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Sample records for age groups sex

  1. Age Group and Sex of Students. Fall 1974. Report No. 8-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    There has been considerable discussion in the literature of higher education regarding significant changes in student body characteristics. The data in this document examines distribution of students at the State University of New York system by age group and sex. Tables array four fundamental student characteristics: age, sex, level…

  2. Body-image perceptions across sex and age groups.

    PubMed

    Cullari, S; Rohrer, J M; Bahm, C

    1998-12-01

    Weight dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, and body-image distortion measures were used with 98 fifth and eighth graders and 57 undergraduate students. Measures included the Piers-Harris Self-concept Scale and the Kids Eating Disorder Survey for the young children, the Interpersonal Behavior Survey, and a seven-item mistaken beliefs scale for the college sample. Body dissatisfaction and Body-image distortion were assessed with a figure-drawing procedure. Significant differences in both weight dissatisfaction and body dissatisfaction were found between males and females in the eighth grade and undergraduate groups. There were no significant sex differences in body-image distortion in the fifth or eighth grades, but significant differences in body-image distortion between men and women were found in the college sample. The direction of body-image distortion for both the 20 men and the 37 women was consistent with their ideal weight. In the college sample, there was a significant correlation between body-image dissatisfaction and self-confidence for the women but not for the men. PMID:9885045

  3. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  4. Sternal Gland Scent-Marking Signals Sex, Age, Rank, and Group Identity in Captive Mandrills.

    PubMed

    Vaglio, Stefano; Minicozzi, Pamela; Romoli, Riccardo; Boscaro, Francesca; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Moneti, Gloriano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2016-02-01

    Mandrills are one of the few Old World primates to show scent-marking. We combined ethological and chemical approaches to improve our understanding of this behavior in 3 zoo-managed groups. We observed the olfactory behavior performed by adults and adolescents (N = 39) for 775h. We investigated the volatile components of sternal scent-marks using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared volatile profiles with traits of the signaler. Males marked more than females and within each sex the frequency of scent-marking was related to age and dominance status, but alpha males scent-marked most frequently and particularly in specific areas at the enclosure boundaries. We identified a total of 77 volatile components of sternal gland secretion, including compounds functioning as male sex pheromones in other mammals, in scent-marks spontaneously released on filter paper by 27 male and 18 female mandrills. We confirmed our previous findings that chemical profiles contain information including sex, male age and rank, and we also found that odor may encode information about group membership in mandrills. Our results support the hypotheses that scent-marking signals the status of the dominant male as well as playing territorial functions but also suggest that it is part of sociosexual communication. PMID:26708734

  5. A Note on Sex Differences in Mental Rotation in Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Eid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A large number of studies have reported average performance differences in favor of males in mental rotation tasks. However, it is still unclear to what extent the magnitude of the sex differences varies across age, and whether the differences increase with age. In this study, we reanalyzed data from a cross-sectional investigation of N = 1624…

  6. Influence of the age and sex of human hosts on the distribution of Escherichia coli ECOR groups and virulence traits.

    PubMed

    Gordon, David M; Stern, Steven E; Collignon, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli were isolated from the faeces of 266 individuals living in the Canberra region of Australia. The isolates were characterized for their ECOR group membership (A, B1, B2 or D) and for the presence of 29 virulence-associated traits. Overall, 19.5 % of the strains were members of group A, 12.4 % B1, 45.1 % B2 and 22.9 % D. The frequency with which strains belonging to the four ECOR groups were observed varied with the age and sex of the hosts from which they were isolated. In males, the probability of isolating A or D strains increased with host age, whilst the probability of detecting a group B2 strain declined. In females, the probability of recovering A or B2 strains increased with increasing host age and there was a concomitant decline in the likelihood of isolating B1 or D strains. Of the 29 virulence-associated traits examined, 24 were detected in more than one strain. The likelihood of detecting most traits varied with a strain's ECOR membership, with the exception of afa/draBC, astA, cvaC, eaeA, iss and iutA, for which there was no statistically significant evidence of an association with ECOR group. The frequency with which fimH, iha, eaeA, iroN, hlyD, iss, ompT and K1 were detected in a strain depended on the age or sex of the host from which the strain was isolated. In group B2 strains many of the virulence traits were non-randomly associated, with some co-occurring in a strain less often than expected by chance, whilst others were co-associated. In 17 cases, the extent to which two virulence traits were co-associated was found to depend on host sex and age. The results of this study suggest that the morphological, physiological and dietary differences that occur among human individuals of different sex or age may influence the distribution of E. coli genotypes. PMID:15632421

  7. Offense history and recidivism in three victim-age-based groups of juvenile sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Therese Skubic; Kistner, Janet A

    2007-12-01

    This study compared subgroups of juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) who victimized children (child offenders), peers (peer offenders), or both children and peers (mixed offenders) on sexual and nonsexual offense history, treatment outcomes, and recidivism to determine if these are distinct and valid subgroups. Though the group of mixed offenders was small, results showed that they exhibited a more diverse and more physically intrusive sexual offense history than the other JSOs and were less likely to successfully complete treatment. Sexual and nonsexual recidivism rates of mixed offenders did not differ from the other subgroups despite subgroup differences in juvenile sexual and nonsexual criminal records. However, differences in sexual recidivism rates of child versus peer offenders were found when the mixed offenders were either excluded from the sample or combined with child offenders. The results highlight the need to include mixed offenders in future research examining the etiology of sexual offending, treatment, and recidivism of JSOs. PMID:17952596

  8. Data on the distribution of cancer incidence and death across age and sex groups visualized using multilevel spie charts.

    PubMed

    Feitelson, Dror G

    2016-04-01

    Cancer incidence and death statistics are typically recorded for multiple age and sex brackets, leading to large data tables which are difficult to digest. Effective visualizations of this data would allow practitioners, policy makers, and the general public to comprehend the data more readily and act on it appropriately. We introduce multilevel spie charts to create a combined visualization of cancer incidence and death statistics. Spie charts combine multiple pie charts, where the base pie chart (representing the general population) is used to set the angles of slices, and the superimposed ones use variable radii to portray the cancer data. Spie charts of cancer incidence and death statistics from Israel for 2009-2011 are used as an illustration. These charts clearly show various patterns of how cancer incidence and death distribute across age and sex groups, illustrating (1) absolute numbers and (2) rates per 100,000 population for different age and sex brackets. In addition, drawing separate charts for different cancer types illustrates relative mortality, both (3) across cancer types and (4) mortality relative to incidence. Naturally, this graphical depiction can be used for other diseases as well. PMID:26560991

  9. Age Group Differences in HIV Risk and Mental Health Problems among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2014-01-01

    HIV risk and mental health problems are prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. The purpose of this research was to study age group differences in HIV risk and mental health problems in this population. In the current study we divided a sample of 1,022 FSWs into three age groups (≤20 years, 21– 34 years, and ≥35 years). Results showed that among the three groups (a) older FSWs (≥35 years) were likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged (e.g., rural residency, little education, employment in low-paying venues, and low monthly income); (b) older FSWs reported the highest rates of inconsistent, ineffective condom use and STD history; (c) younger FSWs (≤20 years) reported the highest level of depression, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, regular-partner violence, and substance use; (d) all health-related risks except casual-partner violence were more prevalent among older and younger FSWs than among FSW aged 21–34 years; (e) age had a significant effect on all health indicators except suicide attempts after controlling for several key demographic factors. These findings indicate the need for intervention efforts to address varying needs among FSWs in different age groups. Specific interventional efforts are needed to reduce older FSWs’ exposure to HIV risk; meanwhile, more attention should be given to improve FSWs’ mental health status, especially among younger FSWs. PMID:24410298

  10. Age Group and Sex Do Not Influence Responses of Vitamin K Biomarkers to Changes in Dietary Vitamin K123

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Jennifer T.; Fu, Xueyan; Saltzman, Edward; Al Rajabi, Ala; Dallal, Gerard E.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Booth, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate vitamin K intake has been associated with abnormal soft tissue calcification. Older adults may have insufficient intakes of vitamin K and respond less to vitamin K supplementation compared with younger adults. However, little is known about the determinants that influence the response to vitamin K supplementation. Our primary objective was to assess dietary and nondietary determinants of vitamin K status in healthy younger and older adults. In a nonrandomized, nonmasked study, 21 younger (18–40 y) and 21 older (55–80 y) men and women consumed a baseline diet (200 μg phylloquinone/d) for 5 d, a phylloquinone-restricted diet (10 μg phylloquinone/d) for 28 d, and a phylloquinone-supplemented diet (500 μg phylloquinone/d) for 28 d. Changes in vitamin K status markers in response to vitamin K depletion and repletion were studied and the influences of BMI, body fat, and circulating TG were assessed by including them as covariates in the model. Despite baseline differences in measures of vitamin K status, plasma phylloquinone tended to increase (P = 0.07) and the percentage of uncarboxylated osteocalcin and uncarboxylated prothrombin both improved with phylloquinone supplementation (P < 0.007), regardless of age group or sex. Only the excretion of urinary menadione, a vitamin K metabolite, was greater among younger adults in response to depletion than in older adults (P = 0.012), regardless of sex. Adiposity measures and circulating TG did not predict response of any measures. In conclusion, poor vitamin K status can be similarly improved with vitamin K supplementation, regardless of age group or sex. PMID:22437558

  11. A Comparative Study of the Perceived Stress of Springboard Diving by Age and Sex Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, R. Gary

    Three measures--physiological, behavioral, and phenomenological in nature--were used to register inexperienced springboard divers' perceptions of stress when faced with the execution of a forward dive from three standard heights; pool deck, one-meter and three-meter springboards. Forty-eight subjects were divided into four groups representing…

  12. Relation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status with skeletal muscle mass by sex and age group among Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Ko, Min Jung; Yun, Sungha; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Kirang

    2015-12-14

    The objective of this study was to examine whether high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration was associated with high skeletal muscle mass, taking into account the effects of sex and age among the participants of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) aged 40 years or older. This was a cross-sectional study using data from the 2009 to 2010 KNHANES; a total of 8406 subjects (3671 men and 4735 women) were included. The appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMMI, kg/m2) was estimated to measure the skeletal muscle mass. Hypovitaminosis was classified when the level of serum 25(OH)D was <20 ng/ml. The general linear model adjusted for confounding factors was used to determine differences in means of ASMMI by 25(OH)D status. The mean values of ASMMI were higher for men when compared with women. Women had a greater proportion of hypovitaminosis (71·1%) compared with men (53·2%). After adjusting for multiple factors, men were seen to have significant differences in ASMMI based on 25(OH)D status regardless of age, showing a lower mean value of ASSMI in those with hypovitaminosis. However, there was no difference in ASMMI by 25(OH)D status among women in both younger and older age groups. In conclusion, we found that there might be a positive relationship between 25(OH)D and skeletal muscle mass in men, indicating that interventions to improve 25(OH)D levels that are aimed at increasing muscle mass could be beneficial for men with more rapid decreased rate of skeletal muscle mass. PMID:26420417

  13. Alarm signals of the great gerbil: Acoustic variation by predator context, sex, age, individual, and family group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Jan A.; McCowan, Brenda; Collins, Kellie C.; Hooper, Stacie L.; Rogovin, Konstantin

    2005-10-01

    The great gerbil, Rhombomys opinus, is a highly social rodent that usually lives in family groups consisting of related females, their offspring, and an adult male. The gerbils emit alarm vocalizations in the presence of diverse predators with different hunting tactics. Alarm calls were recorded in response to three predators, a monitor lizard, hunting dog, and human, to determine whether the most common call type, the rhythmic call, is functionally referential with regard to type of predator. Results show variation in the alarm calls of both adults and subadults with the type of predator. Discriminant function analysis classified an average of 70% of calls to predator type. Call variation, however, was not limited to the predator context, because signal structure also differed by sex, age, individual callers, and family groups. These variations illustrate the flexibility of the rhythmic alarm call of the great gerbil and how it might have multiple functions and communicate in multiple contexts. Three alarm calls, variation in the rhythmic call, and vibrational signals generated from foot-drumming provide the gerbils with a varied and multi-channel acoustic repertoire.

  14. Comparison on three classification techniques for sex estimation from the bone length of Asian children below 19 years old: an analysis using different group of ages.

    PubMed

    Darmawan, M F; Yusuf, Suhaila M; Kadir, M R Abdul; Haron, H

    2015-02-01

    Sex estimation is used in forensic anthropology to assist the identification of individual remains. However, the estimation techniques tend to be unique and applicable only to a certain population. This paper analyzed sex estimation on living individual child below 19 years old using the length of 19 bones of left hand applied for three classification techniques, which were Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) multilayer perceptron. These techniques were carried out on X-ray images of the left hand taken from an Asian population data set. All the 19 bones of the left hand were measured using Free Image software, and all the techniques were performed using MATLAB. The group of age "16-19" years old and "7-9" years old were the groups that could be used for sex estimation with as their average of accuracy percentage was above 80%. ANN model was the best classification technique with the highest average of accuracy percentage in the two groups of age compared to other classification techniques. The results show that each classification technique has the best accuracy percentage on each different group of age. PMID:25540897

  15. Sex differences in cardiovascular ageing.

    PubMed

    Merz, Allison A; Cheng, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent progress in identifying and narrowing the gaps in cardiovascular outcomes between men and women, general understanding of how and why cardiovascular disease presentations differ between the sexes remains limited. Sex-specific patterns of cardiac and vascular ageing play an important role and, in fact, begin very early in life. Differences between the sexes in patterns of age-related cardiac remodelling are associated with the relatively greater prevalence in women than in men of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Similarly, sex variation in how vascular structure and function change with ageing contributes to differences between men and women in how coronary artery disease manifests typically or atypically over the adult life course. Both hormonal and non-hormonal factors underlie sex differences in cardiovascular ageing and the development of age-related disease. The midlife withdrawal of endogenous oestrogen appears to augment the age-related increase in cardiovascular risk seen in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women. However, when compared with intrinsic biological differences between men and women that are present throughout life, this menopausal transition may not be as substantial an actor in determining cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:26917537

  16. Are Constructs of the Transtheoretical Model for Physical Activity Measured Equivalently Between Sexes, Age Groups, and Ethnicities?

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Motl, Robert W.; McGee, Kelly; McCurdy, Dana; Matthai, Caroline Horwath; Dishman, Rod K.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Purpose Identifying mediators of physical activity change requires measurement instruments that are reliable, valid, and generalizable to multiple populations. Despite continued application of the transtheoretical model (TTM) to the study of physical activity, the structural components of the TTM measurement instruments have been understudied in diverse populations. Methods A multiethnic sample (N=700, Mage=47, 63% women, 38% Caucasian) of participants living in Hawaii completed TTM measures. The factor validity and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of decisional balance, barrier self-efficacy, temptations, and processes of change instruments were explored between men, women, age groups, and ethnicities. Results/Conclusions Measurement models of barrier self-efficacy and revised models of temptations and processes of change demonstrated sufficient evidence for ME/I among all subgroups. A revised model of decisional balance demonstrated sufficient evidence for ME/I between genders and among ethnicities, but not among age groups. Future research should examine the stability of these constructs across time. PMID:18607667

  17. Sex chromosome aneuploidy and aging.

    PubMed

    Stone, J F; Sandberg, A A

    1995-10-01

    Loss of an X chromosome in females and of the Y chromosome in males are phenomena associated with aging. X chromosome loss occurs in and may be limited to PHA stimulated peripheral lymphocytes. In males, the loss of the Y is most evident in bone marrow cells, but also occurs to a lesser extent in PHA stimulated peripheral lymphocytes. X chromosome loss is associated with premature centromere division leading to anaphase lag and elimination in micronuclei. The mechanism of Y chromosome loss has not been elucidated. No pathological consequence of either X or Y chromosome loss has been convincingly demonstrated. With the advent of FISH technology, measurement of sex chromosome aneuploidy may prove to be a convenient assay for cellular senecence and aging. PMID:7565866

  18. Juvenile Group Sex Offenders: A Comparison of Group Leaders and Followers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate group sex offenses with regard to the role of leaders versus followers and to compare both groups on levels of psychopathology, intelligence, and psychosocial and offense-related characteristics. Eighty-nine adolescent group sex offenders (mean age = 14.9, SD = 1.4) referred by the police to the Dutch child…

  19. Group Sex and Prevalent Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Rice, Cara E; Lynch, Courtney D; Norris, Alison H; Davis, John A; Fields, Karen S; Ervin, Melissa; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the direct relation between group sex and prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a cross-sectional study of men who have sex with men (MSM) presenting at an urban STI clinic in the Midwestern US. Among 231 men who enrolled and reported that they have sex with men, we collected behavioral data using a combination of interviewer and self-administered surveys and extracted STI data from electronic health records. We used modified Poisson regression to examine the unadjusted and adjusted associations between group sex participation and prevalent STI. One-quarter of participants (n = 58) reported group sex participation in the last 3 months. Eighteen percent of participants (n = 42) had gonorrhea and 19 % (n = 45) had chlamydial infection. Men who reported recent group sex were more likely to be HIV-positive, to report recent drug use, and to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse in the past 3 months. After adjustment for age, race, and recent drug use, recent participation in group sex was associated with prevalent gonorrhea infection (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.11, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = [1.13, 3.95]) but not chlamydia infection (PR = 1.03, 95 % CI = [0.58, 1.84]). We performed a sensitivity analysis in which we also adjusted for unprotected receptive anal intercourse and the results were not substantively changed. In summary, participation in group sex in the past 3 months was associated with a more than twofold increased prevalence of gonorrhea, but not with chlamydia. These findings support group sex participation as a potential contributor to increased STI prevalence. PMID:26392187

  20. Sex and Age Differences in the Endorsement of Sex Stereotypes Associated with Driving.

    PubMed

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Martha, Cécile; Cury, François; Granié, Marie-Axelle

    2015-01-01

    Sex and age differences are particularly pronounced in car accidents. Current psychological research is exploring the relationship between risky driving and compliance with sex stereotypes, notably conformity with social expectations concerning masculinity. Some studies have already shown that sex stereotypes associated with driving (SSAD) may influence driving behaviors. The aim of this research was to explore the participants' sex and age differences in SSAD endorsement. A questionnaire was developed and validated on four dimensions of SSAD: male's driving skills and female's compliance with traffic rules, courtesy behind the wheel, and risk avoidance in driving. SSAD endorsement was measured for 291 licensed drivers from 18 to 64 years of age. Results revealed that females endorsed the female's risk avoidance stereotype more (p < .05), whereas males endorsed the male drivers (driving skills) stereotype more (p < .05). Results also revealed that the endorsement of male's driving skills decreases with age (p < .01) and the endorsement of female's courtesy increases with age among all participants (p = .01), while the endorsement of female's compliance with traffic rules increases with age only among female participants (p < .05). The results are discussed in terms of in-group/out-group relations and sex and age differences. PMID:26695552

  1. Determining age and sex of American coots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddleman, William R.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1985-01-01

    Reliable techniques for age and sex determination of migrating and wintering American Coots (Fulica americana) have not been available. Breeding coots can be ages through age 3 by tarsal color (birds 4 years and older were placed in a 4+ age class) (Crawford 1978), and males and females have sex-specific behaviors and calls while on breeding territories (Gullion 1950, 1952). Externally, juvenile coots differ from adults in having gray (as opposed to white) bills and brown (as opposed to red) eyes to an age of 75 days (Gullion 1954-394). Bill color changes to white by about 120 days. No quantitative data have been available, however, on the proportion of juveniles retaining these traits throughout fall and early winter. Nonbreeding coots can be ages as juvenile or adult by internal examination of the thickness of the wall of the bursa of Fabricius, although bursal depth does not predictably decline with age (Fredrickson 1968). Attempts to sex coots by single external measurements of combinations of measurements have met with mixed success. Eight-five percent of 101 fall migrants in Wisconsin could be sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe including claw by using 139.5 mm as a cutoff point (Burton 1959), whereas 88% of 67 coots in California were correctly sexed by the length of the metatarsus-midtoe without claw using 127.5 mm as the cutoff point (Gullion 1952). Two-hundred-thirty-two of 291 coots collected in Iowa, however, were in the zone of overlap between the sexes for this measurement (Fredrickson 1968). Previous studies attempting to develop aging and sexing techniques for American Coots have been limited to a few study sites or to 1 season or year, often failing to take geographical, annual, and seasonal morphological variation into account (e.g., Visser 1976, Fjeldsa 1977). We designed the present study to refine and quantify external and internal age and sex criteria for postbreeding coots, with the objective of defining techniques applicable for all

  2. Employment Discrimination: Age, Sex and National Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David G.; Lawson, Miriam

    Chapter 17 of a book on school law is an historical review of judicial decisions and legislative enactments that apply to employment. The purpose of the chapter is to analyze those cases concerned with discrimination because of sex, age, or national origin, and to discuss the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court in these areas. Not until the…

  3. Mallard age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carney, S.M.; Geis, A.D.

    1960-01-01

    This paper describes characters on the wing plumage of the mallard that indicate age and sex. A key outlines a logical order in which to check age and sex characters on wings. This method was tested and found to be more than 95 percent reliable, although it was found that considerable practice and training with known-age specimens was required to achieve this level of accuracy....The implications of this technique and the sampling procedure it permits are discussed. Wing collections could provide information on production, and, if coupled with a banding program could permit seasonal population estimates to be calculated. In addition, representative samples of wings would provide data to check the reliability of several other waterfowl surveys.

  4. Age and sex graded helminth infections in a Nigerian village.

    PubMed

    Arinola, O; Fawole, O

    1995-02-01

    Prevalence of helminth parasites was carried out in both male and female villagers graded into three age groups (5-14 years, 15-25 years, 26-55 years). Children between 5 and 14 years of age had the highest prevalence of Ascaris, Schistosoma haematobium and Trichuris while the villagers between 26-55 years of age had lowest prevalence of these parasites. However, hookworms were highly common among the villagers aged between 26 and 55 years and least common among the school children aged between 5 and 14 years. Female children between the ages of 5 and 14 years and males of the same age group were highly infested with Ascaris and Trichuris. This finding in a Nigerian village suggested that helminth infestation is age and sex dependent which is therefore a factor of the frequency in host-parasite contact determined by mode of life of the parasites and the hosts. PMID:7796748

  5. [Sex Specificity in Age-Related Thyroid Hormone Responsiveness].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other systems, the endocrine system is affected by aging. Thyroid hormone, the action of which is affected by many factors, has been shown to be associated with longevity. The most useful marker for assessment of the thyroid hormone action is the TSH level. Although age and sex are believed to modify the pituitary set point or response to the free thyroid hormone concentration, the precise age- and sex-dependent responses to thyroid hormone have yet to be reported. In this lecture, molecular aspects of resistance to thyroid hormone are initially overviewed. After presentation of the evidence that the TSH-thyroid hormone axis is evolutionarily modified, and that negative feedback mechanisms may start to play roles in homeostatic regulation at the time of delivery, the rationale of age-dependent thyroid hormone resistance is introduced. To assess the age- and sex-dependent resistance to thyroid hormone, the index is provided by the formula based on the relationship between thyroid hormone and TSH levels. The index is calculated by the results of thyroid function tests obtained from the two individual clinical groups. From the results, there were negative relationships between the free T3 resistance index and age in males of both groups, while there were no apparent relationships in females. These findings indicate that there is a male-specific response to thyroid hormone with aging. Furthermore, the specific features of the response may not be affected by environmental factors such as the presence of disorders or medical treatments. PMID:27192800

  6. Woodcock age and sex determination from wings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, F.W.

    1964-01-01

    Age of woodcock (Philohela minor) can be accurately determined throughout the year by differences in pattern, color, and wear of secondary feathers. Immature woodcock retain most secondaries during the postjuvenal molt that begins in July or August and ends in October. In contrast, subadults (first-year adults) and older woodcock molt all secondaries during the postnuptial molt beginning in June or July and ending in October. Retention of juvenal secondaries by immatures and molt of these feathers by adults form the basis for age determination. Sex of woodcock can be accurately determined by width of the outer three primaries, which are conspicuously narrower on males.

  7. Purpose-in-Life Test: Age and Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Augustine; Edwards, Henry

    1974-01-01

    This study examined age and sex differences, and the interaction of age x sex, with respect to "meaning in life" as defined by Frankl and measured by the Purpose-in-Life Test (PIL) developed by Crumbaugh and Maholick. (Author)

  8. Methods of Suicide by Age: Sex and Race Differences among the Young and Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1986-01-01

    Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)

  9. Age of sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    WITSCHI, E

    1959-08-14

    Certain characteristic patterns of physiologic sex determination are not causally linked with types of genic and chromosomal constitution (XX-XY or ZW-ZZ). The observed widespread but not universal parallelism in the distribution of genetic and physiologic patterns among vertebrate groups expresses genealogic relationship. On the basis of this interpretation one may estimate the approximate evolutionary age of the mechanism of genetic sex determination. It is concluded that in all tetrapod vertebrates these mechanisms originated during the Jurassic period. Environmental conditions seem to affect the progress of this evolution. PMID:13675759

  10. Identifying sex and age of akiapolaau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, T.K.; Fancy, S.G.; Harada, C.K.; Lindsey, G.D.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for identifying the sex and age of the Akiapolaau (Hemignathus munroi), an endangered honeycreeper found only on the island of Hawaii, were developed by examination and measurement of 73 museum specimens and 24 live birds captured in mist nests. Akiapolaau probably undergo a single annual molt, with most birds molting between February and July. The mottled juvenal plumage is replaced by a first basic plumage characterized by yellowish-gray or yellowish-green underparts and often by retained wingbars. Male Akiapolaau may not attain adult plumage until their third molt. In adult females, only the throat and upper breast become yellow, whereas in adult males the superciliaries, cheeks, and entire underparts are yellow. Adult males have greater exposed culmen, gonys, wing chord, tail, and tarsus lengths than do females. Akiapolaau in first prebasic molt or older can be identified as to sex by culmen length, that of males being >23.4 mm.

  11. Age and sex identification of Akohekohe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, John C.; Pratt, T.K.; Berlin, Kim E.; Kowalsky, James R.

    1998-01-01

    We present methods to determine the age and sex of Akohekohe (Palmeria dolei), an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, developed on the basis of 45 museum specimens and 91 live birds captured on the island of Maui. Akohekohe retained all Juvenal primaries, some Juvenal secondaries, and some body feathers after the first prebasic molt; they attained full adult plumage after the second prebasic molt. Retention of brown Juvenal body feathers, especially on the head, distinguished most birds in the first basic plumage from adults, which have a full complement of distinctive, black lanceolate body feathers with white, gray, or orange tips. Male Akohekohe were heavier than females and had longer wing, tail, and tarsometatarsus lengths. We present a linear discriminant function to sex both adults and juveniles using lengths of their wing and tarsometatarsus.

  12. Sex and age identification of palila

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeffrey, J.J.; Fancy, S.G.; Lindsey, G.D.; Banko, P.C.; Pratt, T.K.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Methods to sex and age Palila (Loxioides bailleui), an endangered Hawaiian finch restricted to subalpine woodlands on Hawai'i, were identified on the basis of measurements and plumage characteristics of 17 museum specimens and 96 known-age, live Palila. Palila undergo a single annual molt during September-December following the breeding season. Presence of a complete or partial wingbar distinguishes hatch-year and second-year Palila from after-second-year birds. Adult male Palila are distinguished from females by a distinct napeline and lt 30% gray feathers intermixed with yellow feathers on the head. The black or gray feathers of the lores and chin of males are darker than those on the back, whereas the lores and chin of females are lighter or of the same shade as back feathers.

  13. Single-Sex Counseling Groups and Minicourses for Women Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Nancy V.; Hudson, George R.

    1978-01-01

    Women students in a community college were studied to determine the effects of single-sex counseling groups and two single-sex minicourses on reducing alienation and increasing self-regard and inner direction in women. (Author)

  14. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs. PMID:23778256

  15. Spatial distribution of intracortical porosity varies across age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Nirody, Jasmine A.; Cheng, Karen P.; Parrish, Robin M.; Burghardt, Andrew J.; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.; Kazakia, Galateia J.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical bone porosity is a major determinant of strength, stiffness, and fracture toughness of cortical tissue. The goal of this work was to investigate changes in spatial distribution and microstructure of cortical porosity associated with aging in men and women. The specific aims were to: 1) develop an automated technique for spatial analysis of cortical microstructure based on HR-pQCT data, and; 2) apply this technique to explore sex- and age-specific spatial distribution and microstructure of porosity within the cortex. We evaluated HR-pQCT images of the distal tibia from a cross-sectional cohort of 145 individuals, characterizing detectable pores as being in the endosteal, midcortical, or periosteal layers of the cortex. Metrics describing porosity, pore number, and pore size were quantifiedwithin each layer and compared across sexes, age groups, and cortical layers. The elderly cohort (65–78 years, n=22) displayed higher values than the young cohort (20–29 years, n=29) for all parameters both globally and within each layer. While all three layers displayed significant age-related porosity increases, the greatest difference in porosity between the young and elderly cohort was in the midcortical layer (+344%, p < 0.001). Similarly, the midcortical layer reflected the greatest differences between young and elderly cohorts in both pore number (+243%, p < 0.001) and size (+28%, p < 0.001). Females displayed greater age-related changes in porosity and pore number than males. Females and males displayed comparable small to non-significant changes with age in pore size. In summary, considerable variability exists in the spatial distribution of detectable cortical porosity at the distal tibia, and this variability is dependent on age and sex. Intracortical pore distribution analysis may ultimately provide insight into both mechanisms of pore network expansion and biomechanical consequences of pore distribution. PMID:25701139

  16. Epidemiology of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in Brazil (EpiGastro): A population-based study according to sex and age group

    PubMed Central

    do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria; Medeiros da Silva, Aline; Chinzon, Décio; Eisig, Jaime N; Dias-Bastos, Telma RP

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalences of symptoms consistent with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and dyspepsia in South America. METHODS: A telephone survey was conducted among adult owners of land-based telephones in São Paulo, Brazil, using previously validated computer-assisted sampling and survey protocols. The Portuguese-language survey included (1) sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., weight, height, smoking) and comorbidities; (2) dietary habits; (3) presence of symptoms consistent with GERD or dyspepsia within the prior 3 mo; and (4) use of medications and other therapies to manage symptoms. Data were stratified post-hoc into three homogeneous geographical regions of São Paulo according to the Social Exclusion Indices of the districts and postal codes. Survey response data from each respondent were weighted by the numbers of adults and landline telephones in each household. The analyses were weighted to account for sampling design and to be representative of the São Paulo population according to city census data. RESULTS: Among 4570 households contacted, an adult from 3050 (66.7%) agreed to participate. The nonresponse rate was 33.3%. The mean (SE) respondent age was 42.6 (16.0) years. More than half of all respondents were women (53.1%), aged 18 through 49 years (66.7%), married or cohabitating (52.5%), and/or above normal-weight standards (i.e., 35.3% overweight and 16.3% obese). A total of 26.5% of women were perimenopausal. More than 20% of respondents reported highly frequent symptoms consistent with GERD (e.g., gastric burning sensation = 20.8%) or dyspepsia (e.g., abdominal swelling/distension = 20.9%) at least once per month. Prevalences of these symptoms were significantly (approximately 1.5- to 2.0-fold) higher among women than men but did not vary significantly as a function of advancing age. For instance, 14.1% of women reported that they experienced stomach burning (symptom of GERD) at least twice per week, compared to 8.4% of men (P

  17. Ploidy, sex and crossing over in an evolutionary aging model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Matheus P.; Onody, Roberto N.

    2006-02-01

    Nowadays, many forms of reproduction coexist in nature: Asexual, sexual, apomictic and meiotic parthenogenesis, hermaphroditism and parasex. The mechanisms of their evolution and what made them successful reproductive alternatives are very challenging and debated questions. Here, using a simple evolutionary aging model, we give a possible scenario. By studying the performance of populations where individuals may have diverse characteristics-different ploidies, sex with or without crossing over, as well as the absence of sex-we find an evolution sequence that may explain why there are actually two major or leading groups: Sexual and asexual. We also investigate the dependence of these characteristics on different conditions of fertility and deleterious mutations. Finally, if the primeval organisms on Earth were, in fact, asexual individuals we conjecture that the sexual form of reproduction could have more easily been set and found its niche during a period of low-intensity mutations.

  18. Turnover of Sex Chromosomes in Celebensis Group Medaka Fishes.

    PubMed

    Myosho, Taijun; Takehana, Yusuke; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Sakaizumi, Mitsuru

    2015-12-01

    Sex chromosomes and the sex-determining (SD) gene are variable in vertebrates. In particular, medaka fishes in the genus Oryzias show an extremely large diversity in sex chromosomes and the SD gene, providing a good model to study the evolutionary process by which they turnover. Here, we investigated the sex determination system and sex chromosomes in six celebensis group species. Our sex-linkage analysis demonstrated that all species had an XX-XY sex determination system, and that the Oryzias marmoratus and O. profundicola sex chromosomes were homologous to O. latipes linkage group (LG) 10, while those of the other four species, O. celebensis, O. matanensis, O. wolasi, and O. woworae, were homologous to O. latipes LG 24. The phylogenetic relationship suggested a turnover of the sex chromosomes from O. latipes LG 24 to LG 10 within this group. Six sex-linkage maps showed that the former two and the latter four species shared a common SD locus, respectively, suggesting that the LG 24 acquired the SD function in a common ancestor of the celebensis group, and that the LG 10 SD function appeared in a common ancestor of O. marmoratus and O. profundicola after the divergence of O. matanensis. Additionally, fine mapping and association analysis in the former two species revealed that Sox3 on the Y chromosome is a prime candidate for the SD gene, and that the Y-specific 430-bp insertion might be involved in its SD function. PMID:26497145

  19. Group Work Practice with Transgendered Male to Female Sex Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    Examines group work with transgendered male-to-female adolescents who engage in sex work. Provides an overview of the role that sex work plays in the lives of some transgendered youth, using case examples, and offers guidance for those utilizing group work approaches with transgendered adolescents. Discusses homelessness and institutionalization,…

  20. Sex differences in nutrient-dependent reproductive ageing.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Hall, Matthew D; Simpson, Stephen J; Dessmann, Josephine; Clissold, Fiona J; Zajitschek, Felix; Lailvaux, Simon P; Raubenheimer, David; Bonduriansky, Russell; Brooks, Robert C

    2009-06-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging predict that fitness-related traits, including reproductive performance, will senesce because the strength of selection declines with age. Sexual selection theory predicts, however, that male reproductive performance (especially sexual advertisement) will increase with age. In both bodies of theory, diet should mediate age-dependent changes in reproductive performance. In this study, we show that the sexes exhibit dramatic, qualitative differences in age-dependent reproductive performance trajectories and patterns of reproductive ageing in the cricket Teleogryllus commodus. In females, fecundity peaked early in adulthood and then declined. In contrast, male sexual advertisement increased across the natural lifespan and only declined well beyond the maximum field lifespan. These sex differences were robust to deviations from sex-specific dietary requirements. Our results demonstrate that sexual selection can be at least as important as sex-dependent mortality in shaping the signal of reproductive ageing. PMID:19627271

  1. Religious Groups v. TV's Sex, Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schicht, Jack

    Religious organizations have played an important part in the national movement to combat sex and violence in television programing. Attempts by religious organizations to exercise some control of the visual media began in 1907 with a concern for movies and has continued to the present. Although many churches and church organizations have expressed…

  2. Sex ratio of equine offspring is affected by the ages of the mare and stallion.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marianna Machado; Maia, Leonardo Lara; Nobre, Daniel Magalhães; Oliveira Neto, José Ferraz; Garcia, Tiago Rezende; Lage, Maria Coeli Gomes Reis; de Melo, Maria Isabel Vaz; Viana, Walmir Santos; Palhares, Maristela Silveira; da Silva Filho, José Monteiro; Santos, Renato Lima; Valle, Guilherme Ribeiro

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of parental age on the sex ratio of offspring in horses. Two trials were performed. In the first trial, the data from a randomly obtained population with a 1:1 sex ratio of 59,950 Mangalarga Marchador horses born in Brazil from 1990 to 2011 were analyzed. The sex ratios of the offspring were compared among groups according to the mare and the stallion ages (from 3 to 25 years). In the first step of the analysis, the mares and stallions were grouped according to age in 5-year intervals. In the second step, the groups were based on the parental age gap at conception. In the third step, the group of the mares and stallions with similar ages from the second step was subdivided, and the different parental age subgroups that were divided into 5-year intervals were compared. In the fourth step, the sex ratio of the offspring was determined according to the ages of the mares and the stallions at conception. The second trial was based on the data from 253 horses of several breeds that were born after natural gestation into a herd from 1989 to 2010, and the offspring of groups that were younger or older than 15 years were compared. The data from both trials were analyzed using a chi-square test (P ≤ 0.01 for the first trial; and P ≤ 0.05 for the second trial) for the comparisons of the sex ratios. In the first trial, the Spearman test (P ≤ 0.01) was used to verify the correlations between the parental age and the offspring sex ratio. In the first trial, the offspring sex ratio decreased as the mare or stallion age increased, and the decrease was more marked for the mares than for the stallions. In the second trial, the mares older than 15 years had more fillies than the younger mares, but the stallion age had no effect on the sex of the offspring. The first trial, with a large number of horses, revealed the pattern of the distribution of the sex ratios of offspring according to the parental age in horses, whereas the

  3. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants. PMID:21323155

  4. Science in Single-Sex and Mixed Teaching Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Evidence suggests that single-sex groups for science, whether in mixed schools or in single-sex schools, do not improve the attainment of girls in first-year science. Boys are shown to perform equally well upon knowledge-based tests; but upon mechanical reasoning and evaluation of data tests, boys perform significantly better than girls. (Author)

  5. Sex differences with aging in the fatigability of dynamic contractions.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tejin; Doyel, Ryan; Widule, Claire; Hunter, Sandra K

    2015-10-01

    This study determined the sex difference with aging in fatigability of the elbow flexor muscles during a dynamic fatiguing task, and explored the associated mechanisms. We compared fatigability of the elbow flexor muscles in 18 young (20.2 ± 1 years: 9 men) and 36 old adults (73.5 ± 1 years: 16 men) during and in recovery from repeated dynamic contractions (~60°/s) with a load equivalent to 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque until failure. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess supraspinal fatigue (an increase in the superimposed twitch, SIT) and the peak rate of muscle relaxation. Time to failure was briefer for the men than the women (6.1 ± 2.1 vs. 9.7 ± 5.5 min, respectively; P=0.02) with no difference between young and old adults (7.2 ± 2.9 vs. 8.4 ± 5.2 min, respectively, P=0.45) and no interaction (P>0.05). The relative decline in peak relaxation rate with fatigability was similar for young and old adults (P=0.11), but greater for men than women (P=0.046). Supraspinal fatigue increased for all groups and was associated with the time to failure (P<0.05). Regression analysis however, indicated that the time to failure was best predicted by the peak relaxation rate (baseline values and slowing with fatigability) (r(2)=0.55). Rate-limiting contractile mechanisms (e.g. excitation-contraction coupling) were responsible for the increased fatigability of the elbow flexors of men compared with women for a dynamic fatiguing task of slow angular velocity, and this sex difference was maintained with aging. The age difference in fatigability for the dynamic task was diminished for both sexes relative to what is typically observed with isometric fatiguing contractions. PMID:26159162

  6. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    PubMed

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented. PMID:24923876

  7. Age and Sex Differences in Interaction with a Human Infant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Judith E. O.

    1981-01-01

    Examines sex differences in vocalizations and play behaviors displayed toward an infant by preschoolers, preadolescents, and adults. Preschoolers showed less interaction than older subjects. Males talked and played less with the baby than did females at all ages; however, among adult subjects, no sex-role effects were found. (Author/RH)

  8. Maximal lactate values following competitive performance varying according to age, sex and swimming style.

    PubMed

    Avlonitou, E

    1996-03-01

    Peak blood lactate concentration for a given individual in a given event could be considered as indicator of exercise effort, especially if the race is fast as it occurs following competitive swimming events. The present study attempts to describe the postcompetition lactate profile across all the swimming distances and strokes according to the age and sex of the swimmer. Blood samples (100 micro lambda) were taken from an arterialized fingertip of a total of 337 swimmers (171 males and 166 females) at the end of 3rd and 6th minutes of competition over 50 to 1500 meter distances and for the following 3 age group divisions: AGE1 = > 18 years of age, AGE2 = 16-17 years of age and AGE3 = 14-15 years of age. For AGE1 group the subjects who were picked up for testing were all the first three who met the criteria for this age category in the OPEN winter and summer National and Provincial Championships. For AGE2 and AGE3 groups the subjects who were picked up for testing were ranked among the first three in their age group winter and summer National and Provincial Championships. Results showed that the highest mean peak lactate values for groups AGE2 and AGE3 were recorded in 200 medley event for both sexes while for group AGE1 the highest mean peak lactate value was recorded in 200 and 400 meter medley events for males and females respectively. On the other hand, the lowest mean lactate value was recorded in long distance events of 1500 and 800 meters for males and females respectively and for all the age group divisions. Furthermore, swimming performance was related to peak lactate values which subsequently was independent of sex but dependent on age with higher lactate values and older age documented by the subjects with faster times. PMID:8699834

  9. Sex differences in elite swimming with advanced age are less than marathon running.

    PubMed

    Senefeld, J; Joyner, M J; Stevens, A; Hunter, S K

    2016-01-01

    The sex difference in marathon performance increases with finishing place and age of the runner but whether this occurs among swimmers is unknown. The purpose was to compare sex differences in swimming velocity across world record place (1st-10th), age group (25-89 years), and event distance. We also compared sex differences between freestyle swimming and marathon running. The world's top 10 swimming times of both sexes for World Championship freestyle stroke, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly events and the world's top 10 marathon times in 5-year age groups were obtained. Men were faster than women for freestyle (12.4 ± 4.2%), backstroke (12.8 ± 3.0%), and breaststroke (14.5 ± 3.2%), with the greatest sex differences for butterfly (16.7 ± 5.5%). The sex difference in swimming velocity increased across world record place for freestyle (P < 0.001), breaststroke, and butterfly for all age groups and distances (P < 0.001) because of a greater relative drop-off between first and 10th place for women. The sex difference in marathon running increased with the world record place and the sex difference for marathon running was greater than for swimming (P < 0.001). The sex difference in swimming increased with world record place and age, but was less than for marathon running. Collectively, these results suggest more depth in women's swimming than marathon running. PMID:25648250

  10. Group sex in the acorn woodpecker.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Walter; Haydock, Joey

    2002-08-01

    Family-base societies are frequently faced with the conundrum of balancing the competing reproductive interests of closely related group members. How this is accomplished is the subject of considerable current research, and is epitomized in the complexities of a bizarre species of woodpecker, common in California's oak woodlands. PMID:12167747

  11. Sex- and age-related variations of the somatotype in a Chuvasha population.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, L; Kobyliansky, E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this large, cross-sectional study was to describe the age- and sex-related variations of the somatotype, employing Heath and Carter's method, in a Chuvasha population residing in a rural region in central Russia. The investigated sample included 802 males aged 18-89 years (mean 46.9) and 738 females aged 18-90 years (mean 48.6). We evaluated the age and sex differences by one-way ANOVA with somatotype components as dependent variables and sex or age groups as grouping variables. Sex differences of somatotypes appear to be the strongest for endomorphy, with generally higher values in women. Endomorphy in males remained virtually unchanged after 30 years of age, but endomorphy in females kept increasing up to the 6th decade, and then subsequently decreased. Virtually no differences were noted in mesomorphy and a very small difference in ectomorphy between males and females aged 18-30 years. A reduction of sexual dimorphism in all somatotype components after age 70 was also observed. The largest difference of all somatotype components appeared between age groups 18-30 and 31-40 years. Thereafter, somatotypes remained practically unchanged. Mesomorphy continued to increase until the 5th decade in both sexes, while in females, endomorphy continuously increased until their 6th decade. In the 7th and 8th decades, a decrease in mean values was observed. Mesomorphy and ectomorphy showed opposite age-related trends. Results of our study clearly suggest that in physique investigations, the somatotypes need to be studied in each sex separately, and in studies of young people, they need also to be adjusted to age. PMID:16574118

  12. Shoe midsole hardness, sex and age effects on lower extremity kinematics during running.

    PubMed

    Nigg, Benno M; Baltich, Jennifer; Maurer, Christian; Federolf, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies investigating the effects of shoe midsole hardness on running kinematics have often used male subjects from within a narrow age range. It is unknown whether shoe midsole hardness has the same kinematic effect on male and female runners as well as runners from different age categories. As sex and age have an effect on running kinematics, it is important to understand if shoe midsole hardness affects the kinematics of these groups in a similar fashion. However, current literature on the effects of sex and age on running kinematics are also limited to a narrow age range distribution in their study population. Therefore, this study tested the influence of three different midsole hardness conditions, sex and age on the lower extremity kinematics during heel-toe running. A comprehensive analysis approach was used to analyze the lower-extremity kinematic gait variables for 93 runners (male and female) aged 16-75 years. Participants ran at 3.33±0.15 m/s on a 30 m-long runway with soft, medium and hard midsoles. A principal component analysis combined with a support vector machine showed that running kinematics based on shoe midsole hardness, sex, and age were separable and classifiable. Shoe midsole hardness demonstrated a subject-independent effect on the kinematics of running. Additionally, it was found that age differences affected the more dominant movement components of running compared to differences due to the sex of a runner. PMID:22507350

  13. Sex and Ethnic-Group Differences on Accomplishments Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, Lawrence J.; Rock, Donald A.; Bennett, Randy Elliot

    2001-01-01

    Studied sex and ethnic group differences on 6 scales that measure accomplishments for 739 male and 1,746 female graduate school applicants. With the exception of the scale measuring mechanical accomplishment, men and women did not differ in performance, and ethnic groups did not differ on any scale. (SLD)

  14. Effects of Lab Group Sex Composition on Physics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Wei-Zhao; He, Xiqin; Wang, Yan; Huan, Weiliang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the gender composition of university physics laboratory groups on student self-efficacy and quiz performance. Students from a Chinese university was chosen and subdivided into two groups, which were assigned either same-sex or coed laboratory teams while executing identical laboratory…

  15. Naked at Our Age: Talking out Loud about Senior Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    "Naked at Our Age" is an excellent resource for sexually interested and/or active adults over the age of 60. The book combines the author's personal reflections, questions and stories shared by older adults, and advice from sex therapists, sexuality educators, the author, and health care providers. The breadth of topics makes the book useful to…

  16. PAFS: population-adjusted frequency of sensitization. (I) Influence of sex and age.

    PubMed

    Schnuch, A

    1996-06-01

    Sensitization rates are influenced by sex and age. Crude rates from different departments cannot be compared without taking into account these variables. However, the influence of sex and age has never been considered quantitatively. In 2 hypothetical populations with identical age-specific sensitizations rates, but differing age distributions, the influence of age on the overall sensitization rate (crude rate) is demonstrated. Furthermore, by an abstract reflection on rates, the influence of the proportions of a population category (e.g., age) on crude rates is shown (crude rate = sigma (category-specific rate x proportion of population in category)). To account for differing distributions of sex and age, we propose 2 ways. Sex-specific rates should be presented separately. Age-specific rates should be standardized. The standard rate is defined as: SR = sigma (category specific rate x proportion of standard population in category). Using a standard population with a rectangular structure (i.e., with equal proportions in each of the category (age) specific groups), the standardized rate is the arithmetic average of the category (age) specific rate. Only for simple routine evaluations can a standard population with 2 equal groups be used, namely over 39 years and under 40 years. The standardized rate can easily be calculated as SR: (positive rate (%under 40 + positive rate (%) over 39)/2. The general rule should be to use a "rectangular" standard population with 9 age groups of a 10-year sequence. By using the standardization procedure; remaining differences found in different departments can no longer be attributed to age and sex. Other factors, such as selection of patients or real epidemiological differences, can then be discussed. The application of population-adjusted frequency of sensitization (PAFS) in any publication on prevalences of sensitization is highly recommended. PMID:8879920

  17. Age and sex-related changes in rat brain mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Rocío; Gianotti, Magdalena; Roca, Pilar; Oliver, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Aging is responsible for the decline in the function of mitochondria and their increase in size and number--adaptive mechanism to restore mitochondrial function. Estrogens increase mitochondrial function, especially in female rats. The aim of this study was to determine the age-related changes in rat brain mitochondrial function focusing on sex differences. Cellular and mitochondrial protein and DNA content, mitochondrial oxidative and phosphorylative function in male and female rat brain from four different age groups (6, 12, 18 and 24 months old) were analyzed. Mitochondria protein/DNA content decreased with aging shifting toward lesser mitochondrial functional capacity and the mitochondria number increased. A sex dimorphism was determined, with female rat brain showing mitochondria with greater functional capacity than males. These sex differences gradually increased during aging. PMID:21471708

  18. Stone Composition as a Function of Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Andrew D.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Williams, James C.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Mehta, Ramila A.; Moyer, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Kidney stones are heterogeneous but often grouped together. The potential effects of patient demographics and calendar month (season) on stone composition are not widely appreciated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The first stone submitted by patients for analysis to the Mayo Clinic Metals Laboratory during 2010 was studied (n=43,545). Stones were classified in the following order: any struvite, any cystine, any uric acid, any brushite, majority (≥50%) calcium oxalate, or majority (≥50%) hydroxyapatite. Results Calcium oxalate (67%) was the most common followed by hydroxyapatite (16%), uric acid (8%), struvite (3%), brushite (0.9%), and cystine (0.35%). Men accounted for more stone submissions (58%) than women. However, women submitted more stones than men between the ages of 10–19 (63%) and 20–29 (62%) years. Women submitted the majority of hydroxyapatite (65%) and struvite (65%) stones, whereas men submitted the majority of calcium oxalate (64%) and uric acid (72%) stones (P<0.001). Although calcium oxalate stones were the most common type of stone overall, hydroxyapatite stones were the second most common before age 55 years, whereas uric acid stones were the second most common after age 55 years. More calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were submitted in the summer months (July and August; P<0.001), whereas the season did not influence other stone types. Conclusions It is well known that calcium oxalate stones are the most common stone type. However, age and sex have a marked influence on the type of stone formed. The higher number of stones submitted by women compared with men between the ages of 10 and 29 years old and the change in composition among the elderly favoring uric acid have not been widely appreciated. These data also suggest increases in stone risk during the summer, although this is restricted to calcium oxalate and uric acid stones. PMID:25278549

  19. Food item use by coyote sex and age classes

    SciTech Connect

    Cypher, B.L.; Spencer, K.A.; Scrivner, J.H.

    1995-10-01

    Food item use by coyotes was compared between sexes and among age classes at the Naval Petroleum Reserves, California. Item use did not differ significantly between males and females. Although leporid was the item most frequently used by all age classes, item use differed significantly between pups (< 1 year), yearlings (1 year), and adults (> 1 year), probably due to differential use of secondary items. Variation in item use among age classes could potentially bias results of coyote food habit studies.

  20. Selective aggressiveness in European free-tailed bats ( Tadarida teniotis): influence of familiarity, age and sex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2014-03-01

    Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.

  1. Sex-specific age-related changes of information processing rate indicators during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Zebec, Mislav S; Budimir, Sanja; Merkas, Marina; Szirovicza, Lajos; Zivicnjak, Miroslav

    2014-06-01

    Despite the relevant findings on non-average information processing rate (IPR) indicators-intelligence relation, and on age-related changes of some of these indicators during aging, the research on sex-specific age-related changes of these indicators during childhood and adolescence are lacking. In a transversal study, 1197 school children (598 girls) aged 8-18 have been individually measured on 5 IPR indicators--two averages (mean_t, median_t) and three non-averages (min_t, max_t, sd_t). The results corroborated the expected non-linear changes of average IPR indicators in the observed developmental period, whereby the sex difference in related developmental patterns was detected: marked age-related decrement in girls ceased at the age of 12, and in boys around the age of 13-14, after which progress in both sexes gradually ceased by the age of 18 and was less pronounced in girls. Generally similar non-linear age-related decrements of non-average indicators were registered, but they showed mutual intensity differences at specific ages and sex difference in developmental patterns was detected, analogously to average indicators. Systematic sex differences in the whole observed period were obtained only in two non-average indicators: girls showed minor sd_t and boys showed minor min_t. In specific age groups, a number of sex differences were obtained that are explainable by two possible mechanisms: earlier maturation in girls and sex bias of the IPR task content. The justifiability of separate, average and non-average, IPR indicators application was corroborated by their distribution form differences, by mutual, predominantly low and medium correlations, by the different intensity of their developmental changes and by their different ability to detect sex differences. For all registered phenomena, the theoretical and/or empirical explanations were offered from the domain of sex specific intellectual, motor and neural development, and it has been shown that non

  2. The influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness: no own-age or own-sex advantage among children attending single-sex schools.

    PubMed

    Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Maurer, Daphne; Gao, Xiaoqing

    2014-04-01

    We examined how recent biased face experience affects the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness among 8- and 9-year-old children attending a girls' school, a boys' school, and a mixed-sex school. We presented pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% toward its group average, whereas the other face was transformed 50% away from that average. Across blocks, the faces varied in age (adult, 9-year-old, or 5-year-old) and sex (male or female). We expected that averageness might influence attractiveness judgments more strongly for same-age faces and, for children attending single-sex schools, same-sex faces of that age because their prototype(s) should be best tuned to the faces they see most frequently. Averageness influenced children's judgments of attractiveness, but the strength of the influence was not modulated by the age of the face, nor did the effects of sex of face differ across schools. Recent biased experience might not have affected the results because of similarities between the average faces of different ages and sexes and/or because a minimum level of experience with a particular group of faces may be adequate for the formation of a veridical prototype and its influence on judgments of attractiveness. The results suggest that averageness affects children's judgments of the attractiveness of the faces they encounter in everyday life regardless of age or sex of face. PMID:24326246

  3. Sex Role and Interpersonal Behavior in Task-Oriented Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeker, B. F.; Weitzel-O'Neill, P. A.

    1977-01-01

    The sociological theory that men are instrument or task specialists and that women are expressive or social specialists has been weakened by research on small groups, families and personality. This paper suggests that sex differences in task-oriented situations may be explained by status processes, men having higher status than women. (Author/JM)

  4. Integrating a Humanistic Approach in Outpatient Sex Offender Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Sheri; Kopp, T. Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral and relapse prevention models are currently the treatments of choice among sex offender treatment providers. This article recommends integrating humanistic principles within treatment programs in order to maximize the power of group psychotherapy. Humanistic treatment processes and therapist characteristics that improve…

  5. Age and sex differences in tibia morphology in healthy adult Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D.; Bemben, Debra A.; Bemben, Michael G.; Anderson, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) measurement sites limits direct comparisons of results between studies. Further, it is unclear what estimates of bone strength are most indicative of changes due to aging, disease, or interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine age group and sex differences in tibia morphology. Additional purposes of this study were to determine which tibia site or sites are most sensitive for detecting age and sex differences. Methods Self-identifying Caucasian men (n=55) and women (n=59) ages 20-59 years and separated by decades had their non-dominant tibias measured with pQCT (Stratec XCT 3000) at every 10% of the limb length from 5%-85% (distal to proximal). Volumetric BMD and BMC of the total, cortical and trabecular bone were determined, as well as periosteal (PeriC) and endosteal (EndoC) circumferences, and cortical thickness (CTh). Results There were significant (p<0.01) site effects for all BMC, vBMD, PeriC and EndoC measures. Large sex differences (men>women) in Tot.BMC (21-28%) were paralleled by differences in Cort.BMC (21-25%) (p<0.01). Site*sex interaction effects were significant (p<0.05) for BMC (peak sex difference: 5%, 15%, 25%, 85% sites) and circumference (peak sex difference: 65% site) variables. CTh and total vBMD were lowest (p<0.05) in 50-59 yr group, and EndoC was highest in the 50-59 yr group. Site*age interactions existed for Cort.vBMD, Tot.BMC (85% site), and EndoC (25%, 35%, 55%-85% sites). Correcting for bone free lean body mass (BFLBM) greatly reduced sex differences, eliminating sex*site interaction effects, but sex main effects remained significant. Correcting for BFLBM did not eliminate age effects. Conclusion The magnitude of age and sex differences in tibia variables varied by measurement site demonstrating the need for standardization of measurement sites. PMID:22449446

  6. Engagement in group sex among geosocial networking (GSN) mobile application-using men who have sex with men (MSM)

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Gregory; Grov, Christian; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the group most affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States. At least one-quarter of MSM report engagement in group sex events (GSEs), which can pose a risk for HIV transmission and acquisition. In this study, we sought to identify event-level correlates of sexual and drug use behaviors at GSEs to better inform prevention activities. Methods For this study, we recruited participants via banner and pop-up advertisements placed on a geosocial networking mobile phone application for MSM to meet. Results Of the 1,997 individuals who completed the study screener, 36.0% reported participating in at least one GSE in the prior year. In multivariable logistic regression, attendance at a GSE in the past year was significantly associated with older age, full/part time employment, and being HIV-positive. Of the men who attended a GSE, more than half reported condomless anal sex (CAS) with at least one of their partners (insertive: 57.7%; receptive: 56.3%). MSM who indicated drug use had significantly higher odds of having insertive CAS (odds ratio (OR) = 2.45; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37, 4.39) and receptive CAS (OR = 3.60; 95% CI: 1.96, 6.63) at their last GSE. Conclusions The high prevalence of HIV-positive MSM engaging in group sex, coupled with their greater odds of CAS, poses a significant risk for HIV/STI transmission within the group sex setting. More research is needed to determine patterns of condom use at these events, and whether seroadaptive behaviors are driving CAS. PMID:26255156

  7. Fetal Habituation Performance: Gestational Age and Sex Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorry, Noleen K.; Hepper, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Habituation is the decrement in response to repeated stimulation. Fetal habituation performance may reflect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) prenatally. However, basic characteristics of the prenatal habituation phenomena remain unclear, such as the relationship with gestational age (GA) and fetal sex. The current study…

  8. Serotonin modulation of cerebral glucose metabolism: sex and age effects.

    PubMed

    Munro, Cynthia A; Workman, Clifford I; Kramer, Elisse; Hermann, Carol; Ma, Yilong; Dhawan, Vijay; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David; Smith, Gwenn S

    2012-11-01

    The serotonin system is implicated in a variety of psychiatric disorders whose clinical presentation and response to treatment differ between males and females, as well as with aging. However, human neurobiological studies are limited. Sex differences in the cerebral metabolic response to an increase in serotonin concentrations were measured, as well as the effect of aging, in men compared to women. Thirty-three normal healthy individuals (14 men/19 women, age range 20-79 years) underwent two resting positron emission tomography studies with the radiotracer [18F]-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]-FDG) after placebo and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, citalopram) infusions on two separate days. Results indicated that women demonstrated widespread areas of increased cortical glucose metabolism with fewer areas of decrease in metabolism in response to citalopram. Men, in contrast, demonstrated several regions of decreased cortical metabolism, but no regions of increased metabolism. Age was associated with greater increases in women and greater decreases in men in most brain regions. These results support prior studies indicating that serotonin function differs in men and women across the lifespan. Future studies aimed at characterizing the influences of age and sex on the serotonin system in patients with psychiatric disorders are needed to elucidate the relationship between sex and age differences in brain chemistry and associated differences in symptom presentation and treatment response. PMID:22836227

  9. Sex-related differences and age of peak performance in breaststroke versus freestyle swimming

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex-related differences in performance and in age of peak performance have been reported for freestyle swimming. However, little is known about the sex-related differences in other swimming styles. The aim of the present study was to compare performance and age of peak performance for elite men and women swimmers in breaststroke versus freestyle. Methods Race results were analyzed for swimmers at national ranked in the Swiss high score list (during 2006 through 2010) and for international swimmers who qualified for the finals of the FINA World Swimming Championships (during 2003 through 2011). Results The sex-related difference in swimming speed was significantly greater for freestyle than for breaststroke over 50 m, 100 m, and 200 m race distances for Swiss swimmers, but not for FINA finalists. The sex-related difference for both freestyle and breaststroke swimming speeds decreased significantly with increasing swimming distance for both groups. Race distance did not affect the age of peak performance by women in breaststroke, but age of peak performance was four years older for FINA women than for Swiss women. Men achieved peak swimming performance in breaststroke at younger ages for longer race distances, and the age of peak swimming performance was six years older for FINA men than for Swiss men. In freestyle swimming, race distance did not affect the age of peak swimming performance for Swiss women, but the age of peak swimming performance decreased with increasing race distance for Swiss men and for both sexes at the FINA World Championships. Conclusions Results of the present study indicate that (i) sex-related differences in swimming speed were greater for freestyle than for breaststroke for swimmers at national level, but not for swimmers at international level, and (ii) both female and male swimmers achieved peak swimming speeds at younger ages in breaststroke than in freestyle. Further studies are required to better understand differences

  10. Self-disclosure Modeling in Same-sex and Mixed-sex Unsupervised Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annis, Lawrence V.; Perry, Donald F.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of videotaped models in eliciting self-disclosure were assessed for men and women in unsupervised groups of one or both sexes. Videotaped modeling was clearly superior to a control condition in increasing self-disclosure. Females generally displayed more self-disclosure than males. (Author)

  11. The Effects of Style and Sex of Consultants and Sex of Members in Self-Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Fred

    1976-01-01

    Defines the self-study group and differentiates it from other laboratory training groups. Investigates the effects of sex and style of the facilitators on group members. Presented at the American Group Psychotherapy Association Convention, Boston, Mass., February, 1976. (HMV)

  12. Estimating Small-area Populations by Age and Sex Using Spatial Interpolation and Statistical Inference Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Qai, Qiang; Rushton, Gerald; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Coleman, Phil R

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to compute population estimates by age and sex for small areas whose boundaries are different from those for which the population counts were made. In our approach, population surfaces and age-sex proportion surfaces are separately estimated. Age-sex population estimates for small areas and their confidence intervals are then computed using a binomial model with the two surfaces as inputs. The approach was implemented for Iowa using a 90 m resolution population grid (LandScan USA) and U.S. Census 2000 population. Three spatial interpolation methods, the areal weighting (AW) method, the ordinary kriging (OK) method, and a modification of the pycnophylactic method, were used on Census Tract populations to estimate the age-sex proportion surfaces. To verify the model, age-sex population estimates were computed for paired Block Groups that straddled Census Tracts and therefore were spatially misaligned with them. The pycnophylactic method and the OK method were more accurate than the AW method. The approach is general and can be used to estimate subgroup-count types of variables from information in existing administrative areas for custom-defined areas used as the spatial basis of support in other applications.

