2) patients with schizophrenia versus controls. Each included two measures derived from diffusion weighted images and two from functional magnetic resonance images. The structural measures were minimum cost path between two anatomical regions according to the “Statistical Analysis of Minimum cost path based Structural Connectivity” method and the average fractional anisotropy along the fiber. The functional measures were Pearson’s correlation and partial correlation of mean regional time series. The relationship between structure and function was similar in both studies. Uni-modal group differences varied greatly between connectivity types. Group differences were identified in both studies globally, within brain lobes and between regions. In the aging study, minimum cost path was highly effective in identifying group differences on all levels; fractional anisotropy and mean correlation showed smaller differences on the brain lobe and regional levels. In the schizophrenia study, minimum cost path and fractional anisotropy showed differences on the global level and within brain lobes; mean correlation showed small differences on the lobe level. Only

  14. Decreased Polycystin 2 Levels Result in Non-Renal Cardiac Dysfunction with Aging.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ivana Y; Duong, Sophie L; Nguyen, Lily; Ehrlich, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the gene for polycystin 2 (Pkd2) lead to polycystic kidney disease, however the main cause of mortality in humans is cardiac related. We previously showed that 5 month old Pkd2+/- mice have altered calcium-contractile activity in cardiomyocytes, but have preserved cardiac function. Here, we examined 1 and 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice to determine if decreased amounts of functional polycystin 2 leads to impaired cardiac function with aging. We observed changes in calcium handling proteins in 1 month old Pkd2+/- mice, and these changes were exacerbated in 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice. Anatomically, the 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice had thinner left ventricular walls, consistent with dilated cardiomyopathy, and the left ventricular ejection fraction was decreased. Intriguingly, in response to acute isoproterenol stimulation to examine β-adrenergic responses, the 9 month old Pkd2+/- mice exhibited a stronger contractile response, which also coincided with preserved localization of the β2 adrenergic receptor. Importantly, the Pkd2+/- mice did not have any renal impairment. We conclude that the cardiac-related impact of decreased polycystin 2 progresses over time towards cardiac dysfunction and altered adrenergic signaling. These results provide further evidence that polycystin 2 provides a critical function in the heart, independent of renal involvement. PMID:27081851

  15. The moderating role of age-group identification and perceived threat on stereotype threat among older adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sonia K; Chasteen, Alison L

    2009-01-01

    Although research has shown that older adults are negatively affected by aging stereotypes, relatively few studies have attempted to identify those older adults who may be especially susceptible to these effects. The current research takes steps toward identifying older adults most susceptible to the effects of stereotype threat and investigates the consequence of stereotype threat on the well-being of older adults. Older adults were tested on their recall of a prose passage under normal or stereotype threatening conditions. Memory decrements for those in the threat condition were moderated by perceived stereotype threat such that greater decrements were seen for those who reported greater perceived threat. A similar pattern was observed for negative emotion, such that those in the threat condition who reported higher perceptions of threat experienced a greater decrease in positive emotions. Age group identification also proved to be an important factor, with the strongly identified performing worse than the weakly identified. As well, high age-group identification buffered some of the negative affective consequences associated with stereotype threat, which is consistent with some models of coping with stigma.

  16. New Paleomagnetic Results and Inclination Correction for the Carboniferous Conemaugh Group rocks, Southwestern Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, K. P.

    2004-05-01

    In order to check the inclination correction of the Carboniferous Mauch Chunk Formation red beds made by Tan and Kodama [2002], the Carboniferous Buffalo Siltstone and Brush Creek Limestone (Conemaugh Group) from southwestern Pennsylvania were sampled so that an inclination correction could be applied to these magnetite-bearing rocks. Paleopoles from the Buffalo Siltstone (BS) and Brush Creek Limestone (BCL) were previously reported by Payne et al. [1981]. Twenty-eight oriented hand samples were collected from 5 of Payne et al.'s 6 sites, predominately from clastic lithologies. A combination of low temperature thermal demagnetization (up to 200° C) followed by alternating field demagnetization (up to 50 mT) allowed characteristic remanences to be isolated in a majority of the samples. A mean direction for 21 samples from 5 sites of D=170.9° , I=23.4° , K=14.0 yielded an uncorrected paleopole at 36.6° N, 111.1° E, closer to the BCL paleopole (36.1° N, 124.3° E) than the BS paleopole (27.4° N, 123.0° E) of Payne et al. In order to make the inclination correction using the anisotropy of anhysteretic remanence (AAR) of the samples, we estimated the individual particle anisotropy (a), by fitting corrected directions to theoretical correction curves as a function of individual particle anisotropy. The best fit suggests an individual particle anisotropy (a value) of about 1.5 should be used; however, the corrected directions have a strongly elliptical distribution. Assuming that a circular distribution of directions would be closer to that caused by random errors in measurement and orientation, a correction using a=2 was made because it gives both an acceptable fit to the theoretical correction curves and a circular directional distribution. The mean corrected direction of D=173.5° , I=42.0° yields a corrected paleopole at 25° N, 106.5° E which agrees remarkably well with a corrected Mauch Chunk Formation paleopole at 26.3° N, 111.2° E. This corrected Mauch

  17. Pursuing goals with others: group identification and motivation resulting from things done versus things left undone.

    PubMed

    Fishbach, Ayelet; Henderson, Marlone D; Koo, Minjung

    2011-08-01

    This article addresses what factors best motivate individuals to work toward shared goals. We propose that when individuals do not identify highly with a group, their contributions will mimic others': An emphasis on things done will increase their contributions toward achieving a goal, because such emphasis suggests the goal is worth pursuing. Conversely, we propose that when individuals identify highly with a group, their contributions will compensate for others': An emphasis on things left undone will increase their own contributions, because missing contributions suggest insufficient progress toward a goal they already consider worthwhile. Five studies lend support to these predictions by measuring contributions to goals centered on idea generation and helping victims of various global disasters (earthquake in Haiti, wildfires in Southern California, rioting in Kenya).

  18. Pursuing goals with others: group identification and motivation resulting from things done versus things left undone.

    PubMed

    Fishbach, Ayelet; Henderson, Marlone D; Koo, Minjung

    2011-08-01

    This article addresses what factors best motivate individuals to work toward shared goals. We propose that when individuals do not identify highly with a group, their contributions will mimic others': An emphasis on things done will increase their contributions toward achieving a goal, because such emphasis suggests the goal is worth pursuing. Conversely, we propose that when individuals identify highly with a group, their contributions will compensate for others': An emphasis on things left undone will increase their own contributions, because missing contributions suggest insufficient progress toward a goal they already consider worthwhile. Five studies lend support to these predictions by measuring contributions to goals centered on idea generation and helping victims of various global disasters (earthquake in Haiti, wildfires in Southern California, rioting in Kenya). PMID:21668127

  19. Analysis of systems hardware flown on LDEF. Results of the systems special investigation group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dursch, Harry W.; Spear, W. Steve; Miller, Emmett A.; Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail L.; Edelman, Joel

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was retrieved after spending 69 months in low Earth orbit (LEO). LDEF carried a remarkable variety of mechanical, electrical, thermal, and optical systems, subsystems, and components. The Systems Special Investigation Group (Systems SIG) was formed to investigate the effects of the long duration exposure to LEO on systems related hardware and to coordinate and collate all systems analysis of LDEF hardware. Discussed here is the status of the LDEF Systems SIG investigation through the end of 1991.

