Science.gov

Sample records for age groups tested

  1. Above-Level Test Item Functioning across Examinee Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warne, Russell T.; Doty, Kristine J.; Malbica, Anne Marie; Angeles, Victor R.; Innes, Scott; Hall, Jared; Masterson-Nixon, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    "Above-level testing" (also called "above-grade testing," "out-of-level testing," and "off-level testing") is the practice of administering to a child a test that is designed for an examinee population that is older or in a more advanced grade. Above-level testing is frequently used to help educators design…

  2. Are vocabulary tests measurement invariant between age groups? An item response analysis of three popular tests.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mark C; Berry, Jane M; Freeman, Sara P

    2014-12-01

    Relatively high vocabulary scores of older adults are generally interpreted as evidence that older adults possess more of a common ability than younger adults. Yet, this interpretation rests on empirical assumptions about the uniformity of item-response functions between groups. In this article, we test item response models of differential responding against datasets containing younger-, middle-aged-, and older-adult responses to three popular vocabulary tests (the Shipley, Ekstrom, and WAIS-R) to determine whether members of different age groups who achieve the same scores have the same probability of responding in the same categories (e.g., correct vs. incorrect) under the same conditions. Contrary to the null hypothesis of measurement invariance, datasets for all three tests exhibit substantial differential responding. Members of different age groups who achieve the same overall scores exhibit differing response probabilities in relation to the same items (differential item functioning) and appear to approach the tests in qualitatively different ways that generalize across items. Specifically, younger adults are more likely than older adults to leave items unanswered for partial credit on the Ekstrom, and to produce 2-point definitions on the WAIS-R. Yet, older adults score higher than younger adults, consistent with most reports of vocabulary outcomes in the cognitive aging literature. In light of these findings, the most generalizable conclusion to be drawn from the cognitive aging literature on vocabulary tests is simply that older adults tend to score higher than younger adults, and not that older adults possess more of a common ability.

  3. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  4. Structural Validity of the Movement ABC-2 Test: Factor Structure Comparisons across Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Joerg; Henderson, Sheila E.; Sugden, David A.; Barnett, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Movement ABC test is one of the most widely used assessments in the field of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). Improvements to the 2nd edition of the test (M-ABC-2) include an extension of the age range and reduction in the number of age bands as well as revision of tasks. The total test score provides a measure of motor…

  5. The Feasibility of a Group Bender-Gestalt Test for Preschool and Primary School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Denis P.

    1975-01-01

    Study devised and tested a method for group administration of the Bender-Gestalt Test that would be feasible for screening large groups of beginning school-age children. Results indicate that the group method of presentation can yield results as valid and reliable as the traditional individual method of administration. (Author)

  6. Swimming Training Assessment: The Critical Velocity and the 400-m Test for Age-Group Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Zacca, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Ricardo Jorge P; Pyne, David B; Castro, Flávio Antônio de S

    2016-05-01

    To verify the metabolic responses of oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentrations [La], and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) when swimming at an intensity corresponding to the critical velocity (CV) assessed by a 4-parameter model (CV4par), and to check the reliability when using only a single 400-m maximal front crawl bout (T400) for CV4par assessment in age-group swimmers. Ten age-group swimmers (14-16 years old) performed 50-, 100-, 200-, 400- (T400), 800-, and 1,500-m maximal front crawl bouts to calculate CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured immediately after bouts. Swimmers then performed 3 × 10-minute front crawl (45 seconds rest) at CV4par. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured after 10 minutes of rest (Rest), warm-up (Pre), each 10-minute repetition, and at the end of the test (Post). CV4par was 1.33 ± 0.08 m·s. V[Combining Dot Above]O2, HR, [La], and RPE were similar between first 10-minute and Post time points in the 3 × 10-minute protocol. CV4par was equivalent to 92 ± 2% of the mean swimming speed of T400 (v400) for these swimmers. CV4par calculated through a single T400 (92%v400) showed excellent agreement (r = 0.30; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.05 m·s, p = 0.39), low coefficient of variation (2%), and root mean square error of 0.02 ± 0.01 m·s when plotted against CV4par assessed through a 4-parameter model. These results generated the equation CV4par = 0.92 × v400. A single T400 can be used reliably to estimate the CV4par typically derived with 6 efforts in age-group swimmers.

  7. The yo-yo intermittent recovery test in junior basketball players according to performance level and age group.

    PubMed

    Vernillo, Gianluca; Silvestri, Adriano; La Torre, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) ability to discriminate between elite, subelite junior basketball players, and a group of nonathletic healthy male athletes at 3 different age groups (U-14 to U-17). In a cross-sectional design, 119 age-matched participants spread over 3 groups, elite (n = 46), subelite (n = 42) junior basketball players, and nonathletic healthy male athletes (n = 31), were evaluated over a 5-week period. The participants undertook 2 familiarization trials of the Yo-Yo test performance and 3 test sessions on an indoor basketball court. When controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, the results showed that elite athletes had a significantly higher Yo-Yo performance compared with the subelite athletes (1,271 ± 385 vs. 861 ± 428 m; p < 0.0017; effect size [ES] 1.0 ± 0.35) and the nonathletic group (1,271 ± 385 vs. 738 ± 345 m; p < 0.0017; ES 1.45 ± 0.38). No statistical differences (p > 0.0017; ES from 0.02 to 0.39) were noted between participants' performance levels across age groups. Typical between-performance levels and -age groups differences in the Yo-Yo IR1 were observed. However, when controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, this study demonstrates that the Yo-Yo test is accurate only to discriminate elite junior basketball players but cannot be used to differentiate the basketball-specific aerobic performance for age.

  8. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Performance in Subelite Gaelic Football Players From Under Thirteen to Senior Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Roe, Mark; Malone, Shane

    2016-11-01

    Roe, M and Malone, S. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance in subelite Gaelic football players from under thirteen to senior age groups. J Strength Cond Res 30 (11): 3187-3193, 2016-Gaelic football is indigenous to Ireland and has similar locomotion profiles to soccer and Australian Football. Given the increasing attention on long-term player development, investigations on age-related variation in Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) performance may provide useful information in talent identification, program design, and player monitoring. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate Yo-YoIR1 performance across Gaelic football age groups. Male participants (n = 355) were recruited from division one, Gaelic football teams. Participants were allocated to one of the 7 groups according to respective age groups from under 13 (U13), under 14, under 15 (U15), under 16 (U16), minor, under 21 (U21), to senior age groups. Total Yo-YoIR1 distance (m) increased progressively from U13 (885 ± 347 m) to U16 (1,595 ± 380 m) equating to a rate of change of 180.2%. In comparison to U13, total distance at minor (1,206 ± 327 m) increased by 136.4%. Subsequent increases were observed in U21 (1,585 ± 445 m) and senior players (2,365 ± 489). Minimum (800-880 m) and maximum (2,240-2,280 m) total distances were comparable for U15, U16, and U21 players. Differences in total distance (m) for all age groups were statistically significant when compared to U13 players (p < 0.002). In comparison to U13 players, the magnitude of differences between age groups for total distance was deemed to be large (effect size > 0.8). Similar trends were observed for maximum velocity and estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. The evolution of Yo-YoIR1 performance in Gaelic football players from adolescents to adulthood highlights how maturation may influence sport-related running ability. Changes in Yo-YoIR1 performance should be closely monitored to optimize interventions for

  9. Test Group Rethinks Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A group that is developing tests for half the states in the nation has dramatically reduced the length of its assessment in a bid to balance the desire for a more meaningful and useful exam with concerns about the amount of time spent on testing. The decision by the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium reflects months of conversation among its…

  10. A study of the prevalence of thalassemia and its correlation with liver function test in different age and sex group in the Chittagong district of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Palit, Sarmi; Bhuiyan, Robiul H.; Aklima, Jannatul; Emran, Talha B.; Dash, Raju

    2012-01-01

    Thalassemia is the name of a group of genetic, inherited disorders of the blood. More specifically, it is a disorder of the hemoglobin molecule inside the red blood cells. According to World health Organization (WHO), there are about 3% beta-thalassemia carrier and about 4% Hb E/beta-thalassemia carrier in Bangladesh. Our objective is to identify the prevalence of beta-thalassemia in our adolescent populations and to review risk factors that would most easily identify a subset of adolescent patients at greatest risk for the development of beta-thalassemia. We also made a study of clinical profile of 53 thalassemic patients, observing the relationship between the patients with their verity ages and sex. The cases are taken on the basis of their age (2-30 years), beta-thalassemia major, clinical jaundice with history of chronic blood transfusion. The cases excluded those who had jaundice due to viral hepatitis or hepatitis due to heavy metal poisoning (Arsenic) and those with spleenectomy. Liver function test has been evaluated in 53 patients. That were recorded with some relevant demographical data such as age, sex, blood group where median age was of 16 years and mean (±SD) age 15.4151 ± 7.90918. Among them were 21 (39.6%) female and 32 (60.4%) male. With an average 15.1% (8 in no.) beta-thalassemia, 7.5% (4 in no.) beta-thalassemia major and 77.4% (41 in no.) E-beta-thalassemia cases have been found in the study. Mean (±SD) TSB in total 53 subjects with age group 2-10 years and 21-30 years is significant. The study revealed that in thalassemic patients when the age is more, the disease progresses with their complication. Hepatic complication is mainly due to being hepatocellular in nature than that of obstructive one. PMID:24826050

  11. [The electrocardiogram in the paediatric age group].

    PubMed

    Sanches, M; Coelho, A; Oliveira, E; Lopes, A

    2014-09-01

    A properly interpreted electrocardiogram (ECG) provides important information and is an inexpensive and easy test to perform. It continues to be the method of choice for the diagnosis of arrhythmias. Although the principles of cardiac electrophysiology are the same, there are anatomical and physiological age-dependent changes which produce specific alterations in the paediatric ECG, and which may be misinterpreted as pathological. The intention of this article is to address in a systematic way the most relevant aspects of the paediatric ECG, to propose a possible reading scheme of the ECG and to review the electrocardiograph tracings most frequently found in the paediatric age group.

  12. Test Anxiety: Age Appropriate Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, David B.; Driscoll, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The presentation covers information on test anxiety reduction strategies from over thirty years of experience with clients of a variety of ages. Dr. Ross is from the College of Lake County. Dr. Driscoll is a private practitioner and Director of the American Test Anxieties Association. The purpose is to address age appropriate test anxiety…

  13. Differentiation of Occupational Perceptions Among Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Hypothesizes that occupational perceptions are more specific for older age groups than for younger age groups. Hypothesis was tested by using latent root analysis and minimum residual factor analysis to analyze intercorrelations among six Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) scales for five large and diverse samples. Both analyses supported the…

  14. GUIDANCE ON SELECTING AGE GROUPS FOR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance document provides a set of early-lifestage age groups for Environmental Protection Agency scientists to consider when assessing children’s exposure to environmental contaminants and the resultant potential dose. These recommended age groups are based on current understanding of differences in behavior and physiology which may impact exposures in children. A consistent set of early-life age groups, supported by an underlying scientific rationale, is expected to improve Agency exposure and risk assessments for children by increasing the consistency and comparability of risk assessments across the Agency; by improving accuracy and transparency in assessments for those cases where current practice might too broadly combine behaviorally and physiologically disparate age groups; and by fostering a consistent approach to future exposure surveys and monitoring efforts to generate improved exposure factors for children. see description

  15. Voluntary Group Participation by Third Age Australians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Claire; Swindell, Rick

    A study investigated characteristics of retirees and types of voluntary groups they joined after retirement. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and completed questionnaires of 206 Australians over age 50. Five categories of voluntary organizations were studied: intellectually challenging, sporting/exercise, social, helping others,…

  16. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  17. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  18. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  19. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  20. 32 CFR 1624.3 - Age selection groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Age selection groups. 1624.3 Section 1624.3....3 Age selection groups. Age selection groups are established as follows: (a) The age 20 selection group for each calendar year consists of registrants who have attained or will attain the age of 20...

  1. The influence of age in usability testing.

    PubMed

    Sonderegger, Andreas; Schmutz, Sven; Sauer, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    The effects of age in usability testing were examined in an experiment. Sixty users from two age groups (M = 23.0 yrs, M = 58.1 yrs) operated two technical devices (keyboard-based and touchscreen-based smartphones). In addition to various performance measures (e.g. task completion time, task completion rate), several subjective measures were taken (e.g. perceived usability, affect, and workload). The results showed better performance scores for younger adults than older adults for task completion time. For older adult users there was a mismatch between usability ratings and task completion time but not between usability ratings and task completion rate. Age-related differences in the importance of speed and accuracy in task completion point to the need to consider more strongly the factor user age in usability research and practice.

  2. The Effect of Age on Attention Level: A Comparison of Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Segev, Shahar; Blum, Adi; Rosen, Tal; Haimov, Iris

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, a computerized test was used to compare the attention level of a group of healthy older participants aged 75 with that of a group of students aged 31. The second part of the study examined only the older participants and sought to discover how three measures of lifestyle were related to measures of attention. The results showed that the young group performed better on measures of attention. No differences between the two age groups were found on measures of impulsivity and on four measures of sustained attention. A discriminant function analysis found that reaction time and standard deviation of reaction time can explain 87.50% of the variance in both groups. The older participants' answers to the lifestyle questions showed that variables of attention correlated significantly with time spent watching television and reading. The results indicate that attention level declines with age; however, no decline was observed on measures of impulsivity and sustained attention.

  3. Age-group differences in saccadic interference.

    PubMed

    Gottlob, Lawrence R; Fillmore, Mark T; Abroms, Ben D

    2007-03-01

    We examined age-group differences in a saccadic interference task, which requires that participants execute a saccade (eye movement) toward an abrupt-onset visual target presented to the right or left of fixation. On some trials, we imposed diffuse interference by bilateral (top and bottom) flashes of light presented 20 to 210 ms after target onset. When the flashes followed the cue at shorter intervals, time to execute a saccade was slowed relative to no-flash trials. This slowing was greater and sustained over a larger cue-flash interval for older participants than for the young participants. The results indicate that, when diffuse distractors are used, older adults are more susceptible to saccade disruption than are young adults.

  4. HIV counseling and testing: behavior and practices of women of childbearing age in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. DYSCER-CI Group.

    PubMed

    Ramon, R; La Ruche, G; Sylla-Koko, F; Boka-Yao, A; Bonard, D; Coulibaly, I M; Welffens-Ekra, C; Dabis, F

    1998-04-15

    We assessed factors associated with women's attitudes toward HIV test results in gynecology clinics in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. HIV testing was systematically offered to nonpregnant women attending two gynecology clinics in Abidjan. Individual pretest counseling was performed by trained midwives. Posttest counseling was given 2 weeks later to women who wished to know their HIV test results. HIV testing was offered to a total of 1482 women, of whom 1401 (94.5%) agreed to be screened. The prevalence of HIV infection was 21.3%. Of the women who participated, 10% failed to return. Youth, low educational level, and absence of genital infection were findings individually associated with failure by participants to return for their test results. Among the 1242 women who returned, 13.7% did not wish to know the results of their HIV test. A positive HIV test result, being native to Côte d'Ivoire, a high educational level, and knowing the existence of the asymptomatic stage of HIV infection were factors independently associated with declining to know the HIV test result. In conclusion, women who declined to know their HIV test results presented a specific profile at the time of HIV testing. This information can be used to improve pretest counseling and the efficacy of future HIV screening programs.

  5. The "g" Factor and Cognitive Test Session Behavior: Using a Latent Variable Approach in Examining Measurement Invariance Across Age Groups on the WJ III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Craig L.; Wang, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Data from the standardization sample of the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery--Third Edition (WJ III) Cognitive standard battery and Test Session Observation Checklist items were analyzed to understand the relationship between g (general mental ability) and test session behavior (TSB; n = 5,769). Latent variable modeling methods were used…

  6. Reliability of Tethered Swimming Evaluation in Age Group Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Nuno; Marinho, Daniel A; Batalha, Nuno; Marques, Mário C; Morouço, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability of tethered swimming in the evaluation of age group swimmers. The sample was composed of 8 male national level swimmers with at least 4 years of experience in competitive swimming. Each swimmer performed two 30 second maximal intensity tethered swimming tests, on separate days. Individual force-time curves were registered to assess maximum force, mean force and the mean impulse of force. Both consistency and reliability were very strong, with Cronbach’s Alpha values ranging from 0.970 to 0.995. All the applied metrics presented a very high agreement between tests, with the mean impulse of force presenting the highest. These results indicate that tethered swimming can be used to evaluate age group swimmers. Furthermore, better comprehension of the swimmers ability to effectively exert force in the water can be obtained using the impulse of force. PMID:25114742

  7. [A work group reviews the AIDS testing of selected groups].

    PubMed

    Albinus, S

    1988-02-01

    A working group of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) advisory group to the health administration of Denmark has been studying the advantages and disadvantages of routine tests of certain groups. One advantage of offering routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) tests to all pregnant women is that it makes it possible to follow the course of the epidemic. Secondly, it makes it possible for an individual woman to get an abortion if she is HIV-positive. On the other hand, routine HIV tests may keep female drug addicts who do not wish to be tested out of the pregnancy health care system. A specific problem is the greater number of false positives among pregnant women that among other groups. Normally tests are repeated immediately and again several months later if a new test is ambiguous but this possibility does not apply to pregnant women since the time limit for having an abortion will be exceeded. Still another advantage of offering routine HIV tests to pregnant women is that it will contribute to making HIV tests more routine, which will generally be an advantage to the AIDS campaign. A tentative conclusion is that it will be more productive to have routine HIV tests in venereal disease clinics where there is a higher percentage of population at risk.

  8. Testing Job Applicants from Disadvantaged Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppelt, Jerome E.; Bennett, George K.

    1967-01-01

    Companies have been accused of using tests as a means of maintaining unfair discrimination against groups which have already suffered from many forms of discrimination. It does not follow, however, that tests themselves merit condemnation. Employers who use tests do so because the information furnished by tests is valuable to them in making hiring…

  9. GUIDELINES FOR TESTING MINORITY GROUP CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FISHMAN, JOSHUA A.; AND OTHERS

    FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE TESTING OF MINORITY GROUP CHILDREN ARE PRESENTED. THE CONVENTIONAL INSTRUMENTS OF MENTAL TESTING ARE TOO OFTEN DEVELOPED FOR THE INTELLECTUAL AND SOCIAL WAYS OF MIDDLE-CLASS CHILDREN. AS A RESULT MINORITY GROUP CHILDREN ARE EXCLUDED FROM OPPORTUNITIES FOR TRAINING BECAUSE OF "CULTURAL DEPRIVATION." THE GUIDE…

  10. Collaborative essay testing: group work that counts.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Peggy A

    2009-01-01

    Because much of a nurse's work is accomplished through working in groups, nursing students need an understanding of group process as well as opportunities to problem-solve in groups. Despite an emphasis on group activities as critical for classroom learning, there is a lack of evidence in the nursing literature that describes collaborative essay testing as a teaching strategy. In this class, nursing students worked together in small groups to answer examination questions before submitting a common set of answers. In a follow-up survey, students reported that collaborative testing was a positive experience (e.g., promoting critical thinking, confidence in knowledge, and teamwork). Faculty were excited by the lively dialog heard during the testing in what appeared to be an atmosphere of teamwork. Future efforts could include providing nursing students with direct instruction on group process and more opportunities to work and test collaboratively.

  11. Ethnic Group's Representation in Test Construction Sample and Test Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xitao; And Others

    The hypothesis that faulty classical psychometric and sampling procedures in test construction could generate systematic bias against ethnic groups with smaller representation in the test construction sample was studied empirically. Two test construction models were developed: one with differential representation of ethnic groups (White, African…

  12. Acute pancreatitis in the paediatric age group: a personal experience.

    PubMed

    Cosentini, A; Stranieri, G; Capillo, S; Notarangelo, L; Madonna, L; Iannini, S; Ferro, V; Defilippo, V; Defilippo, R G; Rubino, R

    2005-01-01

    Although relatively rare, acute pancreatitis is the most common disease complex involving the pancreas in the paediatric age group. The etiology of the disease is often unknown, and Italian epidemiological data on the paediatric population and, in particular, on the etiology of the disease are not available (except for studies of prevalence). Within the field of the most frequently encountered pancreatitis in the age range of our interest (i.e. 0-18 years), not only the commonly observed forms whose etiopathogenesis is ascribable to cholelithiasis must be mentioned but also those forms due to proteic-caloric malnutrition that are becoming increasingly common. The presenting clinical symptoms and signs may not be typical and the laboratory tests may not always be sensitive enough. In such age range chronic recurrent pancreatitis plays a very important epidemiologic role. Approximately 40% of children and teenagers admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of pancreatitis report a previous episode of the disease. Irreversible changes in pancreatic parenchyma develop in those patients in whom the disease progresses, leading to pancreatic insufficiency. Such a morbid condition (chronic pancreatitis) is more often observed in adolescents, in whom the disease manifests itself with a vague repetitive dyspeptic symptomatology, after alternating remissions and recrudescences, not always clinically evident. In children, the clinical picture most commonly encountered is represented by recurrent abdominal pains, in view of the fact that the patients are frequently affected by thalassaemia. The pseudocystic evolution of the disease is the most common organic damage resulting from the chronic progression of the pancreatic impairment. A few differences have been found with respect to severity, etiology, and mortality of pancreatitis in the paediatric age group as compared with older age groups. Both the general practitioner with a paediatric practice and the paediatrician

  13. The Subculture of the Aging, Aging Group-Conciousness, and Morale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, William C.

    The central concern of this paper is to examine the subculture of the aging theory and the relationship between aging group-consciousness and morale. Aging group-consciousness is postulated to be one of the major components of an aging subculture. A study of 81 older people was conducted in a rural, multi-story housing facility. Questionnaires…

  14. School's Out! Group Day Care for the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Elizabeth; Milich, Cynthia

    This report on group day care is designed to: (1) examine the kinds of group programs for school-age children which exist in Los Angeles County, (2) describe the conditions necessary for program operation, and (3) consider the issue of quality as it relates to community expansion of day care services for children of school age. The report is…

  15. Redefining meaningful age groups in the context of disease.

    PubMed

    Geifman, Nophar; Cohen, Raphael; Rubin, Eitan

    2013-12-01

    Age is an important factor when considering phenotypic changes in health and disease. Currently, the use of age information in medicine is somewhat simplistic, with ages commonly being grouped into a small number of crude ranges reflecting the major stages of development and aging, such as childhood or adolescence. Here, we investigate the possibility of redefining age groups using the recently developed Age-Phenome Knowledge-base (APK) that holds over 35,000 literature-derived entries describing relationships between age and phenotype. Clustering of APK data suggests 13 new, partially overlapping, age groups. The diseases that define these groups suggest that the proposed divisions are biologically meaningful. We further show that the number of different age ranges that should be considered depends on the type of disease being evaluated. This finding was further strengthened by similar results obtained from clinical blood measurement data. The grouping of diseases that share a similar pattern of disease-related reports directly mirrors, in some cases, medical knowledge of disease-age relationships. In other cases, our results may be used to generate new and reasonable hypotheses regarding links between diseases.

  16. Qualitative Aspects of Group-Only Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanshaw, Larry G.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to determine how students would describe their group-only cooperative testing experiences in terms of key elements of cooperative learning often cited in the literature. Written comments of 159 graduate students were analyzed and 26 related categories of comments were derived from 495 statements of students enrolled in two…

  17. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  18. Aging Cognition Unconfounded by Prior Test Experience

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Investigate time-related age differences in cognitive functioning without influences of prior test experience. Methods. Cognitive scores were compared in different individuals from the same birth years who were tested in different years, when they were at different ages. These types of quasi-longitudinal comparisons were carried out on data from three large projects: the Seattle Longitudinal Study [Schaie, K. W. (2013). Developmental influences on adult intelligence: The Seattle Longitudinal Study (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press], the Betula Project [Ronnlund, M., & Nilsson, L-G. (2008). The magnitude, generality, and determinants of Flynn effects on forms of declarative memory and visuospatial ability: Time-sequential analyses of data from a Swedish cohort study. Intelligence, 36, 192–209], and the Virginia Cognitive Aging Project (this study). Results. In each data set, the results revealed that the estimates of cognitive change with no prior test experience closely resembled the estimates of age relations based on cross-sectional comparisons. Furthermore, longitudinal comparisons revealed positive changes at young ages that gradually became more negative with increased age, whereas all of the estimates of change without prior test experience were negative except those for measures of vocabulary. Discussion. The current results suggest that retest effects can distort the mean age trends in longitudinal comparisons that are not adjusted for experience. Furthermore, the findings can be considered robust because the patterns were similar across three data sets involving different samples of participants and cognitive tests, and across different methods of controlling experience effects in the new data set. PMID:25182845

  19. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  20. ISS SGANT Group Level Offloading Test Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Xi-Lin

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Space-to-Ground Antenna (SGANT) is used for ISS communication with earth through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRSS). Due to the different speeds of travel between earth, ISS and TDRSS, a steerable SGANT was required on the ISS. The mechanical design of SGANT is an unbalanced mechanism with insufficient strength and driving torque to support and drive itself in a 1G environment. For ground testing, a specially designed offloading mechanism is required. Basically, the test mechanism must offload the SGANT in a two-axis operation, allowing the SGANT to move within a specific range, speed and acceleration; therefore the SGANT can move from elevation 0 to 90 deg and be tested at both the 0 and 90 deg positions. The load introduced by the test equipment should be less than 10.17 N-m (7.5 ft-lbf). The on-ground group level tracking test is quite challenging due to the unbalanced antenna mechanical design and tough specification requirements. This paper describes the detailed design, fabrication, and calibration of the test mechanism, and how the above requirements are met. The overall antenna is simplified to a mass model in order to facilitate the offloading mechanism design and analysis. An actual SGANT mass dummy was made to calibrate the system. This paper brings together the theoretical analysis and the industrial experience that were relied upon to meet the above-mentioned requirements for the ground test. The lessons learned during the calibration phase are extremely important for future double or multiple offloading system designs. The ISS SGANT QM and FM units passed their ground test and the SGANT/Boom fit check successfully, and the Flight Model (FM) was delivered to SSPF in April 1998. It is now installed on ISS and functioning well.