  13. Sex and age mortality responses in zinc acetate-treated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, G.R.; Cole, B.S.; Lovelace, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    In regard to trace metal treatment or exposure, a number of variables are known to affect the expression of toxicity concerning its time course and degree. For example, known variables are route of administration, anionic component of the test substance, and sex and age of the recipient animal. Concerning the latter, little, if any, data have been reported dealing with sex- and age-related responses to excess zinc in mammalian systems. The primary purpose of the short communication presented here focuses on the determination of median lethal dose in sexually immature, i.e., juvenile, and adult female and male mice following a single zinc acetate insult. In addition, variation of lethality responses was examined with the age and sex groups to a divided treatment of a lethal dosage of zinc acetate, the injections of which were separated by various intervals.

  14. Age, APOE and sex: Triad of risk of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Brandalyn C; Thompson, Paul M; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2016-06-01

    Age, apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE) and chromosomal sex are well-established risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD; AD). Over 60% of persons with AD harbor at least one APOE-ε4 allele. The sex-based prevalence of AD is well documented with over 60% of persons with AD being female. Evidence indicates that the APOE-ε4 risk for AD is greater in women than men, which is particularly evident in heterozygous women carrying one APOE-ε4 allele. Paradoxically, men homozygous for APOE-ε4 are reported to be at greater risk for mild cognitive impairment and AD. Herein, we discuss the complex interplay between the three greatest risk factors for Alzheimer's disease, age, APOE-ε4 genotype and chromosomal sex. We propose that the convergence of these three risk factors, and specifically the bioenergetic aging perimenopause to menopause transition unique to the female, creates a risk profile for AD unique to the female. Further, we discuss the specific risk of the APOE-ε4 positive male which appears to emerge early in the aging process. Evidence for impact of the triad of AD risk factors is most evident in the temporal trajectory of AD progression and burden of pathology in relation to APOE genotype, age and sex. Collectively, the data indicate complex interactions between age, APOE genotype and gender that belies a one size fits all approach and argues for a precision medicine approach that integrates across the three main risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26969397

  15. Differences in Common Genetic Predisposition to Ischemic Stroke by Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C.A.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Malik, Rainer; Sudlow, Cathie; Rothwell, Peter M.; Maguire, Jane M.; Koblar, Simon A.; Bevan, Steve; Boncoraglio, Giorgio; Dichgans, Martin; Levi, Chris; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Markus, Hugh S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Evidence from epidemiological studies points to differences in factors predisposing to stroke by age and sex. Whether these arise because of different genetic influences remained untested. Here, we use data from 4 genome-wide association data sets to study the relationship between genetic influence on stroke with both age and sex. Methods— Using genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood methods, we performed 4 analyses: (1) we calculated the genetic correlation between groups divided by age and (2) by sex, (3) we calculated the heritability of age-at-stroke-onset, and (4) we evaluated the evidence that heritability of stroke is greater in women than in men. Results— We found that genetic factors influence age at stroke onset (h2 [SE]=18.0 [6.8]; P=0.0038), with a trend toward a stronger influence in women (women: h2 [SE]=21.6 [3.5]; Men: h2 [SE]=13.9 [2.8]). Although a moderate proportion of genetic factors was shared between sexes (rG [SE]=0.68 [0.16]) and between younger and older cases (rG [SE]=0.70 [0.17]), there was evidence to suggest that there are genetic susceptibility factors that are specific to sex (P=0.037) and to younger or older groups (P=0.056), particularly for women (P=0.0068). Finally, we found a trend toward higher heritability of stroke in women although this was not significantly greater than in men (P=0.084). Conclusions— Our results indicate that there are genetic factors that are either unique to or have a different effect between younger and older age groups and between women and men. Performing large, well-powered genome-wide association study analyses in these groups is likely to uncover further associations. PMID:26443828

  16. Sex Differences in Latent Cognitive Abilities Ages 5 to 17: Evidence from the Differential Ability Scales--Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Roberts, Lisa G.; Winter, Amanda L.; Austin, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences in the latent general and broad cognitive abilities underlying the Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition were investigated for children and youth ages 5 through 17. Multi-group mean and covariance structural equation modeling was used to investigate sex differences in latent cognitive abilities as well as changes in these…

  17. Sex and Age Differences in Mortality in Southern China, 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Yu, Leibin; Lin, Xinqin; Liu, Haiyan; Shi, Jian; Nong, Quanxing; Tang, Hongyang; Mao, Zongfu

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the mortality patterns in the southern provinces of China, and to provide epidemiologic data on sex and age differences of death outcomes. Reliable mortality and population data from January 2004 to December 2010 were obtained from 12 Disease Surveillance Point (DSP) sites in four provinces of China. Death data from all causes and respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia and influenza, circulatory disease, and ischemic heart disease, were stratified by year, month of death occurrence and sex, seven age groups, and summarized by descriptive statistics. The mean annual mortality rates of the selected 12 DSP sites in the southernmost provinces of China were 543.9 (range: 423.9-593.6) deaths per 100,000 population. The death rates show that noted sex differences were higher in the male population for all-cause, COPD and circulatory diseases. Pneumonia and influenza death rates present a different sex- and age-related distribution, with higher rates in male aged 65-74 years; whereas the death rates were opposite in elderly aged ≥75 years, and relatively higher in young children. This study had practical implications for recommending target groups for public health interventions. PMID:26184261

  18. Sex and Age Differences in Mortality in Southern China, 2004–2010

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Leibin; Lin, Xinqin; Liu, Haiyan; Shi, Jian; Nong, Quanxing; Tang, Hongyang; Mao, Zongfu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the mortality patterns in the southern provinces of China, and to provide epidemiologic data on sex and age differences of death outcomes. Reliable mortality and population data from January 2004 to December 2010 were obtained from 12 Disease Surveillance Point (DSP) sites in four provinces of China. Death data from all causes and respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia and influenza, circulatory disease, and ischemic heart disease, were stratified by year, month of death occurrence and sex, seven age groups, and summarized by descriptive statistics. The mean annual mortality rates of the selected 12 DSP sites in the southernmost provinces of China were 543.9 (range: 423.9–593.6) deaths per 100,000 population. The death rates show that noted sex differences were higher in the male population for all-cause, COPD and circulatory diseases. Pneumonia and influenza death rates present a different sex- and age-related distribution, with higher rates in male aged 65–74 years; whereas the death rates were opposite in elderly aged ≥75 years, and relatively higher in young children. This study had practical implications for recommending target groups for public health interventions. PMID:26184261

  19. Sex Differences in Participation, Performance, and Age of Ultramarathon Runners.

    PubMed

    Senefeld, Jonathon; Smith, Carolyn; Hunter, Sandra K

    2016-07-01

    The sex difference in marathon running is increased with lower participation of women than men, but whether this occurs for ultramarathon running is not known. The study purpose was to determine whether the sex difference in performance widens among lower-placed runners and the association between the sex difference in running speed and participation rates. The top-10 ultramarathon running times, age at performance date, and the number of men and women finishers were analyzed from 20 races (45-160 km) in the US Track and Field Ultra Running Grand Prix. Men were faster than women for all events (18.7% ± 5.8%, P < .001). The sex difference in speed was the least for 100 km (14.9% ± 4.2%) and greatest for 45-50 km (19.3% ± 5.8%). The top-10 men were younger than the top-10 women (37.7 ± 3.2 and 39.0 ± 3.1 y, respectively, P < .001). The sex difference in speed increased with finishing place (1st place 15.6% ± 6.6% vs 10th 20.8% ± 5.6%, P < .001). Association analysis showed that the sex difference in speed was largest when there were fewer women than men finishers in a race; the strength of the association was greatest for the 80-km distance and least for the 160-km. Lower participation rates of women than men in the lower-distance ultramarathons and less depth among lower-placed women runners inflate the sex difference in ultramarathon performance. PMID:26561864

  20. Letter report: Population estimates by age, sex and race for 10-county study area

    SciTech Connect

    Pittenger, D B

    1992-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.

  1. Face age and sex modulate the other-race effect in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Jennifer; Lipp, Ottmar V; Vanman, Eric J

    2012-11-01

    Faces convey a variety of socially relevant cues that have been shown to affect recognition, such as age, sex, and race, but few studies have examined the interactive effect of these cues. White participants of two distinct age groups were presented with faces that differed in race, age, and sex in a face recognition paradigm. Replicating the other-race effect, young participants recognized young own-race faces better than young other-race faces. However, recognition performance did not differ across old faces of different races (Experiments 1, 2A). In addition, participants showed an other-age effect, recognizing White young faces better than White old faces. Sex affected recognition performance only when age was not varied (Experiment 2B). Overall, older participants showed a similar recognition pattern (Experiment 3) as young participants, displaying an other-race effect for young, but not old, faces. However, they recognized young and old White faces on a similar level. These findings indicate that face cues interact to affect recognition performance such that age and sex information reliably modulate the effect of race cues. These results extend accounts of face recognition that explain recognition biases (such as the other-race effect) as a function of dichotomous ingroup/outgroup categorization, in that outgroup characteristics are not simply additive but interactively determine recognition performance. PMID:22933042

  2. Teeth, Sex, and Testosterone: Aging in the World's Smallest Primate

    PubMed Central

    Zohdy, Sarah; Gerber, Brian D.; Tecot, Stacey; Blanco, Marina B.; Winchester, Julia M.; Wright, Patricia C.; Jernvall, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease) but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus) from 2003–2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1–8, mean = 2.59±1.63 SE), three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus). Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can determine

  3. Age and sex selectivity in trapping mule deer

    SciTech Connect

    Garrott, R.A.; White, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    A mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) trapping experiment is described using modified Clover traps in which changes in the placement of bait and height of the trap door modified the ratio of adult does to male and female fawns captured. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in age-sex capture ratios are discussed and indicate that modified Clover traps selectivity capture mule deer, thus introducing bias into population sampling. (JMT)

  4. Young Children's Play Qualities in Same-, Other-, and Mixed-Sex Peer Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabes, Richard A.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Hanish, Laura D.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined how children's play varied as function of child's sex, play partner's sex, and whether they played in dyads or groups. Observation data revealed that boys' same-sex play was more active-forceful, farther from presence of adults, and more stereotyped than girls', a pattern exaggerated in groups. Mixed-sex play was more likely…

  5. Sex, Race, and Age Disparities in the Improvement of Survival for Gastrointestinal Cancer over Time

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jue-feng; Yang, Li-feng; Shen, Yun-zhu; Jia, Hui-xun; Zhu, Ji; Li, Gui-chao; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    There have been notable improvements in survival over the past 2 decades for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. However, the degree of improvement by age, race, and sex remains unclear. We analyzed data from 9 population-based cancer registries included in the SEER program of the National Cancer Institute (SEER 9) in 1990 to 2009 (n = 288,337). The degree of survival improvement over time by age, race, and sex was longitudinally measured. From 1990 to 2009, improvements in survival were greater for younger age groups. For patients aged 20 to 49 years and diagnosed from 2005 to 2009, adjusted HRs (95% CIs) were 0.74 (95% CI, 0.66–0.83), 0.49 (95% CI, 0.37–0.64), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.65–0.76), 0.62 (95% CI, 0.54–0.69), and 0.56 (95% CI, 0.42–0.76), for cancer of the stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum and anus, respectively, compared with the same age groups of patients diagnosed during 1990 to 1994. Compared with African Americans, whites experienced greater improvement in small intestinal and anal cancer survival. Female anal cancer and regional anal cancer patients experienced no improvement. Our data suggest that different improvement in survival in age, sex and race exists. PMID:27406065

  6. Changes of sleep or waking habits by age and sex in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Man; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Seo, Yoo Jin; Kang, Min Jeong; Nagashima, Hidetoshi

    2002-06-01

    We analyzed the effects of age and sex on habitual sleep/wake rhythm and Morningness-Eveningness scores of 2,252 subjects (6-89 years) randomly selected in Shimonoseki, Japan. Subjects were divided into 21 age groups with a matching number of men and women in each age group. The most common sleep parameter patterns by age showed a v- or inverted v-pattern with a turning point in young adulthood or at the period of puberty. During the period between 6 yr. of age to puberty or young adulthood, the bedtimes on weekdays and weekends and the waking times on weekends were delayed, Morningness-Eveningness scores shifted to the evening type, and sleep length on weekdays decreased. After that period, across groups of increasing age, bedtime and waking time on weekdays and weekends became earlier, sleep length on weekdays and sleep latency increased, Morningness-Eveningness scores shifted to morning type, and the number of awakenings increased. The number of daytime naps increased in the 16-19 yr. group, decreased slightly after that age group, but increased again in older groups. The weekday bedtimes of women above 40 yr. of age was significantly later and their sleep lengths significantly shorter than those of men of the same age. Average sleep latency was longer for women than men. The number of awakenings was larger in women above 50 yr. of age than men of the same age group. The turning point of age, gained from the two linear regressions on data for subjects that have a minimum sum of squared error, was between 16 and 25 yr. of age. Average phase of sleep/wake rhythm shifted backward and sleep length decreased in groups from age 6 to puberty or young adulthood. After early adolescence, the average phase of the sleep/wake rhythm shifted forward, sleep latency became longer, and daytime napping increased. Number of awakenings increased rapidly for women's groups over 40 yr. of age and for men's groups after 50 yr. of age. Sex differences in our research are in apparent

  7. Effects of Sex Composition on Group Processes in Alcohol Prevention Groups for Teens

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Tracey A.; Bacio, Guadalupe A.; Tomlinson, Kristin; Ladd, Benjamin O.; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2015-01-01

    Although most alcohol and other drug prevention programs for adolescents are offered in group settings, little is known about the possible effects of sex composition on group processes and mechanisms of change. Using the Group Actor-Partner Interdependence Model framework, we examined how the sex constellation of adolescent prevention group members influenced youth satisfaction, engagement, and endorsement of healthy behavior during group. Participants in Project Options (N = 379; 61.8% girls; Mage = 16.1; SD = 1.4), a voluntary school-based alcohol prevention program, completed measures of satisfaction at each prevention session and observers rated engagement and change talk for each group. When analyses were oriented towards girls, their personal satisfaction, group-rated satisfaction, and group-level engagement were positively related to having more girls in the group. Similarly, in boys, personal satisfaction, satisfaction of the group as a whole, and engagement in groups improved when groups were composed of more girls. Statements supportive of healthy alcohol/drug-related decision making were unrelated to group composition. The findings suggest that the composition of girls and boys in groups has differential effects on some group processes. This avenue of research has merit for the understanding the mechanisms associated with satisfaction and engagement in adolescent substance use prevention programs. PMID:26237325

  8. Age and Sex Effects in Anchoring Vignette Studies: Methodological and Empirical Contributions*

    PubMed Central

    Grol-Prokopczyk, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Anchoring vignettes are an increasingly popular tool for identifying and correcting for group differences in use of subjective ordered response categories. However, existing techniques to maximize response consistency (use of the same standards for self-ratings as for vignette-ratings), which center on matching vignette characters’ demographic characteristics to respondents’ own characteristics, appear at times to be ineffective or to pose interpretive difficulties. Specifically, respondents often appear to neglect instructions to treat vignette characters as age peers. Furthermore, when vignette characters’ sex is matched to respondents’ sex, interpretation of sex differences in rating style is rendered problematic. This study applies two experimental manipulations to a national American sample (n=1,765) to clarify best practices for enhancing response consistency. First, an analysis of two methods of highlighting vignette characters’ age suggests that both yield better response consistency than previous, less prominent means. Second, a comparison of ratings of same- and opposite-sex vignette characters suggests that, with avoidable exceptions, the sex of the respondent rather than of the vignette character drives observed sex differences in rating style. Implications for interpretation and design of anchoring vignette studies are discussed. In addition, this study clarifies the importance of two additional measurement assumptions, cross-respondent vignette equivalence and cross-character vignette equivalence. It also presents empirical findings of significant sex, educational, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating health, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating political efficacy. These findings underscore the incomparability of unadjusted subjective self-ratings across demographic groups, and thus support the potential utility of the anchoring vignette method. PMID:25621079

  9. Age and sex determination of juvenile band-tailed pigeons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, J.A.; Braun, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    Captive band-tailed pigeons (Columbafasciata) were studied to document progression of molts and plumages from juvenal to adult age. Immature pigeons began the post-juvenal molt at 35 days which continued up to 340 days. The only 3 plumage characters useful for identification and estimation of age were presence of juvenal lesser, middle, and greater secondary coverts, juvenal secondaries, and juvenal primaries. While juvenal primaries were still present, hatching dates could be estimated up to 252 days (N = 84). Secondary feather presence and molt stage could be used to identify juvenile pigeons for more than 340 days (N = 24). Using coloration of the crown and breast feathers, 96 percent of the immature pigeons examined (106 of 110) at 80 days of age were classified accurately as to sex.

  10. Methods of suicide by age: sex and race differences among the young and old.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, J L; Santos, J F

    The elderly have the highest suicide rate in the United States. In partial explanation of this finding, a common statement in the suicide literature is that older persons tend to use more drastic and effective methods of suicide. However, little, if any, data have been presented in defense of this explanation. In order to investigate the validity of this contention, annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (whites, blacks, nonwhites excluding black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. For white males, blacks of both sexes, and nonwhites excluding black females, the findings confirmed the use of more violent methods by the elderly than by the young in terms of the proportion of suicides by firearms and/or hanging. Less support and, in fact, opposite results for method-related age differences were obtained for white females and nonwhites excluding black males. Another general finding was an increase in the use of firearms for most of the groups studied. The need for data for specific groups within the nonwhite category excluding blacks is apparent both from the available literature and from the present findings. Possible explanations and implications of the observed results are discussed. PMID:3830918

  11. Parenting Predictors of Early-Adolescents' Health Behaviors: Simultaneous Group Comparisons across Sex and Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E.; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth…

  12. Phenobarbital plasma level/dose ratio in monotherapy. Influence of age, sex and dose.

    PubMed

    Durán, J A; Sánchez, A; Serrano, M I; Serrano, J S

    1988-05-01

    Phenobarbital plasma level/dose ratio (L/D) has been studied in 536 outpatients distributed in groups according to age, sex and drug dosage. Samples were obtained prior to the first morning dose. Plasma levels that correspond to the steady-state phase were determined by homogeneous enzymatic immunoassay (EMITR). From the results it must be pointed out: 1) An increase of L/D as the age increases within each group; 2) A decrease of L/D as the dose of phenobarbital increases in the overall sample; 3) Sex does not affect L/D in any of the subgroups studied; 4) For a given dose higher blood levels are reached in children 7 to 15 years old in our sample than in other comparable studies in Spain. PMID:3398650

  13. Age, sex, and pubertal phase influence mentalizing about emotions and actions in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Keulers, Esther H H; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Stiers, Peter; Jolles, Jelle

    2010-01-01

    This study examined (1) emotional versus cognitive developmental trajectories and (2) the influence of age-extrinsic factors (i.e., sex and puberty). Using a cross-sectional design, adolescents (N = 252) divided into four age-groups (ages 13, 15, 17, 19) performed two versions of a mentalizing task, about emotions and actions, as well as the Tower task. First, performance on all tasks improved linearly into late adolescence (age 19). Thus no differential trajectories were found for emotional versus cognitive development. Second, girls outperformed boys in mentalizing speed regarding both emotions and actions. In boys, a later pubertal phase was associated with increased mentalizing speed after controlling for age-group. PMID:20721775

  14. Age- and sex-related changes in the normal human external nose.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Grandi, Gaia; De Menezes, Marcio; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2011-01-30

    The objective of this study was to measure: (1) normal sex-related dimensions of external nose (linear distances, ratios, angles, volume and surface area); and (2) growth changes between childhood and old age. The three-dimensional coordinates of several soft-tissue landmarks on the external nose were obtained by a non-invasive, computerized digitizer in 519 male and 340 female healthy subjects aged 4-73 years. The subjects were divided into 11 non-overlapping age groups: for children and preadolescent subjects, 2-year spans were used, while larger intervals were used for adolescent and adult subjects. From the landmarks, nasal volume and external surface area; nasal and alar base widths, nasal height, nasal bridge length, philtrum length, nasal tip protrusion, right and left nostril lengths, superior and inferior nostril widths; nasal tip protrusion-to-nasal height, and nasal width-to-nasal height ratios; nasal convexity, alar slope, and nasal tip angles were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. On average, men had larger nasal external volume and area, linear distances and nasal width-to-height ratio than women (p<0.01); no sex differences were found for the angles and the nasal tip protrusion-to-nasal height ratio. Age significantly influenced all analyzed measurements (p<0.001): nasal volume, area, linear distances increased from childhood to old age, while the nasal tip angle decreased as a function of age. No consistent age related patterns were found for the ratios and the nasal convexity and alar slope angles. Men and women had different age related patterns, with significant sex by age interactions (p<0.001). Overall, in most occasions male increments in nasal dimensions were larger than female ones. Data collected in the present investigation could serve as a database for the quantitative description of human nasal morphology during normal growth, development and aging. Forensic

  15. Maximum Bite Force Analysis in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Patricia; Vieira, Marilena; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF) is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI), using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo), and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil), on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups. PMID:25992105

  16. Oxytocin's effect on resting-state functional connectivity varies by age and sex.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Natalie C; Chen, Huaihou; Porges, Eric; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Feifel, David; Cohen, Ronald A

    2016-07-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a role in social cognition and affective processing. The neural processes underlying these effects are not well understood. Modulation of connectivity strength between subcortical and cortical regions has been suggested as one possible mechanism. The current study investigated effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on resting-state functional connectivity between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), as two regions involved in social-cognitive and affective processing. Going beyond previous work that largely examined young male participants, our study comprised young and older men and women to identify age and sex variations in oxytocin's central processes. This approach was based on known hormonal differences among these groups and emerging evidence of sex differences in oxytocin's effects on amygdala reactivity and age-by-sex-modulated effects of oxytocin in affective processing. In a double-blind design, 79 participants were randomly assigned to self-administer either intranasal oxytocin or placebo before undergoing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a targeted region-to-region approach, resting-state functional connectivity strength between bilateral amygdala and mPFC was examined. Participants in the oxytocin compared to the placebo group and men compared to women had overall greater amygdala-mPFC connectivity strength at rest. These main effects were qualified by a significant three-way interaction: while oxytocin compared to placebo administration increased resting-state amygdala-mPFC connectivity for young women, oxytocin did not significantly influence connectivity in the other age-by-sex subgroups. This study provides novel evidence of age-by-sex differences in how oxytocin modulates resting-state brain connectivity, furthering our understanding of how oxytocin affects brain networks at rest. PMID:27032063

  17. Association between Homocysteine and Bone Mineral Density according to Age and Sex in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Il; Moon, Ji Hyun; Chung, Hye Won; Kong, Mi Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several studies about the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and bone mineral density (BMD), but the results are varied, and the studies are limited in Korea. In our study, the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by part according to age and sex is investigated. Methods From March 2012 to July 2015, the 3,337 healthy adults who took a medical examination were recruited. Subjects filled in the self-recording type questionnaire and physical examination, blood test, BMD of lumbar spine and femur were measured. After sorting by aging (≤49 year old, 50-59 year old, ≥60 year old) and sex, the results were adjusted with age and body mass index (BMI) and the relationship between serum homocysteine levels and BMD by lumbar spine and femur was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results As results of analysis, with the adjustment with age and BMI, all age groups of men had no significant relationship between log-converted serum homocysteine levels and BMD. In women aged under 50, there were significantly negative relationships at lumbar spine (β=-0.028, P=0.038), femur neck (β=-0.062, P=0.001), and total hip (β=-0.076, P<0.001), but there was no significant relationship in other age groups (50-59 year old and ≥60 year old). Conclusions As the serum homocysteine levels increased in women aged under 50, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur decreased, and correlations between homocysteine and BMD were different by sex and age. PMID:27622176

  18. Effects of age and sex on hormonal responses to weightlessness simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larochelle, F.; Leach, C.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of horizontal bedrest on the excretion of catecholamines, aldosterone, and cortisol by human subjects grouped by age and sex are examined. The responses are assessed by assays of 24-hr urine samples collected throughout the studies. In 36-45-yr-olds, the excretion of epinephrine increases, whereas it decreases in the 46-55- and 56-65-yr-old groups. Norepinephrine excretion decreases (5-27%) in all groups during bedrest. Aldosterone excretion increases in the younger two groups of both males (19 and 6%) and females (47 and 9%). A slight decrease is observed in 56-65-yr-old males (6%), whereas excretion in females is unchanged. Cortisol excretion increases in the youngest groups of both men (12%) and women (13%) but decreases in the 56-65-yr-old groups (6 and 5%). For the two groups of intermediate age (46-55 yr), excretion in females decreases (15%), whereas in males it increases (19%). It is believed that hormone measurements may be of value in explaining variation in stress tolerance due to age and/or sex during space flight.

  19. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and λ > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when λ < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when λ ≠ 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  20. Bayesian Reconstruction of Two-Sex Populations by Age: Estimating Sex Ratios at Birth and Sex Ratios of Mortality1

    PubMed Central

    Wheldon, Mark C.; Raftery, Adrian E.; Clark, Samuel J.; Gerland, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Summary The original version of Bayesian reconstruction, a method for estimating age-specific fertility, mortality, migration and population counts of the recent past with uncertainty, produced estimates for female-only populations. Here we show how two-sex populations can be similarly reconstructed and probabilistic estimates of various sex ratio quantities obtained. We demonstrate the method by reconstructing the populations of India from 1971 to 2001, Thailand from 1960 to 2000, and Laos from 1985 to 2005. We found evidence that in India, sex ratio at birth exceeded its conventional upper limit of 1.06, and, further, increased over the period of study, with posterior probability above 0.9. In addition, almost uniquely, we found evidence that life expectancy at birth (e0) was lower for females than for males in India (posterior probability for 1971–1976 equal to 0.79), although there was strong evidence for a narrowing of the gap through to 2001. In both Thailand and Laos, we found strong evidence for the more usual result that e0 was greater for females and, in Thailand, that the difference increased over the period of study. PMID:26612972

  1. Speech Differences of Factory Worker Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    This article, which focuses on speech differences of age groups, is part of a larger study of occupational jargon, its characteristics and underlying features and the part it plays in reflecting the workers' knowledge of their jobs and their attitudes toward jobs in general. The project incorporated a case method of research in a china factory.…

  2. Brief Report: Parental Age and the Sex Ratio in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anello, Alene; Reichenberg, Abraham; Luo, Xiaodong; Schmeidler, James; Hollander, Eric; Smith, Christopher J.; Puleo, Connor M.; Kryzak, Lauren A.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    The male-to-female (M:F) ratio for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), typically about 4:1, appears to decrease with increasing paternal age, but this relationship has not been systematically tested. With 393 ASD cases from families with two or more ASD cases, we categorized paternal age into five age groups (less than 30, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45+)…

  3. Effects of age and sex on the pharmacokinetics of LCZ696, an angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lu; Langenickel, Thomas; Petruck, Jesika; Kode, Kiran; Rajman, Iris; Chandra, Priya; Zhou, Wei; Rebello, Sam; Sunkara, Gangadhar

    2016-01-01

    LCZ696, a novel angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, is in development for the treatment of heart failure. Administration of LCZ696 results in systemic exposure to sacubitril (inactive prodrug of LBQ657), LBQ657 (neprilysin inhibitor), and valsartan (angiotensin II receptor blocker). We investigated the potential effects of age and sex on the pharmacokinetics of LCZ696 analytes (LBQ657 and valsartan) in an open-label, single oral dose (400 mg), parallel-group study in healthy subjects. Among 36 enrolled subjects, there were 19 male and 17 female subjects; 18 subjects were 18-45 years old (young), and 18 subjects were 65 years of age or older (elderly). Compared with young subjects, the AUCinf and T1/2 for LBQ657 were 42% and 30% greater, respectively, in elderly subjects. The Cmax for LBQ657 was similar between age groups. The AUCinf, Cmax, and T1/2 for valsartan were 30%, 24% greater, and 3.35 hours longer, respectively, in the elderly when compared with young subjects. All pharmacokinetic parameters of LCZ696 analytes (LBQ657 and valsartan) were similar between male and female subjects, indicating no effect on the pharmacokinetics of LCZ696 analytes based on sex. Considering the magnitude of change and its clinical significance, dose adjustment based on age or sex is not considered necessary. PMID:26073563

  4. Sex-specific influence of aging on exercising leg blood flow.

    PubMed

    Parker, Beth A; Smithmyer, Sandra L; Pelberg, Justin A; Mishkin, Aaron D; Proctor, David N

    2008-03-01

    Our previous work suggests that healthy human aging is associated with sex-specific differences in leg vascular responses during large muscle mass exercise (2-legged cycling) (Proctor DN, Parker BA. Microcirculation 13: 315-327, 2006). The present study determined whether age x sex interactions in exercising leg hemodynamics persist during small muscle mass exercise that is not limited by cardiac output. Thirty-one young (20-30 yr; 15 men/16 women) and 31 older (60-79 yr; 13 men/18 women) healthy, normally active adults performed graded single-leg knee extensions to maximal exertion. Femoral artery blood velocity and diameter (Doppler ultrasound), heart rate (ECG), and beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure (mean arterial pressure, radial artery tonometry) were measured during each 3-min work rate (4.8 and 8 W/stage for women and men, respectively). The results (means +/- SE) were as follows. Despite reduced resting leg blood flow and vascular conductance, older men exhibited relatively preserved exercising leg hemodynamic responses. Older women, by contrast, exhibited attenuated hyperemic (young: 52 +/- 3 ml.min(-1).W(-1); vs. older: 40 +/- 4 ml.min(-1).W(-1); P = 0.02) and vasodilatory responses (young: 0.56 +/- 0.06 ml.min(-1).mmHg(-1).W(-1) vs. older: 0.37 +/- 0.04 ml.min(-1).mmHg(-1) W(-1); P < 0.01) to exercise compared with young women. Relative (percentage of maximal) work rate comparisons of all groups combined also revealed attenuated vasodilator responses in older women (P < 0.01 for age x sex x work rate interaction). These sex-specific age differences were not abolished by consideration of hemoglobin, quadriceps muscle, muscle recruitment, and mechanical influences on muscle perfusion. Collectively, these findings suggest that local factors contribute to the sex-specific effects of aging on exercising leg hemodynamics in healthy adults. PMID:18162481

  5. Age- and sex-related changes in the soft tissues of the orbital region.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Grandi, Gaia; Catti, Francesca; Tommasi, Davide G; Ugolini, Alessandro; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2009-03-10

    The orbital region plays a predominant role in the evaluation of the craniofacial complex. In the current study information about normal sex-related dimensions of the orbital region, and growth, development and aging, were provided. The three-dimensional coordinates of several soft-tissue landmarks on the orbits and face were obtained by a non-invasive, computerized electromagnetic digitizer in 531 male and 357 female healthy subjects aged 4-73 years. From the landmarks, biocular and intercanthal widths, paired height and inclination of the orbit relative to both the true horizontal (head in natural head position) and Frankfurt plane, length and inclination of the eye fissure, the relevant ratios, soft-tissue orbital area, were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. Biocular and intercanthal widths, length of the eye fissure, soft-tissue orbital area, and the inclination of the orbit relative to the true horizontal, were significantly larger in men than in women (p<0.01), with a significant effect of age (p<0.001), and significant agexsex interactions (p<0.001). Orbital height, and the height-to-width ratio increased as a function of age (p<0.001), but without gender-related differences. The inclination of the orbit relative to Frankfurt plane, and the inclination of the eye fissure did not differ between men and women, but modified as a function of age (p<0.001), with different sex-related patterns (sexxage interaction, p<0.001). On average, the paired measurements were symmetric, with similar values within each sex and age group. Overall, when compared to literature data, some differences were found due to both ethnicity, and different instruments. Nevertheless, during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood, the age-related trends for linear dimensions were similar to those found in previous studies, while no previous data exist for older adults. During aging an increment in soft-tissue orbital

  6. Neural Control of the Circulation: How Sex and Age Differences Interact in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, Michael J.; Barnes, Jill N.; Hart, Emma C.; Wallin, B. Gunnar; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system is a key regulator of cardiovascular system. In this review we focus on how sex and aging influence autonomic regulation of blood pressure in humans in an effort to understand general issues related to how the autonomic nervous system regulates blood pressure, and the cardiovascular system as a whole. Younger women generally have lower blood pressure and sympathetic activity than younger men. However, both sexes show marked inter-individual variability across age groups with significant overlap seen. Additionally, while men across the lifespan show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic activity and vascular resistance, such a relationship is not seen in young women. In this context, the ability of the sympathetic nerves to evoke vasoconstriction is lower in young women likely as a result of concurrent β2 mediated vasodilation that offsets α-adrenergic vasoconstriction. These differences reflect both central sympatho-inhibitory effects of estrogen and also its influence on peripheral vasodilation at the level of the vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. By contrast post-menopausal women show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic traffic and vascular resistance, and sympathetic activity rises progressively in both sexes with aging. These central findings in humans are discussed in the context of differences in population-based trends in blood pressure and orthostatic intolerance. The many areas where there is little sex-specific data on how the autonomic nervous system participates in the regulation of the human cardiovascular system are highlighted. PMID:25589269

  7. Neural control of the circulation: how sex and age differences interact in humans.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Michael J; Barnes, Jill N; Hart, Emma C; Wallin, B Gunnar; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system is a key regulator of the cardiovascular system. In this review, we focus on how sex and aging influence autonomic regulation of blood pressure in humans in an effort to understand general issues related to the cardiovascular system as a whole. Younger women generally have lower blood pressure and sympathetic activity than younger men. However, both sexes show marked interindividual variability across age groups with significant overlap seen. Additionally, while men across the lifespan show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic activity and vascular resistance, such a relationship is not seen in young women. In this context, the ability of the sympathetic nerves to evoke vasoconstriction is lower in young women likely as a result of concurrent β2-mediated vasodilation that offsets α-adrenergic vasoconstriction. These differences reflect both central sympatho-inhibitory effects of estrogen and also its influence on peripheral vasodilation at the level of the vascular smooth muscle and endothelium. By contrast postmenopausal women show a clear relationship between markers of whole body sympathetic traffic and vascular resistance, and sympathetic activity rises progressively in both sexes with aging. These major findings in humans are discussed in the context of differences in population-based trends in blood pressure and orthostatic intolerance. The many areas where there is little sex-specific data on how the autonomic nervous system participates in the regulation of the human cardiovascular system are highlighted. PMID:25589269

  8. Age, sex and other factors in radiation carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.; Carnes, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    It has been held for a long time that the young are more susceptible than adults to the induction of cancer by radiation. The data in support of that contention are accumulating especially from human studies. In an exposed population a significant fraction of the total population risk may be attributed to the risk associated with those who were young at the time of exposure. Since cancer may not appear for decades after exposure estimates of risk may require models for projecting the lifetime risk. Two such models, additive or absolute risk and multiplicative or relative risk have been used. The appropriateness of the latter model is supported by the finding in mice of a positive relationship between natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction by radiation of solid cancer. The choice of model for leukemias is not clear cut. The incidence of cancer increases with age, but the susceptibility for induction decreases. The incidence of cancers increases to a peak and then begins to decline at different ages, dependent on the type of cancer. Sex-dependent differences in both the natural incidence and the susceptibility for induction of cancer are not restricted to sex organs. For example, the susceptibility for the induction by radiation for myeloid leukemia is greater in males than females, whereas in the case of thymic lymphoma it is vice versa. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Suicide mortality trends by sex, age and method in Taiwan, 1971–2005

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jin-Jia; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh

    2008-01-01

    Background Method-specific suicide trends varied across countries, and studies of the trends in different countries can contribute to the understanding of the epidemiology of suicide. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in suicide trends by sex, age and method in the years 1971 to 2005 in Taiwan. Methods Mortality data files of suicide and undetermined deaths for the years 1971–2005 were obtained for analyses. Age-, sex- and method-specific suicide rates were calculated by four age groups (15–24, 25–44, 45–64 and 65 and above) and five suicide methods (solids/liquids poisoning, other gases poisoning, hanging, jumping, and others). Results Both sexes experienced downward trends from 1971 to 1993, and then an upward trend since 1993. People aged 65 years and above had the highest suicide rates throughout the study periods. However, males aged 25–64 years experienced the steepest increasing trends. As to suicide methods, an annual increase, since 1991, of people jumping from heights to commit suicide, and a marked increase, since 1998, of people completing suicide by poisoning with other gases (mainly charcoal-burning) were observed. Conclusion Suicide by means of charcoal-burning and jumping from heights has become a serious public health problem in Taiwan. Preventive measures to curb these increasing trends are urgently needed. PMID:18179723

  10. Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: genotype-specific risks by age and sex.

    PubMed Central

    Bickeböller, H; Campion, D; Brice, A; Amouyel, P; Hannequin, D; Didierjean, O; Penet, C; Martin, C; Pérez-Tur, J; Michon, A; Dubois, B; Ledoze, F; Thomas-Anterion, C; Pasquier, F; Puel, M; Demonet, J F; Moreaud, O; Babron, M C; Meulien, D; Guez, D; Chartier-Harlin, M C; Frebourg, T; Agid, Y; Martinez, M; Clerget-Darpoux, F

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes as a function of age and sex has been examined in a French population of 417 Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and 1,030 control subjects. When compared to the APOE epsilon3 allele, an increased risk associated with the APOE epsilon4 allele (odds ratio [OR] [epsilon4] = 2.7 with 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0-3.6; P < .001) and a protective effect of the APOE epsilon2 allele (OR[epsilon2] = 0.5 with 95% CI = 0.3-0.98; P = .012) were retrieved. An effect of the epsilon4 allele dosage on susceptibility was confirmed (OR[epsilon4/epsilon4] vs. the epsilon3/epsilon3 genotype = 11.2 [95% CI = 4.0-31.6]; OR[epsilon3/epsilon4] vs. the epsilon3/epsilon3 genotype = 2.2 [95% CI = 1.5-3.5]). The frequency of the epsilon4 allele was lower in male cases than in female cases, but, since a similar difference was found in controls, this does not lead to a difference in OR between sex. ORs for the epsilon4 allele versus the epsilon3 allele, OR(epsilon4), were not equal in all age classes: OR(epsilon4) in the extreme groups with onset at < 60 years or > 79 years were significantly lower than those from the age groups 60-79 years. In epsilon3/epsilon4 individuals, sex-specific lifetime risk estimates by age 85 years (i.e., sex-specific penetrances by age 85 years) were 0.14 (95% CI 0.04-0.30) for men and 0.17 (95% CI 0.09-0.28) for women. PMID:9012418

  11. Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease: Genotype-specific risks by age and sex

    SciTech Connect

    Bickeboeller, H. |; Babron, M.C.; Clerget-Darpoux, F.

    1997-02-01

    The distribution of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes as a function of age and sex has been examined in a French population of 417 Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and 1,030 control subjects. When compared to the APOE {epsilon}3 allele, an increased risk associated with the APOE {epsilon}4 allele (odds ratio [OR] [{epsilon}4] = 2.7 with 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0-3.6; P < .001) and a protective effect of the APOE {epsilon}2 allele (OR[{epsilon}2] = 0.5 with 95% CI = 0.3-0.98; P = .012) were retrieved. An effect of the {epsilon}4 allele dosage on susceptibility was confirmed (OR[{epsilon}4/{epsilon}4] vs. the {epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotype = 11.2 [95% CI = 4.0-31.6]; OR[{epsilon}3/{epsilon}4] vs. the {epsilon}3/{epsilon}3 genotype = 2.2 [95% Cl = 1.5-3.5]). The frequency of the {epsilon}4 allele was lower in male cases than in female cases, but, since a similar difference was found in controls, this does not lead to a difference in OR between sex. ORs for the {epsilon}4 allele versus the {epsilon}3 allele, OR({epsilon}4), were not equal in all age classes: OR({epsilon}4) in the extreme groups with onset at < 60 years or > 79 years were significantly lower than those from the age groups 60-79 years. In {epsilon}3/{epsilon}4 individuals, sex-specific lifetime risk estimates by age 85 years (i.e., sex-specific penetrances by age 85 years) were 0.14 (95% CI 0.04-0.30) for men and 0.17 (95% CI 0.09-0.28) for women. 53 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. [The electrocardiogram in the paediatric age group].

    PubMed

    Sanches, M; Coelho, A; Oliveira, E; Lopes, A

    2014-09-01

    A properly interpreted electrocardiogram (ECG) provides important information and is an inexpensive and easy test to perform. It continues to be the method of choice for the diagnosis of arrhythmias. Although the principles of cardiac electrophysiology are the same, there are anatomical and physiological age-dependent changes which produce specific alterations in the paediatric ECG, and which may be misinterpreted as pathological. The intention of this article is to address in a systematic way the most relevant aspects of the paediatric ECG, to propose a possible reading scheme of the ECG and to review the electrocardiograph tracings most frequently found in the paediatric age group. PMID:24907888

  13. Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.

    PubMed

    Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J B; Williams, Justin H G; Barber, Sally E; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills. PMID

  14. Sex chromosome loss and aging: In situ hybridization studies on human interphase nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Guttenbach, M.; Koschorz, B.; Bernthaler, U.

    1995-11-01

    A total of 1,000 lymphocyte interphase nuclei per proband from 90 females and 138 males age 1 wk to 93 years were analyzed by in situ hybridization for loss of the X and Y chromosomes, respectively. Both sex chromosomes showed an age-dependent loss. In males, Y hypoploidy was very low up to age 15 years (0.05%) but continuously increased to a frequency of 1.34% in men age 76-80 years. In females, the baseline level for X chromosome loss is much higher than that seen for the Y chromosome in males. Even prepubertal females show a rate of X chromosome loss on the order of 1.5%-2.5%, rising to {approximately}4.5%-5% in women older than 75 years. Dividing the female probands into three biological age groups on the basis of sex hormone function (<13 years, 13-51 years, and >51 years), a significant correlation of X chromosome loss versus age could clearly be demonstrated in women beyond age 51 years. Females age 51-91 years showed monosomy X at a rate from 3.2% to 5.1%. In contrast to sex chromosomal loss, the frequency of autosomal monosomies does not change during the course of aging: chromosome 1 and chromosome 17 monosomic cells were found with a constant incidence of 1.2% and 1%, respectively. These data also indicate that autosome loss in interphase nuclei is not a function of chromosome size. 34 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Factors modifying valproate plasma level/dose ratio: age, sex, dose and plasma level.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, A; Durán, J A; Abadín, J A

    1989-09-01

    Valproate plasma level/dose (L/D) ratios obtained from 155 outpatients under long-term monotherapeutic regimen have been studied. Analytical data were obtained by enzymatic immunoassay (EMIT) from paired samples taken before the morning drug dosage. L/D ratios were increased with age and plasma level and decreased with dose. There were no sex differences in L/D in the different age, dose and concentration groups. L/D ratios were higher than those found by other researchers in our country. PMID:2511386

  16. [Lycopene intake by different aged women groups].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice. PMID:20839464

  17. Vitreous Hemorrhage in Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    AlHarkan, Dora H.; Kahtani, Eman S.; Gikandi, Priscilla W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To identify and study causes of vitreous hemorrhage (VH) in pediatric age group and to investigate factors predicting visual and anatomical outcomes. Procedure. A retrospective review of patients aged 16 years or less with the diagnosis of vitreous hemorrhage from January 2005 until December 2010. Results. A total number of 230 patients (240 eyes) were identified. Traumatic vitreous hemorrhage accounted for 82.5%. In cases of accidental trauma, final visual acuity of 20/200 was significantly associated with visual acuity of ≥20/200 at presentation and the absence of retinal detachment at last follow-up. Patients with nontraumatic vitreous hemorrhage were significantly younger with higher rates of enucleation/evisceration/exenteration and retinal detachment at last follow-up compared to traumatic cases. Conclusion. Trauma is the most common cause of VH in pediatric age group. In this group, initial visual acuity was the most important predictor for visual outcome, and the presence of retinal detachment is a negative predictor for final good visual outcome. The outcome is significantly worse in nontraumatic cases compared to traumatic cases. PMID:25505975

  18. Age-Specific Sex-Related Differences in Infections: A Statistical Analysis of National Surveillance Data in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Eshima, Nobuoki; Tokumaru, Osamu; Hara, Shohei; Bacal, Kira; Korematsu, Seigo; Karukaya, Shigeru; Uruma, Kiyo; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2012-01-01

    Background To prevent and control infectious diseases, it is important to understand how sex and age influence morbidity rates, but consistent clear descriptions of differences in the reported incidence of infectious diseases in terms of sex and age are sparse. Methods and Findings Data from the Japanese surveillance system for infectious diseases from 2000 to 2009 were used in the analysis of seven viral and four bacterial infectious diseases with relatively large impact on the Japanese community. The male-to-female morbidity (MFM) ratios in different age groups were estimated to compare incidence rates of symptomatic reported infection between the sexes at different ages. MFM ratios were >1 for five viral infections out of seven in childhood, i.e. male children were more frequently reported as infected than females with pharyngoconjunctival fever, herpangina, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, mumps, and varicella. More males were also reported to be infected with erythema infectiosum and exanthema subitum, but only in children 1 year of age. By contrast, in adulthood the MFM ratios decreased to <1 for all of the viral infections above except varicella, i.e. adult women were more frequently reported to be infected than men. Sex- and age-related differences in reported morbidity were also documented for bacterial infections. Reported morbidity for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection was higher in adult females and females were reportedly more infected with mycoplasma pneumonia than males in all age groups up to 70 years. Conclusions Sex-related differences in reported morbidity for viral and bacterial infections were documented among different age groups. Changes in MFM ratios with age may reflect differences between the sexes in underlying development processes, including those affecting the immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems, or differences in reporting rates. PMID:22848753

  19. Sex ratio of congenital abnormalities in the function of maternal age: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Csermely, Gyula; Urbán, Robert; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-05-01

    Maternal age effect is well-known in the origin of numerical chromosomal aberrations and some isolated congenital abnormalities (CAs). The sex ratio (SR), i.e. number of males divided by the number of males and females together, of most CAs deviates from the SR of newborn population (0.51). The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the possible association of maternal age with the SR of isolated CAs in a population-based large dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. First, SR of 24 CA entities/groups was estimated in 21,494 patients with isolated CA. In the next step SR of different maternal age groups was compared to the mean SR of the given CA-groups. The SR of four CA-groups showed some deviation in certain maternal age groups. Cases with anencephaly had female excess in young mothers (<25 years). Cases with skull's CAs particularly craniosynostosis had a male excess in cases born to women over 30 years. Two other CA groups (cleft lip ± palate and valvar pulmonic stenosis within the group of right-sided obstructive defect of heart) had significant deviation in SR of certain maternal age groups from the mean SR, but these deviations were not harmonized with joining age groups and thus were considered as a chance effect due to multiple testing. In conclusion, our study did not suggest that in general SR of isolated CAs might be modified by certain maternal age groups with some exception such as anencephaly and craniosynostosis. PMID:25354028

  20. Age-related sex differences in language lateralization: A magnetoencephalography study in children.

    PubMed

    Yu, Vickie Y; MacDonald, Matt J; Oh, Anna; Hua, Gordon N; De Nil, Luc F; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2014-09-01

    It is well supported by behavioral and neuroimaging studies that typical language function is lateralized to the left hemisphere in the adult brain and this laterality is less well defined in children. The behavioral literature suggests there maybe be sex differences in language development, but this has not been examined systematically with neuroimaging. In this study, magnetoencephalography was used to investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of language lateralization as a function of age and sex. Eighty typically developing children (46 female, 34 male; 4-18 years) participated in an overt visual verb generation task. An analysis method called differential beamforming was used to analyze language-related changes in oscillatory activity referred to as low-gamma event-related desynchrony (ERD). The proportion of ERD over language areas relative to total ERD was calculated. We found different patterns of laterality between boys and girls. Boys showed left-hemisphere lateralization in the frontal and temporal language-related areas across age groups, whereas girls showed a more bilateral pattern, particularly in frontal language-related areas. Differences in patterns of ERD were most striking between boys and girls in the younger age groups, and these patterns became more similar with increasing age, specifically in the preteen years. Our findings show sex differences in language lateralization during childhood; however, these differences do not seem to persist into adulthood. We present possible explanations for these differences. We also discuss the implications of these findings for presurgical language mapping in children and highlight the importance of examining the question of sex-related language differences across development. PMID:25069054

  1. Age-related sex differences in language lateralization: a magnetoencephalography (MEG) study in children

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Vickie Y.; MacDonald, Matt J.; Oh, Anna; Hua, Gordon N.; De Nil, Luc F.; Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2016-01-01

    It is well supported by behavioral and neuroimaging studies that typical language function is lateralized to the left hemisphere in the adult brain and this laterality is less well defined in children. The behavioral literature suggests there maybe be sex differences in language development but this has not been examined systematically using neuroimaging. In this study, magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of language lateralization as a function of age and sex. Eighty typically developing children (46 females; 4–18 years) participated in an overt visual verb generation task. An analysis method called differential beamforming was used to analyse language-related changes in oscillatory activity referred to as low-gamma event-related desynchrony (ERD). The proportion of ERD over language areas relative to total ERD was calculated. We found different patterns of laterality between boys and girls. Boys showed left hemisphere lateralization in the frontal and temporal language-related areas across age groups, whereas girls showed a more bilateral pattern, particularly in frontal, language related, areas. Differences in patterns of ERD were most striking between boys and girls in the younger age groups and these patterns became more similar with increasing age, specifically in the pre-teen years. Our findings show sex differences in language lateralization during childhood; however, these differences do not seem to persist into adulthood. We present possible explanations for these differences. We also discuss the implications of these findings for pre-surgical language mapping in children and highlight the importance of examining the question of sex-related language differences across development. PMID:25069054

  2. Corneal Expression of SLURP-1 by Age, Sex, Genetic Strain, and Ocular Surface Health

    PubMed Central

    Swamynathan, Sudha; Delp, Emili E.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.; Loughner, Chelsea L.; Raju, Leela; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although secreted Ly6/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor–related protein-1 (Slurp1) transcript is highly abundant in the mouse cornea, corresponding protein expression remains uncharacterized. Also, SLURP1 was undetected in previous tear proteomics studies, resulting in ambiguity about its baseline levels. Here, we examine mouse corneal Slurp1 expression in different sexes, age groups, strains, and health conditions, and quantify SLURP1 in human tears from healthy or inflamed ocular surfaces. Methods Expression of Slurp1 in embryonic day-13 (E13), E16, postnatal day-1 (PN1), PN10, PN20, and PN70 Balb/C, FVBN, C57Bl/6, and DBA/2J mouse corneas, Klf4Δ/ΔCE corneas with corneal epithelial–specific ablation of Klf4, migrating cells in wild-type corneal epithelial wound edge, and in corneas exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) poly(I:C), zymosan-A, or Pam3Csk4 was examined by QPCR, immunoblots, and immunofluorescent staining. Human SLURP1 levels were quantified by ELISA in tears from 34 men and women aged 18 to 80 years. Results Expression of Slurp1, comparable in different strains and sexes, was low in E13, E16, PN1, and PN10 mouse corneas, and increased rapidly after eyelid opening in a Klf4-dependent manner. We found Slurp1 was downregulated in corneas exposed to PAMPs, and in migrating cells at the wound edge. Human SLURP1 expression, comparable in different sexes and age groups, was significantly decreased in tears from inflamed ocular surfaces (0.34%) than those from healthy individuals (0.77%). Conclusions These data describe the influence of age, sex, genetic background, and ocular surface health on mouse corneal expression of Slurp1, establish the baseline for human tear SLURP1 expression, and identify SLURP1 as a useful diagnostic and/or therapeutic target for inflammatory ocular surface disorders. PMID:26670825

  3. Identifying sex and age of apapane and iiwi on Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fancy, S.G.; Pratt, T.K.; Lindsey, G.D.; Harada, C.K.; Parent, A.H., Jr.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Methods to determine the sex and age of Apapane (Himatione sanguinea) and Iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) were developed on the basis of 189 museum specimens and 91 live birds captured in mist nets on the Island of Hawaii (USA). Both species retain all juvenal primaries and some juvenal secondaries and body feathers after the first prebasic molt and attain full adult plumage after the second prebasic molt. Apapane in their first basic plumage retain some buff-edged juvenal secondaries (particularly secondaries five and six) and sometimes retain a few gray-brown feathers on the head. The first basic plumage of Iiwi is characterized by secondaries 6-9 being longer and darker than secondaries 1-4 and the presence of a few yellowish juvenal body feathers with black spots at the tips. Adult male Apapane and Iiwi have longer wing, tail, exposed culmen, culmen and tarso-metatarsus lengths than females. Linear discriminant functions are presented to sex adult Apapane and Iiwi from lengths of their wing chord and exposed culmen.

  4. Population-Based Age Group Specific Annual Incidence Rates of Symptomatic Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saari, Jukka M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To study the population-based annual incidence rates of exudative, dry and all cases of symptomatic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in different age and sex groups. Methods. This is a one year, prospective, population-based study on all consecutive new patients with AMD in the hospital district of Central Finland. The diagnosis was confirmed in all patients with slit lamp biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a Spectralis HRA + OCT device, and the Heidelberg Eye Explorer 1.6.2.0 program. Fluorescein angiograms were taken when needed. Results. The population-based annual incidence rates of all cases of symptomatic AMD increased from 0.03% (95% CI, 0.01-0.05%) in the age group 50-59 years to 0.82% (95% CI, 0.55-1.09%) in the age group 85-89 years and were 0.2% (95% CI, 0.17-0.24%) in exudative, 0.11% (95% CI, 0.09-0.14%) in dry, and 0.32% (95% CI, 0.28-0.36%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. During the next 20 years in Central Finland the population-based annual incidence rates can be estimated to increase to 0.27% (95% CI, 0.24-0.30%) in exudative, to 0.13% (95% CI, 0.11-0.15%) in dry, and to 0.41% (95% CI, 0.37-0.45%) in all cases of AMD in the age group 60 years and older. The population-based annual incidence of AMD did not show statistically significant differences between males and females (p>0.1). Conclusion: The population-based age-group specific annual incidence rates of symptomatic AMD of this study may help to plan health care provision for patients of AMD. PMID:25674187

  5. Group comparisons: imaging the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    D’Esposito, Mark

    2008-01-01

    With the recent growth of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), scientists across a range of disciplines are comparing neural activity between groups of interest, such as healthy controls and clinical patients, children and young adults and younger and older adults. In this edition of Tools of the Trade, we will discuss why great caution must be taken when making group comparisons in studies using fMRI. Although many methodological contributions have been made in recent years, the suggestions for overcoming common issues are too often overlooked. This review focuses primarily on neuroimaging studies of healthy aging, but many of the issues raised apply to other group designs as well. PMID:18846241

  6. Age- and sex-dependent change in stratum corneum sphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Denda, M; Koyama, J; Hori, J; Horii, I; Takahashi, M; Hara, M; Tagami, H

    1993-01-01

    We measured six stratum corneum sphingolipid species (ceramides 1-6) in 26 males and 27 females, and found a significant change in their percentage composition only among female subjects of different age groups. There was a significant increase in ceramide 1 and 2 with a corresponding decrease in ceramide 3 and 6 from prepubertal age to adulthood. Thereafter the ratio of ceramide 2 to total sphingolipids decreased with age in contrast to ceramide 3 which showed an increase. Such a pattern of change in the aging population is different from that observed in scaly skin experimentally induced by tape stripping. The present results suggest a significant influence of female hormones on the composition of stratum corneum sphingolipids. Moreover, the different patterns of change in sphingolipid composition of stratum corneum lipids between scales from inflammatory skin and those from aged skin also suggest that epidermal biosynthesis of sphingolipids is influenced by epidermal proliferative activity. PMID:8304781

  7. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  8. Mixed Age Groups in Swedish Nursery School and Compulsory School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundell, Knut

    Before 1970, no mixed-age groups existed in Swedish nursery schools. By 1991, 43 percent of children enrolled in nursery school were in mixed-age groups of ages 1 to 6 years, and 37 percent were in groups of children ages 3 to 6 years. Mixed-age groups are assumed to have advantages, including positive influences on learning and social…

  9. Age and Sex Effects on White Matter Tracts in Psychosis from Adolescence through Middle Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Schwehm, Andrew; Robinson, Delbert G; Gallego, Juan A; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Peters, Bart D; Malhotra, Anil K; Szeszko, Philip R

    2016-09-01

    There is controversy regarding specificity of white matter abnormalities in psychosis, their deviation from healthy aging, and the influence of sex on these measures. We used diffusion tensor imaging to characterize putative white matter microstructure in 224 patients with psychosis and healthy volunteers across the age range of 15-64 years. Sixty-five younger (age <30 years; 47M/18F) patients with psychosis (all experiencing a first episode of illness) and 48 older (age ⩾30 years; 30M/18F) patients were age-matched to younger and older healthy volunteer groups (N=63 (40M/23F) and N=48 (29M/19F), respectively). The trajectories of two inter-hemispheric (splenium and genu), two projection (cortico-pontine and anterior thalamic), and five bilateral association (inferior fronto-occipital, inferior longitudinal, superior longitudinal, cingulum, and uncinate) tracts were quantified using tractography to derive measures of fractional anisotropy and mean, axial, and radial diffusivity. Fractional anisotropy was significantly lower in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and superior longitudinal fasciculus in all patients compared with all healthy volunteers, with comparable effect sizes observed in both the younger and older patients compared with their respective healthy volunteer groups. Moreover, age-associated differences in fractional anisotropy within these tracts were comparable between groups across the age span. In addition, female patients had significantly lower fractional anisotropy across all tracts compared with female controls regardless of age. Our findings demonstrate comparable putative white matter abnormalities in two independent samples of patients with psychosis and argue against their progression in patients. These data further highlight the novel and potentially underappreciated role of sex in understanding white matter dysfunction in the neurobiology of psychosis. PMID:27067129

  10. Effects of age, sex and smoking on ankle-brachial index in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti; Jaatinen, Pekka; Korhonen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is a well-known risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data regarding differences in the prevalence of PAD between sexes are somewhat controversial. In addition, most studies indicate that the prevalence of PAD increases with age in both sexes. In the present study, the effects of sex, age and smoking on the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a Finnish cardiovascular risk population were investigated. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between the ankle-brachial index, and age, sex and smoking in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS All men and women between 45 and 70 years of age living in a rural town (Harjavalta, Finland; total population 7700) were invited to participate in a population survey (Harmonica study). Patients with previously diagnosed diabetes or vascular disease were excluded. In total, 2856 patients were invited to participate in the study. From these subjects, a cardiovascular risk population was screened. Complete data were available from 1028 persons. ABI (the ratio between the posterior tibial or dorsalis pedis artery and brachial artery pressures) was measured, and questionnaires were used to detect smoking status and relevant medical history. Only current smoking status was taken into account. RESULTS The mean ABI for the entire study population was 1.10 (range 0.56 to 1.64). Current smokers had a lower mean ABI (1.06; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in ABI values among age groups, although the majority of patients with ABI values below 0.9 were older than 60 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference in ABI between sexes. CONCLUSION As previously reported, the present study shows the significant effect of smoking in the development of PAD. No statistically significant difference was found among age groups, but the tendency was toward lower ABIs in the oldest age groups. Sex had a minimal effect on the ABI. PMID:22477327

  11. Use of a Tracing Task to Assess Visuomotor Performance: Effects of Age, Sex, and Handedness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Visuomotor abnormalities are common in aging and age-related disease, yet difficult to quantify. This study investigated the effects of healthy aging, sex, and handedness on the performance of a tracing task. Participants (n = 150, aged 21–95 years, 75 females) used a stylus to follow a moving target around a circle on a tablet computer with their dominant and nondominant hands. Participants also performed the Trail Making Test (a measure of executive function). Methods. Deviations from the circular path were computed to derive an “error” time series. For each time series, absolute mean, variance, and complexity index (a proposed measure of system functionality and adaptability) were calculated. Using the moving target and stylus coordinates, the percentage of task time within the target region and the cumulative micropause duration (a measure of motion continuity) were computed. Results. All measures showed significant effects of aging (p < .0005). Post hoc age group comparisons showed that with increasing age, the absolute mean and variance of the error increased, complexity index decreased, percentage of time within the target region decreased, and cumulative micropause duration increased. Only complexity index showed a significant difference between dominant versus nondominant hands within each age group (p < .0005). All measures showed relationships to the Trail Making Test (p < .05). Conclusions. Measures derived from a tracing task identified performance differences in healthy individuals as a function of age, sex, and handedness. Studies in populations with specific neuromotor syndromes are warranted to test the utility of measures based on the dynamics of tracking a target as a clinical assessment tool. PMID:23388876

  12. Relationship of oral cancer with age, sex, site distribution and habits.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mandakini Mansukh; Pandya, Amrish N

    2004-04-01

    Many studies are carried out regarding age incidence, tobacco smoking and sites of oral cancer, but in Gujarat tobacco chewing in form of Gutkha is more common than smoking and start during preteen years. Tobacco chewing causing chronic inflammation, submucous fibrosis and oral cancer. This study was conducted on 504 patients to find out if there is increasing incidence of oral cancer in lower age group and its relation with sex as well which site was commonly affected. There was statistically significant increase in oral cancer in lower age group, and anatomically anterior part of oral cavity showed involvement in 61.32% of cases. Though males were affected more but female cases were 25%. So tobacco chewing has got detrimental effect on oral cavity. PMID:16295466

  13. Sexual segregation in Roosevelt Elk: Cropping rates and aggression in mixed sex groups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckerly, Floyd F.; Ricca, Mark A.; Meyer, Katherin P.