  20. Ureteroscopy in infants and preschool age children: technique and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Mokhless, Ibrahim; Marzouk, Essam; Thabet, Alaa El-Din; Youssif, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We present our experience with the use of semirigid ureteroscopy for the treatment of ureteric stones in children less than or equal to 6 years of age. Material and methods The records of 21 children (12 female, 9 male) with an average age of 4.7 years (range 8 months to 6 years) treated with semirigid ureteroscopy between June 2006 and July 2010 were reviewed. In 13 ureteral units 7Fr semirigid ureteroscopy was carried out in a retrograde manner to treat stone disease, while an adult ureteroscope (9.5 fr) was used in the remaining patients. Stones were located in the upper ureter in 2 cases, middle ureter in 2 cases, and lower ureter in 17 cases. Ureteral dilation was not required in all patients. Results Stone size varied from 4 to 13 mm (mean 6 mm). The management of stones in 18 (90.7%) children was straightforward and a single ureteroscopy was required to clear the ureters. In 2 (6.2%) children, repeat ureteroscopy was undertaken to render the ureters stone free, and in 1 child (3.1%) it was not possible to remove the stone. Stones were fragmented with pneumatic lithotripsy in 12 cases and stones were removed mechanically without fragmentation in the remaining 9 cases. Intraoperative complications occurred in 2 (9.3%) children and included extravasation (1 patient), which was managed with ureteral stenting and stone upward migration (1 patient). Early postoperative complications included pyelonephritis (1 patient). Mean follow-up was 6.4 (3-36) months. Incidence of stricture at the site of stone impaction was not detected in any patients. None of the patients managed without a post-operative stent required subsequent intervention. Conclusions In the hands of an experienced surgeon, ureteroscopy in young children can be a safe and efficient treatment for ureteral stones that can be performed without ureteral dilation. Routine ureteral stenting is not a requirement when the procedure is relatively atraumatic. Further studies and longer follow-up are

  1. Muscle torque and its relation to technique, tactics, sports level and age group in judo contestants.

    PubMed

    Lech, Grzegorz; Chwała, Wiesław; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Sterkowicz, Stanisław

    2015-03-29

    The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of maximal muscle torques at individual stages of development of athletes and to determine the relationship between muscle torques, fighting methods and the level of sports performance. The activity of 25 judo contestants during judo combats and the effectiveness of actions were evaluated. Maximum muscle torques in flexors/extensors of the body trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints were measured. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05; for multiple comparisons the Mann-Whitney U test, p≤0.016, was used. Intergroup differences in relative torques in five muscle groups studied (elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, knee flexors, knee extensors, hip flexors) were not significant. In cadets, relative maximum muscle torques in hip extensors correlated with the activity index (Spearman's r=0.756). In juniors, maximum relative torques in elbow flexors and knee flexors correlated with the activity index (r=0.73 and r=0.76, respectively). The effectiveness of actions correlated with relative maximum torque in elbow extensors (r=0.67). In seniors, the relative maximum muscle torque in shoulder flexors correlated with the activity index during the second part of the combat (r=0.821). PMID:25964820

  2. Muscle Torque and its Relation to Technique, Tactics, Sports Level and Age Group in Judo Contestants

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Grzegorz; Chwała, Wiesław; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Sterkowicz, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of maximal muscle torques at individual stages of development of athletes and to determine the relationship between muscle torques, fighting methods and the level of sports performance. The activity of 25 judo contestants during judo combats and the effectiveness of actions were evaluated. Maximum muscle torques in flexors/extensors of the body trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints were measured. The level of significance was set at p≤0.05; for multiple comparisons the Mann-Whitney U test, p≤0.016, was used. Intergroup differences in relative torques in five muscle groups studied (elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, knee flexors, knee extensors, hip flexors) were not significant. In cadets, relative maximum muscle torques in hip extensors correlated with the activity index (Spearman’s r=0.756). In juniors, maximum relative torques in elbow flexors and knee flexors correlated with the activity index (r=0.73 and r=0.76, respectively). The effectiveness of actions correlated with relative maximum torque in elbow extensors (r=0.67). In seniors, the relative maximum muscle torque in shoulder flexors correlated with the activity index during the second part of the combat (r=0.821). PMID:25964820

  3. Superoxide Dismutase 1 Loss Disturbs Intracellular Redox Signaling, Resulting in Global Age-Related Pathological Changes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aging is characterized by increased oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and organ dysfunction, which occur in a progressive and irreversible manner. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) serves as a major antioxidant and neutralizes superoxide radicals throughout the body. In vivo studies have demonstrated that copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1−/−) mice show various aging-like pathologies, accompanied by augmentation of oxidative damage in organs. We found that antioxidant treatment significantly attenuated the age-related tissue changes and oxidative damage-associated p53 upregulation in Sod1−/− mice. This review will focus on various age-related pathologies caused by the loss of Sod1 and will discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis in Sod1−/− mice. PMID:25276767

  4. On the age of the Onverwacht Group, Swaziland sequence, South Africa. [radioactive dating of stratified igneous rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, B.-M.; Shih, C.-Y.

    1974-01-01

    Some rocks of the Onverwacht Group, South Africa, have been analyzed for Rb and Sr concentrations and Sr isotopic composition. These rocks include volcanic rocks, layered ultramafic differentiates and cherty sediments. Whole rock data indicate that the Rb-Sr isotopic systems in many samples were open and yield no reasonable isochron relationships. However, the data of mineral separates from a basaltic komatiite define a good isochron of 3.50 (plus or minus .2) b.y. with an initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of 0.70048 plus or minus 5. The orthodox interpretation of this age is the time of the low grade metamorphism. It is reasonable to assume that the age of 3.50 b.y. might also represent the time of initial Onverwacht volcanism and deposition. The initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio obtained above is important to an understanding of the Sr isotopic composition of the Archean upper mantle.

  5. Fluidizing effects of centrophenoxine in vitro on brain and liver membranes from different age groups of mice.

    PubMed

    Wood, W G; Gorka, C; Armbrecht, H J; Williamson, L S; Strong, R

    1986-12-01

    This study examined the effects of different concentrations of centrophenoxine on physical properties of synaptic plasma membranes and liver microsomes using electron spin resonance procedures. Membranes of different age groups of mice were labeled with the 5-doxyl stearic acid spin-label and membrane fluidity determined in the presence and absence of different concentrations of centrophenoxine. Centrophenoxine had a direct effect on membranes as shown by a significant increase in membrane fluidity. This effect was greatest in liver microsomes as compared to synaptic plasma membranes. Age differences were not observed in centrophenoxine-induced fluidization. Effects of centrophenoxine in vivo may be due in part to the drug acting directly on the physical properties of the membrane lipid environment.