  1. Mechanical Tests For Monitoring Aging Of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental study addresses related topics of thermo-oxidative aging of PMR-15 (polyimide matrix/graphite-fiber composite materials) strengths of interfacial bonds, effects of various surface treatments, and relative merits of mechanical tests yielding measures of strengths of materials.

  2. Changes in the incomes of age groups, 1984-89.

    PubMed

    Radner, D B

    1991-12-01

    In terms of changes in the incomes of age groups, the 1984-89 period was very different from the periods that immediately preceded it. This summary focuses on changes for aged family units. During the 1984-89 period, the rate of growth of real median income of aged units was substantially lower than in other subperiods since 1967, the first year for which comparable detailed estimates are available. During the 1984-89 period, the ratio of aged to nonaged median incomes fell for 4 consecutive years, after generally rising since about 1970. The relative medians of almost all detailed aged age groups fell at least slightly from 1984 to 1989, after a period of substantial rises. The increases in income for aged units during 1984-89 were higher for high-income units than for low-income units, producing an increase in inequality. The percentage of aged persons who were poor fell slightly from 1984 to 1989, but that percentage remained above the rates for other adult age groups. A relatively high percentage of aged persons had income that was less than 50 percent above the poverty threshold. The increase in the real mean total income of aged units from 1984 to 1989 was the net result of substantial increases in earnings and pension income and a substantial decrease in property income. In contrast, the much larger increase in real mean total income for aged units from 1979 to 1984 was characterized by a large increase in property income, substantial increases in Social Security benefits and pension income, and a small decrease in earnings.

  3. The relationships of adolescent school-related deviant behaviour and victimization with psychological distress: testing a general model of the mediational role of parents and teachers across groups of gender and age.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Juan; Estévez, Estefanía; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2006-10-01

    Deviant behaviour and victimization at school have been consistently related to poor psychological adjustment in adolescents. This research explores the mediating role that parents and teachers have in adolescent psychological distress in 973 Spanish students aged 11-16 years old. Structural equation analyses results showed that adolescent deviant behaviour and victimization were positively related to psychological distress as seen by the total effects. However, while victimization was directly related to psychological distress, the association of deviant behaviour and psychological distress was mediated by adolescent-parent communication and adolescent-teacher relationships. Multigroup analyses showed that relationships among variables were not significantly different for groups of age and gender.

  4. Age and task parameters in continuous performance tests for preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Hagelthorn, Kathleen M; Hiemenz, Jennifer R; Pillion, Joseph P; Mahone, E Mark

    2003-06-01

    66 children (M=56.2 mo., SD=10.9), recruited from preschool and daycare centers, were administered two continuous performance tests, one auditory and one visual. Both tests utilized a format with one target and one nontarget. Interstimulus interval was fixed at 1350 msec. for the visual test and 5000 msec. for the auditory test. The visual test produced greater rates of omission and commission errors than the auditory test. Age was significantly related to mean reaction time and response variability for both tests; however, the visual test produced an unexpected pattern of increasing response time across age groups. On both tests omission rates improved significantly with age, while commission rates were consistent across ages 3-6 years. When considering continuous performance test paradigms for preschoolers, 3-yr.-olds may need at least a 4000-msec. interstimulus interval to make a choice for the stimulus cue. Hits following an interstimulus interval shorter than 1400 msec. may reflect younger preschoolers' response to a previous stimulus.

  5. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  6. Age-group differences in inhibiting an oculomotor response.

    PubMed

    Gottlob, Lawrence R; Fillmore, Mark T; Abroms, Ben D

    2007-11-01

    Age-group differences were examined in the delayed oculomotor response task, which requires that observers delay the execution of a saccade (eye movement) toward an abrupt-onset visual cue. This task differs from antisaccade and attentional capture in that inhibition causes saccades to be postponed, not redirected. Older adults executed more premature saccades than young adults, but there were no age-group differences in latency or accuracy of saccades executed at the proper time. The results suggest that older adults are less capable of inhibiting a prepotent saccadic response, but that other aspects of visual working memory related to the task are preserved.

  7. Electronic paper display preferred viewing distance and character size for different age groups.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsin-Chieh

    2011-09-01

    This study explores the preferred viewing distance and character size for an electronic paper display for three age groups. Proofreading speed and accuracy ratio were measured during Chinese proofreading tests using the preferred character size and minimum acceptable character size. Data analysis showed that the mean preferred viewing distance for young, middle-aged and older groups was 503, 455 and 444 mm, respectively. The mean preferred character size determined by young, middle-aged and older groups was 42.0, 50.0 and 55.2 min arc, respectively. The proofreading test results indicated that the older group proofread significantly more slowly (1.25 word/sec) than the young (1.76 word/sec) and middle-aged groups (1.74 word/sec). Further, the participants proofread more correctly with their preferred character size (73.3%) than with their minimum acceptable character size (65.4%). This study provides valuable information for the design of Chinese text presentations for various age groups. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This study confirmed the preferred viewing distance and character size for E-paper display were influenced by age. The preferred Chinese character size for young, middle-aged and older people was 42, 50 and 55 min arc, respectively. Therefore, the age factor should be considered for E-paper displays design and video display terminal (VDT) guidelines.

  8. Menopausal age in various ethnic groups in Israel.

    PubMed

    Neri, A; Bider, D; Lidor, Y; Ovadia, J

    1982-12-01

    The effects of various parameters on age at menopause have been investigated in five ethnic groups in Israel comprising East European, West European, North African, Israeli and other Middle Eastern (Mediterranean) women, respectively. The data were acquired by means of anonymous questionnaires and were programmed for 1770 women. Correlation coefficients between various variables and age at menopause revealed three variables which have a straight correlation, vis. obesity index, number of children, and years of amenorrhoea (during the reproductive years). The years-of-smoking variable has an inverse correlation with age at menopause. East Europeans have the highest age at menarche. Two-way analysis of variance has shown that the obesity index, years of amenorrhoea, number of children and years-of-smoking parameters are individually more important than ethnic origin. The finding that the age at menopause is highest in the North African group is explained by the higher incidence in this group of high parity, a greater number of amenorrhoea, obesity, and low cigarette consumption. Since many habits (such as smoking, diet, use of contraceptive pills, multiple partners and marital obligations) are subject to frequent change in the modern world, it is of the utmost importance to repeat such a study every few years.

  9. Maximum Bite Force Analysis in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Patricia; Vieira, Marilena; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF) is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI), using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo), and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil), on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups. PMID:25992105

  10. An Adolescent Age Group Approach to Examining Youth Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…

  11. Youth Assets and Delayed Coitarche across Developmental Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2010-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that assets are associated with youth abstinence, but whether these relationships are constant across developmental age groups has not been shown. Data for this study were obtained from two independent datasets collected across a 2-year period using in-person, in-home interviews of youth (52% female; 44% Caucasian,…

  12. Coupling of Temperament with Mental Illness in Four Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Irina; Christiansen, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Studies of temperament profiles in patients with mental disorders mostly focus on emotionality-related traits, although mental illness symptoms include emotional and nonemotional aspects of behavioral regulation. This study investigates relationships between 12 temperament traits (9 nonemotionality and 3 emotionality related) measured by the Structure of Temperament Questionnaire and four groups of clinical symptoms (depression, anxiety, antisociality, and dominance-mania) measured by the Personality Assessment Inventory. The study further examines age differences in relationships among clinical symptoms and temperament traits. Intake records of 335 outpatients and clients divided into four age groups (18-25, 26-45, 46-65, and 66-85) showed no significant age differences on depression scales; however, the youngest group had significantly higher scores on Anxiety, Antisocial Behavior, Dominance, and Thought Disorders scales. Correlations between Personality Assessment Inventory and Structure of Temperament Questionnaire scales were consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, descriptors showing strong concurrent validity. Several age differences on temperament scales are also reported. Results show the benefits of differentiation between physical, social-verbal, and mental aspects of activities, as well as differentiation between dynamical, orientational, and energetic aspects in studying mental illness and temperament.

  13. Learning Science in Small Multi-Age Groups: The Role of Age Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by…

  14. Learning science in small multi-age groups: the role of age composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallery, Maria; Loupidou, Thomais

    2016-06-01

    The present study examines how the overall cognitive achievements in science of the younger children in a class where the students work in small multi-age groups are influenced by the number of older children in the groups. The context of the study was early-years education. The study has two parts: The first part involved classes attended by pre-primary children aged 4-6. The second part included one primary class attended by students aged 6-8 in addition to the pre-primary classes. Students were involved in inquiry-based science activities. Two sources of data were used: Lesson recordings and children's assessments. The data from both sources were separately analyzed and the findings plotted. The resulting graphs indicate a linear relationship between the overall performance of the younger children in a class and the number of older ones participating in the groups in each class. It seems that the age composition of the groups can significantly affect the overall cognitive achievements of the younger children and preferentially determines the time within which this factor reaches its maximum value. The findings can be utilized in deciding the age composition of small groups in a class with the aim of facilitating the younger children's learning in science.

  15. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  16. Microscale Group Test for Carbonyl Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, V.; Klein, R. F. X.

    1985-01-01

    Procedures are provided for a test that (1) demonstrates principles of derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine; (2) is a thin layer chromatography experiment that visually demonstrates separation of colored compounds of different polarities; and (3) introduces microscale experimentation to students in sophomore organic chemistry…

  17. Variations of Weight of Thyroid Gland in Different Age and Sex Groups of Bangladeshi Cadavers.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Khan, M K; Mannan, S; Asaduzzaman, S M; Sultana, M; Sultana, J; Farzana, T; Epsi, E Z; Wahed, F; Sultana, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross sectional descriptive study was designed to find out the difference in weight of the thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people in relation to age and sex. The present study was performed on 70 post mortem human thyroid gland (35 of male and 35 of female) collected from the morgue in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh by purposive sampling technique. The specimens were collected from Bangladeshi cadavers of age ranging from 10 years to 85 years. All the specimens were grouped into three categories Group A (upto 20 years), Group B (21 to 50 years) and Group C (>50 years) according to age. Dissection was performed according to standard autopsy techniques. The weight of the thyroid glands were measured and recorded. The mean weight of the thyroid gland was 6.94 ± 5.20 gm in Group A, 7.91 ± 5.89 gm in Group B and 10.42 ± 6.27 gm in Group C. The mean weight of the thyroid gland in male was 7.0 ± 5.77 gm in Group A, 9.94 ± 7.63 gm in Group B and 11.89 ± 5.73 gm in Group C and in female was 6.88 ± 4.88 gm in Group A, 5.88 ± 2.15 gm in Group B and 9.10 ± 6.74 gm in Group C. Variance analysis shows that there was no significant difference in mean weight between the Age Group A & B, B & C and C & A. There was significant difference of weight of thyroid gland between sex in age Group B but in Group A and Group C were statistically insignificant. The weight of the thyroid gland was found to increases with age. In statistical analysis, differences between age groups were analyzed by using one way ANOVA test. The present study will help to increase the information pool on the weight of thyroid gland of Bangladeshi people.

  18. Scurvy in pediatric age group - A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-06-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009-2014) with search terms "scurvy" "vitamin C deficiency" "ascorbic acid deficiency" "scurvy and children" "scurvy and pediatric age group". There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated.

  19. International Technical Working Group Round Robin Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Dudder, Gordon B.; Hanlen, Richard C.; Herbillion, Georges M.

    2003-02-01

    The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to support illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and accepted as credible. The principal objectives of the Round Robin Tests are to prioritize forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The HEU (Highly Enriched Uranium) Round Robin, and previous Plutonium Round Robin, have made tremendous contributions to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the nine participating internal laboratories. A prioritized list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Current work is focused on the extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The HEU Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability is combined with the appropriate knowledge/database, it results in a significant capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific process or facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in the current capabilities including procedures for non-nuclear forensics and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The results of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a ''recommended protocol'' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases.

  20. High blood pressure in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Helena; Antonio, Natália; Rodrigues, Dina; Da Silva, Marinho; Pêgo, Mariano; Providência, Luís Augusto

    2010-03-01

    The definition of hypertension (HT) in the pediatric age group is based on the normal distribution of blood pressure (BP) in healthy children. Normal BP is defined as being below the 90th percentile for gender, age and height, and hypertension as equal to or higher than the 95th percentile on at least three separate occasions. If the values are above the 90th percentile but below the 95th percentile, the child should be considered prehypertensive. Ambulatory BP monitoring is useful in the assessment of BP levels in the young. P values in children and adolescents have creased in the last decade, in parallel with increases in body mass index, and HT now has a prevalence of 2-5%. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is one of the main predictors of HT in adulthood, but it is also associated with other cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, inflammation and impaired vascular function. Left ventricular hypertrophy is the most prominent evidence of target organ damage caused by hypertension in children and adolescents. The goal for antihypertensive treatment is to reduce BP below the 95th percentile. Weight control, with regular physical activity and dietary changes, is the primary therapy for obesity-related hypertension. Weight loss decreases not only BP but also other cardiovascular risk factors. The indications for use of antihypertensive drugs are: symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, established hypertensive target organ damage, stage 2 hypertension and failure of nonpharmacologic measures.

  1. Task factor usability ratings for different age groups writing Chinese.

    PubMed

    Chan, A H S; So, J C Y

    2009-11-01

    This study evaluated how different task factors affect performance and user subjective preferences for three different age groups of Chinese subjects (6-11, 20-23, 65-70 years) when hand writing Chinese characters. The subjects copied Chinese character sentences with different settings for the task factors of writing plane angle (horizontal 0 degrees , slanted 15 degrees ), writing direction (horizontal, vertical), and line spacing (5 mm, 7 mm and no lines). Writing speed was measured and subjective preferences (effectiveness and satisfaction) were assessed for each of the task factor settings. The result showed that there was a conflict between writing speed and personal preference for the line spacing factor; 5 mm line spacing increased writing speed but it was the least preferred. It was also found that: vertical and horizontal writing directions and a slanted work surface suited school-aged children; a horizontal work surface and horizontal writing direction suited university students; and a horizontal writing direction with either a horizontal or slanted work surface suited the older adults.

  2. Scurvy in pediatric age group – A disease often forgotten?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil; Shaharyar, Abbas; Kumar, Anubrat; Bhat, Mohd Shafi; Mishra, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High index of suspicion, detailed history and bilateral limb radiographs aids physician in diagnosing this eternal masquerader. We searched Pubmed for recent literature (2009–2014) with search terms “scurvy” “vitamin C deficiency” “ascorbic acid deficiency” “scurvy and children” “scurvy and pediatric age group”. There were a total of 36 articles relevant to pediatric scurvy in children (7 reviews and 29 case reports) which were retrieved. The review briefly recapitulates the role of vitamin C, the various disease manifestations and the treatment of scurvy to create awareness of the disease which still is reported from our country, although sporadically. The recent advances related to scurvy and its management in pediatric age group are also incorporated. PMID:25983516

  3. The Influence of Age on Interaction between Breath-Holding Test and Single-Breath Carbon Dioxide Test.

    PubMed

    Trembach, Nikita; Zabolotskikh, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the breath-holding test and single-breath carbon dioxide test in evaluation of the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects of different age. Methods. The study involved 47 healthy volunteers between ages of 25 and 85 years. All participants were divided into 4 groups according to age: 25 to 44 years (n = 14), 45 to 60 years (n = 13), 60 to 75 years (n = 12), and older than 75 years (n = 8). Breath-holding test was performed in the morning before breakfast. The single-breath carbon dioxide (SB-CO2) test was performed the following day. Results. No correlation was found between age and duration of breath-holding (r = 0.13) and between age and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to CO2 (r = 0.07). In all age groups there were no significant differences in the mean values from the breath-holding test and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity tests. In all groups there was a strong significant inverse correlation between breath-holding test and SB-CO2 test. Conclusion. A breath-holding test reflects the sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreflex to carbon dioxide in healthy elderly humans. Increasing age alone does not alter the peripheral ventilatory response to hypercapnia.

  4. The Influence of Age on Interaction between Breath-Holding Test and Single-Breath Carbon Dioxide Test

    PubMed Central

    Zabolotskikh, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the breath-holding test and single-breath carbon dioxide test in evaluation of the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects of different age. Methods. The study involved 47 healthy volunteers between ages of 25 and 85 years. All participants were divided into 4 groups according to age: 25 to 44 years (n = 14), 45 to 60 years (n = 13), 60 to 75 years (n = 12), and older than 75 years (n = 8). Breath-holding test was performed in the morning before breakfast. The single-breath carbon dioxide (SB-CO2) test was performed the following day. Results. No correlation was found between age and duration of breath-holding (r = 0.13) and between age and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to CO2 (r = 0.07). In all age groups there were no significant differences in the mean values from the breath-holding test and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity tests. In all groups there was a strong significant inverse correlation between breath-holding test and SB-CO2 test. Conclusion. A breath-holding test reflects the sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreflex to carbon dioxide in healthy elderly humans. Increasing age alone does not alter the peripheral ventilatory response to hypercapnia. PMID:28251147

  5. Group Work Tests for Context-Rich Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The group work test is an assessment strategy that promotes higher-order thinking skills for solving context-rich problems. With this format, teachers are able to pose challenging, nuanced questions on a test, while providing the support weaker students need to get started and show their understanding. The test begins with a group discussion…

  6. Tests of Equivalence for One-Way Independent Groups Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cribbie, Robert A.; Arpin-Cribbie, Chantal A.; Gruman, Jamie A.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers in education are often interested in determining whether independent groups are equivalent on a specific outcome. Equivalence tests for 2 independent populations have been widely discussed, whereas testing for equivalence with more than 2 independent groups has received little attention. The authors discuss alternatives for testing the…

  7. Spatial contrast sensitivity - Effects of age, test-retest, and psychophysical method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, Kent E.; Jaffe, Myles J.; Caruso, Rafael C.; Demonasterio, Francisco M.

    1988-01-01

    Two different psychophysical methods were used to test the spatial contrast sensitivity in normal subjects from five age groups. The method of adjustment showed a decline in sensitivity with increasing age at all spatial frequencies, while the forced-choice procedure showed an age-related decline predominantly at high spatial frequencies. It is suggested that a neural component is responsible for this decline.

  8. An Aging Interventions Testing Program: study design and interim report.

    PubMed

    Miller, Richard A; Harrison, David E; Astle, Clinton M; Floyd, Robert A; Flurkey, Kevin; Hensley, Kenneth L; Javors, Martin A; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Nelson, James F; Ongini, Ennio; Nadon, Nancy L; Warner, Huber R; Strong, Randy

    2007-08-01

    The National Institute on Aging's Interventions Testing Program (ITP) has developed a plan to evaluate agents that are considered plausible candidates for delaying rates of aging. Key features include: (i) use of genetically heterogeneous mice (a standardized four-way cross), (ii) replication at three test sites (the Jackson Laboratory, TJL; University of Michigan, UM; and University of Texas, UT), (iii) sufficient statistical power to detect 10% changes in lifespan, (iv) tests for age-dependent changes in T cell subsets and physical activity, and (v) an annual solicitation for collaborators who wish to suggest new interventions for evaluation. Mice in the first cohort were exposed to one of four agents: aspirin, nitroflurbiprofen (NFP), 4-OH-alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (4-OH-PBN), or nordihydroguiaretic acid (NDGA). An interim analysis was conducted using survival data available on the date at which at least 50% of the male control mice had died at each test site. Survival of control males was significantly higher, at the interim time-point, at UM than at UT or TJL; all three sites had similar survival of control females. Males in the NDGA group had significantly improved survival (P = 0.0004), with significant effects noted at TJL (P < 0.01) and UT (P < 0.04). None of the other agents altered survival, although there was a suggestion (P = 0.07) of a beneficial effect of aspirin in males. More data will be needed to determine if any of these compounds can extend maximal lifespan, but the current data show that NDGA reduces early life mortality risks in genetically heterogeneous mice at multiple test sites.

  9. Population Analysis of Adverse Events in Different Age Groups Using Big Clinical Trials Data

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Christina; Cho, Chi C; Cisler, Ron A

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding adverse event patterns in clinical studies across populations is important for patient safety and protection in clinical trials as well as for developing appropriate drug therapies, procedures, and treatment plans. Objectives The objective of our study was to conduct a data-driven population-based analysis to estimate the incidence, diversity, and association patterns of adverse events by age of the clinical trials patients and participants. Methods Two aspects of adverse event patterns were measured: (1) the adverse event incidence rate in each of the patient age groups and (2) the diversity of adverse events defined as distinct types of adverse events categorized by organ system. Statistical analysis was done on the summarized clinical trial data. The incident rate and diversity level in each of the age groups were compared with the lowest group (reference group) using t tests. Cohort data was obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov, and 186,339 clinical studies were analyzed; data were extracted from the 17,853 clinical trials that reported clinical outcomes. The total number of clinical trial participants was 6,808,619, and total number of participants affected by adverse events in these trials was 1,840,432. The trial participants were divided into eight different age groups to support cross-age group comparison. Results In general, children and older patients are more susceptible to adverse events in clinical trial studies. Using the lowest incidence age group as the reference group (20-29 years), the incidence rate of the 0-9 years-old group was 31.41%, approximately 1.51 times higher (P=.04) than the young adult group (20-29 years) at 20.76%. The second-highest group is the 50-59 years-old group with an incidence rate of 30.09%, significantly higher (P<.001) when compared with the lowest incidence in the 20-29 years-old group. The adverse event diversity also increased with increase in patient age. Clinical studies that recruited older

  10. Group Testing: Four Student Solutions to a Classic Optimization Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teague, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    This article describes several creative solutions developed by calculus and modeling students to the classic optimization problem of testing in groups to find a small number of individuals who test positive in a large population.

  11. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  12. 40 CFR 86.1827-01 - Test group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles must create separate test groups based on both the type of battery technology employed by the HEV..., a manufacturer of electric vehicles must create separate test groups based on the type of battery technology, the capacity and voltage of the battery, and the type and size of the electric motor....

  13. Capturing Age-group Differences and Developmental Change with the BASC Parent Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Baptiste; Hein, Sascha; Luthar, Suniya S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of age-group differences and intra-individual change across distinct developmental periods is often challenged by the use of age-appropriate (but non-parallel) measures. We present a short version of the Behavior Assessment System (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1998), Parent Rating Scales for Children (PRS-C) and Adolescents (PRS-A), which uses only their common-items to derive estimates of the initial constructs optimized for developmental studies. Measurement invariance of a three-factor model (Externalizing, Internalizing, Adaptive Skills) was tested across age-groups (161 mothers using PRS-C; 200 mothers using PRS-A) and over time (115 mothers using PRS-C at baseline and PRS-A five years later) with the original versus short PRS. Results indicated that the short PRS holds a sufficient level of invariance for a robust estimation of age-group differences and intra-individual change, as compared to the original PRS, which held only weak invariance leading to flawed developmental inferences. Importance of test-content parallelism for developmental studies is discussed. PMID:25045196

  14. Relationships between Chronological Age, Developmental Age, and Standardized Achievement Tests in Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freberg, Laura

    1991-01-01

    Evaluated chronological age and results of Gesell School Readiness Test as predictors of kindergarten performance as measured by Stanford Achievement Test. Results from 284 kindergarten children indicated that both chronological and developmental age provided good predictors of Stanford Achievement Test performance in kindergarten. Findings have…

  15. Classifiers as a model-free group comparison test.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bommae; Oertzen, Timo von

    2017-04-03

    The conventional statistical methods to detect group differences assume correct model specification, including the origin of difference. Researchers should be able to identify a source of group differences and choose a corresponding method. In this paper, we propose a new approach of group comparison without model specification using classification algorithms in machine learning. In this approach, the classification accuracy is evaluated against a binomial distribution using Independent Validation. As an application example, we examined false-positive errors and statistical power of support vector machines to detect group differences in comparison to conventional statistical tests such as t test, Levene's test, K-S test, Fisher's z-transformation, and MANOVA. The SVMs detected group differences regardless of their origins (mean, variance, distribution shape, and covariance), and showed comparably consistent power across conditions. When a group difference originated from a single source, the statistical power of SVMs was lower than the most appropriate conventional test of the study condition; however, the power of SVMs increased when differences originated from multiple sources. Moreover, SVMs showed substantially improved performance with more variables than with fewer variables. Most importantly, SVMs were applicable to any types of data without sophisticated model specification. This study demonstrates a new application of classification algorithms as an alternative or complement to the conventional group comparison test. With the proposed approach, researchers can test two-sample data even when they are not certain which statistical test to use or when data violates the statistical assumptions of conventional methods.

  16. Diabetes technology and treatments in the paediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Shalitin, S; Peter Chase, H

    2011-02-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases and its incidence has doubled during the last decade. The goals of intensive management of diabetes were established in 1993 by the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) (1). Children with T1D and their caregivers continue to face the challenge to maintain blood glucose levels in the near-normal range. It is important to prevent sustained hyperglycaemia which is associated with long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications and to avoid recurrent episodes of hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia, especially in young children, which may have adverse effects on cognitive function and impede efforts to achieve the recommended glycaemic targets. Advances in the use of technology that may help maintain the metabolic control goals for young people with T1D were centred on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) (2-4), continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) (5-7), and combining both technologies into a closed-loop system (8-10). The dilemma in paediatrics of patient selection for insulin pump therapy was found to be most successful in those with more frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and younger age prior to pump initiation (2). Similarly, those who used a dual-wave bolus probably paid closer attention to their management and had lower HbA1c levels (3). The advantage of using a pre-meal bolus to improve postprandial glucose levels was shown to offer another potential method to improve glycaemic control (4). SMBG is an important component of therapy in patients with diabetes, especially in the paediatric age group. Standard use of glucose meters for SMBG provides only intermittent single blood glucose levels, without giving the 'whole picture' of glucose variability during the 24 h, and especially during the night, when blood glucose levels are seldom measured. Therefore, the use of a device such as real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) that provides

  17. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory-based testing.

    PubMed

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M; Hampton, Robert R

    2013-05-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory-housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch-screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching-to-sample memory test. Despite the differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments.