    2001-01-01

    Total body concentrations of zinc, copper, cadmium, lead, nickel, mercury and arsenic were determined for Peromyscus maniculatus and Microtus pennsylvanicus from an active zinc-copper mine near Timmins, Ontario, Canada, and a proposed zinc-copper mine near Crandon, Wisconsin, USA. Metal concentrations were evaluated with respect to area, species, sex and age groups. Metal concentrations in Peromyscus from the proposed mine site were not different from those collected in a third area where no mine or deposit exists. This is probably due to the 30 m of glacial material over the proposed mine site deposit. A statistical interaction between area, species, sex and age was observed for zinc and copper concentrations in small mammals we examined. Peromyscus from the mine site had consistently higher metal concentrations than Peromyscus from the control site. Greater total body cadmium and lead concentrations in adult?compared with juvenile?Peromyscus collected at the mine site suggests age-dependent accumulation of these toxic metals. Microtus did not exhibit this age-related response, and responded to other environmental metals more erratically and to a lesser degree. Differences in the response of these two species to environmental metal exposure may be due to differences in food habits. Nickel, mercury and arsenic concentrations in small mammals from the mine site were not different from controls. Heavy metal concentrations are also presented for Sorex cinereus, Blarina brevicauda and Zapus hudsonicus without respect to age and sex cohorts. Peromyscus may be a potentially important species for the monitoring of heavy metal pollution.

  14. Age- and sex-related changes in bone mass measured by neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.; Aloia, J.F.; Vaswani, A.N.; Zanzi, I.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total-body calcium (TBCa) measurements have been employed in two basic types of studies. In the first type, serial measurements made on an individual patient are used to trace the time variation in body calcium. In the second type of study, the absolute total body calcium of an individual is determined and compared to a standard or predicted value in order to determine the deficit or excess of calcium. Generally, the standards are derived from data obtained from normal populations and grouped by the parameters of age and sex (mean value denoted TBCa/sub m/). In the study reported in this paper, the clinical usefulness of predicted calcium (TBCa/sub p/) is evaluated. The predicted value (TBCa/sub p/) for an individual is obtained with an algorithm utilizing values of sex and age, height and lean body mass (as derived from /sup 40/K measurement). The latter two components characterize skeletal size and body habitus, respectively. For the study, 133 white women and 71 white men ranging in age from 20 to 80 years were selected from a larger population. Individuals with evidence of metabolic calcium disorders or osteoporosis were excluded. Additionally, the women and men selected were first judged to have total body potassium levels in the normal range. For each age decade, the variance of TBCa values of these individuals, when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub p/, was significantly less than when expressed in terms of TBCa/sub m/. Thus, erroneous conclusions based on Ca deficit in osteoporosis could be drawn for individuals whose height and body size differ markedly from the average, as the variation of their TBCa values often exceeds the variation in the age and sex cohort. Data on a group of osteoporotic women were compared with the normal skeletal baseline values both in terms of the TBCa and the TBCa/sub p/ values.

  15. Variation of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Rebeis, Eduardo Baldassari; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Moreira, Luis Felipe Pinho; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent). RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11–40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent. PMID:24141837

  16. Age and Sex of Mice Markedly Affect Survival Times Associated with Hyperoxic Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Prows, Daniel R.; Gibbons, William J.; Smith, Jessica J.; Pilipenko, Valentina; Martin, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Mortality associated with acute lung injury (ALI) remains substantial, with recent estimates of 35–45% similar to those obtained decades ago. Although evidence for sex-related differences in ALI mortality remains equivocal, death rates differ markedly for age, with more than 3-fold increased mortality in older versus younger patients. Strains of mice also show large differences in ALI mortality. To tease out genetic factors affecting mortality, we established a mouse model of differential hyperoxic ALI (HALI) survival. Separate genetic analyses of backcross and F2 populations generated from sensitive C57BL/6J (B) and resistant 129X1/SvJ (X1) progenitor strains identified two quantitative trait loci (QTLs; Shali1 and Shali2) with strong, equal but opposite, within-strain effects on survival. Congenic lines confirmed these opposing QTL effects, but also retained the low penetrance seen in the 6–12 week X1 control strain. Sorting mice into distinct age groups revealed that ‘age at exposure’ inversely correlated with survival time and explained reduced penetrance of the resistance trait. While B mice were already sensitive by 6 weeks old, X1 mice maintained significant resistance up to 3–4 weeks longer. Reanalysis of F2 data gave analogous age-related findings, and also supported sex-specific linkage for Shali1 and Shali2. Importantly, we have demonstrated in congenic mice that these age effects on survival correspond with B alleles for Shali1 (6-week old mice more sensitive) and Shali2 (10-week old mice more resistant) placed on the X1 background. Further studies revealed significant sex-specific survival differences in subcongenics for both QTLs. Accounting for age and sex markedly improved penetrance of both QTLs, thereby reducing trait variability, refining Shali1 to <8.5Mb, and supporting several sub-QTLs within the Shali2 interval. Together, these congenics will allow age- and sex-specific studies to interrogate myriad subphenotypes affected during ALI

  17. Effect of age, sex and physiological stages on hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mehul D.; Lateef, Abdul; Das, Hemen; Patel, Ajay S.; Patel, Ajay G.; Joshi, Axay B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the physiological baseline values for hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as well as to assess their alteration due to age, sex and physiological stages. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 clinically healthy Banni buffaloes were categorized into seven groups (n=6): Group I (male calves ≤1 year), Group II (bulls >1 year), Group III (female calves ≤1 year), Group IV (pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group V (non-pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group VI (pregnant dry buffaloes), and Group VII (non-pregnant dry buffaloes). Blood samples collected aseptically from all the experimental groups were analyzed employing automated hematology analyzer. The data obtained were statistically analyzed; the mean and standard deviations were calculated and set as the reference values. Results: The erythrocytic indices viz. total erythrocytes count (TEC), hemoglobin, and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly higher in bulls as compared to that of male calves unlike mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and MCH concentration. The female calves had higher TEC and PCV than the adult buffaloes irrespective of sex. The total leukocyte count (TLC) and neutrophil counts in male calves were significantly lower than the bulls unlike the eosinophil, while monocyte and basophil remained unchanged with age. The TLC, differential leukocyte count and platelet count varied non-significantly among the adult female groups at different physiological stages. However, neutrophils were found to be apparently higher in lactating buffaloes. Conclusion: The present study would be helpful for physiological characterization of this unique buffalo breed of Gujarat. Further, data generated may be a tool for monitoring the health and prognosis as well as diagnosis of diseases. PMID:27051182

  18. Sex-specific plasticity and genotype × sex interactions for age and size of maturity in the sheepshead swordtail, Xiphophorus birchmanni.

    PubMed

    Boulton, K; Rosenthal, G G; Grimmer, A J; Walling, C A; Wilson, A J

    2016-03-01

    Responses to sexually antagonistic selection are thought to be constrained by the shared genetic architecture of homologous male and female traits. Accordingly, adaptive sexual dimorphism depends on mechanisms such as genotype-by-sex interaction (G×S) and sex-specific plasticity to alleviate this constraint. We tested these mechanisms in a population of Xiphophorus birchmanni (sheepshead swordtail), where the intensity of male competition is expected to mediate intersexual conflict over age and size at maturity. Combining quantitative genetics with density manipulations and analysis of sex ratio variation, we confirm that maturation traits are dimorphic and heritable, but also subject to large G×S. Although cross-sex genetic correlations are close to zero, suggesting sex-linked genes with important effects on growth and maturation are likely segregating in this population, we found less evidence of sex-specific adaptive plasticity. At high density, there was a weak trend towards later and smaller maturation in both sexes. Effects of sex ratio were stronger and putatively adaptive in males but not in females. Males delay maturation in the presence of mature rivals, resulting in larger adult size with subsequent benefit to competitive ability. However, females also delay maturation in male-biased groups, incurring a loss of reproductive lifespan without apparent benefit. Thus, in highly competitive environments, female fitness may be limited by the lack of sex-specific plasticity. More generally, assuming that selection does act antagonistically on male and female maturation traits in the wild, our results demonstrate that genetic architecture of homologous traits can ease a major constraint on the evolution of adaptive dimorphism. PMID:26688295

  19. Effects of age and sex on copper absorption, turnover, and status

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Milne, D.B. )

    1991-03-15

    Healthy, free-living men and women aged 20 to 59 years were studied to determine the effects of age and sex on Cu absorption, biological half-life (BH) and status. Additional women who were taking oral contraceptives (OCH) or estrogens were compared to women the same ages who did not take hormones. After an overnight fast, subjects provided a blood sample and ate breakfast labeled with 2.5 {mu}Ci Cu-67. Total Cu-67 ingested was determined after the meal by counting subjects in a whole-body gamma counter. Whole body retention of Cu-67 was monitored by 10 additional counts during the next 21 days. Cu absorption (%A) was calculated by extrapolation of the linear portion of a semi-log plot of % retention vs time. BH was {minus}1n2/slope. %A was significantly greater in women than men aged 20-50, but was not affected by age. BH was not significantly affected by either age or sex. Plasma Cu, enzymatic ceruloplasmin (Cp), and RID Cp were significantly higher in women than men, but SOD and in vitro Cu-67 uptake by RBCs did not differ. None of the biochemical indices were significantly affected by age, except RID Cp, which increased with age. Plasma Cu, enzymatic Cp, and SOD activity were higher in women aged 20-39 taking OCH than in those not taking OCH, but %A and BH did not differ between the groups. Trends in women 50-59 taking estrogen or not were similar to findings for women with/without OCH. These data suggest that dietary Cu requirements may differ between men and women.

  20. Evaluation of Age, Sex, and Race Bias in the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David

    1992-01-01

    Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)

  1. Surprising Lack of Sex Differences in Normal Cognitive Aging in Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Berg, Stig; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in the etiology of normal cognitive functioning in aging remain largely unexplored. We conducted an investigation of genetic and environmental contributions to sex differences in level of cognitive performance and rate of decline in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) (Finkel & Pedersen, 2004) data set. Behavioral…

  2. Physical Attractiveness, Age, and Sex as Determinants of Reactions to Resumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quereshi, M. Y.; Kay, Janet P.

    1986-01-01

    Physical attractiveness, age, and sex were manipulated to determine their effect on the evaluation of 54 hypothetical applicants' resumes for three different jobs by 60 Master's in Business Administration students. Physical attractiveness favorably influenced the suitability ratings for all jobs; raters' sex and age were not significant but…

  3. Age, actuarial risk, and long-term recidivism in a national sample of sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Olver, Mark E; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2014-10-01

    Age at release has become an increasing focus of study with regard to evaluating risk in the sex offender population and has been repeatedly shown to be an important component of the risk assessment equation. This study constitutes an extension of a study of sex offender outcomes prepared for the Evaluation Branch, Correctional Service of Canada. The entire cohort of 2,401 male federally incarcerated sexual offenders who reached their warrant expiry date (WED) within 1997/1998, 1998/1999, and 1999/2000 fiscal years were reviewed for the study. Sexual and violent reconviction information was obtained from CPIC criminal records over an average of 12.0 years (SD = 1.7) follow-up. This study focused upon the cohort of sex offenders who were 50 years or older at time of release (N = 542). They were stratified according to risk using a brief actuarial scale (BARS) comprising six binary variables. For the most part, older offenders showed low base rates of sexual recidivism regardless of the risk band into which they fell. The exception was a small group of elderly offenders (n = 20) who fell into the highest risk band, and who showed high levels of sexual recidivism. The results of this combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of elderly sexual offenders may have important implications for offender management, particularly in light of the increasing numbers of offenders in Canada who fall into the over 50 age cohort. PMID:23818657

  4. Sex, age, race and intervention type in clinical studies of HIV cure: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Rowena E; Heitzeg, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review was undertaken to determine the extent to which adult subjects representing sex (female), race (nonwhite), and age (>50 years) categories are included in clinical studies of HIV curative interventions and thus, by extension, the potential for data to be analyzed that may shed light on the influence of such demographic variables on safety and/or efficacy. English-language publications retrieved from PubMed and from references of retrieved papers describing clinical studies of curative interventions were read and demographic, recruitment year, and intervention-type details were noted. Variables of interest included participation by sex, age, and race; changes in participation rates by recruitment year; and differences in participation by intervention type. Of 151 publications, 23% reported full demographic data of study enrollees, and only 6% reported conducting efficacy analyses by demographic variables. Included studies recruited participants from 1991 to 2011. No study conducted safety analyses by demographic variables. The representation of women, older people, and nonwhites did not reflect national or international burdens of HIV infection. Participation of demographic subgroups differed by intervention type and study location. Rates of participation of demographic groups of interest did not vary with time. Limited data suggest efficacy, particularly of early therapy initiation followed by treatment interruption, may vary by demographic variables, in this case sex. More data are needed to determine associations between demographic characteristics and safety/efficacy of curative interventions. Studies should be powered to conduct such analyses and cure-relevant measures should be standardized. PMID:25313793

  5. Sex, Age, Race and Intervention Type in Clinical Studies of HIV Cure: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Heitzeg, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This systematic review was undertaken to determine the extent to which adult subjects representing sex (female), race (nonwhite), and age (>50 years) categories are included in clinical studies of HIV curative interventions and thus, by extension, the potential for data to be analyzed that may shed light on the influence of such demographic variables on safety and/or efficacy. English-language publications retrieved from PubMed and from references of retrieved papers describing clinical studies of curative interventions were read and demographic, recruitment year, and intervention-type details were noted. Variables of interest included participation by sex, age, and race; changes in participation rates by recruitment year; and differences in participation by intervention type. Of 151 publications, 23% reported full demographic data of study enrollees, and only 6% reported conducting efficacy analyses by demographic variables. Included studies recruited participants from 1991 to 2011. No study conducted safety analyses by demographic variables. The representation of women, older people, and nonwhites did not reflect national or international burdens of HIV infection. Participation of demographic subgroups differed by intervention type and study location. Rates of participation of demographic groups of interest did not vary with time. Limited data suggest efficacy, particularly of early therapy initiation followed by treatment interruption, may vary by demographic variables, in this case sex. More data are needed to determine associations between demographic characteristics and safety/efficacy of curative interventions. Studies should be powered to conduct such analyses and cure-relevant measures should be standardized. PMID:25313793

  6. Study of the effect of age changes on lip print pattern and its reliability in sex determination.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, K; Narang, R S; Arora, P C

    2011-12-01

    Cheiloscopy, a forensic investigation technique, deals with the study of elevations and depressions which form a characteristic pattern on the external surface of the lips. The objective of the study was to determine the most common lip patterns in North Indian population, to evaluate whether sex determination is possible on the basis of lip prints and to ascertain if there is any co-relation between advancing age and its effect on lip pattern. A total of 600 subjects, 289 males and 311 females were selected and divided into three age groups (group 1: 1-20 years, group 2: 21-40 years, group 3: 40 years and above). Statistical analysis (applying Chi square test) showed very highly significant difference for different lip patterns (p < 0.0001) in males and females in group 2 and no significant difference in group 1 and group 3. The most predominant pattern in the entire study population was Type I (32.33%). Age changes like immaturity of lips in younger age and diminished anatomic details and tonicity in older age can have a considerable effect on the lip pattern, thereby making the correct identification of sex in these age groups debatable. PMID:22717913

  7. Variations of CT-Based Trunk Muscle Attenuation by Age, Sex, and Specific Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Dennis E.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Fat accumulation in muscle may contribute to age-related declines in muscle function and is indicated by reduced attenuation of x-rays by muscle tissue in computed tomography scans. Reduced trunk muscle attenuation is associated with poor physical function, low back pain, and increased hyperkyphosis in older adults. However, variations in trunk muscle attenuation with age, sex and between specific muscles have not been investigated. Methods. A cross-sectional examination of trunk muscle attenuation in computed tomography scans was performed in 60 younger (35–50 years) and 60 older (75–87 years) adults randomly selected from participants in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation Multidetector Computed Tomography Study. Computed tomography attenuation of 11 trunk muscles was measured at vertebral levels T8 and L3, and the effects of age, sex, and specific muscle on computed tomography attenuation of trunk muscles were determined. Results. Muscle attenuation varied by specific muscle (p < .001), was lower in older adults (p < .001), and was generally lower in women than in men (p < .001), although not in all muscles. Age-related differences in muscle attenuation varied with specific muscle (p < .001), with the largest age differences occurring in the paraspinal and abdominal muscles. Conclusions. Trunk muscle attenuation is lower in older adults than in younger adults in both women and men, but such age-related differences vary widely between muscle groups. The reasons that some muscles exhibit larger age-related differences in fat content than others should be further explored to better understand age-related changes in functional capacity and postural stability. PMID:22904095

  8. In Search of Emerging Same-Sex Sexuality: Romantic Attractions at Age 13 Years.

    PubMed

    Li, Gu; Hines, Melissa

    2016-10-01

    Sex-typed behavior in childhood is significantly related to sexual orientation in adulthood. In addition, same-sex attractions in early adolescence are more non-exclusive than in adulthood and can differ from later same-sex orientations. However, little research has focused on romantic attractions as they emerge during early adolescence. Drawing a sample from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (197 girls, 204 boys), the current study examined whether same-sex romantic attractions at age 13 years were exclusive, and whether they were predicted by sex-typed behavior at age 3.5 years. No young adolescents in this sample reported exclusive same-sex attractions, and increased same-sex attractions were not significantly related to reduced other-sex sexualities. Childhood sex-typed behavior did not significantly predict early same-sex attractions, suggesting that early same-sex attractions differ from later same-sex orientations. The current study highlights the importance of studying the development of sexuality beginning prior to adulthood. PMID:27091185

  9. Emergence of mixed-sex friendship groups during adolescence: Developmental associations with substance use and delinquency.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Lauren E; Gest, Scott D; Feinberg, Mark E; Osgood, D Wayne

    2014-11-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from over 14,000 youth residing in 28 communities in the rural United States were analyzed to examine the emergence of mixed-sex friendship groups in early adolescence. Youth were surveyed on 5 occasions between fall of 6th grade and spring of 9th grade. At each assessment, youth reported the names of up to 7 same-grade friends and described patterns of alcohol use, cigarette use, and delinquency. Approximately 800-900 friendship groups (M = 10.5 members) were identified at each assessment and categorized in terms of gender composition (all-girl, mostly-girl, mixed-sex, mostly-boy, all-boy). The proportion of groups categorized as mixed-sex increased with grade level (10% in 6th grade, 22% in 9th grade), but gender-homogenous groups predominated at all grade levels (76% in 6th grade, 51% in 9th grade). Mixed-sex groups were slightly larger than all-girl groups but the same size as all-boy groups. All-girl groups had the highest levels of tight-knittedness (i.e., density, reciprocity, and transitivity), with mixed-sex groups having the lowest levels and all-boy groups having intermediate levels. After controlling for demographic factors, future mixed-sex group membership was predicted by lower popularity, higher levels of delinquency, and lower levels of alcohol use; mixed-sex friendship group membership was associated with increased likelihood of cigarette use. Results are partially consistent with Dunphy's (1969) classic account of the emergence of mixed-sex groups in adolescence, but suggest that in early adolescence, mixed-sex group affiliation is significantly associated with deviant behavior and peripheral social status, not with popularity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25221839

  10. Emergence of Mixed-Sex Friendship Groups during Adolescence: Developmental Associations with Substance Use & Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Lauren E.; Gest, Scott D.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from over 14,000 youth residing in 28 communities in the rural U.S. were analyzed to examine the emergence of mixed-sex friendship groups in early adolescence. Youth were surveyed on five occasions between fall of 6th grade and spring of 9th grade. At each assessment, youth reported the names of up to seven same-grade friends and described patterns of alcohol use, cigarette use and delinquency. Approximately 800 – 900 friendship groups (Mean = 10.5 members) were identified at each assessment and categorized in terms of gender composition (all-girl, mostly-girl, mixed-sex, mostly-boy, all-boy). The proportion of groups categorized as mixed-sex increased with grade level (10% in 6th grade, 22% in 9th grade), but gender-homogenous groups predominated at all grade levels (76% in 6th grade, 51% in 9th grade). Mixed-sex groups were slightly larger than all-girl groups but the same size as all-boy groups. All-girl groups had the highest levels of tightknittedness (i.e., density, reciprocity and transitivity), with mixed-sex groups having the lowest levels and all-boy groups having intermediate levels. After controlling for demographic factors, future mixed-sex group membership was predicted by lower popularity, higher levels of delinquency and lower levels of alcohol use; and mixed-sex friendship group membership was associated with increased likelihood of cigarette use. Results are partially consistent with Dunphy’s classic account of the emergence of mixed-sex groups in adolescence, but suggest that in early adolescence, mixed-sex group affiliation is significantly associated with deviant behavior and peripheral social status, not with popularity. PMID:25221839

  11. Identification of Normal Blood Pressure in Different Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiunn-Diann; Chen, Yen-Lin; Wu, Chung-Ze; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Pei, Dee; Liang, Yao-Jen; Chang, Jin-Biou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The concept of using single criterion of normal blood pressure with systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) < 90 mmHg for all ages is still disputable. The aim of the study is to identify the cutoff value of normotension in different age and sex groups. Totally, 127,922 (63,724 men and 64,198 women) were enrolled for the analysis. Finally, four fifths of them were randomly selected as the study group and the other one fifths as the validation group. Due the tight relationship with comorbidities from cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MetS) was used as a surrogate to replace the actual cardiovascular outcomes in the younger subjects. For SBP, MetS predicted by our equation had a sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 67% in males and 65%, 83% in females, respectively. At the same time, they are 61%, 73% in males and 73%, 86% in females for DBP, respectively. These sensitivity, specificity, odds ratio, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from our equations are all better than those derived from the criteria of 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg in both genders. By using the presence of MetS as the surrogate of CVD, the regression equations between SBP, DBP, and age were built in both genders. These new criteria are proved to have better sensitivity and specificity for MetS than either 140/90 or 130/85 mmHg. These simple equations should be used in clinical settings for early prevention of CVD. PMID:27057846

  12. Sex offender treatment outcome, actuarial risk, and the aging sex offender in Canadian corrections: a long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Olver, Mark E; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gu, Deqiang; Wong, Stephen C P

    2013-08-01

    The present study is an examination of sex offender treatment outcome in a large national cohort of Canadian Federally incarcerated sex offenders followed up an average of 11.7 years postrelease. A brief actuarial risk scale (BARS), which predicted sexual and violent recidivism, was created for the purposes of the present study to control for risk-related differences between treated and untreated offenders. In total, 732 offenders were identified as having completed (n = 625) or not attended (n = 107) a sex offender treatment program and for whom sufficient information was available to complete the scale. Controlling for risk and individual differences in follow-up time using Cox regression survival analyses and an 8-year fixed follow-up period, treated sex offenders demonstrated significantly lower rates of violent, but not sexual, recidivism. When the treated and untreated groups were stratified by risk level, significant differences were observed only among moderate or high risk offenders. Some significant group differences also emerged on indicators of recidivism severity, with treated offenders demonstrating slower times to sexual reoffense and lower scores on a quantified metric of sexual and violent recidivism severity after controlling for risk. Differences in recidivism base rates between treated and untreated offenders were also larger in magnitude for younger offenders (i.e., under age 50 at release), than for older offenders; however, interactions between age and treatment were not found. The findings are consistent with the risk principle and have possible implications regarding the dynamic nature of sexual violence risk. PMID:23136142

  13. Sex ratio at birth in twenty-first century Greece: the role of ethnic and social groups.

    PubMed

    Gavalas, V; Rontos, K; Nagopoulos, N

    2015-05-01

    The number of male per 100 female live births (defined as the sex ratio at birth, SRB) has been shown to be consistently stable in human populations irrespective of time and geographical location. All over the globe approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls and any significant deviation from this 'global average' is considered to be unnatural and is attributed to sex-selective under-reporting of births, sex-selective abortion, sex-selective infanticide or other man-made factors. The present paper uses data on civil registration from 2004-2011 to investigate the sex ratio at birth in modern Greece. It was found that the SRB is extremely masculine when the parents originate from the Indian sub-continent and China. The SRB is also unnaturally high (more than 113 boys per 100 girls) in the case of legitimate births born to Greek mothers who are illiterate. These findings are strong evidence that sex-selective abortions are taking place in Greece within population groups with a certain ethnic and social profile. Other parameters, such as age of mother at birth, birth order, legal status of birth and geographical location, were also investigated and they were found to play a role in the variation of SRB, but not to the extent education and ethnic group do. PMID:24849079

  14. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success

    PubMed Central

    Hopper, Lydia M.; Price, Sara A.; Freeman, Hani D.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different personality factors on chimpanzee problem-solving, we individually tested 36 captive chimpanzees with two novel foraging puzzles. We included both female (N = 24) and male (N = 12) adult chimpanzees (aged 14–47 years) in our sample. We also controlled for the females’ estrous state—a potential influence on cognitive reasoning—by testing cycling females both when their sexual swelling was maximally tumescent (associated with the luteinizing hormone surge of a female’s estrous cycle) and again when it was detumescent. Although we found no correlation between the chimpanzees’ success with either puzzle and their age or sex, the chimpanzees’ personality ratings did correlate with responses to the novel foraging puzzles. Specifically, male chimpanzees that were rated highly on the factors Methodical, Openness (to experience), and Dominance spent longer interacting with the puzzles. There was also a positive relationship between the latency of females to begin interacting with the two tasks and their rating on the factor Reactivity/Undependability. No other significant correlations were found, but we report tentative evidence for increased problem-solving success by the females when they had detumescent estrous swellings. PMID:24322874

  15. Letter report: Population estimates by age, sex and race for 10-county study area. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pittenger, D.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.

  16. Correlation of patient's mental attitude with age, sex, and educational level: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Shweta; Kumar, Ajit; Arora, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine any relationship, if exists, between the patient's mental attitude with age, sex, or educational qualification. Methods: A total of 200 patients who attended the outpatient department during a span of 1 year, for the fabrication of new complete dentures, were chosen for the study. After completing a routine case history and examination, a questionnaire was filled by the clinician as answered by the patient. Participants were evaluated and categorized based on the questionnaire and clinical experience during treatment according to a predefined classification of determining mental attitudes. Outcomes from the survey were correlated with participant gender, age, and educational status. Results: The male to female ratio was 83:117, out of the 200 enrolled participants. The results from the questionnaire showed that females were found to be more exacting (P = 0.007) in nature, while males, on the other hand, revealed more indifferent attitude (P = 0.02); both differences being statistically significant. Of the three age group categories: Participants in the age group of 45–54 years revealed a significant inclination toward an exacting attitude when compared with other age groups (P < 0.001). In regards to educational status, an illiterate or minimally educated group significantly outnumbered the college graduates in the indifferent attitude group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it could be said that the mental attitudes of patients could vary according to gender, age, and educational status, which could affect patient cooperation and satisfaction with oral rehabilitation, eventually manipulating the overall success of the treatment rendered. PMID:27011735

  17. Prenatal cocaine exposure decreases nigrostriatal dopamine release in vitro: effects of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Glatt, Stephen J; Trksak, George H; Cohen, Ori S; Simeone, Benjamin P; Jackson, Denise

    2004-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine (PCOC) exposure, age, sex, and estrous phase on the functional development of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons. Striatal tissue was obtained from prepubescent and adult rats of both sexes after bidaily exposure to saline (1 ml/kg) or cocaine (20 mg/kg/ml saline) from embryonic days 15-21. Tissue levels, basal release, and electrically evoked (1 or 8 Hz) overflow of endogenous DA and its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), as well as their efflux in response to superfusion with the DA transport blocker, nomifensine (10 microM), were measured from superfused striatal slices. Generally, these measures were highest in tissue from males and adults. Tissue DA and DOPAC levels and the rate of DA turnover were unaffected by PCOC exposure. Slices from PCOC-exposed juvenile and adult male rats exhibited significantly reduced basal and electrically evoked DA release at both stimulation intensities, in conjunction with higher levels of presynaptic DA reuptake. Female rats were largely spared from the effects of PCOC exposure, and measures did not vary with estrous phase. These findings demonstrate that the effects of PCOC exposure on various parameters of nigrostriatal DA neuronal function are not uniform across age, sex, or phases of the estrous cycle. These novel alterations in nigrostriatal DA transmission are in need of independent replication, but they may have profound implications for behavioral activities regulated by these neurons and, thus, may provide a basis for sex-selective effects of PCOC in exposed humans. Possible mechanisms of deleterious effects of PCOC exposure in select groups are discussed. PMID:15170820

  18. Dietary intakes of age-group swimmers.

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, J A; Williams, M M

    1991-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to collect information regarding the dietary habits of male and female age-group swimmers and report the energy consumptions of these athletes in relation to their daily training demands. Twenty competitive swimmers, who were training 6000 m per day 6 days a week, recorded all fluid and food consumed during a 4-day period. Dietary analysis revealed that 11 swimmers (55%) had calcium intakes below recommended dietary allowances (RDA), while 13 (65%) had iron intakes lower than RDA. Despite identical training loads and body mass, male swimmers had significantly greater (P = 0.004) daily mean (s.d.) energy consumption (3072(732) kcal, 12.9(3.1) MJ) than females (2130(544) kcal, 8.9(2.3) MJ) and were maintaining energy balance. Although the contribution of carbohydrate to total daily energy intake was the same for male (55%) and female swimmers (56%), the females ingested significantly less (P = 0.011) carbohydrate (292(87) g) than the males (404(88) g) and could be considered deficient in dietary carbohydrate with respect to their daily training demands. PMID:1777785

  19. Combined Effect of Fetal Sex and Advanced Maternal Age on Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Weissmann-Brenner, Alina; Simchen, Michal J.; Zilberberg, Eran; Kalter, Anat; Dulitzky, Mordechai

    2015-01-01

    Background Fetal sex and maternal age are each known to affect outcomes of pregnancies. The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the combination of maternal age and fetal sex on pregnancy outcomes in term and post-term singleton pregnancies. Material/Methods This was a retrospective study on term singleton pregnancies delivered between 2004 and 2008 at the Chaim Sheba Medical Center. Data collected included maternal age, fetal sex, and maternal and neonatal complications. The combined effect of fetal sex and maternal age on complications of pregnancy was assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. Results The study population comprised 37,327 pregnancies. The risk of operative deliveries increased with maternal age ≥40 and in pregnancies with male fetuses. The risk of maternal diabetes and of longer hospitalization increased as maternal age increased, and in women <40 carrying male fetuses. The risk of hypertensive disorders increased in pregnancies with males as maternal age advanced. The risk of shoulder dystocia and neonatal respiratory complications increased in male neonates born to women<40. The risk of neonatal hypoglycemia increased in males for all maternal ages. Conclusions Risk assessment for fetal sex and advanced maternal age were given for different pregnancy complications. Knowledge of fetal sex adds value to the risk assessment of pregnancies as maternal age increases. PMID:25892459

  20. Characteristics associated with group sex participation among men and women in the club drug scene.

    PubMed

    Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the demographics, substance use and sexual risk behaviours associated with group sex (GS) participation among a sample of club drug users (n=498) in Miami. Men (n=128; 46.3%) and women (n=75; 33.7%) reported histories of GS. Group sex participation among men and women was associated with heroin and injection drug use, trading or selling sex, and sex while high, compared with no GS participation. Moreover, among men, GS was associated with buying sex and sex with an injection drug user; among women, GS was associated with substance dependence, a history of sexually transmissible infections and crack cocaine use, compared with no GS participation. PMID:26342286

  1. Genotype by Sex and Genotype by Age Interactions with Sedentary Behavior: The Portuguese Healthy Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Daniel M. V.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Diego, Vincent P.; Blangero, John; Souza, Michele C.; Freitas, Duarte L.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Gomes, Thayse N.; Santos, Fernanda K.; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SB) expression and its underlying causal factors have been progressively studied, as it is a major determinant of decreased health quality. In the present study we applied Genotype x Age (GxAge) and Genotype x Sex (GxSex) interaction methods to determine if the phenotypic expression of different SB traits is influenced by an interaction between genetic architecture and both age and sex. A total of 1345 subjects, comprising 249 fathers, 327 mothers, 334 sons and 325 daughters, from 339 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. SB traits were assessed by means of a 3-d physical activity recall, the Baecke and IPAQ questionnaires. GxAge and GxSex interactions were analyzed using SOLAR 4.0 software. Sedentary behaviour heritability estimates were not always statistically significant (p>0.05) and ranged from 3% to 27%. The GxSex and GxAge interaction models were significantly better than the single polygenic models for TV (min/day), EEsed (kcal/day), personal computer (PC) usage and physical activty (PA) tertiles. The GxAge model is also significantly better than the polygenic model for Sed (min/day). For EEsed, PA tertiles, PC and Sed, the GxAge interaction was significant because the genetic correlation between SB environments was significantly different from 1. Further, PC and Sed variance heterogeneity among distinct ages were observed. The GxSex interaction was significant for EEsed due to genetic variance heterogeneity between genders and for PC due to a genetic correlation less than 1 across both sexes. Our results suggest that SB expression may be influenced by the interactions between genotype with both sex and age. Further, different sedentary behaviors seem to have distinct genetic architectures and are differentially affected by age and sex. PMID:25302714

  2. Dating, Sex, and Substance Use Predict Increases in Adolescents' Subjective Age across Two Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Albrecht, Arne K.; Jansson, S. Mikael

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the nature of the relationship between adolescents' subjective age (how old they feel) and chronological age, and explored whether dating, sex, and substance use predicted increases in adolescents' subjective age across a two-year period. The participants were 570 adolescents who were interviewed when they were first ages 12-19…

  3. The Effect of Sex and Age on Small Intestinal Transit Times in Humans.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Monika; Fadda, Hala M

    2016-02-01

    This study utilizes a novel approach of small bowel video capsule endoscopy for investigating the influence of sex and age on small intestinal transit times (SITT) in humans. A total of 81 outpatients undergoing investigations with the small bowel video capsule endoscope (SB-VCE) and meeting inclusion criteria were included in this study. Following an overnight fast, patients swallowed the SB-VCE with a glass of water. SITT were calculated from the first duodenal image to the first cecal image. This study showed that the SB-VCE provides accurate and reliable measurements of SITT under real-life conditions. A large inter-individual variability in SITT was observed, with times ranging from 50 to 460 min. This variability can have implications on drug absorption and bioavailability. The median SITT were 219 min for females and 191 min for males. Although SITT were 28 min longer in females than males, this difference was not found to be statistically significant (p = 0.66). No correlation was found between age and SITT (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.19). Therefore, any drug bioavailability differences of modified release dosage preparations that are observed between adult patient groups of different age or sex are unlikely to be attributable to SITT. PMID:26308649

  4. Effect of Age, Sex, and Race Distance on Front Crawl Stroke Parameters in Subelite Adolescent Swimmers During Competition.

    PubMed

    Dormehl, Shilo J; Osborough, Conor D

    2015-08-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect of age, sex and race distance on velocity (v), stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL) and stroke index (SI) of subelite adolescent swimmers in competition, and to investigate their pacing strategies during the 100-m and 200-m events. Video footage of 112 adolescent swimmers (56 female; 56 male), competing in the 100-m and 200-m freestyle events, in two age groups (12-14; 15-18 years) was recorded and subsequently analyzed. A MANOVA showed that all stroke parameters significantly differed between sexes and between race distances. The older adolescents had a higher v, a longer SL and a greater SI (p < .01) than the younger adolescents. There were significant interaction effects between age and sex for v, SL and SI. Most adolescents had a SL that was within 7% of that reported for 1992 Olympians, but had up to 16% lower SRs. Separate Friedman's ANOVAs showed that SL differed between successive race quarters for both age groups, both sexes and both race distances. It is likely that physical immaturity, inexperience in competition pacing and within-race fatigue strongly influence the performances of subelite adolescent front crawl swimmers. PMID:25902554

  5. A spatiotemporal analysis of aggregate labour force behaviour by sex and age across the European Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhorst, J. Paul

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates the causes of variation in age-specific male and female labour force participation rates using annual data from 154 regions across ten European Union member states for the period 1983-1997. Regional participation rates appear to be strongly correlated in time, weakly correlated in space and to parallel their national counterparts. An econometric model is designed consistent with these empirical findings. To control for potential endogeneity of the explanatory variables, we use an instrumental variables estimation scheme based on a matrix exponential spatial specification of the error terms. Many empirical studies of aggregate labour force behaviour have ignored population distribution effects, relying instead on the representative-agent paradigm. In order for representative-agent models to accurately describe aggregate behaviour, all marginal reactions of individuals to changes in aggregate variables must be identical. It turns out that this condition cannot apply to individuals across different sex/age groups.

  6. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role. PMID:26149415

  7. Age-specific and sex-specific morbidity and mortality from avian influenza A(H7N9).

    PubMed

    Dudley, Joseph P; Mackay, Ian M

    2013-11-01

    We used data on age and sex for 136 laboratory confirmed human A(H7N9) cases reported as of 11 August 2013 to compare age-specific and sex-specific patterns of morbidity and mortality from the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus with those of the avian influenza A(H5N1) virus. Human A(H7N9) cases exhibit high degrees of age and sex bias: mortality is heavily biased toward males >50 years, no deaths have been reported among individuals <25 years old, and relatively few cases documented among children or adolescents. The proportion of fatal cases (PFC) for human A(H7N9) cases as of 11 August 2013 was 32%, compared to a cumulative PFC for A(H5N1) of 83% in Indonesia and 36% in Egypt. Approximately 75% of cases of all A(H7N9) cases occurred among individuals >45 years old. Morbidity and mortality from A(H7N9) are lowest among individuals between 10 and 29 years, the age group which exhibits the highest cumulative morbidity and case fatality rates from A(H5N1). Although individuals <20 years old comprise nearly 50% of all human A(H5N1) cases, only 7% of all reported A(H7N9) cases and no deaths have been reported among individuals in this age group. Only 4% of A(H7N9) cases occurred among children<5 years old, and only one case from the 10 to 20 year age group. Age- and sex-related differences in morbidity and mortality from emerging zoonotic diseases can provide insights into ecological, economic, and cultural factors that may contribute to the emergence and proliferation of novel zoonotic diseases in human populations. PMID:24091087

  8. The Effects of Group Composition, Information Content, and Sex-Role Orientation on Children's Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay-Kostoulas, Katina

    A study was conducted to explore how second-grade children's memory for film characters' statements varies as a function of (1) group composition (the proportion of boys and girls in each film condition); (2) congruence level of film characters (incongruent and congruent sex-typed statements); and (3) subjects' own sex-role orientations…

  9. Core groups and the transmission of HIV: learning from male sex workers.

    PubMed

    Parker, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    A growing and substantial body of research suggests that female sex workers play a disproportionately large role in the transmission of HIV in many parts of the world, and they are often referred to as core groups by epidemiologists, mathematical modellers, clinicians and policymakers. Male sex workers, by contrast, have received little attention and it is not known whether it is helpful to conceptualize them as a core group. This paper draws upon ethnographic research documenting social and sexual networks in London and looks at the position of five male sex workers within a network comprising 193 men and seven women (as well as 1378 anonymous sexual contacts and 780 commercial contacts). In so doing, it suggests that there is no evidence to show that male sex workers are more or less likely to acquire or transmit HIV in the course of commercial sex compared with other types of sexual relationships. In addition, men engaging in non-commercial sex all reported having unprotected sex in a variety of contexts and relationships and there is no evidence to suggest that men who are not sex workers play less of a role in the transmission of HIV. In short, these data suggest that it would be inappropriate to conceptualize male sex workers as a core group. This is not to suggest that public policy should continue to overlook male sex workers. New and inventive approaches are required to reach out to a vulnerable but diverse group of men, selling sex for a variety of reasons; even if these men are no more vulnerable to acquiring and/or transmitting HIV than other men and women that form part of their network. PMID:16321168

  10. Age- and sex-specific spatio-temporal patterns of colorectal cancer mortality in Spain (1975-2008)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, space-time patterns of colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality risks are studied by sex and age group (50-69, ≥70) in Spanish provinces during the period 1975-2008. Space-time conditional autoregressive models are used to perform the statistical analyses. A pronounced increase in mortality risk has been observed in males for both age-groups. For males between 50 and 69 years of age, trends seem to stabilize from 2001 onward. In females, trends reflect a more stable pattern during the period in both age groups. However, for the 50-69 years group, risks take an upward trend in the period 2006-2008 after the slight decline observed in the second half of the period. This study offers interesting information regarding CRC mortality distribution among different Spanish provinces that could be used to improve prevention policies and resource allocation in different regions. PMID:25136264

  11. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity. PMID:26597049

  12. Hyoid bone fusion and bone density across the lifespan: prediction of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Ellie; Austin, Diane; Werner, Helen M; Chuang, Ying Ji; Bersu, Edward; Vorperian, Houri K

    2016-06-01

    The hyoid bone supports the important functions of swallowing and speech. At birth, the hyoid bone consists of a central body and pairs of right and left lesser and greater cornua. Fusion of the greater cornua with the body normally occurs in adulthood, but may not occur at all in some individuals. The aim of this study was to quantify hyoid bone fusion across the lifespan, as well as assess developmental changes in hyoid bone density. Using a computed tomography imaging studies database, 136 hyoid bones (66 male, 70 female, ages 1-to-94) were examined. Fusion was ranked on each side and hyoid bones were classified into one of four fusion categories based on their bilateral ranks: bilateral distant non-fusion, bilateral non-fusion, partial or unilateral fusion, and bilateral fusion. Three-dimensional hyoid bone models were created and used to calculate bone density in Hounsfield units. Results showed a wide range of variability in the timing and degree of hyoid bone fusion, with a trend for bilateral non-fusion to decrease after age 20. Hyoid bone density was significantly lower in adult female scans than adult male scans and decreased with age in adulthood. In sex and age estimation models, bone density was a significant predictor of sex. Both fusion category and bone density were significant predictors of age group for adult females. This study provides a developmental baseline for understanding hyoid bone fusion and bone density in typically developing individuals. Findings have implications for the disciplines of forensics, anatomy, speech pathology, and anthropology. PMID:27114259

  13. Measurement non-invariance of DSM-IV narcissistic personality disorder criteria across age and sex in a population-based sample of Norwegian twins

    PubMed Central

    KUBARYCH, THOMAS S.; AGGEN, STEVEN H.; KENDLER, KENNETH S.; TORGERSEN, SVEN; REICHBORN-KJENNERUD, TED; NEALE, MICHAEL C.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated measurement non-invariance of DSM-IV narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) criteria across age and sex in a population-based cohort sample of 2794 Norwegian twins. Age had a statistically significant effect on the factor mean for NPD. Sex had a statistically significant effect on the factor mean and variance. Controlling for these factor level effects, item-level analysis indicated that the criteria were functioning differently across age and sex. After correcting for measurement differences at the item level, the latent factor mean effect for age was no longer statistically significant. The mean difference for sex remained statistically significant after correcting for item threshold effects. The results indicate that DSM-IV NPD criteria perform differently in males and females and across age. Differences in diagnostic rates across groups may not be valid without correcting for measurement non-invariance. PMID:20632257

  14. Adolescent Girls' Sex Role Development: Relationship with Sports Participation, Self-Esteem, and Age at Menarche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Janice E.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates development of sex role orientation among adolescent girls, and explores its relationship with sports participation, self-esteem, and age at menarche. Concludes that relationship of sex role orientation with sports participation and self-esteem was not an interactive one, but was reflective of individual differences beginning in late…

  15. An Investigation into the Effect of Respondent Gender, Victim Age, and Perpetrator Treatment on Public Attitudes towards Sex Offenders, Sex Offender Treatment, and Sex Offender Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Paul; Hirst, Lindsay; Davies, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors examine the effect respondent gender, victim age, and offender treatment programs have upon public attitudes towards sex offenders. A community sample of 235 participants were asked to read a hypothetical vignette involving the sexual assault of a 10-, 15-, or 20-year-old female by a 35-year-old male who subsequently…

  16. Empathy Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Altruistic Moral Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Jan B.; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19–86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice “everyday life” situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called “positivity effect” and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects

  17. Empathy Mediates the Effects of Age and Sex on Altruistic Moral Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Jan B; Brand, Matthias; Kalbe, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Moral decision making involves affective and cognitive functions like emotional empathy, reasoning and cognitive empathy/theory of mind (ToM), which are discussed to be subject to age-related alterations. Additionally, sex differences in moral decision making have been reported. However, age-related changes in moral decision making from early to late adulthood and their relation to sex and neuropsychological functions have not been studied yet. One hundred ninety seven participants (122 female), aged 19-86 years, were tested with a moral decision making task comprising forced choice "everyday life" situations in which an altruistic option that favors a socially accepted alternative had to be considered against an egoistic option that favors personal benefit over social interests. The percentage of altruistic decisions was analyzed. A structural equation model (SEM) was calculated to test the hypothesis whether age and sex predict altruistic moral decision, and whether relevant neuropsychological domains mediate these hypothesized relationships. A significant relationship between age and moral decision making was found indicating more frequent altruistic decisions with increasing age. Furthermore, women decided more altruistically than men. The SEM showed that both age and sex are significant predictors of altruistic moral decision making, mediated by emotional empathy but not by reasoning. No cognitive empathy and ToM scores were correlated to age and moral decision making at the same time and thus were not included in the SEM. Our data suggest that increasing age and female sex have an effect on altruistic moral decisions, but that this effect is fully mediated by emotional empathy. The fact that changes of moral decision making with age are mediated by emotional empathy can be interpreted in the light of the so-called "positivity effect" and increasing avoidance of negative affect in aging. The mediated sex effect might represent both biological aspects and

  18. A voxel-based morphometric study of age- and sex-related changes in white matter volume in the normal aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haijing; Wang, Lixin; Geng, Zuojun; Zhu, Qingfeng; Song, Zhenhu; Chang, Ruiting; Lv, Huandi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To carry out a cross-sectional study of 187 cognitively normal Chinese adults using the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach to delineate age-related changes in the white matter volume of regions of interest in the brain and further analyze their correlation with age. Materials and methods A total of 187 cognitively normal adults were divided into the young, middle, and old age-groups. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging was performed with the Achieva 3.0 T system. Structural images were processed using VBM8 and statistical parametric mapping 8. Regions of interest were obtained by WFU PickAtlas, and all realigned images were spatially normalized. Results Females showed significantly greater total white matter volume than males (t=2.36, P=0.0096, false-discovery rate [FDR] corrected). VBM demonstrated statistically significant age-related differences in white matter volume between the young age-group and the middle age-group (P<0.05, FDR corrected) and between the middle age-group and the old age-group (P<0.05, FDR corrected). No interaction was found between age and sex on white matter volume (P<0.05, FDR corrected). Logistic regression analysis revealed nonlinear correlation between total white matter volume and age (R2=0.124, P<0.001). White matter volume gradually increased before 40 years of age, peaked around 50 years of age, and rapidly declined after 60 years of age. Conclusion Significant age-related differences are present in white matter volume across multiple brain regions during aging. The VBM approach may help differentiate underlying normal neurobiological aging changes of specific brain regions from neurodegenerative impairments. PMID:26966366

  19. Health risk assessment of ochratoxin A for all age-sex strata in a market economy

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper-Goodman, T.; Hilts, C.; Billiard, S.M.; Kiparissis, Y.; Richard, I.D.K.; Hayward, S.

    2009-01-01

    In order to manage risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) in foods, we re-evaluated the tolerable daily intake (TDI), derived the negligible cancer risk intake (NCRI), and conducted a probabilistic risk assessment. A new approach was developed to derive ‘usual’ probabilistic exposure in the presence of highly variable occurrence data, such as encountered with low levels of OTA. Canadian occurrence data were used for various raw food commodities or finished foods and were combined with US Department of Agriculture (USDA) food consumption data, which included data on infants and young children. Both variability and uncertainty in input data were considered in the resulting exposure estimates for various age/sex strata. Most people were exposed to OTA on a daily basis. Mean adjusted exposures for all age-sex groups were generally below the NCRI of 4ng OTA kg bw−1, except for 1–4-year-olds as a result of their lower body weight. For children, the major contributors of OTA were wheat-based foods followed by oats, rice, and raisins. Beer, coffee, and wine also contributed to total OTA exposure in older individuals. Predicted exposure to OTA decreased when European Commission maximum limits were applied to the occurrence data. The impact on risk for regular eaters of specific commodities was also examined. PMID:20013446

  20. Health risk assessment of ochratoxin A for all age-sex strata in a market economy.

    PubMed

    Kuiper-Goodman, T; Hilts, C; Billiard, S M; Kiparissis, Y; Richard, I D K; Hayward, S

    2010-02-01

    In order to manage risk of ochratoxin A (OTA) in foods, we re-evaluated the tolerable daily intake (TDI), derived the negligible cancer risk intake (NCRI), and conducted a probabilistic risk assessment. A new approach was developed to derive 'usual' probabilistic exposure in the presence of highly variable occurrence data, such as encountered with low levels of OTA. Canadian occurrence data were used for various raw food commodities or finished foods and were combined with US Department of Agriculture (USDA) food consumption data, which included data on infants and young children. Both variability and uncertainty in input data were considered in the resulting exposure estimates for various age/sex strata. Most people were exposed to OTA on a daily basis. Mean adjusted exposures for all age-sex groups were generally below the NCRI of 4 ng OTA kg bw(-1), except for 1-4-year-olds as a result of their lower body weight. For children, the major contributors of OTA were wheat-based foods followed by oats, rice, and raisins. Beer, coffee, and wine also contributed to total OTA exposure in older individuals. Predicted exposure to OTA decreased when European Commission maximum limits were applied to the occurrence data. The impact on risk for regular eaters of specific commodities was also examined. PMID:20013446

  1. Oxytocin modulates meta-mood as a function of age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Natalie C.; Horta, Marilyn; Lin, Tian; Feifel, David; Fischer, Håkan; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2015-01-01

    Attending to and understanding one’s own feelings are components of meta-mood and constitute important socio-affective skills across the entire lifespan. Growing evidence suggests a modulatory role of the neuropeptide oxytocin on various socio-affective processes. Going beyond previous work that almost exclusively examined young men and perceptions of emotions in others, the current study investigated effects of intranasal oxytocin on meta-mood in young and older men and women. In a double-blind between-group design, participants were randomly assigned to self-administer either intranasal oxytocin or a placebo before responding to items from the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) about attention to feelings and clarity of feelings. In contrast to older women, oxytocin relative to placebo increased attention to feelings in older men. Oxytocin relative to placebo enhanced meta-mood in young female participants but reduced it in older female participants. This pattern of findings supports an age- and sex-differential modulatory function of the neuropeptide oxytocin on meta-mood, possibly associated with neurobiological differences with age and sex. PMID:26441637

  2. Sex and age differences in hibernation patterns of common hamsters: adult females hibernate for shorter periods than males.

    PubMed

    Siutz, Carina; Franceschini, Claudia; Millesi, Eva

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the timing and duration of hibernation as well as body temperature patterns in free-ranging common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) with regard to sex and age differences. Body temperature was recorded using subcutaneously implanted data loggers. The results demonstrate that although immergence and vernal emergence sequences of sex and age groups resembled those of most hibernators, particularly adult females delayed hibernation onset until up to early January. Thus, in contrast to other hibernators, female common hamsters hibernated for shorter periods than males and correspondingly spent less time in torpor. These sex differences were absent in juvenile hamsters. The period between the termination of hibernation and vernal emergence varied among individuals but did not differ between the sex and age groups. This period of preemergence euthermy was related to emergence body mass: individuals that terminated hibernation earlier in spring and had longer euthermic phases prior to emergence started the active season in a better condition. In addition, males with longer periods of preemergence euthermy had larger testes at emergence. In conclusion, females have to rely on sufficient food stores but may adjust the use of torpor in relation to the available external energy reserves, whereas males show a more pronounced energy-saving strategy by hibernating for longer periods. Nonetheless, food caches seem to be important for both males and females as indicated by the euthermic preemergence phase and the fact that some individuals, mainly yearlings, emerged with a higher body mass than shortly before immergence in autumn. PMID:27138337

  3. Effect of sex, age, and breed on genetic recombination features in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental biological process which generates genetic diversity, affects fertility, and influences evolvability. Here we investigate the roles of sex, age, and breed in cattle recombination features, including recombination rate, location and crossover interference. Usin...

  4. 76 FR 80966 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex... Information Collection Under Review. The Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal..., Federal Bureau of Investigation, CJIS Division, Module E-3, 1000 Custer Hollow Road,......