  6. The effect of color on the production of responses to Rorschach cards VIII, IX, and X in age groups of 11-12 and 15-16 years.

    PubMed

    Silva, Danilo R; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2014-01-01

    The effect of color on the production of responses to the Rorschach task has been considered by investigators from 2 different positions: (a) that color has little effect on the production of responses, and (b) that color increases the number of responses. Some previous results found by the current investigators have supported the first position for the last 3 fully colored Rorschach cards (VIII, IX, and X), in children from 5 to 12 years old. Other studies of ours, however, have confirmed the second position for these same cards with a group of young adults 17 to 23 years old. As there was no increase of responses up to age 12, for this study we hypothesized a developmental effect in adolescence such that there would be an increase in the production of responses to the colored Rorschach cards at the age of 15 to 16 years, and this is what the results indicate. From a pragmatic standpoint, these results imply a revision of interpretive meaning for the Color and Affective Ratio variables in children's protocols. Our results also indicate that color cannot be regarded as a means of expression of affect at age 11 to 12 like it will be from age 15 to 16 and on. PMID:24456089

  7. Insensitivity of astrocytes to interleukin 10 signaling following peripheral immune challenge results in prolonged microglial activation in the aged brain.

    PubMed

    Norden, Diana M; Trojanowski, Paige J; Walker, Frederick R; Godbout, Jonathan P

    2016-08-01

    Immune-activated microglia from aged mice produce exaggerated levels of cytokines. Despite high levels of microglial interleukin (IL)-10 in the aged brain, neuroinflammation was prolonged and associated with depressive-like deficits. Because astrocytes respond to IL-10 and, in turn, attenuate microglial activation, we investigated if astrocyte-mediated resolution of microglial activation was impaired with age. Here, aged astrocytes had a dysfunctional profile with higher glial fibrillary acidic protein, lower glutamate transporter expression, and significant cytoskeletal re-arrangement. Moreover, aged astrocytes had reduced expression of growth factors and IL-10 receptor-1 (IL-10R1). After in vivo lipopolysaccharide immune challenge, aged astrocytes had a molecular signature associated with reduced responsiveness to IL-10. This IL-10 insensitivity of aged astrocytes resulted in a failure to induce IL-10R1 and transforming growth factor β and resolve microglial activation. In addition, adult astrocytes reduced microglial activation when co-cultured ex vivo, whereas aged astrocytes did not. Consistent with the aging studies, IL-10R(KO) astrocytes did not augment transforming growth factor β after immune challenge and failed to resolve microglial activation. Collectively, a major cytokine-regulatory loop between activated microglia and astrocytes is impaired in the aged brain. PMID:27318131

  8. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different age groups of Danish cattle and pigs--occurrence and management associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Maddox-Hyttel, Charlotte; Langkjaer, Rikke B; Enemark, Heidi L; Vigre, Håkan

    2006-10-10

    To obtain information both about the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Danish cattle and pigs as well as the possible influence of different management systems on the occurrence and intensity of infection, we conducted an epidemiological survey comprising 50 randomly selected dairy and sow herds, respectively. Each herd was visited once for the collection of faecal samples and registration of basic management parameters. Faecal samples were collected from three different age groups of animals, i.e. 5 sows/cows, 10 nursing piglets/calves less than 1 month, and 10 weaner pigs 8-45 kg/calves 1-12 months. The faecal samples were purified and the number of (oo)cysts quantified. The study revealed an age-specific herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 16, 31 and 100% for sows, piglets and weaners, respectively, and of 14, 96 and 84% for cows, young calves and older calves, respectively. For Giardia the age-specific herd prevalence was 18, 22 and 84% for the sows, piglets and weaners, while for cattle herds the prevalence was 60, 82 and 100% for cows, young calves and older calves, correspondingly. The (oo)cyst excretion levels varied considerably both within and between herds for all age groups. Risk factors were evaluated by using proportional odds models with (oo)cyst excretion levels divided into four categories as response. Among the numerous risk factors examined, only a few were demonstrated to have a statistically significant influence, e.g. the use of an empty period in the calf pen between introduction of calves for both parasites had a protective effect in young calves. For weaners, use of straw in the pen and high pressure cleaning between batches of weaners had a preventive effect against higher Cryptosporidium oocyst excretion levels.

  9. HealthWorks: results of a multi-component group-randomized worksite environmental intervention trial for weight gain prevention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background U.S. adults are at unprecedented risk of becoming overweight or obese, and most scientists believe the primary cause is an obesogenic environment. Worksites provide an opportunity to shape the environments of adults to reduce obesity risk. The goal of this group-randomized trial was to implement a four-component environmental intervention at the worksite level to positively influence weight gain among employees over a two-year period. Environmental components focused on food availability and price, physical activity promotion, scale access, and media enhancements. Methods Six worksites in a U.S. metropolitan area were recruited and randomized in pairs at the worksite level to either a two-year intervention or a no-contact control. Evaluations at baseline and two years included: 1) measured height and weight; 2) online surveys of individual dietary intake and physical activity behaviors; and 3) detailed worksite environment assessment. Results Mean participant age was 42.9 years (range 18-75), 62.6% were women, 68.5% were married or cohabiting, 88.6% were white, 2.1% Hispanic. Mean baseline BMI was 28.5 kg/m2 (range 16.9-61.2 kg/m2). A majority of intervention components were successfully implemented. However, there were no differences between sites in the key outcome of weight change over the two-year study period (p = .36). Conclusions Body mass was not significantly affected by environmental changes implemented for the trial. Results raise questions about whether environmental change at worksites is sufficient for population weight gain prevention. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00708461 PMID:22340088

  10. Diaphyseal femoral fractures below the age of six years: Results of plaster application and long term followup

    PubMed Central

    Catena, Nunzio; Sénès, Filippo M; Riganti, Simone; Boero, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Background: In children less than 6 years, the treatment of femoral shaft fracture is often non surgical, using closed reduction and casting. The literature reports many experience about this type of trauma but none of these has a long term followup. We present a retrospective study on a group of femoral diaphyseal fractures treated nonsurgically in children up to 6 years of age, with a minimum of 10 year followup. Materials and Methods: 48 cases (36 males/12 females) with femoral diaphyseal fractures treated between January 1988 and December 1998 were reviewed. Patients with fractures due to obstetrical trauma and pathologic fractures were excluded. The mean age of the patients was 3.3 ± 1.1 years (range 5 months-6 years). Right side was involved in 21 cases (44%), and left side in 27 cases (56%). In 34 cases (71%), closed reduction was performed and hip spica was applied with the hip and knee flexed to 45°. In 8 cases (17%), skeletal traction was applied to perform fracture reduction and the traction pin was embedded in plaster while in the remaining 6 cases (12%), the Delitala pressure apparatus was applied after casting. Results: All fractures healed in our study. There were no complications (infection or vascular nervous issues, axial deviations, consolidation delays, or pseudoarthrosis). In 13 cases (27%), followup examinations showed mean lengthening of 1.3 ± 0.75 (range 0.5-2.5 cm) of the fractured lower limb. All these patients were treated with skin traction before treatment and presented with 2.08 ± 0.28 cm mean initial femoral shortening. In 1 case (2%) with 2.5 cm lengthening, epiphysiodesis of the ipsilateral knee was performed. No patients showed prolonged difficulty with gait disorders. Conclusion: On the basis of our results conservative treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children can be considered less invasive and safe procedure. PMID:24600060