  18. Racial groups and test fairness, considering history and construct validity.

    PubMed

    Newman, Daniel A; Hanges, Paul J; Outtz, James L

    2007-12-01

    According to Helms, "test fairness" is defined as "removal from test scores of systematic variance attributable to experiences of racial or cultural socialization." Some of Helms's reasoning is based on earlier work, which recommended that racial group or category variables be replaced entirely with individual-level constructs, to reflect racial socialization experiences that vary within racial groups. Treatment of the test fairness issue--a social and political issue--will benefit from explicitly considering historical events that contributed to group-level race differences. In light of this history, D. A. Newman et al suggest (a) retaining a group-level conceptualization of race/racial socialization and also (b) focusing on criterion-irrelevant variance in test scores that is attributable to race.

  19. Intergroup Conflict in Russia: Testing the Group Position Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minescu, Anca; Poppe, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The group position model (Blumer 1958; Bobo and Tuan 2006) assumes that attempting to secure a privileged position for the ingroup is a main determinant of perceived intergroup conflict. This assumption is tested with survey data collected in 1999 and 2000 among eight titular groups in autonomous republics of the Russian Federation. The survey…

  20. 40 CFR 86.1827-01 - Test group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks... manufacturer shall use good engineering judgment in grouping vehicles into test groups. (a) To be included...

  1. Age Sensitivity of Behavioral Tests and Brain Substrates of Normal Aging in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kennard, John A.; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of age sensitivity, the capacity of a behavioral test to reliably detect age-related changes, has utility in the design of experiments to elucidate processes of normal aging. We review the application of these tests in studies of normal aging and compare and contrast the age sensitivity of the Barnes maze, eyeblink classical conditioning, fear conditioning, Morris water maze, and rotorod. These tests have all been implemented to assess normal age-related changes in learning and memory in rodents, which generalize in many cases to age-related changes in learning and memory in all mammals, including humans. Behavioral assessments are a valuable means to measure functional outcomes of neuroscientific studies of aging. Highlighted in this review are the attributes and limitations of these measures in mice in the context of age sensitivity and processes of brain aging. Attributes of these tests include reliability and validity as assessments of learning and memory, well-defined neural substrates, and sensitivity to neural and pharmacological manipulations and disruptions. These tests engage the hippocampus and/or the cerebellum, two structures centrally involved in learning and memory that undergo functional and anatomical changes in normal aging. A test that is less well represented in studies of normal aging, the context pre-exposure facilitation effect (CPFE) in fear conditioning, is described as a method to increase sensitivity of contextual fear conditioning to changes in the hippocampus. Recommendations for increasing the age sensitivity of all measures of normal aging in mice are included, as well as a discussion of the potential of the under-studied CPFE to advance understanding of subtle hippocampus-mediated phenomena. PMID:21647305

  2. Group Work Tests for Context-Rich Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Chris

    2016-05-01

    The group work test is an assessment strategy that promotes higher-order thinking skills for solving context-rich problems. With this format, teachers are able to pose challenging, nuanced questions on a test, while providing the support weaker students need to get started and show their understanding. The test begins with a group discussion phase, when students are given a "number-free" version of the problem. This phase allows students to digest the story-like problem, explore solution ideas, and alleviate some test anxiety. After 10-15 minutes of discussion, students inform the instructor of their readiness for the individual part of the test. What follows next is a pedagogical phase change from lively group discussion to quiet individual work. The group work test is a natural continuation of the group work in our daily physics classes and helps reinforce the importance of collaboration. This method has met with success at York Mills Collegiate Institute, in Toronto, Ontario, where it has been used consistently for unit tests and the final exam of the grade 12 university preparation physics course.

  3. Relationship of Age and Education to Halstead Test Performance in Different Patient Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prigatano, George P.; Parsons, Oscar A.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of age and education on Halstead test performance were examined in this cross-validation of the Vega and Parsons study. Differences between correlation in psychiatric patients and medical-surgical control subjects are discussed, as is the importance of age, and differences in reference groups when making clinical inferences about brain…

  4. Racial Groups and Test Fairness, Considering History and Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Daniel A.; Hanges, Paul J.; Outtz, James L.

    2007-01-01

    According to Helms, "test fairness" is defined as "removal from test scores of systematic variance attributable to experiences of racial or cultural socialization." Some of Helms's reasoning is based on earlier work, which recommended that racial group or category variables be replaced entirely with individual-level constructs, to reflect racial…

  5. Cortisol responses to a group public speaking task for adolescents: variations by age, gender, and race.

    PubMed

    Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development.

  6. A new test method for young age strength of shotcrete

    SciTech Connect

    Teramoto, Shozo

    1995-12-31

    As a method for testing the young-age strength of shotcrete used as tunnel supports, use of the Parotester, which is designed to measure the hardness of paper rolls at printing factories, has been considered. This paper reports the results of laboratory tests conducted to establish this method as a means of strength testing.

  7. Susceptibility to varicella in childbearing age women, Central Italy: is there a need for vaccinating this population group?

    PubMed

    Alfonsi, Valeria; Montomoli, Emanuele; Manini, Ilaria; Alberini, Isabella; Gentile, Chiara; Rota, Maria Cristina; Ciofi degli Atti, Marta Luisa

    2007-08-10

    We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antibodies in childbearing age women aged 17-42 years. Sera were collected in Central Italy in years 2001-2002 and were tested by a commercial VZV IgG enzyme immunoassay. Overall VZV seroprevalence was 80.9% and it showed a significant increase by age, confirming a considerable circulation of VZV also in the older age groups not commonly considered at high risk. This study further supports the importance of vaccinating susceptible adolescents and women of childbearing age in order to reduce both maternal and foetal complications associated with varicella in pregnancy.

  8. Sex Differences in the Play Behavior of Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clance, Pauline Rose; And Others

    Erik Erikson concluded that differences in the play constructions of young children are largely determined by psychosexual differences in the subjects and not by cultural influence. He suggested that additional observation of younger and older subjects could determine whether the differences were true for all ages or whether they were restricted…

  9. The Pros and Cons of Mixed-Age Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodish, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Recently, numerous larger schools have tried to capture the potential advantages of a wide age range in their classrooms. The nongraded organizational system recognizes and plans for varied student abilities, provides for different rates of progress, and adjusts to individual emotional and social needs. Both advantages and disadvantages are…

  10. Optimal Configuration of a Square Array Group Testing Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Hudgens, Michael G.; Kim, Hae-Young

    2009-01-01

    We consider the optimal configuration of a square array group testing algorithm (denoted A2) to minimize the expected number of tests per specimen. For prevalence greater than 0.2498, individual testing is shown to be more efficient than A2. For prevalence less than 0.2498, closed form lower and upper bounds on the optimal group sizes for A2 are given. Arrays of dimension 2 × 2, 3 × 3, and 4 × 4 are shown to never be optimal. The results are illustrated by considering the design of a specimen pooling algorithm for detection of recent HIV infections in Malawi. PMID:21218195

  11. Bayesian inference for disease prevalence using negative binomial group testing

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Nicholas A.; Tebbs, Joshua M.

    2011-01-01

    Group testing, also known as pooled testing, and inverse sampling are both widely used methods of data collection when the goal is to estimate a small proportion. Taking a Bayesian approach, we consider the new problem of estimating disease prevalence from group testing when inverse (negative binomial) sampling is used. Using different distributions to incorporate prior knowledge of disease incidence and different loss functions, we derive closed form expressions for posterior distributions and resulting point and credible interval estimators. We then evaluate our new estimators, on Bayesian and classical grounds, and apply our methods to a West Nile Virus data set. PMID:21259308

  12. Aging of composite insulators; Simulation by electrical tests

    SciTech Connect

    de Tourreil, C.H. ); Lambeth, P.J.

    1990-07-01

    To assess the long-term performance of 72 kV and 230 kV composite long rod insulators different laboratory aging tests have been developed. This paper reports two principal diagnostic tests used to measure the performance of the insulators, the quick flashover salt fog (QFO SF), and the rapid flashover clean fog (RFO CF) tests. The aging processes were: cement coating and clean fog, salt fog, and cement coating and salt fog. Similar sets of insulators were aged also in the field for over three years, and all the insulators evaluated in the laboratory. The cement/salt fog aging process was found to be the most controllable and realistic, when the results were assessed by means of the RFO CF test.

  13. The effect of group composition and age on social behavior and competition in groups of weaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Faerevik, G; Jensen, M B; Bøe, K E

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how group composition affects behavior and weight gain of newly weaned dairy calves and how age within heterogeneous groups affects behavior and competition. Seventy-two calves were introduced into 6 groups of 12 calves, of which 3 groups were homogeneous and 3 groups were heterogeneous (including 6 young and 6 old calves). The 9.8 mx9.5 m large experimental pen had 4 separate lying areas as well as a feeding area. Behavior and subgrouping were recorded on d 1, 7, and 14 after grouping, and calves were weighed before and after the experimental period of 14 d. Analysis of the effect of group composition on behavior and weight gain included young calves in heterogeneous groups and calves in homogeneous groups within the same age range at grouping (30 to 42 d). Irrespective of group composition, time spent feeding and lying increased, whereas time spent active decreased from d 1 to 7. In homogeneous groups, calves were more explorative on d 1 after grouping. Finally, calves in homogeneous groups had a higher average daily weight gain than calves in heterogeneous groups. Analysis of the effect of age included young and old calves of heterogeneous groups. Young calves were less explorative than old calves. Young calves were more active than old calves on d 1 but less active on d 7. Time spent lying and lying alone increased over time. More displacements from the feed manger were performed by old calves than by young calves. An analysis including all calves in both homogeneous and heterogeneous groups showed that when lying, calves were evenly distributed on the 4 lying areas and formed subgroups of on average 3 calves. In conclusion, age heterogeneity leads to increased competition, which may have a negative influence on the young calves' performance.

  14. Group Differences in Test-Taking Behaviour: An Example from a High-Stakes Testing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenlund, Tova; Eklöf, Hanna; Lyrén, Per-Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether different groups of test-takers vary in their reported test-taking behaviour in a high-stakes test situation. A between-group design (N = 1129) was used to examine whether high and low achievers, as well as females and males, differ in their use of test-taking strategies, and in level of reported test anxiety and…

  15. Dermatological disease in the older age group: a cross-sectional study in aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Maneka S; Vandal, Alain C; Jarrett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of dermatological disease in aged care facilities, and the relationship between cognitive or physical disability and significant disease. Setting 2 large aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand, each providing low and high level care. Participants All 161 residents of the facilities were invited to participate. The only exclusion criterion was inability to obtain consent from the individual or designated guardian. 88 participants were recruited—66 females (75%), 22 males (25%) with average age 87.1 years (SD 5.5 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary—presence of significant skin disease (defined as that which in the opinion of the investigators needed treatment or was identified as a patient concern) diagnosed clinically on full dermatological examination by a dermatologist or dermatology trainee. Secondary—functional and cognitive status (Rehabilitation Complexity Scale and Abbreviated Mental Test Score). Results 81.8% were found to have at least one significant condition. The most common disorders were onychomycosis 42 (47.7%), basal cell carcinoma 13 (14.8%), asteototic eczema 11 (12.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ 9 (10.2%). Other findings were invasive squamous cell carcinoma 7 (8%), bullous pemphigoid 2 (2.3%), melanoma 2 (2.3%), lichen sclerosus 2 (2.3%) and carcinoma of the breast 1 (1.1%). Inflammatory disease was more common in those with little physical disability compared with those with serious physical disability (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6, p=0.04). No significant association was found between skin disease and cognitive impairment. Conclusions A high rate of dermatological disease was found. Findings ranged from frequent but not life-threatening conditions (eg, onychomycosis), to those associated with a significant morbidity (eg, eczema, lichen sclerosus and bullous pemphigoid), to potentially life-threatening (eg, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and breast cancer

  16. Diversity, Group Identity, and Citizenship Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide immigration and quests for rights by minority groups have caused social scientists and educators to raise serious questions about liberal assimilationist conceptions of citizenship that historically have dominated citizenship education in nation-states. The author of this article challenges liberal assimilationist conceptions of…

  17. Age, Tumor Characteristics, and Treatment Regimen as Event Predictors in Ewing: A Children's Oncology Group Report

    PubMed Central

    Marina, Neyssa; Granowetter, Linda; Grier, Holcombe E.; Womer, Richard B.; Randall, R. Lor; Marcus, Karen J.; McIlvaine, Elizabeth; Krailo, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To associate baseline patient characteristics and relapse across consecutive COG studies. Methods. We analyzed risk factors for LESFT patients in three randomized COG trials. We evaluated age at enrollment, primary site, gender, tumor size, and treatment (as randomized). We estimated event-free survival (EFS, Kaplan-Meier) and compared risk across groups (log-rank test). Characteristics were assessed by proportional hazards regression with the characteristic of interest as the only component. Confidence intervals (CI) for RR were derived. Factors related to outcome at level 0.05 were included in a multivariate regression model. Results. Between 12/1988 and 8/2005, 1444 patients were enrolled and data current to 2001, 2004, or 2008 were used. Patients were with a median age of 12 years (0–45), 55% male and 88% Caucasian. The 5-year EFS was 68.3% ± 1.3%. In univariate analysis age, treatment, and tumor location were identified for inclusion in the multivariate model, and all remained significant (p < 0.01). Since tumor size was not collected in the last study, the other two were reanalyzed. This model identified age, treatment, tumor location, and tumor size as significant predictors. Conclusion. Age > 18 years, pelvic tumor, size > 8 cms, and chemotherapy without ifosfamide/etoposide significantly predict worse outcome. AEWS0031 is NCT00006734, INT0091 and INT0054 designed before 1993 (unregistered). PMID:26508901

  18. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  19. Alliance for aging research AD biomarkers work group: structural MRI.

    PubMed

    Jack, Clifford R

    2011-12-01

    Biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are increasingly important. All modern AD therapeutic trials employ AD biomarkers in some capacity. In addition, AD biomarkers are an essential component of recently updated diagnostic criteria for AD from the National Institute on Aging--Alzheimer's Association. Biomarkers serve as proxies for specific pathophysiological features of disease. The 5 most well established AD biomarkers include both brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measures--cerebrospinal fluid Abeta and tau, amyloid positron emission tomography (PET), fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This article reviews evidence supporting the position that MRI is a biomarker of neurodegenerative atrophy. Topics covered include methods of extracting quantitative and semiquantitative information from structural MRI; imaging-autopsy correlation; and evidence supporting diagnostic and prognostic value of MRI measures. Finally, the place of MRI in a hypothetical model of temporal ordering of AD biomarkers is reviewed.

  20. Poisson Group Testing: A Probabilistic Model for Boolean Compressed Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emad, Amin; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a novel probabilistic group testing framework, termed Poisson group testing, in which the number of defectives follows a right-truncated Poisson distribution. The Poisson model has a number of new applications, including dynamic testing with diminishing relative rates of defectives. We consider both nonadaptive and semi-adaptive identification methods. For nonadaptive methods, we derive a lower bound on the number of tests required to identify the defectives with a probability of error that asymptotically converges to zero; in addition, we propose test matrix constructions for which the number of tests closely matches the lower bound. For semi-adaptive methods, we describe a lower bound on the expected number of tests required to identify the defectives with zero error probability. In addition, we propose a stage-wise reconstruction algorithm for which the expected number of tests is only a constant factor away from the lower bound. The methods rely only on an estimate of the average number of defectives, rather than on the individual probabilities of subjects being defective.

  1. The Use of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration as a Group Screening Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryzwansky, Walter B.

    1977-01-01

    This article investigates teacher use of the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) as a screening instrument with groups of young school-age children. Findings argue for some refinement in the scoring system in order to improve consistency in scoring. (Author)

  2. Accelerated aging test results for aerospace wire insulation constructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Several wire insulation constructions were evaluated with and without continuous glow discharges at low pressure and high temperature to determine the aging characteristics of acceptable wire insulation constructions. It was known at the beginning of the test program that insulation aging takes several years when operated at normal ambient temperature and pressure of 20 C and 760 torr. Likewise, it was known that the accelerated aging process decreases insulation life by approximately 50% for each 10 C temperature rise. Therefore, the first phases of the program, not reported in these test results, were to select wire insulation constructions that could operate at high temperature and low pressure for over 10,000 hours with negligible shrinkage and little materials' deterioration.The final phase of the program was to determine accelerated aging characteristics. When an insulation construction is subjected to partial discharges the insulation is locally heated by the bombardment of the discharges, the insulation is also subjected to ozone and other deteriorating gas particles that may significantly increase the aging process. Several insulation systems using either a single material or combinations of teflon, kapton, and glass insulation constructions were tested. All constructions were rated to be partial discharge and/or corona-free at 240 volts, 400 Hz and 260 C (500 F) for 50, 000 hours at altitudes equivalent to the Paschen law. Minimum partial discharge aging tests were preceded by screening tests lasting 20 hours at 260 C. The aging process was accelerated by subjecting the test articles to temperatures up to 370 C (700 F) with and without partial discharges. After one month operation with continuous glow discharges surrounding the test articles, most insulation systems were either destroyed or became brittle, cracked, and unsafe for use. Time with space radiation as with partial discharges is accumulative.

  3. CANTAB object recognition and language tests to detect aging cognitive decline: an exploratory comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Cabral Soares, Fernanda; de Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; de Macedo, Liliane Dias e Dias; Tomás, Alessandra Mendonça; Picanço-Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley; Bento-Torres, João; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    Objective The recognition of the limits between normal and pathological aging is essential to start preventive actions. The aim of this paper is to compare the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and language tests to distinguish subtle differences in cognitive performances in two different age groups, namely young adults and elderly cognitively normal subjects. Method We selected 29 young adults (29.9±1.06 years) and 31 older adults (74.1±1.15 years) matched by educational level (years of schooling). All subjects underwent a general assessment and a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Mini Mental State Examination, visuospatial learning, and memory tasks from CANTAB and language tests. Cluster and discriminant analysis were applied to all neuropsychological test results to distinguish possible subgroups inside each age group. Results Significant differences in the performance of aged and young adults were detected in both language and visuospatial memory tests. Intragroup cluster and discriminant analysis revealed that CANTAB, as compared to language tests, was able to detect subtle but significant differences between the subjects. Conclusion Based on these findings, we concluded that, as compared to language tests, large-scale application of automated visuospatial tests to assess learning and memory might increase our ability to discern the limits between normal and pathological aging. PMID:25565785

  4. 40 CFR 86.1827-01 - Test group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacturer of electric vehicles must create separate test groups based on the type of battery technology, the... otherwise approved by the Administrator, a manufacturer of hybrid electric vehicles must create separate... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED)...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1827-01 - Test group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacturer of electric vehicles must create separate test groups based on the type of battery technology, the... otherwise approved by the Administrator, a manufacturer of hybrid electric vehicles must create separate... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED)...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1827-01 - Test group determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacturer of electric vehicles must create separate test groups based on the type of battery technology, the... otherwise approved by the Administrator, a manufacturer of hybrid electric vehicles must create separate... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General...

  7. Stages of Group Development: An Empirical Test of Tuckman's Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runkel, Philip J.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A study was made of small workgroups, each of which was assigned to complete an empirical investigation. These workgroups were observed by students. The framework for the observations was Tuckman's (1965) proposed model of group development. The goal was to test the fit of Tuckman's model to the actual development of the workgroups observed in the…

  8. Prediction of WAIS Scores from Group Ability Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Charles G.; Klett, William G.

    1973-01-01

    In a search for an adequate but efficient substitute, the authors have instituted three evaluations of the relationships between potential WAIS-substitutes and the WAIS itself. The present report describes the first of these researches-- a study of the relationships between the four group ability tests and the WAIS in a mental hospital setting.…

  9. Baseline Data on Questions in Group Embedded Figures Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusk, Edward J.; Wright, Haviland

    1982-01-01

    To study the learning effect on the Group Embedded Figures Test, the relative frequency of success on its 18 tasks must be estimated. This note provides such baseline data, collected by Lusk and Wright and categorized according to Science and Engineering, Business Administration, and Liberal Arts curricula. (Author/CM)

  10. Performance trends in age group breaststroke swimmers in the FINA World Championships 1986-2014.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2016-10-31

    Performance trends in breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level in pool competitions are well investigated for elite swimmers, but not for age group swimmers. This study investigated trends in participation, performance and sex difference in performance in a total of 35,143 (16,160 women and 18,983 men) age group breaststroke swimmers aged 25-29 to 95-99 years competing in the Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) World Masters Championships between 1986 and 2014. Trends in participation were analysed using linear regression analyses and trends in performance were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses with sex, distance and calendar year as fixed variables. Women and men improved performance in all age groups. For age groups 25-29 to 85-89 years, men were faster than women. For age groups 90-94 to 95-99 years, men were not faster than women. Sex and distance showed a significant interaction for all distances in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years. In 50 m, women reduced the gap to men in age groups 40-44 to 70-74 years and in 100 m and 200 m, women reduced the gap in age groups 50-54 to 60-64 years. In summary, (i) women and men improved performance in all race distances and in all age groups, (ii) men were faster than women from 25 to 89 years, but not from 90 to 99 years, and (iii), women reduced the gap to men between ~40 and ~75 years, but not in younger (<40 years) or older (>75 years) age groups. Based on these findings for a time period of nearly 30 years, we may assume a further increase in participation and a further improvement in performance in the near future in age group breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level.

  11. Control group response variability in short-term toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.C.; Shimp, C.; Wang, Q.; Shukla, R.; Fulk, F.

    1995-12-31

    The US EPA`s National Reference Toxicant Database (NRTDB) has afforded an excellent opportunity to examine and document variability in responses within control groups (i.e. zero concentration of the toxicant.) The NRTDB has compiled acute and chronic reference toxicant test results for eight species and currently contains results for 32 laboratories and generally eight to ten tests for a species within each laboratory. The Ceriodaphnia dubia Survival and Reproduction test and the Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) Survival and Growth test are the most frequently represented chronic tests with 331 and 144 sets of test data, respectively. For this presentation, Ceriodaphnia dubia reproduction data, expressed as total numbers of young in the test period, and fathead minnow survival and growth data were analyzed using a variance components model. The information regarding the control population is useful in examining the sources of inter and intralaboratory variability of chronic testing. In addition, this control population response variability information will be valuable for characterizing what can be termed as ``practically equivalent responses`` between a control and an effluent. The preliminary analysis indicates considerable between-test variability; however, this variability is not consistent across laboratories. Results of further exploration on this issue will be presented.

  12. Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2005-05-04

    Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

  13. Psychological Tests Which Might be More Culturally Fair for Elementary School Age Children in Appalachia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, William R.

    This report lists various factors of psychological testing which might be more relevant and appropriate for elementary school age children in such areas as Appalachia. The areas covered are group individual testing, individual intelligence testing, achievement testing, special clinical testing, social maturity, and personality evaluation…

  14. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years) and older (64-85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  15. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  16. Finisher and performance trends in female and male mountain ultramarathoners by age group

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Eichenberger, Evelyn; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined changes according to age group in the number of finishers and running times for athletes in female and male mountain ultramarathoners competing in the 78 km Swiss Alpine Marathon, the largest mountain ultramarathon in Europe and held in high alpine terrain. Methods The association between age and performance was investigated using analysis of variance and both single and multilevel regression analyses. Results Between 1998 and 2011, a total of 1,781 women and 12,198 men finished the Swiss Alpine Marathon. The number of female finishers increased (r2 = 0.64, P = 0.001), whereas the number of male finishers (r2 = 0.18, P = 0.15) showed no change. The annual top ten men became older and slower, whereas the annual top ten women became older but not slower. Regarding the number of finishers in the age groups, the number of female finishers decreased in the age group 18–24 years, whereas the number of finishers increased in the age groups 30–34, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, and 70–74 years. In the age groups 25–29 and 35–39 years, the number of finishers showed no changes across the years. In the age group 70–74 years, the increase in number of finishers was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. For men, the number of finishers decreased in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, and 35–39 years. In the age groups 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 70–74, and 75–79 years, the number of finishers increased. In the age group 40–44 years, the increase was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. Female finishers in the age group 40–44 years became faster over time. For men, finishers in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, 40–44, and 45–49 years became slower. Conclusion The number of women older than 30 years and men older than 40 years increased in the Swiss Alpine Marathon. Performance improved in women aged 40–44 years but

  17. Age-Infusion Approach to Derive Injury Risk Curves for Dummies from Human Cadaver Tests

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Pintar, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Injury criteria and risk curves are needed for anthropomorphic test devices (dummies) to assess injuries for improving human safety. The present state of knowledge is based on using injury outcomes and biomechanical metrics from post-mortem human subject (PMHS) and mechanical records from dummy tests. Data from these models are combined to develop dummy injury assessment risk curves (IARCs)/dummy injury assessment risk values (IARVs). This simple substitution approach involves duplicating dummy metrics for PMHS tested under similar conditions and pairing with PMHS injury outcomes. It does not directly account for the age of each specimen tested in the PMHS group. Current substitution methods for injury risk assessments use age as a covariate and dummy metrics (e.g., accelerations) are not modified so that age can be directly included in the model. The age-infusion methodology presented in this perspective article accommodates for an annual rate factor that modifies the dummy injury risk assessment responses to account for the age of the PMHS that the injury data were based on. The annual rate factor is determined using human injury risk curves. The dummy metrics are modulated based on individual PMHS age and rate factor, thus “infusing” age into the dummy data. Using PMHS injuries and accelerations from side-impact experiments, matched-pair dummy tests, and logistic regression techniques, the methodology demonstrates the process of age-infusion to derive the IARCs and IARVs. PMID:26697422

  18. Age-Infusion Approach to Derive Injury Risk Curves for Dummies from Human Cadaver Tests.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Pintar, Frank A

    2015-01-01

    Injury criteria and risk curves are needed for anthropomorphic test devices (dummies) to assess injuries for improving human safety. The present state of knowledge is based on using injury outcomes and biomechanical metrics from post-mortem human subject (PMHS) and mechanical records from dummy tests. Data from these models are combined to develop dummy injury assessment risk curves (IARCs)/dummy injury assessment risk values (IARVs). This simple substitution approach involves duplicating dummy metrics for PMHS tested under similar conditions and pairing with PMHS injury outcomes. It does not directly account for the age of each specimen tested in the PMHS group. Current substitution methods for injury risk assessments use age as a covariate and dummy metrics (e.g., accelerations) are not modified so that age can be directly included in the model. The age-infusion methodology presented in this perspective article accommodates for an annual rate factor that modifies the dummy injury risk assessment responses to account for the age of the PMHS that the injury data were based on. The annual rate factor is determined using human injury risk curves. The dummy metrics are modulated based on individual PMHS age and rate factor, thus "infusing" age into the dummy data. Using PMHS injuries and accelerations from side-impact experiments, matched-pair dummy tests, and logistic regression techniques, the methodology demonstrates the process of age-infusion to derive the IARCs and IARVs.