  5. Sex and Age Differences in the Risk Threshold for Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Thessa M. L.; Loeber, Rolf; Slotboom, Anne-Marie; Bijleveld, Catrien C. J. H.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Koot, Hans M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines sex differences in the risk threshold for adolescent delinquency. Analyses were based on longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 503) and the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 856). The study identified risk factors, promotive factors, and accumulated levels of risks as predictors of delinquency and nondelinquency,…

  6. Group sex events amongst non-gay drug users: an understudied risk environment.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Samuel R; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Sandoval, Milagros

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses relevant literature on group sex events--defined as events at which some people have sex with more than one partner--as risk environments, with a particular focus on group sex events where people who take drugs by non-injection routes of administration participate and where the event is not primarily LGBT-identified, at a "classic" crack house, nor in a brothel. It also briefly presents some findings from a small ethnography of such events. Group sex participation by people who take drugs by non-injection routes of administration seems to be widespread. It involves both behavioural and network risk for HIV and STI infection, including documented high-risk behaviour and sexual mixing of STI- and HIV-infected people with those who are uninfected. Indeed several HIV and STI outbreaks have been documented as based on such group sex events. Further, group sex events often serve as potential bridge environments that may allow infections to pass from members of one high-risk-behavioural category to another, and to branch out through these people's sexual and/or injection networks to other members of the local community. The ethnographic data presented here suggest a serious possibility of "third party transmission" of infectious agents between people who do not have sex with each other. This can occur even when condoms are consistently used since condoms and sex toys are sometimes used with different people without being removed or cleaned, and since fingers and mouths come into contact with mucosal surfaces of other members of the same or opposite sex. In addition to being risk environments, many of these group sex events are venues where risk-reducing norms, activities and roles are present--which lays the basis for harm reduction interventions. Research in more geographical locations is needed so we can better understand risks associated with group sex events in which drug users participate--and, in particular, how both participants and others

  7. Group-sex events among non-gay drug users: An understudied risk environment

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Samuel R.; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Sandoval, Milagros

    2010-01-01

    Background and Methods This article discusses relevant literature on group sex events—defined as events at which some people have sex with more than one partner—as risk environments, with a particular focus on group sex events where people who take drugs by non-injection routes of administration participate and where the event is not primarily LGBT-identified, at a “classic” crack house, nor in a brothel. It also briefly presents some findings from a small ethnography of such events. Results Group sex participation by people who take drugs by non-injection routes of administration seems to be widespread. It involves both behavioural and network risk for HIV and STI infection, including documented high-risk behaviour and sexual mixing of STI- and HIV-infected people with those who are uninfected. Indeed several HIV and STI outbreaks have been documented as based on such group sex events. Further, group sex events often serve as potential bridge environments that may allow infections to pass from members of one high-risk-behavioural category to another, and to branch out through these people’s sexual and/or injection networks to other members of the local community. The ethnographic data presented here suggest a serious possibility of “third party transmission” of infectious agents between people who do not have sex with each other. This can occur even when condoms are consistently used since condoms and sex toys are sometimes used with different people without being removed or cleaned, and since fingers and mouths come into contact with mucosal surfaces of other members of the same or opposite sex. In addition to being risk environments, many of these group sex events are venues where risk-reducing norms, activities and roles are present—which lays the basis for harm reduction interventions. Conclusion Research in more geographical locations is needed so we can better understand risks associated with group sex events in which drug users participate

  8. Age- and Sex-Associated Effects on Acute-Phase Proteins in Göttingen Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Jensen, Søren J; Ludvigsen, Trine P; Nilsson, Sara K; Grossi, Anette B; Heegaard, Peter M H

    2015-01-01

    Göttingen minipigs are a useful model for diseases having an inflammatory component, and the associated use of acute-phase proteins (APP) as biomarkers of inflammation warrants establishment of their reference ranges. The objective of this study was to establish reference values for selected APP in Göttingen minipigs and to investigate the effects of age, sex, and various stimuli on these ranges. Serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, pig major acute-phase protein (PMAP), albumin, and porcine α-1 acid glycoprotein (PAGP) were evaluated in 4 age groups (6, 16, 24 and 40–48 wk) of male and female Göttingen minipigs. In addition, minipigs were tested under 2 housing conditions, after acute LPS challenge, and after diet-induced obesity with and without mild diabetes. Changing the pigs to a new environment induced significant increases in CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin and PAGP and a decrease in albumin. An acute LPS stimulus increased CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin, and SAA; PAGP was unchanged and albumin decreased. Obese pigs with and without diabetes showed increases in CRP and PAGP, albumin decreased, and haptoglobin and SAA were unchanged. PMAP was increased only in obese pigs without diabetes. In conclusion, reference values for CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin, SAA, PAGP and albumin were established for male and female Göttingen minipigs of different ages. These APP were influenced by age and sex, underlining the importance of considering these factors when designing and interpreting studies including aspects of inflammation. In addition, an APP response was verified after both acute and chronic stimuli. PMID:26310463

  9. Quality Care through Multi-Age Grouping of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Leo

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that multi-age grouping in early childhood settings can and does work. Addresses four main hurdles to successful implementation: (1) laws and regulations that act as barriers; (2) health concerns; (3) overcoming educational values that conflict with those of the age-grouped classroom; and (4) staff misunderstanding of multi-age grouping…

  10. Age and sex suicide rates in the Eastern Mediterranean Region based on global burden of disease estimates for 2000.

    PubMed

    Rezaeian, M

    2007-01-01

    Suicide was estimated to be the 25th leading cause of death in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region in the year 2000. Using data from the WHO global burden of disease project, estimated rates of suicidal deaths were plotted for different sex and age groups. Overall rates of suicide were higher in females than males in age groups 5-14 and 15-29 years. The peak age for suicides among females was 15-29 years (8.6 per 100,000) and for males 60+ years (100,000). As a proportion of all deaths due to injury, suicides were substantially higher in females than males. Females in high-income countries had the lowest rates of suicide in all age groups and males in high-income countries had a lower rate than males in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:17955778

  11. Effects of Age, Sex and Syllable Number on Voice Onset Time: Evidence from Children's Voiceless Aspirated Stops.

    PubMed

    Yu, Vickie Y; De Nil, Luc F; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2015-06-01

    Voice onset time (VOT) is a temporal acoustic parameter that reflects motor speech coordination skills. This study investigated the patterns of age and sex differences across development of voice onset time in a group of 70 English-speaking children, ranging in age from 4.1 to 18.4 years, and 12 young adults. The effect of the number of syllables on VOT patterns was also examined. Speech samples were elicited by producing syllables /pa/ and /pataka/. Results supported previous findings showing that younger children produce longer VOT values with higher levels of variability. Markedly higher VOT values and increased variability were found for boys at ages between 8 and 11 years, confirming sex differences in VOT patterns and patterns of variability. In addition, all participants consistently produced shorter VOT with higher variability for multisyllables than monosyllables, indicating an effect of syllable number. Possible explanations for these findings and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26677640

  12. Effects of age, sex and syllable structure on voice onset time: Evidence from children’s voiceless aspirated stops

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Vickie Y.; De Nil, Luc F.; Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2016-01-01

    Voice onset time (VOT) is a temporal acoustic parameter that reflects motor speech coordination skills. This study investigated the patterns of age and sex differences across development of voice onset time in a group of 70 English-speaking children ranging in age from 4.1 to 18.4 years and 12 young adults. The effect of the number of syllables on VOT patterns was also examined. Speech samples were elicited by producing syllables /pa/ and /pataka/. Results supported previous findings showing that younger children produce longer VOT values with higher levels of variability. Markedly higher VOT values and increased variability were found for boys at ages between 8 to 11 years, confirming sex differences in VOT patterns and patterns of variability. In addition, all participants consistently produced shorter VOT with higher variability for multisyllables than monosyllables, indicating an effect of syllable number. Possible explanations for these findings and clinical implications were discussed. PMID:26677640

  13. Mercury and Selenium Balance in Endangered Saimaa Ringed Seal Depend on Age and Sex.

    PubMed

    Lyytikäinen, Merja; Pätynen, Juuso; Hyvärinen, Heikki; Sipilä, Tero; Kunnasranta, Mervi

    2015-10-01

    The endangered Saimaa ringed seal (Pusa hispida saimensis) is exposed to relatively high concentrations of mercury (Hg) in freshwaters poor in selenium (Se), a known antagonist of Hg. The impact of age and sex on the bioaccumulation of Hg and Se was studied by analyzing liver, muscle, and hair samples from seals of different age groups. Adult females were found to accumulate significantly more Hg in the liver (with ca. 60% as HgSe), and less Hg in the muscles compared to adult males, which may be explained by accelerated metabolism during gestation and lactation. In adult seals, molar Se:Hg ratios in the muscles fall below one, which is considered a threshold for the emergence of adverse effects. As a result, Saimaa ringed seals may be at risk of developing health and reproductive problems. According to mass balance calculations, the pups are exposed to considerable amounts (μg/d) of mercury during gestation, although lactation is their main exposure route. In lanugo pups, Hg concentrates in the hair, and molting serves as a main detoxification route. For other age groups, demethylation followed by the formation of HgSe is the main detoxification route, and the demethylation capability develops in pups by the time of weaning. PMID:26372071

  14. Regional variation of intracortical porosity in the midshaft of the human femur: age and sex differences

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C David L; Feik, Sophie A; Clement, John G

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated age and sex differences in patterns of porosity distribution in the midshaft of the human femur. Cross-sections were obtained from 168 individuals from a modern Australian population. The sample comprised 73 females and 95 males, aged between 20 and 97 years. Microradiographs were made of 100-µm sections and pore and bone areas were determined using image processing software. Initially the sample was divided by age: young (20–44 years), middle (45–64 years) and old (65+ years), but it was found that analysis on the basis of the ratio of medullary area to total subperiosteal area gave clearer results. The cortex was divided into three rings radially and into octants circumferentially and the porosity of each segment was calculated. Results showed that a pattern with raised porosity in the posterior and anterolateral regions, and with greater porosity in the inner parts of the cortex, becomes more pronounced with age. In males this pattern develops steadily; in females there are much greater differences between the middle and older groups than earlier in life. The patterns observed are consistent with progressive bone loss occurring along a neutral axis of the cortex where bending stress is lowest and the mechanical advantage of the bone is least. PMID:15730477

  15. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M.; Nfor, Oswald N.; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue. The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category“51” or “52”) and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes. Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18–44 years) and males (45–64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937–4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603–3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878–3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821–2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years. Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65. PMID:27082549

  16. Age and sex differences in behaviors mediated by the ventromedial hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Nisbett, R E; Braver, A; Jusela, G; Kezur, D

    1975-02-01

    Age and sex differences in behaviors mediated by the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) were examined in the rat. Circadian rhythm, emotionality, and taste responsiveness (except for responsiveness to quinine adulteration) were found to shift, in one or both sexes, toward a pattern suggesting decreased VMH functioning with increasing age. A post hoc analysis of the configuration of positive and negative results suggests that, for those behaviors known to show both immediate and sustained effects of VMH lesion, male rats show a marked trend toward the lesioned pattern of behavior with increasing age, whereas females show weaker or nonexistent age trends in the same behaviors. For those behaviors that have been shown to change only during the static, obese phase, or for which data re controversial as to whether changes take place as a result of the VMH lesion at all, this age and sex pattern does not emerge. PMID:1150946

  17. Haematology and blood chemistry of Cebus apella in relation to sex and age.

    PubMed

    Riviello, M C; Wirz, A

    2001-12-01

    An effective health care program entails the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of medical problems. A knowledge of baseline values in clinically normal individuals is essential for determining the limits between good health and disease and for understanding the changes produced by pathogenic agents. However, very little information is currently available concerning the blood chemistry and haematological values of different species of monkeys, particularly new-world primates. The values of some haematological and chemical parameters in Cebus apella were determined. The aim of the present work was to verify the effect of age and sex on normal blood values. Blood samples were collected once a year for two successive years from 36 monkeys living in large captive social groups. Significant differences between males and females were found for AST, GGT, urea nitrogen and creatinine, erythrocytes, haemoglobin and haematocrit. Significant differences between juveniles and adults were found for calcium, AST, alkaline phosphatase, inorganic phosphorus, glucose, neutrophils, lymphocytes and serum protein parameters. PMID:11990530

  18. Observations of parent reactions to sex-stereotyped behaviors: age and sex effects.

    PubMed

    Fagot, B I; Hagan, R

    1991-06-01

    To examine differential socialization of boys and girls by mothers and fathers, home observations were completed for families of 92 12-month-old children, 82 18-month-old children, and 172 5-year-old children. Mothers gave more instructions and directions than did fathers, while fathers spent more time in positive play interaction. Differences in parents' reactions to 12- and 18-month boys and girls were as expected, with the exception that boys received more negative comment for communication attempts than did girls. The suggestion in the literature that fathers would be more involved in sex typing than mothers was not confirmed in this study. The only 2 significant sex-of-parent x sex-of-child effects occurred at 18 months; fathers gave fewer positive reactions to boys engaging in female-typical toy play, and mothers gave more instruction to girls when they attempted to communicate. We argue that the second year of life is the time when children are learning many new skills and when parents are still experimenting with parenting styles and may well use stereotypical responses when unsure of themselves. PMID:1914629

  19. Do sex and age affect strategic behavior and inequity aversion in children?

    PubMed

    Bueno-Guerra, Nereida; Leiva, David; Colell, Montserrat; Call, Josep

    2016-10-01

    The ultimatum game is commonly used to explore fairness in adults in bargaining situations. Although the changes in responses that occur during development have been investigated in children, the results have been mixed. Whereas some studies show that proposers offer more when they grow older, others indicate the opposite. Moreover, these studies are outcome-based and leave intentions out of the scene, although intentions play a relevant role in daily life. The mini-ultimatum game offers the opportunity to test both outcomes and intentions, but one major obstacle for accurately pinpointing developmental transitions in strategic behavior and inequity aversion so far has been the multiple confounds that have plagued previous studies, including different methods, small sample sizes, and reduced age differences. We administered an anonymous direct-method one-shot mini-ultimatum game to 478 6- and 10-year-old children. Strategic behavior was present at 10 years of age; older participants matched more accurately what responders would accept than younger participants. However, this was true only for older girls. No sex differences were detected in younger children. No age group seemed to consider the proposer's intentions given that the rejections of the default option were not significant across conditions. Both disadvantageous and advantageous inequity aversions were present in 6-year-olds. However, older children exhibited significantly more disadvantageous inequity aversion than younger children. This contrast made the pattern of rejection of 6-year-olds look more similar to the pattern of rejection found in adults. No sex differences were found in responders' behavior. PMID:27372561

  20. Climatic influence on demographic parameters of a tropical seabird varies with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Oro, Daniel; Torres, Roxana; Rodríguez, Cristina; Drummond, Hugh

    2010-04-01

    In marine ecosystems climatic fluctuation and other physical variables greatly influence population dynamics, but differential effects of physical variables on the demographic parameters of the two sexes and different age classes are largely unexplored. We analyzed the effects of climate on the survival and recruitment of both sexes and several age classes of a long-lived tropical seabird, the Blue-footed Booby (Sula nebouxii), using long-term observations on marked individuals. Results demonstrated a complex interaction between yearly fluctuations in climate (both local and global indexes, during both winter and breeding season) and the sex and age of individuals. Youngest birds' survival and recruitment were commonly affected by local climate, whereas oldest birds' parameters tended to be constant and less influenced by environmental variables. These results confirm the theoretical prediction that sex- and age-related variation in life-history demographic traits is greater under poor environmental conditions, and they highlight the importance of including variability in fitness components in demographic and evolutionary models. Males and females showed similar variation in survival but different recruitment patterns, in relation to both age and the spatial scale of climatic influence (local or global). Results indicate different life-history tactics for each sex and different ages, with birds likely trying to maximize their fitness by responding to the environmental contingencies of each year. PMID:20462134

  1. The Influence of Age and Sex on Responsiveness to Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, S. Shirley; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Interest in babies was assessed for 32 children aged 8 to 9 years and 32 children aged 14 to 15 years. Data were collected by means of a 6-second time sampling of waiting room behaviors in the presence of a live baby and by reactions to pictures of babies versus other objects. (Author/JMB)

  2. Psychotherapists' Gender Stereotypes: Perceiver Characteristics, Target Age, and Target Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Barbara F.; And Others

    The literature on social cognition and intergroup relations suggests that gender and age are social concepts which, because they are at the same level of abstraction, may produce interactive effects on person perception judgments. The purpose of this study was to explore gender stereotypes that therapists hold about people who differ in age;…

  3. Sex- and age-related variation in metal content of penguin feathers.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, Stefania; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Monaco, Gabriella; Colussi, Silvia; Biolatti, Cristina; Modesto, Paola; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Pessani, Daniela; Favaro, Livio

    2016-03-01

    The presence of xenobiotics, such as metals, in ecosystems is concerning due to their durability and they pose a threat to the health and life of organisms. Moreover, mercury can biomagnify in many marine food chains and, therefore, organisms at higher trophic levels can be adversely impacted. Although feathers have been used extensively as a bio-monitoring tool, only a few studies have addressed the effect of both age and sex on metal accumulation. In this study, the concentrations of trace elements were determined in the feathers of all members of a captive colony of African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) housed in a zoological facility in Italy. Tests were performed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to detect aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, selenium, tin, vanadium, and zinc. Mercury was detected by a direct mercury analyzer. Sexing was performed by a molecular approach based on analyzing the chromo-helicase-DNA-binding1 gene, located on the sex chromosomes. Sex- and age-related differences were studied in order to investigate the different patterns of metal bioaccumulation between male and female individuals and between adults and juveniles. Juvenile females had significantly higher arsenic levels than males, while selenium levels increased significantly with age in both sexes. Penguins kept in controlled environments-given that diet and habitat are under strict control-represent a unique opportunity to determine if and how metal bioaccumulation is related to sex and age. PMID:26597735

  4. Age and Sex Ratios in a High-Density Wild Red-Legged Partridge Population.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Jesús; Ponz, Carolina; Margalida, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a wild red-legged partridge population were examined over a 14-year period in Spain to identify patterns in age and sex ratios in relation to weather parameters, and to assess the importance of these parameters in population dynamics and management. The results gave age ratios of 1.07 (but 2.13 in July counts), juvenile sex ratios of 1.01 and adult sex ratios of 1.47. Overall, 12% more females were hatched and female juvenile mortality was 7.3% higher than in males. Sex differential mortality explains the 19.2% deficit in adult females, which are more heavily predated than males during the breeding period. Accordingly, age ratios are dependent on sex ratios and both are density dependent. Over time, ratios and density changes appear to be influenced by weather and management. When the habitat is well conserved, partridge population dynamics can be explained by a causal chain: weather operates on net primary production, thereby affecting partridge reproduction and predation and, as a result, age and sex ratios in the October population. A reduction in the impact of predation (i.e. the effects of ground predators on eggs, chicks and breeding females) is the key factor to improve the conservation of partridge populations and associated biological processes. PMID:27508503

  5. Age and Sex Ratios in a High-Density Wild Red-Legged Partridge Population

    PubMed Central

    Nadal, Jesús; Ponz, Carolina; Margalida, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a wild red-legged partridge population were examined over a 14-year period in Spain to identify patterns in age and sex ratios in relation to weather parameters, and to assess the importance of these parameters in population dynamics and management. The results gave age ratios of 1.07 (but 2.13 in July counts), juvenile sex ratios of 1.01 and adult sex ratios of 1.47. Overall, 12% more females were hatched and female juvenile mortality was 7.3% higher than in males. Sex differential mortality explains the 19.2% deficit in adult females, which are more heavily predated than males during the breeding period. Accordingly, age ratios are dependent on sex ratios and both are density dependent. Over time, ratios and density changes appear to be influenced by weather and management. When the habitat is well conserved, partridge population dynamics can be explained by a causal chain: weather operates on net primary production, thereby affecting partridge reproduction and predation and, as a result, age and sex ratios in the October population. A reduction in the impact of predation (i.e. the effects of ground predators on eggs, chicks and breeding females) is the key factor to improve the conservation of partridge populations and associated biological processes. PMID:27508503

  6. Influence of age, sex, and balance on mature skipping by children in grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Loovis, E M; Butterfield, S A

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the contributions of age, sex, and balance on maturity of skipping by children in Grades K-8. The subjects were 379 boys and 337 girls (ages 4-14 years) enrolled in a medium-size school system in southeastern Maine. Each subject was individually assessed on skipping as well as static and dynamic balance. To assess the independent statistical contributions of age, sex, static balance, and dynamic balance within each grade, data were subjected to multiple regression analysis. Development of mature form in skipping was related to balance in two isolated but unaccountable instances. PMID:10883788

  7. Some Effects of Sex, Age, and Household Structure on Family Drawings of Barbadian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Monica A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on an analysis of the family drawings of a nonclinical sample of 502 Barbadian children ages 7-11. Reveals a correlation among sex, age, and household structure and the inclusion or omission of figures, as well as the size and positioning of the figures of parent and self. (MJP)

  8. The Effect of Age, Sex, Speed and Practice on C/A Performance of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Paul, Jr.

    This study investigated whether age, sex, speed, and practice affects the acquisition of coincidence-anticipation (C/A) performance accuracy of children ages seven to twelve. (C/A refers to the ability to make a motor response coincident with the arrival of an object at a designated point.) The subjects used in this study were 84 elementary…

  9. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  10. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  11. [Construction of age group vegetation index and preliminary application].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhang-hua; Li, Cong-hui; Liu, Jian; Yu, Kun-yong; Gong, Cong-hong; Tang, Meng-ya

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper, one remote sensing index-age group vegetation index (AGVI) was put forward, and its feasibility was verified. Taking 518 groups of pine forest age group data collected in 13 counties (cities) of Sanming, Jiangle, Shaxian, Nanping, Huaan, Yunxiao, Nanping, Anxi, Putian, Changting, Jianyang, Ningde and Fuqing, Fujian Province and HJ-1 CCD multi-spectral image at the same time-phase as the basis, the spectrum differences of blue, green, red, near infrared and NDVI of each age group were analyzed, showing the characteristics of young forest>middle-aged forest>over-mature forest>mature forest>near mature forest at near infrared band and mature forest>near mature forest>over-mature forest>young forest>middle-aged forest at NDVI, thus the age group vegetation index (AGVI) was constructed; the index could increase the absolute and relative spectrum differences among age groups. For the pine forest AGVI, cluster analysis was conducted with K-mean method, showing that the division accuracy of pine forest age group was 80.45%, and the accurate rate was 90.41%. Therefore, the effectiveness of age group vegetation index constructed was confirmed. PMID:25358177

  12. Factors related to condom use among four groups of female sex workers in Bali, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ford, K; Wirawan, D N; Fajans, P

    1998-02-01

    This article tests a behavioral model of condom use for four groups of female commercial sex workers. Data were drawn from a study of 614 female sex workers conducted in Bali, Indonesia. AIDS knowledge, risk behaviors, and factors related to condom use varied substantially among the four groups of women and reflect the social context of their work. Interventions for each group need to reflect these differences. Important factors to consider include the level of AIDS and STD knowledge in their environment, the characteristics of the clients served, and the degree of supervision that they receive. PMID:9505097

  13. Effects of season, age, sex, and housing on salivary cortisol concentrations in horses.

    PubMed

    Aurich, J; Wulf, M; Ille, N; Erber, R; von Lewinski, M; Palme, R; Aurich, C

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of salivary cortisol is increasingly used to assess stress responses in horses. Because spontaneous or experimentally induced increases in cortisol concentrations are often relatively small for stress studies, proper controls are needed. This requires an understanding of the factors affecting salivary cortisol over longer times. In this study, we have analyzed salivary cortisol concentration for 6 mo in horses (n = 94) differing in age, sex, reproductive state, and housing. Salivary cortisol followed a diurnal rhythm with the highest concentrations in the morning and a decrease throughout the day (P < 0.001). This rhythm was disrupted in individual groups on individual days; however, alterations remained within the range of diurnal changes. Comparison between months showed highest cortisol concentrations in December (P < 0.001). Cortisol concentrations increased in breeding stallions during the breeding season (P < 0.001). No differences in salivary cortisol concentrations between nonpregnant mares with and without a corpus luteum existed. In stallions, mean daily salivary cortisol and plasma testosterone concentrations were weakly correlated (r = 0.251, P < 0.01). No differences in salivary cortisol between female and male young horses and no consistent differences between horses of different age existed. Group housing and individual stabling did not affect salivary cortisol. In conclusion, salivary cortisol concentrations in horses follow a diurnal rhythm and are increased in active breeding sires. Time of the day and reproductive state of the horses are thus important for experiments that include analysis of cortisol in saliva. PMID:25700267

  14. Projections of the population of states, by age, sex, and race: 1988 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Wetrogan, S I

    1988-10-01

    This report presents projections of the resident population for the 50 states and the District of Columbia by age, sex, and race for 1988-2010. These projections are the 1st to be produced by single years of age for individual calendar years. They are also the 1st to use an enhanced methodology that incorporates the annual state-to-state flows of migrants from matched tax returns together with the demographic detail from the Current Population Survey and decennial census. Some highlights of the data follow. 1) The South and West will continue to be the fastest growing regions in the US. By 2010, the South will still be the most populous region, increasing its share of the total population to over 37%, while the West will become the 2nd most populous region with over 23% of the population. 21% of the population will reside in the Midwest, while about 19% will reside in the Northeast. 2) California is projected to remain the most populous state for the next 25 years, followed by New York (until 1990, when Texas pushes it to 3rd), Florida, and Illinois (by the year 2000). 3) Of the 4 regions in 1986 and 1990, the Northeast will have the highest proportion of its population in the 65 or over age group. It will also have the lowest proportion in the younger groups, under 5 and 5-17. The West will have a higher proportion of its population in the youngest age group and a lower proportion in the oldest group. 4) During the last decade of this century, the numbers of children under age 5 are projected to decline by 1.5 million, while the numbers of school-age children will increase by over 3 million. By 2000, the Northeast will still have the oldest age distribution, while the West will continue to have the youngest. 5) Between 2000 and 2010, the numbers of children under age 5 are projected to remain constant in the US, while declining in the Northeast and Midwest and increasing in the South and West. By 2010, the Northeast, Midwest, and South all will have approximately

  15. Large-Scale Age-Dependent Skewed Sex Ratio in a Sexually Dimorphic Avian Scavenger

    PubMed Central

    Lambertucci, Sergio A.; Carrete, Martina; Donázar, José Antonio; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Age-dependent skewed sex ratios have been observed in bird populations, with adult males generally outnumbering females. This trend is mainly driven by higher female mortality, sometimes associated with anthropogenic factors. Despite the large amount of work on bird sex ratios, research examining the spatial stability of adult sex ratios is extremely scarce. The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is the only bird of prey with strong sexual dimorphism favouring males (males are 30% heavier than females). By examining data from most of its South-American range, we show that while the juvenile sex ratio is balanced, or even female-skewed, the sex ratio becomes increasing male-skewed with age, with adult males outnumbering females by >20%, and, in some cases by four times more. This result is consistent across regions and independent of the nature of field data. Reasons for this are unknown but it can be hypothesized that the progressive disappearance of females may be associated with mortality caused by anthropogenic factors. This idea is supported by the asymmetric habitat use by the two sexes, with females scavenging in more humanized areas. Whatever the cause, male-skewed adult sex ratios imply that populations of this endangered scavenger face higher risks of extinction than previously believed. PMID:23029488

  16. Age-sex distribution of various diseases with particular reference to toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Beverley, J. K.; Fleck, D. G.; Kwantes, W.; Ludlam, G. B.

    1976-01-01

    An account is given of some human diseases which affect one sex more than the other. An age-sex realtionship has been noted among British patients with acquired toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. This is compared with the findings of other European workers. A possible explanation is offered taking all these diseases into consideration together with some of the experimental work done in animals and some of the variations in immunological responses by man. PMID:1063216

  17. Density-dependent effects on group size are sex-specific in a gregarious ungulate.

    PubMed

    Vander Wal, Eric; van Beest, Floris M; Brook, Ryan K

    2013-01-01

    Density dependence can have marked effects on social behaviors such as group size. We tested whether changes in population density of a large herbivore (elk, Cervus canadensis) affected sex-specific group size and whether the response was density- or frequency-dependent. We quantified the probability and strength of changes in group sizes and dispersion as population density changed for each sex. We used group size data from a population of elk in Manitoba, Canada, that was experimentally reduced from 1.20 to 0.67 elk/km(2) between 2002 and 2009. Our results indicated that functional responses of group size to population density are sex-specific. Females showed a positive density-dependent response in group size at population densities ≥0.70 elk/km(2) and we found evidence for a minimum group size at population density ≤0.70 elk/km(2). Changes in male group size were also density-dependent; however, the strength of the relationship was lower than for females. Density dependence in male group size was predominantly a result of fusion of solitary males into larger groups, rather than fusion among existing groups. Our study revealed that density affects group size of a large herbivore differently between males and females, which has important implications for the benefits e.g., alleviating predation risk, and costs of social behaviors e.g., competition for resources and mates, and intra-specific pathogen transmission. PMID:23326502

  18. Density-Dependent Effects on Group Size Are Sex-Specific in a Gregarious Ungulate

    PubMed Central

    Vander Wal, Eric; van Beest, Floris M.; Brook, Ryan K.

    2013-01-01

    Density dependence can have marked effects on social behaviors such as group size. We tested whether changes in population density of a large herbivore (elk, Cervus canadensis) affected sex-specific group size and whether the response was density- or frequency-dependent. We quantified the probability and strength of changes in group sizes and dispersion as population density changed for each sex. We used group size data from a population of elk in Manitoba, Canada, that was experimentally reduced from 1.20 to 0.67 elk/km2 between 2002 and 2009. Our results indicated that functional responses of group size to population density are sex-specific. Females showed a positive density-dependent response in group size at population densities ≥0.70 elk/km2 and we found evidence for a minimum group size at population density ≤0.70 elk/km2. Changes in male group size were also density-dependent; however, the strength of the relationship was lower than for females. Density dependence in male group size was predominantly a result of fusion of solitary males into larger groups, rather than fusion among existing groups. Our study revealed that density affects group size of a large herbivore differently between males and females, which has important implications for the benefits e.g., alleviating predation risk, and costs of social behaviors e.g., competition for resources and mates, and intra-specific pathogen transmission. PMID:23326502

  19. Age and Sex Pattern of Cardiovascular Mortality, Hospitalisation and Associated Cost in India

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2013-01-01

    Context Though the cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality in India, little is known about the human and economic loss attributed to the disease. The aim of this paper is to account the age and sex pattern of mortality, hospitalisation and the cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases in India. Data and Methods Data for the present study has been drawn from multiple sources; 52nd and 60th rounds of the National Sample Survey, Special Survey of Death, 2001–03 and the Sample Registration System 2004–2010. Under the changing demographics and constant assumptions of mortality, hospitalisation and cost of hospitalisation, we have estimated the deaths, hospitalisation and cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases in India during 2004 to 2021. Descriptive analyses and multivariate techniques were used to understand the socio-economic differentials in cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases in India. Findings In India, the cardiovascular diseases accounted for an estimated 1.4 million deaths in 2004 and it is likely to be 2.1 million in 2021. An estimated 6.7 million people were hospitalised for cardiovascular diseases in 2004, and projected to be 10.9 million by 2021. Unlike mortality, majority of the hospitalisation due to cardiovascular diseases will be in the prime working age group (25–59). The estimated cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases was 94/− billion rupees in 2004 and expected to be 152/− billion rupees by 2021, at 2004 prices. The cost of hospitalisation for cardiovascular diseases was significantly high in private health centres, high fertility states and among high socio-economic groups. Conclusion The cardiovascular mortality and hospitalisation will be largely concentrated in the prime working age group and the cost of hospitalisation is expected to increase substantially in coming years. This calls for mobilising resources, increasing access to health insurance and devising

  20. School's Out! Group Day Care for the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth; Milich, Cynthia

    This report on group day care is designed to: (1) examine the kinds of group programs for school-age children which exist in Los Angeles County, (2) describe the conditions necessary for program operation, and (3) consider the issue of quality as it relates to community expansion of day care services for children of school age. The report is…

  1. A Comparative Study of Two Groups of Sex Offenders Identified as High and Low Risk on the Static-99

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxe, Ray; Holmes, William

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify possible differences between high- and low-risk sex offenders. The subjects included 285 sex offenders on probation. They were evaluated with the Static-99, Abel Assessment, Raven's, and MMPI-2. A criminal history review identified the number of prior offenses and the age/sex category in the index offense.…

  2. Histological and sex steroid hormone receptor changes in testes of immature, mature, and aged chickens.

    PubMed

    González-Morán, María Genoveva; Guerra-Araiza, Christian; Campos, María G; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2008-11-01

    Sex steroid hormone receptors play a central role in the regulation of reproduction in male chickens. In this work, we evaluated by histomorphometric methods and Western blot analysis changes in the number of the different cell populations and in the content of sex steroid hormone receptors in testes from immature (1.5-month-old), mature (12-month-old), and aged (48-month-old) chickens. The number of Sertoli cells, germ cells, and Leydig cells per area of testicular tissue markedly changed according to chicken age. The highest number of Sertoli and Leydig cells was found in testes of immature chickens, with a dramatic decrease in those of mature chickens; however, the number of germ cells was the highest in mature chickens in comparison with other ages. The content of androgen receptor diminished in testes of mature and aged animals in comparison with that of immature chickens. In contrast, the content of estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor was higher in testes of mature animals than in other ages. Both progesterone receptor isoforms were expressed in a similar proportion in testes of immature and mature animals. Interestingly, progesterone receptor isoform A was the predominant isoform in aged animals. These results suggest that there are marked age-dependent changes in chicken testes histology and in sex steroid hormone receptors content that should contribute to sex steroid hormone actions, in this tissue throughout the lifespan of chickens. PMID:18815005

  3. Ultrasonographic Measurement of Normal Common Bile Duct Diameter and its Correlation with Age, Sex and Anthropometry

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Simmi; Lal, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ultrasonography is the diagnostic method of choice for visualization and rational work-up of abdominal organs. The dilatation of the common bile duct helps distinguish obstructive from non-obstructive causes of jaundice. Availability of normal measurements of the common bile duct is therefore important. There exists significant variations in the anthropometric features of various populations, regions and races. Aim: Study was conducted to obtain data on sonographically measured diameters of common bile duct in a series of normal Rajasthani population and to measure its correlation with age, sex and anthropometry. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India. Materials and Methods: Study included 200 participants with equal proportion belonging to either sex. Common bile duct was measured at three locations- at the porta hepatis, in the most distal aspect of head of pancreas and mid-way between these points. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, chest circumference, circumference at transpyloric plane, circumference at umbilicus and circumference at hip were obtained using standard procedures. Statistical Analysis: Univariable analysis with measures of frequency and standard deviation and bivariable analysis using correlation. Results: Mean age of study subjects was 34.5 years (Range 18-85 years). Mean diameters of the common bile duct in the three locations were: proximal, 4.0 mm (SD 1.02 mm); middle, 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm); and distal, 4.2 mm (SD 1.01 mm) and overall mean for all measures 4.1 mm (SD 1.01 mm). Average diameter ranged from 2.0 mm to 7.9 mm, with 95 percent of the subjects having a diameter of less than 6 mm. We observed a statistically significant relation of common bile duct with age, along with a linear trend. There was no statistically significant difference in common bile duct diameter between male and female subjects. The diameter did

  4. Sex Differences in Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, Hugh

    1976-01-01

    Sex differences in cognitive skills, grouped into motor, spatial and linguistic areas, are assessed in relation to current theories of cerebral lateralization. Few convincing sex differences exist, either overall, or in interactions with functional localization. Qualifying criteria include age, birth order, culture, sex of experimenter and sex…

  5. Should cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual subjects vary with ethnic group?

    PubMed Central

    Gooren, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    Guidelines for cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people have been developed, but no attention has been paid to the specifics of ethnic groups. South East (SE) Asian male-to-female (MtoF) transsexual people may be able to transition to the female sex with lower doses of estrogens/progestins than Caucasians thus reducing health risks. Female-to-male (FtoM) may virilize less profoundly with standard doses of androgens, but this is probably sufficient to pass acceptably as men in view of the less pronounced sex differences in physique in Asians compared with Caucasians. It is timely that studies in Asians are conducted to get a better insight into their specific needs and risks of cross-sex hormone treatment. PMID:25038187

  6. Ageism, Sex, and Age: A Factorial Survey Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Paul M.

    1983-01-01

    Uses the factorial survey approach to measure directly the perceived status of various ages, and of both males and females. Results indicate that there is an inverted U-curve of status across the life span, and that the perceived status of females is lower than that of males in the midlife period. (Author/CT)

  7. HEAVY DRINKING TRAJECTORIES AMONG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN: A LONGITUDINAL, GROUP-BASED ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Brandon DL; Shoveller, Jean A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy episodic drinking (HED) is associated with sexual risk behavior and HIV seroconversion among men who have sex with men (MSM), yet few studies have examined heavy drinking typologies in this population. Methods We analyzed data from 4,075 HIV-uninfected MSM (aged 16 to 88) participating in EXPLORE, a 48-month behavioral intervention trial, to determine the patterns and predictors of HED trajectories. Heavy episodic drinking was defined as the number of days in which ≥5 alcohol drinks were consumed in the past 6 months. Longitudinal group-based mixture models were used to identify HED trajectories, and multinomial logistic regression was used to determine correlates of membership in each group. Results We identified five distinct HED trajectories: non-heavy drinkers (31.9%); infrequent heavy drinkers (i.e., <10 heavy drinking days per 6 month period, 54.3%); regular heavy drinkers (30-45 heavy drinking days per 6 months, 8.4%); drinkers who increased HED over time (average 33 days in the past six months to 77 days at end of follow-up, 3.6%); and very frequent heavy drinkers (>100 days per 6 months, 1.7%). Intervention arm did not predict drinking trajectory patterns. Younger age, self-identifying as white, lower educational attainment, depressive symptoms, and stimulant use were also associated with reporting heavier drinking trajectories. Compared to non-heavy drinkers, participants who increased HED more often experienced a history of childhood sexual abuse. Over the study period, depressive symptomatology increased significantly among very frequent heavy drinkers. Conclusions Socioeconomic factors, substance use, depression, and childhood sexual abuse were associated with heavier drinking patterns among MSM. Multi-component interventions to reduce HED should seek to mitigate the adverse impacts of low educational attainment, depression, and early traumatic life events on the initiation, continuation or escalation of frequent HED among MSM. PMID

  8. Stroke sensitivity in the aged: sex chromosome complement vs. gonadal hormones

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Louise D.; Mirza, Mehwish A.; Xu, Yan; Bentivegna, Kathryn; Steffens, Eleanor B.; Ritzel, Rodney; Liu, Fudong

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a sexually dimorphic disease. Elderly women not only have higher stroke incidence than age-matched men, but also have poorer recovery and higher morbidity and mortality after stroke. In older, post-menopausal women, gonadal hormone levels are similar to that of men. This suggests that tissue damage and functional outcomes are influenced by biologic sex (XX vs. XY) rather than the hormonal milieu at older ages. We employed the Four Core Genotype (FCG) mouse model to study the contribution of sex chromosome complement and gonadal hormones to stroke sensitivity in aged mice in which the testis determining gene (Sry) is removed from the Y chromosome, allowing for the generation of XX males and XY females. XXF, XXM, XYF, XYM and XYwt aged mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). XXF and XXM mice had significantly larger infarct volumes than XYF and XYM cohorts respectively. There was no significant difference in hormone levels among aged FCG mice. XXF/XXM mice also had more robust microglial activation and higher serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines than XYF/XYM cohort respectively. We concluded that the sex chromosome complement contributes to ischemic sensitivity in aged animals and leads to sex differences in innate immune responses. PMID:27405096

  9. Age- and sex-related changes in the normal human ear.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Grandi, Gaia; Binelli, Miriam; Tommasi, Davide G; Rosati, Riccardo; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2009-05-30

    The objective of this study was to supply information about: (1) normal sex-related dimensions of ears (linear distances and ratios, area); (2) left-right symmetry; and (3) growth changes between childhood and old age. The three-dimensional coordinates of several soft-tissue landmarks on the ears and face were obtained by a non-invasive, computerized electromagnetic digitizer in 497 male and 346 female healthy subjects aged 4-73 years. From the landmarks, paired ear width and length, the relevant ratios, ear areas and angles relative to the facial midline, as well as indices of left-right symmetry, were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. All ear dimensions were significantly larger in men than in women (p<0.001). A significant effect of age was found (p<0.001), with larger values in older individuals. The ear width-to-length ratio and the sagittal angle of the auricle significantly decreased as a function of age (p<0.001) but without sex-related differences. On average, the three-dimensional position of ears was symmetric, with symmetry coefficients ranging between 92% and 96%. Asymmetry was found in the sagittal angle of the auricle (both sexes), in the ear width-to-length ratio and ear width (men only). Data collected in the present investigation could serve as a data base for the quantitative description of human ear morphology and position during normal growth, development and aging. Forensic applications (evaluations of traumas, craniofacial alterations, teratogenic-induced conditions, facial reconstruction, aging of living and dead persons, personal identification) may also benefit from age- and sex-based data banks. PMID:19356871

  10. Age- and Sex-Dependency of Laser Speckle Flowgraphy Measurements of Optic Nerve Vessel Microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Aizawa, Naoko; Kunikata, Hiroshi; Nitta, Fumihiko; Shiga, Yukihiro; Omodaka, Kazuko; Tsuda, Satoru; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between various characteristics of a normal population and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) measurements of mean blur rate (MBR) in the optic nerve head (ONH). Methods A total of 189 eyes of 189 normal subjects (93 male, 96 female, mean age 45 ± 14 years old, age range: 20–72) without any history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetes were enrolled. ONH microcirculation was measured with LSFG and overall MBR (MA), vessel-area MBR (MV), and tissue-area MBR (MT) were derived from these measurements. The statistical association of these measurements with characteristics such as sex, age, intraocular pressure (IOP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) was then determined. Results There was a trend towards decreased IOP and MV and increased SBP with age (P = 0.002, P = 0.035, and P = 0.006, respectively). Furthermore, IOP, MV and SBP were correlated with age (r = -0.23, P = 0.011; r = -0.24, P < 0.001; and r = 0.30, P < 0.001, respectively). Separate multiple regression analyses of independent contributing factors revealed that sex and IOP contributed to MA (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively), sex, IOP, and age contributed to MV (P < 0.001, P = 0.003, and P = 0.024, respectively), while only IOP contributed to MT (P = 0.003). Conclusion In a normal population, MBR was affected by IOP in both the large vessel and capillary areas of the ONH, but not by SBP. MV was also affected by age and sex, while MT was stable independent of age or sex. PMID:26872348

  11. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  12. Total Testosterone and Calculated Estimates for Free and Bioavailable Testosterone: Influence of Age and Body Mass Index and Establishment of Sex-Specific Reference Ranges.

    PubMed

    Deutschbein, T; Mann, K; Petersenn, S

    2015-10-01

    Measurement of sex steroids is required to evaluate gonadal function, but normative data are lacking (especially for estimates of physiologically active testosterone). Using modern immunoassays, this study established sex-specific reference ranges (2.5% and 97.5% percentiles) for total testosterone (TOT), bioactive testosterone Vermeulen (BTV), free androgen index (FAI), free testosterone Sartorius (FTS), free testosterone Vermeulen (FTV), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). In the comparative study, subjects were grouped by age (18-30; 31-50; >50 years), BMI (<25; 25-30; >30 kg/m(2)), and sex. Study participants were selected in such a way that each group comprised 12 subjects (e.g., 12 males between 18 and 30 years with a BMI of <25 kg/m(2), and so on), resulting in a total of 216 controls (108 males, 108 females; age: 40.3 ± 1.0; BMI: 27.8 ± 0.4). Multiple stepwise regression analyses were performed (covariates: age, BMI, sex), and sex-specific reference ranges were applied to 50 males (age: 46.1 ± 2.3; BMI: 27.4 ± 0.7) with suspected hypogonadism. Regression analysis identified the strongest predictor of each parameter apart from sex, resulting in age-specific (males: FAI, SHBG, BTV, FTV; females: TOT, FTS, SHBG), BMI-specific (males: TOT, FTS; females: FAI, BTV, FTV) and overall cutoffs for both sexes. In male patients, overall agreement between the results derived from the estimates (i.e., BTV, FTS, FTV) was high (with discordant results in only 4%). In summary, if both the endocrine workup and the clinical presentation were taken into account, the newly established reference ranges allowed reliable identification of hypogonadal males. PMID:25565093

  13. "It's All Scientific to Me": Focus Group Insights into Why Young People Do Not Apply Safe-Sex Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Alan; Watson, Anne-Frances; Dore, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Despite rising levels of safe-sex knowledge in Australia, sexually transmitted infection notifications continue to increase. A culture-centred approach suggests it is useful in attempting to reach a target population first to understand their perspective on the issues. Twenty focus groups were conducted with 89 young people between the ages of 14…

  14. How sex and age affect immune responses, susceptibility to infections, and response to vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Giefing-Kröll, Carmen; Berger, Peter; Lepperdinger, Günter; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    Do men die young and sick, or do women live long and healthy? By trying to explain the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy, both biological and environmental aspects are presently being addressed. Besides age-related changes, both the immune and the endocrine system exhibit significant sex-specific differences. This review deals with the aging immune system and its interplay with sex steroid hormones. Together, they impact on the etiopathology of many infectious diseases, which are still the major causes of morbidity and mortality in people at old age. Among men, susceptibilities toward many infectious diseases and the corresponding mortality rates are higher. Responses to various types of vaccination are often higher among women thereby also mounting stronger humoral responses. Women appear immune-privileged. The major sex steroid hormones exhibit opposing effects on cells of both the adaptive and the innate immune system: estradiol being mainly enhancing, testosterone by and large suppressive. However, levels of sex hormones change with age. At menopause transition, dropping estradiol potentially enhances immunosenescence effects posing postmenopausal women at additional, yet specific risks. Conclusively during aging, interventions, which distinctively consider the changing level of individual hormones, shall provide potent options in maintaining optimal immune functions. PMID:25720438

  15. Age and Sex Differences in Rates of Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-Ling; Yang, Lin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, King-Pan; Cao, Pei-Hua; Lau, Eric Ho-Yin; Peiris, J S Malik; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2015-08-15

    Few studies have explored age and sex differences in the disease burden of influenza, although men and women probably differ in their susceptibility to influenza infections. In this study, quasi-Poisson regression models were applied to weekly age- and sex-specific hospitalization numbers of pneumonia and influenza cases in the Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China, from 2004 to 2010. Age and sex differences were assessed by age- and sex-specific rates of excess hospitalization for influenza A subtypes A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B, respectively. We found that, in children younger than 18 years, boys had a higher excess hospitalization rate than girls, with the male-to-female ratio of excess rate (MFR) ranging from 1.1 to 2.4. MFRs of hospitalization associated with different types/subtypes were less than 1.0 for adults younger than 40 years except for A(H3N2) (MFR = 1.6), while all the MFRs were equal to or higher than 1.0 in adults aged 40 years or more except for A(H1N1)pdm09 in elderly persons aged 65 years or more (MFR = 0.9). No MFR was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) for hospitalizations associated with influenza type/subtype. There is some limited evidence on age and sex differences in hospitalization associated with influenza in the subtropical city of Hong Kong. PMID:26219977

  16. Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: results from a nationally representative United States sample.

    PubMed

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Afifi, Tracie O; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time. PMID:25466426

  17. Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: Results from a nationally representative United States sample

    PubMed Central

    Taillieu, Tamara L.; Afifi, Tracie O.; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M.; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n = 34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time. PMID:25466426

  18. Age and sex structured model for assessing the demographic impact of mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mukandavire, Z; Garira, W

    2007-08-01

    Age and sex structured HIV/AIDS model with explicit incubation period is proposed as a system of delay differential equations. The model consists of two age groups that are children (0-14 years) and adults (15-49 years). Thus, the model considers both mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and heterosexual transmission of HIV in a community. MTCT can occur prenatally, at labour and delivery or postnatally through breastfeeding. In the model, we consider the children age group as a one-sex formulation and divide the adult age group into a two-sex structure consisting of females and males. The important mathematical features of the model are analysed. The disease-free and endemic equilibria are found and their stabilities investigated. We use the Lyapunov functional approach to show the local stability of the endemic equilibrium. Qualitative analysis of the model including positivity and boundedness of solutions, and persistence are also presented. The basic reproductive number ([Symbol: see text](0)) for the model shows that the adult population is responsible for the spread HIV/AIDS epidemic, thus up-to-date developed HIV/AIDS models to assess intervention strategies have focused much on heterosexual transmission by the adult population and the children population has received little attention. We numerically analyse the HIV/AIDS model to assess the community benefits of using antiretroviral drugs in reducing MTCT and the effects of breastfeeding in settings with high HIV/AIDS prevalence ratio using demographic and epidemiological parameters for Zimbabwe. PMID:17453306

  19. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  20. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  1. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  2. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  3. 34 CFR 403.92 - Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Sex Equity Program be waived? 403.92 Section 403.92 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? Sex Equity Program § 403.92 Under what circumstances may the age limit under the Sex Equity Program be waived? The individual appointed under § 403.13(a) may waive the requirement...

  4. Sex-specific age association with primary DNA transfer.

    PubMed

    Manoli, Panayiotis; Antoniou, Antonis; Bashiardes, Evy; Xenophontos, Stavroulla; Photiades, Marinos; Stribley, Vaso; Mylona, Michalis; Demetriou, Christiana; Cariolou, Marios A

    2016-01-01

    Practicing forensic scientists who are called to provide expert witness testimony are often asked to explain both the presence and the absence of DNA on objects that have been handled by perpetrators with bare hands. Unwashed hands, depending on what they have come in contact with previously, may become the vehicle of both primary and secondary transfer of DNA. In this study, we investigated the propensity of primary and secondary transfer of DNA from unwashed bare hands of 128 individuals onto plastic tubes. Our experiments, carried out in triplicate, have shown that DNA was not detected on all the touched tubes, secondary transfer of DNA, through unwashed hands, was small, and in the majority of cases primary DNA transfer could be distinguished from secondary DNA transfer. A statistically significant association was demonstrated between percent DNA profile deposited on plastic tubes, through unwashed hands, and the age of male individuals. PMID:26582043

  5. Sex of preceding child and birth spacing among Nigerian ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Fayehun, O A; Omololu, O O; Isiugo-Abanihe, U C

    2011-06-01

    In seeking for more effective ways of fertility control and improvement of maternal and child health through birth spacing in a predominantly patrilineal society like Nigeria, this study explores how the sex of a previous child affects birth interval among ethnic groups, controlling for demographic and socioeconomic variables. The study utilized birth history data from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The findings showed that the effect of sex of prior births on the birth interval is slightly significant among the Igbo and the Southern minorities, who tend to desire to have a male child sooner if preceding births were female. Among all the ethnic groups, women who are yet to meet their ideal sex preference have a shorter birth interval than those who have. Apart from the evident sex preferences, these results suggest that Nigerian parents also undertake sex balancing among their children. There is a consistent and strong relationship between the survival of a child and subsequent birth interval, which suggest that women have a short birth interval, and hence a large family size, because they are not certain that their children would survive. PMID:22590895

  6. Sex- and age-dependent association of SLC11A1 polymorphisms with tuberculosis in Chinese: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kim Hung; Yip, Shea Ping; Wong, Wa Sang; Yiu, Lap San; Chan, Kam Keung; Lai, Wai Man; Chow, Eudora YD; Lin, Che Kit; Yam, Wing Cheong; Chan, Kin Sang

    2007-01-01

    Background Host genetic factors are important determinants in tuberculosis (TB). The SLC11A1 (or NRAMP1) gene has been studied extensively for genetic association with TB, but with inconsistent findings. In addition, no study has yet looked into the effect of sex and age on the relationship between SLC11A1 polymorphisms and TB. Methods A case-control study was conducted. In total, 278 pulmonary TB patients and 282 sex- and age-matched controls without TB were recruited. All subjects were ethnic Chinese. On the basis of linkage disequilibrium pattern, three genetic markers from SLC11A1 and one from the nearby IL8RB locus were selected and examined for association with TB susceptibility. These markers were genotyped using single strand conformation polymorphism analysis or fragment analysis of amplified products. Results Statistically significant differences in allele (P = 0.0165, OR = 1.51) and genotype (P = 0.0163, OR = 1.59) frequencies of the linked markers SLC6a/b (classically called D543N and 3'UTR) of the SLC11A1 locus were found between patients and controls. With stratification by sex, positive associations were identified in the female group for both allele (P = 0.0049, OR = 2.54) and genotype (P = 0.0075, OR = 2.74) frequencies. With stratification by age, positive associations were demonstrated in the young age group (age ≤65 years) for both allele (P = 0.0047, OR = 2.52) and genotype (P = 0.0031, OR = 2.92) frequencies. All positive findings remained significant even after correction for multiple comparisons. No significant differences were noted in either the male group or the older age group. No significant differences were found for the other markers (one SLC11A1 marker and one IL8RB marker) either. Conclusion This study confirmed the association between SLC11A1 and TB susceptibility and demonstrated for the first time that the association was restricted to females and the young age group. PMID:17371589

  7. Understanding the Decision to Enroll in Graduate School: Sex and Racial/Ethnic Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.

    2004-01-01

    Women continue to receive fewer doctoral and first-professional degrees than men, even though women receive more bachelor's degrees. The underrepresentation of women holds even after allowing for time to complete an advanced degree. Although researchers have examined sex and racial/ethnic group differences in undergraduate enrollment (e.g.,…

  8. Effectively Utilizing the "Behavioral" in Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy of Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jerry L.; Deming, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is touted as the predominant approach in sex offender-specific group treatment, a review of the field shows that the "behavioral" part of CBT has become minimal in relation to that which is cognitive. The authors show how a revitalized "behavioral sensibility" may help to enhance…

  9. Emergence of Mixed-Sex Friendship Groups during Adolescence: Developmental Associations with Substance Use and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Lauren E.; Gest, Scott D.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from over 14,000 youth residing in 28 communities in the rural United States were analyzed to examine the emergence of mixed-sex friendship groups in early adolescence. Youth were surveyed on 5 occasions between fall of 6th grade and spring of 9th grade. At each assessment, youth reported the names of up to 7…

  10. The Gulf War era multiple sclerosis cohort: age and incidence rates by race, sex and service.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Mitchell T; Culpepper, William J; Coffman, Parisa; Pulaski, Sarah; Maloni, Heidi; Mahan, Clare M; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Kurtzke, John F

    2012-06-01

    We characterize here a new nationwide incident cohort of multiple sclerosis from the US military-veteran population. This cohort provides an update to the only other US nationwide incidence study of multiple sclerosis performed during the 1970s. Medical records and data from the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs for cases of multiple sclerosis who served in the military between 1990, the start of the Gulf War era, and 2007 and who were service-connected for this disorder by the Department of Veterans Affairs from 1990 on, were reviewed. A total of 2691 patients were confirmed as having multiple sclerosis: 2288 definite, 190 possible, 207 clinically isolated syndrome and six neuromyelitis optica. Overall racial categories were White, Black and other, which included all Hispanics. There were 1278 White males and 556 females; 360 Black males and 296 females; and 200 others, 153 (77%) of whom were Hispanic. Mean age at onset of 30.7 years did not differ significantly by race or sex. Age at onset was 17-50 years in 99%, the same age range as 99% of the military. Average annual age specific (age 17-50 years) incidence rates per 100 000 for the entire series were 9.6 with 95% confidence interval of 9.3-10.0. Rates for Blacks were highest at 12.1 with confidence interval 11.2-13.1, Whites were 9.3 (interval 8.9-9.8) and others 6.9 (interval 6.0-7.9). For 83 Hispanics defined for 2000-07, the rate was 8.2 (interval 6.5-10.1). Much smaller numbers gave rates of 3.3 for Asian/Pacific Islanders and 3.1 for native Americans. Rates by sex for Whites were 7.3 and 25.8 male and female, respectively, for Blacks 8.4 and 26.3, and for Hispanics 6.6 and 17.0. Rates by service were high for Air Force (10.9) and Army (10.6), medium for Navy (9.1) and Coast Guard (7.9), and low for Marines (5.3). Relative risk of multiple sclerosis was 3.39 female:male and 1.27 Black:White. These new findings indicate that females of all races now have incidence rates for multiple

  11. The influence of body mass index, age and sex on inflammatory disease risk in semi-captive Chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Obanda, Vincent; Omondi, George Paul; Chiyo, Patrick Ilukol

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and ageing are emerging issues in the management of captive primates, including Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Studies on humans show that obesity and old age can independently increase the risk of inflammatory-associated diseases indicated by elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cells and proteins in the blood of older or obese compared to levels in younger or non-obese individuals. In humans, sex can influence the outcomes of these risks. Health management of these problems in chimpanzee populations requires an understanding of similarities and differences of factors influencing inflammatory disease risks in humans and in chimpanzees. We examined the relationship between age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI) with hematological biomarkers of inflammatory disease risk established for humans which include the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and neutrophil, white blood cell (WBC), platelet microparticle and platelet counts. We found that higher values of NLR, neutrophil count and platelet microparticle count were associated with higher BMI values and older age indicating increased inflammation risk in these groups; a similar pattern to humans. There was a strong sex by age interaction on inflammation risk, with older males more at risk than older females. In contrast to human studies, total WBC count was not influenced by BMI, but like humans, WBC and platelet counts were lower in older individuals compared to younger individuals. Our findings are similar to those of humans and suggest that further insight on managing chimpanzees can be gained from extensive studies of ageing and obesity in humans. We suggest that managing BMI should be an integral part of health management in captive chimpanzee populations in order to partially reduce the risk of diseases associated with inflammation. These results also highlight parallels in inflammation risk between humans and chimpanzees and have implications for understanding the evolution of inflammation related

  12. Coenzyme Q10 serum concentration and redox status in European adults: influence of age, sex, and lipoprotein concentration

    PubMed Central

    Niklowitz, Petra; Onur, Simone; Fischer, Alexandra; Laudes, Matthias; Palussen, Michael; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is synthesized in almost all human tissues and presumably involved in age-related alterations and diseases. Here, we examined the impact of aging and sex on the serum CoQ10 status in 860 European adults ranging in age from 18 to 82 years. We identified an inverse U-shaped relationship between CoQ10 concentration and age. Women showed lower cholesterol-adjusted CoQ10 levels than men, irrespective of age. As observed in both sexes, the decrease in CoQ10 concentration in older subjects was accompanied by a shift in the redox status in favour of the oxidized form. A strong positive correlation was found for total CoQ10 and cholesterol concentrations (Spearman’s, p≤1E-74). We found strong negative correlations between total (Spearman’s, p≤1E-07) and between cholesterol-adjusted CoQ10 concentration (Spearman’s, p≤1E-14) and the proportion of the oxidized form of CoQ10. These correlations were not dependent on age and sex and were attenuated by supplementation with 150 mg/day reduced CoQ10 for 14 days. Overall, our results are useful to define risk groups with critical CoQ10 status in humans. In particular, older subjects were characterized by impaired CoQ10 status due to their lowered serum CoQ10 concentration and concomitant decrease of CoQ10 redox capacity. PMID:27257350

  13. Age and Sex Variation In Prevalence Of Chronic Medical Conditions In Older Residents of U.S. Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kelly L.; Boscardin, W. John; Steinman, Michael A.; Schwartz, Janice B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate patterns in prevalences of chronic medical conditions over the agespan of long-term stay nursing home residents and between the sexes with data from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS). DESIGN Retrospective, cross-sectional study. SETTING U.S. nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample comprising 11,788 long-term stay residents (3003 (25%) men and 8785 women) aged 65 years or older. MEASUREMENTS Clinical Classifications Software (CCS) was used to group ICD-9 codes to identify the 20 most prevalent chronic medical conditions. SAS survey procedures were used to account for design effects of stratification and clustering to generate nationally representative estimates of prevalences of medical conditions. RESULTS Average age was 84 y, with women older than men (85 vs. 81, p=0.02) with 67% of women ages 80–95. Women required more ADL assistance. The most frequent chronic medical conditions were hypertension (53, 56%: men, women), dementia (45, 52%), depression (31, 37%), arthritis (26, 35%), diabetes mellitus (26, 23%), gastrointestinal reflux -GERD (23, 23%), atherosclerosis (24, 20%), congestive heart failure -CHF (18, 21%), cerebrovascular disease (24, 19%) and anemia (17, 20%). Sex differences in prevalences existed for all but constipation, GERD, and hypertension. Diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, and lipid disorders decreased with age in men and women. Atrial fibrillation, anemia, arthritis, CHF, and dementia, and thyroid disease increased with age in both men and women. Age-related patterns differed between the sexes for diabetes, hypertension, and Parkinson’s disease. CONCLUSION The profile of chronic medical conditions varies over the agespan of nursing home residents and differs between men and women. This knowledge should guide educational and care efforts in long-term care. PMID:22463062

  14. The Influence of Body Mass Index, Age and Sex on Inflammatory Disease Risk in Semi-Captive Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Obanda, Vincent; Omondi, George Paul; Chiyo, Patrick Ilukol

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and ageing are emerging issues in the management of captive primates, including Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Studies on humans show that obesity and old age can independently increase the risk of inflammatory-associated diseases indicated by elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cells and proteins in the blood of older or obese compared to levels in younger or non-obese individuals. In humans, sex can influence the outcomes of these risks. Health management of these problems in chimpanzee populations requires an understanding of similarities and differences of factors influencing inflammatory disease risks in humans and in chimpanzees. We examined the relationship between age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI) with hematological biomarkers of inflammatory disease risk established for humans which include the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and neutrophil, white blood cell (WBC), platelet microparticle and platelet counts. We found that higher values of NLR, neutrophil count and platelet microparticle count were associated with higher BMI values and older age indicating increased inflammation risk in these groups; a similar pattern to humans. There was a strong sex by age interaction on inflammation risk, with older males more at risk than older females. In contrast to human studies, total WBC count was not influenced by BMI, but like humans, WBC and platelet counts were lower in older individuals compared to younger individuals. Our findings are similar to those of humans and suggest that further insight on managing chimpanzees can be gained from extensive studies of ageing and obesity in humans. We suggest that managing BMI should be an integral part of health management in captive chimpanzee populations in order to partially reduce the risk of diseases associated with inflammation. These results also highlight parallels in inflammation risk between humans and chimpanzees and have implications for understanding the evolution of inflammation related

  15. The age-sex structure of the slave population in Harris County, Texas: 1850 and 1860.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J

    1987-10-01

    The effect of the slave system on demography can be revealed by examining the age-sex structure of slave populations. The age-sex structure of slaves in Harris County, Texas is investigated using the 1850 and 1860 slave schedules. Median ages for black and mulatto slaves suggest that the population was young. Population pyramids exhibit a narrow base and top with a broad middle. The high proportion of slaves between 10 and 30 years of age and the increase in population size between 1850 and 1860 were mainly related to the importation of slaves and only partly due to natural increase. The data also show that black slaves were older on small plantations while mulattoes were older on larger farms. It is suggested that differential treatment in terms of purchase practices, assignment of tasks, food allocation, and/or differential susceptibility to infectious diseases may account for this pattern. PMID:3322029

  16. Effects of Sex, Strain, and Energy Intake on Hallmarks of Aging in Mice.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sarah J; Madrigal-Matute, Julio; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Fang, Evandro; Aon, Miguel; González-Reyes, José A; Cortassa, Sonia; Kaushik, Susmita; Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Patel, Bindi; Wahl, Devin; Ali, Ahmed; Calvo-Rubio, Miguel; Burón, María I; Guiterrez, Vincent; Ward, Theresa M; Palacios, Hector H; Cai, Huan; Frederick, David W; Hine, Christopher; Broeskamp, Filomena; Habering, Lukas; Dawson, John; Beasley, T Mark; Wan, Junxiang; Ikeno, Yuji; Hubbard, Gene; Becker, Kevin G; Zhang, Yongqing; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Longo, Dan L; Navas, Placido; Ferrucci, Luigi; Sinclair, David A; Cohen, Pinchas; Egan, Josephine M; Mitchell, James R; Baur, Joseph A; Allison, David B; Anson, R Michael; Villalba, José M; Madeo, Frank; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Pearson, Kevin J; Ingram, Donald K; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2016-06-14

    Calorie restriction (CR) is the most robust non-genetic intervention to delay aging. However, there are a number of emerging experimental variables that alter CR responses. We investigated the role of sex, strain, and level of CR on health and survival in mice. CR did not always correlate with lifespan extension, although it consistently improved health across strains and sexes. Transcriptional and metabolomics changes driven by CR in liver indicated anaplerotic filling of the Krebs cycle together with fatty acid fueling of mitochondria. CR prevented age-associated decline in the liver proteostasis network while increasing mitochondrial number, preserving mitochondrial ultrastructure and function with age. Abrogation of mitochondrial function negated life-prolonging effects of CR in yeast and worms. Our data illustrate the complexity of CR in the context of aging, with a clear separation of outcomes related to health and survival, highlighting complexities of translation of CR into human interventions. PMID:27304509

  17. Demographic features and premorbid personality disorder traits in relation to age of onset and sex in paranoid schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Skokou, Maria; Gourzis, Philippos

    2014-03-30

    Personality disorders in the premorbid period of schizophrenia and particularly in relation to age of onset and sex, seem to be a rather under-researched area. In the present study, 88 patients with paranoid schizophrenia were examined, regarding demographic characteristics and premorbid personality disorder traits, in order to investigate for differences in the premorbid period of the disease, in relation to age of onset and sex. Age cutoff points were set at <30 years and ≥35 years of age for young and late onset groups, respectively. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Patient Edition for Axis I disorders (SCID-P) was used prospectively for diagnoses. Premorbid personality disorder traits were retrospectively assessed by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Patient Edition for Axis II disorders (SCID-II). Comparisons were performed by applying the two-tailed Wilcoxon rank-sum and the χ(2) statistical tests. Young onset patients were characterized by significantly higher proportion of urban birth, single status, more avoidant premorbid personality disorder traits, and less passive-aggressive premorbid personality disorder traits, than late onset counterparts. Differences were more prominently shown in men. Earlier age of onset seems to be associated to increased social inhibition and worse psychosocial adaptation in the premorbid period of paranoid schizophrenia. PMID:24495576

  18. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  19. Antisocial Behavior, Psychopathology and Functional Impairment: Association with Sex and Age in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…

  20. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  1. Intrinsic Aspirations and Personal Meaning across Adulthood: Conceptual Interrelations and Age/Sex Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jessica; Robinson, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined adult age and sex differences in self-reported aspirations and personal meaning. Young, midlife, and older adults (N = 2,557) from the United Kingdom or United States completed an online survey of their aspiration striving, aspiration importance, and personal meaning (subscales of Purposeful Life, Exciting Life,…

  2. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  3. Competition and Habitat Quality Influence Age and Sex Distribution in Wintering Rusty Blackbirds

    PubMed Central

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B.; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal Jr., Theodore J.; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes. PMID:25946335

  4. A study into regional, age, and sex differences in students' ratings of cartoon humor.

    PubMed

    Lowis, Michael J

    2002-06-01

    Funniness ratings of cartoon humour by 366 university students showed no differences for age, sex, and region of origin, except for higher scores by men on work-related items. Ratings appear to be largely uninfluenced by factors other than how inherently amusing the items seem to be. PMID:12186227

  5. Looking, Smiling, Laughing, and Moving in Restaurants: Sex and Age Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Robert M.; Kirkevold, Barbara

    Body movements and facial expressions of males and females in a restaurant setting were examined, with the goal of providing differences in frequency as a function of age and sex. The subjects (N-197 males and N=131 females) were seated in three Seattle fast food restaurants and were selected on a semi-random basis and then observed for three…

  6. Age, Sex and Socioeconomic Background as Factors in Preschool Children's Preference for Play Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdanoff, Ruth F.; Peebles, Linda M.