  11. Children's nutrient intake variability is affected by age and body weight status according to results from a Brazilian multicenter study.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Michelle A; Verly, Eliseu; Fisberg, Mauro; Fisberg, Regina M

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in nutritional studies focusing on children is estimating "true" intake because the type and amount of foods eaten change throughout growth and development, thereby affecting the variability of intake. The present study investigated the hypothesis that age and body weight status affect the ratio of the within- and between-subject variation of intakes (VR) as well as the number of days of dietary assessment (D) of energy and nutrients. A total of 2,981 Brazilian preschoolers aged 1-6 years were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. Weighed food records and estimated food records were used to assess dietary intake inside and outside of school. Within- and between-subject variations of intakes were estimated by multilevel regression models. VR and D were calculated according to age group and body weight status. VR ranged from 1.17 (calcium) to 8.70 (fat) in the 1- to 2-year-old group, and from 1.47 (calcium) to 8.95 (fat) in the 3- to 6-year-old group. Fat, fiber, riboflavin, folate, calcium, phosphorus, and iron exhibited greater VR and D in the 3- to 6-year-old group. For energy, carbohydrates, and protein, both within- and between-subject variation increased with increasing age. In both body weight groups, calcium showed the lowest VR. Fat showed the highest VR in nonoverweight/obese children (9.47), and fiber showed the highest VR in overweight/obese children (8.74). For most nutrients, D = 7 was sufficient to correctly rank preschoolers into tertiles of intake. In conclusion, age and body weight status affected the within- and between-subject variation and the VR of energy and nutrient intakes among Brazilian preschool children.

  12. Long-term Results Of the Pediatric Oncology Group Studies For Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 1984-2001: A Report From The Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Salzer, Wanda L.; Devidas, Meenakshi; Carroll, William L.; Winick, Naomi; Pullen, Jeanette; Hunger, Stephen P.; Camitta, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    From 1984-2001, the Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) conducted 12 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) studies. 10-year event free survival (EFS) for patients >12 months of age with B-precursor ALL on Acute Leukemia in Children 14, 15, and 16 series were 66.7 ± 1.2%, 68.1 ± 1.4% and 73.2 ± 2.1%, respectively. Intermediate dose methotrexate (ID MTX; 1 g/m2) improved outcomes for standard risk patients (10-year EFS 77.5 ± 2.7% vs. 66.3 ± 3.1% for oral MTX). Neither MTX intensification (2.5 g/m2) nor addition of cytosine arabinoside/daunomycin/teniposide improved outcomes for higher risk patients. Intermediate dose mercaptopurine (1 g/m2) failed to improve outcomes for either group. 10-year EFS for patients with T-cell ALL, POG 8704 and 9404, were 49.1 ± 3.1% and 72.2 ± 4.7%, respectively. Intensive asparaginase (10-year EFS 61.8% vs 42.7%) and high dose MTX (5 g/m2) (10-year EFS 78.0% vs. 65.8%) improved outcomes. There was a non-significant improvement in EFS for infants (10-year EFS 17.7 ± 7.2% to 31.9 ± 8.3%). Prognostic indicators for B-precursor ALL were age and WBC at diagnosis, gender, central nervous system disease, DNA index, and cytogenetic abnormalities. Only gender was prognostic in T-cell ALL. In infants, WBC and MLL translocation were linked to inferior outcome. PMID:20016527

  13. Effects of gestation and birth weight on the growth and development of very low birthweight small for gestational age infants: a matched group comparison

    PubMed Central

    Gutbrod, T.; Wolke, D.; Soehne, B.; Ohrt, B.; Riegel, K.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate the effects of small for gestational age (SGA) in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants on growth and development until the fifth year of life.
METHODS—VLBW (< 1500 g) infants, selected from a prospective study, were classified as SGA (n = 115) on the basis of birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age and were compared with two groups of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants matched according to birth weight (AGA-BW; n = 115) or gestation at birth (AGA-GA; n = 115). Prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk factors were recorded, and duration and intensity of treatment were computed from daily assessments. Body weight, length, and head circumference were measured at birth, five and 20 months (corrected for prematurity), and at 56 months. General development was assessed at five and 20 months with the Griffiths scale of babies abilities, and cognitive development at 56 months with the Columbia mental maturity scales, a vocabulary (AWST) and language comprehension test (LSVTA).
RESULTS—Significant group differences were found in complications (pregnancy, birth, and neonatal), parity, and multiple birth rate. The AGA-GA group showed most satisfactory growth up to 56 months, with both the AGA-BW and SGA groups lagging behind. The AGA-GA group also scored significantly more highly on all developmental and cognitive tests than the other groups. Developmental test results were similar for the SGA and AGA-BW groups at five and 20 months, but AGA-BW infants (lowest gestation) had lower scores on performance intelligence quotient and language comprehension at 56 months than the SGA group. When prenatal and neonatal complications, parity, and multiple birth were accounted for, group differences in growth remained, but differences in cognitive outcome disappeared after five months.
CONCLUSIONS—Being underweight and with a short gestation (SGA and VLBW) leads to poor weight gain and head growth in infancy but does not

  14. Patient Informed Governance of Distributed Research Networks: Results and Discussion from Six Patient Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, Laura A.; Browe, Dennis K.; Logan, Holly C.; Kim, Katherine K.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients’ views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes. PMID:24551383

  15. Zero/zero rotorcraft certification issues. Volume 3: Working group results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    This report analyzes the Zero/Zero Rotorcraft Certification Issues from the perspectives of manufacturers, operators, researchers and the FAA. The basic premise behind this analysis is that zero/zero, or at least extremely low visibility, rotorcraft operations are feasible today from both a technological and an operational standpoint. The questions and issues that need to be resolved are: What certification requirements do we need to ensure safety. Can we develop procedures which capitalize on the performance and maneuvering capabilities unique to rotorcraft. Will extremely low visibility operations be economically feasible. This is Volume 3 of three. It provides the issue-by-issue deliberations of the experts involved in the Working Groups assigned to deal with them in the Issues Forum.

  16. Malaria problem in Afghanistan: malaria scanning results of the Turkish medical aid group after the war.

    PubMed

    Oner, Yaşar Ali; Okutan, Salih Erkan; Artinyan, Elizabeth; Kocazeybek, Bekir

    2005-04-01

    Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by Plasmodium species and it is especially seen in tropical and subtropical areas. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the infection in Afghanistan, which is an endemic place for malaria and had severe socio-economical lost after the war. We also compared these data with the ones that were recorded before the war. Blood samples were taken from 376 malaria suspected patients who come to the health center, established by the medical group of Istanbul Medical Faculty in 2002, Afghanistan. Blood samples were screened using the OPTIMAL Rapid Malaria Test and Giemsa staining method. In 95 (25.3%) patients diagnosis was malaria. In 65 patients (17.3%) the agent of the infection was P. falciparum and in 30 patients (8%) agents were other Plasmodium species.