  19. Euler computations of AGARD Working Group 07 airfoil test cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pulliam, T. H.; Barton, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    In an attempt to provide a set of accurate standard test problems for computational code developers, a series of inviscid airfoil test cases were chosen by the AGARD Working Group 07, a subpanel of the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel. The cases include three different airfoils at transonic to supersonic conditions. A large number of international experts responded in this effort with computations that have been contrasted for accuracy and consistency. This paper is a summary of the authors' contribution to this study. In particular, the important aspects of the solution process that made it possible to obtain the high level of accuracy needed in this study are stressed.

  20. The Comparison of Different Age Groups on the Attitudes toward and the Use of ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Different factors may be influencing the use of information and communication technology (ICT). One of the important factors is age. The society is divided into different groups according to age. A well-known age-based categorization, commonly used especially in the field of economics,, is based on whether people belong to the Millennial…

  1. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  2. [Symptomatic and asymptomatic infections of Demodex spp. in eye lashes of patients of different age groups].

    PubMed

    Kuźna-Grygiel, Wanda; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Czepita, Damian; Sambor, Izabella

    2004-01-01

    Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis were looked for on eyelashes sampled from 481 people, aged 3 through 96. The persons studied were divided into 9 age groups. Magnitude of the infection symptoms was assessed based on macroscopic changes of eye-lid edges and on interviews with patients. An increase of the prevalence of infection and intensification of the symptoms were observed to coincide with the age increase of the persons studied. No significant differences were demonstrated between the infection frequencies of women and men. Symptoms of ocular demodecosis were more frequent only in women of group III (aged 21-30) and group V (41-50) (p < 0.05).

  3. Benefits of gregarious feeding by aposematic caterpillars depend on group age structure.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stuart A; Stastny, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Gregarious feeding is a common feature of herbivorous insects and can range from beneficial (e.g. dilution of predation risk) to costly (e.g. competition). Group age structure should influence these costs and benefits, particularly when old and young larvae differ in their feeding mode or apparency to predators. We investigated the relative value of gregarious feeding by aposematic larvae of Uresiphita reversalis that we observed feeding in groups of mixed ages and variable densities on wild Lupinus diffusus. In a manipulative field experiment, the survivorship and growth of young larvae were enhanced in the presence of older conspecifics, but not in large groups of similarly aged larvae. Estimates of insect damage and induced plant responses suggest that mixed-age groups enhance plant quality for young larvae while avoiding competition. We conclude that benefits of gregariousness in this species are contingent on group age structure, a finding of significance for the ecology and evolution of gregariousness and other social behaviours.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing in the spectrum of normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Foss, Maria Paula; Diniz, Paula Rejane Beserra; Formigheri, Paulo; Salmon, Carlos Ernesto Garrido; Speciali, José Geraldo; Santos, Antônio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand the relationships between brain structures and function (behavior and cognition) in healthy aging. METHOD: The study group was composed of 56 healthy elderly subjects who underwent neuropsychological assessment and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. Cluster analysis classified the cohort into two groups, one (cluster 1) in which the magnetic resonance imaging metrics were more preserved (mean age: 66.4 years) and another (cluster 2) with less preserved markers of healthy brain tissue (mean age: 75.4 years). RESULTS: The subjects in cluster 2 (older group) had worse indices of interference in the Stroop test compared with the subjects in cluster 1 (younger group). Therefore, a simple test such as the Stroop test could differentiate groups of younger and older subjects based on magnetic resonance imaging metrics. CONCLUSION: These results are in agreement with the inhibitory control hypotheses regarding cognitive aging and may also be important in the interpretation of studies with other clinical groups, such as patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment. PMID:24141834

  5. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  6. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity.

    PubMed

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  7. Rabies Group-Specific Ribonucleoprotein Antigen and a Test System for Grouping and Typing of Rhabdoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, L. G.; Dietzschold, B.; Dierks, R. E.; Matthaeus, W.; Enzmann, P.-J.; Strohmaier, K.

    1973-01-01

    Cell-associated ribonucleoprotein (RNP) was isolated from BHK-21 cells infected with several strains of rabies and rabies-related viruses. The RNP-antigen from rabies and related viruses induced the formation of complement-fixing, precipitating, and immunofluorescent antibodies, and proved to be the group-specific antigen common to all rabies viruses. Antigens of the envelope which induce virus-neutralizing antibodies are apparently determinative for the serotype of a virus as evidenced by two-way neutralization tests. A combination of these methods seems to be a useful approach to the serological grouping and typing of rhabdoviruses. Images PMID:4196634

  8. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  9. Aging and memory: corrections for age, sex and education for three widely used memory tests.

    PubMed

    Zappalà, G; Measso, G; Cavarzeran, F; Grigoletto, F; Lebowitz, B; Pirozzolo, F; Amaducci, L; Massari, D; Crook, T

    1995-04-01

    The associate learning subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale; Benton's Visual Retention test and a Controlled Word Association Task (FAS) were administered to a random sample of normal, healthy individuals whose age ranged from 20 to 79 years, recruited within the Italian peninsula. The neuropsychological examination took place on a mobile unit and the tests were given by the same team of neuropsychologists to reduce variability among examiners. The Research Project was known as Progetto Memoria. Corrections to the scores of these tests were calculated for age, sex, and education. These corrected values will allow clinicians to screen for memory impairment with greater precision among normally aging individuals, thus improving differential diagnosis between physiologic and pathologic deterioration of cognitive functions.

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test and its relation with female age 1

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Nara Sibério Pinho; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Pinheiro, Patricia Neyva da Costa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. Method: a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. Results: although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000). A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000). Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852). Conclusion: the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test. PMID:27305183

  11. Testing the two planes of satellites in the Centaurus group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Oliver; Jerjen, Helmut; Pawlowski, Marcel S.; Binggeli, Bruno

    2016-11-01

    Context. The existence of satellite galaxy planes poses a major challenge for the standard picture of structure formation with non-baryonic dark matter. Recently Tully et al. (2015, ApJ, 802, L25) reported the discovery of two almost parallel planes in the nearby Cen A group using mostly high-mass galaxies (MB< -10 mag) in their analysis. Aims: Our team detected a large number of new group member candidates in the Cen A group. This dwarf galaxy sample, combined with other recent results from the literature, enables us to test the galaxy distribution in the direction of the Cen A group and to determine the statistical significance of the geometric alignment. Methods: Taking advantage of the fact that the two galaxy planes lie almost edge-on along the line of sight, the newly found group members can be assigned relative to the two planes. We used various statistical methods to test whether the distribution of galaxies follows a single normal distribution or shows evidence of bimodality as has been reported earlier. Results: We confirm that the data used for the Tully et al. study support the picture of a bimodal structure. When the new galaxy samples are included, however, the gap between the two galaxy planes is closing and the significance level of the bimodality is reduced. Instead, the plane that contains Cen A becomes more prominent. Conclusions: We found evidence that the galaxy system around Cen A is made up of only one plane of satellites. This plane is almost orthogonal to the dust plane of Cen A. Accurate distances to the new dwarf galaxies will be required to measure the precise 3D distribution of the galaxies around Cen A.

  12. Annual age-grouping and athlete development: a meta-analytical review of relative age effects in sport.

    PubMed

    Cobley, Stephen; Baker, Joseph; Wattie, Nick; McKenna, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Annual age-grouping is a common organizational strategy in sport. However, such a strategy appears to promote relative age effects (RAEs). RAEs refer both to the immediate participation and long-term attainment constraints in sport, occurring as a result of chronological age and associated physical (e.g. height) differences as well as selection practices in annual age-grouped cohorts. This article represents the first meta-analytical review of RAEs, aimed to collectively determine (i) the overall prevalence and strength of RAEs across and within sports, and (ii) identify moderator variables. A total of 38 studies, spanning 1984-2007, containing 253 independent samples across 14 sports and 16 countries were re-examined and included in a single analysis using odds ratios and random effects procedures for combining study estimates. Overall results identified consistent prevalence of RAEs, but with small effect sizes. Effect size increased linearly with relative age differences. Follow-up analyses identified age category, skill level and sport context as moderators of RAE magnitude. Sports context involving adolescent (aged 15-18 years) males, at the representative (i.e. regional and national) level in highly popular sports appear most at risk to RAE inequalities. Researchers need to understand the mechanisms by which RAEs magnify and subside, as well as confirm whether RAEs exist in female and more culturally diverse contexts. To reduce and eliminate this social inequality from influencing athletes' experiences, especially within developmental periods, direct policy, organizational and practitioner intervention is required.

  13. Other age groups than children need to be considered as carriers of Streptococcal pneumoniae serotypes.

    PubMed

    Slotved, Hans-Christian

    2016-10-02

    We need to raise the issue that focus on children as the only carriage group for pneumococci is not optimal; we need to consider that other age groups might also be carriers of pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in unvaccinated age groups. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) have successfully removed IPD from vaccinated children. Studies have shown an effect of PCV reducing the pneumococcal carriage of PCV serotypes in children. The status for several countries having used PCV for many years is that they do not see PCV serotypes neither carried nor as a cause of IPD in children. PCV vaccination of children has shown a herd protection effect in unvaccinated groups as a reduction in IPD cases caused by PCV serotypes. However, not all PCV serotypes have disappeared as the cause of IPD in the unvaccinated age groups. The author therefore believes that if we are to see PCV serotypes disappear as a cause of IPD in unvaccinated age groups, we need to perform further carriage studies to examine carriage in other age groups. Alternatively, all age groups should be vaccinated against pneumococci to eliminate IPD caused by PCV serotypes from possible hidden carriers.

  14. Paleontological evidence of Paleozoic age for the Walden Creek Group, Ocoee Supergroup, Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unrug, Raphael; Unrug, Sophia

    1990-11-01

    A newly discovered fossil assemblage including trilobite, ostracod, bryozoan, and microcrinoid fragments and agglutinated foraminifers has been found in the Wilhite Formation, Walden Creek Group, Ocoee Supergroup, in the foothills of the Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee. These fossils prove a Paleozoic age for the Walden Creek Group, which had been interpreted to be of Late Proterozoic age. The foraminiferal assemblage indicaes the Silurian as the older age limit for the Walden Creek Group. These findings make necessary a redefinition of the Ocoee sedimentary basin and reinterpretation of models of the evolution of the Blue Ridge structural province.

  15. Somatic, Endurance Performance and Heart Rate Variability Profiles of Professional Soccer Players Grouped According to Age

    PubMed Central

    Botek, Michal; McKune, Andrew J.; Klimešová, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional study compared somatic, endurance performance determinants and heart rate variability (HRV) profiles of professional soccer players divided into different age groups: GI (17–19.9 years; n = 23), GII (20–24.9 years; n = 45), GIII (25–29.9 years; n = 30), and GIV (30–39 years; n = 26). Players underwent somatic and HRV assessment and maximal exercise testing. HRV was analyzed by spectral analysis of HRV, and high (HF) and low (LF) frequency power was transformed by a natural logarithm (Ln). Players in GIV (83 ± 7 kg) were heavier (p < 0.05) compared to both GI (73 ± 6 kg), and GII (78 ± 6 kg). Significantly lower maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, ml•kg-1•min-1) was observed for GIV (56.6 ± 3.8) compared to GI (59.6 ± 3.9), GII (59.4 ± 4.2) and GIV (59.7 ± 4.1). All agegroups, except for GII, demonstrated comparable relative maximal power output (Pmax). For supine HRV, significantly lower Ln HF (ms2) was identified in both GIII (7.1 ± 0.8) and GIV (6.9 ± 1.0) compared to GI (7.9 ± 0.6) and GII (7.7 ± 0.9). In conclusion, soccer players aged >25 years showed negligible differences in Pmax unlike the age group differences demonstrated in VO2max. A shift towards relative sympathetic dominance, particularly due to reduced vagal activity, was apparent after approximately 8 years of competing at the professional level. PMID:28031758

  16. Uncertainty Estimates of Psychoacoustic Thresholds Obtained from Group Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Christian, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive psychoacoustic test methods, in which the next signal level depends on the response to the previous signal, are the most efficient for determining psychoacoustic thresholds of individual subjects. In many tests conducted in the NASA psychoacoustic labs, the goal is to determine thresholds representative of the general population. To do this economically, non-adaptive testing methods are used in which three or four subjects are tested at the same time with predetermined signal levels. This approach requires us to identify techniques for assessing the uncertainty in resulting group-average psychoacoustic thresholds. In this presentation we examine the Delta Method of frequentist statistics, the Generalized Linear Model (GLM), the Nonparametric Bootstrap, a frequentist method, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Posterior Estimation and a Bayesian approach. Each technique is exercised on a manufactured, theoretical dataset and then on datasets from two psychoacoustics facilities at NASA. The Delta Method is the simplest to implement and accurate for the cases studied. The GLM is found to be the least robust, and the Bootstrap takes the longest to calculate. The Bayesian Posterior Estimate is the most versatile technique examined because it allows the inclusion of prior information.

  17. The Trend of Age-Group Effect on Prognosis in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong-Liang; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-Jun; Wang, Yu-Long; Ji, Qing-Hai

    2016-06-08

    Age has been included in various prognostic scoring systems for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). The aim of this study is to re-examine the relationship between age and prognosis by using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based database. We identified 51,061 DTC patients between 2004 and 2012. Patients were separated into 10-year age groups. Cancer cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) data were obtained. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox models were built to analyze the outcomes and risk factors. Increasing age gradient with a 10-year interval was associated with the trend of higher proportions for male gender, grade III/IV and summary stage of distant metastases. Both CSS and OS continued to worsen with increasing age, being poorest in in the oldest age group (≥71); multivariate analysis confirmed that CSS continued to fall with each age decade, significantly starting at 60 years (HR = 7.5, 95% 1.0-54.1, p = 0.047) compared to the young group (≤20). Similarly, multivariate analysis suggested that OS continued worsening with increasing age, but starting at 40 years (HR = 3.7, 95% 1.4-10.1, p = 0.009) compared to the young group. The current study suggests that an age exceeding 60 years itself represents an unfavorable prognostic factor and high risk for cancer-specific death in DTC.

  18. Factors Associated with Dental Caries in a Group of American Indian Children at age 36 Months

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John J.; Blanchette, Derek; Dawson, Deborah V.; Marshall, Teresa A.; Phipps, Kathy R.; Starr, Delores; Drake, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Early childhood caries (ECC) is rampant among American Indian children, but there has been relatively little study of this problem. This paper reports on risk factors for caries for a group of American Indian children at age 36 months as part of a longitudinal study. Methods Pregnant women from a Northern Plains Tribal community were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study of caries and caries risk factors. Standardized dental examinations were completed on children and questionnaires were completed by mothers at baseline and when children were 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 28 and 36 months of age. Examinations were surface-specific for dental caries, and the questionnaires collected data on demographic, dietary and behavioral factors. Non-parametric bivariate tests and logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for caries at 36 months, and negative binomial regression was used to identify factors related to caries severity (dmf counts). Results Among the 232 children, and caries prevalence for cavitated lesions was 80%, with an additional 15% having only non-cavitated lesions. The mean dmfs was 9.6, and of the total dmfs, nearly 62% of affected surfaces were decayed, 31% were missing, and 7% were filled. Logistic regression identified higher added sugar beverage consumption, younger maternal age at baseline, higher maternal DMFS at baseline, and greater number of people in the household as significant (p<0.05) risk factors. Negative binomial regression found that only maternal DMFS was associated with child dmf counts. Conclusions By the age of 36 months, dental caries is nearly universal in this population of American Indian children. Caries risk factors included sugared beverage consumption, greater household size and maternal factors, but further analyses are needed to better understand caries in this population. PMID:26544674

  19. Associations of gender and age groups on the knowledge and use of drug information resources by American pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Manuel J.; Clauson, Kevin A.; Gershman, Jennifer; Polen, Hyla H.

    Objective To explore knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists and identify patterns influenced by gender and age-group classification. Methods A survey questionnaire was mailed nationwide to 1,000 practitioners working in community (n = 500) and hospital (n = 500) settings who answer drug information questions as part of their expected job responsibilities. Responses pertaining to drug information resource use and knowledge of different types of drug-related queries, resource media preferences, and perceived adequacy of resources maintained in the pharmacy were analyzed by gender and age group. The t statistic was used to test for significant differences of means and percentages between genders and between age groups. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize other findings. Results Gender and age group classification influenced patterns of knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists. They also affected pharmacists’ perceptions of the most common types of questions prompting them to consult a drug information reference, as well as the resources consulted. Micromedex, exclusively available in electronic format, was the most commonly consulted resource overall by pharmacists. Lexi-Comp Online was the leading choice by women, preferred over Micromedex, but was not one of the top two resources selected by men. Conclusions This study successfully identified the influence of gender and age-group classification in assessing drug information resource knowledge and use of general and specific types of drug-related queries. PMID:24155853

  20. A self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young moving groups in the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Cameron P. M.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Naylor, Tim

    2015-11-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young ( ≲ 200 Myr), nearby ( ≲ 100 pc) moving groups in the solar neighbourhood based on homogeneous fitting of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones using the τ2 maximum-likelihood fitting statistic of Naylor & Jeffries in the MV, V - J colour-magnitude diagram. The final adopted ages for the groups are as follows: 149^{+51}_{-19} {Myr} for the AB Dor moving group, 24 ± 3 Myr for the β Pic moving group (BPMG), 45^{+11}_{-7} {Myr} for the Carina association, 42^{+6}_{-4} {Myr} for the Columba association, 11 ± 3 Myr for the η Cha cluster, 45 ± 4 Myr for the Tucana-Horologium moving group (Tuc-Hor), 10 ± 3 Myr for the TW Hya association and 22^{+4}_{-3} {Myr} for the 32 Ori group. At this stage we are uncomfortable assigning a final, unambiguous age to the Argus association as our membership list for the association appears to suffer from a high level of contamination, and therefore it remains unclear whether these stars represent a single population of coeval stars. Our isochronal ages for both the BPMG and Tuc-Hor are consistent with recent lithium depletion boundary (LDB) ages, which unlike isochronal ages, are relatively insensitive to the choice of low-mass evolutionary models. This consistency between the isochronal and LDB ages instils confidence that our self-consistent, absolute age scale for young, nearby moving groups is robust, and hence we suggest that these ages be adopted for future studies of these groups. Software implementing the methods described in this study is available from http://www.astro.ex.ac.uk/people/timn/tau-squared/.

  1. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  2. Highly adaptive tests for group differences in brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghi; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and other technologies have been offering evidence and insights showing that altered brain functional networks are associated with neurological illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease. Exploring brain networks of clinical populations compared to those of controls would be a key inquiry to reveal underlying neurological processes related to such illnesses. For such a purpose, group-level inference is a necessary first step in order to establish whether there are any genuinely disrupted brain subnetworks. Such an analysis is also challenging due to the high dimensionality of the parameters in a network model and high noise levels in neuroimaging data. We are still in the early stage of method development as highlighted by Varoquaux and Craddock (2013) that "there is currently no unique solution, but a spectrum of related methods and analytical strategies" to learn and compare brain connectivity. In practice the important issue of how to choose several critical parameters in estimating a network, such as what association measure to use and what is the sparsity of the estimated network, has not been carefully addressed, largely because the answers are unknown yet. For example, even though the choice of tuning parameters in model estimation has been extensively discussed in the literature, as to be shown here, an optimal choice of a parameter for network estimation may not be optimal in the current context of hypothesis testing. Arbitrarily choosing or mis-specifying such parameters may lead to extremely low-powered tests. Here we develop highly adaptive tests to detect group differences in brain connectivity while accounting for unknown optimal choices of some tuning parameters. The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not only

  3. Highly adaptive tests for group differences in brain functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junghi; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and other technologies have been offering evidence and insights showing that altered brain functional networks are associated with neurological illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease. Exploring brain networks of clinical populations compared to those of controls would be a key inquiry to reveal underlying neurological processes related to such illnesses. For such a purpose, group-level inference is a necessary first step in order to establish whether there are any genuinely disrupted brain subnetworks. Such an analysis is also challenging due to the high dimensionality of the parameters in a network model and high noise levels in neuroimaging data. We are still in the early stage of method development as highlighted by Varoquaux and Craddock (2013) that “there is currently no unique solution, but a spectrum of related methods and analytical strategies” to learn and compare brain connectivity. In practice the important issue of how to choose several critical parameters in estimating a network, such as what association measure to use and what is the sparsity of the estimated network, has not been carefully addressed, largely because the answers are unknown yet. For example, even though the choice of tuning parameters in model estimation has been extensively discussed in the literature, as to be shown here, an optimal choice of a parameter for network estimation may not be optimal in the current context of hypothesis testing. Arbitrarily choosing or mis-specifying such parameters may lead to extremely low-powered tests. Here we develop highly adaptive tests to detect group differences in brain connectivity while accounting for unknown optimal choices of some tuning parameters. The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not

  4. Guidance on Selecting Age Groups for Monitoring and Assessing Childhood Exposures to Environmental Contaminants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document recommends a set of age groupings based on current understanding of differences in lifestage behavior and anatomy and physiology that can serve as a starting set for consideration by Agency risk assessors and researchers.

  5. Lay perceptions of predictive testing for diabetes based on DNA test results versus family history assessment: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study assessed lay perceptions of issues related to predictive genetic testing for multifactorial diseases. These perceived issues may differ from the "classic" issues, e.g. autonomy, discrimination, and psychological harm that are considered important in predictive testing for monogenic disorders. In this study, type 2 diabetes was used as an example, and perceptions with regard to predictive testing based on DNA test results and family history assessment were compared. Methods Eight focus group interviews were held with 45 individuals aged 35-70 years with (n = 3) and without (n = 1) a family history of diabetes, mixed groups of these two (n = 2), and diabetes patients (n = 2). All interviews were transcribed and analysed using Atlas-ti. Results Most participants believed in the ability of a predictive test to identify people at risk for diabetes and to motivate preventive behaviour. Different reasons underlying motivation were considered when comparing DNA test results and a family history risk assessment. A perceived drawback of DNA testing was that diabetes was considered not severe enough for this type of risk assessment. In addition, diabetes family history assessment was not considered useful by some participants, since there are also other risk factors involved, not everyone has a diabetes family history or knows their family history, and it might have a negative influence on family relations. Respect for autonomy of individuals was emphasized more with regard to DNA testing than family history assessment. Other issues such as psychological harm, discrimination, and privacy were only briefly mentioned for both tests. Conclusion The results suggest that most participants believe a predictive genetic test could be used in the prevention of multifactorial disorders, such as diabetes, but indicate points to consider before both these tests are applied. These considerations differ with regard to the method of assessment (DNA test or obtaining

  6. Non-fatal self-poisoning across age groups, in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning in common in Sri Lanka, but little is known about variation of psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent across differing ages. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka across three different age groups (namely 14-24 years, 25-34 years and ≥ 35 years). It was anticipated that the findings of the study would inform and guide development of preventive interventions for non-fatal self-poisoning in this country. 935 participants were interviewed within one week of admission to hospital for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning, over a consecutive 14-month period. Socio-demographic factors, types of poison ingested, triggers and psychiatric morbidity was examined as a function of age. Results showed that a majority (83%) of participants were aged below 35 years. Younger participants aged <25 years were significantly more likely to ingest medicinal overdoses, compared to older persons (aged 25-34 years, and ≥ 35 years), who were more likely to ingest pesticides. Recent interpersonal conflict was a proximal trigger seen in all age groups, but suicidal intent, depression and alcohol use disorders increased with age. The overall study findings indicate that most who carry out acts of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka are young (aged <35 years). Interpersonal conflict as a trigger is common to all age groups, but psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent is higher in the older age groups, as is pesticide ingestion. Age specific interventions may be efficacious in the prevention of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka.

  7. Cenomanian-? early Turonian minimum age of the Chubut Group, Argentina: SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Manuel; Márquez, Marcelo; De La Cruz, Rita; Navarrete, César; Fanning, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Four new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages older than 93 Ma from samples of the two uppermost formations accumulated in two different depocenters (Golfo de San Jorge and Cañadón Asfalto basins) of the Chubut Group in central Argentinean Patagonia, establish a pre-late Cenomanian-? early Turonian age for the group. It also confirms a coeval and comparable evolution of the two depocenters, where distal pyroclastic material was deposited together with fluvial and lacustrine facies.

  8. Vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours across different age groups in Swedish Adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13–14, 15–16 and 17–18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15–16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in

  9. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  10. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive memories…

  11. The Effects of Music on Age Group Swimmers' Motivation and Practice Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoeckel, Bryan D.

    This study examined the effects of music on the motivation of 22 female and 5 male swimmers ages 10-13 years. These age-group swimmers practiced 2.0-2.5 hours per day and had six training sessions per week. Using observation logs, surveys, and open-ended questions, the study analyzed swimmers' perceptions of, and behavior when, listening to music…

  12. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  13. Age Group Differences in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Functional Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.; Kim, Johnny S.

    2007-01-01

    This study used data from the 2000 interview wave of the Health and Retirement Study to examine age group differences in the likelihood of self-reported depressive symptomatology among a nationally representative sample of 3,035 adults age 55 years or older who had at least one activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily…

  14. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak.

    PubMed

    Worby, Colin J; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-08-17

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic's peak. We found children aged 11-12y, 13-14y and 8-10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak's ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11-12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak's ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8-10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8-14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation.

  15. Effect of occupation-based groups on self-concept of children aged 5-8: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Scurlock, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this pilot study was to ascertain the effectiveness of an occupation-based after-school program for improving self-concept in children, ages five through eight. Fifty-four randomly selected children ages five through eight from two schools (one being the control group) with similar socioeconomic status along the Ohio River were involved in this research study. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PCSA; Harter & Pike, 1984) was administered to all participants (N = 54), four subtests were analyzed: cognitive competence, social competence with peers, physical competence in sports, and maternal acceptance. The experimental group (n = 25) attended occupation-based groups two times a week after school. The control group (n = 29) did not participate in an after-school program. Data from pre-test and post-test were analyzed using a t-test. Findings demonstrated that the experimental group improved their self-concept scores when compared to the control group in the areas of peer acceptance and cognitive competence. This would offer tentative evidence that an after-school program directed by occupational therapists that is designed to improve self-concept may be successful.