    A total of 103 preschool children of lower and middle socioeconomic status families were observed in three preschool programs during 15 standardized free play periods for the purpose of investigating preschool children's preferences for different types of traditionally used play materials. The influence of age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES)…

  7. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia; Hamel, Paul B; Hofmann, Gerhard; Zenzal, Theodore J; Pellegrini, Anne; Malpass, Jennifer; Garfinkel, Megan; Schiff, Nathan; Greenberg, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a forested wetland specialist wintering in bottomland hardwood forests in the south-eastern U. S. and belongs to the most steeply declining songbirds in the U.S. Little information is available to support priority birds such as the Rusty Blackbird wintering in this threatened habitat. We assessed age and sex distribution and body condition of Rusty Blackbirds among the three major habitats used by this species in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley and also measured food availability. Overall, pecan groves had the highest biomass mainly driven by the amount of nuts. Invertebrate biomass was highest in forests but contributed only a small percentage to overall biomass. Age and sex classes were unevenly distributed among habitats with adult males primarily occupying pecan groves containing the highest nut biomass, females being found in forests which had the lowest nut biomass and young males primarily staying in forest fragments along creeks which had intermediate nut biomass. Males were in better body condition than females and were in slightly better condition in pecan groves. The results suggest that adult males occupy the highest quality habitat and may competitively exclude the other age and sex classes. PMID:25946335

  8. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing.

    PubMed

    Immonen, E; Collet, M; Goenaga, J; Arnqvist, G

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex differences in the efficacy of selection on mitonuclear genotypes that should result in differences between females and males in mitochondrial genetic effects. Mitonuclear genotype of a focal individual may also indirectly affect trait expression in the mating partner. We tested these predictions in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity, egg size, longevity). These results demonstrate important consequences of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis for both mating partners, consistent with a role for mitonuclear genetic constraints upon sex-specific adaptive evolution. PMID:26732015

  9. A Longitudinal Analysis of Sex Differences in Math and Spatial Skills in Primary School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lachance, Jennifer A.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming…

  10. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  11. Variations in Dream Recall Frequency and Dream Theme Diversity by Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore

    2012-01-01

    We assessed dream recall frequency (DRF) and dream theme diversity (DTD) with an internet questionnaire among a cohort of 28,888 male and female participants aged 10–79 years in a cross-sectional design. DRF increased from adolescence (ages 10–19) to early adulthood (20–29) and then decreased again for the next 20 years. The nature of this decrease differed for males and females. For males, it began earlier (30–39), proceeded more gradually, and reached a nadir earlier (40–49) than it did for females. For females, it began later (40–49), dropped more abruptly, and reached nadir later (50–59). Marked sex differences were observed for age strata 10–19 through 40–49 and year-by-year analyses estimated the window for these differences to be more precisely from 14 to 44 years. DTD decreased linearly with age for both sexes up to 50–59 and then dropped even more sharply for 60–79. There was a sex difference favoring males on this measure but only for ages 10–19. Findings replicate, in a single sample, those from several previous studies showing an increase in DRF from adolescence to early adulthood, a subsequent decrease primarily in early and middle adulthood, and different patterns of age-related decrease in the two sexes. Age-related changes in sleep structure, such as decreasing %REM sleep which parallel the observed dream recall changes, might help explain these findings, but these sleep changes are much smaller and more gradual in nature. Changes in the phase and amplitude of circadian rhythms of REM propensity and generational differences in life experiences may also account for some part of the findings. That decreases in DTD parallel known age-related decreases in episodic and autobiographical memory may signify that this new diversity measure indexes an aspect of autobiographical memory that also influences dream recall. PMID:22783222

  12. Relationships between age, body weight, physical fitness and sex-hormone-binding globulin capacity.

    PubMed

    Semmens, J B; Rouse, I L; Beilin, L J; Masarei, J R

    1983-10-14

    The associations between sex-hormone-binding globulin capacity (SHBG), age, body mass index (BMI), and physical fitness have been studied in 34 men and 36 women. Multivariate analysis was used to look for independent associations with SHBG. The data indicate that when controlled for a number of other factors SHBG levels are related, in men but not in women, to age (positively, p less than 0.001) and BMI (negatively, p less than 0.001). PMID:6685004

  13. Age, growth and sex composition of the American smelt Osmerus mordax(Mitchill), of western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Merryll M.

    1964-01-01

    This study is based on 4,561 smelt collected in Chequamegon Bay, the Apostle Islands, the Brule River, and Superior Harbor, all in western Lake Superior. Commercial production in the Great Lakes (U.S. and Canada combined) reached a peak of nearly 16 million pounds in 1960. Production in Lake Superior has generally been small but increased during the 1950's to reach 948,000 pounds in 1960. All O-group and spring I-group smelt had scales with sufficient sculpturing to permit detection of the first annulus. Annulus formation began after 6 June in 1960. In 1961, all smelt had completed the annulus by 24 August. The body-scale relation is a straight line with an intercept of -0.9 inch on the axis of fish length. The weight of western Lake Superior smelt increased as the 2.952 power of the length. A large range of length in each age group and resulting overlap of age-groups II-VI made length a poor index of age. Female smelt grew faster than males after the second year and dominated strongly in age-groups IV-VII. Both sexes made their best annual growth in length (3.3 inches) during their second year of life; the largest weight increments (0.74 ounce, males; 0.85 ounce, females) came in the third year. Best production from a commercial pound net in 1961 occurred when the sex ratios of spawning smelt were nearest 50:50. Spawning male smelt were consistently shorter than females and the average lengths of both sexes decreased as the spawning season progressed. Shortest mature smelt of each sex were 5.0 to 5.2 inches but the males are probably the first to reach 100 percent maturity. All year-old smelt were immature. Among 2-year-old fish, 40.7 per cent of the males and 17.7 percent of the females had reached maturity. All smelt more than 2 years old were mature. Ovaries of 10 smelt contained an average of 31,338 eggs for fish 7.3 to 8.8 inches long.

  14. Importance of support groups for intersex (disorders of sex development) patients, families and the medical profession.

    PubMed

    Cull, M L; Simmonds, M

    2010-09-01

    Taboo still surrounds intersex/disorders of sex development, in spite of more openness in society regarding sex. Peer support is valuable in providing information and emotional support to those affected. Support groups also work with clinicians to promote better care, to assist with research studies and to increase clinical awareness and expertise by helping to stage symposia. They also foster greater public understanding via media involvement and training videos; and play an advocacy role, providing one voice to channel the concerns of a scattered population with these rare conditions. PMID:20606384

  15. Age- and Sex-Specific Social Contact Patterns and Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Peter J.; Looker, Clare; Plumb, Ian D.; Bond, Virginia; Schaap, Ab; Shanaube, Kwame; Muyoyeta, Monde; Vynnycky, Emilia; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Corbett, Elizabeth L.; Beyers, Nulda; Ayles, Helen; White, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to model the incidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among adults using data on infection incidence in children, disease prevalence in adults, and social contact patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of adults in 2011, enumerating “close” (shared conversation) and “casual” (shared indoor space) social contacts in 16 Zambian communities and 8 South African communities. We modeled the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in all age groups using these contact patterns, as well as the observed incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in children and the prevalence of tuberculosis disease in adults. A total of 3,528 adults participated in the study. The reported rates of close and casual contact were 4.9 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 4.6, 5.2) and 10.4 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 9.3, 11.6), respectively. Rates of close contact were higher for adults in larger households and rural areas. There was preferential mixing of close contacts within age groups and within sexes. The estimated incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in adults was 1.5–6 times higher (2.5%–10% per year) than that in children. More than 50% of infections in men, women, and children were estimated to be due to contact with adult men. We conclude that estimates of infection incidence based on surveys in children might underestimate incidence in adults. Most infections may be due to contact with adult men. Treatment and control of tuberculosis in men is critical to protecting men, women, and children from tuberculosis. PMID:26646292

  16. Age- and Sex-Specific Social Contact Patterns and Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Peter J; Looker, Clare; Plumb, Ian D; Bond, Virginia; Schaap, Ab; Shanaube, Kwame; Muyoyeta, Monde; Vynnycky, Emilia; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Corbett, Elizabeth L; Beyers, Nulda; Ayles, Helen; White, Richard G

    2016-01-15

    We aimed to model the incidence of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among adults using data on infection incidence in children, disease prevalence in adults, and social contact patterns. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of adults in 2011, enumerating "close" (shared conversation) and "casual" (shared indoor space) social contacts in 16 Zambian communities and 8 South African communities. We modeled the incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in all age groups using these contact patterns, as well as the observed incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in children and the prevalence of tuberculosis disease in adults. A total of 3,528 adults participated in the study. The reported rates of close and casual contact were 4.9 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 4.6, 5.2) and 10.4 per adult per day (95% confidence interval: 9.3, 11.6), respectively. Rates of close contact were higher for adults in larger households and rural areas. There was preferential mixing of close contacts within age groups and within sexes. The estimated incidence of M. tuberculosis infection in adults was 1.5-6 times higher (2.5%-10% per year) than that in children. More than 50% of infections in men, women, and children were estimated to be due to contact with adult men. We conclude that estimates of infection incidence based on surveys in children might underestimate incidence in adults. Most infections may be due to contact with adult men. Treatment and control of tuberculosis in men is critical to protecting men, women, and children from tuberculosis. PMID:26646292

  17. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    PubMed

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. PMID:23168270

  18. Reasons, assessments and actions taken: sex and age differences in uses of Internet health information.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele; Suman, Michael

    2008-06-01

    The Internet is transforming the way in which consumers approach their health care needs. Sex and age are influential aspects of one's health as well as disease risk and are thus integral components of the emerging picture of health information seekers. Using data from Surveying the Digital Future, Year 4, a nationally representative, longitudinal telephone survey of Americans 12 years of age and older (n = 2010), we examine the reasons for, assessments of and actions taken as a result of health information found online among men and women and older and younger people. Although we tend to think of the Internet as a young person's technology, the percent of adults 60 years of age and older is similar to that of adolescents using the Internet as a health care information resource, thus suggesting an untapped opportunity with online interventions for older adults. Nonetheless, as age increases so too does the report of frustration with the experience. Men are more likely to report a positive seeking experience than women. Differences in Internet use fail to explain these observed sex and age differences in the seeking experience. Across the spectrum of age, sex and Internet skill, Internet health information seeking appears to enhance the patient-provider relationship. PMID:16880222

  19. Influence of sex, smoking and age on human hprt mutation frequencies and spectra.

    PubMed Central

    Curry, J; Karnaoukhova, L; Guenette, G C; Glickman, B W

    1999-01-01

    Examination of the literature for hprt mutant frequencies from peripheral T cells yielded data from 1194 human subjects. Relationships between mutant frequency, age, sex, and smoking were examined, and the kinetics were described. Mutant frequency increases rapidly with age until about age 15. Afterward, the rate of increase falls such that after age 53, the hprt mutant frequency is largely stabilized. Sex had no effect on mutant frequency. Cigarette smoking increased mean mutant frequency compared to nonsmokers, but did not alter age vs. mutant frequency relationships. An hprt in vivo mutant database containing 795 human hprt mutants from 342 individuals was prepared. No difference in mutational spectra was observed comparing smokers to nonsmokers, confirming previous reports. Sex affected the frequency of deletions (>1 bp) that are recovered more than twice as frequently in females (P = 0. 008) compared to males. There is no indication of a significant shift in mutational spectra with age for individuals older than 19 yr, with the exception of A:T --> C:G transversions. These events are recovered more frequently in older individuals. PMID:10388825

  20. Muscularity as a function of species, sex and age in small mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smith, A. H.

    1984-01-01

    Changes in the body skeletal muscle mass SMM (measured as a function of the ratio between the body creatine mass and the fat-free muscle creatine), and in muscularity (expressed as the ratio of SMM to fat-free body mass) were studied as functions of age, sex, and species in mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, and rabbit. Six animals of each sex were examined in eight age cohorts ranging from 1 to 24 months. Both species and age factors affect SMM. Strong sexual dimorphism in the SMM changes with age was displayed by mouse, rat, and guinea pig, whereas the hamster and rabbit were statistically monomorphic. The mouse, rat, and hamster attain a maximal SMM at about 1 year of age, whereas in the guinea pig and rabbit the decrease in SMM starts after 2 years. The value of muscularity reached a peak at age of 2-3 months in all animals of both sexes, with a pronounced difference among the species. The mouse emerged as the most muscular, while the guinea pig the least muscular, of all species.

  1. Health expenditures by age group, 1977 and 1987

    PubMed Central

    Waldo, Daniel R.; Sonnefeld, Sally T.; McKusick, David R.; Arnett, Ross H.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, concern has increased over the rapid growth of health care spending, especially spending on behalf of the aged. In 1987, those 65 years or over comprised 12 percent of the population but consumed 36 percent of total personal health care. This article is an examination of the current and future composition of the population and effects on health care spending. National health accounts aggregates for 1977 and 1987 are split into three age groups, and the consumption patterns of each group are discussed. The variations in spending within the aged cohort are also examined. PMID:10313274

  2. Scaling of adult body weight to height across sex and race/ethnic groups: relevance to BMI1234

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Schuna, John M; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) is formulated on the assumption that body weight (BW) scales to height with a power of 2 (BW∝height2), independent of sex and race-ethnicity. Powers differing from 2 are observed in studies of selected samples, thus raising the question if BMI is a generalizable metric that makes BW independent of height across populations. Objectives: The objectives were to test the hypothesis that adult BW scales to height with a power of 2 independent of sex and race-ethnicity and to advance an understanding of BMI as a measure of shape by extending allometric analyses to waist circumference (WC). Design: We conducted cross-sectional subject evaluations, including body composition, from the NHANES and the Korean NHANES (KNHANES). Variations of the allometric model (Y = αXβ) were used to establish height scaling powers (β ± SE) across non-Hispanic white and black, Mexican American, and Korean men and women. Results: Exploratory analyses in population samples established age and adiposity as important independent determinants of height scaling powers (i.e., β). After age and adiposity in the next series of analyses were controlled for, BW scaling powers were nonsignificantly different between race/ethnic groups within each sex group; WC findings were similar in women, whereas small but significant between-race differences were observed in the men. Sex differences in β values were nonsignificant except for BW in non-Hispanic blacks and WC in Koreans (P < 0.05). Nationally representative powers for BW were (NHANES/KNHANES) 2.12 ± 0.05/2.11 ± 0.06 for men and 2.02 ± 0.04/1.99 ± 0.06 for women and for WC were 0.66 ± 0.03/0.67 ± 0.05 for men and 0.61 ± 0.04/0.56 ± 0.05 for women. Conclusions: Adult BW scales to height with a power of ∼2 across the 8 sex and race/ethnic groups, an observation that makes BMI a generalizable height-independent measure of shape across most populations. WC also follows generalizable scaling rules, a

  3. Effects of age and sex on the structural, chemical and technological characteristics of mule duck meat.

    PubMed

    Baeza, E; Salichon, M R; Marche, G; Wacrenier, N; Dominguez, B; Culioli, J

    2000-07-01

    1. The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of age and sex on the chemical, structural and technological characteristics of mule duck meat. 2. Ten males and 10 females were weighed and slaughtered at 8, 10, 11, 12 and 13 weeks of age. Weight, pH value, colour, tenderness and juice loss of breast muscle were determined. 3. The activities of 3 enzymes (citrate synthase, beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase) which indicate muscular metabolic activity were assayed. 4. Chemical composition (moisture, lipids, proteins, minerals, lipid and phospholipid classes, fatty acid composition) of breast muscle was analysed. 5. Fibre type, fibre type percentage and cross-sectional areas were determined using histochemistry and an image analysis system. 6. For growth performance and muscular structure, the ideal slaughter age of mule ducks is 10 weeks of age. Chemical and technological analysis indicated that muscular maturity in Pectoralis major was reached at 11 weeks of age, but, at this age, breast lipid content is high. Moreover, after 10 weeks of age, food costs rapidly increased. 7. Lastly, sexual dimorphism for body weight is minor. In this study, at any given age, no significant differences between males and females were shown. Thus, it is possible to rear both sexes together and to slaughter them at the same age. PMID:11081424

  4. Neuropsychological Sex Differences Associated with Age of Initiated Use Among Young Adult Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Natania A.; Schuster, Randi Melissa; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Earlier initiation of cannabis use is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning across several domains. Given well-documented sex differences in neuromaturation during adolescence, initiation of cannabis use during this time may affect neuropsychological functioning differently for males and females. Method In the current study, we examined sex differences in the relationship between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological performance after controlling for amount of lifetime cannabis use in 44 male and 25 female young adult cannabis users. Results We found that an earlier age of initiated use was related to poorer episodic memory, especially immediate recall, in females, but not in males. On the other hand, we found that, surprisingly, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with better decision-making overall. However, exploratory analyses found sex-specific factors associated with decision-making and age of initiated use, specifically that ADHD symptoms in females may drive the relationship between an earlier age of initiated use and better decision-making. Further, an earlier age of initiated use was associated with less education, a lower IQ, and fewer years of mother’s education for females, but more lifetime cannabis use for males. Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest there are sex-differences in the associations between age of initiated cannabis use and neuropsychological functioning. The current study provides preliminary evidence that males and females may have different neuropsychological vulnerabilities that place them at risk for initiating cannabis use and continued cannabis use, highlighting the importance of examining the impact of cannabis on neuropsychological functioning separately for males and females. PMID:25832823

  5. Equestrian trauma: injury patterns vary among age groups.

    PubMed

    Bilaniuk, Jaroslaw W; Adams, John M; DiFazio, Louis T; Siegel, Brian K; Allegra, John R; Luján, Juan J; Durling-Grover, Renay; Pawar, Joanne; Rolandelli, Rolando H; Németh, Zoltán H

    2014-04-01

    Patients with equestrian injuries were identified in the trauma registry from 2004 to 2007. We a priori divided patients into three groups: 0 to 18 years, 19 to 49 years, and 50 years old or older. There were 284 patients identified with equestrian-related trauma. Injury Severity Score for the three major age categories 0 to 18 years, 19 to 49 years, and 50 years or older, were 3.47, 5.09, and 6.27, respectively. The most common body region injured among all patients was the head (26.1%). The most common injuries by age group were: 0 to 18 years, upper extremity fractures; 19 to 49 year olds, concussions; and 50 years or older, rib fractures. Significant differences were observed among the three age groups in terms of percent of patients with rib fractures: percent of patients with rib fractures was 2, 8, and 22 per cent in age groups 0 to 18, 19 to 49, and 50 years or older, respectively. We found different patterns of injuries associated with equestrian accidents by age. Head injuries were commonly seen among participants in equestrian activities and helmet use should be promoted to minimize the severity of closed head injuries. Injury patterns also seem to vary among the various age groups that ride horses. This information could be used to better target injury prevention efforts among these patients. PMID:24887673

  6. Risk Factors for Late-Life Cognitive Decline and Variation with Age and Sex in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Lipnicki, Darren M.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Crawford, John; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A.; Trollor, Julian N.; Draper, Brian; Slavin, Melissa J.; Kang, Kristan; Lux, Ora; Mather, Karen A.; Brodaty, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction An aging population brings increasing burdens and costs to individuals and society arising from late-life cognitive decline, the causes of which are unclear. We aimed to identify factors predicting late-life cognitive decline. Methods Participants were 889 community-dwelling 70–90-year-olds from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study with comprehensive neuropsychological assessments at baseline and a 2-year follow-up and initially without dementia. Cognitive decline was considered as incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia, as well as decreases in attention/processing speed, executive function, memory, and global cognition. Associations with baseline demographic, lifestyle, health and medical factors were determined. Results All cognitive measures showed decline and 14% of participants developed incident MCI or dementia. Across all participants, risk factors for decline included older age and poorer smelling ability most prominently, but also more education, history of depression, being male, higher homocysteine, coronary artery disease, arthritis, low health status, and stroke. Protective factors included marriage, kidney disease, and antidepressant use. For some of these factors the association varied with age or differed between men and women. Additional risk and protective factors that were strictly age- and/or sex-dependent were also identified. We found salient population attributable risks (8.7–49.5%) for older age, being male or unmarried, poor smelling ability, coronary artery disease, arthritis, stroke, and high homocysteine. Discussion Preventing or treating conditions typically associated with aging might reduce population-wide late-life cognitive decline. Interventions tailored to particular age and sex groups may offer further benefits. PMID:23799051

  7. Elevated Mortality among Birds in Chernobyl as Judged from Skewed Age and Sex Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Rudolfsen, Geir; Mousseau, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Radiation has negative effects on survival of animals including humans, although the generality of this claim is poorly documented under low-dose field conditions. Because females may suffer disproportionately from the effects of radiation on survival due to differences in sex roles during reproduction, radiation-induced mortality may result in male-skewed adult sex ratios. Methodology/Principal Finding We estimated the effects of low-dose radiation on adult survival rates in birds by determining age ratios of adults captured in mist nets during the breeding season in relation to background radiation levels around Chernobyl and in nearby uncontaminated control areas. Age ratios were skewed towards yearlings, especially in the most contaminated areas, implying that adult survival rates were reduced in contaminated areas, and that populations in such areas could only be maintained through immigration from nearby uncontaminated areas. Differential mortality in females resulted in a strongly male-skewed sex ratio in the most contaminated areas. In addition, males sang disproportionately commonly in the most contaminated areas where the sex ratio was male skewed presumably because males had difficulty finding and acquiring mates when females were rare. The results were not caused by permanent emigration by females from the most contaminated areas because none of the recaptured birds had changed breeding site, and the proportion of individuals with morphological abnormalities did not differ significantly between the sexes for areas with normal and higher levels of contamination. Conclusions/Significance These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the adult survival rate of female birds is particularly susceptible to the effects of low-dose radiation, resulting in male skewed sex ratios at high levels of radiation. Such skewed age ratios towards yearlings in contaminated areas are consistent with the hypothesis that an area exceeding 30,000 km2 in

  8. Physical Activity Patterns of the Spanish Population Are Mostly Determined by Sex and Age: Findings in the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel; Castillo, Adrián; Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Aranceta-Batrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; González-Gross, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Background Representative data for the Spanish population regarding physical activity (PA) behaviors are scarce and seldom comparable due to methodological inconsistencies. Aim Our objectives were to describe the PA behavior by means of the standardized self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and to know the proportion of the Spanish population meeting and not meeting international PA recommendations. Material and Methods PA was assessed using the IPAQ in a representative sample of 2285 individuals (males, 50.4%) aged 9–75 years and living in municipalities of at least 2,000 inhabitants. Data were analyzed according to: age groups 9–12, 13–17, 18–64, and 65–75 years; sex; geographical distribution; locality size and educational levels. Results Mean total PA was 868.8±660.9 min/wk, mean vigorous PA 146.4±254.1 min/wk, and mean moderate PA 398.1±408.0 min/wk, showing significant differences between sexes (p<0.05). Children performed higher moderate-vigorous PA than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05), and adults than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05). Compared to recommendations, 36.2% of adults performed <150 min/week of moderate PA, 65.4% <75 min/week of vigorous PA and 27.0% did not perform any PA at all, presenting significant differences between sexes (p<0.05). A total of 55.4% of children and adolescents performed less than 420 min/week of MVPA, being higher in the later (62.6%) than in the former (48.4%). Highest non-compliance was observed in adolescent females (86.5%). Conclusion Sex and age are the main influencing factors on PA in the Spanish population. Males engage in more vigorous and light PA overall, whereas females perform more moderate PA. PA behavior differs between age groups and no clear lineal increase with age could be observed. Twenty-seven percent of adults and 55.4% of children and adolescents do not meet international PA recommendations. Identified target groups should be addressed to increase PA in the

  9. Functional interactions of dopamine cell groups reflect personality, sex, and social context in highly social finches.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Aubrey M; Goodson, James L

    2015-03-01

    Dopamine (DA) is well known for its involvement in novelty-seeking, learning, and goal-oriented behaviors such as social behavior. However, little is known about how DA modulates social processes differentially in relation to sex and behavioral phenotype (e.g., personality). Importantly, the major DA cell groups (A8-A15) are conserved across all amniote vertebrates, and thus broadly relevant insights may be obtained through investigations of avian species such as zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), which express a human-like social organization based on biparental nuclear families that are embedded within larger social groups. We here build upon a previous study that quantified multidimensional personality structures in male and female zebra finches using principal components analysis (PCA) of extensive behavioral measures in social and nonsocial contexts. These complex dimensions of behavioral phenotype can be characterized as Social competence/dominance, Gregariousness, and Anxiety. Here we analyze Fos protein expression in DA neuronal populations in response to social novelty and demonstrate that the Fos content of multiple dopamine cell groups is significantly predicted by sex, personality, social context, and their interactions. In order to further investigate coordinated neuromodulation of behavior across multiple DA cell groups, we also conducted a PCA of neural variables (DA cell numbers and their phasic Fos responses) and show that behavioral PCs are associated with unique suites of neural PCs. These findings demonstrate that personality and sex are reflected in DA neuron activity and coordinated patterns of neuromodulation arising from multiple DA cell groups. PMID:25496780

  10. Bias in the reporting of sex and age in biomedical research on mouse models.

    PubMed

    Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Brass, Andy; Karystianis, George; Bramhall, Michael; Stevens, Robert; Cruickshank, Sheena; Nenadic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    In animal-based biomedical research, both the sex and the age of the animals studied affect disease phenotypes by modifying their susceptibility, presentation and response to treatment. The accurate reporting of experimental methods and materials, including the sex and age of animals, is essential so that other researchers can build on the results of such studies. Here we use text mining to study 15,311 research papers in which mice were the focus of the study. We find that the percentage of papers reporting the sex and age of mice has increased over the past two decades: however, only about 50% of the papers published in 2014 reported these two variables. We also compared the quality of reporting in six preclinical research areas and found evidence for different levels of sex-bias in these areas: the strongest male-bias was observed in cardiovascular disease models and the strongest female-bias was found in infectious disease models. These results demonstrate the ability of text mining to contribute to the ongoing debate about the reproducibility of research, and confirm the need to continue efforts to improve the reporting of experimental methods and materials. PMID:26939790

  11. Bias in the reporting of sex and age in biomedical research on mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Flórez-Vargas, Oscar; Brass, Andy; Karystianis, George; Bramhall, Michael; Stevens, Robert; Cruickshank, Sheena; Nenadic, Goran

    2016-01-01

    In animal-based biomedical research, both the sex and the age of the animals studied affect disease phenotypes by modifying their susceptibility, presentation and response to treatment. The accurate reporting of experimental methods and materials, including the sex and age of animals, is essential so that other researchers can build on the results of such studies. Here we use text mining to study 15,311 research papers in which mice were the focus of the study. We find that the percentage of papers reporting the sex and age of mice has increased over the past two decades: however, only about 50% of the papers published in 2014 reported these two variables. We also compared the quality of reporting in six preclinical research areas and found evidence for different levels of sex-bias in these areas: the strongest male-bias was observed in cardiovascular disease models and the strongest female-bias was found in infectious disease models. These results demonstrate the ability of text mining to contribute to the ongoing debate about the reproducibility of research, and confirm the need to continue efforts to improve the reporting of experimental methods and materials. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13615.001 PMID:26939790

  12. Sex- and age-related differences in the timing and body condition of migrating Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus and Sedge Warblers Acrocephalus schoenobaenus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubas, Dariusz; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna

    2010-05-01

    The migration strategies of birds may vary strongly between species and also between age and/or sex groups. We studied the autumn migration and body condition of molecularly sexed Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus and Sedge Warblers Acrocephalus schoenobaenus (211 and 208 ind., respectively) at a stopover site on Lake Druzno, Northern Poland, in 2008. Immature male Reed Warblers were caught significantly later than females (median dates 9 days later), but in the Sedge Warbler, both sexes of immatures migrated at about the same time. Adult males and females of both species did not differ in their time of migration. Adult and immature males of both species were larger (wing length and body mass) than females. In both species, fat reserves were similar in both sexes of both age classes. Adults of both sexes of Reed and Sedge Warbler were generally caught earlier than immatures. In both species, the body mass and fat reserves of immatures were generally less than in adults. The autumn protogyny of immature Reed Warblers may allow smaller females to limit competition with bigger males during migration and at the wintering grounds. In the Sedge Warbler, which tends to match its migration to peak of occurrence of superabundant food at stopover sites, both sexes gain an advantage from migrating at the same time. Since part of the measured wing length variation in both species was explained by sex differences, temporal trends in wing length recorded at stopover sites should be interpreted with caution.

  13. Growth, age at metamorphosis, and sex ratio of northern brook lamprey in a tributary of southern Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purvis, Harold A.

    1970-01-01

    Growth was studied of five year classes of the northern brook lamprey, Ichthyomyzon fossor, collected from the Sturgeon River during intervals between treatment of the stream with a lampricide. Growth varied considerably among year classes. Larvae of the 1963 year class were slightly longer at age II and 30% longer at age III than the III-group larvae of the 1960 year class. About 6% of 558 III-group lampreys of the 1963 year class had metamorphosed by 17 August 1966. Although the sex ratio of larvae was about 1:1, 97% of the metamorphosed lampreys were males. The distribution of pigmentation on the caudal fin and upper lip in ammocoetes less than 40 mm long permitted accurate and rapid separation of northern brook lampreys from the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

  14. Knee joint examinations by magnetic resonance imaging: The correlation of pathology, age, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Avcu, Serhat; Altun, Ersan; Akpinar, Ihsan; Bulut, Mehmet Deniz; Eresov, Kemal; Biren, Tugrul

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence and coexistence of multiple knee joint pathologies and the distribution of knee joint pathologies according to age and sex. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using the clinical data of patients evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee joint. Data from 308 patients examined between August 2002 and July 2003 were included into this study. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the pathological findings and the age and sex of the patients. Results: The ages of the patients ranged between 1 and 74 years (mean: 43.3 years). Age was significantly correlated with meniscal degeneration and tears, medial collateral ligament degeneration, parameniscal cyst, and chondromalacia patellae. There was a significant correlation between male gender and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Meniscal injury was significantly correlated with bursitis, as well as medial collateral ligament injury. Bone bruise was significantly correlated with medial collateral ligament injury, lateral collateral ligament injury, Baker's cyst, and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Chondromalacia patellae was significantly correlated with anterior cruciate ligament injury, patellae alta, and osteochondral lesion. Bursitis (in 53.2% of the patients) followed by grade-II meniscal degeneration (in 43% of the patients) were the most common knee pathologies observed by MRI. Conclusions: MRI findings of select knee pathologies are significantly correlated with each other and the age and sex of the patient. PMID:22624141

  15. Duration reproduction: lossy integration and effects of sensory modalities, cognitive functioning, age, and sex.

    PubMed

    Pütz, Peter; Wittmann, Marc; Wackermann, Jirí

    2012-10-01

    The "dual klepsydra model" (DKM) of internal time representation successfully models duration reproduction data, but relations between the DKM-based parameter kappa ("loss rate") and procedural variables (presentation modality) or individual characteristics (cognitive indices, age, sex) remained as yet unexplored. For that purpose, were-analyzed data from an earlier time reproduction study (N = 100), using visually or acoustically presented intervals of 1-5 sec. duration. Typical values of parameter kappa were approximately 0.03-0.04 sec.(-1), corresponding to relaxation times of internal "lossy integrators" of approximately 30 sec. Significant effects of presentation modality (smaller kappa values for the visual reproduction task) and of age (greater kappa in acoustic reproduction with increasing age) were observed. Cognitive variables (working memory, general fluid reasoning, attention) and sex of participants were not associated with kappa. Cognitive functions seem to play only a minor, if any, role at the level of time representation addressed by the DKM. PMID:23265003

  16. Insights into Sex Chromosome Evolution and Aging from the Genome of a Short-Lived Fish.

    PubMed

    Reichwald, Kathrin; Petzold, Andreas; Koch, Philipp; Downie, Bryan R; Hartmann, Nils; Pietsch, Stefan; Baumgart, Mario; Chalopin, Domitille; Felder, Marius; Bens, Martin; Sahm, Arne; Szafranski, Karol; Taudien, Stefan; Groth, Marco; Arisi, Ivan; Weise, Anja; Bhatt, Samarth S; Sharma, Virag; Kraus, Johann M; Schmid, Florian; Priebe, Steffen; Liehr, Thomas; Görlach, Matthias; Than, Manuel E; Hiller, Michael; Kestler, Hans A; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Schartl, Manfred; Cellerino, Alessandro; Englert, Christoph; Platzer, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    The killifish Nothobranchius furzeri is the shortest-lived vertebrate that can be bred in the laboratory. Its rapid growth, early sexual maturation, fast aging, and arrested embryonic development (diapause) make it an attractive model organism in biomedical research. Here, we report a draft sequence of its genome that allowed us to uncover an intra-species Y chromosome polymorphism representing-in real time-different stages of sex chromosome formation that display features of early mammalian XY evolution "in action." Our data suggest that gdf6Y, encoding a TGF-β family growth factor, is the master sex-determining gene in N. furzeri. Moreover, we observed genomic clustering of aging-related genes, identified genes under positive selection, and revealed significant similarities of gene expression profiles between diapause and aging, particularly for genes controlling cell cycle and translation. The annotated genome sequence is provided as an online resource (http://www.nothobranchius.info/NFINgb). PMID:26638077

  17. Distribution and titres of rotavirus antibodies in different age groups.

    PubMed Central

    Elias, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty-seven sera selected at random from hospital patients of all ages were examined for rotavirus antibodies using indirect immunofluorescence (FA) and complement fixation levels (CFT). Three hundred and fourteen of these were also tested for neutralizing antibodies to human rotavirus. Sera from patients admitted with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis were excluded from this survey. FA antibodies were found in newborn infants but fell to undetectable titres at 3 months. The highest titres were found in children between the ages of one and three years. In older age groups, the model titre fell gradually with increasing age until, in sera from those above 70 years of age, FA antibodies were almost undetectable. The same pattern was observed with neutralizing antibodies. A high model titre of CF antibodies was only found in sera from those aged one to three years. PMID:200676

  18. Morphometric analysis of variation in the sternum with sex and age.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Schoell, Samantha L; Nguyen, Callistus M; Lynch, Sarah K; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-11-01

    Age and sex-related variations in sternum morphology may affect the thoracic injury tolerance. Male and female sternum size and shape variation was characterized for ages 0-100 from landmarks collected from 330 computed tomography scans. Homologous landmarks were analyzed using Procrustes superimposition to produce age and sex-specific functions of 3D-sternum morphology representing the combined size and shape variation and the isolated shape variation. Significant changes in the combined size and shape variation and isolated shape variation of the sternum were found to occur with age in both sexes. Sternal size increased from birth through age 30 and retained a similar size for ages 30-100. The manubrium expanded laterally from birth through age 30, becoming wider in relation to the sternal body. In infancy, the manubrium was 1.1-1.2 times the width of the sternal body and this width ratio increased to 1.6-1.8 for adults. The manubrium transformed from a circular shape in infancy to an oval shape in early childhood. The distal sternal body became wider in relation to the proximal sternal body from birth through age 30 and retained this characteristic throughout adulthood. The most dramatic changes in sternum morphology occur in childhood and young adulthood when the sternum is undergoing ossification. The lesser degree of ossification in the pediatric sternum may be partly responsible for the prevalence of thoracic organ injuries as opposed to thoracic skeletal injuries in pediatrics. Sternum fractures make up a larger portion of thoracic injury patterns in adults with fully ossified sternums. The lack of substantial size or shape changes in the sternum from age 30-100 suggests that the increased incidence of sternal fracture seen in the elderly may be due to cortical thickness or bone mineral density changes in the sternum as opposed to morphological changes. PMID:24935890

  19. Mandibular ramus length as an indicator of chronological age and sex.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fernando Toledo; Soares, Mariana Quirino Silveira; Sarmento, Viviane Almeida; Rubira, Cassia Maria Fischer; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Rubira-Bullen, Izabel Regina Fischer

    2015-01-01

    Age and sex estimation is crucial in forensic investigations, whether in legal situations that involve living people or to identify mortal remains. The aim of this study was to establish reference values in a Brazilian population to estimate age and sex by measuring the length of the mandibular ramus on lateral cephalometric radiographs, and to determine the probability that an individual being is 18 years or older, based on the results that were obtained. Two hundred and eighteen scanned lateral cephalograms of individuals between 6 and 20 years of age (101 males and 117 females) were measured with reference to mandibular ramus length (the distance between Condylion superior (Cs) and Gonion (Go)) using ImageJ 1.41 software (NIH, Bethesda, MA, USA). The results showed that sexual dimorphism was not observed until 16 years and, based on the ramus length measurements in this sample, it is possible to predict sex with an accuracy of only 54 %. There was a positive correlation between age and ramus length (r = 0.90; p < 0.001). From the linear regression analysis, one formula was derived; therefore, it was possible to calculate the individual's age, given his or her ramus length. The results showed that if an individual's ramus length is 7.0 cm or more, then there is an 81.25 % chance that the individual is 18 years old or older. In conclusion, the mandibular ramus length was not effective in discriminating sex. Mandibular length is strongly related to chronological age and can be used to predict whether an individual is 18 years or older with high degree of expected accuracy. PMID:25270589

  20. Group Sex Events and HIV/STI Risk in an Urban Network

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Samuel R.; Bolyard, Melissa; Khan, Maria; Maslow, Carey; Sandoval, Milagros; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Krauss, Beatrice; Aral, Sevgi O.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe: a. the prevalence and individual and network characteristics of group sex events (GSE) and GSE attendees; and b. HIV/STI discordance among respondents who said they went to a GSE together. Methods and Design In a sociometric network study of risk partners (defined as sexual partners, persons with whom respondents attended a GSE, or drug-injection partners) in Brooklyn, NY, we recruited a high-risk sample of 465 adults. Respondents reported on GSE attendance, the characteristics of GSEs, and their own and others’ behaviors at GSEs. Sera and urines were collected and STI prevalence was assayed. Results Of the 465 participants, 36% had attended a GSE in the last year, 26% had sex during the most recent of these GSEs, and 13% had unprotected sex there. Certain subgroups (hard drug users, men who have sex with men, women who have sex with women, and sex workers) were more likely to attend and more likely to engage in risk behaviors at these events. Among 90 GSE dyads in which at least one partner named the other as someone with whom they attended a GSE in the previous three months, STI/HIV discordance was common (HSV-2: 45% of dyads, HIV: 12% of dyads, Chlamydia: 21% of dyads). Many GSEs had 10 or more participants, and multiple partnerships at GSEs were common. High attendance rates at GSEs among members of large networks may increase community vulnerability to STI/HIV, particularly since network data show that almost all members of a large sociometric risk network either had sex with a GSE attendee or had sex with someone who had sex with a GSE attended. Conclusions Self-reported GSE attendance and participation was common among this high-risk sample. STI/HIV discordance among GSE attendees was high, highlighting the potential transmission risk associated with GSEs. Research on sexual behaviors should incorporate measures of GSE behaviors as standard research protocol. Interventions should be developed to reduce transmission at GSEs. PMID

  1. Determinants of bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and body composition in a cohort of healthy children: influence of sex, age, puberty, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Ausili, Emanuele; Rigante, Donato; Salvaggio, Elio; Focarelli, Benedetta; Rendeli, Claudia; Ansuini, Valentina; Paolucci, Valentina; Triarico, Silvia; Martini, Lucilla; Caradonna, Paolo

    2012-09-01

    Interventions directed to the recognition of abnormal bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and body composition in the pediatric age require the definition of factors influencing bone mass acquisition during growth. We have evaluated in a cross-sectional manner by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry the impact of sex, age, puberty, and physical activity on total body areal bone mineral density, regional (lumbar and femoral) bone mineral densities, bone mineral content, and body composition (fat mass and lean mass) in a cohort of 359 healthy Italian children aged 3-14 years and investigated their specific contribution to bone mass accrual. Statistical multiple regression analysis was performed dividing the population in pre- and post-pubertal groups. Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine has resulted equally distributed in both sexes before puberty while has resulted higher at the femoral necks in males at whatever age. A significant effect on bone mass acquisition was exerted by male sex and lean mass. In the areas where the cortical bone is prevalent, males of the pre-pubertal group have presented the highest values; in the areas where the cancellous bone is prevalent, both sexes were equivalent until the age of 9 years, but after this age, females have presented higher increases, probably related to the inferior dimensional development of lumbar vertebrae. Conclusively, male sex and lean mass seem to represent independent predictors of bone mass accrual in the cortical bone of the examined children, while female sex and pubertal maturation are independent predictors of bone mass accrual in the trabecular bone. PMID:21809005

  2. A review of bufflehead sex and age criteria with notes on weights

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Carter, J.L.; Carter, Barbara J.

    1981-01-01

    Summary: Buftleheads Bucephala albeola were collected along the Oregon coast during the hunting season. Birds were first sexed and aged upon cloacal and internal characteristics. Results were then compared with data derived from wing plumage. A small change was made in Carney's (1964) wing plumage key to improve its accuracy. Although only a few studies have been made of Bufflehead weights, it seems that in at least several of these, some immature males have been included in the female category. This mistake has probably resulted from the extremely small penis in the immatures. The foot web length shows potential as a simple sexing criterion during the fall and winter for immatures which are the most difficult to sex under field conditions.

  3. Chemical mapping of anxiety in the brain of healthy humans: an in vivo 1H-MRS study on the effects of sex, age, and brain region.

    PubMed

    Grachev, I D; Apkarian, A V

    2000-12-01

    We recently presented results in an in vivo study of human brain chemistry in 'physiologic' anxiety, i.e., the anxiety of normal everyday life. Normal subjects with high anxiety demonstrated increased concentration of chemicals in orbital frontal cortex (OFC) as compared to lower anxiety. In a separate study of aging we demonstrated a decrease of total chemical concentration in OFC of middle-aged subjects, as compared with younger age. This brain region also showed gender dependence; men demonstrating decreased chemical concentration compared to women. We hypothesized that these sex- and age-dependent differences in OFC chemistry changes are a result of anxiety effects on this brain region. In the present study we examined these sex- and age-differential regional brain chemistry changes (as identified by localized in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy [1H-MRS]) in relation to the state-trait-anxiety (as measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) in 35 healthy subjects. The concentrations for all nine chemicals of 1H-MRS spectra were measured relative to creatine across multiple brain regions, including OFC in the left hemisphere. Analysis of variance showed anxiety-specific effects on chemical concentration changes in OFC, which were different for both sexes and age groups. Male subjects showed larger effect of anxiety on OFC chemistry as compared to females when the same sex high-anxiety subjects were compared to lower anxiety. Similarly, middle-aged subjects showed larger effect of anxiety on OFC chemistry as compared to younger age when the same age subjects with high anxiety were compared to lower anxiety. Largest effect of anxiety on OFC chemistry was due to changes of N-Acetyl aspartate. The results indicate that the state-trait anxiety has sex- and age-differential patterns on OFC chemistry in healthy humans, providing new information about the neurobiological roots of anxiety. PMID:11144755

  4. Perceptions of sex offenders about treatment: satisfaction and engagement in group therapy.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Macgowan, Mark J; Morin, John W; Cotter, Leo P

    2009-03-01

    Surveying the views of sex offender clients can help ensure that treatment is relevant and responsive to client needs. The purpose of this exploratory study is to elicit sex offender clients' perceptions of their experiences in treatment in order to better understand the components of treatment perceived to be helpful in preventing reoffense. Samples (N = 338) of male sex offenders in outpatient group therapy are found to be generally satisfied with treatment services and have positive perceptions of treatment effectiveness. Offenders in treatment value the role of group therapy, and they find accountability, victim empathy, relapse prevention, and "good lives" concepts to be most helpful in managing their behavior. Their engagement in group therapy is assessed using the Group Engagement Measure, and a positive correlation is found between engagement and treatment satisfaction. Eliciting client opinions about the helpfulness of program content and process, and adjusting treatment protocols accordingly, is consistant with the principles of risk, need, and responsivity, a model recommended for therapeutic interventions with criminal offenders. PMID:18948429

  5. Clinically derived early postoperative pain trajectories differ by age, sex, and type of surgery.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Patrick J; Le-Wendling, Linda T; Patel, Ameet; Zou, Baiming; Fillingim, Roger B

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of age, sex, and type of surgery on postoperative pain trajectories derived in a clinical setting from pain assessments in the first 24 hours after surgery. This study is a retrospective cohort study using a large electronic medical records system to collect and analyze surgical case data. The sample population included adult patients undergoing nonambulatory nonobstetric surgery in a single institution over a 1-year period. Analyses of postoperative pain trajectories were performed using a linear mixed-effects model. Pain score observations (91,708) from 7293 patients were included in the statistical analysis. On average, the pain score decreased about 0.042 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.044 to -0.040) points on the numerical rating scale (NRS) per hour after surgery for the first 24 postoperative hours. The pain score reported by male patients was approximately 0.27 (95% CI: -0.380 to -0.168) NRS points lower than that reported by females. Pain scores significantly decreased over time in all age groups, with a slightly more rapid decrease for younger patients. Pain trajectories differed by anatomic location of surgery, ranging from -0.054 (95% CI: -0.062 to -0.046) NRS units per hour for integumentary and nervous surgery to -0.104 (95% CI: -0.110 to -0.098) NRS units per hour for digestive surgery, and a positive trajectory (0.02 [95% CI: 0.016 to 0.024] NRS units per hour) for musculoskeletal surgery. Our data support the important role of time after surgery in considering the influence of biopsychosocial and clinical factors on acute postoperative pain. PMID:25790453

  6. Ageing and the group-reference effect in memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeon-Nyeon; Rosa, Nicole M; Gutchess, Angela H

    2016-07-01

    The present study examines age differences in the memory benefits from group-referncing. While prior work establishes that the memory performance of younger and older adults similarly benefits from relating information to the self, this study assessed whether those benefits extend to referencing a meaningful group membership. Young and older adult participants encoded trait words by judging whether each word describes themselves, describes their group membership (selected for each age group), or is familiar. After a retention interval, participants completed a surprise recognition memory test. The results indicate that group-referencing increased recognition memory performance compared to the familiarity judgements for both young and older groups. However, the group-reference benefit is limited, emerging as smaller than the benefit from self-referencing. These results challenge previous findings of equivalent benefits for group-referencing and self-referencing, suggesting that such effects may not prevail under all conditions, including for older adults. The findings also highlight the need to examine the mechanisms of group-referencing that can lead to variability in the group-reference effect. PMID:26252870

  7. The effect of age, sex hormones, and bone turnover markers on calcaneal quantitative ultrasonometry in healthy German men.

    PubMed

    Kyvernitakis, Ioannis; Saeger, Ulf; Ziller, Volker; Bauer, Thomas; Seker-Pektas, Berna; Hadji, Peyman

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the age-dependent variations of calcaneal quantitative ultrasonometry (QUS) and the association with sex hormones and biochemical bone turnover markers in a large sample of unselected healthy German men. Bone measurements are expected to behave differently among men and women. The speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), and stiffness index (SI) of the os calcaneus were measured in 506 German men aged 20-79 yr (mean age: 45.7 yr). Additionally, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, prolactin, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) as well as N-terminal propeptide of human procollagen type I (PINP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP), osteocalcin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and CrossLaps were measured with standardized essays and correlated with the QUS results. The QUS results comprised an overall change of 12.4%, 3.2%, and 23.2% for BUA, SOS, and SI, respectively, between the 20-29 and 70-79 yr age groups (p ≤ 0.001). The annual rate of the age-related differences was 0.33% (standard deviation [SD]: 0.31), 0.06% (SD: 0.08), and 0.53% (SD: 0.56) for BUA, SOS, and SI, respectively. Testosterone and DHEA-S were significantly associated with QUS parameters and increasing age, whereas SHBG showed an age-related increase and was inversely related with QUS values (p < 0.05). Bone turnover markers present lower values gradually, and we found a significant correlation between carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX), osteocalcin (OC), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and QUS variables (p < 0.05). PMID:23582469

  8. Genetic and environmental influences interact with age and sex in shaping the human methylome

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Jenny; Nivard, Michel G.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Helmer, Quinta; Dolan, Conor V.; Ehli, Erik A.; Davies, Gareth E.; van Iterson, Maarten; Breeze, Charles E.; Beck, Stephan; Hoen, Peter A.C.'t; Pool, René; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M.J.; Stehouwer, Coen D.A.; Kallen, Carla J.H. van der; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zhernakova, Sasha; Tigchelaar, Ettje F.; Beekman, Marian; Deelen, Joris; van Heemst, Diana; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Hofman, Bert A.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Jhamai, P. Mila; Verbiest, Michael; Verkerk, Marijn; van der Breggen, Ruud; van Rooij, Jeroen; Lakenberg, Nico; Mei, Hailiang; Bot, Jan; Zhernakova, Dasha V.; van't Hof, Peter; Deelen, Patrick; Nooren, Irene; Moed, Matthijs; Vermaat, Martijn; Luijk, René; Bonder, Marc Jan; van Dijk, Freerk; van Galen, Michiel; Arindrarto, Wibowo; Kielbasa, Szymon M.; Swertz, Morris A.; van Zwet, Erik W.; Isaacs, Aaron; Franke, Lude; Suchiman, H. Eka; Jansen, Rick; van Meurs, Joyce B.; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2016-01-01

    The methylome is subject to genetic and environmental effects. Their impact may depend on sex and age, resulting in sex- and age-related physiological variation and disease susceptibility. Here we estimate the total heritability of DNA methylation levels in whole blood and estimate the variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms at 411,169 sites in 2,603 individuals from twin families, to establish a catalogue of between-individual variation in DNA methylation. Heritability estimates vary across the genome (mean=19%) and interaction analyses reveal thousands of sites with sex-specific heritability as well as sites where the environmental variance increases with age. Integration with previously published data illustrates the impact of genome and environment across the lifespan at methylation sites associated with metabolic traits, smoking and ageing. These findings demonstrate that our catalogue holds valuable information on locations in the genome where methylation variation between people may reflect disease-relevant environmental exposures or genetic variation. PMID:27051996

  9. Sex, Aging, and Preexisting Cerebral Ischemic Disease in Patients With Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Acker, Michael A.; Bilello, Michel; Melhem, Elias R.; Stambrook, Elizabeth; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Floyd, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing cardiac surgery have a high frequency of preexisting cerebral ischemic lesions, the presence of which appears to predict cognitive sequelae. Patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis (AS) incur an exceptionally high risk for perioperative cerebral ischemia. The extreme risk in this subgroup may arise from the preexisting burden of cerebral ischemic disease. We tested the hypotheses that increasing age, female sex, coronary artery disease, and the severity of AS are predictive of the severity of preexisting cerebral ischemic lesions. Methods A total of 95 subjects were included in this study. Subjects were imaged on 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanners to obtain multimodal image sets which were used for the automatic segmentation of cerebral lesion volume. The dependence of lesion volume upon age, sex, coronary artery disease, and the severity of AS were tested. Results The results demonstrate a strong correlation between aging, female sex, and white matter and ischemia-like lesion volume in patients with aortic stenosis. Conclusions Women and those of advanced age presenting for aortic valve replacement for AS may incur a particularly high risk for postoperative neurologic sequelae due to an exceptional preexisting burden of cerebral ischemic disease. PMID:20868818

  10. Can Neglected Tropical Diseases Compromise Human Wellbeing in Sex-, Age-, and Trait-Specific Ways?

    PubMed Central

    Geary, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and other stressors. As a result, the dynamics of competition and choice can, in theory, be used to generate predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species, including humans. These dynamics and associated vulnerabilities are reviewed for nonhuman species, focusing on traits that are compromised by exposure to parasites. Using the same approach, sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities to parasitic disease are illustrated for children’s and adolescent’s physical growth and fitness. Suggestions are then provided for widening the assessment of human vulnerabilities to include age-appropriate measures of behavioral (e.g., children’s play) and cognitive (e.g., language fluency) traits. These are traits that are likely to be compromised by infection in age- and sex-specific ways. Inclusion of these types of measures in studies of neglected tropic diseases has the potential to provide a more nuanced understanding of how these diseases undermine human wellbeing and may provide a useful means to study the efficacy of associated treatments. PMID:27077746

  11. Genetic and environmental influences interact with age and sex in shaping the human methylome.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Jenny; Nivard, Michel G; Willemsen, Gonneke; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Helmer, Quinta; Dolan, Conor V; Ehli, Erik A; Davies, Gareth E; van Iterson, Maarten; Breeze, Charles E; Beck, Stephan; Suchiman, H Eka; Jansen, Rick; van Meurs, Joyce B; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Slagboom, P Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2016-01-01

    The methylome is subject to genetic and environmental effects. Their impact may depend on sex and age, resulting in sex- and age-related physiological variation and disease susceptibility. Here we estimate the total heritability of DNA methylation levels in whole blood and estimate the variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms at 411,169 sites in 2,603 individuals from twin families, to establish a catalogue of between-individual variation in DNA methylation. Heritability estimates vary across the genome (mean=19%) and interaction analyses reveal thousands of sites with sex-specific heritability as well as sites where the environmental variance increases with age. Integration with previously published data illustrates the impact of genome and environment across the lifespan at methylation sites associated with metabolic traits, smoking and ageing. These findings demonstrate that our catalogue holds valuable information on locations in the genome where methylation variation between people may reflect disease-relevant environmental exposures or genetic variation. PMID:27051996

  12. Age- and sex-specific causal effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H M; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S; de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Willems, Sara M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S; Moreno, Luis A; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W G; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ikram, M Arfan; Franco, Oscar H; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D; Penninx, Brenda W; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J; Montgomery, Grant W; Whitfield, John B; Martin, Nicholas G; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D; Magnusson, Patrik K; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I; Nilsson, Peter M; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I; Ingelsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10(-107)) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10(-30)). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25712996

  13. Age- and Sex-Specific Causal Effects of Adiposity on Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Tove; Hägg, Sara; Ploner, Alexander; Mägi, Reedik; Fischer, Krista; Draisma, Harmen H.M.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Benyamin, Beben; Ladenvall, Claes; Åkerlund, Mikael; Kals, Mart; Esko, Tõnu; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kaakinen, Marika; Huikari, Ville; Mangino, Massimo; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Kobl, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Dehghan, Abbas; Kuningas, Maris; de Vries, Paul S.; de Bruijn, Renée F.A.G.; Willems, Sara M.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Silventoinen, Karri; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Legry, Vanessa; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Goumidi, Louisa; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Strauch, Konstantin; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lichtner, Peter; Herder, Christian; Palotie, Aarno; Menni, Cristina; Uitterlinden, André G.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Havulinna, Aki S.; Moreno, Luis A.; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Evans, Alun; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Yarnell, John W.G.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Ferrières, Jean; Veronesi, Giovanni; Perola, Markus; Arveiler, Dominique; Brambilla, Paolo; Lind, Lars; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Franco, Oscar H.; Cottel, Dominique; Dallongeville, Jean; Hall, Alistair S.; Jula, Antti; Tobin, Martin D.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Samani, Nilesh J.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Whitfield, John B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Groop, Leif; Spector, Tim D.; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Amouyel, Philippe; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Metspalu, Andres; Strachan, David P.; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10−107) and stratified analyses (all P < 3.3 × 10−30). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the <55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller causal effect on total cholesterol (P for difference = 0.015) in the ≥55-year stratum than in the <55-year stratum, a finding that could be explained by biology, survival bias, or differential medication. In conclusion, this study extends previous knowledge of the effects of adiposity by providing sex- and age-specific causal estimates on cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25712996

  14. The Leicester cerebral haemodynamics database: normative values and the influence of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nikil; Panerai, Ronney B; Haunton, Victoria; Katsogridakis, Emmanuel; Saeed, Nazia P; Salinet, Angela; Brodie, Fiona; Syed, Nazia; D'Sa, Schnell; Robinson, Thompson G

    2016-09-01

    Normative values of physiological parameters hold significance in modern day clinical decision-making. Lack of such normative values has been a major hurdle in the translation of research into clinical practice. A large database containing uniform recordings was constructed to allow more robust estimates of normative ranges and also assess the influence of age and sex. Doppler recordings were performed on healthy volunteers in the same laboratory, using similar protocols and equipment. Beat-to-beat blood pressure, heart-rate, electrocardiogram, and end-tidal CO2 were measured continuously. Bilateral insonation of the middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) was performed using TCD following a 15 min stabilisation, and a 5 min baseline recording. Good quality Doppler recordings for both MCAs were obtained in 129 participants (57 female) with a median age of 57 years (range 20-82). Age was found to influence baseline haemodynamic and transfer function analysis parameters. Cerebral blood flow velocity and critical closing pressure were the only sex-related differences found, which was significantly higher in females than males. Normative values for cerebral haemodynamic parameters have been defined in a large, healthy population. Such age/sex-defined normal values can be used to reduce the burden of collecting additional control data in future studies, as well as to identify disease-associated changes. PMID:27511128

  15. Sex-based memory advantages and cognitive aging: a challenge to the cognitive reserve construct?

    PubMed

    Caselli, Richard J; Dueck, Amylou C; Locke, Dona E C; Baxter, Leslie C; Woodruff, Bryan K; Geda, Yonas E

    2015-02-01

    Education and related proxies for cognitive reserve (CR) are confounded by associations with environmental factors that correlate with cerebrovascular disease possibly explaining discrepancies between studies examining their relationships to cognitive aging and dementia. In contrast, sex-related memory differences may be a better proxy. Since they arise developmentally, they are less likely to reflect environmental confounds. Women outperform men on verbal and men generally outperform women on visuospatial memory tasks. Furthermore, memory declines during the preclinical stage of AD, when it is clinically indistinguishable from normal aging. To determine whether CR mitigates age-related memory decline, we examined the effects of gender and APOE genotype on longitudinal memory performances. Memory decline was assessed in a cohort of healthy men and women enriched for APOE ɛ4 who completed two verbal [Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Buschke Selective Reminding Test (SRT)] and two visuospatial [Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT)] memory tests, as well as in a separate larger and older cohort [National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC)] who completed a verbal memory test (Logical Memory). Age-related memory decline was accelerated in APOE ɛ4 carriers on all verbal memory measures (AVLT, p=.03; SRT p<.001; logical memory p<.001) and on the VRT p=.006. Baseline sex associated differences were retained over time, but no sex differences in rate of decline were found for any measure in either cohort. Sex-based memory advantage does not mitigate age-related memory decline in either APOE ɛ4 carriers or non-carriers. PMID:25665170

  16. Self-regulatory driving practices among older adults: health, age and sex effects.

    PubMed

    Kostyniuk, Lidia P; Molnar, Lisa J

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand how older adults self-regulate driving, and to identify differences by age, sex, and health-related functioning. Michigan drivers over age 64 were surveyed by telephone (n=961, age [mu=74.2, sigma=5.8], 56% female) about their driving-related behaviors, physical functioning, and health. Respondents were presented with scenarios involving driving to an important appointment under adverse conditions (rainy stormy weather, on alternate route in heavy freeway traffic, 200-mile trip on unfamiliar roads). Generalized logit models examined outcomes for each scenario: driving as usual, driving with modifications, and not driving. Results indicate that the effect of sex on self-regulation was significant and greater than that of age and physical functioning. Women were more likely to self-regulate by not driving. Odds ratios and 95% confidence limits for each scenario for women vs. men are 6.8 (3.8-2.0), 6.5 (3.6-12.0), and 17.7 (11.0-28.6). The effect of sex on self-regulation by modifying driving was smaller and significant only in scenarios 2 and 3. Women were more likely then men to modify driving for scenario 2 (odds ratio, 3.0 (2.0-4.5)) and scenario 3 (odds ratio 4.4 (3.1-0.1)). Overall, the study finds the relative effect of sex on self-regulation greater than that of age and physical functioning for conditions examined. PMID:18606292

  17. Sex-Based Memory Advantages and Cognitive Aging: A Challenge to the Cognitive Reserve Construct?

    PubMed Central

    Caselli, Richard J.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Locke, Dona E.C.; Baxter, Leslie C.; Woodruff, Bryan K.; Geda, Yonas E.