  17. Patient informed governance of distributed research networks: results and discussion from six patient focus groups.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Laura A; Browe, Dennis K; Logan, Holly C; Kim, Katherine K

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients' views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes.

  18. Families Matter in Long-Term Care: Results of a Group-Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Sheryl; Cohen, Lauren W; Reed, David; Gwyther, Lisa P; Washington, Tiffany; Cagle, John G; Sloane, Philip D; Preisser, John S

    2013-01-01

    This group-randomized trial implemented and evaluated an intervention to reduce staff burden and improve family and resident outcomes by helping families create meaningful roles for themselves in residential care/assisted living and nursing homes. Across 24 sites, families (N = 490) and staff (N = 397) provided data over six months about family involvement, family and staff well-being and attitudes, and resident quality of life. Intervention subjects participated in workshops and created service plans to identify family roles. For families, the intervention decreased burden and improved resident quality of life but also increased guilt and conflict. Staff reported less burnout and greater partnership with families, and felt families were more empathic. Consequently, there are benefits to increasing family involvement, but attention must be paid to potential barriers and negative outcomes.

  19. The pMSSM Interpretation of LHC Results Using Rernormalization Group Invariants

    SciTech Connect

    Carena, Marcela; Lykken, Joseph; Sekmen, Sezen; Shah, Nausheen R.; Wagner, Carlos E.M.

    2012-10-01

    The LHC has started to constrain supersymmetry-breaking parameters by setting bounds on possible colored particles at the weak scale. Moreover, constraints from Higgs physics, flavor physics, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, as well as from searches at LEP and the Tevatron have set additional bounds on these parameters. Renormalization Group Invariants (RGIs) provide a very useful way of representing the allowed parameter space by making direct connection with the values of these parameters at the messenger scale. Using a general approach, based on the pMSSM parametrization of the soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters, we analyze the current experimental constraints to determine the probability distributions for the RGIs. As examples of their application, we use these distributions to analyze the question of Gaugino Mass Unification and to probabilistically determine the parameters of General and Minimal Gauge Mediation with arbitrary Higgs mass parameters at the Messenger Scale.

  20. Quantitative Amyloid Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer's Disease: Results from the DIAN Study Group.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M; Owen, Christopher J; Christensen, Jon J; Friedrichsen, Karl; Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Wang, Qing; Hornbeck, Russ C; Ances, Beau M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Cash, Lisa A; Koeppe, Robert A; Klunk, William E; Galasko, Douglas; Brickman, Adam M; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M; Thompson, Paul M; Saykin, Andrew J; Ghetti, Bernardino; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A; Salloway, Stephen P; Schofield, Peter R; Masters, Colin L; Villemagne, Victor L; Fox, Nick C; Förster, Stefan; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M; Xiong, Chengjie; Marcus, Daniel S; Weiner, Michael W; Morris, John C; Bateman, Randall J; Benzinger, Tammie L S

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid imaging plays an important role in the research and diagnosis of dementing disorders. Substantial variation in quantitative methods to measure brain amyloid burden exists in the field. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of methodological variations to the quantification of amyloid burden using data from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network (DIAN), an autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease population. Cross-sectional and longitudinal [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging data from the DIAN study were analyzed. Four candidate reference regions were investigated for estimation of brain amyloid burden. A regional spread function based technique was also investigated for the correction of partial volume effects. Cerebellar cortex, brain-stem, and white matter regions all had stable tracer retention during the course of disease. Partial volume correction consistently improves sensitivity to group differences and longitudinal changes over time. White matter referencing improved statistical power in the detecting longitudinal changes in relative tracer retention; however, the reason for this improvement is unclear and requires further investigation. Full dynamic acquisition and kinetic modeling improved statistical power although it may add cost and time. Several technical variations to amyloid burden quantification were examined in this study. Partial volume correction emerged as the strategy that most consistently improved statistical power for the detection of both longitudinal changes and across-group differences. For the autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease population with PiB imaging, utilizing brainstem as a reference region with partial volume correction may be optimal for current interventional trials. Further investigation of technical issues in quantitative amyloid imaging in different study populations using different amyloid imaging tracers is warranted.

  1. Quantitative Amyloid Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer’s Disease: Results from the DIAN Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M.; Owen, Christopher J.; Christensen, Jon J.; Friedrichsen, Karl; Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Wang, Qing; Hornbeck, Russ C.; Ances, Beau M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Cash, Lisa A.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Klunk, William E.; Galasko, Douglas; Brickman, Adam M.; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M.; Thompson, Paul M.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Salloway, Stephen P.; Schofield, Peter R.; Masters, Colin L.; Villemagne, Victor L.; Fox, Nick C.; Förster, Stefan; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M.; Xiong, Chengjie; Marcus, Daniel S.; Weiner, Michael W.; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.; Benzinger, Tammie L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid imaging plays an important role in the research and diagnosis of dementing disorders. Substantial variation in quantitative methods to measure brain amyloid burden exists in the field. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of methodological variations to the quantification of amyloid burden using data from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer’s Network (DIAN), an autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population. Cross-sectional and longitudinal [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging data from the DIAN study were analyzed. Four candidate reference regions were investigated for estimation of brain amyloid burden. A regional spread function based technique was also investigated for the correction of partial volume effects. Cerebellar cortex, brain-stem, and white matter regions all had stable tracer retention during the course of disease. Partial volume correction consistently improves sensitivity to group differences and longitudinal changes over time. White matter referencing improved statistical power in the detecting longitudinal changes in relative tracer retention; however, the reason for this improvement is unclear and requires further investigation. Full dynamic acquisition and kinetic modeling improved statistical power although it may add cost and time. Several technical variations to amyloid burden quantification were examined in this study. Partial volume correction emerged as the strategy that most consistently improved statistical power for the detection of both longitudinal changes and across-group differences. For the autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease population with PiB imaging, utilizing brainstem as a reference region with partial volume correction may be optimal for current interventional trials. Further investigation of technical issues in quantitative amyloid imaging in different study populations using different amyloid imaging tracers is warranted. PMID:27010959

  2. Interaction of oxaliplatin, cisplatin, and carboplatin with hemoglobin and the resulting release of a heme group.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Rupasri; Kalke, Robyn; Li, Xing-Fang