  16. Differentiated effects of social participation components on suicidal ideation across age groups in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide among adults in the Korean population merits study to improve the understanding of the salient risk and protective factors because suicide rates in Korea have increased dramatically over the past 20 years. However, the association between social participation and suicidal ideation is poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to identify the components of social participation in Korean society and to examine the processes through which the components of social participation influence the degree of suicidal ideation people experience across age groups. Methods This study used survey data from the 2010 Seoul Welfare Panel Study. The sample population was restricted to adults aged 20 or older and was categorised into three groups by respondents’ ages. The groups were defined as 'young adults’ (aged 20–39), 'middle-aged adults’ (aged 40–64) and 'the elderly’ (age 65 or more). Three dimensions of social participation were identified by factor analysis – friendship network and hobby group, religious involvement, and instrumental social participation. Results In the young adult group, only instrumental participation was statistically significant (-0.10, p = 0.06). In the middle-aged adult group, only friendship network and hobby group had a strong association with suicidal ideation (-0.11, p = 0.01). Interestingly, for the elderly, religious involvement was related to suicidal ideation, but in a positive way (0.26, p = 0.02). Conclusion The study results supported the theory that different components of social participation are associated with a lower risk of suicidal ideation in different stages of adulthood. PMID:24067075

  17. Use of the Pap test by a population group in Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Klimovsky, E; Matos, E

    1996-12-01

    The study reported here sought to assess Pap test coverage of a group of asymptomatic Argentine women from the poor urban district of La Matanza in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area Initially, all 2495 women who voluntarily enrolled in a program for early detection of breast cancer between January 1991 and June 1993 were included. After removing those who did not meet various study criteria, there remained 779 study subjects with no gynecologic or mammary symptomatology. Two subgroups of these 779 were established-women who had received a Pap test at any time and those who had received such a test within the previous three years. Using these subgroups, the influence of certain sociodemographic and other variables upon the likelihood of Pap testing was assessed. The results indicated significant associations between past Pap testing and age, formal education, parity, and a family history of cancer Likewise, significant associations were found between Pap testing within the preceding three years and age, formal education, and parity. The study findings affirm the idea that it would be advisable to seek Pap testing for all study population women once every three years instead of every year. Since the study population was not necessarily representative of Buenos Aires population, however, and the findings could have been affected by self-selection and other biases, additional studies are needed to determine actual Pap test coverage among women of the metropolitan area.

  18. Validation of wet mount microscopy against Trichomonas culture among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Banneheke, H; Fernandopulle, R; Gunasekara, U; Barua, A; Fernando, N; Wickremasinghe, R

    2015-06-01

    Wet mount microscopy is the most commonly used diagnostic method for trichomoniasis in clinical diagnostic services all over the world including Sri Lanka due to its availability, simplicity and is relatively inexpensive. However, Trichomonas culture and PCR are the gold standard tests. Unfortunately, neither the culture nor PCR is available for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis in Sri Lanka. Thus, it is important to validate the wet mount microscopy as it is the only available diagnostic test and has not been validated to date in Sri Lanka. The objective was to evaluate the validity and reliability of wet mount microscopy against gold standard Trichomonas culture among clinic based population of reproductive age group women in Western province, Sri Lanka. Women attending hospital and institutional based clinics were enrolled. They were interviewed and high vaginal swabs were taken for laboratory diagnosis by culture and wet mount microscopy. There were 601 participants in the age group of 15-45 years. Wet mount microscopy showed 68% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive (PPV) and 98% negative predictive values (NPV) (P=0.001, kappa=0.803) respectively against the gold standard culture. The area under the ROC curve was 0.840. Sensitivity of wet mount microscopy is low. However it has high validity and reliability as a specific diagnostic test for trichomoniasis. If it is to be used among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka, a culture method could be adopted as a second test to confirm the negative wet mount for symptomatic patients.

  19. Age and illuminance effects in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test.

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, K; Saunders, F; Kusuda, M; Hynes, R; Podgor, M; Higgins, K E; de Monasterio, F M

    1987-04-15

    Seventy-five normal volunteers (20-78 yr) were tested on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test at each of five illuminance levels. Each cap score distribution was analyzed by fitting a two-cycle sine wave whose amplitude and phase characterize the polarity of the error distribution and its axis. Analysis of these parameters reveals a similarity between tritanlike defects in older groups and those of younger groups at lower illuminance levels. These data are also useful for specifying age norms for the polarity of the error distribution.

  20. Anthropometric difference of the knee on MRI according to gender and age groups.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyuksoo; Oh, Sohee; Chang, Chong Bum; Kang, Seung-Baik

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the anthropometric data from MRI images that were obtained from the non-arthritic knees in Asian adults, and to identify the existence of morphologic differences between age groups. This cross-sectional study included knee MR images of 535 patients (273 males, 262 females) taken for the evaluation of soft-tissue injuries, excluding cases with cartilage defect and malalignment. The age, gender, height, and BMI were also assessed. The patients were grouped into three different 20-year age groups (20-39, 40-59, and 60-79). The MRI analysis was performed on the anthropometric parameters of distal femur and posterior tibial slope. Age-related differences were found in femoral width, distance from the distal and posterior cartilage surface to the medial/lateral epicondyle, medial posterior condylar offset (PCO), and posterior condylar angle (PCA) (all P < 0.001), but not in lateral PCO, and medial/lateral tibial slopes. In the analysis of covariance analyses, significant interaction between gender and age groups was found in most parameters, but not in PCA, distance from the posterior cartilage surface to the medial epicondyle, or medial tibial slope. We found anthropometric differences among age groups exist in most of distal femoral parameters, but not in posterior tibial slope. The results of this study can be used by manufacturers to modify prostheses to be suitable for the future Asian elderly population.

  1. The Effects of Multi-Age Grouping on Young Children and Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Melanie K.; Green, Virginia P.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review on the effects of multiage groupings (MAGs) in the primary grades supports their use and argues that children in MAGs perform as well academically as children in single-age groupings (SAGs) and develop better self-concept and school attitudes than children in SAGs. Expresses concerns over lack of training and support for…

  2. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  3. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  4. Prevalence, Formation, Maintenance, and Evaluation of Interdisciplinary Student Aging Interest Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine J.; Vandenberg, Edward V.; Bottsford, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and…

  5. Growing with Your Baby: A Facilitator's Manual for Use with School-Age Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Patricia

    This facilitator's manual, produced by the Family Developmental Center of the Family Service Agency of San Francisco, is designed for use with groups of school-age mothers. Included are meeting-by-meeting instructions for the group leader and some curriculum materials for students. The introduction indicates that the leader should be sensitive to…

  6. Comparative genetic variability in HIV-1 subtype C nef gene in early age groups of infants.

    PubMed

    Husain, Mohammad; Sharma, Uma; Gupta, Poonam; Singhal, Megha; Singh, Supriya; Gupta, Sunil; Venkatesh, S; Rai, Arvind

    2017-03-31

    Targeting properties of vertically transmitted viruses in early infancy is important to understand disease progression. To investigate genotypic characteristics of transmitted viruses, blood samples were obtained from infants aged 6 weeks-18 months, categorized in two age groups, acute (≤6 months) and early (>6-18 months). Nef having an important role in pathogenesis was selected to explore the viral characteristics. A total of 57 PCR positive samples, amplified by nef gene were sequenced. Analysis showed that 50 sequences belonged to subtype C. In one sequence of acute age group, a long insertion of 10 residues (AAERMRRAEP) in variable region and a 13 residues deletion (ATNNADCAWLEAQ) around proteolytic cleavage region of gene in another sequence was observed. Insertions were also observed in sequences of early age group, however, they ranged from 2-8 residues only. In one sequence of early age group, 3/4 Arginines at positions 19,21,22 of Arginine cluster were mutated to Glutamine, Alanine and Glutamine respectively. Entropy analysis of two age groups revealed presence of several residues with statistically significant differences in their variability. Among these, 15 (R18,R23,R24; A66,L68,Q71; E74,E77,E78; V87,M92; R119, P144, E167 and C176) belonged to functional motifs, out of which, 12 were in acute age group, suggesting that variability was greater in this group. Prediction of HLA binding peptide motif revealed that epitope LTFGWCFKL was present in >80% study sequences. This epitope was also present in maximum number of HLA types circulating in India and vaccine candidate sequences, suggesting that it may be helpful in designing an epitope-based vaccine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Population biology of intestinal enterococcus isolates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized individuals in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Tedim, Ana P; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J; Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  8. Population Biology of Intestinal Enterococcus Isolates from Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Individuals in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Tedim, Ana P.; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Corander, Jukka; Rodríguez, Concepción M.; Cantón, Rafael; Willems, Rob J.; Baquero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of enterococcal populations from fecal samples from hospitalized (n = 133) and nonhospitalized individuals (n = 173) of different age groups (group I, ages 0 to 19 years; group II, ages 20 to 59 years; group III, ages ≥60 years) was analyzed. Enterococci were recovered at similar rates from hospitalized and nonhospitalized persons (77.44% to 79.77%) of all age groups (75.0% to 82.61%). Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were predominant, although seven other Enterococcus species were identified. E. faecalis and E. faecium (including ampicillin-resistant E. faecium) colonization rates in nonhospitalized persons were age independent. For inpatients, E. faecalis colonization rates were age independent, but E. faecium colonization rates (particularly the rates of ampicillin-resistant E. faecium colonization) significantly increased with age. The population structure of E. faecium and E. faecalis was determined by superimposing goeBURST and Bayesian analysis of the population structure (BAPS). Most E. faecium sequence types (STs; 150 isolates belonging to 75 STs) were linked to BAPS groups 1 (22.0%), 2 (31.3%), and 3 (36.7%). A positive association between hospital isolates and BAPS subgroups 2.1a and 3.3a (which included major ampicillin-resistant E. faecium human lineages) and between community-based ampicillin-resistant E. faecium isolates and BAPS subgroups 1.2 and 3.3b was found. Most E. faecalis isolates (130 isolates belonging to 58 STs) were grouped into 3 BAPS groups, BAPS groups 1 (36.9%), 2 (40.0%), and 3 (23.1%), with each one comprising widespread lineages. No positive associations with age or hospitalization were established. The diversity and dynamics of enterococcal populations in the fecal microbiota of healthy humans are largely unexplored, with the available knowledge being fragmented and contradictory. The study offers a novel and comprehensive analysis of enterococcal population landscapes and suggests that E. faecium

  9. Prevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus among High-Risk Age Groups in South Korea, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Ju; Cha, Go-Woon; Ju, Young Ran; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Jeong, Young Eui

    2016-01-01

    After an extensive vaccination policy, Japanese encephalitis (JE) was nearly eliminated since the mid-1980s in South Korea. Vaccination in children shifted the affected age of JE patients from children to adults. However, an abrupt increase in JE cases occurred in 2010, and this trend has continued. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the JE virus (JEV) among high-risk age groups (≥40 years) in South Korea. A plaque reduction neutralization test was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to JEV in 945 subjects within four age groups (30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-69 years) in 10 provinces. Of the 945 enrolled subjects, 927 (98.1%) exhibited antibodies against JEV. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies according to sex, age, or occupation. However, there were significant differences in the plaque reduction rate according to age and occupation; oldest age group had a higher reduction rate, and subjects who were employed in agriculture or forestry also had a higher value than the other occupations. We also found that three provinces (Gangwon, Jeonnam, and Gyeongnam) had a relatively lower plaque reduction rate than the other locations. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were conducted to determine recent viral infections and 12 (1.3%) subjects were found to have been recently infected by the virus [corrected]. In conclusion, the present study clearly indicated that the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies has been maintained at very high levels among adult age groups owing to vaccination or natural infections, or both. In the future, serosurveillance should be conducted periodically using more representative samples to better understand the population-level immunity to JE in South Korea.

  10. Creating Composite Age Groups to Smooth Percentile Rank Distributions of Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Francesca; Olson, Amy; Bansal, Naveen

    2011-01-01

    Individually administered tests are often normed on small samples, a process that may result in irregularities within and across various age or grade distributions. Test users often smooth distributions guided by Thurstone assumptions (normality and linearity) to result in norms that adhere to assumptions made about how the data should look. Test…

  11. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method: Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results: (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion: Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436

  12. Estimation of the amount of telomere molecules in different human age groups and the telomere increasing effect of acupuncture and shiatsu on St.36, using synthesized basic units of the human telomere molecules as reference control substances for the bi-digital O-ring test resonance phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Omura, Y; Shimotsura, Y; Ooki, M; Noguchi, T

    1998-01-01

    It is well established that the telomeres at the ends of chromosomes are composed of long arrays of (TTAGGG)n x (CCCTAA)n that form a nucleoprotein complex required for the replication and protection of chromosome ends. Throughout the cell cycle, telomeres also contain a protein component related to the proto-oncogene Myb that is known as TRF1 (telomere TTAGGG repeat binding factor 1) that binds to the duplex array of TTAGGG repeats in the telomere. Previous studies have shown that TRF1 appears to play a role in controlling the length of telomeres by acting as an inhibitor of telomerase. The amount of each of the TRF1(C-19) & TRF1(N-19) was identical to the amount of telomere of the same organ of the same apparently normal individual. Using synthesized basic unit of TTAGGG, as well as CCCTAA, as separate reference control substances for the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test of Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical substances, we were able to non-invasively measure the approximate amount of TTAGGG and CCCTAA units, in both normal and cancerous human cells. We examined about 30 apparently normal subjects (both Asian and Caucasian in both sex). The subjects' ages ranged from infancy to 76 years. Each subject was first examined using TTAGGG as a control substance and then examined using CCCTAA as a control substance. The amount of telomere in various cancer tissues are almost always higher than that of normal tissue of the same organ. The measured amounts of both TTAGGG and CCCTAA were found to be in an average of 1500-1600 ng for human fetus or infancy and decreased with the advance of age in both sex with the exception of the heart, brain, eyes (retina), testes, and ovaries, which usually remain at the level of the infant, or reduced very little. Individuals in the same age group had a similar range of amounts of both TTAGGG and CCCTAA in the same organ of the same individual, (except for those with unusually low telomeres often had chronic degenerative diseases, and those

  13. Effect of Age Group on Technical-Tactical Performance Profile of the Serve in Men's Volleyball.

    PubMed

    García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical-tactical performance profile of the serve for various age groups and categories of competition in men's volleyball. The sample comprised 13,262 serves performed by 986 players in 299 sets observed in various categories of competition (U-14, U-16, U-19, national senior, and international senior). An observational design was used. The variables studied were category of competition, type of execution, and serve performance. The results showed that for higher age groups (senior categories), there were significantly fewer jump serves and poorer serve performance, regardless of players' maturity and training development. The use of the jump serves increased the serve risk while attempting to hinder the organization of the opponent attack. This paper discusses the serve evolution and the implications on the training process at the different age groups in men's volleyball.

  14. The Influence of Older Age Groups to Sustainable Product Design Research of Urban Public Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen-juan, Zhang; Hou-peng, Song

    2017-01-01

    Through summarize the status quo of public facilities design to older age groups in China and a variety of factors what influence on them, the essay, from different perspective, is designed to put forward basic principle to sustainable design of public facilities for the aged in the city, and thus further promote and popularize the necessity of sustainable design applications in the future design of public facilities for elderly people.

  15. Dynamics of telomere length in different age groups in a Latvian population.

    PubMed

    Zole, Egija; Pliss, Liana; Ranka, Renate; Krumina, Astrida; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2013-12-01

    The shortening of telomeres with ageing is a well-documented observation; however, the reported number of nucleotides in telomeres varies between different laboratories and studies. Such variability is likely caused by ethnic differences between the populations studied. Until now, there were no studies that investigated the variability of telomere length in a senescent Latvian population of the most common mitochondrial haplogroups, defined as H (45%), U (25%), Y chromosomal N1c (40%) and R1a1 (40%). Telomere length was determined in 121 individuals in different age groups, including a control group containing individuals of 20-40 years old and groups of individuals between 60-70 years old, 71-80 years old, 81-90 years old, and above 90 years old. Telomere length was determined using the Southern blot telomeric restriction fragment assay (TRF). Decreased telomere length with ageing was confirmed, but a comparison of centenarians and individuals between 60-90 years of age did not demonstrate a significant difference in telomere length. However, significant variability in telomere length was observed in the control group, indicating probable rapid telomere shortening in some individuals that could lead up to development of health status decline appearing with ageing. Telomere length measured in mononuclear blood cells (MNC) was compared with the telomere length measured in whole peripheral white blood cells (WBC) using TRF. Telomere length in MNC was longer than in WBC for the control group with individuals 20 to 40 years old; in contrast, for the group of individuals aged 65 to 85 years old, measured telomere length was shorter in MNC when compared to WBC.

  16. Dry versus wet aging of beef: Retail cutting yields and consumer sensory attribute evaluations of steaks from ribeyes, strip loins, and top sirloins from two quality grade groups.

    PubMed

    Laster, M A; Smith, R D; Nicholson, K L; Nicholson, J D W; Miller, R K; Griffin, D B; Harris, K B; Savell, J W

    2008-11-01

    Top Choice (n=48) and Select (n=48) paired bone-in ribeye rolls, bone-in strip loins, and boneless top sirloin butts were assigned randomly to one of two aging treatments, dry or wet, and were aged for 14, 21, 28 or 35d. Cutting tests, performed to determine retail yields and processing times, showed dry-aged subprimals had lower total saleable yield percentages and increased processing times compared to wet-aged subprimals. Sensory and Warner-Bratzler shear evaluation was conducted to determine palatability characteristics. For the most part, aging treatment and aging period did not affect consumer sensory attributes. However, ribeye and top loin steaks from the Top Choice quality grade group received higher sensory ratings than their Select counterparts. For top sirloin steaks, no consumer sensory attributes were affected by aging treatment, aging period, or quality grade group.

  17. Evaluation of human antibody responses to diphtheria toxin subunits A and B in various age groups.

    PubMed

    Karakus, R; Caglar, K; Aybay, C

    2007-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate human antibody responses to diphtheria toxin subunits in various age groups. Antibodies against the intact diphtheria toxin and the diphtheria toxin subunits A and B were evaluated in 1319 individuals using a double-antigen ELISA. Although high levels of protection (83.6%, 95% CI 79.2-87.4) were found in children and adolescents, the middle-aged adult population was less protected (28.8%, 95% CI 24.3-33.6). An increase in age was associated with a decrease in the frequency of protected individuals in the 0-39-year age group (p <0.001). Anti-subunit B levels correlated well (p <0.01) with levels of antibodies against the intact toxin. In children aged < or =16 years, the intervals at which the peaks in geometric mean titres of anti-subunit B antibodies were observed were found to correlate with the ages at which booster doses are administered. Overall, males appeared to be more protected than females (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.34-2.08, p <0.001). A small group of individuals had antibody levels of > or =0.1 IU/mL against the intact toxin, but did not have protective antibody against subunit B. Determination of anti-subunit B antibody levels should help in evaluating the effectiveness of diphtheria boosters and other aspects of diphtheria immunity.

  18. The Importance of Properly Compensating for Head Movements During MEG Acquisition Across Different Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric; Taulu, Samu

    2017-03-01

    Unlike EEG sensors, which are attached to the head, MEG sensors are located outside the head surface on a fixed external device. Subject head movements during acquisition thus distort the magnetic field distributions measured by the sensors. Previous studies have looked at the effect of head movements, but no study has comprehensively looked at the effect of head movements across age groups, particularly in infants. Using MEG recordings from subjects ranging in age from 3 months through adults, here we first quantify the variability in head position as a function of age group. We then combine these measured head movements with brain activity simulations to determine how head movements bias source localization from sensor magnetic fields measured during movement. We find that large amounts of head movement, especially common in infant age groups, can result in large localization errors. We then show that proper application of head movement compensation techniques can restore localization accuracy to pre-movement levels. We also find that proper noise covariance estimation (e.g., during the baseline period) is important to minimize localization bias following head movement compensation. Our findings suggest that head position measurement during acquisition and compensation during analysis is recommended for researchers working with subject populations or age groups that could have substantial head movements. This is especially important in infant MEG studies.

  19. Overcoming Denial through the Group: A Test of Acceptance Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugel, Robert P.; Barry, Denise

    1990-01-01

    Found participants (N=28) in alcohol treatment groups showed decreases in denial of drinking problems and decreases in psychopathology following 12 weeks of group counseling. Determined greater self-acceptance was associated with experiencing acceptance by group and with greater decreases in denial; decreases in denial and psychopathology were…

  20. Axial Length, Anterior Chamber Depth-A Study in Different Age Groups and Refractive Errors

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Veena; Rajeshbhai, Gandhi Parth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Axial length and anterior chamber depth play an important role in refractive status of the eye in different age groups. Material and Methods: The present study has been done on 240 patients (480 eyes) who attended eye OPD of Department of Ophthalmology at NIMS Medical College & Hospital Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. The patients attending eye OPD between July 2011 to December 2012 of different ages groups were without significant history of any ocular disease. The axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured and compared. Conclusion: Hypermetropic eyes have shallow anterior chamber depth and shorter axial length as compared to myopic and emmtropic eyes. PMID:24298478

  1. 40 CFR 90.1204 - Maintenance, aging and testing of engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Maintenance, aging and testing of... Voluntary In-Use Testing § 90.1204 Maintenance, aging and testing of engines. (a) Prior to aging the engines... assure that the engines and equipment were properly used and maintained during the field aging...

  2. 40 CFR 90.1204 - Maintenance, aging and testing of engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance, aging and testing of... Voluntary In-Use Testing § 90.1204 Maintenance, aging and testing of engines. (a) Prior to aging the engines... assure that the engines and equipment were properly used and maintained during the field aging...

  3. 40 CFR 90.1204 - Maintenance, aging and testing of engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance, aging and testing of... Voluntary In-Use Testing § 90.1204 Maintenance, aging and testing of engines. (a) Prior to aging the engines... assure that the engines and equipment were properly used and maintained during the field aging...

  4. 40 CFR 90.1204 - Maintenance, aging and testing of engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance, aging and testing of... Voluntary In-Use Testing § 90.1204 Maintenance, aging and testing of engines. (a) Prior to aging the engines... assure that the engines and equipment were properly used and maintained during the field aging...

  5. 40 CFR 90.1204 - Maintenance, aging and testing of engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintenance, aging and testing of... Voluntary In-Use Testing § 90.1204 Maintenance, aging and testing of engines. (a) Prior to aging the engines... assure that the engines and equipment were properly used and maintained during the field aging...

  6. Metabolomic profiling reveals severe skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of metabolism in aged FBN rats.

    PubMed

    Garvey, Sean M; Dugle, Janis E; Kennedy, Adam D; McDunn, Jonathan E; Kline, William; Guo, Lining; Guttridge, Denis C; Pereira, Suzette L; Edens, Neile K

    2014-06-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles exhibit age-related adaptive and pathological remodeling. Several muscles in particular undergo progressive atrophy and degeneration beyond median lifespan. To better understand myocellular responses to aging, we used semi-quantitative global metabolomic profiling to characterize trends in metabolic changes between 15-month-old adult and 32-month-old aged Fischer 344 × Brown Norway (FBN) male rats. The FBN rat gastrocnemius muscle exhibits age-dependent atrophy, whereas the soleus muscle, up until 32 months, exhibits markedly fewer signs of atrophy. Both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were analyzed, as well as plasma and urine. Compared to adult gastrocnemius, aged gastrocnemius showed evidence of reduced glycolytic metabolism, including accumulation of glycolytic, glycogenolytic, and pentose phosphate pathway intermediates. Pyruvate was elevated with age, yet levels of citrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide were reduced, consistent with mitochondrial abnormalities. Indicative of muscle atrophy, 3-methylhistidine and free amino acids were elevated in aged gastrocnemius. The monounsaturated fatty acids oleate, cis-vaccenate, and palmitoleate also increased in aged gastrocnemius, suggesting altered lipid metabolism. Compared to gastrocnemius, aged soleus exhibited far fewer changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but did show reductions in several glycolytic intermediates, fumarate, malate, and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Plasma biochemicals showing the largest age-related increases included glycocholate, heme, 1,5-anhydroglucitol, 1-palmitoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine, palmitoleate, and creatine. These changes suggest reduced insulin sensitivity in aged FBN rats. Altogether, these data highlight skeletal muscle group-specific perturbations of glucose and lipid metabolism consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction in aged FBN rats.

  7. Aging tests of full scale CMS muon cathode strip chambers

    SciTech Connect

    D. Acosta et al.

    2003-10-15

    Two CMS production Cathode Strip Chambers were tested for aging effects in the high radiation environment at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. The chambers were irradiated over a large area: in total, about 2.1 m{sup 2} or 700 m of wire in each chamber. The 40% Ar+50%CO{sub 2}+10%CF{sub 4} gas mixture was provided by an open-loop gas system for one of the chambers and by closed-loop recirculating gas system for the other. After accumulating 0.3-0.4 C per centimeter of a wire, which is equivalent to operation during about 30-50 years at the peak LHC luminosity, no significant changes in gas gain, chamber efficiency, and wire signal noise were observed for either of the two chambers. The only consistent signs of aging were a small increase in dark current from {approx}2 nA to {approx}10 nA per plane of 600 wires and a decrease of strip-to-strip resistance from 1000 G{Omega} to 10-100 G{Omega}. Disassembly of the chambers revealed deposits on the cathode planes, while the anode wires remained fairly clean.

  8. Aging 5 years in 5 minutes: the effect of taking a memory test on older adults' subjective age.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Matthew L; Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross L

    2013-12-01

    How old one feels-one's subjective age-has been shown to predict important psychological and health outcomes. The current studies examined the effect of taking a standard memory test on older adults' subjective age. Study 1 showed that older adults felt older after taking a standard neuropsychological screening test and participating in a free-recall experiment than they felt at baseline. Study 2 showed that the effect was selective to older adults: Younger adults' subjective age was not affected by participating in the memory experiment. Study 3 showed that the subjective-aging effect was specific to memory, as taking a vocabulary test for a similar amount of time did not affect older adults' subjective age. Finally, Study 4 showed that simply expecting to take a memory test subjectively aged older adults. The results indicate that being in a memory-testing context affects older adults' self-perception by making them feel older.