    2016-01-01

    Education and related proxies for cognitive reserve (CR) are confounded by associations with environmental factors that correlate with cerebrovascular disease possibly explaining discrepancies between studies examining their relationships to cognitive aging and dementia. In contrast, sex-related memory differences may be a better proxy. Since they arise developmentally, they are less likely to reflect environmental confounds. Women outperform men on verbal and men generally outperform women on visuospatial memory tasks. Furthermore, memory declines during the preclinical stage of AD, when it is clinically indistinguishable from normal aging. To determine whether CR mitigates age-related memory decline, we examined the effects of gender and APOE genotype on longitudinal memory performances. Memory decline was assessed in a cohort of healthy men and women enriched for APOE ε4 who completed two verbal [Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Buschke Selective Reminding Test (SRT)] and two visuospatial [Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT)] memory tests, as well as in a separate larger and older cohort [National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center (NACC)] who completed a verbal memory test (Logical Memory). Age-related memory decline was accelerated in APOE ε4 carriers on all verbal memory measures (AVLT, p = .03; SRT p<.001; logical memory p<.001) and on the VRT p = .006. Baseline sex associated differences were retained over time, but no sex differences in rate of decline were found for any measure in either cohort. Sex-based memory advantage does not mitigate age-related memory decline in either APOE ε4 carriers or non-carriers. PMID:25665170

  18. Regional subcutaneous fat characteristics stratified by sex, age, and obesity, and their relationships with total and visceral fat in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Sato, Susumu; Demura, Shinichi

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to clarify the sex-, age-, and obesity-level-specific regional subcutaneous fat characteristics and their relationships with total and visceral fat in 302 Japanese adults (mean age: 41.8+/-15.7 yr; range: 20.0 to 82.6 yr). Subcutaneous fat thickness at 14 sites (right cheek, chin, chest (2 sites), abdomen, suprailiac, triceps, subscapular, back (2 sites), thigh (2 sites), knee, and calf), percent body fat (%BF) and visceral fat area (VFA) were measured by B-mode ultrasound, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography, respectively. The results of 3-way ANOVA (2 sex groups, 5 age groups, 2 obesity-level groups) for each subcutaneous fat thickness at 14 sites indicated that the characteristics of sex-specific differences differed by age groups and obesity levels, and these differences are more apparent in the obese group and the 30- to 50-year-old groups. Subcutaneous fat accumulation progressed toward the central body with increased age and obesity. The relationships between subcutaneous fat, total fat, and visceral fat differed with sex and obesity level. The significant relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and VFA was found in the nonobese (BMI<25 kg/m(2)) and nonviscerally obese (VFA<100 cm(2)) groups (male: r=.474; female: r=.417), but not in the nonobese and viscerally obese males (r=-.068) and in the obese and viscerally obese subjects (males: r=.291; females: r=-.327). There may be a close relationship between subcutaneous fat accumulation capacity and visceral fat accumulation. PMID:19823005

  19. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention. PMID:26537543

  20. Age and sex prevalence of infectious dermatoses among primary school children in a rural South-Eastern Nigerian community

    PubMed Central

    Kalu, Eziyi Iche; Wagbatsoma, Victoria; Ogbaini-Emovon, Ephraim; Nwadike, Victor Ugochukwu; Ojide, Chiedozie Kingsley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various dermatoses, due to their morbidity characteristics, have been shown to negatively impact on learning. The most epidemiologically important seem to be the infectious types because of their transmissibility and amenability to simple school-health measures. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and sex/age correlates of infectious dermatoses in a rural South-eastern Nigerian community. Methods The pupils were proportionately recruited from the three primary schools based on school population. Stratified simple random sampling method was adopted and a table of random numbers was used to select required pupils from each arm. Clinical and laboratory examination was done to establish diagnoses of infectious skin disease. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results The 400 pupils consisted of 153 males and 247 females. Age range was between 6 and 12 years. The prevalence of infectious dermatoses was 72.3%. The five most prevalent clinical forms of infectious dermatoses, in order of decreasing prevalence, were tinea capitis (35.2%), scabies (10.5%), tinea corporis (5.8%), tinea pedis (5.5%), and impetigo (5.0%). More cases, generally, occurred among males than females (80.4% vs 67.2%)); while some specific clinical types, pediculosis and seborrheic dermatitis, exhibited predilection for females. Pyodermas and scabies were significantly more prevalent in the 7-9 age-group; while tinea capitis, tinea corporis, seborrheic dermatitis and pediculosis were more associated with ≥10 age-group. Conclusion Infectious dermatoses were highly prevalent in the surveyed population. Many of the clinical types exhibited sex- and age-specificity. PMID:26430479

  1. Impact of sex and age on the performance of FINDRISC: the HUNT Study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Midthjell, Kristian; Holmen, Jostein; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Carlsen, Sven M; Shaw, Jonathan; Åsvold, Bjørn O

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) is recommended as a screening tool for diabetes risk. However, there is a lack of well-powered studies examining the performance of FINDRISC by sex and age. We aim to estimate, by sex and age, the prevalence of elevated FINDRISC and positive predictive value (PPV) of FINDRISC for identifying impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) in a general Norwegian population. Research design and methods We estimated the prevalence of elevated FINDRISC (≥15) among 47 694 adults in the third survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3, 2006–08). Among 2559 participants who participated in oral glucose tolerance testing, we estimated the PPV of elevated FINDRISC for identifying unknown prevalent diabetes and other forms of IGM. Results The prevalence of elevated FINDRISC was 12.1% in women, 9.6% in men, and increased from 1.5% at age 20–39 to 25.1% at age 70–79 years. The PPVs of elevated FINDRISC were 9.8% for diabetes, 16.9% for impaired glucose tolerance, 8.2% for impaired fasting glucose, and 34.9% for any form of IGM. The PPV for IGM was lower in women (31.2%) than in men (40.4%), and increased from 19.1% at age 20–39 to 55.5% at age ≥80 years. Conclusions FINDRISC identified more women than men as high-risk individuals for diabetes. FINDRISC had a high PPV for detecting prevalent IGM, and the PPV was higher in men than in women and in the older individuals. Our data indicate that the impact of sex and age on diabetes risk is not fully captured by FINDRISC, and that refinements to it might improve diabetes prediction. PMID:27403326

  2. Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marmontel, M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Kochman, H.I.; Humphrey, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Growth layers were observed in histological preparations of bones of known-age, known minimum-age, and tetracycline-marked free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), substantiating earlier preliminary findings of other studies. Detailed analysis of 17 new case histories showed that growth-layer group (GLG) counts in the periotic bone were consistent with known age, or time since tetracycline administration, but were less reliable in other bones. GLG counts were also made in periotic bones of 1,196 Florida manatees of unknown age found dead from 1974 through 1991. These counts were conducted in order to assess variability and to determine relationships among estimated age, size, sex, and degree of bone resorption. Resorption can interfere with accuracy of GLG counts. This effect does not occur until ages greater than about 15 yr and body lengths greater than 300 cm are attained. GLGs were also observed in periotic bones of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) but were not validated against known-age specimens. Use of GLG counts in the periotic bone is suitable for application to studies of population dynamics and other age-related aspects of manatee biology.

  3. Acute Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Feelings of Energy in Relation to Age and Sex.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Fabien D; Bertucci, William M; Hudson, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    A crossover experiment was performed to determine whether age and sex, or their interaction, affect the impact of acute aerobic exercise on vigor-activity (VA). We also tested whether changes in VA mediated exercise effects on performance on various cognitive tasks. Sixty-eight physically inactive volunteers participated in exercise and TV-watching control conditions. They completed the VA subscale of the Profile of Mood States immediately before and 2 min after the intervention in each condition. They also performed the Trail Making Test 3 min after the intervention in each condition. Statistical analyses produced a condition . age . sex interaction characterized by a higher mean VA gain value in the exercise condition (compared with the VA gain value in the TV-watching condition) for young female participants only. In addition, the mediational analyses revealed that changes in VA fully mediated the effects of exercise on TMT-Part A performance. PMID:25880874

  4. Age- and sex-associated plasma proteomic changes in growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juan; Berryman, Darlene E; Jara, Adam; Kopchick, John J

    2012-08-01

    Growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted (GHR-/-) mice are dwarf, insulin sensitive, and long lived despite being obese. In order to identify characteristics associated with their increased longevity, we studied age-related plasma proteomic changes in these mice. Male and female GHR-/- mice and their littermate controls were followed longitudinally at 8, 16, and 24 months of ages for plasma proteomic analysis. Relative to control littermates, GHR-/- mice had increased levels of apolipoprotein A-4 and retinol-binding protein-4 and decreased levels of apolipoprotein E, haptoglobin, and mannose-binding protein-C. Female GHR-/- mice showed decreased inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Additionally, sex differences were found in specific isoforms of apolipoprotein E, RBP-4, haptoglobin, albumin, and hemoglobin subunit beta. In conclusion, we find plasma proteomic changes in GHR-/- mice that favor a longer life span as well as sex differences indicative of an improved health span in female mice. PMID:22156438

  5. How sex- and age-disaggregated data and gender and generational analyses can improve humanitarian response.

    PubMed

    Mazurana, Dyan; Benelli, Prisca; Walker, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Humanitarian aid remains largely driven by anecdote rather than by evidence. The contemporary humanitarian system has significant weaknesses with regard to data collection, analysis, and action at all stages of response to crises involving armed conflict or natural disaster. This paper argues that humanitarian actors can best determine and respond to vulnerabilities and needs if they use sex- and age-disaggregated data (SADD) and gender and generational analyses to help shape their assessments of crises-affected populations. Through case studies, the paper shows how gaps in information on sex and age limit the effectiveness of humanitarian response in all phases of a crisis. The case studies serve to show how proper collection, use, and analysis of SADD enable operational agencies to deliver assistance more effectively and efficiently. The evidence suggests that the employment of SADD and gender and generational analyses assists in saving lives and livelihoods in a crisis. PMID:23905768

  6. BCG vaccination at three different age groups: response and effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Briassoulis, George; Karabatsou, Irene; Gogoglou, Vasilis; Tsorva, Athina

    2005-01-01

    Background The protection, which some BCG vaccines could confer against the development of tuberculosis (TB) in childhood, might be indirectly reflected by the subsequent development of BCG immune response. The objectives of the study were to examine effectiveness and possible differences of post-vaccination reaction to a lyophilized BCG at different age groups and to evaluate its protection against TB in a decade's period. Methods We studied the post-vaccination PPD-skin reaction and scar formation at three different school levels, corresponding to ages of 6, 12 and 15 years old, vaccinated by a lyophilized BCG vaccine (Pasteur Institute), currently used in our country. During a 10-year follow up the reported TB cases in vaccinated and non-vaccinated adolescences up to 24-years old were analyzed and compared to the number of cumulative cases observed in the adult population of two neighboring territories (vaccinated and non-vaccinated). Results and Discussion There was a significant correlation (r2 = 0.87, p < 0.0001) between tuberculin induration and scar formation. There was no statistically significant difference between the three age groups (6, 12, and 15 year-old, respectively) in regard to the diameter of tuberculin induration or scar formation. Although 34% of 10-year later indurations were unpredictably related to the initial ones (increased or decreased), they were significantly correlated (r2 = 0.45, p = 0.009). The relative percentage of TB for the 14–24 years-age group to the adult studied population was significantly lower among the immunized children compared to the non-immunized population of the same age group (17/77, 22% vs. 71/101, 70%, p < .0001). Conclusion Our data suggest that the lyophilized BCG vaccine used for BCG programs at different age groups is equally effective and may confer satisfactory protection against tuberculosis in puberty. PMID:15804351

  7. Age and Sex Effects on Corpus Callosum Morphology Across the Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Daniel; Ardekani, Babak; Ikuta, Toshikazu; John, Majnu; Peters, Bart; DeRosse, Pamela; Wellington, Robin; Malhotra, Anil K.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest inter-hemispheric white matter tract in the human brain, and is characterized by pronounced differences in morphology among individuals. There are limited data, however, regarding typical development, sex differences, and the neuropsychological correlates of individual differences within CC subregions. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging exams were collected in a large cohort (N = 305) of healthy individuals (ages 8 to 68). We used a highly reliable program to automatically identify the mid-sagittal plane and obtain CC subregion measures according to approaches described by Witelson (1989) and Hampel (1998) and a measure of whole CC shape (i.e., circularity). CC measurement parameters, including area, perimeter, length, circularity and CC subregion area values were generally characterized by inverted U-shaped curves across the observed age range. Peak values for CC subregions were observed between ages 32 and 45, and descriptive linear correlations were consistent with sharper area changes in development. We also observed differing age-associated changes across the lifespan between males and females in the CC subregion corresponding to the genu (Witelson’s subregion 2), as well as CC circularity. Mediation analysis using path modeling indicated that genu area mediated the relationship between age and processing speed for females, and the relationship between age and visual learning and executive functioning for males. Taken together, our findings implicate sex differences in CC morphology across the lifespan that are localized to the genu, which appear to mediate neuropsychological functions. PMID:25833103

  8. Sex and Age Differences in the Association of Depression With Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease and Adverse Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amit J.; Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Zaragoza‐Macias, Elisa; Patel, Riyaz; Eapen, Danny J.; Neeland, Ian J.; Pimple, Pratik M.; Zafari, A. Maziar; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Background Young women with coronary heart disease have high rates of depression and a higher risk of adverse events than men of similar age. Whether depression has a higher prognostic value in this group than in men and older women is not known. Our objective was to assess whether depression in young women is associated with higher risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and adverse outcomes compared with similarly aged men and older women. Methods and Results We examined 3237 patients undergoing coronary angiography for evaluation of CAD and followed them for 2.9 years (median). Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)‐9, and CAD burden was dichotomized based on its presence or absence. After multivariable adjustment for CAD risk factors, depressive symptoms predicted CAD presence in women aged ≤55 years (odds ratio=1.07 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 to 1.13 per 1 point increase in PHQ‐9 score), but not in men aged ≤55 years or women aged >55 years. Depressive symptoms also predicted increased risk of death in women aged ≤55 years (adjusted hazard ratio=1.07, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.14, per 1 point increase in PHQ‐9 score), but not in men aged ≤55 years and women aged >55 years, with P=0.02 for the depression‐sex interaction and P=0.02 for depression‐sex‐age interaction. Conclusions Among patients with suspected or established CAD, depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk of death, particularly in young women. This group may be especially vulnerable to the adverse cardiovascular effects of depression. PMID:24943475

  9. Substance use, sexual behaviour and prevention strategies of Vancouver gay and bisexual men who recently attended group sex events.

    PubMed

    Rich, Ashleigh J; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Lal, Allan; Birch, Robert; Montaner, Julio; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert S; Roth, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Group sex events are an epidemiologically important part of some gay and bisexual men's sexual culture in Canada. Associated with condomless anal intercourse and polysubstance use, such events have been cited as disproportionally contributing to HIV infection rates. We analysed questionnaire data from the Momentum Health Study in Vancouver, Canada, to understand substance use, sexual behaviour, psychosocial variables (Sexual Sensation Seeking, Sexual Escape Motivation, Treatment Optimism) and HIV prevention strategies (sero-sorting, strategic positioning, avoiding anal sex, disclosure, treatment as prevention) of men attending such events, which were defined as group (n ≥ 4 partners) sex parties, blackout events and darkrooms. Analysis by multivariable logistic regression compared men attending group sex events within the past six months (n = 180) with non-attendees (n = 539). Results showed that attendees reported: (1) significantly higher use of sex drugs and alcohol consumption, (2) higher scores on the Sexual Sensation Scale, more anal sex partners, greater odds of any condomless anal sex with sero-discordant partners and greater odds of reporting fisting and sex toy use and (3) different prevention practices that varied by HIV-serostatus. Findings are interpreted in light of the importance of pleasure, sociality and HIV/STI prevention strategies associated with group sex events. Findings contribute to the development of appropriate education and intervention for attendees. PMID:26443295

  10. Basic Facts on College-Going Rates by Income, Race, Sex, and Age, 1970 to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances, Carol

    Data on the income, race, sex, and age of college students from 1970 to 1980 are presented, and policy implications of the trends are considered. The most significant finding is that the college-going rates for full-time students from the lowest incomes (under $5,000) increased measurably (9.5 percent in 1974 to 14.3 percent in 1980). The…

  11. Odour-Mediated Orientation of Beetles Is Influenced by Age, Sex and Morph

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Sarah E. J.; Stevenson, Philip C.; Belmain, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    The behaviour of insects is dictated by a combination of factors and may vary considerably between individuals, but small insects are often considered en masse and thus these differences can be overlooked. For example, the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus F. exists naturally in two adult forms: the active (flight) form for dispersal, and the inactive (flightless), more fecund but shorter-lived form. Given that these morphs show dissimilar biology, it is possible that they differ in odour-mediated orientation and yet studies of this species frequently neglect to distinguish morph type, or are carried out only on the inactive morph. Along with sex and age of individual, adult morph could be an important variable determining the biology of this and similar species, informing studies on evolution, ecology and pest management. We used an olfactometer with motion-tracking to investigate whether the olfactory behaviour and orientation of C. maculatus towards infested and uninfested cowpeas and a plant-derived repellent compound, methyl salicylate, differed between morphs or sexes. We found significant differences between the behaviour of male and female beetles and beetles of different ages, as well as interactive effects of sex, morph and age, in response to both host and repellent odours. This study demonstrates that behavioural experiments on insects should control for sex and age, while also considering differences between adult morphs where present in insect species. This finding has broad implications for fundamental entomological research, particularly when exploring the relationships between physiology, behaviour and evolutionary biology, and the application of crop protection strategies. PMID:23145074

  12. No Sex or Age Difference in Dead-Reckoning Ability among Tsimane Forager-Horticulturalists.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Benjamin C; Gaulin, Steven J C; Dunbar, Matt D; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Sex differences in reproductive strategy and the sexual division of labor resulted in selection for and maintenance of sexual dimorphism across a wide range of characteristics, including body size, hormonal physiology, behavior, and perhaps spatial abilities. In laboratory tasks among undergraduates there is a general male advantage for navigational and mental-rotation tasks, whereas studies find female advantage for remembering item locations in complex arrays and the locations of plant foods. Adaptive explanations of sex differences in these spatial abilities have focused on patterns of differential mate search and routine participation in distinct subsistence behaviors. The few studies to date of spatial ability in nonindustrial populations practicing subsistence lifestyles, or across a wider age range, find inconsistent results. Here we examine sex- and age-based variation in one kind of spatial ability related to navigation, dead-reckoning, among Tsimane forager horticulturalists living in lowland Bolivia. Seventy-three participants (38 male) aged 6-82 years pointed a handheld global positioning system (GPS) unit toward the two nearest communities and the more distant market town. We find no evidence of sex differences in dead reckoning (p = 0.47), nor do we find any evidence of age-related decline in dead-reckoning accuracy (p = 0.28). Participants were significantly more accurate at pointing toward the market town than toward the two nearest villages despite its being significantly farther away than the two nearest communities. Although Tsimane do show sexual dimorphism in foraging tasks, Tsimane women have extensive daily and lifetime travel, and the local environment lacks directional cues that typically enhance male navigation. This study raises the possibility that greater similarity in mobility patterns because of overlapping subsistence strategies and activities may result in convergence of some male and female navigation abilities. PMID

  13. On the age of the β Pictoris moving group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamajek, Eric E.; Bell, Cameron P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Binks & Jeffries and Malo et al. have recently reported Li depletion boundary (LDB) ages for the β Pictoris moving group (BPMG) which are twice as old as the oft-cited kinematic age of ˜12 Myr. In this study, we present (1) a new evaluation of the internal kinematics of the BPMG using the revised Hipparcos astrometry and best available published radial velocities, and assess whether a useful kinematic age can be derived, and (2) derive an isochronal age based on the placement of the A-, F-, and G-type stars in the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD). We explore the kinematics of the BPMG looking at velocity trends along Galactic axes, and conducting traceback analyses assuming linear trajectories, epicyclic orbit approximation, and orbit integration using a realistic gravitational potential. None of the methodologies yield a kinematic age with small uncertainties using modern velocity data. Expansion in the Galactic X and Y directions is significant only at the 1.7σ and 2.7σ levels, and together yields an overall kinematic age with a wide range (13-58 Myr; 95 per cent CL). The A-type members are all on the zero-age main sequence, suggestive of an age of >20 Myr, and the loci of the CMD positions for the late-F- and G-type pre-main-sequence BPMG members have a median isochronal age of 22 Myr (± 3 Myr statistical, ±1 Myr systematic) when considering four sets of modern theoretical isochrones. The results from recent LDB and isochronal age analyses are now in agreement with a median BPMG age of 23 ± 3 Myr (overall 1σ uncertainty, including ±2 Myr statistical and ±2 Myr systematic uncertainties).

  14. Age, Sex, and Religious Beliefs Impact the Attitude towards Cord Blood Banking.

    PubMed

    Sundell, Inger Birgitta; Setzer, Teddi J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess opinions about stem cell research and cord blood banking. Three attitudes were examined: willingness to accept cord blood banking, willingness to accept embryonic stem cell research, and religious belief system. A total of 90 Wayne State University students enrolled in the study in response to an invitation posted on a web page for the university. Sex distribution among study participants was 79 females and eight males; three declined to state their sex. Support for cord blood banking was high (> 70%) among students. Students over the age of 25 years of age were more (85%) positive than students 18 to 24 years old (57%). They prefered a public cord blood bank over a private cord blood bank. Atheist/agnostic or spiritual/not religious students (> 90%), Catholic students (78%) and Christian students (58%) support cord blood banking. Age, sex and religion seems influence the student's attitude towards stem cell research and cord blood banking. PMID:26665936

  15. A longitudinal analysis of sex differences in math and spatial skills in primary school age children☆

    PubMed Central

    Lachance, Jennifer A.; Mazzocco, Michèle M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming and decoding tasks, visual perception tests, visual motor tasks, and reading skills. During select years of the study we also administered tests of counting and math facts skills. We examined whether girls or boys were overrepresented among the bottom or top performers on any of these tasks, relative to their peers, and whether growth rates or predictors of math-related skills differed for boys and girls. Our findings support the notion that sex differences in math are minimal or nonexistent on standardized psychometric tests routinely given in assessments of primary school age children. There was no persistent finding suggesting a male or female advantage in math performance overall, during any single year of the study, or in any one area of math or spatial skills. Growth rates for all skills, and early correlates of later math performance, were comparable for boys and girls. The findings fail to support either persistent or emerging sex differences on non-specialized math ability measures during the primary school age years. PMID:20463851

  16. Pain perception: predictive value of sex, depression, anxiety, somatosensory amplification, obesity, and age

    PubMed Central

    Kivrak, Yuksel; Kose-Ozlece, Hatice; Ustundag, Mehmet Fatih; Asoglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective Factors affecting pain sensation are still being investigated. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of sex, age, body mass index (BMI), somatosensory amplification, anxiety, and depression on the perception of pain. Methods Venipuncture was performed on 140 healthy individuals. All the cases completed a sociodemographic data form, visual analog scale (VAS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale. Height and weight were also measured. Results When both the sexes were compared, there was no difference in terms of VAS, BMI, age, and Beck Depression Inventory, but Somatosensory Amplification Scale and BAI were found to be higher in females. A correlation was found among VAS points, BAI, and BMI. The results of a regression analysis show that the BAI score is a predictor for the VAS score. Conclusion These results indicate that anxiety may be a predictor of pain, whereas sex, depression, somatosensory amplification, age, and weight do not appear to influence the perception of pain. PMID:27536113

  17. Age- and sex-specific mortality and population structure in sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.; Burdin, A.M.; Ryazanov, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    We used 742 beach-cast carcasses to characterize age- and sex-specific sea otter mortality during the winter of 1990-1991 at Bering Island, Russia. We also examined 363 carcasses recovered after the 1989 grounding of the T/V Exxon Valdez, to characterize age and sex composition in the living western Prince William Sound (WPWS) sea otter population. At Bering Island, mortality was male-biased (81%), and 75% were adults. The WPWS population was female-biased (59%) and most animals were subadult (79% of the males and 45% of the females). In the decade prior to 1990-1991 we found increasing sea otter densities (particularly among males), declining prey resources, and declining weights in adult male sea otters at Bering Island. Our findings suggest the increased mortality at Bering Island in 1990-1991 was a density-dependent population response. We propose male-maintained breeding territories and exclusion of juvenile females by adult females, providing a mechanism for potentially moderating the effects of prey reductions on the female population. Increased adult male mortality at Bearing Island in 1990-1991 likely modified the sex and age class structure there toward that observed in Prince William Sound.

  18. Geophagy in chacma baboons: patterns of soil consumption by age class, sex, and reproductive state.

    PubMed

    Pebsworth, Paula A; Bardi, Massimo; Huffman, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Despite baboons' widespread distribution across Africa, geophagy among all subspecies has been poorly documented. We used video camera traps and soil analyses to investigate geophagy in chacma baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) inhabiting the Western Cape of South Africa. During an 18-month study, from August 2009 to January 2011, we continually monitored the largest and most frequently visited geophagy sites with camera traps for 545 days and captured soil consumption at one or more sites on 266 of those days (49%). In 3,500 baboon visits to geophagy sites, video camera traps captured 58.6 hr of geophagy. From these data, we evaluated site preference based on time spent consuming soil among these four geophagy sites. One hundred and seventy days of soil consumption data from the most frequently visited geophagy site allowed us to look for demographic trends in geophagy. Selected consumed soils from geophagy sites were analyzed for mineral, physical, and chemical properties. The baboons spent more time consuming white alkaline soils with high percentages of clay and fine silt, which contained higher concentrations of sodium than non-white acidic soils that contained higher concentrations of iron. Our data indicate that pregnant chacma baboons spent more time consuming soil at monitored geophagy sites than baboons of any other age class, sex, or reproductive state. Based on analytical results, the soils consumed would be effective at alleviating gastrointestinal distress and possibly supplementing minerals for all age/sex classes, but potentially for different age/sex requirements. PMID:21969111

  19. A longitudinal analysis of sex differences in math and spatial skills in primary school age children.

    PubMed

    Lachance, Jennifer A; Mazzocco, Michèle M M

    2006-01-01

    We report on a longitudinal study designed to assess possible sex differences in math achievement, math ability, and math-related tasks during the primary school age years. Participants included over 200 children from one public school district. Annual assessments included measures of math ability, math calculation achievement scores, rapid naming and decoding tasks, visual perception tests, visual motor tasks, and reading skills. During select years of the study we also administered tests of counting and math facts skills. We examined whether girls or boys were overrepresented among the bottom or top performers on any of these tasks, relative to their peers, and whether growth rates or predictors of math-related skills differed for boys and girls. Our findings support the notion that sex differences in math are minimal or nonexistent on standardized psychometric tests routinely given in assessments of primary school age children. There was no persistent finding suggesting a male or female advantage in math performance overall, during any single year of the study, or in any one area of math or spatial skills. Growth rates for all skills, and early correlates of later math performance, were comparable for boys and girls. The findings fail to support either persistent or emerging sex differences on non-specialized math ability measures during the primary school age years. PMID:20463851

  20. The interaction of glottal-pulse rate and vocal-tract length in judgements of speaker size, sex, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David R. R.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-11-01

    Glottal-pulse rate (GPR) and vocal-tract length (VTL) are related to the size, sex, and age of the speaker but it is not clear how the two factors combine to influence our perception of speaker size, sex, and age. This paper describes experiments designed to measure the effect of the interaction of GPR and VTL upon judgements of speaker size, sex, and age. Vowels were scaled to represent people with a wide range of GPRs and VTLs, including many well beyond the normal range of the population, and listeners were asked to judge the size and sex/age of the speaker. The judgements of speaker size show that VTL has a strong influence upon perceived speaker size. The results for the sex and age categorization (man, woman, boy, or girl) show that, for vowels with GPR and VTL values in the normal range, judgements of speaker sex and age are influenced about equally by GPR and VTL. For vowels with abnormal combinations of low GPRs and short VTLs, the VTL information appears to decide the sex/age judgement.

  1. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624..., respectively, during the calendar year; and (2) They have been previously ordered to report for induction...

  2. Youth Assets and Delayed Coitarche across Developmental Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that assets are associated with youth abstinence, but whether these relationships are constant across developmental age groups has not been shown. Data for this study were obtained from two independent datasets collected across a 2-year period using in-person, in-home interviews of youth (52% female; 44% Caucasian,…

  3. An Adolescent Age Group Approach to Examining Youth Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…

  4. Sex- and age-dependent activity of glutathione peroxidase in reproductive organs in pre- and post-pubertal cattle in relation to total antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Kankofer, M; Wawrzykowski, J; Giergiel, M

    2013-08-01

    Antioxidative/oxidative balance is crucial for proper functioning of cells and tissues. It is suggested that this balance can be partly controlled by sex steroid hormones and in consequence can exhibit age- and sex-related dependency. The aim of present study was to describe sex- and age-related changes in the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) with respect to total antioxidant activity (TAC) in reproductive organs of cattle. Biological samples were collected from slaughterhouse and comprised of ovaries, uterus, testes as well as livers as reference tissue. Animals were divided into group of bulls (aged between 13 and 24 months; n = 12), cows (aged between 14 and 27 months; n = 12) and female calves (aged between 2 weeks and 2 months; n = 12). Examined parameters were determined spectrophotometrically and the presence of GSH-Px isoform was confirmed by Western blotting technique. Activity of GSH-Px in genital tissues regardless of sex was significantly higher than in livers, while TAC showed opposite relationship. The differences in antioxidative parameters between testes and mature ovaries (e.g. GSH-Px-1.42 ± 0.47 nkat/mg prot vs. 1.08 ± 0.24 and 1.15 ± 0.23) were noticed as well as in chosen values between cows and female calves. Western blotting allowed the detection of cytosolic GSH-Px in all examined tissues with molecular weight around 21 kDa as monomer and around 84 kDa as tetramer depending on conditions of electrophoresis. The results may confirm the influence and regulatory role of sex steroid hormones on GSH-Px activity because the alterations were sex and age dependent. PMID:23740597

  5. Age- and Sex-Specific Mortality Associated With the 1918–1919 Influenza Pandemic in Kentucky

    PubMed Central

    Viboud, Cécile; Eisenstein, Jana; Reid, Ann H.; Janczewski, Thomas A.; Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The reasons for the unusual age-specific mortality patterns of the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic remain unknown. Here we characterize pandemic-related mortality by single year of age in a unique statewide Kentucky data set and explore breakpoints in the age curves. Methods. Individual death certificates from Kentucky during 1911–1919 were abstracted by medically trained personnel. Pandemic-associated excess mortality rates were calculated by subtracting observed rates during pandemic months from rates in previous years, separately for each single year of age and by sex. Results. The age profile of excess mortality risk in fall 1918 was characterized by a maximum among infants, a minimum at ages 9–10 years, a maximum at ages 24–26 years, and a second minimum at ages 56–59 years. The excess mortality risk in young adults had been greatly attenuated by winter 1919. The age breakpoints of mortality risk did not differ between males and females. Conclusions. The observed mortality breakpoints in male and female cohorts born during 1859–1862, 1892–1894, and 1908–1909 did not coincide with known dates of historical pandemics. The atypical age mortality patterns of the 1918–1919 pandemic cannot be explained by military crowding, war-related factors, or prior immunity alone and likely result from a combination of unknown factors. PMID:23230061

  6. Morphometric analysis of variation in the ribs with age and sex.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Schoell, Samantha L; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-08-01

    Rib cage morphology changes with age and sex are expected to affect thoracic injury mechanisms and tolerance, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pediatrics and the elderly. The size and shape variation of the external geometry of the ribs was characterized for males and females aged 0-100 years. Computed tomography (CT) scans from 339 subjects were analyzed to collect between 2700 and 10 400 homologous landmarks from each rib. Rib landmarks were analyzed using the geometric morphometric technique known as Procrustes superimposition. Age- and sex-specific functions of 3D rib morphology were produced representing the combined size and shape variation and the isolated shape variation. Statistically significant changes in the size and shape variation (P < 0.0001) and shape variation (P < 0.0053) of all 24 ribs were found to occur with age in males and females. Rib geometry, location, and orientation varied according to the rib level. From birth through adolescence, the rib cage experienced an increase in size, a decrease in thoracic kyphosis, and inferior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. From young adulthood into elderly age, the rib cage experienced increased thoracic kyphosis and superior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. The increased roundedness of the rib cage and horizontal angling of the ribs relative to the spine with age influences the biomechanical response of the thorax. With the plane of the rib oriented more horizontally, loading applied in the anterior-posterior direction will result in increased deformation within the plane of the rib and an increased risk for rib fractures. Thus, morphological changes may be a contributing factor to the increased incidence of rib fractures in the elderly. The morphological functions derived in this study capture substantially more information on thoracic skeleton morphology variation with age and sex than is currently available

  7. Morphometric analysis of variation in the ribs with age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Ashley A; Schoell, Samantha L; Stitzel, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Rib cage morphology changes with age and sex are expected to affect thoracic injury mechanisms and tolerance, particularly for vulnerable populations such as pediatrics and the elderly. The size and shape variation of the external geometry of the ribs was characterized for males and females aged 0–100 years. Computed tomography (CT) scans from 339 subjects were analyzed to collect between 2700 and 10 400 homologous landmarks from each rib. Rib landmarks were analyzed using the geometric morphometric technique known as Procrustes superimposition. Age- and sex-specific functions of 3D rib morphology were produced representing the combined size and shape variation and the isolated shape variation. Statistically significant changes in the size and shape variation (P < 0.0001) and shape variation (P < 0.0053) of all 24 ribs were found to occur with age in males and females. Rib geometry, location, and orientation varied according to the rib level. From birth through adolescence, the rib cage experienced an increase in size, a decrease in thoracic kyphosis, and inferior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. From young adulthood into elderly age, the rib cage experienced increased thoracic kyphosis and superior rotation of the ribs relative to the spine within the sagittal plane. The increased roundedness of the rib cage and horizontal angling of the ribs relative to the spine with age influences the biomechanical response of the thorax. With the plane of the rib oriented more horizontally, loading applied in the anterior-posterior direction will result in increased deformation within the plane of the rib and an increased risk for rib fractures. Thus, morphological changes may be a contributing factor to the increased incidence of rib fractures in the elderly. The morphological functions derived in this study capture substantially more information on thoracic skeleton morphology variation with age and sex than is currently available in

  8. Old People's Attitudes Toward Other Age Groups' Beliefs and Opinions About the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burris, Helen Brown

    The need for research which will provide old people's evaluation of what is positive or negative about beliefs and opinions of other age groups about the aged forms the basis for the research proposed in this report. Six sections are included. The introduction, section 1, covers statement of the problem, and the purpose, need, assumptions,…

  9. Coat colour and sex identification in horses from Iron Age Sweden.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Emma M; Telldahl, Ylva; Sjöling, Emma; Sundkvist, Anneli; Hulth, Helena; Sjøvold, Torstein; Götherström, Anders

    2012-01-20

    Domestication of animals and plants marked a turning point in human prehistory. To date archaeology, archaeozoology and genetics have shed light on when and where all of our major livestock species were domesticated. Phenotypic changes associated with domestication have occurred in all farm animals. Coat colour is one of the traits that have been subjected to the strongest human selection throughout history. Here we use genotyping of coat colour SNPs in horses to investigate whether there were any regional differences or preferences for specific colours associated with specific cultural traditions in Iron Age Sweden. We do this by identifying the sex and coat colour of horses sacrificed at Skedemosse, Öland (Sweden) during the Iron Age, as well as in horses from two sites in Uppland, Ultuna and Valsgärde (dated to late Iron Age). We show that bay, black and chestnut colours were all common and two horses with tobiano spotting were found. We also show how the combination of sex identification with genotyping of just a few SNPs underlying the basic coat colours can be used to identify the minimum number of individuals at a site on a higher level than morphological methods alone. Although separated by 500 km and from significantly different archaeological contexts the horses at Skedemosse and Ultuna are quite homogenous when it comes to coat colour phenotypes, indicating that there were no clear geographical variation in coat colouration in Sweden during the late Iron Age and early Viking Age. PMID:22154005

  10. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in children and adolescents: Effects of sex and age

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Evans, Subhadra; Lung, Kirsten C.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Naliboff, Bruce D.

    2013-01-01

    Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) refers to the diminution of perceived pain intensity for a test stimulus following application of a conditioning stimulus to a remote area of the body, and is thought to reflect the descending inhibition of nociceptive signals. Studying CPM in children may inform interventions to enhance central pain inhibition within a developmental framework. We assessed CPM in 133 healthy children (mean age = 13 years; 52.6% girls) and tested the effects of sex and age. Participants were exposed to four trials of a pressure test stimulus before, during, and after the application of a cold water conditioning stimulus. CPM was documented by a reduction in pressure pain ratings during cold water administration. Older children (12–17 years) exhibited greater CPM than younger (8–11 years) children. No sex differences in CPM were found. Lower heart rate variability (HRV) at baseline and after pain induction was associated with less CPM controlling for child age. The findings of greater CPM in the older age cohort suggest a developmental improvement in central pain inhibitory mechanisms. The results highlight the need to examine developmental and contributory factors in central pain inhibitory mechanisms in children to guide effective, age appropriate, pain interventions. PMID:23541066

  11. Influences of Sex and Age on the Hematological Profile of the Jundiá (Silver Catfish) Rhamdia quelen.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Nivaldo Ferreira do; Nakaghi, Laura Satiko Okada; Hilbig, Cleonice Cristina; Ventura, Arlene Sobrinho; Azevedo, Ana Carolina Barni de; Dean, Andressa Fierli; Bombardelli, Robie Allan

    2016-09-01

    In this study, sex and age influenced the hematological profiles of Jundiá (Silver Catfish) Rhamdia quelen. Females showed lower levels of hemoglobin, young fish increased lymphocyte counts, and older fish increased hematocrit values. These results indicate that, depending on age and sex, the fish have disparate hematological profiles. For this reason, it is important to consider the sex and age of an R. quelen when examining the impact of environmental and management factors on this species in terms of their hematological profiles. Received May 24, 2015; accepted March 24, 2016. PMID:27485153

  12. Safe sex? Misconceptions, gender differences and barriers among injection drug users: a focus group approach.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S H; Weston, C B; Quirinale, J

    1993-01-01

    Heterosexual transmission is one factor involved in the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) within the injection drug use (IDU) population and between IDU and non-IDU individuals. Insufficient information is currently available to reduce this heterosexual transmission. As a basis for designing a questionnaire aimed at the IDU population, we conducted 5 focus groups to collect information on knowledge of and attitudes toward safe sex as held by male and female IDUs in methadone treatment. We identified misconceptions related to HIV infection, condoms, and sexual behavior. We also found gender-based differences in knowledge and learning style. Also, while individuals felt a responsibility to prevent HIV transmission, they lacked sufficient control to do so. The wide range of responses on questions concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), condoms, reproductive decisions, and methods of promoting safe sex provides a basis for developing a questionnaire designed to identify and target specific subgroups for educational intervention. PMID:8297708

  13. Age-Related and Sex-Related Differences in Hand and Pinch Grip Strength in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puh, Urska

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to quantify age-related changes in hand grip strength and three types of pinch grip strength (key pinch, tip pinch, and palmar pinch) among male and female participants. The study included 199 healthy participants (100 females, 99 males) aged 20-79 years, who were divided into four age groups. The Baseline Hydraulic…

  14. Economic crisis and suicidal behaviour: the role of unemployment, sex and age in Andalusia, Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although suicide rates have increased in some European countries in relation to the current economic crisis and austerity policies, that trend has not been observed in Spain. This study examines the impact of the economic crisis on suicide attempts, the previously neglected endpoint of the suicidal process, and its relation to unemployment, age and sex. Methods The study was carried out in Andalusia, the most populated region of Spain, and which has a high level of unemployment. Information on suicide attempts attended by emergency services was extracted from the Health Emergencies Public Enterprise Information System (SIEPES). Suicide attempts occurring between 2003 and 2012 were included, in order to cover five years prior to the crisis (2003–2007) and five years after its onset (2008–2012). Information was retrieved from 24,380 cases (11,494 men and 12,886 women) on sex, age, address, and type of attention provided. Age-adjusted suicide attempt rates were calculated. Excess numbers of attempts from 2008 to 2012 were estimated for each sex using historical trends of the five previous years, through time regression models using negative binomial regression analysis. To assess the association between unemployment and suicide attempts rates, linear regression models with fixed effects were performed. Results A sharp increase in suicide attempt rates in Andalusia was detected after the onset of the crisis, both in men and in women. Adults aged 35 to 54 years were the most affected in both sexes. Suicide attempt rates were associated with unemployment rates in men, accounting for almost half of the cases during the five initial years of the crisis. Women were also affected during the recession period but this association could not be specifically attributed to unemployment. Conclusions This study enhances our understanding of the potential effects of the economic crisis on the rapidly increasing suicide attempt rates in women and men, and the

  15. Sex-Based Differences in Asthma among Preschool and School-Aged Children in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yeonsoo; Shin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors related to asthma prevalence among preschool and school-aged children using a representative national dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted from 2009-2011. We evaluated the demographic information, health status, household environment, socioeconomic status, and parents' health status of 3,542 children aged 4-12 years. A sex-stratified multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after accounting for primary sample units, stratification, and sample weights. The sex-specific asthma prevalence in the 4- to 12-year-old children was 7.39% in boys and 6.27% in girls. Boys and girls with comorbid atopic dermatitis were more likely to have asthma than those without atopic dermatitis (boys: OR = 2.20, p = 0.0071; girls: OR = 2.33, p = 0.0031). Boys and girls with ≥1 asthmatic parent were more likely to have asthma than those without asthmatic parents (boys: OR = 3.90, p = 0.0006; girls: OR = 3.65, p = 0.0138). As girls got older, the prevalence of asthma decreased (OR = 0.90, p = 0.0408). Girls residing in rural areas were 60% less likely to have asthma than those residing in urban areas (p = 0.0309). Boys with ≥5 family members were more likely to have asthma than those with ≤3 family members (OR = 2.45, p = 0.0323). The factors related to asthma prevalence may differ depending on sex in preschool and school-aged children. By understanding the characteristics of sex-based differences in asthma, individualized asthma management plans may be established clinically. PMID:26441284

  16. Sex-Based Differences in Asthma among Preschool and School-Aged Children in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yeonsoo; Shin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors related to asthma prevalence among preschool and school-aged children using a representative national dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted from 2009–2011. We evaluated the demographic information, health status, household environment, socioeconomic status, and parents’ health status of 3,542 children aged 4–12 years. A sex-stratified multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after accounting for primary sample units, stratification, and sample weights. The sex-specific asthma prevalence in the 4- to 12-year-old children was 7.39% in boys and 6.27% in girls. Boys and girls with comorbid atopic dermatitis were more likely to have asthma than those without atopic dermatitis (boys: OR = 2.20, p = 0.0071; girls: OR = 2.33, p = 0.0031). Boys and girls with ≥1 asthmatic parent were more likely to have asthma than those without asthmatic parents (boys: OR = 3.90, p = 0.0006; girls: OR = 3.65, p = 0.0138). As girls got older, the prevalence of asthma decreased (OR = 0.90, p = 0.0408). Girls residing in rural areas were 60% less likely to have asthma than those residing in urban areas (p = 0.0309). Boys with ≥5 family members were more likely to have asthma than those with ≤3 family members (OR = 2.45, p = 0.0323). The factors related to asthma prevalence may differ depending on sex in preschool and school-aged children. By understanding the characteristics of sex-based differences in asthma, individualized asthma management plans may be established clinically. PMID:26441284

  17. Age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile sensitivity of hand and face in neurotypical adults.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Lalit; Barlow, Steven M; Kieweg, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Sensory perception decreases with age, and is altered as a function of sex. Very little is known about the age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile detection thresholds (VDTs) of the face relative to the glabrous hand. This study utilized a single-interval up/down (SIUD) adaptive procedure to estimate the VDT for mechanical stimuli presented at 5, 10, 50, 150, 250, and 300 Hz at two sites on the face, including the right non-glabrous surface of the oral angle and the right lower lip vermilion; and on the hand on the glabrous surface of the distal phalanx of the right dominant index finger. Eighteen right-handed healthy younger adults and 18 right-handed healthy older adults participated in this study. VDTs were significantly different between the three stimulus sites (p < 0.0001), and dependent on stimulus frequency (p < 0.0001) and the sex of the participants (p < 0.005). VDTs were significantly higher for older adults when compared to younger adults for the finger stimulation condition (p < 0.05). There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in cheek and lower lip VDTs between male and female subjects. Difference in the VDTs between the three stimulation sites is presumed to reflect the unique typing and distribution of mechanoreceptors in the face and hand. Age-related differences in finger skin sensitivity are likely due to changes in the physical structure of skin, changes in the number and morphology of the mechanoreceptors, differences in the functional use of the hand, and its central representation. Sex-related differences in the VDTs may be due to the differences in tissue conformation and thickness, mechanoreceptor densities, skin hydration, or temperature characteristics. PMID:25248543

  18. Sex-dependent dominance at a single locus maintains variation in age at maturity in salmon.

    PubMed

    Barson, Nicola J; Aykanat, Tutku; Hindar, Kjetil; Baranski, Matthew; Bolstad, Geir H; Fiske, Peder; Jacq, Céleste; Jensen, Arne J; Johnston, Susan E; Karlsson, Sten; Kent, Matthew; Moen, Thomas; Niemelä, Eero; Nome, Torfinn; Næsje, Tor F; Orell, Panu; Romakkaniemi, Atso; Sægrov, Harald; Urdal, Kurt; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Lien, Sigbjørn; Primmer, Craig R

    2015-12-17

    Males and females share many traits that have a common genetic basis; however, selection on these traits often differs between the sexes, leading to sexual conflict. Under such sexual antagonism, theory predicts the evolution of genetic architectures that resolve this sexual conflict. Yet, despite intense theoretical and empirical interest, the specific loci underlying sexually antagonistic phenotypes have rarely been identified, limiting our understanding of how sexual conflict impacts genome evolution and the maintenance of genetic diversity. Here we identify a large effect locus controlling age at maturity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), an important fitness trait in which selection favours earlier maturation in males than females, and show it is a clear example of sex-dependent dominance that reduces intralocus sexual conflict and maintains adaptive variation in wild populations. Using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism data across 57 wild populations and whole genome re-sequencing, we find that the vestigial-like family member 3 gene (VGLL3) exhibits sex-dependent dominance in salmon, promoting earlier and later maturation in males and females, respectively. VGLL3, an adiposity regulator associated with size and age at maturity in humans, explained 39% of phenotypic variation, an unexpectedly large proportion for what is usually considered a highly polygenic trait. Such large effects are predicted under balancing selection from either sexually antagonistic or spatially varying selection. Our results provide the first empirical example of dominance reversal allowing greater optimization of phenotypes within each sex, contributing to the resolution of sexual conflict in a major and widespread evolutionary trade-off between age and size at maturity. They also provide key empirical evidence for how variation in reproductive strategies can be maintained over large geographical scales. We anticipate these findings will have a substantial impact on

  19. Association of sex and age with responses to lower-body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary Anne Bassett; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe

    1988-01-01

    The effects of age and sex on the human-body responses to -50 torr LBNP were investigated in subjects who have undergone LBNP tests at the Kennedy Space Center. The comparison of results obtained on women and age-matched men indicated that men had larger relative increases in calf circumference and greater increases in peripheral resistance during the exposure to LBNP than the women; on the other hand, women displayed greater increases in thoracic impedance and heart rate. The comparison of the results on men of different ages (between 29 and 56 y) indicated that older subjects had greater increases in peripheral resistance and less heart rate elevation in response to LBNP. It is suggested that the age-related circulatory differences were due to a reduction in vagal response and a switch to predominant sympathetic nervous system influence in older men.

  20. Fusion with the Cross-Gender Group Predicts Genital Sex Reassignment Surgery.

    PubMed

    Swann, William B; Gómez, Ángel; Vázquez, Alexandra; Guillamón, Antonio; Segovia, Santiago; Carrillo, Beatriz; Carillo, Beatriz

    2015-07-01

    Transsexuals vary in the sacrifices that they make while transitioning to their cross-gender group. We suggest that one influence on the sacrifices they make is identity fusion. When people fuse with a group, a visceral and irrevocable feeling of oneness with the group develops. The personal self (the sense of "I" and "me") remains potent and combines synergistically with the social self to motivate behavior. We hypothesized that transsexuals who felt fused with the cross-gender group would be especially willing to make sacrifices while transitioning to that group. Our sample included 22 male-to-female (MtF) and 16 female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals. Consistent with expectation, those who were fused with their cross-gender group (1) expressed more willingness to sacrifice close relationships in the process of changing sex than non-fused transsexuals and (2) actually underwent irreversible surgical change of their primary sexual characteristics (vaginoplasty for MtF transsexuals and hysterectomy for FtM transsexuals). These outcomes were not predicted by a measure of "group identification," which occurs when membership in the group eclipses the personal self (the "I" and "me" is subsumed by the group; in the extreme case, brainwashing occurs). These findings confirm and extend earlier evidence that identity fusion is uniquely effective in tapping a propensity to make substantial sacrifices for the group. We discuss identity fusion as a social psychological determinant of the choices of transsexuals. PMID:25666854

  1. Shear Wave Elastography of Passive Skeletal Muscle Stiffness: Influences of Sex and Age throughout Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Eby, Sarah F.; Cloud, Beth A.; Brandenburg, Joline E.; Giambini, Hugo; Song, Pengfei; Chen, Shigao; LeBrasseur, Nathan K.; An, Kai-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous structural and compositional changes – related not only to age, but also activity level and sex – may affect skeletal muscle stiffness across the adult age-span. Measurement techniques available thus far have largely limited passive stiffness evaluations to those of entire joints and muscle-tendon units. Shear wave elastography is an increasingly popular ultrasound technique for evaluating the mechanical properties of skeletal muscle tissue. The purpose of this study was to quantify the passive stiffness, or shear modulus, of the biceps brachii throughout adulthood in flexed and extended elbow positions. We hypothesized that shear modulus would be higher in males relative to females, and with advanced age in both sexes. Methods Shear wave elastography quantified biceps brachii stiffness at 90° elbow flexion and full extension in a large sample of adults between 21–94 years old (n=133; 47 males). Findings Regression analysis found sex and age were significant parameters for older adults (>60 years) in full extension. As expected, shear modulus values increased with advancing age; however, shear modulus values for females tended to be higher than those for males. Interpretation This study begins to establish normative trends for skeletal muscle shear modulus throughout adulthood. Specifically, this work establishes for the first time that the higher passive joint torque often found in males relative to females likely relates to parameters other than muscle shear modulus. Indeed, perhaps increases in skeletal muscle passive stiffness, though potentially altering the length-tension curve, serve a protective role – maintaining the tendon-muscle-tendon length-tension curve within a functional range. PMID:25483294

  2. Oxidative stress and the evolution of sex differences in life span and ageing in the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus.

    PubMed

    Archer, Catharine R; Sakaluk, Scott K; Selman, Colin; Royle, Nick J; Hunt, John

    2013-03-01

    The Free Radical Theory of Ageing (FRTA) predicts that oxidative stress, induced when levels of reactive oxygen species exceed the capacity of antioxidant defenses, causes ageing. Recently, it has also been argued that oxidative damage may mediate important life-history trade-offs. Here, we use inbred lines of the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus, to estimate the genetic (co)variance between age-dependent reproductive effort, life span, ageing, oxidative damage, and total antioxidant capacity within and between the sexes. The FRTA predicts that oxidative damage should accumulate with age and negatively correlate with life span. We find that protein oxidation is greater in the shorter lived sex (females) and negatively genetically correlated with life span in both sexes. However, oxidative damage did not accumulate with age in either sex. Previously we have shown antagonistic pleiotropy between the genes for early-life reproductive effort and ageing rate in both sexes, although this was stronger in females. In females, we find that elevated fecundity early in life is associated with greater protein oxidation later in life, which is in turn positively correlated with the rate of ageing. Our results provide mixed support for the FRTA but suggest that oxidative stress may mediate sex-specific life-history strategies in G. sigillatus. PMID:23461314

  3. Effects of age and sex on neuromuscular-mechanical determinants of muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rui; Delahunt, Eamonn; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Lowery, Madeleine; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to concurrently assess the effect of age on neuromuscular and mechanical properties in 24 young (23.6 ± 3.7 years) and 20 older (66.5 ± 3.8 years) healthy males and females. Maximal strength of knee extensors (KE) and flexors (KF), contractile rate of torque development (RTD) and neural activation of agonist-antagonist muscles (surface EMG) were examined during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Tissue stiffness (i.e. musculo-articular stiffness (MAS) and muscle stiffness (MS)) was examined via the free-oscillation technique, whereas muscle architecture (MA) of the vastus lateralis and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasonography. Males exhibited a greater age-related decline for KE (47.4 %) and KF (53.1 %) MVIC, and RTD (60.4 %) when compared to females (32.9, 42.6 and 34.0 %, respectively). Neural activation of agonist muscles during KE MVIC falls markedly with ageing; however, no age and sex effects were observed in the antagonist co-activation. MAS and MS were lower in elderly compared with young participants and in females compared with males. Regarding MA, main effects for age (young 23.0 ± 3.3 vs older 19.5 ± 2.0 mm) and sex (males 22.4 ± 3.5 vs females 20.4 ± 2.7 mm) were detected in muscle thickness. For fascicle length, there was an effect of age (young 104.6 ± 8.8 vs older 89.8 ± 10.5 mm), while for pennation angle, there was an effect of sex (males 13.3 ± 2.4 vs females 11.5 ± 1.7°). These findings suggest that both neuromuscular and mechanical declines are important contributors to the age-related loss of muscle strength/function but with some peculiar sex-related differences. PMID:27189591

  4. Sex differences in age-related changes on peripheral warm and cold innocuous thermal sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Gerrett, Nicola; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Umino, Yasue; Kiuchi, Saeko; Amano, Tatsuro; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Havenith, George; Kondo, Narihiko

    2016-10-01

    Cutaneous thermal sensitivity to a warm and cold stimulus was compared amongst 12 older (OF, 65.2±1.0year) and 29 younger (YF, 21.6±0.2years) female participants, and 17 older (OM, 66.2±1.5years) and 13 younger (YM, 21.2±0.4years) male participants to examine the effects of ageing and sex. In a neutral condition (27.5°C, 50% RH) during rest, warm and cold thermal sensitivity was measured on eight body regions (forehead, chest, back, forearm, hand, thigh, calf, and foot). Using the method of limits, a thermal stimulator was applied to the skin at an adapting temperature and either increased or decreased at a constant rate (0.3°C/s) until the participants detected the temperature with a push button. Thermal sensitivity declined with ageing to both a cold (older: 1468.6±744.7W/m(2), younger: 869.8±654.7W/m(2), p<0.001) and warm (older: 2127.0±1208.3W/m(2), younger: 1301.7±1055.2W/m(2), p<0.001) innocuous stimulus. YF and OF were more sensitive than YM and OM to both a warm and cold stimulus (p<0.05). There was no interaction between age and sex suggesting that whilst thermal sensitivity decreases with age the decrease is similar between the sexes (p>0.05). There was an interaction between temperatures, age and location and it seemed that cold thermal sensitivity was more homogenous for young and older participants however warm thermal sensitivity was more heterogeneous especially in the younger participants (p<0.05). Although the pattern was not similar between ages or sexes it was evident that the forehead was the most sensitive region to a warm and cold stimulus. Interestingly the decline in sensitivity observed with ageing occurred for all locations but was attenuated at the forehead in both males and females (p>0.05). PMID:27237043

  5. Does Age Matter Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men? A Comparison of Risk Behaviors Stratified by Age Category.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Nicholas; Mena, Leandro; Geter, Angelica; Crosby, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether different sexual risk behavior exists among young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) as a function of age. A total of 382 YBMSM completed a computer-assisted self-interview at a sexual health clinic. The frequency/prevalence of fifteen sexual risk behaviors was compared between three groups (ages 16-19, 20-25, and 26-29, respectively) in the 90 days prior to enrollment in the study. Regression models were used to control for the confounding influence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status. One hundred seven participants were HIV-infected at study enrollment. Of the 15 measures assessed, none significantly differed among the groups. These null findings did not change in multivariate analyses. Our findings suggest that there is no differential sexual risk based on age among YBMSM and that this group should be considered a homogenous population with regards to intervention strategies that aim to reduce the sexual risk behaviors of YBMSM. PMID:27244192

  6. Effects of age and sex on cerebrovascular function in the rat middle cerebral artery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of estrogen on cerebrovascular function are well known, the age-dependent deleterious effects of estrogen are largely unstudied. It was hypothesized that age and sex interact in modulating cerebrovascular reactivity to vasopressin (VP) by altering the role of prostanoids in vascular function. Methods Female (F) Sprague–Dawley rats approximating key stages of “hormonal aging” in humans were studied: premenopausal (mature multigravid, MA, cyclic, 5–6 months) and postmenopausal (reproductively senescent, RS, acyclic, 10–12 months). Age-matched male (M) rats were also studied. Reactivity to VP (10−12–10−7 M) was measured in pressurized middle cerebral artery segments in the absence or presence of selective inhibitors of COX-1 (SC560, SC, 1 μM) or COX-2 (NS398, NS, 10 μM). VP-stimulated release of PGI2 and TXA2 were measured using radioimmunoassay of 6-keto-PGF1α and TXB2 (stable metabolites, pg/mg dry wt/45 min). Results In M, there were no changes in VP-induced vasoconstriction with age. Further, there were no significant differences in basal or in low- or high-VP-stimulated PGI2 or TXA2 production in younger or older M. In contrast, there were marked differences in cerebrovascular reactivity and prostanoid release with advancing age in F. Older RS F exhibited reduced maximal constrictor responses to VP, which can be attributed to enhanced COX-1 derived dilator prostanoids. VP-induced vasoconstriction in younger MA F utilized both COX-1 and COX-2 derived constrictor prostanoids. Further, VP-stimulated PGI2 and TXA2 production was enhanced by endogenous estrogen and decreased with advancing age in F, but not in M rats. Conclusions This is the first study to examine the effects of age and sex on the mechanisms underlying cerebrovascular reactivity to VP. Interestingly, VP-mediated constriction was reduced by age in F, but was unchanged in M rats. Additionally, it was observed

  7. Coupling of Temperament with Mental Illness in Four Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament. PMID:27154370

  8. Sex and Age Aspects in Patients Suffering From Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Piegeler, Tobias; Thoeni, Nils; Kaserer, Alexander; Brueesch, Martin; Sulser, Simon; Mueller, Stefan M.; Seifert, Burkhardt; Spahn, Donat R.; Ruetzler, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is indicated in patients suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Several studies suggest a sex- and age-based bias in the treatment of these patients. This particular bias may have a significant impact on the patient's outcome. However, the reasons for these findings are still unclear and discussed controversially. Therefore, the aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze treatment and out-of-hospital survival rates for potential sex- and age-based differences in patients requiring out-of-hospital CPR provided by an emergency physician in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. A total of 3961 consecutive patients (2003–2009) were included in this retrospective analysis to determine the frequency of out-of-hospital CPR and prehospital survival rate, and to identify potential sex- and age-based differences regarding survival and treatment of the patients. Seven hundred fifty-seven patients required CPR during the study period. Seventeen patients had to be excluded because of incomplete or inconclusive documentation, resulting in 743 patients (511 males, 229 females) undergoing further statistical analysis. Female patients were significantly older, compared with male patients (68 ± 18 [mean ± SD] vs 64 ± 18 years, P = .012). Men were resuscitated slightly more often than women (86.4% vs 82.1%). Overall out-of-hospital mortality rate was found to be 81.2% (492/632 patients) with no differences between sexes (82.1% for males vs 79% for females, odds ratio 1.039, 95% confidence interval 0.961–1.123). No sex differences were detected in out-of-hospital treatment, as assessed by the different medications administered, initial prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale, and prehospital suspected leading diagnosis. The data of our study demonstrate that there was no sex-based bias in treating patients requiring CPR in the prehospital setting in our physician-led emergency ambulance service. PMID:27149475

  9. Chill-coma recovery time, age and sex determine lipid profiles in Ceratitis capitata tissues.

    PubMed

    Pujol-Lereis, Luciana Mercedes; Fagali, Natalia Soledad; Rabossi, Alejandro; Catalá, Ángel; Quesada-Allué, Luis Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The remodeling of membrane composition by changes in phospholipid head groups and fatty acids (FA) degree of unsaturation has been associated with the maintenance of membrane homeostasis under stress conditions. Overall lipid levels and the composition of cuticle lipids also influence insect stress resistance and tissue protection. In a previous study, we demonstrated differences in survival, behavior and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene expression between subgroups of Ceratitis capitata flies that had a reversible recovery from chill-coma and those that developed chilling-injury. Here, we analyzed lipid profiles from comparable subgroups of 15 and 30-day-old flies separated according to their recovery time after a chill-coma treatment. Neutral and polar lipid classes of chill-coma subgroups were separated by thin layer chromatography and quantified by densitometry. FA composition of polar lipids of chill-coma subgroups and non-stressed flies was evaluated using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Higher amounts of neutral lipids such as triglycerides, diacylglycerol, wax esters, sterol esters and free esters were found in male flies that recovered faster from chill-coma compared to slower flies. A multivariate analysis revealed changes in patterns of storage and cuticle lipids among subgroups both in males and females. FA unsaturation increased after cold exposure, and was higher in thorax of slower subgroups compared to faster subgroups. The changes in neutral lipid patterns and FA composition depended on recovery time, sex, age and body-part, and were not specifically associated with the development of chilling-injury. An analysis of phospholipid classes showed that the phosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidylcholine ratio (PC/LPC) was significantly higher, or showed a tendency, in subgroups that may have developed chilling-injury compared to those with a reversible recovery from coma. PMID:26868723

  10. The Power to Detect Sex Differences in IQ Test Scores Using Multi-Group Covariance and Means Structure Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; Wicherts, Jelle M.