    2004-10-01

    Oxaliplatin, carboplatin, and cisplatin are widely used to treat a number of cancers. While their DNA adducts are believed to cause cell death, the involvement of their protein adducts in the toxicity and action of these drugs is unclear. Here, we report the interactions of hemoglobin (Hb) with the three platinum (Pt) drugs, demonstrating the formation of Hb-Pt complexes and the release of a heme group from Hb. Oxaliplatin (0.05 microM) was able to form three major complexes with Hb (3-10 microM) after 1 h of incubation at room temperature, and these complexes accounted for approximately 60% of the total oxaliplatin. Cisplatin and carboplatin formed one major and two minor complexes only after 24 and 96 h of incubation, respectively. Incubation of these Pt drugs (0.05-10 microM) with whole blood of healthy volunteers and the analysis of red blood cells confirmed the relative ability of these Pt drugs binding to Hb. For the whole blood samples incubated with oxaliplatin and cisplatin for 24 h, only protein complexes were detected in red blood cells, indicating a complete binding of oxaliplatin and cisplatin to the protein. In contrast, carboplatin was partially bound; both the free and the protein-bound carboplatin species were detected in red blood cells. The binding of the Pt drugs to Hb was accompanied by the release of a heme group from Hb, which was monitored by size fractionation, chromatographic separation, and selective detection of both Pt- and iron (Fe)-containing molecular species. The released heme was further identified by size fractionation and nanospray mass spectrometry. The findings of the Pt drug interaction with Hb and the dissociation of heme from Hb are potentially useful for a better understanding of the toxicity and side effects of these chemotherapeutic drugs.

  3. Quantitative Amyloid Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Alzheimer's Disease: Results from the DIAN Study Group.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi; Blazey, Tyler M; Owen, Christopher J; Christensen, Jon J; Friedrichsen, Karl; Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Wang, Qing; Hornbeck, Russ C; Ances, Beau M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Cash, Lisa A; Koeppe, Robert A; Klunk, William E; Galasko, Douglas; Brickman, Adam M; McDade, Eric; Ringman, John M; Thompson, Paul M; Saykin, Andrew J; Ghetti, Bernardino; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A; Salloway, Stephen P; Schofield, Peter R; Masters, Colin L; Villemagne, Victor L; Fox, Nick C; Förster, Stefan; Chen, Kewei; Reiman, Eric M; Xiong, Chengjie; Marcus, Daniel S; Weiner, Michael W; Morris, John C; Bateman, Randall J; Benzinger, Tammie L S

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid imaging plays an important role in the research and diagnosis of dementing disorders. Substantial variation in quantitative methods to measure brain amyloid burden exists in the field. The aim of this work is to investigate the impact of methodological variations to the quantification of amyloid burden using data from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Network (DIAN), an autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease population. Cross-sectional and longitudinal [11C]-Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) PET imaging data from the DIAN study were analyzed. Four candidate reference regions were investigated for estimation of brain amyloid burden. A regional spread function based technique was also investigated for the correction of partial volume effects. Cerebellar cortex, brain-stem, and white matter regions all had stable tracer retention during the course of disease. Partial volume correction consistently improves sensitivity to group differences and longitudinal changes over time. White matter referencing improved statistical power in the detecting longitudinal changes in relative tracer retention; however, the reason for this improvement is unclear and requires further investigation. Full dynamic acquisition and kinetic modeling improved statistical power although it may add cost and time. Several technical variations to amyloid burden quantification were examined in this study. Partial volume correction emerged as the strategy that most consistently improved statistical power for the detection of both longitudinal changes and across-group differences. For the autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease population with PiB imaging, utilizing brainstem as a reference region with partial volume correction may be optimal for current interventional trials. Further investigation of technical issues in quantitative amyloid imaging in different study populations using different amyloid imaging tracers is warranted. PMID:27010959

  4. Group-based and personalized care in an age of genomic and evidence-based medicine: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Maglo, Koffi N

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the philosophical and moral foundations of group-based and individualized therapy in connection with population care equality. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently modified its public health policy by seeking to enhance the efficacy and equality of care through the approval of group-specific prescriptions and doses for some drugs. In the age of genomics, when individualization of care increasingly has become a major concern, investigating the relationship between population health, stratified medicine, and personalized therapy can improve our understanding of the ethical and biomedical implications of genomic medicine. I suggest that the need to optimize population health through population substructure-sensitive research and the need to individualize care through genetically targeted therapies are not necessarily incompatible. Accordingly, the article reconceptualizes a unified goal for modern scientific medicine in terms of individualized equal care.

  5. Group-based and personalized care in an age of genomic and evidence-based medicine: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Maglo, Koffi N

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the philosophical and moral foundations of group-based and individualized therapy in connection with population care equality. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently modified its public health policy by seeking to enhance the efficacy and equality of care through the approval of group-specific prescriptions and doses for some drugs. In the age of genomics, when individualization of care increasingly has become a major concern, investigating the relationship between population health, stratified medicine, and personalized therapy can improve our understanding of the ethical and biomedical implications of genomic medicine. I suggest that the need to optimize population health through population substructure-sensitive research and the need to individualize care through genetically targeted therapies are not necessarily incompatible. Accordingly, the article reconceptualizes a unified goal for modern scientific medicine in terms of individualized equal care. PMID:22643722

  6. The occurrence and fission-track ages of late neogene and quaternary volcanic sediments, Siwalik group, Northern Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, G.D.; Zeitler, P.; Naeser, C.W.; Johnson, N.M.; Summers, D.M.; Frost, C.D.; Opdyke, N.D.; Tahirkheli, R.A.K.

    1982-01-01

    Volcanic sediments, now mostly bentonites and bentonitic mudstones, occur throughout the Late Neogene and Quaternary Siwalik Group of northern Pakistan. A number of these deposits have been dated by the fission-track method, utilizing zircon phenocrysts from these deposits, and provide the chronometric constraints upon which a paleomagnetic stratigraphy is developed for the Siwalik Group. Notable in the occurrence of these altered tuff horizons is an apparent mode in their stratigraphic development from approximately 3.0 to 1.5 m.y. B.P. which coincides with the period of activity of the Dacht-e-Nawar volcanic complex of east-central Afghanistan. Fission-track ages of certain tuffs for critical areas of northern Pakistan are reported herein. ?? 1982.

  7. Quantifying swallowing function for healthy adults in different age groups using acoustic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Man-Yin

    Dysphagia is a medical condition that can lead to devastating complications including weight loss, aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, and malnutrition; hence, timely identification is essential. Current dysphagia evaluation tools are either invasive, time consuming, or highly dependent on the experience of an individual clinician. The present study aims to develop a non-invasive, quantitative screening tool for dysphagia identification by capturing acoustic data from swallowing and mastication. The first part of this study explores the feasibility of using acoustic data to quantify swallowing and mastication. This study then further identifies mastication and swallowing trends in a neurotypical adult population. An acoustic capture protocol for dysphagia screening is proposed. Finally, the relationship among speaking, lingual and mastication rates are explored. Results and future directions are discussed.