  9. Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marmontel, M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Kochman, H.I.; Humphrey, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Growth layers were observed in histological preparations of bones of known-age, known minimum-age, and tetracycline-marked free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), substantiating earlier preliminary findings of other studies. Detailed analysis of 17 new case histories showed that growth-layer group (GLG) counts in the periotic bone were consistent with known age, or time since tetracycline administration, but were less reliable in other bones. GLG counts were also made in periotic bones of 1,196 Florida manatees of unknown age found dead from 1974 through 1991. These counts were conducted in order to assess variability and to determine relationships among estimated age, size, sex, and degree of bone resorption. Resorption can interfere with accuracy of GLG counts. This effect does not occur until ages greater than about 15 yr and body lengths greater than 300 cm are attained. GLGs were also observed in periotic bones of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) but were not validated against known-age specimens. Use of GLG counts in the periotic bone is suitable for application to studies of population dynamics and other age-related aspects of manatee biology.

  10. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  11. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  12. THE NINE TEST SCREENING BATTERY - NORMATIVE VALUES ON A GROUP OF RECREATIONAL ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Heijne, Annette; Batt, Mark E.; Frohm, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background A variety of risk factors predispose athletes to injury, such as impaired neuromuscular control, insufficient core stability, and muscular imbalances. The goal of assessing functional movement patterns is to detect imbalances and correct them with prevention strategies and thereby decrease injuries, and improve performance and quality of life. Purpose The purpose of this study was to generate normative values for the ‘Nine Test Screening Battery’ (9TSB) in a group of recreational athletes. A secondary aim was to study gender differences and differences between subjects with (more than six weeks before test occasion) and without previous injury (regardless of injury location). A third aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of the 9TSB. Methods Eighty healthy recreational athletes, (40 men and 40 women) aged 22-58, were included. The subjects were tested according to strict criteria during nine functional movement exercises that comprise the 9TSB; each graded using a ordinal scale of 0-3, at one occasion. The maximum possible score is 27 points. Results The median score for the whole group was 18 (Range 12 - 24). A normal distribution of the test scores, with no floor-ceiling effects was found. There was no significant gender difference (p = 0.16) or difference between the group that reported previous injuries (regardless of injury location) and the group that did not (p = 0.65). The internal consistency was 0.41 with Cronbach's alpha. Conclusion A normal distribution of test results with no floor-ceiling effect was found. History of previous injury (more than six weeks before testing) or gender did not affect the results. In order to determine and cut scores for what is considered optimal or dysfunctional movement patterns, further cohort studies are required. PMID:27904795

  13. An evaluation of selective feeding by three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beck, K.; Neves, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    A tri-algal diet was fed to three age-groups of the rainbow mussel Villosa iris: ages 2-3 d, 50-53 d, and 3-6 years. Changes in the relative abundance of each algal species were determined in 5-h feeding trials from feeding chambers and by gut content analyses. All age-groups rejected Scenedesmus quadricauda and preferentially selected Nannochloropsis oculata and Selenastrum capricornutum, principally on the basis of size. Changes in the relative abundance of algae in feeding chambers did not differ significantly among age-groups. Observed differences in the ingested quantities of the similar-sized N. oculata and S. capricornutum were attributed to other particle-related characteristics. Results indicate that the rainbow mussel can be fed similar-sized algae at ali ages in captive propagation facilities. When developing a suitable algal diet for rearing juvenile mussels, one probably need not investigate different species at each stage of development if the algae used are in the 2.8-8.5-??m size range.

  14. Use of maxillary tooth development to estimate age in a group of Hereford cross Friesian steers.

    PubMed

    Andrews, A H

    1981-11-01

    Visual and radiographic examination of maxillary tooth development was undertaken in a group of 76 Hereford cross Friesian steers, all but one slaughtered at the same weight (464 kg). Differences were found in the stages of second molar intraoral development between the various age groups. Radiographic inspection showed that stages of resorption of the temporary premolar roots and crown and root formation of the permanent cheek teeth varied with age. The maximum age range before animals could be differentiated into age groups using radiographic examination of maxillary tooth development was three months (one year from one year three months, one year three months from one year six months, one year four months from one year seven months, one year five months from one year eight months). In the carcase, radiography of the maxillary teeth provided a useful estimate of age. The first two maxillary molars were more advanced in crown and root formation than the permanent premolars. Except for the second permanent premolar all maxillary teeth were less advanced in development than their mandibular counterparts.

  15. Age Group and Sex of Students: Fall 1989. Report No. 8-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Central Staff Office of Institutional Research.

    The major tables of this annual report on student characteristics array four major characteristics: age group; sex; level (undergraduate/graduate); and load (full-time/part-time). The main body of the report is divided into five sections: Part I contains data for the entire system as well as each institution and institutional type; Part II…

  16. Locus of Control and Other Psycho-Social Parameters in Successful American Age-Group Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Edmund J., Jr.; Straub, William F.

    Psycho-social factors in successful age-group swimmers were explored in this study. The subjects were 50 female and 39 male participants in the 1975 Amateur Athletic Union National Junior Olympics who were asked to answer a set of questions from an open-ended questionnaire. The results support a picture of young persons who invest a great deal of…

  17. Outcome Differences Across Age Groups. Data Notes. Volume 3, Number 2, March/April 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clery, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Using data from Achieving the Dream: Community College Count, this issue examines the differing developmental needs and enrollment and persistence patterns of Achieving the Dream students across different age groups. The data show older students in Achieving the Dream colleges tended to achieve higher grades and perform better academically than…

  18. Metabolic Effects of Chronic Heavy Physical Training on Male Age Group Swimmers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caffrey, Garret P.; And Others

    This study attempts to appraise the effectiveness of chronic heavy exercise on 13 male swimmers from 10 to 17 years of age. The experimental group trained six days a week, often with more than one workout per day. During this period, the principles of interval training were employed in conjunction with high-intensity swimming. At the completion of…

  19. [Measles outbreak in the adult age group: evaluation of 28 cases].

    PubMed

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Akın, Hicran; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Kalkan, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the age group affected from measles has widened and the disease has become more common among adolescents and young adults. The number of measles case reports have increased in our country, particularly from 2010-2011, and measles outbreaks occurred in various regions in 2012 and 2013. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographical and epidemiological characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings, and complications of adult patients with measles who were affected during the outbreak. A total of 28 patients (25 male, 3 female; age range: 19-39 years, median age: 24) who were hospitalized and followed-up in our clinic between January 2013 and June 2013, were evaluated. In the serum sample of the index case, measles-specific IgM antibodies were detected by ELISA, and measles virus RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), then genotyping was performed to detect the epidemiological relationship. In all of the other cases, measles IgM and IgG antibodies were screened by ELISA. The most common symptoms on admission included high fever (n= 28, 100%), malaise (n= 25, 89%), sore throat (n= 25, 89%), headache (n= 20, 71%) and cough (n= 18, 64%). At physical examination, rash (n= 28, 100%), lymphadenopathy (n= 11, 39%) and conjunctivitis (n= 10, 36%) were in the foreground, and Koplik spots were detected in five (18%) cases. The most common laboratory findings were; increased level of C-reactive protein (n= 15, 54%), leukopenia (n= 12, 43%) and increased serum levels of aminotransferases (n= 12, 43%), and thrombocytopenia was detected in five (18%) patients. One or more complications (secondary bacterial pneumonia in 5, diarrhea in 4, hepatitis in 3 and otitis in 2 cases) developed in the eight (29%) patients. Measles RT-PCR and IgM tests yielded positive results for the index case, and the isolate was identified as D8 strain by genotyping. Measles lgM antibodies were also positive in all of the other cases. The hospitalization period was

  20. Sex differences over age groups in self-posed smiling in photographs.

    PubMed

    Otta, E

    1998-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate self-posed smiling behavior in photographs as a function of both sex and age. The photographs of 1,171 Brazilian middle-class people, taken in a wide variety of informal social settings were examined. Only 25.7% of the girls and 25.0% of the boys of 2- to 5-yrs-age group were seen smiling in the photographs. Older children, adolescents, and adults were much more expressive than young children. Furthermore, significantly more females were seen smiling than males. Females also smiled more expansively than males. Finally, smiling was less frequent among middle-aged and older groups, especially among males. The present study replicated the sex difference in self-posed smiling behavior consistently reported by American researchers examining college yearbook photographs. Further, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that, besides being associated with emotional experience, smiling has a strong social motivation.

  1. Testing Group Supervision in Fieldwork Training for Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeira, Anat; Schiff, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    This study monitors group supervision for students' field training in a Bachelor's Degree in Social Work (BSW) program and compares it with the experience of the students receiving the traditional individual supervision. The experimental group supervision model is implemented in two consecutive years. Students' experiences are compared at three…

  2. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  3. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  4. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  5. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  6. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test system... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9175 Automated blood grouping and antibody test system. (a) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes...

  7. Prevalence of weight excess according to age group in students from Campinas, SP, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751

  8. GPs’ perspectives on secondary cardiovascular prevention in older age: a focus group study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van Peet, Petra G; Drewes, Yvonne M; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; de Ruijter, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Background Although guidelines recommend secondary cardiovascular prevention irrespective of age, in older age the uptake of treatment is lower than in younger age groups. Aim To explore the dilemmas GPs in the Netherlands encounter when implementing guidelines for secondary cardiovascular prevention in older age. Design and setting Qualitative study in four focus groups consisting of GPs (n = 23, from the northern part of the province South Holland) and a fifth focus group consisting of GP trainees (n = 4, from the Leiden University Medical Center). Method Focus group discussions were organised to elicit perspectives on the implementation of secondary cardiovascular prevention for older people. The 14 theoretical domains of the refined Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) were used for (deductive) coding of the focus group discussions. The coded texts were analysed, content was discussed, and barriers and facilitators were identified for each domain of the TDF. Results The main theme that emerged was ‘uncertainty’. Identified barriers were guideline-related, patient-related, and organisation-related. Identified facilitators were doctor-related, patient-related, and organisation-related. The main aim of secondary preventive treatment was improvement in quality of life. Conclusion GPs in the Netherlands are uncertain about many aspects of secondary cardiovascular prevention in older age; the guidelines themselves, their own role, patient factors, and the organisation of care. In view of this uncertainty, GPs consciously weigh all aspects of the situation in close dialogue with the individual patient, with the ultimate aim of improving quality of life. This highly-individualised care may largely explain the reduced prescription rates. PMID:26500321

  9. Race-ethnicity and health trajectories: tests of three hypotheses across multiple groups and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tyson H; O'Rand, Angela M; Adkins, Daniel E

    2012-09-01

    Racial-ethnic disparities in static levels of health are well documented. Less is known about racial-ethnic differences in age trajectories of health. The few studies on this topic have examined only single health outcomes and focused on black-white disparities. This study extends prior research by using a life course perspective, panel data from the Health and Retirement Study, and multilevel growth curve models to investigate racial-ethnic differences in the trajectories of serious conditions and functional limitations among blacks, Mexican Americans, and whites. We test three hypotheses on the nature of racial-ethnic disparities in health across the life course (aging-as-leveler, persistent inequality, and cumulative disadvantage). Results controlling for mortality selection reveal that support for the hypotheses varies by health outcome, racial-ethnic group, and life stage. Controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, adult social and economic resources, and health behaviors reduces but does not eliminate racial-ethnic disparities in health trajectories.

  10. Testing for Additivity at Select Mixture Groups of Interest Based on Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, LeAnna M.; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard; Carter, Jr., Walter H.; Pounds, Joel G.; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2006-12-01

    Several assumptions, defined and undefined, are used in the toxicity assessment of chemical mixtures. In scientific practice mixture components in the low-dose region, particularly subthreshold doses, are often assumed to behave additively (i.e., zero interaction) based on heuristic arguments. This assumption has important implications in the practice of risk assessment, but has not been experimentally tested. We have developed methodology to test for additivity in the sense of Berenbaum (Advances in Cancer Research, 1981), based on the statistical equivalence testing literature where the null hypothesis of interaction is rejected for the alternative hypothesis of additivity when data support the claim. The implication of this approach is that conclusions of additivity are made with a false positive rate controlled by the experimenter. The claim of additivity is based on prespecified additivity margins, which are chosen using expert biological judgment such that small deviations from additivity, which are not considered to be biologically important, are not statistically significant. This approach is in contrast to the usual hypothesis-testing framework that assumes additivity in the null hypothesis and rejects when there is significant evidence of interaction. In this scenario, failure to reject may be due to lack of statistical power making the claim of additivity problematic. The proposed method is illustrated in a mixture of five organophosphorus pesticides that were experimentally evaluated alone and at relevant mixing ratios. Motor activity was assessed in adult male rats following acute exposure. Four low-dose mixture groups were evaluated. Evidence of additivity is found in three of the four low-dose mixture groups.The proposed method tests for additivity of the whole mixture and does not take into account subset interactions (e.g., synergistic, antagonistic) that may have occurred and cancelled each other out.

  11. Hepatitis B virus infection among different sex and age groups in Pakistani Punjab

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious health problem in the developing countries including Pakistan. Various risk factors are responsible for the spread of this infectious disease. Prevalence of HBV infection in apparently suspected individual of Punjab province of Pakistan was analyzed during January 2008 to December 2010. Current study was aimed to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of HBV infection. Methodology Four thousand eight hundred and ninety patients suffering from chronic liver disease were screened for the presence of HBV DNA using qualitative Real Time PCR methodology to confirm their status of infection. A predesigned standard questionnaire was filled for all the patients that included information about the possible risk factors. Results A total of 4890 ELISA positive patients were screened for Hepatitis B virus infection. Of these 3143 were positive for HBV, includes 68.15% males and 31.85% females. Male were observed to be more frequently infected as compared to the female with a positivity ratio of 2.14: 1. The rate of infection increases with the passage of time in the course of three years. Highest frequency of infection was found in the age of 21-30 was 34.93% followed by 23.83% in 31-40. Only (13.39%) were belonging to the age group 11-20 year. The rate of infection declines with increasing age as shown by age groups 41-50 (16.13%) and 51-60 (7.09%). While children aged 0-10 and very old >60 age groups were very less frequently 1.49% and 1.65% infected respectively. Important risk factors contributing to HBV spread include barber risk (23.60%), blood transfusion (4.04%), History of injection 26.19%, Reuse of syringes 26.60%, dental risk (11.20%) and surgical procedure (4.26%). Among the entire respondents trend sharing personal items was very common. History of injection, barber risk, surgery and dental procedure and reuse of syringes appear as major risk factors for the transmission. Conclusion Male were more

  12. Test Rules Differ between Groups for Special Ed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2013-01-01

    Champions of students with disabilities have long complained that those students are often an afterthought in state testing plans. Only after a test design is completed are educators asked to go back and adapt the questions for a student who is blind, who needs help accessing text or calculating numbers, or who must use a specialized device to…

  13. Testing polycyclicity of finitely generated rational matrix groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assmann, Bjoern; Eick, Bettina

    2007-09-01

    We describe algorithms for testing polycyclicity and nilpotency for finitely generated subgroups of mathrm{GL}(d,mathbb{Q}) and thus we show that these properties are decidable. Variations of our algorithm can be used for testing virtual polycyclicity and virtual nilpotency for finitely generated subgroups of mathrm{GL}(d,mathbb{Q}) .

  14. "Tackling Test Anxiety": A Group for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damer, Diana E.; Melendres, Lauren T.

    2011-01-01

    Test anxiety is ubiquitous on college campuses and negatively impacts academic progress as well as overall mental and physical health. Some students develop test anxiety due to poor study skills, while others experience debilitating anxiety despite adequate preparation. In this article, a session-by-session description of a 4-week group…

  15. Invariance of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model Across Gender and Age Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the likelihood of a TAME (extended technology acceptance model), in which the interrelationships among computer self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, intention to use and self-reported use of computer-mediated technology were tested. In addition, the gender- and age-invariant of its causal structure were evaluated. The…

  16. Results and conclusions test capabilities task group summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bomber, T.; Pierce, K.; Easterling, R.; Rogers, J.

    1996-12-01

    This annotated briefing documents an economic analysis of Sandia`s system-level test facilities maintained and operated by the Design, Evaluation, and Test Technology Center 9700. The study was divided into four primary sub-tasks: (1) Estimation of the future system-level test workload, (2) Development of a consistent economic model to estimate the cost of maintaining and operating the test facilities, (3) Determination of the availability of viable alternative test sites, and (4) Assessment of the potential savings through reduction of excess capacity under various facility-closure scenarios. The analysis indicated that potential savings from closing all facilities could approach $6 million per year. However, large uncertainties in these savings remove any sound economic arguments for such closure: it is possible that testing at alternative sites could cost more than maintaining the current set of system-level test facilities. Finally, a number of programmatic risks incurred by facility closure were identified. Consideration of facility closure requires a careful weighing of any projected economic benefit against these programmatic risks. This summary report covers the briefing given to upper management. A more detailed discussion of the data and analyses is given in the full report, available for internal use from the technical library.

  17. [Morpho-functional peculiarities of autoimmune gastritis in different age groups].

    PubMed

    Novikova, V P; Sidorkin, A O; Anichkov, N M; Azanchevskaia, S V

    2011-01-01

    In 98 patients with chronic gastritis clinical-morphologic analysis was performed. The analysis included: the examination of gastric biopsy specimens, determination of HP-status by means of a group of methods, determination of antibodies to H+/K+ -ATPase of parietal cells of the gastric wall, IgG-EA-EBV and IgM-NA-EBN antibodies in the blood serum by means of IFA method, pepsinogene I, pepsinogene II, gastrin and antibodies to Hp with the use of Biohit gastric panel, 24-hour monitoring of intragastric pH with the use of Gastroscan-24 machine. Comparison of all parameters was performed in 4 groups: 27 children aged 6-17 with non-autoimmune gastritis and 119 children with gastritis of other etiology, 34 patients aged 18-80 with autoimmune gastritis and 43 patients of the same age group with non-autoimmune gastritis were described. Age-specific peculiarities of autoimmune gastritis in children were determined; and a diagnostic algorithm for its early diagnosis in the latter was developed.

  18. [The association between paid or voluntary employment and neuropsychological test performance at an older age].

    PubMed

    Weghorst, Ronan B W M; Scherder, Erik J A; Oosterman, Joukje M

    2017-04-01

    Studies have convincingly shown that both physical and mental activity are positively associated with cognitive task performance in aging. Little is known, however, about whether still being employed or doing volunteer work, which obviously engages physical and/or mental activity, is similarly associated with cognitive ability at an older age. The current study explored this relationship in 28 volunteers aged sixty years and older. Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery, and data regarding the number of working hours (paid and voluntary) per week were collected. A total of 28 participants were included, 13 of whom worked three or more hours per week. As a group, these active participants achieved better episodic memory, sustained attention and psychomotor speed results. This study shows that older people who are still working demonstrate better neuropsychological task performance. An important question for future research concerns the causality of this relationship.

  19. Outcomes of 847 childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients in three age groups.

    PubMed

    Lopes, S R M; Gormezano, N W S; Gomes, R C; Aikawa, N E; Pereira, R M R; Terreri, M T; Magalhães, C S; Ferreira, J C; Okuda, E M; Sakamoto, A P; Sallum, A M E; Appenzeller, S; Ferriani, V P L; Barbosa, C M; Lotufo, S; Jesus, A A; Andrade, L E C; Campos, L M A; Bonfá, E; Silva, C A

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess outcomes of childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) in three different age groups evaluated at last visit: group A early-onset disease (<6 years), group B school age (≥6 and <12 years) and group C adolescent (≥12 and <18 years). Methods An observational cohort study was performed in ten pediatric rheumatology centers, including 847 cSLE patients. Results Group A had 39 (4%), B 395 (47%) and C 413 (49%). Median disease duration was significantly higher in group A compared to groups B and C (8.3 (0.1-23.4) vs 6.2 (0-17) vs 3.3 (0-14.6) years, p < 0.0001). The median Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SLICC/ACR-DI) (0 (0-9) vs 0 (0-6) vs 0 (0-7), p = 0.065) was comparable in the three groups. Further analysis of organ/system damage revealed that frequencies of neuropsychiatric (21% vs 10% vs 7%, p = 0.007), skin (10% vs 1% vs 3%, p = 0.002) and peripheral vascular involvements (5% vs 3% vs 0.3%, p = 0.008) were more often observed in group A compared to groups B and C. Frequencies of severe cumulative lupus manifestations such as nephritis, thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia were similar in all groups ( p > 0.05). Mortality rate was significantly higher in group A compared to groups B and C (15% vs 10% vs 6%, p = 0.028). Out of 69 deaths, 33/69 (48%) occurred within the first two years after diagnosis. Infections accounted for 54/69 (78%) of the deaths and 38/54 (70%) had concomitant disease activity. Conclusions This large multicenter study provided evidence that early-onset cSLE group had distinct outcomes. This group was characterized by higher mortality rate and neuropsychiatric/vascular/skin organ damage in spite of comparable frequencies of severe cumulative lupus manifestations. We also identified that overall death in cSLE patients was an early event mainly attributed to infection associated

  20. Group Testing as a Pedagogical Technique to Enhance Learning in Difficult Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scafe, Marla G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of group testing as a pedagogical technique to enhance learning in a difficult subject such as statistics. Individual test scores were compared to their group test scores for the same, identical test. A t test was used to compare the scores for 157 randomly selected MBA students enrolled…

  1. Relationships between Personnel Tests, Age, and Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Winfred, Jr.; Fuentes, Rick

    The age decrement model has traditionally been a fairly popular model of the human life span. This model has the basic premise that with increasing age there is a corresponding decrease in a wide range of abilities. Not all research has agreed with the unqualified age decrement model. This study examined the relationship between an…

  2. Correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and chronological age in a group of Iranian females

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients. PMID:26604958

  3. Explaining Cooperation in Groups: Testing Models of Reciprocity and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biele, Guido; Rieskamp, Jorg; Czienskowski, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    What are the cognitive processes underlying cooperation in groups? This question is addressed by examining how well a reciprocity model, two learning models, and social value orientation can predict cooperation in two iterated n-person social dilemmas with continuous contributions. In the first of these dilemmas, the public goods game,…

  4. A Binomial Test of Group Differences with Correlated Outcome Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Levin, Joel R.; Ferron, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous arguments for why educational researchers should not provide effect-size estimates in the face of statistically nonsignificant outcomes (Robinson & Levin, 1997), Onwuegbuzie and Levin (2005) proposed a 3-step statistical approach for assessing group differences when multiple outcome measures are individually analyzed…

  5. The Colors of Hilda Group Asteroids: Complications For Use in Testing Dynamical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Erin L.; Noll, Keith; Woodward, Charles E.

    2014-11-01

    Hilda group asteroids are in a stable 3:2 resonance with Jupiter which may have been reshaped by giant planet migration in the early epochs of solar system formation. Although the population is currently dynamically stable, the dynamics of this population suggest at minimum an inward migration of Jupiter by ~0.4 AU (Franklin et al. 2004, AJ, 128, 1391). As this population of objects is relatively isolated, compositional types can be used to test dynamical models such as the Grand Tack and Nice Model which suggest that objects of outer solar system (beyond Saturn) origin would be found in the Hilda population. We have undertaken a multi-year observational program at the 2.3-m Bok Telescope to obtain compositional types for a large sample of Hilda group asteroids. With a preliminary sample of ~400 objects from our observations and the literature, we find complications for direct compositional tests of the giant planet migration models. Specifically, we find that the two dynamical families within the Hilda group, Schubart and Hilda, have disparate dynamical ages ( 1.7 +/- 0.7 Gyr vs > 4 Gyr ; Broz & Vokrouhlicky 2008, MNRAS, 390, 715) but similar colors not seen elsewhere in the Hilda group population. This suggests dynamical family members should be removed from samples when using Hilda group asteroid compositions as a test of giant planet migration models. This research was supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at Goddard Space Flight Center, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA. This work also funded by NASA Planetary Astronomy Grant NNX13AJ11G.

  6. Modified forelimb grip strength test detects aging-associated physiological decline in skeletal muscle function in male mice.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Hikari; Yamamoto, Koichi; Nozato, Satoko; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Imaizumi, Yuki; Hongyo, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Serina; Takeda, Masao; Oguro, Ryosuke; Takami, Yoichi; Itoh, Norihisa; Takeya, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Ken; Fukada, So-Ichiro; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2017-02-08

    The conventional forelimb grip strength test is a widely used method to assess skeletal muscle function in rodents; in this study, we modified this method to improve its variability and consistency. The modified test had lower variability among trials and days than the conventional test in young C57BL6 mice, especially by improving the variabilities in male. The modified test was more sensitive than the conventional test to detect a difference in motor function between female and male mice, or between young and old male mice. When the modified test was performed on male mice during the aging process, reduction of grip strength manifested between 18 and 24 months of age at the group level and at the individual level. The modified test was similar to the conventional test in detecting skeletal muscle dysfunction in young male dystrophic mice. Thus, the modified forelimb grip strength test, with its improved validity and reliability may be an ideal substitute for the conventional method.

  7. Effect of age on aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) and comparison of screening accuracy of ARR plus elevated serum aldosterone concentration for primary aldosteronism screening in different age groups.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guoshu; Zhang, Shaoling; Yan, Li; Wu, Muchao; Xu, Mingtong; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hua

    2012-08-01

    The serum aldosterone concentration (SAC)/plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio (ARR) is considered a useful screening test in the differential diagnosis of essential hypertension (EH) and primary aldosteronism (PA). The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on ARR and compare the screening accuracy of ARR plus elevated SAC for PA screening in different age groups. Thirty-nine patients with PA, 274 patients with EH, and 153 healthy volunteers were recruited. Blood was sampled for SAC and PRA measuring under keeping upright posture for 1 h. Levels of SAC, PRA, and ARR were compared at different ages range for the respective three groups of subjects. The screening accuracy of ARR plus elevated SAC was compared in different age groups and PA patients served as the same positive subjects. In the EH group, logarithmically transformed ARR (Log-ARR) increased with advancing age and reached its peak in the ≥ 60 years group; in the normotensives group, Log-ARR reached its peak in the 40-49 years group and slightly declined with advancing age. In the PA group, Log-ARR was not age dependent. Screening accuracy increased when combined index of ARR and SAC was used in the ≥ 40 years group but not in the <40 years group. Although the number of EH patients with elevated ARR increased with advancing age, but the screening accuracy and cutoff values of ARR were not affected by age. Using the combined index of ARR and SAC increased the screening accuracy for the patients older than 40 years, but not necessary for the patients younger than 40 years.