    2009-01-01

    Research into sex differences in general intelligence, g, has resulted in two opposite views. In the first view, a g-difference is nonexistent, while in the second view, g is associated with a male advantage. Past research using Multi-Group Covariance and Mean Structure Analysis (MG-CMSA) found no sex difference in g. This failure raised the…

  11. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  12. Macronutrients contribution from beverages according to sex and age: findings from the ANIBES Study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Moreno, Emma; Rodríguez-Alonso, Paula; Ávila-Torres, José Manuel; Valero-Gaspar, Teresa; Del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Methodologies and procedures used in dietary surveys have been widely developed with the aim of evaluating the nutritional status of a population. However, beverages are often either disregarded at national and international assessment of nutrients intake or poorly mentioned. Moreover, there is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of beverages intake in the general population. Moreover, the contribution of different beverages to macronutrients intake is rarely provided. The latter in the context of a continuous expansion and innovation of the beverages market in Spain. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to evaluate non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages macronutrients contribution in the ANIBES study in Spain (9-75 years old).As expected, those contributed to dietary macronutrient intake mainly as total carbohydrates and sugar. The contribution to other macronutrients (proteins and lipids) by the beverage groups was of much less importance. For non-alcoholic beverages, contribution to carbohydrates was much higher in younger populations (children: 10.91 ± 9.49%, mean ± SD for boys and 9.46 ± 8.83% for girls; adolescents: 11.97 ± 11.26% for men and 13.77 ± 10.55% in women) than in adults: 9.01 ± 9.84% for men and 7.77 ± 8.73% in women. Finally, a much lower contribution was observed in the elderly: 4.22 ± 6.10% for men and 4.46 ± 6.56% for women. No sex differences, however, across all age groups were found. Results for sugar contribution showed a similar trend: children (23.14 ± 19.00% for boys and 19.77 ± 17.35% for girls); adolescents (28.13 ± 24.17% for men and 29.83 ± 21.82% in women); adults 20.42 ± 20.35% for men and 16.95 ± 17.76% in women, p ≤ 0.01; and elderly: 14.63% ± 9.97 for men and 9.33 ± 12.86% in women. The main contribution corresponded to sugared soft drinks, juices and nectars, more relevant and significant in the younger populations. As for alcoholic beverages, the

  13. Sex- and age-related mortality profiles during famine: testing the 'body fat' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R

    2013-11-01

    During famines females generally have a mortality advantage relative to males, and the highest levels of mortality occur in the very young and the elderly. One popular hypothesis is that the sex differential in mortality may reflect the greater body fatness combined with lower metabolism of females, which may also underpin the age-related patterns of mortality among adults. This study evaluated the 'body fat' hypothesis using a previously published and validated mathematical model of survival during total starvation. The model shows that at a given body weight females would indeed be expected to survive considerably longer than males in the absence of food. At a mass of 70 kg for example a female aged 30 would survive for 144 days compared with life expectancy of only 95 days for a male of the same age and weight. This effect is contributed to by both the higher body fatness and lower metabolism of the females at a given body weight. However, females are generally smaller than males and in addition to a sex effect there was also a major effect of body size - heavier individuals survive longer. When this body size effect was removed by considering survival in relation to BMI the sex effect was much reduced, and could be offset by a relatively small difference in pre-famine BMI between the sexes. Nevertheless, combining these predictions with observed mean BMIs of males and females across 48 countries at the low end of the obesity spectrum suggests that in the complete absence of food females would survive on average about 40% longer (range 6 to 64.5%) than males. The energy balance model also predicted that older adult individuals should survive much longer than younger adult individuals, by virtue of their lower resting metabolic rates and lower activity levels. Observations of the female survival advantage in multiple famines span a much wider range than the model prediction (5% to 210%). This suggests in some famines body fatness may be a significant factor

  14. Course of mental symptoms in patients with stress-related exhaustion: does sex or age make a difference?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Long-term sick leave due to mental health problems, especially among women, is a substantial problem in many countries, and a major reason for this is thought to be psychosocial stress. The recovery period of different patient groups with stress-related mental health problems can differ considerably. We have studied the course of mental health symptoms during 18 months of multimodal treatment in relation to sex and age in a group of patients with stress-related exhaustion. Methods The study group includes 232 patients (68% women) referred to a stress clinic and who fulfilled the criteria for Exhaustion Disorder (ED). The majority also fulfilled diagnostic criteria for depression and/or anxiety; this was similar among women and men. Symptoms were assessed at baseline, three, six, 12 and 18 months by the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD). A total SMBQ mean score of ≥ 4 was used to indicate clinical burnout, which correlates well with the clinical diagnosis of ED. Results There were no statistically significant differences between women and men or between young and old patients in the self-reported symptoms at baseline. The proportion that had high burnout scores decreased over time, but one-third still had symptoms of clinical burnout after 18 months. Symptoms indicating probable depression or anxiety (present in 34% and 65% of the patients at baseline, respectively) declined more rapidly, in most cases within the first three months, and were present only in one out of 10 after 18 months. The course of illness was not related to sex or age. The duration of symptoms before seeking health care, but not the level of education or co-morbid depression, was a predictor of recovery from symptoms of burnout after 18 months. Conclusions The course of mental illness in patients seeking specialist care for stress-related exhaustion was not related to sex or age. The burden of mental symptoms is high and

  15. Age and Sex Influence Cystatin C in Adolescents With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maahs, David M.; Prentice, Nicole; McFann, Kim; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Jalal, Diana; Bishop, Franziska K.; Aragon, Brittany; Wadwa, R. Paul

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare serum cystatin C levels, a novel biomarker of renal function, in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes and to determine what factors affect cystatin C levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cystatin C was measured in youth 12–19 years of age with (n = 259, diabetes duration 9 ± 3 years, HbA1c 8.9 ± 1.6%) and without diabetes (n = 78). Data were compared by diabetes status, and linear regression was used to determine factors affecting cystatin C. RESULTS Cystatin C (0.698 ± 0.083 vs. 0.688 ± 0.127 mg/L, P = 0.40) was similar by diabetes status. In multiple linear regression, cystatin C was associated with age and serum creatinine in nondiabetic subjects and sex, age, and serum creatinine in subjects with diabetes (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS These data suggest sex differences and age-related changes in cystatin C in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. An understanding of these changes is needed to determine the potential role of cystatin C as a marker of renal function in this population. PMID:21926294

  16. Contribution of exposure, risk of crash and fatality to explain age- and sex-related differences in traffic-related cyclist mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Jiménez-Mejías, Eladio; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Luna-del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lardelli-Claret, Pablo

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to quantify the percent contribution of exposure, risk of collision and fatality rate to the association of age and sex with the mortality rates among cyclists in Spain, and to track the changes in these contributions with time. Data were analyzed for 50,042 cyclists involved in road crashes in Spain from 1993 to 2011, and also for a subset of 13,119 non-infractor cyclists involved in collisions with a vehicle whose driver committed an infraction (used as a proxy sample of all cyclists on the road). We used decomposition and quasi-induced exposure methods to obtain the percent contributions of these three components to the mortality rate ratios for each age and sex group compared to males aged 25-34 years. Death rates increased with age, and the main component of this increase was fatality (around 70%). Among younger cyclists, however, the main component of increased death rates was risk of a collision. Males had higher death rates than females in every age group: this rate increased from 6.4 in the 5-14 year old group to 18.8 in the 65-79 year old group. Exposure, the main component of this increase, ranged between 70% and 90% in all age categories, although the fatality component also contributed to this increase. The contributions of exposure, risk of crash and fatality to cyclist death rates were strongly associated with age and sex. Young male cyclists were a high-risk group because all three components tended to increase their mortality rate. PMID:25658669

  17. Apolipoprotein E and Sex Bias in Cerebrovascular Aging of Men and Mice.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caleb E; Shams, Sara

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) research has mainly focused on neurodegenerative processes associated with the classic neuropathologic markers of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Additionally, cerebrovascular contributions to dementia are increasingly recognized, particularly from cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Remarkably, in AD brains, the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ɛ4 allele shows male excess for cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), a marker of SVD, which is opposite to the female excess of plaques and tangles. Mouse transgenic models add further complexities to sex-ApoE ɛ4 allele interactions, with female excess of both CMBs and brain amyloid. We conclude that brain aging and AD pathogenesis cannot be understood in humans without addressing major gaps in the extent of sex differences in cerebrovascular pathology. PMID:27546867

  18. Association of Sex Hormones, Aging and Atrial Fibrillation in Men: The Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, Jared W.; Moser, Carlee B.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Wang, Na; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Coviello, Andrea D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Endogenous sex hormones have been related to cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. We hypothesized that sex hormones are related to atrial fibrillation (AF) in a community-based cohort of middle-aged to older men. Methods and Results We examined testosterone, estradiol, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEA-S]) in relation to incident AF in men participating in the Framingham Heart Study. We assessed the 10-year risk of AF in multivariable-adjusted hazard models. The cohort consisted of 1251 men (age 68.0±8.2), of whom 275 developed incident AF. We identified a significant interaction between age and testosterone, and therefore stratified men into age 55–69 (n=786), 70–79 (n=351), and ≥80 (n=114). In men 55–69 each 1-standard deviation (SD) decrease in testosterone was associated with hazard ratio (HR) 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 1.59) for incident AF. The association between testosterone and 10-year incident AF in men 70–79 did not reach statistical significance. In men ≥80 years a 1-SD decrease in testosterone was associated with HR 3.53 (95% CI, 1.96 to 6.37) for AF risk. Estradiol was associated with incident AF (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.26). DHEA-S had a borderline association with risk of AF that was not statistically significant (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.28). Conclusions Testosterone and estradiol are associated with incident AF in a cohort of older men. Testosterone deficiency in men ≥80 is strongly associated with AF risk. The clinical and electrophysiologic mechanisms underlying the associations between sex hormones and AF in older men merit continued investigation. PMID:24610804

  19. Endocrine and Cognitive Adaptations to Cope with Stress in Immature Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Sex and Age Matter

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro; Galvão, Ana Cecília de Menezes; Sales, Carla Jéssica Rodrigues; de Castro, Dijenaide Chaves; Galvão-Coelho, Nicole Leite

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic sex differences in primates are associated with body differentiation during the early stages of life, expressed in both physiological and behavioral features. Hormones seem to play a pivotal role in creating a range of responses to meet environmental and social demands, resulting in better reactions to cope with challenges to survival and reproduction. Steroid hormones actively participate in neuroplasticity and steroids from both gonads and neurons seem to be involved in behavioral modulation in primates. Indirect evidence suggests the participation of sexual steroids in dimorphism of the stress response in common marmosets. This species is an important experimental model in psychiatry, and we found a dual profile for cortisol in the transition from juvenile to subadult, with females showing higher levels. Immature males and females at 6 and 9 months of age moved alone from the family group to a new cage, over a 21-day period, expressed distinct patterns of cortisol variation with respect to range and duration of response. Additional evidence showed that at 12 months of age, males and females buffered the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis during chronic stress. Moreover, chronic stressed juvenile marmoset males showed better cognitive performance in working memory tests and motivation when compared to those submitted to short-term stress living in family groups. Thus, as cortisol profile seems to be sexually dimorphic before adulthood, age and sex are critical variables to consider in approaches that require immature marmosets in their experimental protocols. Moreover, available cognitive tests should be scrutinized to allow better investigation of cognitive traits in this species. PMID:26648876

  20. [Mortality evolution in the Czech Socialist Republic, by sex and age in 1950-1984].

    PubMed

    Rychtarikova, J

    1987-01-01

    Postwar mortality evolution in the Czech Socialist Republic has run through 2 different stages with the turning point being 1960. Since about the beginning of the 1960s, the mortality level in the Czech Socialist Republic has quickly declined for both sexs and in each age category. The rate of decline has slowed with increasing age. Since the 1960s, the mortality of the older population has ceased to decline or has worsened; with men, this phenomenon spread even as low as 40 years old. Infant and child mortality, male mortality under 40 years of age, and female mortality under 50 years of age positively contributed to a longer life span, except between 1960 and 1970. The present mortality situation in the Czech Socialist Republic is the result of the unfavorable developments of the last 20 years, especially in the decade 1960-1970. The present age structure of mortality is characterized by higher infant mortality, higher male mortality above 40 years of age, and higher female mortality at 50-55 years of age. A certain improvement observed in the last few years is relative, as the mortality of the male population over 30 is the same today as it was 35 years ago and the mortality of the female population is the same as it was in the mid-1960s. PMID:12314972

  1. Sex Differences in the Limit to Deficit Accumulation in Late Middle-Aged and Older Chinese People: Results From the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Yang, Zhan; Song, Xiaowei; Yu, Pulin; Fang, Xianghua; Tang, Zhe; Peng, Dantao; Mitnitski, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    Background. On average, as people age, they accumulate more health deficits and have an increased risk of death. The deficit accumulation–based frailty index (FI) can quantify health and its outcomes in aging. Previous studies have suggested that women show higher FI values than men and that the highest FI score (the “limit to frailty”) occurs at a value of FI ~ 0.7. Even so, gender differences in the limit to frailty have not been reported. Methods. Data for this analysis were obtained from the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging that involved 3,257 community-dwelling Chinese people, aged 55+ years at baseline. The main outcome measure was 5-year mortality. An FI consisting of 35 health-related variables was constructed. The absolute and 99% FI limits were calculated for different age groups and analyzed by sex. Results. The mean level of the FI increased with age and was lower in men than in women (F = 67.87, p < .001). The 99% FI limit leveled off slightly earlier with a relatively lower value in men (60 years; 0.44 ± 0.02) compared with that in women (65 years; 0.52 ± 0.04). The highest absolute FI value was 0.61 in men and 0.69 in women. In both groups, people with an FI greater than or equal to the 99% limit showed close to 100% mortality by 5 years. Conclusion. Compared with men, women appeared to better tolerate deficits in health, yielding both relatively lower mortality and higher limit values to the FI. Even so, the FI did not exceed 0.7 in any individual. PMID:24127426

  2. Negative and interactive effects of sex, aging, and alcohol abuse on gray matter morphometry.

    PubMed

    Thayer, Rachel E; Hagerty, Sarah L; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Claus, Eric D; Hutchison, Kent E; Weiland, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    Chronic alcohol use is associated with declines in gray matter (GM) volume, as is the normal aging process. Less apparent, however, is how the interaction between aging and heavy alcohol use affects changes in GM across the lifespan. There is some evidence that women are more vulnerable to the negative effects of alcohol use on GM than men. In the current study, we examined whether localized GM was related to measures of alcohol use disorder (e.g., AUDIT score) in a large sample (N = 436) of participants, ages 18-55 years, with a range of disease severity, using both voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based morphometry (SBM). We also explored whether GM associations with alcohol use disorder (AUD) severity are moderated by sex and age. Results showed significant negative associations between AUD severity and GM volume throughout temporal, parietal, frontal, and occipital lobes. Women showed more negative effects of alcohol use than men for cortical thickness in left orbitofrontal cortex, but evidence for increased vulnerability based on sex was limited overall. Similarly, a specific age by alcohol use interaction was observed for volume of right insula, but other regional or global interactions were not statistically supported. However, significant negative associations between heavy alcohol use and GM volumes were observed as early as 18-25 years. These findings support that alcohol has deleterious effects on global and regional GM above and beyond age, and, of particular importance, that regional associations emerge in early adulthood. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2276-2292, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26947584

  3. The HIV Care Cascade Measured Over Time and by Age, Sex, and Race in a Large National Integrated Care System.

    PubMed

    Horberg, Michael Alan; Hurley, Leo Bartemeier; Klein, Daniel Benjamin; Towner, William James; Kadlecik, Peter; Antoniskis, Diana; Mogyoros, Miguel; Brachman, Philip Sigmund; Remmers, Carol Louise; Gambatese, Rebecca Claire; Blank, Jackie; Ellis, Courtney Georgiana; Silverberg, Michael Jonah

    2015-11-01

    HIV care cascades can evaluate programmatic success over time. However, methodologies for estimating cascade stages vary, and few have evaluated differences by demographic subgroups. We examined cascade performance over time and by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in Kaiser Permanente, providing HIV care in eight US states and Washington, DC. We created cascades for HIV+ members' age ≥13 for 2010-2012. We measured "linkage" (a visit/CD4 within 90 days of being diagnosed for new patients; ≥1 medical visit/year if established); "retention" (≥2 medical visits ≥60 days apart); filled ART (filled ≥3 months of combination ART); and viral suppression (HIV RNA <200 copies/mL last measured in year). The cascades were stratified by calendar year, sex, age, and race/ethnicity. We found men had statistically (p < 0.05) higher percent linkage, filled ART, and viral suppression for 2010 and 2011 but not for 2012. Women had significantly greater retention for all years. Annually, older age was associated (p < 0.05) with retention, filled ART, and viral suppression but not linkage. Latinos had greater (p < 0.05) retention than whites or blacks in all years, with similar retention comparing blacks and whites. Filled ART and viral suppression was increased (p < 0.05) for whites compared with all racial/ethnic groups in all years. Cascade methodology requiring success at upstream stages before measuring success at later stages (i.e., "dependent" methodology) underreported performance by up to 20% compared with evaluating each stage separately ("independent"). Thus, care results improved over time, but significant differences exist by patient demographics. Specifically, retention efforts should be targeted toward younger patients and blacks; women, blacks, and Latinos require greater ART prescribing. PMID:26505968

  4. Human gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity: effect of age, sex, and alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, H K; Egerer, G; Simanowski, U A; Waldherr, R; Eckey, R; Agarwal, D P; Goedde, H W; von Wartburg, J P

    1993-01-01

    As various isoenzymes of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase exist and as the effect of sex and age on these enzymes is unknown, this study measured the activity of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase at high and low ethanol concentrations in endoscopic biopsy specimens from a total of 290 patients of various ages and from 10 patients with chronic alcoholism. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase was also detected by immunohistological tests in biopsy specimens from 40 patients by the use of a polyclonal rabbit antibody against class I alcohol dehydrogenase. A significant correlation was found between the immunohistological reaction assessed by the intensity of the colour reaction in the biopsy specimen and the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase measured at 580 mM ethanol. While alcohol dehydrogenase activity measured at 16 mM ethanol was not significantly affected by age and sex, both factors influenced alcohol dehydrogenase activity measured at 580 mM ethanol. Young women below 50 years of age had significantly lower alcohol dehydrogenase activities in the gastric corpus and antrum when compared with age matched controls (SEM) (6.4 (0.7) v 8.8 (0.6) nmol/min/mg protein; p < 0.001 and 6.0 (1.3) v 9.5 (1.3) nmol/min/mg protein; p < 0.001). Over 50 years of age this sex difference was no longer detectable, as high Km gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity decreases with age only in men and not in women. In addition, extremely low alcohol dehydrogenase activities have been found in gastric biopsy specimens from young male alcoholics (2.2 (0.5) nmol/min/mg protein), which returned to normal after two to three weeks of abstinence. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in the human stomach measured at 580 mM ethanol is decreased in young women, in elderly men, and in the subject with alcoholism. This decrease in alcohol dehydrogenase activity may contribute to the reduced first pass metabolism of ethanol associated with raised ethanol blood concentrations seen in these people. Images Figure

  5. [Reproducibility of the answers of various groups of cardiovascular patients in a standardized questionnaire, differentiated by age and gender].

    PubMed

    Adelt, R; Bohm, R; Heinemann, L; Günther, K H

    1978-10-15

    For the purpose of the valuation of a questionnaire developed by us for the anamnestic recognition of angiocardiopathies, which consists of 63 questions, a repeated interrogation was performed with 220 patients of different age and sex during 14 days. The average reproducibility of the yes/no-decisions was good and varied only slightly in the 8 groups of diseases (86.3--99.4%). The average degree of reproducibility referred to the sexes is nearly the same (94.7% and 95.5%, respectively). Referred to the age groups the highest reproducibility was established in the patients older than 60 years (95.7%) and the lowest in patients between 50 and 60 years (93.3%). PMID:735245

  6. Coordinated Analysis of Age, Sex, and Education Effects on Change in MMSE Scores

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We describe and compare the expected performance trajectories of older adults on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) across six independent studies from four countries in the context of a collaborative network of longitudinal studies of aging. A coordinated analysis approach is used to compare patterns of change conditional on sample composition differences related to age, sex, and education. Such coordination accelerates evaluation of particular hypotheses. In particular, we focus on the effect of educational attainment on cognitive decline. Method. Regular and Tobit mixed models were fit to MMSE scores from each study separately. The effects of age, sex, and education were examined based on more than one centering point. Results. Findings were relatively consistent across studies. On average, MMSE scores were lower for older individuals and declined over time. Education predicted MMSE score, but, with two exceptions, was not associated with decline in MMSE over time. Conclusion. A straightforward association between educational attainment and rate of cognitive decline was not supported. Thoughtful consideration is needed when synthesizing evidence across studies, as methodologies adopted and sample characteristics, such as educational attainment, invariably differ. PMID:23033357

  7. Differential sex- and age-related migration of Bluethroats Luscinia svecica at Eilat, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovets, Mikhail L.; Zduniak, Piotr; Yosef, Reuven

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the phenology and biometrics of Bluethroats staging in the Eilat region. This is of special interest because of the extreme conditions with which this temperate zone breeding species has to contend because Eilat is a desert habitat and is the last green area before the crossing of the deserts in autumn or after it in spring. Data were collected during 20 spring and 18 autumn migration seasons in the years 1984-2003, and a total of 7,464 Bluethroat were recorded. The number of trapped birds was much higher in autumn than in spring. The majority of Bluethroats caught in both the autumn and spring migrations were juveniles. We found differences in sex ratio in the individual age classes only in the autumn wherein among both adults and juveniles, males were in greater numbers. We also found significant differences in the dates of ringed birds from different sex-age classes in the spring and in autumn migrations. In spring, males from both age classes were caught earlier than females. In autumn, adult birds arrived earlier than juveniles. We think that it is important to identify and conserve the high quality stopover habitats such as Eilat wherein not only Bluethroats have been shown to stopover but also several hundred other species.

  8. [Sleep habits of medical students, physicians and nurses regarding age, sex, shift work and caffein consumption].

    PubMed

    Pecotić, Renata; Valić, Maja; Kardum, Goran; Sevo, Vana; Dogas, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep habits of nurses, medical students, and physicians and to explore whether they are influenced by age, sex, shift work, and caffeine consumption. The questionnaire was derived from the MEDSleep Survey. A total of 453 respondents were surveyed: second-year medical students (130); physicians at the postgraduate study program (68); specialists (162); nurses (93). Results of our study indicate that hours of sleep needed for feeling rested depends on age and gender. Younger respondents and women in the study need longer sleep to feel rested (7.5 hours and more) than older ones and males who need less than 7.5 hours of sleep. Among medical professionals a need for sleep differs related to work demands and work schedule. Nurses need more sleep than physicians (chi2 = 38.57, p < 0.001). Female nurses need more sleep for feeling rested than female physicians (chi2 = 18.18, p < 0.001), and sleep longer during the weeknights (chi2 = 33.78, p < 0.001) and weekends (chi2 = 28.06, p < 0.001). The respondents that consume caffeine have more trouble staying awake while listening to lectures or learning (chi2 = 9.37, p = 0.009), and while driving a car (chi2 = 14.56, p = 0.001). The results indicate that sleep habits are related to age, sex and caffeine consumption. PMID:18592966

  9. Path Complexity in Virtual Water Maze Navigation: Differential Associations with Age, Sex, and Regional Brain Volume.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Yuan, Peng; Dahle, Cheryl L; Bender, Andrew R; Yang, Yiqin; Raz, Naftali

    2015-09-01

    Studies of human navigation in virtual maze environments have consistently linked advanced age with greater distance traveled between the start and the goal and longer duration of the search. Observations of search path geometry suggest that routes taken by older adults may be unnecessarily complex and that excessive path complexity may be an indicator of cognitive difficulties experienced by older navigators. In a sample of healthy adults, we quantify search path complexity in a virtual Morris water maze with a novel method based on fractal dimensionality. In a two-level hierarchical linear model, we estimated improvement in navigation performance across trials by a decline in route length, shortening of search time, and reduction in fractal dimensionality of the path. While replicating commonly reported age and sex differences in time and distance indices, a reduction in fractal dimension of the path accounted for improvement across trials, independent of age or sex. The volumes of brain regions associated with the establishment of cognitive maps (parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus) were related to path dimensionality, but not to the total distance and time. Thus, fractal dimensionality of a navigational path may present a useful complementary method of quantifying performance in navigation. PMID:24860019

  10. A systematic review of age, sex, ethnicity, and race as predictors of violent recidivism.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R; Jennings, Wesley G; Diamond, Brie; Reingle, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Recidivism of released prisoners, especially violent recidivism, is an important policy issue. Equally important is an understanding of how demographic risk factors may act as moderators of recidivism. Knowledge of such relationships is important in developing a deeper theoretical understanding of the risk of recidivism as well as identifying points of intervention that may need to be re-oriented to reduce recidivism. The present study conducts a meta-analytic review of the violent recidivism literature focusing on the role of several demographic risk factors. Findings show that age, sex, and race (Whites) were significantly related to violent recidivism. Implications and directions for future research are identified. PMID:24335783

  11. Sex differences in children's response to parental divorce: 2. Samples, variables, ages, and sources.

    PubMed

    Zaslow, M J

    1989-01-01

    This second of a two-part review examines four possibilities for explaining the discrepancy across studies in findings of sex differences in children's responses to parental divorce: sample type, nature of outcome variables, age of the child, and sources of data. Recommendations are made for further research that could clarify the nature and origins of differences by child gender in reactions to parental divorce. Part 1, reviewing research methodology and post divorce family forms, was published by this Journal in July 1988. PMID:2648853

  12. Mechanical properties of human lumbar spine motion segments. Influence of age, sex, disc level, and degeneration.

    PubMed

    Nachemson, A L; Schultz, A B; Berkson, M H

    1979-01-01

    The influences of age, sex, disc level, and degree of degenration on the mechanical behavior of 42 fresh cadaver lumbar motion segments are reported. The motions and intradiscal pressure changes that result from the application of flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsional moments; compression; and anterior, posterior, and lateral shears are described. The authors find that the mean behaviors of the different segment classes sometimes differ, but these differences are seldom pronounced. Scatter in the behavior of individual motion segments is pronounced, and very often overshadows any class differences. PMID:432710

  13. Effects of single sex lab groups on physics self-efficacy, behavior, and academic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Gary L.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the gender composition of a laboratory group and student behaviors, self-efficacy, and quiz performance, within the college physics laboratory. A student population was chosen and subdivided into two groups, which were assigned either same-sex or coed laboratory teams while executing identical laboratory activities and instruction. Assessments were carried out prior to instruction, during the course, and at the end of one semester worth of instruction and laboratory activities. Students were assessed in three areas: behaviors exhibited during laboratory activities, self-efficacy, and scores on laboratory quizzes. Analyses considered the differences in outcomes after a single semester of physics laboratories that differed only in team gender organization. The results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in behavior variable, self-efficacy or laboratory quiz scores between same sex teams and coed teams. There were also no statistically significant differences between genders, and no interaction effect present. In a post-hoc analysis of the individual behaviors data, it was noted that there is present a practical difference in the individual behaviors exhibited by males and females. This difference implies a difference in how males and females successfully engage in the laboratory activities.

  14. Sex differences in metabolic aging of the brain: insights into female susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liqin; Mao, Zisu; Woody, Sarah K; Brinton, Roberta D

    2016-06-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of clinical aspects of sex differences in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the underlying mechanisms, for instance, how sex modifies AD risk and why the female brain is more susceptible to AD, are not clear. The purpose of this study is to elucidate sex disparities in brain aging profiles focusing on 2 major areas-energy and amyloid metabolism-that are most significantly affected in preclinical development of AD. Total RNA isolated from hippocampal tissues of both female and male 129/C57BL/6 mice at ages of 6, 9, 12, or 15 months were comparatively analyzed by custom-designed Taqman low-density arrays for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detection of a total of 182 genes involved in a broad spectrum of biological processes modulating energy production and amyloid homeostasis. Gene expression profiles revealed substantial differences in the trajectory of aging changes between female and male brains. In female brains, 44.2% of genes were significantly changed from 6 months to 9 months and two-thirds showed downregulation. In contrast, in male brains, only 5.4% of genes were significantly altered at this age transition. Subsequent changes in female brains were at a much smaller magnitude, including 10.9% from 9 months to 12 months and 6.1% from 12 months to 15 months. In male brains, most changes occurred from 12 months to 15 months and the majority were upregulated. Furthermore, gene network analysis revealed that clusterin appeared to serve as a link between the overall decreased bioenergetic metabolism and increased amyloid dyshomeostasis associated with the earliest transition in female brains. Together, results from this study indicate that: (1) female and male brains follow profoundly dissimilar trajectories as they age; (2) female brains undergo age-related changes much earlier than male brains; (3) early changes in female brains signal the onset of a hypometabolic phenotype at risk for AD. These

  15. Age, sex and (the) race: gender and geriatrics in the ultra-endurance age.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-endurance challenges were once the stuff of legend isolated to the daring few who were driven to take on some of the greatest physical endurance challenges on the planet. With a growing fascination for major physical challenges during the nineteenth century, the end of the Victorian era witnessed probably the greatest ultra-endurance race of all time; Scott and Amundsen's ill-fated race to the South Pole. Ultra-endurance races continued through the twentieth century; however, these events were isolated to the elite few. In the twenty-first century, mass participation ultra-endurance races have grown in popularity. Endurance races once believed to be at the limit of human durability, i.e. marathon running, are now viewed as middle-distance races with the accolade of true endurance going to those willing to travel significantly further in a single effort or over multiple days. The recent series of papers in Extreme Physiology & Medicine highlights the burgeoning research data from mass participation ultra-endurance events. In support of a true 'mass participation' ethos Knetchtle et al. reported age-related changes in Triple and Deca Iron-ultra-triathlon with an upper age of 69 years! Unlike their shorter siblings, the ultra-endurance races appear to present larger gender differences in the region of 20% to 30% across distance and modality. It would appear that these gender differences remain for multi-day events including the 'Marathon des Sables'; however, this gap may be narrower in some events, particularly those that require less load bearing (i.e. swimming and cycling), as evidenced from the 'Ultraman Hawaii' and 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', and shorter (a term I used advisedly!) distances including the Ironman Triathlon where differences are similar to those of sprint and endurance distances i.e. c. 10%. The theme running through this series of papers is a continual rise in participation to the point where major events now require selection races to remain

  16. The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Magnus; Assarsson, Hannes; Carlsson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8) were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student's t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042), S3 (P=0.0049), S4 (P=0.010), and S1-S4 (P<0.001), whereas females skied faster in S6 (P<0.001), S7 (P<0.001), S8 (P=0.0088), and S5-S8 (P<0.001). For the age category, old subjects (40 to 59 years) skied faster than young subjects (19 to 39 years) in S3 (P=0.0029), and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) skied faster in S1 (P<0.001) and S1-S4 (P=0.0054); inexperienced skiers (<4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) had a shorter mean skiing time in S5-S8 (P=0.0063). In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race. PMID:26937207

  17. The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Magnus; Assarsson, Hannes; Carlsson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8) were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student’s t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042), S3 (P=0.0049), S4 (P=0.010), and S1–S4 (P<0.001), whereas females skied faster in S6 (P<0.001), S7 (P<0.001), S8 (P=0.0088), and S5–S8 (P<0.001). For the age category, old subjects (40 to 59 years) skied faster than young subjects (19 to 39 years) in S3 (P=0.0029), and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) skied faster in S1 (P<0.001) and S1–S4 (P=0.0054); inexperienced skiers (<4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) had a shorter mean skiing time in S5–S8 (P=0.0063). In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race. PMID:26937207

  18. Comorbidity Analysis According to Sex and Age in Hypertension Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiaqi; Ma, James; Wang, Jiaojiao; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Song, Hongbin; Wang, Ligui; Cao, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertension, an important risk factor for the health of human being, is often accompanied by various comorbidities. However, the incidence patterns of those comorbidities have not been widely studied. Aim: Applying big-data techniques on a large collection of electronic medical records, we investigated sex-specific and age-specific detection rates of some important comorbidities of hypertension, and sketched their relationships to reveal the risk for hypertension patients. Methods: We collected a total of 6,371,963 hypertension-related medical records from 106 hospitals in 72 cities throughout China. Those records were reported to a National Center for Disease Control in China between 2011 and 2013. Based on the comprehensive and geographically distributed data set, we identified the top 20 comorbidities of hypertension, and disclosed the sex-specific and age-specific patterns of those comorbidities. A comorbidities network was constructed based on the frequency of co-occurrence relationships among those comorbidities. Results: The top four comorbidities of hypertension were coronary heart disease, diabetes, hyperlipemia, and arteriosclerosis, whose detection rates were 21.71% (21.49% for men vs 21.95% for women), 16.00% (16.24% vs 15.74%), 13.81% (13.86% vs 13.76%), and 12.66% (12.25% vs 13.08%), respectively. The age-specific detection rates of comorbidities showed five unique patterns and also indicated that nephropathy, uremia, and anemia were significant risks for patients under 39 years of age. On the other hand, coronary heart disease, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, hyperlipemia, and cerebral infarction were more likely to occur in older patients. The comorbidity network that we constructed indicated that the top 20 comorbidities of hypertension had strong co-occurrence correlations. Conclusions: Hypertension patients can be aware of their risks of comorbidities based on our sex-specific results, age-specific patterns, and the comorbidity network

  19. Age and Sex Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computing Bar Chart Target-Pursuit System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the age and sex differences in controlled force exertion measured by the bar chart display in 207 males (age 42.1 [plus or minus] 19.8 years) and 249 females (age 41.7 [plus or minus] 19.1 years) aged 15 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength to changing demand values, which appeared as a…

  20. Diagnoses indicating pain and analgesic drug prescription in patients with dementia: a comparison to age- and sex-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The evidence of undertreatment of pain in patients with dementia is inconsistent. This may largely be due to methodological differences and shortcomings of studies. In a large cohort of patients with incident dementia and age- and sex-matched controls we examined (1) how often they receive diagnoses indicating pain, (2) how often they receive analgesics and (3) in which agents and formulations. Methods Using health insurance claims data we identified 1,848 patients with a first diagnosis of dementia aged ≥ 65 years and 7,385 age- and sex-matched controls. We analysed differences in diagnoses indicating pain and analgesic drugs prescribed between these two groups within the incidence year. We further fitted logistic regression models and stepwise adjusted for several covariates to study the relation between dementia and analgesics. Results On average, patients were 78.7 years old (48% female). The proportions receiving at least one diagnosis indicating pain were similar between the dementia and control group (74.4% vs. 72.5%; p = 0.11). The proportion who received analgesics was higher in patients with dementia in the crude analysis (47.5% vs. 44.7%; OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.01-1.24), but was significantly lower when adjusted for socio-demographic variables, care dependency, comorbidities and diagnoses indicating pain (OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.68-0.88). Analgesics in liquid form such as metamizole and tramadol were more often used in dementia. Conclusions Our findings show a comparable documentation of diagnoses indicating pain in persons with incident dementia compared to those without. However, there still seems to be an undertreatment of pain in patients with dementia. Irrespective of dementia, analgesics seem to be more often prescribed to sicker patients and to control pain in the context of mobility. PMID:24520876

  1. Kcne4 deletion sex- and age-specifically impairs cardiac repolarization in mice.

    PubMed

    Crump, Shawn M; Hu, Zhaoyang; Kant, Ritu; Levy, Daniel I; Goldstein, Steve A N; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial repolarization capacity varies with sex, age, and pathology; the molecular basis for this variation is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the transcript for KCNE4, a voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel β subunit associated with human atrial fibrillation, was 8-fold more highly expressed in the male left ventricle compared with females in young adult C57BL/6 mice (P < 0.05). Similarly, Kv current density was 25% greater in ventricular myocytes from young adult males (P < 0.05). Germ-line Kcne4 deletion eliminated the sex-specific Kv current disparity by diminishing ventricular fast transient outward current (Ito,f) and slowly activating K(+) current (IK,slow1). Kcne4 deletion also reduced Kv currents in male mouse atrial myocytes, by >45% (P < 0.001). As we previously found for Kv4.2 (which generates mouse Ito,f), heterologously expressed KCNE4 functionally regulated Kv1.5 (the Kv α subunit that generates IKslow1 in mice). Of note, in postmenopausal female mice, ventricular repolarization was impaired by Kcne4 deletion, and ventricular Kcne4 expression increased to match that of males. Moreover, castration diminished male ventricular Kcne4 expression 2.8-fold, whereas 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) implants in castrated mice increased Kcne4 expression >3-fold (P = 0.01) to match noncastrated levels. KCNE4 is thereby shown to be a DHT-regulated determinant of cardiac excitability and a molecular substrate for sex- and age-dependent cardiac arrhythmogenesis. PMID:26399785

  2. Aging and sex influence the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Saija, A.; Princi, P.; D'Amico, N.; De Pasquale, R.; Costa, G.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of aging- and sex-related alterations in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the rat, by calculating a unidirectional blood-to-brain transfer constant (Ki) for the circulating tracer ({sup 14}C)-{alpha}-aminoisobutyric acid. The authors observed that: (a) the permeability of the BBB significantly increased within the frontal and temporo-parietal cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum in 28-30 week old rats, in comparison with younger animals; (b) in several brain areas of female intact rats higher Ki values (even though not significantly different) were calculated at oestrus than at proestrus; (c) in 1-week ovariectomized rats there was a marked increase of Ki values at the level of the frontal, temporo-parietal and occipital cortex, cerebellum and brain-stem. One can speculate that aging and sex-related alterations in thee permeability of the BBB reflect respectively changes in brain neurochemical system activity and in plasma steroid hormone levels.

  3. Prediction of plantar soft tissue stiffness based on sex, age, bodyweight, height and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Jee Chin; Lee, Taeyong

    2016-02-01

    15% of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients suffer high risk of ulceration and 85% of the amputation involving DM population is caused by non-healing ulcers. These findings elucidate the fact that foot ulcer can result in major amputation especially to the DM and elderly population. Therefore, early diagnosis of abnormally stiffened plantar soft tissue is needed to prevent the catastrophic tissue damage. In order to differentiate between normal and pathological tissues, a threshold reference value that defines healthy tissue is required. The objective of this study is to perform a multivariate analysis to estimate the healthy plantar tissue stiffness values based on the individuals physical attributes such as bodyweight (BW), height and body mass index (BMI) as well as their age and sex. 100 healthy subjects were recruited. Indentation was performed on 2nd metatarsal head pad at 3 different dorsiflexion angles of 0°, 20°, 40° and the hallux and heel at 0°. The results showed the important influences of BW, height and BMI in determining the plantar tissue stiffness. On the other hand, age and sex only play minimal roles. The study can be further extended to increase the reliability and accuracy of the proposed predictive model by evaluating several other related parameters such as body fat content, footwear usage, frequency of sports participation, etc. PMID:26474035

  4. Aging differently: diet- and sex-dependent late-life mortality patterns in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Zajitschek, Felix; Jin, Tuo; Colchero, Fernando; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2014-06-01

    Diet effects on age-dependent mortality patterns are well documented in a large number of animal species, but studies that look at the effects of nutrient availability on late-life mortality plateaus are lacking. Here, we focus on the effect of dietary protein content (low, intermediate, and high) on mortality trajectories in late life in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. According to the two theories that are mainly implicated in explaining the deceleration of mortality rate in late life (the heterogeneity/frailty theory and the Hamiltonian theory), we predict, in general, the occurrence of late-life mortality deceleration under most circumstances, independent of sex and dietary regime. However, the heterogeneity theory of late life is more flexible in allowing no mortality deceleration to occur under certain circumstances compared with the Hamiltonian theory. We applied a novel statistical approach based on Bayesian inference of age-specific mortality rates and found a deceleration of late-life mortality rates on all diets in males but only on the intermediate (standard) diet in females. The difference in mortality rate deceleration between males and females on extreme diets suggests that the existence of mortality plateaus in late life is sex and diet dependent and, therefore, not a universal characteristic of large enough cohorts. PMID:24170671

  5. A re-examination of cremains weight: sex and age variation in a Northern California sample.

    PubMed

    Van Deest, Traci L; Murad, Turhon A; Bartelink, Eric J

    2011-03-01

    The reduction of modern commercially cremated remains into a fine powder negates the use of traditional methods of skeletal analysis. The literature on the use of cremains weight for estimating aspects of the biologic profile is limited, often with conflicting results. This study re-evaluates the value of weight in the assessment of biologic parameters from modern cremated remains. A sample of adults was collected in northern California (n = 756), with a cremains weight averaging 2737.1 g. Males were significantly heavier than females (mean = 3233.2 g versus mean = 2238.3 g, respectively; p<0.001). Comparison of this sample with other previously reported samples from southern California, Florida, and Tennessee indicates a consistent sex difference, with the most similar mean values to the Tennessee study. Although cremains weight decreases with age as expected, the relationship is weak; thus, cremains weight cannot accurately predict age-at-death. While sex estimation shows considerable accuracy (86.3% for males and 80.9% for females), sectioning points may be population specific. PMID:21265835

  6. Age- and sex-related variations in vocal-tract morphology and voice acoustics during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Markova, Diana; Richer, Louis; Pangelinan, Melissa; Schwartz, Deborah H; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Pike, G Bruce; Veillette, Suzanne; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    Distinct differences in the human voice emerge during adolescence, with males producing deeper and more resonant voices than females by the end of sexual maturation. Using magnetic resonance images of heads and voice recordings obtained in 532 typically developing adolescents, we investigate what might be the drivers of this change in voice, and the subjective judgment of the voice "maleness" and "femaleness". We show clear sex differences in the morphology of voice-related structures during adolescence, with males displaying strong associations between age (and puberty) and both vocal-fold and vocal-tract length; this was not the case in female adolescents. At the same time, males (compared with females) display stronger associations between age (and puberty) with both fundamental frequency and formant position. In males, vocal morphology was a mediator in the relationship between bioavailable testosterone and acoustic indices. Subjective judgment of the voice sex could be predicted by the morphological and acoustic parameters in males only: the length of vocal folds and its acoustic counterpart, fundamental frequency, is a larger predictor of subjective "maleness" of a voice than vocal-tract length and formant position. PMID:27062936

  7. Correlates of group sex among a community-based sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gregory; Magnus, Manya; Kuo, Irene; Rawls, Anthony; Peterson, James; West-Ojo, Tiffany; Jia, Yujiang; Opoku, Jenevieve; Greenberg, Alan E

    2014-08-01

    Participation of MSM in group sex events (GSEs) is an understudied phenomenon. Studies on GSEs identified significant proportions of MSM engaging in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). We sought to identify the prevalence of group sex participation among MSM in Washington, DC and to characterize these experiences. Data were collected for NHBS-MSM-3 in 2011. More than one-quarter of MSM (27.2 %) reported engaging in group sex in the prior year, with one-third reporting no condom use with their sex partners (33.0 %). In multivariable logistic regression, men who participated in a GSE in the prior year were significantly younger, more likely to be white, and to have used crystal meth, poppers, and downers in the past year. The high prevalence of UAI during GSEs, especially in view of the fact that HIV-positive MSM were significantly less likely to report condom use, offers an opportunity to develop risk reduction interventions specific to GSE attendees. PMID:23700223

  8. Variance in age-specific sex composition of Pacific halibut catches, and comparison of statistical and genetic methods for reconstructing sex ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loher, Timothy; Woods, Monica A.; Jimenez-Hidalgo, Isadora; Hauser, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Declines in size at age of Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis, in concert with sexually-dimorphic growth and a constant minimum commercial size limit, have led to the expectation that the sex composition of commercial catches should be increasingly female-biased. Sensitivity analyses suggest that variance in sex composition of landings may be the most influential source of uncertainty affecting current understanding of spawning stock biomass. However, there is no reliable way to determine sex at landing because all halibut are eviscerated at sea. In 2014, a statistical method based on survey data was developed to estimate the probability that fish of any given length at age (LAA) would be female, derived from the fundamental observation that large, young fish are likely female whereas small, old fish have a high probability of being male. Here, we examine variability in age-specific sex composition using at-sea commercial and closed-season survey catches, and compare the accuracy of the survey-based LAA technique to genetic markers for reconstructing the sex composition of catches. Sexing by LAA performed best for summer-collected samples, consistent with the hypothesis that the ability to characterize catches can be influenced by seasonal demographic shifts. Additionally, differences between survey and commercial selectivity that allow fishers to harvest larger fish within cohorts may generate important mismatch between survey and commercial datasets. Length-at-age-based estimates ranged from 4.7% underestimation of female proportion to 12.0% overestimation, with mean error of 5.8 ± 1.5%. Ratios determined by genetics were closer to true sample proportions and displayed less variability; estimation to within < 1% of true ratios was limited to genetics. Genetic estimation of female proportions ranged from 4.9% underestimation to 2.5% overestimation, with a mean absolute error of 1.2 ± 1.2%. Males were generally more difficult to assign than females: 6.7% of

  9. To have sex or not to have sex? An online focus group study of sexual decision making among sexually experienced and inexperienced gay and bisexual adolescent men.

    PubMed

    DuBois, L Zachary; Macapagal, Kathryn R; Rivera, Zenaida; Prescott, Tonya L; Ybarra, Michele L; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent gay and bisexual men (AGBM) are at disproportionately high risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, yet healthy sexuality and HIV prevention programs grounded in experiences unique to AGBM (e.g., coming out) are lacking, as is the formative work necessary to inform such programs. A richer understanding of factors informing AGBM's decisions to have or not have sex is needed. To fill this gap in the literature, we conducted qualitative and mixed-methods analyses of data collected in online focus groups with 75 ethnically diverse 14-18-year-old AGBM across the United States. Findings suggest that many reasons why AGBM choose to have or abstain from sex mirror those noted in the previous literature as influential for heterosexual adolescents (e.g., temptation, "horniness"). AGBM conveyed additional experiences/concerns that appeared unique to their sexual identity, particularly fears about pain during anal sex, and difficulties safely and accurately identifying same-sex partners. Both sexually experienced and inexperienced youth voiced reasons to wait or stop having sex. Sexually inexperienced youth said their motivations centered on wanting to avoid STIs and HIV, a desire to wait for the right partner, and the specialness of sex. On the other hand, sexually experienced AGBM said they stopped having sex if there was not an available partner they had interest in, or to improve their romantic relationship. Thus, while our findings suggest that there may be common factors across sexual identities that impact youth's sexual decision making, healthy sexuality programs for AGBM also need to address issues specific to being gay and bisexual. PMID:25925896

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Distribution and Sexual Behaviors across Gender and Age Group in an African Setting

    PubMed Central

    Djoba Siawaya, Joel Fleury

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) cases across gender and age groups in Libreville (Gabon); (2) examine Gabonese Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)-related risk behaviour. Methods The sampled population was people attending the “Laboratoire National de Santé Plublique”. Between 2007 and 2011, 14 667 and 9 542 people respectively, were tested for CT and HIV infections. 1 854 of them were tested for both infections. We calculated CT and HIV rates across gender and age groups. Also analysed was the groups' contribution to the general CT and HIV epidemiology. STIs-related risk behaviours were assessed in 224 men and 795 women (between July 2011 and March 2013) who agreed and answered a questionnaire including questions on their marital status, number of sex partners, sexual practices, history of STIs, sex frequency and condom use. Results Data showed a 24% dropped in the CT infection rate between 2007 and 2010, followed by a 14% increase in 2011. The HIV infection rates for the same period were between 15% and 16%. The risk of a CT-positive subject getting HIV is about 0.71 times the risk of a CT-negative subject. Young adult aged between 18 and 35 years old represented 65.2% of people who had STIs. 80% of women and 66% of men confessed to an inconsistent use of condoms. 11.6% of women and 48% of men declared having multiple sex partners. 61% of questioned women and 67% of men declared knowing their HIV status. Conclusions In this Gabonese setting, the population-aged from18 to 35 years is the most affected by STIs. Other matters of concern are the inconsistent use of protection and sex with non-spousal or non-life partners. PMID:24594663

  11. Age at reproductive maturity and effect of age and time of day on sex sttraction in the potato psyllid Bactericera cockerelli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera (= Paratrioza) cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potato. Studies were conducted to determine the age at which both males and females reach reproductive maturity and the effect of age and time of day on sex attraction. Adult B. cockerelli r...

  12. Three-dimensional modeling of the various volumes of canines to determine age and sex: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Tardivo, Delphine; Sastre, Julien; Ruquet, Michel; Thollon, Lionel; Adalian, Pascal; Leonetti, Georges; Foti, Bruno

    2011-05-01

    Canines are usually used in anthropological and forensic sciences for sex and age determination. The best methods to estimate age are based on secondary dentine apposition, evaluated from periapical X-rays. The aim of this study was to propose a new method of sex and age estimation using 3D models to obtain more precise predictions using tooth volumes. Fifty-eight dental CT scans of patients aged 14-74 with a well-balanced sex ratio composed the sample. One hundred and thirty-three healthy canines were modeled (Mimics 12.0). The sample was divided into a training sample and a validation sample. An age formula was determined using the "pulp volume/tooth volume" ratio. Sex prediction was adjusted with total volumes. Applying the equations to the validation sample, no significant difference was found between the real and predicted ages, and 100% of the sex predictions were correct. This preliminary study gives interesting results, and this method is worth being tested on a larger data sample. PMID:21361946

  13. "They" are old but "I" feel younger: age-group dissociation as a self-protective strategy in old age.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David; Lang, Frieder R

    2012-03-01

    Age becomes an important self-defining aspect particularly during advanced age. With increasing age, negative attributes related to age and aging become salient. Aging-related declines, losses, as well as the finitude of life seem to threaten older adults' sense of self. We hypothesize that older adults will try to avoid the negative consequences of their age group membership by distancing themselves from their age group. Study 1 (N = 544, 65% women; 18-85 years of age) examined the role of age-group identification for self-conception and self-image (subjective age and future time perspective) across the life span. Results show that weakly identified older adults feel younger than their chronological age and report a more expanded future time perspective relative to their same-age counterparts. A second experiment (N = 68, 69% women; 65-85 years of age) tested the impact of age stereotypes on older adults' level of age-group identification. Results suggest that older adults are more likely to psychologically dissociate themselves from their age group when negative age stereotypes are salient. Discussion focuses on (mal)adaptive consequences of age-group dissociation in later adulthood. PMID:21988154

  14. Age, sex and APOE ε4 effects on memory, brain structure and β-amyloid across the adult lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Clifford R.; Wiste, Heather J.; Weigand, Stephen D.; Knopman, David S.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Mielke, Michelle M.; Lowe, Val; Senjem, Matthew L.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Machulda, Mary M.; Gregg, Brian E.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Rocca, Walter A.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Typical cognitive aging may be defined as age associated changes in cognitive performance in individuals who remain free of dementia. Ideally the full adult age spectrum should be included to assess brain imaging findings associated with typical aging. Objective To compare age, sex and Apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4) effects on memory, brain structure (adjusted hippocampal volume, HVa) and amyloid PET in cognitively normal individuals aged 30 to 95 years old. Design, Setting, and Participants Cross sectional observational study (Marc 2006 to October 2014) at an academic medical center. We studied 1246 cognitively normal subjects; 1209 participants aged 50–95 years old enrolled in a population-based study of cognitive aging and 37 self-selected volunteers aged 30–49. Main Outcomes and Measures Memory, HVa, and amyloid PET Results Overall, memory worsened from age 30 years through the 90s. HVa worsened gradually from 30 years to the mid-60s and more steeply beyond that age. The median amyloid PET was low until age 70 years and increased thereafter. Memory was worse in men than women overall (p<0.001) and more specifically beyond age 40 years. HVa was lower in men than women overall (p<0.001) and more specifically beyond age 60 years. There was no sex difference in amyloid PET at any age. Within each sex, memory performance and HVa were not different by APOE ε4 at any age. From age 70 years onward APOE ε4 carriers had significantly greater median amyloid PET load than noncarriers. However the ages at which 10% of the population were amyloid PET positive were 57 years for APOE ε4 carriers and 64 years for non-carriers. Conclusions and Relevance Male sex is associated with worse memory and HVa among cognitively normal individuals while APOE ε4 is not. In contrast, APOE ε4 is associated with greater amyloid PET values (from age 70 years onward) while sex is not. Worsening memory and HVa occur at earlier ages than abnormal amyloid PET. Therefore

  15. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  16. Sexual system, sex ratio, and group living in the shrimp Thor amboinensis (De Man): relevance to resource-monopolization and sex-allocation theories.

    PubMed

    Baeza, J A; Piantoni, C

    2010-10-01

    The sexual system of the symbiotic shrimp Thor amboinensis is described, along with observations on sex ratio and host-use pattern of different populations. We used a comprehensive approach to elucidate the previously unknown sexual system of this shrimp. Dissections, scanning electron microscopy, size-frequency distribution analysis, and laboratory observations demonstrated that T. amboinensis is a protandric hermaphrodite: shrimp first mature as males and change into females later in life. Thor amboinensis inhabited the large and structurally heterogeneous sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus in large groups (up to 11 individuals) more frequently than expected by chance alone. Groups exhibited no particularly complex social structure and showed male-biased sex ratios more frequently than expected by chance alone. The adult sex ratio was male-biased in the four separate populations studied, one of them being thousands of kilometers apart from the others. This study supports predictions central to theories of resource monopolization and sex allocation. Dissections demonstrated that unusually large males were parasitized by an undescribed species of isopod (family Entoniscidae). Infestation rates were similarly low in both sexes (≈11%-12%). The available information suggests that T. amboinensis uses pure search promiscuity as a mating system. This hypothesis needs to be formally tested with mating behavior observations and field measurements on the movement pattern of both sexes of the species. Further detailed studies on the lifestyle and sexual system of all the species within this genus and the development of a molecular phylogeny are necessary to elucidate the evolutionary history of gender expression in the genus Thor. PMID:20972260

  17. Age and sex-selective predation moderate the overall impact of predators.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Sarah R; Petty, Steve J; Millon, Alexandre; Whitfield, D Philip; Marquiss, Michael; Davison, Martin; Lambin, Xavier

    2015-05-01

    Currently, there is no general agreement about the extent to which predators impact prey population dynamics and it is often poorly predicted by predation rates and species abundances. This could, in part be caused by variation in the type of selective predation occurring. Notably, if predation is selective on categories of individuals that contribute little to future generations, it may moderate the impact of predation on prey population dynamics. However, despite its prevalence, selective predation has seldom been studied in this context. Using recoveries of ringed tawny owls (Strix aluco) predated by 'superpredators', northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) as they colonized the area, we investigated the extent to which predation was sex and age-selective. Predation of juvenile owls was disproportionately high. Amongst adults, predation was strongly biased towards females and predation risk appeared to increase with age. This implies age-selective predation may shape the decline in survival with age, observed in tawny owls. To determine whether selective predation can modulate the overall impact of predation, age-based population matrix models were used to simulate the impact of five different patterns of age-selective predation, including the pattern actually observed in the study site. The overall impact on owl population size varied by up to 50%, depending on the pattern of selective predation. The simulation of the observed pattern of predation had a relatively small impact on population size, close to the least harmful scenario, predation on juveniles only. The actual changes in owl population size and structure observed during goshawk colonization were also analysed. Owl population size and immigration were unrelated to goshawk abundance. However, goshawk abundance appeared to interact with owl food availability to have a delayed effect on recruitment into the population. This study provides strong evidence to suggest that predation of other predators is

  18. Age Differences in Reaction Time and Attention in a National Telephone Sample of Adults: Education, Sex, and Task Complexity Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tun, Patricia A.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2008-01-01

    This study demonstrated effects of age, education, and sex on complex reaction time in a large national sample (N = 3,616) with a wide range in age (32-85) and education. Participants completed speeded auditory tasks (from the MIDUS [Midlife in the U.S.] Stop and Go Switch Task) by telephone. Complexity ranged from a simple repeated task to an…

  19. Willingness to Disclose Sexually Transmitted Infection Status to Sex Partners Among College-Aged Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Elizabeth J; McGregor, Kyle A; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Hardy Hansen, Cathlene; Ott, Mary A

    2016-03-01

    Disclosure of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to sexual partners is critical to the prevention, treatment, and control of STIs. We examine personal intra and interpersonal influences on willingness to disclose STI status among college-aged men. Participants (n = 1064) were aged 17 to 24 years and recruited from a variety of university and community venues. Using independent-samples t test, Pearson χ test, and binary logistic regression, we examined the relationship between willingness to disclose an STI and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, including age, masculinity values, interpersonal violence, partner cell phone monitoring, alcohol and/or drug use, condom use, number and characteristics of sex partners, and previous STI. Results reveal that among college-aged men, type of sex partner and masculinity values are significant variables in predicting whether or not an individual is willing to disclose. These data can inform STI control programs to more effectively address the complex issues associated with STI disclosure to sex partners. PMID:26859810

  20. Using Korotkoff Sounds to Detect the Degree of Vascular Compliance in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The principle behind the generation of the Korotkoff sounds is the turbulence of blood flowing through a partially occluded area in the artery. With increasing age, the vascular wall compliance is expected to decrease, which is due to the thickening of the vessel wall, due to which the amplitude of the transmitted Korotkoff sounds is decreased. There is also an accompanying rise in the systolic B.P. and pulse pressure. Aim To record and compare the amplitudes of the intermediate Korotkoff sounds and the blood pressures in individuals of the two age groups, and calculate the pulse pressure and determine whether they vary in relation to the amplitude of the intermediate Korotkoff sounds recorded. Materials and Methods The cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 young subjects (15-25 years) and 50 older subjects (50-70 years). The mid arm circumference was measured using a tape. A phonoarteriogram was placed over the left brachial artery and the sphygmomanometer cuff was tied 2cm above the cubital fossa of the left arm. The blood pressure was recorded using the Lab Tutor software. The Korotkoff sounds picked up and transmitted by the phonoarteriogram are represented as distinct lines on the graphical recording. Statistical Analysis Independent samples t-test to look for significant mean amplitude differences and for correlating mean amplitude and pulse pressure. Null hypothesis rejected at p<0.05. Data analysed using the SPSS software version 20.0 (SPSS Inc.). Results There was a significant difference in the mean amplitudes of Korotkoff sounds among the different age groups (p=0.001) and subject categories (p=0.043 among males, p=0.037 among females). A significant difference in pulse pressures was also seen among different age groups and subject categories. The decrease in the amplitudes of Korotkoff sounds in the older age group accompanies the increase in pulse pressures seen in this group and the same was seen among the different age groups within

  1. Sex, Age, and Graft Size as Predictors of ACL Re-tear

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Duong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The minimum size required for a successful quadrupled hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction remains controversial. The risks of ACL re-tear in younger patients who tend to participate in a higher level of sports activity, and female athletes who have numerous predisposing factors, are poorly defined. Purpose: To identify risk factors for graft re-tears within 2 years of ACL surgery. The hypotheses are that female sex, a smaller size graft, and younger patients will increase the odds of failure. Study Design Cohort Study. Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A cohort of 503 athletes undergoing primary, autograft hamstring ACL reconstruction, performed by a single surgeon using the same surgical technique and rehabilitation protocol, between September-December 2012, was followed for a total duration of 2 years. Return to play was allowed between 6 and 12 months post-surgery upon completion of functional testing. Exclusion criteria included infections, revisions, double bundle techniques, multi-ligament injuries, non-compliance, BTB/allografts/hybrid grafts. Primary outcome consisted of binary data (ACL graft re-tear or no tear) as measured on physical exam (Lachman and pivot shift) and MRI. Multivariate logistic regression statistical analysis with model fitting was used to investigate the predictive value of sex, age, and graft size on ACL re-tear. Secondary sensitivity analyses were performed on the adolescent subgroup, age and graft size as categorical variables, and testing for interactions among variables. Sample size was calculated based on the rule of 10 events per independent variable for logistic regression. Results: The mean age of the 503 athletes was 27.5 (SD 10.6; range = 12-61). There were 235 females (47%) and 268 males (53%) with a 6% rate of re-tears (28 patients; 17 females). Mean graft size was 7.9 (SD 0.6; range = 6-10). Univariate analyses of graft size, sex, and age only in the model showed that younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.86; 95

  2. Syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers in China: a three-site cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. Design A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Setting A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014. Participants 1245 middle-aged female sex workers who were over 35 years old (about 400 per study site). Main outcome measures Unprotected commercial sex, and syphilis and HIV infection were biologically tested and measured. Results The RDS-adjusted prevalence of active syphilis was 17.3% in Hefei, 9.9% in Qingdao, and 5.4% in Nanning. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of prevalent syphilis was between 6.8% and 33.6% in the three cities. The proportion of unprotected sex in the past 48 h verified by the prostate-specific antigen test (PSA) was between 27.8% and 42.4%. Multiple log-binomial regression analyses indicate that middle-aged FSWs who had 5 or more clients in the past week prior to interviews and engaged in unprotected sex were more likely to be active syphilitic cases. Middle-aged FSWs who had rural residency were less likely to be active syphilitic cases. Conclusions In contrast with previous studies that reported low prevalence of syphilis and high prevalence of protected sex among FSWs in China, both the prevalence of syphilis and unprotected sex were high among middle-aged FSWs. Evidence-based intervention programmes should be developed and evaluated among this vulnerable population in China and other countries with similar settings. PMID:27165644

  3. Relationship between the single-breath N test and age, sex, and smoking habit in three North American cities.

    PubMed

    Buist, A S; Ghezzo, H; Anthonisen, N R; Cherniack, R M; Ducic, S; Macklem, P T; Manfreda, J; Martin, R R; McCarthy, D; Ross, B B

    1979-08-01

    This report describes a collaborative study conducted in Montreal, Canada, Portland, Ore., and Winnipeg, Canada, to establish the relationship between the single-breath N2 test and age, sex, and smoking and to determine the prevalence of functional abnormalities in these populations. In nonsmokers, age-related regressions for closing volume, closing capacity, and the slope of phase III obtained from the single-breath N2 test, plus the ratio of the I-s forced expiratory volume to the forced vital capacity had very similar slopes, suggesting that differences in geographic location, climate, air pollution, and occupation had no effect on lung function detectable by these tests. Among the 6 city/six groups there was no systematic difference in the prevalence of functional abnormalities between the cities, but closing capacity expressed as a percentage of total lung capacity was abnormal most often in men and the slope of the alveolar plateau was abnormal most often in women. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms within different smoking categories was similar in the 3 cities. Although the number of cigarettes smoked had a significant effect on every test except the ratio of the I-s forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity in men, the effect of age was considerably greater than the effect of smoking, and the dose-response relationship was weak. We conclude that additional factors may interact with smoking to place a smoker at risk of developing chronic airflow limitation. PMID:475152

  4. Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Cognitive Dysfunction Questionnaire: instrument refinement and measurement invariance across age and sex.