  8. Relation Between Serum Total Cholesterol Level and Cardiovascular Disease Stratified by Sex and Age Group: A Pooled Analysis of 65 594 Individuals From 10 Cohort Studies in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nagasawa, Sin-ya; Okamura, Tomonori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Yamada, Michiko; Watanabe, Makoto; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2012-01-01

    Background The relation between serum total cholesterol (TC) and cardiovascular disease in women and in the elderly is unclear, especially in Asian populations. Methods and Results We examined this relation in the largest-scale pooled analysis of the Japanese population, the Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan (EPOCH-JAPAN) study. A total of 65 594 participants who were 40 to 89 years of age and did not have a past history of cardiovascular disease were examined. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for death from total stroke, cerebral infarction, intracranial cerebral hemorrhage, or coronary heart disease. The mean follow-up period was 10.1 years, with the number of deaths from total stroke, cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and coronary heart disease being 875, 457, 212, and 374, respectively. The participants were divided into 2 age groups: middle-aged (40 to 69 years; mean age 55 years) and elderly (70 to 89 years; mean age 75 years). In men, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for coronary heart disease in the highest TC category (≥6.21 mmol/L) compared with the lowest category (<4.14 mmol/L) were 2.52 (95% confidence interval: 1.15–5.07) in middle-aged participants and 2.77 (1.09–7.03) in elderly participants. In women, the hazard ratios of the highest TC category (≥6.72 mmol/L) compared with the lowest category (<4.66 mmol/L) were 3.20 (1.44–7.09) in middle-aged participants and 1.02 (0.42–2.49) in elderly participants. TC levels were not associated with cerebral infarction in any age or sex group and were associated negatively with total stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. Conclusion High serum TC levels are associated with coronary heart disease in middle-aged Japanese men and women, but evidence in elderly Japanese individuals is still limited. PMID:23316288

  9. Crystal Structures of Brain Group-VIII Phospholipase A2 in Non-aged Complexes with the Organophosphorus Nerve Agents Soman and Sarin†‡

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Todd M.; Samanta, Uttamkumar; Kirby, Stephen D.; Cerasoli, Douglas M.; Bahnson, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    Insecticide and nerve agent organophosphorus compounds are potent inhibitors of the serine hydrolase superfamily of enzymes. Nerve agents, such as sarin, soman, tabun and VX exert their toxicity by inhibiting human acetycholinesterase at nerve synapses. Following the initial phosphonylation of the active site serine, the enzyme may reactivate spontaneously or through reaction with an appropriate nucleophilic oxime. Alternatively, the enzyme-nerve agent complex can undergo a secondary process, called “aging”, which dealkylates the nerve agent adduct and results in a product that is highly resistant to reactivation by any known means. Here we report the structures of paraoxon, soman and sarin complexes of group-VIII phospholipase A2 from bovine brain. In each case, the crystal structures indicate a non-aged adduct; a stereoselective preference for binding of the PSCS isomer of soman and the PS isomer of sarin was also noted. The stability of the non-aged complexes was corroborated by trypsin digest and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, which indicates non-aged complexes are formed with diisopropylfluorophosphate, soman and sarin. The PS stereoselectivity for reaction with sarin was confirmed by reaction of racemic sarin, followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a chiral column to separate and quantitate each stereoisomer. The PS stereoisomers of soman and sarin are known to be the more toxic stereoisomers, as they react preferentially to inhibit human acetylcholinesterase. The results obtained for non-aged complexes of group-VIII phospholipase A2 are compared to those obtained for other serine hydrolases and discussed to partly explain determinants of OP aging. Furthermore, structural insights can now be exploited to engineer variant versions of this enzyme with enhanced nerve agent binding and hydrolysis functions. PMID:19271773

  10. Age-Related True Exfoliation of the Lens Capsule: Phacoemulsification Surgery Results

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Alex Lap Ki; Marcet, Marcus M.; Lai, Jimmy S.M.; Yeung, Jane C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Historically associated with glassblowers, true exfoliation of the crystalline lens involves a splitting or delamination of the capsule. We reviewed the phacoemulsification records of a single surgeon for patients with true exfoliation of the lens capsule. The incidence in our series was 2.2% (6 in 278 cases). The average age was 85.0 years. All patients had successful phacoemulsification outcomes, which may have been due to accurate recognition of the condition and appropriate surgical planning. Our findings support the notion that true exfoliation may be more often associated with advanced age rather than infrared radiation. PMID:26955340

  11. Effect of the group II metabotropic glutamate agonist, 2R,4R-APDC, varies with age, layer, and visual experience in the visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Beaver, C J; Ji, Q; Daw, N W

    1999-07-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR 2/3) are distributed differentially across the layers of cat visual cortex, and this distribution varies with age. At 3-4 wk, mGluR 2/3 receptor immunoreactivity is present in all layers. By 6-8 wk of age, it is still present in extragranular layers (2, 3, 5, and 6) but has disappeared from layer 4, and dark-rearing postpones the disappearance of Group II receptors from layer 4. We examined the physiological effects of Group II activation, to see if these effects varied similarly. The responses of single neurons in cat primary visual cortex were recorded to visual stimulation, then the effect of iontophoresis of 2R,4R-4 aminopyrrolidine-2, 4-decarboxylate (2R,4R-APDC), a Group II specific agonist, was observed in animals between 3 wk and adulthood. The effect of 2R, 4R-APDC was generally suppressive, reducing both the visual response and spontaneous activity of single neurons. The developmental changes were in agreement with the immunohistochemical results: 2R, 4R-APDC had effects on cells in all layers in animals of 3-4 wk but not in layer 4 of animals >6 wk old. Moreover, the effect of 2R, 4R-APDC was reduced in the cortex of older animals (>22 wk). Dark-rearing animals to 47-54 days maintained the effects of 2R, 4R-APDC in layer 4. The disappearance of Group II mGluRs from layer 4 between 3 and 6 wk of age is correlated with the segregation of ocular dominance columns in that layer, raising the possibility that mGluRs 2/3 are involved in this process. PMID:10400937

  12. Evaluation of a coaching strategy to reduce swimming stroke errors with beginning age-group swimmers.

    PubMed

    Koop, S; Martin, G L

    1983-01-01

    A coaching strategy to decrease errors in swimming strokes with swimmers who had not improved under "standard" coaching procedures was investigated using a multiple baseline design across subjects and swimming strokes. The procedure resulted in a large decrease in errors on swimming strokes during sessions in a training pool. Stimulus generalization of improved performance to normal practice conditions in the regular pool was observed with all but one swimmer. This improvement was maintained during two maintenance phases lasting approximately 2 weeks, as well as under standard coaching conditions during at least a 2-week follow-up. For two swimmers, error rates on one of the strokes showed a gradual increase between the third and fifth week of follow-up, but brief remedial prompting sessions immediately corrected their performance. Some beneficial response generalization to other components of the stroke being trained was observed, but no improvements were found on untrained strokes. The error correction package did not disrupt practice, require excessive amounts of the coach's time, or necessitate the use of cumbersome apparatus. In addition, the coach and the swimmers considered the procedures to be effective, and expressed their willingness to participate in them again in the future. PMID:16795667