  8. A Novel Physiology-Based Mathematical Model to Estimate Red Blood Cell Lifespan in Different Human Age Groups.

    PubMed

    An, Guohua; Widness, John A; Mock, Donald M; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurement of red blood cell (RBC) survival in humans has improved from the original accurate but limited differential agglutination technique to the current reliable, safe, and accurate biotin method. Despite this, all of these methods are time consuming and require blood sampling over several months to determine the RBC lifespan. For situations in which RBC survival information must be obtained quickly, these methods are not suitable. With the exception of adults and infants, RBC survival has not been extensively investigated in other age groups. To address this need, we developed a novel, physiology-based mathematical model that quickly estimates RBC lifespan in healthy individuals at any age. The model is based on the assumption that the total number of RBC recirculations during the lifespan of each RBC (denoted by N max) is relatively constant for all age groups. The model was initially validated using the data from our prior infant and adult biotin-labeled red blood cell studies and then extended to the other age groups. The model generated the following estimated RBC lifespans in 2-year-old, 5-year-old, 8-year-old, and 10-year-old children: 62, 74, 82, and 86 days, respectively. We speculate that this model has useful clinical applications. For example, HbA1c testing is not reliable in identifying children with diabetes because HbA1c is directly affected by RBC lifespan. Because our model can estimate RBC lifespan in children at any age, corrections to HbA1c values based on the model-generated RBC lifespan could improve diabetes diagnosis as well as therapy in children.

  9. Group-based differences in anti-aging bias among medical students.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jorge G; Andrade, Allen D; Anam, Ramanakumar; Taldone, Sabrina; Karanam, Chandana; Hogue, Christie; Mintzer, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Medical students (MS) may develop ageist attitudes early in their training that may predict their future avoidance of caring for the elderly. This study sought to determine MS' patterns of explicit and implicit anti-aging bias, intent to practice with older people and using the quad model, the role of gender, race, and motivation-based differences. One hundred and three MS completed an online survey that included explicit and implicit measures. Explicit measures revealed a moderately positive perception of older people. Female medical students and those high in internal motivation showed lower anti-aging bias, and both were more likely to intend to practice with older people. Although the implicit measure revealed more negativity toward the elderly than the explicit measures, there were no group differences. However, using the quad model the authors identified gender, race, and motivation-based differences in controlled and automatic processes involved in anti-aging bias.

  10. Nonprofit Groups Offer Genetic Testing for Jewish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how nonprofit organizations like Hillel are offering free genetic testing for Jewish college students. A growing number of colleges, including Pittsburgh, Brandeis University, and Columbia University are offering students free or reduced-cost screenings for diseases common to Jewish population. Genetic diseases common to…

  11. Testing Belbin's Team Role Theory of Effective Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Jane S.; Stanton, Neville A.

    1999-01-01

    Belbin's theory that teams with a wide range of roles are more effective than those with role imbalance was tested with six teams composed of individuals with homogenous roles and six with mixed roles. Mixed teams performed better on team tasks. (SK)

  12. Development and psychometric testing of the active aging scale for Thai adults

    PubMed Central

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Isaramalai, Sang-arun; Hatthakit, Urai

    2014-01-01

    Background Active aging is central to enhancing the quality of life for older adults, but its conceptualization is not often made explicit for Asian elderly people. Little is known about active aging in older Thai adults, and there has been no development of scales to measure the expression of active aging attributes. Purpose The aim of this study was to develop a culturally relevant composite scale of active aging for Thai adults (AAS-Thai) and to evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods Eight steps of scale development were followed: 1) using focus groups and in-depth interviews, 2) gathering input from existing studies, 3) developing preliminary quantitative measures, 4) reviewing for content validity by an expert panel, 5) conducting cognitive interviews, 6) pilot testing, 7) performing a nationwide survey, and 8) testing psychometric properties. In a nationwide survey, 500 subjects were randomly recruited using a stratified sampling technique. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and measures of internal consistency, concurrent validity, and test–retest reliability. Results Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a final 36-item scale consisting of seven factors of active aging: 1) being self-reliant, 2) being actively engaged with society, 3) developing spiritual wisdom, 4) building up financial security, 5) maintaining a healthy lifestyle, 6) engaging in active learning, and 7) strengthening family ties to ensure care in later life. These factors explained 69% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the overall AAS-Thai was 0.95 and varied between 0.81 and 0.91 for the seven subscales. Concurrent validity and test–retest reliability were confirmed. Conclusion The AAS-Thai demonstrated acceptable overall validity and reliability for measuring the multidimensional attributes of active aging in a Thai context. This newly developed instrument is ready for use as a

  13. Ordering Power of Separate versus Grouped True-False Tests: Interaction of Type of Test with Knowledge Levels of Examinees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Louis M.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of the relative ordering power of separate and grouped-items true-false tests indicated that neither type of test was uniformly superior to the other across all levels of knowledge of examinees. Grouped-item tests were found superior for examinees with low levels of knowledge. (Author/CTM)

  14. Posterior scleritis in pediatric age group: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Radha; Suryawanshi, Milind; Isaac, Roshini; Philip, Santhosh K.

    2016-01-01

    Posterior scleritis is rare in both the adult and pediatric age groups. Increased awareness and availability of advanced diagnostic facilities aid in early diagnosis and management. Visual recovery is possible with systemic steroids and immunosuppression. We report the case of a 12-year-old male child who presented with poor vision in his right eye and was found to have retinal striae and disc edema due to posterior scleritis. PMID:27013832

  15. “Teens are from Mars, Adults are from Venus”: Analyzing and Predicting Age Groups with Behavioral Characteristics in Instagram

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Kyungsik; Lee, Sanghack; Jang, Jin; Jung, Yong; Lee, Dongwon

    2016-06-22

    We present behavioral characteristics of teens and adults in Instagram and prediction of them from their behaviors. Based on two independently created datasets from user profiles and tags, we identify teens and adults, and carry out comparative analyses on their online behaviors. Our study reveals: (1) significant behavioral differences between two age groups; (2) the empirical evidence of classifying teens and adults with up to 82% accuracy, using traditional predictive models, while two baseline methods achieve 68% at best; and (3) the robustness of our models by achieving 76%—81% when tested against an independent dataset obtained without using user profiles or tags.

  16. NEUROPSI: a brief neuropsychological test battery in Spanish with norms by age and educational level.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solís, F; Ardila, A; Rosselli, M

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop, standardize, and test the reliability of a short neuropsychological test battery in the Spanish language. This neuropsychological battery was named "NEUROPSI," and was developed to assess briefly a wide spectrum of cognitive functions, including orientation, attention, memory, language, visuoperceptual abilities, and executive functions. The NEUROPSI includes items that are relevant for Spanish-speaking communities. It can be applied to illiterates and low educational groups. Administration time is 25 to 30 min. Normative data were collected from 800 monolingual Spanish-speaking individuals, ages 16 to 85 years. Four age groups were used: (1) 16 to 30 years, (2) 31 to 50 years, (3) 51 to 65 years, and (4) 66 to 85 years. Data also are analyzed and presented within 4 different educational levels that were represented in this sample; (1) illiterates (zero years of school); (2) 1 to 4 years of school; (2) 5 to 9 years of school; and (3) 10 or more years of formal education. The effects of age and education, as well as the factor structure of the NEUROPSI are analyzed. The NEUROPSI may fulfill the need for brief, reliable, and objective evaluation of a broad range of cognitive functions in Spanish-speaking populations.

  17. The Frontal Hypothesis of Cognitive Aging: Factor Structure and Age Effects on Four "Frontal Tests" among Healthy Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Aranda, Claudia; Sundet, Kjetil

    2006-01-01

    With 101 healthy aging adult participants, the authors investigated whether executive functions are a unitary concept. The authors established the factor structure of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST; E. A. Berg, 1948), the Stroop color and word test (C. J. Golden, 1978), verbal fluency using the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT;…

  18. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  19. The Langer-Improved Wald Test for DIF Testing with Multiple Groups: Evaluation and Comparison to Two-Group IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.; Cai, Li; Wang, Mian

    2013-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when the probability of responding in a particular category to an item differs for members of different groups who are matched on the construct being measured. The identification of DIF is important for valid measurement. This research evaluates an improved version of Lord's chi [superscript 2]…

  20. [SCREENING-EVALUATION OF THE CARDIAC ARTERY DISEASE IN CIVIL PILOTS OF THE SENIOR AGE GROUP].

    PubMed

    Kuzmina A Yu

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnostics of cardiac artery disease (CAD) is essential for annual medical flight certification. The investigation was aimed at screening-evaluation of senior civil pilots for CAD using the criteria of ECG findings during the submaximal bicycle ergometry test (BT). The investigation embraced 1189 civil pilots, on reaching the age of 55 years and older in 2009-2010. BT with ECG recording was completed by 976 pilots (82.1%). The test was considered CAD negative in 909 pilots (93.1 %) and CAD positive in 9 pilots (0.9%); of 53 doubtful tests (5.5%), CAD was stated by the ST-criterion in 40 pilots (4.1%) and because of arrhythmias in 13 pilots (1.4%). In 5 cases (0.5%) test results were uninterpretable. Further analysis of the screening results led to diagnosing of clinically significant atherosclerosis of coronary arteries in 17 pilots (1.75%).

  1. History of the 4950th Test Group (N)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1957-10-15

    detailed accounting of PLUMBBOB activity. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nevada Test Site Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Bikini Atoll Eniwetok Atoll PLUMBBOB... Atoll (Ihlwotolr-Bi~mi) and Pro30 a t f slmnb A l r l i f i . 150 Ltr., Cb.6r.r J?h7 t o Cem!r., WjOlh Tert Up. (a, 30 Jtrl. 57, subj. t Air... Atoll urd thr & r Uuar b l a t l f i o h b o n t o t l would u t l l i r e the &ivebok complex, Tho .hot# under rpanoatrbip o f tha Ikpubmnt ef

  2. Effect of Training on Physiological and Biochemical Variables of Soccer Players of Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Indranil; Khanna, Gulshan Lal; Chandra Dhara, Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To find out the effect of training on selected physiological and biochemical variables of Indian soccer players of different age groups. Methods A total of 120 soccer players volunteered for the study, were divided (n = 30) into 4 groups: (i) under 16 years (U16), (ii) under 19 years (U19), (iii) under 23 years (U23), (iv) senior (SR). The training sessions were divided into 2 phases (a) Preparatory Phase (PP, 8 weeks) and (b) Competitive Phase (CP, 4 weeks). The training program consisted of aerobic, anaerobic and skill development, and were completed 4 hrs/day; 5 days/week. Selected physiological and biochemical variables were measured at zero level (baseline data, BD) and at the end of PP and CP. Results A significant increase (P < 0.05) in lean body mass (LBM), VO2max, anaerobic power, grip and back strength, urea, uric acid and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C); and a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in body fat, hemoglobin (Hb), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected in some groups in PP and CP phases of the training when compare to BD. However, no significant change was found in body mass and maximal heart rate of the players after the training program. Conclusion This study would provide useful information for training and selection of soccer players of different age groups. PMID:22375187

  3. Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Intelligence Test Performance at Age 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on lower income population women who were moderate users of marijuana to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intellectual development at the age of six. Results concluded that the Cognitive deficits noticed at the age of six were specific to verbal and quantitative reasoning and short-term memory.

  4. Patterns of Adverse Drug Reactions in Different Age Groups: Analysis of Spontaneous Reports by Community Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yun Mi; Shin, Wan Gyoon; Lee, Ju-Yeun; Choi, Soo An; Jo, Yun Hee; Youn, So Jung; Lee, Mo Se; Choi, Kwang Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with adverse drug reactions (ADRs) spontaneously reported by community pharmacists and to compare the ADRs by age. Methods ADRs reported to the Regional Pharmacovigilance Center of the Korean Pharmaceutical Association by community pharmacists from January 2013 to June 2014 were included. Causality was assessed using the WHO-Uppsala Monitoring Centre system. The patient population was classified into three age groups. We analyzed 31,398 (74.9%) ADRs from 9,705 patients, identified as having a causal relationship, from a total pool of 41,930 ADRs from 9,873 patients. Median patient age was 58.0 years; 66.9% were female. Results Gastrointestinal system (34.4%), nervous system (14.4%), and psychiatric (12.1%) disorders were the most frequent symptoms. Prevalent causative drugs were those for acid-related disorders (11.4%), anti-inflammatory products (10.5%), analgesics (7.2%), and antibacterials (7.1%). Comparisons by age revealed diarrhea and antibacterials to be most commonly associated with ADRs in children (p < 0.001), whereas dizziness was prevalent in the elderly (p < 0.001). Anaphylactic reaction was the most frequent serious event (19.7%), mainly associated with cephalosporins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Among 612 ADRs caused by nonprescription drugs, the leading symptoms and causative drugs were skin disorders (29.6%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (16.2%), respectively. Conclusions According to the community pharmacist reports, the leading clinical manifestations and causative drugs associated with ADRs in outpatients differed among age groups. PMID:26172050

  5. 4-Second Exercise Test: Reference Values for Ages 18–81 Years

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Claudio Gil; de Castro, Claudia Lucia Barros; Franca, João Felipe; Ramos, Plínio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Background Physiological reflexes modulated primarily by the vagus nerve allow the heart to decelerate and accelerate rapidly after a deep inspiration followed by rapid movement of the limbs. This is the physiological and pharmacologically validated basis for the 4-s exercise test (4sET) used to assess the vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. Objective To present reference data for 4sET in healthy adults. Methods After applying strict clinical inclusion/exclusion criteria, 1,605 healthy adults (61% men) aged between 18 and 81 years subjected to 4sET were evaluated between 1994 and 2014. Using 4sET, the cardiac vagal index (CVI) was obtained by calculating the ratio between the duration of two RR intervals in the electrocardiogram: 1) after a 4-s rapid and deep breath and immediately before pedaling and 2) at the end of a rapid and resistance-free 4-s pedaling exercise. Results CVI varied inversely with age (r = -0.33, p < 0.01), and the intercepts and slopes of the linear regressions between CVI and age were similar for men and women (p > 0.05). Considering the heteroscedasticity and the asymmetry of the distribution of the CVI values according to age, we chose to express the reference values in percentiles for eight age groups (years): 18–30, 31–40, 41–45, 46–50, 51–55, 56–60, 61–65, and 66+, obtaining progressively lower median CVI values ranging from 1.63 to 1.24. Conclusion The availability of CVI percentiles for different age groups should promote the clinical use of 4sET, which is a simple and safe procedure for the evaluation of vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. PMID:25830712

  6. Three-dimensional construction tests for children aged five and six years.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J A

    1976-07-01

    The constructional praxis ability of 69 normal 5 and 6 year olds was studied to validate established norms, to gain normative data for the Gesell Block Test and the Benton and Fogel Test of Constructional Praxis, and to identify a developmental continuum. No significant difference was found between scores obtained by the two age groups; however, a difference significant at the less than .05 level was found between scores of five-year-old boys and girls. The results suggest that these tests measure a continuum of development and that with revisions they may be useful to provide additional information about development of constructional praxis ability in a larger sample of normal and brain-damaged children.

  7. Synchrotron-based XRD from rat bone of different age groups.

    PubMed

    Rao, D V; Gigante, G E; Cesareo, R; Brunetti, A; Schiavon, N; Akatsuka, T; Yuasa, T; Takeda, T

    2017-05-01

    Synchrotron-based XRD spectra from rat bone of different age groups (w, 56 w and 78w), lumber vertebra at early stages of bone formation, Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp) [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] bone fill with varying composition (60% and 70%) and bone cream (35-48%), has been acquired with 15keV synchrotron X-rays. Experiments were performed at Desy, Hamburg, Germany, utilizing the Resonant and Diffraction beamline (P9), with 15keV X-rays (λ=0.82666 A(0)). Diffraction data were quantitatively analyzed using the Rietveld refinement approach, which allowed us to characterize the structure of these samples in their early stages. Hydroxyapatite, received considerable attention in medical and materials sciences, since these materials are the hard tissues, such as bone and teeth. Higher bioactivity of these samples gained reasonable interest for biological application and for bone tissue repair in oral surgery and orthopedics. The results obtained from these samples, such as phase data, crystalline size of the phases, as well as the degree of crystallinity, confirm the apatite family crystallizing in a hexagonal system, space group P63/m with the lattice parameters of a=9.4328Å and c=6.8842Å (JCPDS card #09-0432). Synchrotron-based XRD patterns are relatively sharp and well resolved and can be attributed to the hexagonal crystal form of hydroxyapatite. All the samples were examined with scanning electron microscope at an accelerating voltage of 15kV. The presence of large globules of different sizes is observed, in small age groups of the rat bone (8w) and lumber vertebra (LV), as distinguished from, large age groups (56 and 78w) in all samples with different magnification, reflects an amorphous phase without significant traces of crystalline phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the morphology and crystalline properties of Hap, for all the samples, from 2 to 100μm resolution.

  8. Host age, social group, and habitat type influence the gut microbiota of wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Genevieve; Malone, Matthew; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; White, Bryan; Nelson, Karen E; Stumpf, Rebecca M; Knight, Rob; Leigh, Steven R; Amato, Katherine R

    2016-08-01

    The gut microbiota contributes to host health by maintaining homeostasis, increasing digestive efficiency, and facilitating the development of the immune system. The composition of the gut microbiota can change dramatically within and between individuals of a species as a result of diet, age, or habitat. Therefore, understanding the factors determining gut microbiota diversity and composition can contribute to our knowledge of host ecology as well as to conservation efforts. Here we use high-throughput sequencing to describe variation in the gut microbiota of the endangered ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR) in southwestern Madagascar. Specifically, we measured the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota in relation to social group, age, sex, tooth wear and loss, and habitat disturbance. While we found no significant variation in the diversity of the ring-tailed lemur gut microbiota in response to any variable tested, the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota was influenced by social group, age, and habitat disturbance. However, effect sizes were small and appear to be driven by the presence or absence of relatively low abundance taxa. These results suggest that habitat disturbance may not impact the lemur gut microbiota as strongly as it impacts the gut microbiota of other primate species, highlighting the importance of distinct host ecological and physiological factors on host-gut microbe relationships. Am. J. Primatol. 78:883-892, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Endoparasite prevalence and recurrence across different age groups of dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Gates, Maureen C; Nolan, Thomas J

    2009-12-03

    The apparent prevalence of endoparasite infections across different age groups was calculated from 6555 dogs and 1566 cats that had a fecal examination performed upon presentation to the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 1997 and 2007. Based on notations from the medical history indicating prior parasite infections, estimates of recurrence were generated for each common group of parasites, including Trichuris, Giardia, ascarids, hookworms, Cystoisospora, and tapeworms. Endoparasitism was predominantly a disease of younger animals, with peak prevalence observed almost uniformly in dogs under 6 months old, with the exception of Trichuris with its longer pre-patent period, and in cats less than 18 months old. Furthermore, nearly 50% of dogs under 6 months old with a history of parasites, were diagnosed with at least one species of parasite on subsequent fecal examination. The percentage dropped to 18.4% in animals aged 1-4 years, but again increased to 31.5% in animals over 10 years old. There was no reported recurrence of Giardia or Cystoisospora from canine or feline patients older than 1 year. The recurrence of whipworm rose steadily with age, while hookworm and roundworm recurrence peaked in patients 1-4 years old. Findings from the study emphasize the importance of follow up fecal examinations and treatments in patients diagnosed with endoparasites.

  10. Domestic central heating radiators: a cause for concern in all age groups.

    PubMed

    Harper, R D; Dickson, W A

    1996-05-01

    A retrospective analysis of all burns admitted to the Welsh Regional Burns and Plastic Surgery Unit, Chepstow, in the period 1 January 1990 to 1 October 1993, highlighted a group of 50 patients who had sustained contact burns from the radiators of domestic central heating systems. There was a male prevalence, with an average age of 43.4 years (range 6 months to 100 years). The mean TBSA burned was 1.58 per cent (range 0.13-6.0 per cent) and half of the injuries were full thickness depth. The forearm and hand were predominantly injured. Although the literature has indicated that the incidence of contact burns peaks at the extremes of the age spectrum, this study has shown that contact radiator burns can be sustained by all age groups. The aim of the audit was to investigate the mechanism of injury and link precipitating factors. The contribution of the high surface temperature of the radiator to the burn injury is alluded to. The various methods available to reduce this risk are discussed and the use of the low surface temperature radiator, already routinely used in health care premises, is advocated.

  11. Schwannoma of Upper Lip: Report of a Rare Case in a Rare Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Hajong, Debobratta; Naku, Narang; Sharma, Girish; Boruah, Manash

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma is a benign, encapsulated perineural tumour originating from the schwann cells of the neural sheath of peripheral motor and sensory nerves. It may develop at any age but is extremely rare in paediatric age group. The tumour is frequently located on the head and neck region, the tongue being the most common site followed by the palate, floor of mouth, buccal mucosa, lips and jaws. Schwannomas rarely occur in the lip area and it is exceedingly rare in the upper lip. The lesion is usually solitary but can be multiple when associated with neurofibromatosis. The diagnosis is usually confirmed after biopsy and anti-S100 protein immuno-histochemical staining is usually used to identify the tumour. In the present study the patient was a 14-year-old young girl with the schwannoma on the upper lip which is probably the third such case in a paediatric age group being reported and was excised without any recurrence at 2 year after excision. PMID:27656503

  12. Endoparasite prevalence and recurrence across different age groups of dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Maureen C.; Nolan, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The apparent prevalence of endoparasite infections across different age groups was calculated from 6,555 dogs and 1,566 cats that had a fecal examination performed upon presentation to the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 1997 and 2007. Based on notations from the medical history indicating prior parasite infections, estimates of recurrence were generated for each common group of parasites, including Trichuris, Giardia, ascarids, hookworms, Cystoisospora, and tapeworms. Endoparasitism was predominantly a disease of younger animals, with peak prevalence observed almost uniformly in dogs under 6 months old, with the exception of Trichuris with its longer pre-patent period, and in cats less than 18 months old. Furthermore, nearly 50% of dogs under 6 months old with a history of parasites, were diagnosed with at least one species of parasite on subsequent fecal examination. The percentage dropped to 18.4% in animals aged 1 – 4 years, but again increased to 31.5% in animals over 10 years old. There was no reported recurrence of Giardia or Cystoisospora from canine or feline patients older than 1 year. The recurrence of whipworm rose steadily with age, while hookworm and roundworm recurrence peaked in patients 1 - 4 years old. Findings from the study emphasize the importance of follow up fecal examinations and treatments in patients diagnosed with endoparasites. PMID:19709815

  13. Test anxiety, coping strategies, and perceived health in a group of high school students: a Turkish sample.

    PubMed

    Aysan, F; Thompson, D; Hamarat, E

    2001-12-01

    A group of high school juniors and a group of high school seniors in Izmir, Turkey completed measures of test anxiety, coping skills, and perceived health status both before and after a major exam period. Students with high test anxiety used less effective coping mechanisms and tended to have poorer perceptions of their health. Prior to the exams, juniors displayed higher test anxiety and used less effective coping mechanisms than seniors. After the exam periods, improvements were seen for both age groups on perceived health, but scores of younger students remained significantly higher than scores of seniors on one of the key measures of test anxiety. Results of the study lend support to those of previous studies done in other cultural contexts, and findings have implications for the development of interventions designed to help students cope with stress.

  14. A decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping).

    PubMed

    Arts, Josje H E; Hadi, Mackenzie; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Keene, Athena M; Kreiling, Reinhard; Lyon, Delina; Maier, Monika; Michel, Karin; Petry, Thomas; Sauer, Ursula G; Warheit, David; Wiench, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Landsiedel, Robert

    2015-03-15

    The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) 'Nano Task Force' proposes a Decision-making framework for the grouping and testing of nanomaterials (DF4nanoGrouping) that consists of 3 tiers to assign nanomaterials to 4 main groups, to perform sub-grouping within the main groups and to determine and refine specific information needs. The DF4nanoGrouping covers all relevant aspects of a nanomaterial's life cycle and biological pathways, i.e. intrinsic material and system-dependent properties, biopersistence, uptake and biodistribution, cellular and apical toxic effects. Use (including manufacture), release and route of exposure are applied as 'qualifiers' within the DF4nanoGrouping to determine if, e.g. nanomaterials cannot be released from a product matrix, which may justify the waiving of testing. The four main groups encompass (1) soluble nanomaterials, (2) biopersistent high aspect ratio nanomaterials, (3) passive nanomaterials, and (4) active nanomaterials. The DF4nanoGrouping aims to group nanomaterials by their specific mode-of-action that results in an apical toxic effect. This is eventually directed by a nanomaterial's intrinsic properties. However, since the exact correlation of intrinsic material properties and apical toxic effect is not yet established, the DF4nanoGrouping uses the 'functionality' of nanomaterials for grouping rather than relying on intrinsic material properties alone. Such functionalities include system-dependent material properties (such as dissolution rate in biologically relevant media), bio-physical interactions, in vitro effects and release and exposure. The DF4nanoGrouping is a hazard and risk assessment tool that applies modern toxicology and contributes to the sustainable development of nanotechnological products. It ensures that no studies are performed that do not provide crucial data and therefore saves animals and resources.

  15. [Rapid antigen detection tests for group A streptococcus in children with pharyngitis].

    PubMed

    Cohen, J; Levy, C; Chalumeau, M; Bidet, Ph; Cohen, R

    2014-11-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most frequently identified bacterium in children with acute pharyngitis. Clinical signs and symptoms cannot distinguish accurately between viral and GAS pharyngitis. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) can identify GAS by an immunologic reaction within a few minutes. Compared to throat culture, most RADTs have a high specificity (around 95 %), allowing antibiotic prescribing on the basis of a positive RADT result. Similarly, the negative predictive value of RADTs seems sufficiently high (around 95 %) to ensure against the presence of GAS in case of a negative RADT result. Among several factors affecting RADT sensitivity, the training and expertise of the person performing the test and the quality of the throat swab specimen seem to be key determinants. Available evidence suggests that clinical prediction rules for the triage of children who should undergo GAS testing are not sufficiently accurate. Implementing RADTs into clinical practice has an important impact on antibiotic prescription rates, for a reduction of about 30 %. French guidelines that recommend using RADTs in all children above 3 years of age presenting with pharyngitis without backup culture of negative tests seem relevant in this context.