    PubMed

    Vestergren, Peter; Rönnlund, Michael; Nyberg, Lars; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2012-10-01

    The study adopted Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to investigate the factorial structure and reduce the number of items of the Cognitive Dysfunction Questionnaire (CDQ). The analyses were based on data for a total of 1,115 participants from population based samples (mean age: 63.0 ± 14.5 years, range: 25-95) randomly split into a refinement (N = 569) and a cross-validation (N = 546) sample. Equivalence of the measurement and structural portions of the refined model was demonstrated across the refinement and cross-validation samples. Among competing models the best fitting and parsimonious model had a hierarchical factor structure with five first-order and one second-order general factor. For the final version of the CDQ, 20 items within five domains were selected (Procedural actions, Semantic word knowledge, Face recognition, Temporal orientation, and Spatial navigation). Internal consistency reliabilities were adequate for the total scale and for the subscales. Multigroup CFAs indicated measurement invariance across age and sex up to the scalar level. Finally, higher levels of cognitive dysfunction as reflected by CDQ scores were predicted by advancing age, fewer years of education, and with deficits in general cognitive functioning as reflected by scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination. In conclusion, the CDQ appears to be psychometrically sound and shows the expected relationships with variables known to be associated with cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Future studies should apply it among clinical groups to further test its usefulness. PMID:22962857

  5. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for

  6. Age, Sex, and Telomere Dynamics in a Long-Lived Seabird with Male-Biased Parental Care

    PubMed Central

    Young, Rebecca C.; Kitaysky, Alexander S.; Haussmann, Mark F.; Descamps, Sebastien; Orben, Rachael A.; Elliott, Kyle H.; Gaston, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    The examination of telomere dynamics is a recent technique in ecology for assessing physiological state and age-related traits from individuals of unknown age. Telomeres shorten with age in most species and are expected to reflect physiological state, reproductive investment, and chronological age. Loss of telomere length is used as an indicator of biological aging, as this detrimental deterioration is associated with lowered survival. Lifespan dimorphism and more rapid senescence in the larger, shorter-lived sex are predicted in species with sexual size dimorphism, however, little is known about the effects of behavioral dimorphism on senescence and life history traits in species with sexual monomorphism. Here we compare telomere dynamics of thick-billed murres (Urialomvia), a species with male-biased parental care, in two ways: 1) cross-sectionally in birds of known-age (0-28 years) from one colony and 2) longitudinally in birds from four colonies. Telomere dynamics are compared using three measures: the telomere restriction fragment (TRF), a lower window of TRF (TOE), and qPCR. All showed age-related shortening of telomeres, but the TRF measure also indicated that adult female murres have shorter telomere length than adult males, consistent with sex-specific patterns of ageing. Adult males had longer telomeres than adult females on all colonies examined, but chick telomere length did not differ by sex. Additionally, inter-annual telomere changes may be related to environmental conditions; birds from a potentially low quality colony lost telomeres, while those at more hospitable colonies maintained telomere length. We conclude that sex-specific patterns of telomere loss exist in the sexually monomorphic thick-billed murre but are likely to occur between fledging and recruitment. Longer telomeres in males may be related to their homogamous sex chromosomes (ZZ) or to selection for longer life in the care-giving sex. Environmental conditions appeared to be the

  7. Hodgkin's disease incidence in the United States by age, sex, geographic region and rye histologic subtype

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, S.L.

    1984-11-01

    Hodgkin's disease (HD) incidence in whites is described by age, sex, Rye histologic subtype and time period for ten US locations, using recently available data with Rye histologic diagnoses for most cases. Some distinctive features of incidence in young persons - stable childhood rates, and high and increasing rates in young adults, particularly women - resulted from the elevated rates of the Nodular Sclerosis (NS) subtype. NS was the only histologic form with a rising incidence. Unexpectedly, among middle-aged and older persons rates of all subtypes declined during the 1970s. HD incidence varied little across study regions and became more geographically homogeneous with time, notably among women. HD rates were positively correlated with regional socio-economic levels. In areas with the highest young adult incidence, higher risk also affected a broader age range, including older children. Rates for young adults were positively associated with community socioeconomic status but did not covary with older adult rates. Rates for the NS and Lymphocyte Predominance subtypes were inversely correlated across areas. NS incidence increased with community economic levels. These features suggest the incidence of HD in a well-developed country is not static but evolves, characterized by higher rates of NS in an increasingly broad age range of young, particularly female, adults, rising with small increments in socioeconomic status, and occurring over the relatively short study interval. 27 figures, 50 tables.

  8. Sex on the brain! Associations between sexual activity and cognitive function in older age

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Hayley; Jenks, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: the relationship between cognition and sexual activity in healthy older adults is under-researched. A limited amount of research in this area has shown that sexual activity is associated with better cognition in older men. The current study explores the possible mediating factors in this association in men and women, and attempts to provide an explanation in terms of physiological influences on cognitive function. Methods: using newly available data from Wave 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, the current study explored associations between sexual activity and cognition in adults aged 50–89 (n = 6,833). Two different tests of cognitive function were analysed: number sequencing, which broadly relates to executive function, and word recall, which broadly relates to memory. Results: after adjusting for age, education, wealth, physical activity, depression, cohabiting, self-rated health, loneliness and quality of life, there were significant associations between sexual activity and number sequencing and recall in men. However, in women there was a significant association between sexual activity and recall, but not number sequencing. Conclusions: possible mediators of these associations (e.g. neurotransmitters) are discussed. The cross-sectional nature of the analysis is limiting, but provides a promising avenue for future explorations and longitudinal studies. The findings have implications for the promotion of sexual counselling in healthcare settings, where maintaining a healthy sex life in older age could be instrumental in improving cognitive function and well-being. PMID:26826237

  9. The usefulness of age and sex to predict all-cause mortality in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: a single-center cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoping; Cai, Chi; Luo, Rong; Jiang, Rongjian; Zeng, Jie; Tang, Yijia; Chen, Yang; Fu, Michael; He, Tao; Hua, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have shown that sex and age are associated with outcomes in patients with cardiomyopathy. The purpose of this study was to determine the all-cause mortality of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) by age and sex. Methods and results The patients were divided into non-elderly (age <60 years, n=811) and elderly (age ≥60 years, n=331) groups. No difference in the all-cause mortality rate was observed between elderly and non-elderly patients (27.2% vs 22.2%, log-rank χ2=2.604, P=0.107). Furthermore, no significant difference in mortality was observed between the male and female patients (23.3% vs 24.5%, log-rank χ2=0.707, P=0.400). However, subgroup analysis revealed that elderly male patients exhibited a higher mortality rate than non-elderly male patients (29.4% vs 21.3%, log-rank χ2=5.898, P=0.015), while no difference was observed between the elderly female patients and non-elderly female patients. In the Cox analysis, neither age nor sex was a significant independent predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with DCM. Conclusion In conclusion, no significant difference in mortality between male and female patients or between the elderly and non-elderly patients was observed. Only among males was a difference in mortality observed; elderly male patients experienced greater mortality than that of non-elderly male patients. No effect of age or sex on all-cause mortality was observed in patients with DCM. PMID:26396507

  10. Adolescent Peer Group Communication, Sex-Role Norms and Decisions about Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jane Delano

    Interviews with 588 college students found support for the proposition that sex role norms and interpersonal communication norms and patterns had influenced their occupational decision making as adolescents. Specifically, the findings showed that the adoption of the traditionally masculine sex role norm (as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory)…

  11. Mucosal Blood Group Antigen Expression Profiles and HIV Infections: A Study among Female Sex Workers in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Chanzu, Nadia Musimbi; Mwanda, Walter; Oyugi, Julius; Anzala, Omu

    2015-01-01

    Background The ABO blood group antigens are carbohydrate moieties expressed on human red blood cells however; these antigens can also be expressed on some other cells particularly the surface of epithelial cells and may be found in mucosal secretions. In many human populations 80% secrete ABO antigens (termed ‘secretors’) while 20% do not (termed ‘non-secretors’). Furthermore, there are disease conditions that are associated with secretor status. Objective To investigate correlations between secretor status and HIV infection among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. Methodology This cross-sectional study recruited 280 female sex workers aged 18–65 years from the Pumwani Majengo cohort, Kenya. Blood typing was determined by serological techniques using monoclonal antibodies to the ABO blood group antigens. Secretor phenotyping was determined using anti-H specific lectins specific to salivary, vaginal and cervical blood group H antigen using the agglutination inhibition technique and correlated to individual HIV sero-status. Participants were additionally screened for Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis. Results Out of the 280 participants, 212 (75.7%) were secretors and 68 (24.3%) were non-secretors. The incidence of all infections: HIV, Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis was higher among secretors compared to non-secretors. However, this difference was only statistically significant for HIV infection incidence rates: HIV infected secretors (83.7%) versus HIV un-infected secretors (71.8%) (p = 0.029) Based on ABO phenotype stratification, the incidence of HIV infection was higher among blood group A secretors (26/52 = 50%), in comparison to B (12/39 = 33.3%: p = 0.066), AB (3/9 = 33.3%: p = 0.355), and O secretors (36/112 = 32.1%: p = 0.028). Conclusion This is the first report to document the variable expression of the ABH blood group antigens profiling secretor and non-secretor phenotypes

  12. Age and sex influence the balance between maximal cardiac output and peripheral vascular reserve.

    PubMed

    Ridout, Samuel J; Parker, Beth A; Smithmyer, Sandra L; Gonzales, Joaquin U; Beck, Kenneth C; Proctor, David N

    2010-03-01

    We evaluated the influence of age and sex on the relationship between central and peripheral vasodilatory capacity. Healthy men (19 younger, 12 older) and women (17 younger, 17 older) performed treadmill and knee extensor exercise to fatigue on separate days while maximal cardiac output (Q, acetylene uptake) and peak femoral blood flow (FBF, Doppler ultrasound) were measured, respectively. Maximal Q was reduced with age similarly in men (Y: 23.6 +/- 2.7 vs. O: 17.4 +/- 3.5 l/min; P < 0.05) and women (Y: 17.7 +/- 1.9 vs. O: 12.3 +/- 1.6 l/min; P < 0.05). Peak FBF was similar between younger (Y) and older (O) men (Y: 2.1 +/- 0.5 vs. O: 2.2 +/- 0.7 l/min) but was lower in older women compared with younger women (Y: 1.9 +/- 0.4 vs. O: 1.4 +/- 0.4 l/min; P < 0.05). Maximal Q was positively correlated with peak FBF in men (Y: r = 0.55, O: r = 0.74; P < 0.05) but not in women (Y: r = 0.34, O: r = 0.10). Normalization of cardiac output to appendicular muscle mass and peak FBF to quadriceps mass reduced the correlation between these variables in younger men (r = 0.30), but the significant association remained in older men (r = 0.68; P < 0.05), with no change in women. These data suggest that 1) aerobic capacity is associated with peripheral vascular reserve in men but not women, and 2) aging is accompanied by a more pronounced sex difference in this relationship. PMID:19959767

  13. Tear Lacritin Levels by Age, Sex, and Time of Day in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Kyle; Gandia, Natasha C.; Wilburn, Jennifer K.; Bower, Kraig S.; Sia, Rose K.; Ryan, Denise S.; Deaton, Michael L.; Still, Katherine M.; Vassilev, Veronica C.; Laurie, Gordon W.; McKown, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Several small proteomic studies suggest that the prosecretory tear protein lacritin may be selectively downregulated in dry eye syndrome and in blepharitis, yet little information is available about normal baseline levels. This study assessed lacritin levels in tears from healthy individuals and addressed whether they differ according to sex, age, or time of day. Methods. Rabbit antibodies against lacritin N-terminal peptide EDASSDSTGADPAQEAGTS (Pep Lac N-Term) were generated and characterized against human recombinant lacritin and N-65 truncation mutant. Basal tears were collected from 66 healthy individuals ranging in age from 18 to 52 years, and at four times during one 24-hour period from 34 other individuals. Lacritin levels were then analyzed by ELISA and Western blotting. Results. Anti-Pep Lac N-Term bound lacritin, but not truncation mutant N-65 that lacks the N-terminal antigenic site. Tear lacritin levels followed a normal distribution with a mean of 4.2 ± 1.17 ng/100 ng total tear protein. Levels differed little by age or sex, and decreased slightly between 4 and 8 hours in a 24-hour cycle. Tear-blocking effects were minimal, as suggested by spiking of tears with recombinant lacritin. Conclusions. Anti-Pep Lac N-Term–detectable lacritin comprises ∼4.2 ng/100 ng total tear protein in healthy individuals, with no significant differences between males and females or among individuals between 18 and 52 years old. Levels decrease slightly in the late afternoon. These findings provide a baseline for future immunodiagnostic studies of lacritin in dry eye and other ocular diseases. PMID:22918641

  14. Age- and sex-dependent distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants in urban foxes.

    PubMed Central

    Dip, Ramiro; Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter; Dafflon, Oscar; Koch, Herbert; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2003-01-01

    The colonization of urban and suburban habitats by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) provides a novel sentinel species to monitor the spread of anthropogenic pollutants in densely populated human settlements. Here, red foxes were collected in the municipal territory of Zürich, Switzerland, and their perirenal adipose tissue was examined for persistent organochlorine residues. This pilot study revealed an unexpected pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with significantly higher levels of the predominant congeners PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 in juvenile foxes relative to adult animals. Further data analysis demonstrated that the observed difference was attributable to an age-dependent reduction of PCB concentrations in females, whereas male foxes retained approximately the same PCB burden throughout their life span. A similar sex-related bias between population members has been observed, primarily in marine mammals. Interestingly, the reduction of organochlorine contents with progressive age is reminiscent of human studies, where an extensive maternal transfer of xenobiotics to the offspring has been shown to result in increased exposure levels of infants relative to adults. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an urban wildlife species that faithfully reflects the dynamic distribution of toxic contaminants in the corresponding human population. Suburban and urban foxes occupy habitats in close proximity to humans, depend on anthropogenic food supplies, are relatively long-lived and readily available for sampling, can be easily aged and sexed, have a limited home range, and, therefore, meet several important requirements to serve as a surrogate species for the assessment of toxic health hazards. PMID:14527839

  15. Age- and sex-dependent distribution of persistent organochlorine pollutants in urban foxes.

    PubMed

    Dip, Ramiro; Hegglin, Daniel; Deplazes, Peter; Dafflon, Oscar; Koch, Herbert; Naegeli, Hanspeter

    2003-10-01

    The colonization of urban and suburban habitats by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) provides a novel sentinel species to monitor the spread of anthropogenic pollutants in densely populated human settlements. Here, red foxes were collected in the municipal territory of Zürich, Switzerland, and their perirenal adipose tissue was examined for persistent organochlorine residues. This pilot study revealed an unexpected pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with significantly higher levels of the predominant congeners PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 in juvenile foxes relative to adult animals. Further data analysis demonstrated that the observed difference was attributable to an age-dependent reduction of PCB concentrations in females, whereas male foxes retained approximately the same PCB burden throughout their life span. A similar sex-related bias between population members has been observed, primarily in marine mammals. Interestingly, the reduction of organochlorine contents with progressive age is reminiscent of human studies, where an extensive maternal transfer of xenobiotics to the offspring has been shown to result in increased exposure levels of infants relative to adults. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an urban wildlife species that faithfully reflects the dynamic distribution of toxic contaminants in the corresponding human population. Suburban and urban foxes occupy habitats in close proximity to humans, depend on anthropogenic food supplies, are relatively long-lived and readily available for sampling, can be easily aged and sexed, have a limited home range, and, therefore, meet several important requirements to serve as a surrogate species for the assessment of toxic health hazards. PMID:14527839

  16. Sex Education and Young People in Group Homes: Balancing Risks, Rights and Resilience in Sexual Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindroth, Malin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from focus group interviews conducted in Swedish government group homes for young people with a history of psychosocial problems, substance misuse and criminal behaviour. Participants were asked to reflect on a newly developed sex education curriculum located within a harm-reduction paradigm prior to its…

  17. Genetic modifiers and subtypes in schizophrenia: investigations of age at onset, severity, sex and family history.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Sarah E; O'Dushlaine, Colm T; Lee, Phil H; Fanous, Ayman H; Ruderfer, Douglas M; Ripke, Stephan; Sullivan, Patrick F; Smoller, Jordan W; Purcell, Shaun M; Corvin, Aiden

    2014-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. Genetic risk factors for the disorder may differ between the sexes or between multiply affected families compared to cases with no family history. Additionally, limited data support a genetic basis for variation in onset and severity, but specific loci have not been identified. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) examining genetic influences on age at onset (AAO) and illness severity as well as specific risk by sex or family history status using up to 2762 cases and 3187 controls from the International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC). Subjects with a family history of schizophrenia demonstrated a slightly lower average AAO that was not significant following multiple testing correction (p=.048), but no differences in illness severity were observed by family history status (p=.51). Consistent with prior reports, we observed earlier AAO (p=.005) and a more severe course of illness for men (p=.002). Family history positive analyses showed the greatest association with KIF5C (p=1.96×10(-8)), however, genetic risk burden overall does not differ by family history. Separate association analyses for males and females revealed no significant sex-specific associations. The top GWAS hit for AAO was near the olfactory receptor gene OR2K2 (p=1.52×10(-7)). Analyses of illness severity (episodic vs. continuous) implicated variation in ST18 (p=8.24×10(-7)). These results confirm recognized demographic relationships but do not support a simplified genetic architecture for schizophrenia subtypes based on these variables. PMID:24581549

  18. Genetic modifiers and subtypes in schizophrenia: Investigations of age at onset, severity, sex and family history

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Sarah E.; O’Dushlaine, Colm T.; Lee, Phil H.; Fanous, Ayman H.; Ruderfer, Douglas M.; Ripke, Stephan; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Corvin, Aiden

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. Genetic risk factors for the disorder may differ between the sexes or between multiply affected families compared to cases with no family history. Additionally, limited data support a genetic basis for variation in onset and severity, but specific loci have not been identified. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) examining genetic influences on age at onset (AAO) and illness severity as well as specific risk by sex or family history status using up to 2762 cases and 3187 controls from the International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC). Subjects with a family history of schizophrenia demonstrated a slightly lower average AAO that was not significant following multiple testing correction (p = .048), but no differences in illness severity were observed by family history status (p = .51). Consistent with prior reports, we observed earlier AAO (p = .005) and a more severe course of illness for men (p = .002). Family history positive analyses showed the greatest association with KIF5C (p = 1.96 × 10−8), however, genetic risk burden overall does not differ by family history. Separate association analyses for males and females revealed no significant sex-specific associations. The top GWAS hit for AAO was near the olfactory receptor gene OR2K2 (p = 1.52 × 10−7). Analyses of illness severity (episodic vs. continuous) implicated variation in ST18 (p = 8.24 × 10−7). These results confirm recognized demographic relationships but do not support a simplified genetic architecture for schizophrenia subtypes based on these variables. PMID:24581549

  19. Femoral neck-shaft angle in humans: variation relating to climate, clothing, lifestyle, sex, age and side.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, Ian; Chandraphak, Supichya; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2013-08-01

    The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) varies among modern humans but measurement problems and sampling limitations have precluded the identification of factors contributing to its variation at the population level. Potential sources of variation include sex, age, side (left or right), regional differences in body shape due to climatic adaptation, and the effects of habitual activity patterns (e.g. mobile and sedentary lifestyles and foraging, agricultural, and urban economies). In this study we addressed these issues, using consistent methods to assemble a global NSA database comprising over 8000 femora representing 100 human groups. Results from the analyses show an average NSA for modern humans of 127° (markedly lower than the accepted value of 135°); there is no sex difference, no age-related change in adults, but possibly a small lateral difference which could be due to right leg dominance. Climatic trends consistent with principles based on Bergmann's rule are evident at the global and continental levels, with the NSA varying in relation to other body shape indices: median NSA, for instance, is higher in warmer regions, notably in the Pacific (130°), whereas lower values (associated with a more stocky body build) are found in regions where ancestral populations were exposed to colder conditions, in Europe (126°) and the Americas (125°). There is a modest trend towards increasing NSA with the economic transitions from forager to agricultural and urban lifestyles and, to a lesser extent, from a mobile to a sedentary existence. However, the main trend associated with these transitions is a progressive narrowing in the range of variation in the NSA, which may be attributable to thermal insulation provided by improved cultural buffering from climate, particularly clothing. PMID:23781912

  20. Femoral neck-shaft angle in humans: variation relating to climate, clothing, lifestyle, sex, age and side

    PubMed Central

    Gilligan, Ian; Chandraphak, Supichya; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2013-01-01

    The femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA) varies among modern humans but measurement problems and sampling limitations have precluded the identification of factors contributing to its variation at the population level. Potential sources of variation include sex, age, side (left or right), regional differences in body shape due to climatic adaptation, and the effects of habitual activity patterns (e.g. mobile and sedentary lifestyles and foraging, agricultural, and urban economies). In this study we addressed these issues, using consistent methods to assemble a global NSA database comprising over 8000 femora representing 100 human groups. Results from the analyses show an average NSA for modern humans of 127° (markedly lower than the accepted value of 135°); there is no sex difference, no age-related change in adults, but possibly a small lateral difference which could be due to right leg dominance. Climatic trends consistent with principles based on Bergmann's rule are evident at the global and continental levels, with the NSA varying in relation to other body shape indices: median NSA, for instance, is higher in warmer regions, notably in the Pacific (130°), whereas lower values (associated with a more stocky body build) are found in regions where ancestral populations were exposed to colder conditions, in Europe (126°) and the Americas (125°). There is a modest trend towards increasing NSA with the economic transitions from forager to agricultural and urban lifestyles and, to a lesser extent, from a mobile to a sedentary existence. However, the main trend associated with these transitions is a progressive narrowing in the range of variation in the NSA, which may be attributable to thermal insulation provided by improved cultural buffering from climate, particularly clothing. PMID:23781912

  1. Female parity, maternal kinship, infant age and sex influence natal attraction and infant handling in a wild colobine (Colobus vellerosus).

    PubMed

    Bădescu, Iulia; Sicotte, Pascale; Ting, Nelson; Wikberg, Eva C

    2015-04-01

    Primate females often inspect, touch and groom others' infants (natal attraction) and they may hold and carry these infants in a manner resembling maternal care (infant handling). While natal attraction and infant handling occur in most wild colobines, little is known about the factors influencing the expression of these behaviors. We examined the effects of female parity, kinship, and dominance rank, as well as infant age and sex in wild Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana. We collected data via focal sampling of females in 2008 and 2009 (N = 61) and of infants in 2010 (N = 12). Accounting for the individuals who interacted with our focal subjects, this study includes 74 females and 66 infants in 8 groups. We recorded female agonistic interactions ad libitum to determine dominance ranks. We used partial pedigree information and genotypes at 17 short tandem repeat loci to determine kinship. We knew female parity, infant age and sex from demographic records. Nulliparous females showed more natal attraction and infant handling than parous females, which may suggest that interactions with infants are more adaptive for nulliparous females because they learn mothering skills through these behaviors. Compared to non-kin, maternal kin were more likely to handle infants. Maternal kin may be permitted greater access to infants because mothers are most familiar with them. Handlers may incur inclusive fitness benefits from infant handling. Dominance rank did not affect female interactions with infants. The youngest infants received the most natal attraction and infant handling, and male infants were handled more than female infants. The potential benefits of learning to mother and inclusive fitness, in combination with the relatively low costs of natal attraction and infant handling, may explain the high rates of these behaviors in many colobines. PMID:25399677

  2. Differential regulation of the β-adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP level with age and sex in turkey cardiac chambers.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Böhme, Julia; Kube, Christian; Haufe, Jörg; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Abraham, Getu

    2016-04-15

    Decreased responses of the heart to β-adrenoceptor stimulation with aging have been shown to occur merely in selected heart chambers in relation to increased catecholamine levels. However, there are no systematic studies that investigate all cardiac chambers with regard to receptor density and cAMP (adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate) responses. We used meat-type turkey poults (British United Turkey (B.U.T.) Big 6) with increasing age because their heart seems to decrease in weight in relation to body weight and they are often used as an animal model for heart failure. The receptor density and distribution were quantified by radioligand binding analysis using (-)-[(125)I]-iodocyanopindolol and β-adrenoceptor subtype-specific antagonists (ICI 118.551 and CGP 20712 A) in membranes of four cardiac chambers (right and left atria and ventricles) of 6-week-, 12-week-, 16/21-week-, and 57-week-old B.U.T. BIG 6 turkeys. Receptor function was determined by measuring basal and stimulated cAMP production. In both sexes, the β-adrenoceptor density decreased significantly in all chambers with age without altered β-adrenoceptor subtype distribution. The receptor affinity (KD) to the radioligand was similar in hearts of all age groups. β-adrenoceptor-(isoproterenol and guanosine 5'-triphosphate), G-protein-(NaF) and catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase (forskolin, Mn(2+)) mediated cAMP responses were not chamber-dependent. Indeed, the cAMP level was significantly lower in 57-week-old hearts than in 6-week-, 12-week-, 16/21-week-old hearts. These data suggest that with increasing age and body weight, the β-adrenoceptor signal transduction pathway was highly blunted in all cardiac chambers, occurring by decreased receptor density and cAMP responses. PMID:26957056

  3. Biological validation of feline serum cystatin C: The effect of breed, age and sex and establishment of a reference interval.

    PubMed

    Ghys, L F E; Paepe, D; Duchateau, L; Taffin, E R L; Marynissen, S; Delanghe, J; Daminet, S

    2015-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in cats, but the routine renal markers, serum creatinine (sCr) and urea, are not sensitive or specific enough to detect early CKD. Serum cystatin C (sCysC) has advantages over sCr, both in humans and dogs, and sCysC concentration is significantly higher in cats with CKD than in healthy cats. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age, sex and breed on feline sCysC and to establish a reference interval for feline sCysC. In total, 130 healthy cats aged 1-16 years were included. sCysC was determined using a validated particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay. sCr, urea, urine specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were also measured. No significant differences in sCysC concentration were observed among young, middle-aged and geriatric cats, female intact, female neutered cats, male intact and male neutered cats, or among purebred and domestic short-or longhaired cats. The 95% reference interval for feline sCysC was determined to be 0.58-1.95 mg/L. sCr was significantly higher in geriatric cats than young cats. Serum urea in geriatric cats was significantly higher than in middle-aged and young cats (P = 0.004 and P <0.001, respectively). SBP in geriatric cats was significantly higher than in both middle-aged and young cats (P = 0.004 and P = 0.040, respectively). Male neutered and female neutered cats had significantly higher serum urea concentrations than female intact cats (P = 0.003 and P = 0.006, respectively). Male intact cats had a significantly higher UPC than female intact and female neutered cats (P = 0.02 for each comparison). There were no significant differences among sex groups for USG. It is of concern that sCysC in the majority of cats with CKD in previous studies falls within the reference interval calculated in this study. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the diagnostic value of sCysC as a renal marker in

  4. Coming of Age in the Kisspeptin Era: Sex differences, Development, and Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    The status of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis differs dramatically between early development, puberty, and various stages of adulthood, and also differs in several critical ways between the sexes, including its earlier pubertal activation in females than males and the presence of neural circuitry that generates preovulatory hormone surges in females but not males. The reproductive axis is controlled by various hormonal and neural pathways that converge upon forebrain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, and many of the critical age and sex differences in the reproductive axis likely reflect differences in the “upstream” circuits and factors that regulate the GnRH system. Recently, the neural kisspeptin system has been implicated as an important regulator of GnRH neurons. Here I discuss the evidence supporting a critical role of kisspeptin signaling at different stages of life, including early postnatal and pubertal development, as well as in adulthood, focusing primarily on information gleaned from mammalian studies. I also evaluate key aspects of sexual differentiation and development of the brain as it relates to the Kiss1 system, with special emphasis on rodents. In addition to discussing recent advances in the field of kisspeptin biology, this paper will highlight a number of unanswered questions and future challenges for kisspeptin investigators, and will stress the importance of studying the kisspeptin system in both males and females, as well as in multiple species. PMID:20083160

  5. Cell Death Atlas of the Postnatal Mouse Ventral Forebrain and Hypothalamus: Effects of Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, Todd H.; Krug, Stefanie; Carr, Audrey V.; Murray, Elaine K.; Fitzpatrick, Emmett; Bengston, Lynn; McCutcheon, Jill; De Vries, Geert J.; Forger, Nancy G.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring cell death is essential to the development of the mammalian nervous system. Although the importance of developmental cell death has been appreciated for decades, there is no comprehensive account of cell death across brain areas in the mouse. Moreover, several regional sex differences in cell death have been described for the ventral forebrain and hypothalamus, but it is not known how widespread the phenomenon is. We used immunohistochemical detection of activated caspase-3 to identify dying cells in the brains of male and female mice from postnatal day (P) 1 to P11. Cell death density, total number of dying cells, and regional volume were determined in 16 regions of the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain (the anterior hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, anteroventral periventricular nucleus, medial preoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus; the basolateral, central, and medial amygdala; the lateral and principal nuclei of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis; the caudate-putamen; the globus pallidus; the lateral septum; and the islands of Calleja). All regions showed a significant effect of age on cell death. The timing of peak cell death varied between P1 to P7, and the average rate of cell death varied tenfold among regions. Several significant sex differences in cell death and/or regional volume were detected. These data address large gaps in the developmental literature and suggest interesting region-specific differences in the prevalence and timing of cell death in the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain. PMID:23296992

  6. Scurvy in pediatric age group – A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009–2014) with search terms “scurvy” “vitamin C deficiency” “ascorbic acid deficiency” “scurvy and children” “scurvy and pediatric age group”. There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  7. Osteocyte lacunar properties and cortical microstructure in human iliac crest as a function of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Bach-Gansmo, Fiona Linnea; Brüel, Annemarie; Jensen, Michael Vinkel; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Birkedal, Henrik; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus

    2016-10-01

    Osteocytes are suggested to play a central role in bone remodeling. Evaluation of iliac crest biopsies is a standard procedure for evaluating bone conditions in the clinical setting. Despite the widespread use of such biopsies, little is known about the population of osteocytes in the iliac crest from normal individuals. Contradicting results have been reported on osteocyte lacunar properties in human bone. Hence, a solid understanding of the osteocyte population in healthy bone and the effect of age and sex is needed as good reference data are lacking. Furthermore, the role of cortical bone in bone quality has recently been suggested to be more important than previously realized. Therefore, the present study assesses osteocyte lacunar properties and cortical microstructure of the iliac crest as a function of age and sex. A total of 88 iliac crest bone samples from healthy individuals (46 women, aged 18.5-96.4years and 42 men, aged 22.6-94.6years) with an even age-distribution were examined using synchrotron radiation μCT and in house μCT, with >5×10(6) osteocyte lacunae measured and analyzed. The study revealed that osteocyte lacunar volumes were unaffected by both age and sex. Osteocyte lacunar density did not differ between women and men, and only showed a significant decrease with age when pooling data from both sexes. Cortical porosity and Haversian canal density increased while cortical thickness decreased with age, with cortical thinning dominating the age-related cortical bone loss. None of the cortical microstructural parameters showed any sex dependency. Only weak links between osteocyte lacunar properties and cortical microstructural properties in iliac crest bone were found. Interestingly, the Haversian canal diameters were significantly but weakly negatively correlated with osteocyte lacunar volumes. PMID:27397700

  8. A comparison of participation and performance in age-group finishers competing in and qualifying for Ironman Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Michael; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Background Athletes intending to compete in Ironman Hawaii need to qualify in an age-group based qualification system. We compared participation and top ten performances of athletes in various age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Methods Finishes in Ironman Hawaii and in its qualifier races in 2010 were analyzed in terms of performance, age, and sex. Athletes were categorized into age groups from 18–24 to 75–79 years and split and race times were determined for the top ten athletes in each age group. Results A higher proportion of athletes aged 25–49 years finished in the qualifier races than in Ironman Hawaii. In athletes aged 18–24 and 50–79 years, the percentage of finishes was higher in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. For women, the fastest race times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for those aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 25–29 (P<0.05), and 60–64 (P<0.05) years. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for 18–24, 25–29, 40–44, 50–54, and 60–64 years (P<0.05) in age groups. For men, finishers aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 40–44 (P<0.001), 50–54 (P<0.01), 55–59 (P<0.001), 60–64 (P<0.01), and 65–69 (P<0.001) years were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for those aged 18–24 and those aged 40 years and older (P<0.05). Conclusion There are differences in terms of participation and performance for athletes in different age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Triathletes aged 25–49 years and men generally were underrepresented in Ironman Hawaii compared with in its Ironman qualifier races. These athletes may have had less chance to qualify for Ironman Hawaii than female athletes or younger (<25

  9. Revising the BIS/BAS Scale to study development: Measurement invariance and normative effects of age and sex from childhood through adulthood.

    PubMed

    Pagliaccio, David; Luking, Katherine R; Anokhin, Andrey P; Gotlib, Ian H; Hayden, Elizabeth P; Olino, Thomas M; Peng, Chun-Zi; Hajcak, Greg; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-04-01

    Carver and White's (1994) Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scales have been useful tools for studying individual differences in reward-punishment sensitivity; however, their factor structure and invariance across development have not been well tested. In the current study, we examined the factor structure of the BIS/BAS Scales across 5 age groups: 6- to 10-year-old children (N = 229), 11- to 13-year-old early adolescents (N = 311), 14- to 16-year-old late adolescents (N = 353), 18- to 22-year-old young adults (N = 844), and 30- to 45-year-old adults (N = 471). Given poor fit of the standard 4-factor model (BIS, Reward Responsivity, Drive, Fun Seeking) in the literature, we conducted exploratory factor analyses in half of the participants and identified problematic items across age groups. The 4-factor model showed poor fit in our sample, whereas removing the BAS Fun Seeking subscale and problematic items from the remaining subscales improved fit in confirmatory factor analyses conducted with the second half of the participants. The revised model showed strict invariance across age groups and by sex, indicating consistent factor structure, item loadings, thresholds, and unique or residual variances. Additionally, in our cross-sectional data, we observed nonlinear relations between age and subscale scores, where scores tended to be higher in young adulthood than in childhood and later adulthood. Furthermore, sex differences emerged across development; adolescent and adult females had higher BIS scores than males in this age range, whereas sex differences were not observed in childhood. These differences may help us to understand the rise in internalizing psychopathology in adolescence, particularly in females. Future developmental studies are warranted to examine the impact of rewording problematic items. PMID:26302106

  10. Influence of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of sidearm striking by children grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Loovis, E M; Butterfield, S A

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of sidearm-striking by children in Grades K through 8. Each of 380 boys and 337 girls (ages 4-14 years), enrolled in a medium-size school system in southeastern Maine, was individually assessed on side-arm-striking and on static and dynamic balance. All subjects completed a survey relative to their participation in school or community-sponsored sports. To assess the independent effects of age, sex, static balance, dynamic balance, and sport participation within each grade, data were subjected to multiple-regression analysis. Development of mature striking was associated with sex; boys performed better at all grades except in Grade 5 where the percentage of girls showing a mature sidearm-striking pattern approximated that of boys. PMID:8570363

  11. Perceived energy compensation following various sports: an age and sex comparison. Preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Varley-Campbell, J L; Moore, M S; Ewen, R E; Williams, C A

    2015-12-01

    Following periods of physical activity, it is not uncommon for exercisers to increase their energy intake as a reward deemed 'earned'. Consumers' awareness of the energy within food and expended from exercise has previously been found to be limited. Therefore, the aim was to investigate whether habitual exercisers (50 adults and 49 children from 5 sports clubs) were able to conceptualise the energy expenditure (EE), following 1 h of their regular sports training, into a quantifiable amount of perceived energy compensation (PEC) in the form of food (chocolate) or drink (sports drink). Mean percentage accuracy for the PEC against EE matched <30% (± 29%), a significant underestimation irrespective of sex or sport. Percentage accuracy failed to significantly correlate to age. These findings indicate a necessity to improve nutrition education surrounding the energy costs of exercise relative to the energy contained within foods/drinks for both adults and children. PMID:26130299

  12. Mood states and sleepiness in college students: influences of age, sex, habitual sleep, and substance use.

    PubMed

    Jean-Louis, G; von Gizycki, H; Zizi, F; Nunes, J

    1998-10-01

    Survey and laboratory evidence suggests several factors affecting sleep-wake patterns of college students. These factors include social and academic demands, diminution of parental guidance, reduction of total sleep time, delayed bedtime, and increased nap episodes. In this study, we examined the problem of falling asleep in school as a correlate of negative moods in this population (N = 294). A multivariate analysis showed significant main effects of sleepiness on mood states based on the Profile of Mood States. Students who fell asleep in school reported higher negative mood states. Significant interactions were observed among sleepiness and age, sex, race, and duration of sleep. Specifically, younger men reported higher negative moods. No interactions were noted for alcohol and marijuana consumption; however, students who fell asleep in school consumed more alcoholic beverages and smoked more than those who did not. Perhaps falling asleep in school could be used as an index that characterizes students who manifest adaptive or psychological difficulty. PMID:9842593

  13. Age and sex differences in cerebral glucose consumption measured by pet using (18-F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)

    SciTech Connect

    Duara, R.; Barker, W.; Chang, J.; Apicella, A.; Finn, R.; Gilson, A.

    1985-05-01

    Resting cerebral glucose metabolic rates (CMRglc) were measured in 23 subjects by PET using FDG. Subjects were divided into several groups (mean age +- S.D.) 5 young males (YM) (27 +- 6); 6 young females (YF)(33 +9); 5 elderly males (EM)(73 +- 5); 7 elderly females (EF)(69 +- 7). Additionally, from these groups 4 YM, 3YF, 5EM and 4EF were studied again within 6 weeks under identical conditions. CMRglc in the YF group again was significantly hider than YM (p 0.05). No obvious relationships of CMRglc to the phase of the menstrual cycle was found in this small group. There was a trend (p=0.06) toward a higher CMRglc in YF than EF. These results support the findings of higher CBF in YF versus YM. The differences between the results of Kuhl et al (J. Cereb. and a reduction of CMRglc with age was found in a mixed group of males and females (58and female), and where no age effect was found the males, are also resolved by these findings. The authors suggest that the apparent age effect, in females in this study, is principally a hormonal one.

  14. Pharyngeal Pressure Generation during Tongue-Hold Swallows across Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Macrae, Phoebe; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effects of the tongue-hold swallowing maneuver on pharyngeal pressure generation in healthy young and elderly research volunteers. Method: Sixty-eight healthy research volunteers (young, n = 34, mean age = 26.8 years, SD = 5.5; elderly, n = 34, mean age = 72.6 years, SD = 4.8; sex equally represented) performed 5…

  15. Estimating Risks of Heat Strain by Age and Sex: A Population-Level Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Kathryn; Tait, Peter W.; Hanna, Elizabeth G.; Dear, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Individuals living in hot climates face health risks from hyperthermia due to excessive heat. Heat strain is influenced by weather exposure and by individual characteristics such as age, sex, body size, and occupation. To explore the population-level drivers of heat strain, we developed a simulation model that scales up individual risks of heat storage (estimated using Myrup and Morgan’s man model “MANMO”) to a large population. Using Australian weather data, we identify high-risk weather conditions together with individual characteristics that increase the risk of heat stress under these conditions. The model identifies elevated risks in children and the elderly, with females aged 75 and older those most likely to experience heat strain. Risk of heat strain in males does not increase as rapidly with age, but is greatest on hot days with high solar radiation. Although cloudy days are less dangerous for the wider population, older women still have an elevated risk of heat strain on hot cloudy days or when indoors during high temperatures. Simulation models provide a valuable method for exploring population level risks of heat strain, and a tool for evaluating public health and other government policy interventions. PMID:25993102

  16. Age- and Sex-Related Characteristics of Tonic Gaba Currents in the Rat Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, H.; Bojar, M.; Moshé, S. L.; Galanopoulou, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pharmacologic effects of GABAergic drugs and the postsynaptic phasic GABAAergic inhibitory responses in the anterior part of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNRA) are age- and sex-specific. Here, we investigate whether there are age- and sex-related differences in the expression of the δ GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit and GABAAR mediated tonic currents. We have used δ-specific immunochemistry and whole cell patch clamp to study GABAAR mediated tonic currents in the SNRA of male and female postnatal day (PN) PN5-9, PN11-16, and PN25-32 rats. We observed age-related decline, but no sex-specific changes, in bicuculline (BIM) sensitive GABAAR tonic current density, which correlated with the decline in δ subunit in the SNRA between PN15 and 30. Furthermore, we show that the GABAAR tonic currents can be modified by muscimol (GABAAR agonist; partial GABACR agonist), THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol: α4β3δ GABAARs agonist and GABACR antagonist), and zolpidem (α1-subunit selective GABAAR agonist) in age-and sex-dependent manner specific for each drug. We propose that the emergence of the GABAAR-sensitive anticonvulsant effects of the rat SNRA during development may depend upon the developmental decline in tonic GABAergic inhibition of the activity of rat SNRA neurons, although other sex-specific factors are also involved. PMID:25645446

  17. Age- and sex-related characteristics of tonic GABA currents in the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    PubMed

    Chudomel, O; Hasson, H; Bojar, M; Moshé, S L; Galanopoulou, A S

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pharmacologic effects of GABAergic drugs and the postsynaptic phasic GABAAergic inhibitory responses in the anterior part of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNRA) are age- and sex-specific. Here, we investigate whether there are age- and sex-related differences in the expression of the δ GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit and GABAAR mediated tonic currents. We have used δ-specific immunochemistry and whole cell patch clamp to study GABAAR mediated tonic currents in the SNRA of male and female postnatal day (PN) PN5-9, PN11-16, and PN25-32 rats. We observed age-related decline, but no sex-specific changes, in bicuculline (BIM) sensitive GABAAR tonic current density, which correlated with the decline in δ subunit in the SNRA between PN15 and 30. Furthermore, we show that the GABAAR tonic currents can be modified by muscimol (GABAAR agonist; partial GABACR agonist), THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol: α4β3δ GABAARs agonist and GABACR antagonist), and zolpidem (α1-subunit selective GABAAR agonist) in age- and sex-dependent manner specific for each drug. We propose that the emergence of the GABAAR-sensitive anticonvulsant effects of the rat SNRA during development may depend upon the developmental decline in tonic GABAergic inhibition of the activity of rat SNRA neurons, although other sex-specific factors are also involved. PMID:25645446

  18. Cigarette smoking and male sex are independent and age concomitant risk factors for the development of ocular sarcoidosis in a new orleans sarcoidosis population

    PubMed Central

    Janot, Adam C.; Huscher, Dörte; Walker, McCall; Grewal, Harmanjot K.; Yu, Mary; Lammi, Matthew R.; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sarcoidosis is a multi-organ system granulomatous disease of unknown origin with an incidence of 1–40/100,000. Though pulmonary manifestations are predominant, ocular sarcoidosis (OS) affects 25–50% of patients with sarcoidosis and can lead to blindness. Methods A retrospective, single-center chart review of sarcoidosis cases investigated variables associated with the development of OS. Inclusion criteria were biopsy-proven sarcoidosis, disease duration greater than 1 year, documented smoking status on chart review and documentation of sarcoid-related eye disease. Multivariate analysis identified independent risk factors for OS. Results Of 269 charts reviewed, 109 patients met inclusion criteria. The OS group had a significantly higher proportion of smokers (71.4%) than without OS (42.0%, p=0.027) with no difference (p=0.61) in median number of pack years. Male sex was significantly higher in the OS group (57.1% versus 26.1%, p=0.009). Median duration of sarcoidosis was higher in the OS group (10 versus 4 years, p=0.031). Multivariate regression identified tobacco exposure (OR=5.25, p=0.007, 95% CI 1.58–17.41), male sex (OR=7.48, p=0.002, 95% CI 2.15–26.01), and age (OR=1.114, p=0.002, 95% CI 1.04–1.19) as concomitant risk factors for the development of OS. Conclusion To date, there are few dedicated investigations of risk factors for OS, especially smoking. This investigation identified male sex, age, and tobacco exposure as independent risk factors for OS. Though disease duration did not withstand regression analysis in this moderately sized group, age at chart review suggests screening for OS should not remit but rather intensify in aging patients with sarcoidosis. PMID:26278693

  19. Dietary intake and main food sources of vitamin D as a function of age, sex, vitamin D status, body composition, and income in an elderly German cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jungert, Alexandra; Spinneker, Andre; Nagel, Anja; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Background Elderly subjects are at risk of insufficient vitamin D status mainly because of diminished capacity for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. In cases of insufficient endogenous production, vitamin D status depends on vitamin D intake. Objective The purpose of this study is to identify the main food sources of vitamin D in elderly subjects and to analyse whether contributing food sources differ by sex, age, vitamin D status, body mass index (BMI), or household income. In addition, we analysed the factors that influence dietary vitamin D intake in the elderly. Design and subjects This is a cross-sectional study in 235 independently living German elderly aged 66–96 years (BMI=27±4 kg/m2). Vitamin D intake was assessed by a 3-day estimated dietary record. Results The main sources of dietary vitamin D were fish/fish products followed by eggs, fats/oils, bread/bakery products, and milk/dairy products. Differences in contributing food groups by sex, age, vitamin D status, and BMI were not found. Fish contributed more to vitamin D intake in subjects with a household income of <1,500 €/month compared to subjects with higher income. In multiple regression analysis, fat intake and frequency of fish consumption were positive determinants of dietary vitamin D intake, whereas household income and percentage total body fat negatively affected vitamin D intake. Other parameters, including age, sex, physical activity, smoking, intake of energy, milk, eggs and alcohol, showed no significant association with vitamin D intake. Conclusion Low habitual dietary vitamin D intake does not affect vitamin D status in summer, and fish is the major contributor to vitamin D intake independent of sex, age, vitamin D status, BMI, and the income of subjects. PMID:25317118

  20. Social feedback processing from early to late adolescence: influence of sex, age, and attachment style

    PubMed Central

    Vrtička, Pascal; Sander, David; Anderson, Brittany; Badoud, Deborah; Eliez, Stephan; Debbané, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The establishment of an accurate understanding of one's social context is a central developmental task during adolescence. A critical component of such development is to learn how to integrate the objective evaluation of one's behavior with the social response to the latter—here referred to as social feedback processing. Case report We measured brain activity by means of fMRI in 33 healthy adolescents (12–19 years old, 14 females). Participants played a difficult perceptual game with integrated verbal and visual feedback. Verbal feedback provided the participants with objective performance evaluation (won vs. lost). Visual feedback consisted of either smiling or angry faces, representing positive or negative social evaluations. Together, the combination of verbal and visual feedback gave rise to congruent versus incongruent social feedback combinations. In addition to assessing sex differences, we further tested for the effects of age and attachment style on social feedback processing. Results revealed that brain activity during social feedback processing was significantly modulated by sex, age, and attachment style in prefrontal cortical areas, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, caudate, and amygdala/hippocampus. We found indication for heightened activity during incongruent social feedback processing in females, older participants, and individuals with an anxious attachment style. Conversely, we observed stronger activity during processing of congruent social feedback in males and participants with an avoidant attachment style. Conclusion Our findings not only extend knowledge on the typical development of socio-emotional brain function during adolescence, but also provide first clues on how attachment insecurities, and particularly attachment avoidance, could interfere with the latter mechanisms. PMID:25328847

  1. Effects of age, sex, and persistent organic pollutants on DNA methylation in children

    PubMed Central

    Huen, Karen; Yousefi, Paul; Bradman, Asa; Yan, Liying; Harley, Kim G.; Kogut, Katherine; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation may be a molecular mechanism through which environmental exposures affect health. Methylation of Alu and long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1) is a well-established measure of DNA methylation often used in epidemiologic studies. Yet, few studies have examined the effects of host factors on LINE-1 and Alu methylation in children. We characterized the relationship of age, sex, and prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), with DNA methylation in a birth cohort of Mexican-American children participating in the CHAMACOS study. We measured Alu and LINE-1 methylation by pyrosequencing bisulfite-treated DNA isolated from whole blood samples collected from newborns and 9-year old children (n=358). POPs were measured in maternal serum during late pregnancy. Levels of DNA methylation were lower in 9-year olds compared to newborns and were higher in boys compared to girls. Higher prenatal DDT/E exposure was associated with lower Alu methylation at birth, particularly after adjusting for cell type composition (p=0.02 for o,p′ -DDT). Associations of POPs with LINE-1 methylation were only identified after examining the co-exposure of DDT/E with PBDEs simultaneously. Our data suggest that repeat element methylation can be an informative marker of epigenetic differences by age and sex and that prenatal exposure to POPs may be linked to hypomethylation in fetal blood. Accounting for co-exposure to different types of chemicals and adjusting for blood cell types may increase sensitivity of epigenetic analyses for epidemiological studies. PMID:24375655

  2. Effects of age, colony, and sex on mercury concentrations in California sea lions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McHuron, Elizibeth A; Peterson, Sarah H.; Ackerman, Josh; Melin, Sharon R.; Harris, Jeffrey D.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ 15N) and carbon (δ 13C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g−1 wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g−1 dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg−1 ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg−1 dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ 15N or δ 13C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife.

  3. Effects of Age, Colony, and Sex on Mercury Concentrations in California Sea Lions.

    PubMed

    McHuron, Elizabeth A; Peterson, Sarah H; Ackerman, Joshua T; Melin, Sharon R; Harris, Jeffrey D; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ (15)N) and carbon (δ (13)C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g(-1) wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg(-1) ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg(-1) dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ (15)N or δ (13)C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife. PMID:26259982

  4. Aerobic capacity in wild satin bowerbirds: repeatability and effects of age, sex and condition.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Mark A; Savard, Jean-Francois; Siani, Jennifer; Coleman, Seth W; Keagy, Jason; Borgia, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Individual variation in aerobic capacity has been extensively studied, especially with respect to condition, maturity or pathogen infection, and to gain insights into mechanistic foundations of performance. However, its relationship to mate competition is less well understood, particularly for animals in natural habitats. We examined aerobic capacity [maximum rate of O2 consumption (VO2,max) in forced exercise] in wild satin bowerbirds, an Australian passerine with a non-resource based mating system and strong intermale sexual competition. We tested for repeatability of mass and VO2,max, differences among age and sex classes, and effects of several condition indices. In adult males, we examined interactions between aerobic performance and bower ownership (required for male mating success). There was significant repeatability of mass and VO2,max within and between years, but between-year repeatability was lower than within-year repeatability. VO2,max varied with an overall scaling to mass(0.791), but most variance in VO2,max was not explained by mass. Indicators of condition (tarsus and wing length asymmetry, the ratio of tarsus length to mass) were not correlated to VO2,max. Ectoparasite counts were weakly correlated to VO2,max across all age-sex classes but not within any class. Adult males, the cohort with the most intense levels of mating competition, had higher VO2,max than juvenile birds or adult females. However, there was no difference between the VO2,max of bower-owning males and that of males not known to hold bowers. Thus one major factor determining male reproductive success was not correlated to aerobic performance. PMID:21900466

  5. Fish oil supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affects the insulin-like growth factor axis in a sex-specific manner in Danish infants.

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Harsløf, Laurine B S; Andersen, Anders D; Hellgren, Lars I; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2016-03-14

    Several studies have investigated the effects of fish oil (FO) on infant growth, but little is known about the effects of FO and sex on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the main regulator of growth in childhood. We explored whether FO v. sunflower oil (SO) supplementation from 9 to 18 months of age affected IGF-1 and its binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and whether the potential effects were sex specific. Danish infants (n 115) were randomly allocated to 5 ml/d FO (1·2 g/d n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA)) or SO. We measured growth, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and erythrocyte EPA, a biomarker of n-3 LCPUFA intake and status, at 9 and 18 months. Erythrocyte EPA increased strongly with FO compared with SO (P<0·001). There were no effects of FO compared with SO on IGF-1 in the total population, but a sex × group interaction (P=0·02). Baseline-adjusted IGF-1 at 18 months was 11·1 µg/l (95% CI 0·4, 21·8; P=0·04) higher after FO compared with SO supplementation among boys only. The sex × group interaction was borderline significant in the model of IGFBP-3 (P=0·09), with lower IGFBP-3 with FO compared with SO among girls only (P=0·03). The results were supported by sex-specific dose-response associations between changes in erythrocyte EPA and changes in IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 (both P<0·03). Moreover, IGF-1 was sex specifically associated with BMI and length. In conclusion, FO compared with SO resulted in higher IGF-1 among boys and lower IGFBP-3 among girls. The potential long-term implications for growth and body composition should be investigated further. PMID:26758502

  6. Depression, Sex and Gender Roles in Older Adult Populations: The International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS)

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, Afshin; Ahmed, Tamer; Freire, Aline do N. Falcão; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo O.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the associations between gender roles and depression in older men and women and whether gender roles are independent risk factors for depression. Methods International cross-sectional study of adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,967). Depression was defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A validated 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants in gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using research site medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regressions were fitted to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of depression for each gender role compared to the masculine role, adjusting for sex, sufficiency of income, education, marital status, self-rated health, and chronic conditions. Results Among men, 31.2% were androgynous, 26% were masculine, 14.4% were feminine, and 28.4% were undifferentiated; among women, the corresponding percentages were 32.7%, 14.9%, 27%, and 25.4%. Both in men and in women, depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were more prevalent in those endorsing the undifferentiated type, compared to masculine, feminine or androgynous groups. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the masculine group only those endorsing the androgynous role were 28% less likely to suffer from depression: PR of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55–0.93). In fully adjusted models, prevalence rates of depression were not different from masculine participants in the two other gender groups of feminine and undifferentiated. Conclusions Androgynous roles were associated with lower rates of depression in older adults, independently of being a man or a woman. PMID:26771828

  7. Photoremovable protecting groups as controlled-release device for sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Atta, Sanghamitra; Ikbal, Mohammed; Boda, Nishitha; Gauri, Samiran S; Singh, N D Pradeep

    2013-02-01

    Photoremovable protecting groups (PRPGs) were demonstrated as a delivery device for controlled release of pheromone under both UV light (≥350 nm) and direct sunlight irradiation. In the present work, (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol (sex pheromone of Chilo infuscatellus Snellen) was chemically caged by four different photoremovable protecting groups (7-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethylcoumarin, 1-pyrenemethanol, 9-anthracenemethanol and 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone) individually. Photophysical studies showed that the caged pheromone with coumarin, pyrene and anthracene derivatives exhibited strong fluorescence. Controlled release of (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol was achieved by irradiating the caged compounds in aqueous ethanol both under UV and sunlight. Further, to mimic the environmental conditions, controlled release of (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol was also studied in soil medium under direct sunlight. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that caging of (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol by PRPGs significantly reduced its volatility. Bioassay experiments indicated that PRPGs are harmless to soil bacteria (Azotobacter sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and in vitro cytotoxicity studies on eukaryotic L929 cells showed that PRPGs are also non-toxic. Field bioassays were performed using caged pheromone against maize stalk borer (Chilo partellus) and the results showed that the caged alcohol is effective in a number of moths catches instead of free alcohol in a blend for a longer period of time. Our studies indicated that use of PRPGs as delivery device for controlled release of pheromone by sunlight holds great interest for field applications. PMID:23108352

  8. The effect of weight, body mass index, age, sex, and race on plasma concentrations of subcutaneous sumatriptan: a pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Munjal, Sagar; Gautam, Anirudh; Rapoport, Alan M; Fisher, Dennis M

    2016-01-01

    Objective/background Factors such as body size (weight and body mass index [BMI]), age, sex, and race might influence the clinical response to sumatriptan. We evaluated the impact of these covariates on the plasma concentration (Cp) profile of sumatriptan administered subcutaneously. Methods We conducted three pharmacokinetic studies of subcutaneous sumatriptan in 98 healthy adults. Sumatriptan was administered subcutaneously (236 administrations) as either DFN-11 3 mg, a novel 0.5 mL autoinjector being developed by Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories; Imitrex® (Sumatriptan) injection 3 mg or 6 mg (6 mg/0.5 mL); or Imitrex STATdose 4 mg or 6 mg (0.5 mL). Blood was sampled for 12 hours to determine sumatriptan Cp. Maximum Cp (Cmax), area under the curve during the first 2 hours (AUC0–2), and total area under the curve (AUC0–∞) were determined using noncompartmental methods. Post hoc analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between these exposure metrics and each of body weight, BMI, age, sex, and race (categorized as white, black, or others). Results Both weight and BMI correlated negatively with each exposure metric for each treatment group. Across all treatment groups, AUC0–2 for subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value was 1.03–1.12 times the value for subjects with BMI more than median value. For subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value receiving DFN-11, median AUC0–2 was slightly less than that for subjects with BMI more than median value receiving Imitrex 4 mg and larger than that for subjects with BMI more than median value receiving Imitrex 3 mg. Results were similar for the other exposure metrics and for weight. Exposure was higher in women than in men, which can be attributed in part to differences in weight. There was no relationship between exposure and age. For DFN-11, AUC0–2 and AUC0–∞ were lower in nonwhites compared with whites; the ratio of median values was 0.84 and 0.89, respectively. A similar

  9. The evolution of labile traits in sex- and age-structured populations.

    PubMed

    Childs, Dylan Z; Sheldon, Ben C; Rees, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Many quantitative traits are labile (e.g. somatic growth rate, reproductive timing and investment), varying over the life cycle as a result of behavioural adaptation, developmental processes and plastic responses to the environment. At the population level, selection can alter the distribution of such traits across age classes and among generations. Despite a growing body of theoretical research exploring the evolutionary dynamics of labile traits, a data-driven framework for incorporating such traits into demographic models has not yet been developed. Integral projection models (IPMs) are increasingly being used to understand the interplay between changes in labile characters, life histories and population dynamics. One limitation of the IPM approach is that it relies on phenotypic associations between parents and offspring traits to capture inheritance. However, it is well-established that many different processes may drive these associations, and currently, no clear consensus has emerged on how to model micro-evolutionary dynamics in an IPM framework. We show how to embed quantitative genetic models of inheritance of labile traits into age-structured, two-sex models that resemble standard IPMs. Commonly used statistical tools such as GLMs and their mixed model counterparts can then be used for model parameterization. We illustrate the methodology through development of a simple model of egg-laying date evolution, parameterized using data from a population of Great tits (Parus major). We demonstrate how our framework can be used to project the joint dynamics of species' traits and population density. We then develop a simple extension of the age-structured Price equation (ASPE) for two-sex populations, and apply this to examine the age-specific contributions of different processes to change in the mean phenotype and breeding value. The data-driven framework we outline here has the potential to facilitate greater insight into the nature of selection and its

  10. Sex difference in pathology of the ageing gut mediates the greater response of female lifespan to dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Regan, Jennifer C; Khericha, Mobina; Dobson, Adam J; Bolukbasi, Ekin; Rattanavirotkul, Nattaphong; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Women live on average longer than men but have greater levels of late-life morbidity. We have uncovered a substantial sex difference in the pathology of the aging gut in Drosophila. The intestinal epithelium of the aging female undergoes major deterioration, driven by intestinal stem cell (ISC) division, while lower ISC activity in males associates with delay or absence of pathology, and better barrier function, even at old ages. Males succumb to intestinal challenges to which females are resistant, associated with fewer proliferating ISCs, suggesting a trade-off between highly active repair mechanisms and late-life pathology in females. Dietary restriction reduces gut pathology in aging females, and extends female lifespan more than male. By genetic sex reversal of a specific gut region, we induced female-like aging pathologies in males, associated