  13. Dyspnea and dysphagia from upper airway obstruction after occipitocervical fusion in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng; Gonda, David D; Briceño, Valentina; Lam, Sandi K; Luerssen, Thomas G; Jea, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Upper airway obstruction resulting from overflexion of the craniocervical junction after occipitocervical fusion is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication and is associated with morbidity. The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records and diagnostic images of 2 pediatric patients who underwent occipitocervical fusion by the Neuro-Spine Program at Texas Children's Hospital and experienced dyspnea and/or dysphagia from new upper airway obstruction in the postoperative period. Patient demographics, operative data, and preoperative and postoperative occiput-C2 angles were recorded. A review of the literature for similar complications after occipitocervical fusion was performed. A total of 13 cases of prolonged upper airway obstruction after occipitocervical fusion were analyzed. Most of these cases involved adults with rheumatoid arthritis. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there have been no previous reports of prolonged upper airway obstruction in children after an occipitocervical fusion. Fixation of the neck in increased flexion (-18° to -5°) was a common finding among these adult and pediatric cases. The authors' cases involved children with micrognathia and comparatively large tongues, which may predispose the oropharynx to obstruction with even the slightest amount of increased flexion. Close attention to a satisfactory fixation angle (occiput-C2 angle) is necessary to avoid airway obstruction after an occipitocervical fusion. Children with micrognathia are particularly sensitive to changes in flexion at the craniocervical junction after occipitocervical fixation. PMID:25828489

  14. Evaluation of a coaching strategy to reduce swimming stroke errors with beginning age-group swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Koop, Sandra; Martin, Garry L.

    1983-01-01

    A coaching strategy to decrease errors in swimming strokes with swimmers who had not improved under “standard” coaching procedures was investigated using a multiple baseline design across subjects and swimming strokes. The procedure resulted in a large decrease in errors on swimming strokes during sessions in a training pool. Stimulus generalization of improved performance to normal practice conditions in the regular pool was observed with all but one swimmer. This improvement was maintained during two maintenance phases lasting approximately 2 weeks, as well as under standard coaching conditions during at least a 2-week follow-up. For two swimmers, error rates on one of the strokes showed a gradual increase between the third and fifth week of follow-up, but brief remedial prompting sessions immediately corrected their performance. Some beneficial response generalization to other components of the stroke being trained was observed, but no improvements were found on untrained strokes. The error correction package did not disrupt practice, require excessive amounts of the coach's time, or necessitate the use of cumbersome apparatus. In addition, the coach and the swimmers considered the procedures to be effective, and expressed their willingness to participate in them again in the future. PMID:16795667

  15. A comparison of time-motion and technical-tactical variables between age groups of female judo matches.

    PubMed

    Miarka, Bianca; Cury, Rubiana; Julianetti, Ricardo; Battazza, Rafael; Julio, Ursula Ferreira; Calmet, Michel; Franchini, Emerson

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify differences between age groups of female judo matches in time-motion and technical-tactical analysis. The sample was composed of pre-cadet (13-14 years, n = 148), cadet (15-16 years, n = 228), junior (17-19 years, n = 104) and senior (>20 years, n = 237) groups. The time-motion indicators consisted of total combat time, standing combat time, displacement without contact, gripping time, total time of techniques, groundwork combat time and pause time, per match and by each combat/pause cycle. Technical and tactical variables were also collected. The one-way analysis of variance and a post hoc test were conducted, P ≤ 0.05. Cadets, with a median of 7 (2, 12), had a number of combat/pause cycles different from junior, with 3 (1, 8.5). Regarding time-motion per match and per cycle, senior had longer total combat time, standing combat time and gripping time than other groups. Senior presented lower frequency of leg techniques than pre-cadet, cadet and junior. Time-motion and technical-tactical variables effects in female judo athletes emphasise the difference between seniors and other groups.

  16. Current activities and results of the Long Duration Exposure Facility Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Leago, Kimberly S.; Warren, Jack L.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    Fiscal Year 1994 will bring to a close the initial investigative activities associated with the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). LDEF was a 14-faced spacecraft (i.e., 12-sided cylinder and two ends) which housed 54 different experimental packages in low-Earth orbit (LEO) from Apr. 1984 to Jan. 1990 (i.e., for approx. 5.75 years). Since LDEF's return, the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) has been examining various LDEF components in order to better understand and define the LEO particulate environment. Members of the M&D SIG at JSC in Houston, TX have been contributing to these studies by carefully examining and documenting all impact events found on LDEF's 6061-T6 aluminum Intercostals (i.e., one of the spacecraft's structural frame components). Unlike all other hardware on LDEF, the frame exposed significantly large surface areas of a single homogeneous material in all (i.e., 26) possible LDEF pointing directions. To date, 28 of the 68 Intercostals in the possession of the M&D SIG have been documented. This data, as well as similar information from various LDEF investigators, can be accessed through the M&D SIG Database which is maintained at JSC.

  17. A new turtle from the Upper Cretaceous Bauru Group of Brazil, updated phylogeny and implications for age of the Santo Anastácio Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegazzo, Mirian Costa; Bertini, Reinaldo José; Manzini, Flávio Fernando

    2015-03-01

    A new Podocnemidinura specimen from the Upper Cretaceous Bauru Group (Paraná Basin) of southeastern Brazil was described. The Bauru Group provided an important portrait of the Brazilian Mesozoic terrestrial biota, which boasts a vertebrate fauna formed from fishes, frogs, lacertilians, crocodyliforms, dinosaurs and mammals; records of palynomorphs; and invertebrate fauna consisted of gastropods, bivalves, ostracods and conchostracans. Nevertheless, the age of these continental deposits is not precisely estimated, which prevents global correlations, and its fauna is argued to be endemic. The new specimen described is the first turtle from the Santo Anastácio Formation, and its morphological comparison with other South American forms provided a significant advancement in the understanding of the age of this unit (Late Cretaceous). This study permitted a revision of the turtle taxa of the Bauru Group. As a result, some taxa were considered synonym, including the new Santo Anastácio form. The specimen is still unnamed due to the absence of skull characters that preclude its accurate positioning within the Bauru Group skull-based taxa. In addition, the phylogenetic affinities of this taxon were analyzed into Podocnemidinura clade.

  18. Sexual risk attitudes and intentions of youth aged 12-14 years: survey comparisons of parent-teen prevention and control groups.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Regina P; Chan, Wenyaw; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared differences in sexual risk attitudes and intentions for three groups of youth (experimental program, n = 90; attention control, n = 80; and nonparticipant control, n = 634) aged 12-14 years. Two student groups participated with their parents in programs focused on strengthening family interaction and prevention of sexual risks, HIV, and adolescent pregnancy. Surveys assessed students' attitudes and intentions regarding early sexual and other health-risk behaviors, family interactions, and perceived parental disapproval of risk behaviors. The authors used general linear modeling to compare results. The experimental prevention program differentiated the total scores of the 3 groups (p < .05). A similar result was obtained for student intentions to avoid sex (p < .01). Pairwise comparisons showed the experimental program group scored higher than the nonparticipant group on total scores (p < .01) and on students' intention to avoid sex (p < .01). The results suggest this novel educational program involving both parents and students offers a promising approach to HIV