  16. [Time use in the daily life of aged women: an indicative method of the life style of population groups].

    PubMed

    Doimo, Leonice Aparecida; Derntl, Alice Moreira; do Lago, Olival Cardoso

    2008-01-01

    Time use research analyzes the multi-factorial aspects of aging. The purpose of this research was to describe time use within a group of 75 elderly women, 68,04 +/- 8,36 years old, based on their daily activities from waking up to going to sleep. The instruments used in the study were a cognition test (Clock Completion Test), a questionnaire for obtaining personal data and structured interviews (Time Diary) for obtaining information about the activities carried out on the day prior to the interview. The daily activities were decoded and classified by means of an international classification for time use studies, thus obtaining the profiles of the daily activities assigned to nine groups of main activities and their physical and social contexts. It was verified that the greater part of time was spent with mandatory activities (housework and personal care). Most of the free time was spent with passive leisure (TV watching) and little physical activity. Most of the activities were performed at home (physical context), and the elderly women used to live either with members of their family or alone (social context). Individual factors such as age, gender, educational level, marital status and socioeconomic level probably play a role in the time use patterns found.

  17. Evaluation of a group intervention to assist aging parents with permanency planning for an adult offspring with special needs.

    PubMed

    Botsford, Anne L; Rule, David

    2004-07-01

    More than three-fourths of older adults with developmental disabilities and mental illness live in the community with aging parents, the majority of whom do not complete plans for the residential, financial, and legal future of their offspring. The authors used a true experimental design to evaluate the effectiveness of a six-week psychoeducational group intervention with 27 older mothers. Data collected in pre- and posttest telephone interviews were analyzed with repeated measures MANCOVA to test five hypotheses. Significant multivariate effects were found for mothers' knowledge and awareness about permanency planning, confidence and competence to plan, planning activities, and stage of planning. Findings support use of group interventions with older parents and underscore the need for professional education about planning for adults with special needs.

  18. Methodology for designing accelerated aging tests for predicting life of photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaines, G. B.; Thomas, R. E.; Derringer, G. C.; Kistler, C. W.; Bigg, D. M.; Carmichael, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    A methodology for designing aging tests in which life prediction was paramount was developed. The methodology builds upon experience with regard to aging behavior in those material classes which are expected to be utilized as encapsulant elements, viz., glasses and polymers, and upon experience with the design of aging tests. The experiences were reviewed, and results are discussed in detail.

  19. The changing national policy system: complexity, Medicare, and implications for aging groups.

    PubMed

    Hill, B S; Hinckley, K A

    1991-01-01

    Changes in congressional processes, health agendas, and competitive positions of physician and hospital groups in the 1980s have produced important setbacks for such group interests within Medicare. Though united and successful in opposing Carter's 1977-79 hospital cost-containment proposals, these groups were subjected to severe new limits on hospital reimbursements under the 1982 budget reconciliation act. Thereafter, problems in protecting their interests continued or increased. Disagreements among hospital groups (e.g., the American Hospital Association and the former Federation of American Hospitals) surfaced over the Prospective Payment System introduced in 1983. In 1984, Congress instituted a freeze on physicians' Medicare fees despite AMA opposition. This projected narrow self-interest, thus decreasing the AMA's credibility. Further cost restrictions were imposed in 1985-86 budget acts. The problems of these organizations indicate that if aging groups are to protect their own stake in Medicare in the new political context, they must be particularly concerned with unity, credibility, and long-term perspectives.

  20. Building Bridges for Innovation in Ageing: Synergies between Action Groups of the EIP on AHA.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Bewick, M; Cano, A; Eklund, P; Fico, G; Goswami, N; Guldemond, N A; Henderson, D; Hinkema, M J; Liotta, G; Mair, A; Molloy, W; Monaco, A; Monsonis-Paya, I; Nizinska, A; Papadopoulos, H; Pavlickova, A; Pecorelli, S; Prados-Torres, A; Roller-Wirnsberger, R E; Somekh, D; Vera-Muñoz, C; Visser, F; Farrell, J; Malva, J; Andersen Ranberg, K; Camuzat, T; Carriazo, A M; Crooks, G; Gutter, Z; Iaccarino, G; Manuel de Keenoy, E; Moda, G; Rodriguez-Mañas, L; Vontetsianos, T; Abreu, C; Alonso, J; Alonso-Bouzon, C; Ankri, J; Arredondo, M T; Avolio, F; Bedbrook, A; Białoszewski, A Z; Blain, H; Bourret, R; Cabrera-Umpierrez, M F; Catala, A; O'Caoimh, R; Cesari, M; Chavannes, N H; Correia-da-Sousa, J; Dedeu, T; Ferrando, M; Ferri, M; Fokkens, W J; Garcia-Lizana, F; Guérin, O; Hellings, P W; Haahtela, T; Illario, M; Inzerilli, M C; Lodrup Carlsen, K C; Kardas, P; Keil, T; Maggio, M; Mendez-Zorrilla, A; Menditto, E; Mercier, J; Michel, J P; Murray, R; Nogues, M; O'Byrne-Maguire, I; Pappa, D; Parent, A S; Pastorino, M; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Siciliano, P; Teixeira, A M; Tsartara, S I; Valiulis, A; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M; Wickman, M; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Barbagallo, M; Canonica, G W; Klimek, L; Maggi, S; Aberer, W; Akdis, C; Adcock, I M; Agache, I; Albera, C; Alonso-Trujillo, F; Angel Guarcia, M; Annesi-Maesano, I; Apostolo, J; Arshad, S H; Attalin, V; Avignon, A; Bachert, C; Baroni, I; Bel, E; Benson, M; Bescos, C; Blasi, F; Barbara, C; Bergmann, K C; Bernard, P L; Bonini, S; Bousquet, P J; Branchini, B; Brightling, C E; Bruguière, V; Bunu, C; Bush, A; Caimmi, D P; Calderon, M A; Canovas, G; Cardona, V; Carlsen, K H; Cesario, A; Chkhartishvili, E; Chiron, R; Chivato, T; Chung, K F; d'Angelantonio, M; De Carlo, G; Cholley, D; Chorin, F; Combe, B; Compas, B; Costa, D J; Costa, E; Coste, O; Coupet, A-L; Crepaldi, G; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Demoly, P; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Du Toit, G; Dubakiene, R; Dupeyron, A; Emuzyte, R; Fiocchi, A; Wagner, A; Fletcher, M; Fonseca, J; Fougère, B; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, G; Garcia-Aymeric, J; Garcia-Zapirain, B; Gemicioğlu, B; Gouder, C; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Hermosilla-Gimeno, I; Héve, D; Holland, C; Humbert, M; Hyland, M; Johnston, S L; Just, J; Jutel, M; Kaidashev, I P; Khaitov, M; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keijser, W; Kerstjens, H; Knezović, J; Kowalski, M; Koppelman, G H; Kotska, T; Kovac, M; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lepore, V; MacNee, W; Maggio, M; Magnan, A; Majer, I; Manning, P; Marcucci, M; Marti, T; Masoli, M; Melen, E; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Millot-Keurinck, J; Mlinarić, H; Momas, I; Montefort, S; Morais-Almeida, M; Moreno-Casbas, T; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nadif, R; Nalin, M; Navarro-Pardo, E; Nekam, K; Ninot, G; Paccard, D; Pais, S; Palummeri, E; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N K; Papanikolaou, C; Passalacqua, G; Pastor, E; Perrot, M; Plavec, D; Popov, T A; Postma, D S; Price, D; Raffort, N; Reuzeau, J C; Robine, J M; Rodenas, F; Robusto, F; Roche, N; Romano, A; Romano, V; Rosado-Pinto, J; Roubille, F; Ruiz, F; Ryan, D; Salcedo, T; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Scichilone, N; Siciliano, P; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Sourdet, S; Sousa-Costa, E; Spranger, O; Sooronbaev, T; Sruk, V; Sterk, P J; Todo-Bom, A; Touchon, J; Tramontano, D; Triggiani, M; Tsartara, S I; Valero, A L; Valovirta, E; van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; van den Berge, M; Vandenplas, O; Ventura, M T; Vergara, I; Vezzani, G; Vidal, D; Viegi, G; Wagemann, M; Whalley, B; Wickman, M; Wilson, N; Yiallouros, P K; Žagar, M; Zaidi, A; Zidarn, M; Hoogerwerf, E J; Usero, J; Zuffada, R; Senn, A; de Oliveira-Alves, B

    2017-01-01

    The Strategic Implementation Plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) proposed six Action Groups. After almost three years of activity, many achievements have been obtained through commitments or collaborative work of the Action Groups. However, they have often worked in silos and, consequently, synergies between Action Groups have been proposed to strengthen the triple win of the EIP on AHA. The paper presents the methodology and current status of the Task Force on EIP on AHA synergies. Synergies are in line with the Action Groups' new Renovated Action Plan (2016-2018) to ensure that their future objectives are coherent and fully connected. The outcomes and impact of synergies are using the Monitoring and Assessment Framework for the EIP on AHA (MAFEIP). Eight proposals for synergies have been approved by the Task Force: Five cross-cutting synergies which can be used for all current and future synergies as they consider overarching domains (appropriate polypharmacy, citizen empowerment, teaching and coaching on AHA, deployment of synergies to EU regions, Responsible Research and Innovation), and three cross-cutting synergies focussing on current Action Group activities (falls, frailty, integrated care and chronic respiratory diseases).

  1. Age Differences and Changes of Coping Behavior in Three Age Groups: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Rott, Christoph; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With increasing age, older adults are more likely to be challenged by an increasing number of physical, functional and social losses. As a result, coping with losses becomes a central theme in very late life. This study investigated age differences and age changes in active behavioral, active cognitive and avoidance coping and related coping to…

  2. [Use of group A streptococcal rapid diagnostic test in extra-pharyngeal infections].

    PubMed

    Wollner, A; Levy, C; Benani, M; Thollot, F; Béchet, S; Cohen, J; Bonacorsi, S; Bidet, Ph; Cohen, R

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the performances of the group A streptococcus (GAS) rapid antigen diagnostic tests (RADTs) in extra-pharyngeal infections. Between October 2009 and June 2014, 368 patients (median age: 48 months) were enrolled. The pathologies involved were : 160 perineal infections (44 %), 69 blistering distal dactylitis (19 %), 55 cervical lymphadenitis (15 %), 31 crusty or bleeding rhinitis (8 %), and 53 other diseases (14 %). The sensitivity of GAS-RADT used was 96 % (95 % CI: 92-99 %), the specificity 81 % (95 % CI: 75- 86 %), the negative predictive value 97 % (CI 95 %: 93-99 %), and the positive predictive value 79 % (95 % CI: 73-85 %). Finally, positive and negative likelihood ratio were 5 (95 % CI: 4-7) and 0.05 (95 % CI: 0.02-0.11) respectively. The GAS-RADTs developed for pharyngitis have comparable performances in these settings and therefore can be used.

  3. What's in a Topic? Exploring the Interaction between Test-Taker Age and Item Content in High-Stakes Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Jayanti; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    The research reported in this article investigates differential item functioning (DIF) in a listening comprehension test. The study explores the relationship between test-taker age and the items' language domains across multiple test forms. The data comprise test-taker responses (N = 2,861) to a total of 133 unique items, 46 items of which were…

  4. Test-Retest Reliability in fMRI of Language: Group and Task Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, E. Elinor; Small, Steven L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores how the test-retest reliability is modulated by different groups of participants and experimental tasks. A group of 12 healthy participants and a group of nine stroke patients performed the same language imaging experiment twice, test and retest, on different days. The experiment consists of four conditions, one audio condition…

  5. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  6. Perceptions of mental workload in Dutch university employees of different ages: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As academic workload seems to be increasing, many studies examined factors that contribute to the mental workload of academics. Age-related differences in work motives and intellectual ability may lead to differences in experienced workload and in the way employees experience work features. This study aims to obtain a better understanding of age differences in sources of mental workload. 33 academics from one faculty discussed causes of workload during focus group interviews, stratified by age. Findings Among our participants, the influence of ageing seems most evident in employees’ actions and reactions, while the causes of workload mentioned seemed largely similar. These individual reactions to workload may also be driven by differences in tenure. Most positively assessed work characteristics were: interaction with colleagues and students and autonomy. Aspects most often indicated as increasing the workload, were organisational aspects as obstacles for ‘getting the best out of people’ and the feeling that overtime seems unavoidable. Many employees indicated to feel stretched between the ‘greediness’ of the organisation and their own high working standards, and many fear to be assigned even less time for research if they do not meet the rigorous output criteria. Moreover, despite great efforts on their part, promotion opportunities seem limited. A more pronounced role for the supervisor seems appreciated by employees of all ages, although the specific interpretation varied between individuals and career stages. Conclusions To preserve good working conditions and quality of work, it seems important to scrutinize the output requirements and tenure-based needs for employee supervision. PMID:23506458

  7. Determinants of caregivers’ vaccination intention with respect to child age group: a cross-sectional survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Shin, Kyung-Ah; Park, Kisoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined how knowledge, risk perception, health beliefs and multidimensional health locus of control (HLC) were associated with caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their child, and how these associations varied across child age groups. Setting South Korea. Methods The cross-sectional survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview among 1017 nationally representative caregivers who had children aged 12 or younger. The outcome variable was caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their children. Results Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that risk perception was negatively associated with vaccination intention only among the age group 4–6 (β=−0.127, p<0.05). Perceived benefit was the only significant predictor of the outcome variables for all three age groups. In contrast, perceived barrier was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=−0.104, p<0.05). Internal HLC was positively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=0.151, p<0.001), while chance HLC was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 0–3 (β=−0.121, p<0.05). Conclusions This study identifies key vaccination intention determinants that are differentially associated with caregivers’ children's age groups. To improve vaccination rates, it suggests the need for strategies tailored to children's age. PMID:26408283

  8. Tracking 10-year competitive winning performance of judo athletes across age groups.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Takito, Monica Y; Mazzei, Leandro; Miarka, Bianca; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-08-01

    Little information is available concerning early specialization and competitive success in judo across the early training years. Thus, the present objective was to verify the stability of individual competitive performance of a state-level championship for judo athletes who had been previously successful. For this, 406 athletes from six age groups (9 to 20+ years old) of each sex were followed for 10 years. Using recorded data from the São Paulo State Judo Federation beginning in 1999, the scores and standings for these judo players were analyzed. The proportion of medal winners during this period was not constant, differing from the grand mean in all groups of both 204 males and 202 females. At the end of this period, only 7% of the male and 5% of the female athletes had maintained their competitive levels. Successful competitive performance in early judo competition was not associated with success later in adulthood.

  9. Design and Validation of a Photographic Expressive Persian Grammar Test for Children Aged 4-6 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haresabadi, Fatemeh; Ebadi, Abbas; Shirazi, Tahereh Sima; Dastjerdi Kazemi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Syntax has a high importance among linguistic parameters, and syntax-related problems are the most common in language disorders. Therefore, the present study aimed to design a Photographic Expressive Persian Grammar Test for Iranian children in the age group of 4-6 years and to determine its validity and reliability. First, the target…

  10. 76 FR 4549 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of Chemicals; Technical Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 799 RIN 2070-AD16 Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Second Group of... testing of certain high production volume (HPV) chemical substances to obtain screening level data for.... 799.5087 Chemical testing requirements for second group of high production volume chemicals...

  11. Teachers Observe to Learn: Differences in Social Behavior of Toddlers and Preschoolers in Same-Age and Multiage Groupings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Mary Ellin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an action research conducted by a group of teachers comparing multiage with same-age interactions of children, especially among toddlers. The research involving 31 children ranging in age from two through five-and-a-half was conducted under optimal conditions, with small groups, low teacher-child ratios, and highly trained…

  12. Biomechanics of the Human Posterior Sclera: Age- and Glaucoma-Related Changes Measured Using Inflation Testing

    PubMed Central

    Coudrillier, Baptiste; Tian, Jing; Alexander, Stephen; Myers, Kristin M.; Quigley, Harry A.; Nguyen, Thao D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The objective of this study was to measure the biomechanical response of the human posterior sclera in vitro and to estimate the effects of age and glaucoma. Methods. Scleral specimens from 22 donors with no history of glaucoma and 11 donors with a history of glaucoma were excised 3 mm posterior to the equator and affixed to an inflation chamber. Optic nerve cross-sections were graded to determine the presence of axon loss. The time-dependent inflation response was measured in a series of pressure-controlled load–unload tests to 30 mm Hg and creep tests to 15 and 30 mm Hg. Circumferential and meridional strains were computed from the digital image correlation displacements, and midposterior stresses were determined from pressure and deformed geometry. Results. Among normal specimens, older age was predictive of a stiffer response and a thinner sclera. In the age group 75 to 93, diagnosed glaucoma eyes with axon damage were thicker than normal eyes. Both damaged and undamaged glaucoma eyes had a different strain response in the peripapillary sclera characterized by a stiffer meridional response. Undamaged glaucoma eyes had slower circumferential creep rates in the peripapillary sclera than normal eyes. Glaucoma eyes were not different from normal eyes in stresses and strains in the midposterior sclera. Conclusions. The observed differences in the biomechanical response of normal and glaucoma sclera may represent baseline properties that contribute to axon damage, or may be characteristics that result from glaucomatous disease. PMID:22395883

  13. Assessing age in the desert tortoise Gopherus agassizii: Testing skeletochronology with individuals of known age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtin, A.J.; Zug, G.R.; Medica, P.A.; Spotila, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Eight desert tortoises Gopherus agassizii from a long-term mark-recapture study in the Mojave Desert, Nevada, USA, afforded an opportunity to examine the accuracy of skeletochronological age estimation on tortoises from a seasonal, yet environmentally erratic environment. These 8 tortoises were marked as hatchlings or within the first 2 yr of life, and their carcasses were salvaged from predator kills. Using d blind protocol, 2 skeletochronological protocols (correction-factor and ranking) provided age estimates for a set of 4 bony elements (humerus, scapula, femur, ilium) from these tortoises of known age. The age at death of the tortoises ranged from 15 to 50 yr. The most accurate protocol - ranking using the growth layers within each of the 4 elements - provided estimates from 21 to 47 yr, with the highest accuracy from the ilia. The results indicate that skeletochronological age estimation provides a reasonably accurate method for assessing the age at death of desert tortoises and, if used with a large sample of individuals, will provide a valuable tool for examining age-related mortality parameters in desert tortoise and likely in other gopher tortoises (Gopherus). ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  14. Aging, Neighborhood Attachment, and Fear of Crime: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Sangmoon

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the reciprocal effects between fear of crime and neighborhood attachment because aging is a critical factor in both discussions of fear of crime and neighborhood attachment (friendship, neighboring, social cohesion and trust, informal social control, and participation in neighborhood watch program). Using data from…

  15. Verbosity and Projective Test Performance in the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayslip, Bert, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which response length influences Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT) scores in (N=102) elderly. Results suggest that response length has a pervasive effect on HIT scores and bears out the productivity of effects found in previous research with younger age cohorts. (JAC)

  16. What it Takes to Successfully Implement Technology for Aging in Place: Focus Groups With Stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Eveline JM; Luijkx, Katrien G; Vrijhoef, Hubertus JM

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in empowering older adults to age in place by deploying various types of technology (ie, eHealth, ambient assisted living technology, smart home technology, and gerontechnology). However, initiatives aimed at implementing these technologies are complicated by the fact that multiple stakeholder groups are involved. Goals and motives of stakeholders may not always be transparent or aligned, yet research on convergent and divergent positions of stakeholders is scarce. Objective To provide insight into the positions of stakeholder groups involved in the implementation of technology for aging in place by answering the following questions: What kind of technology do stakeholders see as relevant? What do stakeholders aim to achieve by implementing technology? What is needed to achieve successful implementations? Methods Mono-disciplinary focus groups were conducted with participants (n=29) representing five groups of stakeholders: older adults (6/29, 21%), care professionals (7/29, 24%), managers within home care or social work organizations (5/29, 17%), technology designers and suppliers (6/29, 21%), and policy makers (5/29, 17%). Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Stakeholders considered 26 different types of technologies to be relevant for enabling independent living. Only 6 out of 26 (23%) types of technology were mentioned by all stakeholder groups. Care professionals mentioned fewer different types of technology than other groups. All stakeholder groups felt that the implementation of technology for aging in place can be considered a success when (1) older adults’ needs and wishes are prioritized during development and deployment of the technology, (2) the technology is accepted by older adults, (3) the technology provides benefits to older adults, and (4) favorable prerequisites for the use of technology by older adults exist. While stakeholders seemed to have identical aims, several underlying

  17. The effect of cognitive testing and feedback on older adults' subjective age.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross; Hughes, Matthew; Saenz, Gabriel; Tirso, Robert

    2017-03-10

    Subjective age, or how old a person feels, is an important measure of self-perception that is associated with consequential cognitive and health outcomes. Recent research suggests that subjective age is affected by certain situations, including cognitive testing contexts. The current study examined whether cognitive testing and positive performance feedback affect subjective age and subsequent cognitive performance. Older adults took a series of neuropsychological and cognitive tests and subjective age was measured at various time points. Participants also either received positive or no feedback on an initial cognitive task, an analogies task. Results showed that participants felt older over the course of the testing session, particularly after taking a working memory test, relative to baseline. Positive feedback did not significantly mitigate this subjective aging effect. Results suggest that subjective age is malleable and that it can be affected by standard cognitive and neuropsychological test conditions.

  18. Presumptive Identification of Group D Streptococci: the Bile-Esculin Test

    PubMed Central

    Facklam, Richard R.; Moody, Max D.

    1970-01-01

    Six tests commonly used for the presumptive identification of group D streptococci were evaluated. Strains tested included 282 group D streptococci and 366 non-group D. Ratios of percentages of group D to non-group D strains which gave positive reactions for each test are as follows: bile-esculin, 100:2; salt tolerance, 88:24; heat tolerance, 100:80; SF broth, 86:1; KF broth, 99:40; and methylene blue milk reduction, 90:17. These data indicate that the bile-esculin test provided a reliable means of identifying group D streptococci and differentiating them from non-group D streptococci. Methodology for reading and interpreting positive reactions and time of incubation of the bile-esculin medium was defined. Evidence of the need for standardization of salt and heat-tolerance tests was obtained. PMID:4921062

  19. Use of a physiological profile to document motor impairment in ageing and in clinical groups.

    PubMed

    Lord, S R; Delbaere, K; Gandevia, S C

    2016-08-15

    Ageing decreases exercise performance and is frequently accompanied by reductions in cognitive performance. Deterioration in the physiological capacity to stand, locomote and exercise can manifest itself as falling over and represents a significant deterioration in sensorimotor control. In the elderly, falling leads to serious morbidity and mortality with major societal costs. Measurement of a suite of physiological capacities that are required for successful motor performance (including vision, muscle strength, proprioception and balance) has been used to produce a physiological profile assessment (PPA) which has been tracked over the age spectrum and in different diseases (e.g. multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease). As well as measures of specific physiological capacities, the PPA generates an overall 'score' which quantitatively measures an individual's cumulative risk of falling. The present review collates data from the PPA (and the physiological capacities it measures) as well as its use in strategies to reduce falls in the elderly and those with different diseases. We emphasise that (i) motor impairment arises via reductions in a wide range of sensorimotor abilities; (ii) the PPA approach not only gives a snapshot of the physiological capacity of an individual, but it also gives insight into the deficits among groups of individuals with particular diseases; and (iii) deficits in seemingly restricted and disparate physiological domains (e.g. vision, strength, cognition) are funnelled into impairments in tasks requiring upright balance. Motor impairments become more prevalent with ageing but careful physiological measurement and appropriate interventions offer a way to maximise health across the lifespan.

  20. Review of tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in the South African paediatric age group

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Tamer Ali

    2016-01-01

    Children, and in particular young children under the age of three, are the most vulnerable for aspiration and ingestion of foreign bodies (FBs). The Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital in Cape Town is the only children’s hospital in South Africa and is unique in having a dedicated trauma unit for children under the age of 13 as part of its institution. Core activities of Childsafe South Africa (CSA), located at the hospital, are data accumulation and interpretation, development of educational programmes, health inculcation and advising in legislation involving child health. To achieve this task, CSA works in close co-operation with government, industry, non-governmental and community predicated organisations, community groups and individuals. A database of all children treated for trauma at CSA has been maintained since 1991; it currently contains detailed information of over 170,000 injuries in children under the age of 13. This review consists of a literature review combined with data from our database and aims to provide information on our experiences with tracheobronchial aspiration of FBs in children. PMID:28149578

  1. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sundheim, Leif; Lillegaard, Inger Therese; Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Brodal, Guro; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl

    2017-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group. PMID:28165414

  2. Sternal Gland Scent-Marking Signals Sex, Age, Rank, and Group Identity in Captive Mandrills.

    PubMed

    Vaglio, Stefano; Minicozzi, Pamela; Romoli, Riccardo; Boscaro, Francesca; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Moneti, Gloriano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2016-02-01

    Mandrills are one of the few Old World primates to show scent-marking. We combined ethological and chemical approaches to improve our understanding of this behavior in 3 zoo-managed groups. We observed the olfactory behavior performed by adults and adolescents (N = 39) for 775h. We investigated the volatile components of sternal scent-marks using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared volatile profiles with traits of the signaler. Males marked more than females and within each sex the frequency of scent-marking was related to age and dominance status, but alpha males scent-marked most frequently and particularly in specific areas at the enclosure boundaries. We identified a total of 77 volatile components of sternal gland secretion, including compounds functioning as male sex pheromones in other mammals, in scent-marks spontaneously released on filter paper by 27 male and 18 female mandrills. We confirmed our previous findings that chemical profiles contain information including sex, male age and rank, and we also found that odor may encode information about group membership in mandrills. Our results support the hypotheses that scent-marking signals the status of the dominant male as well as playing territorial functions but also suggest that it is part of sociosexual communication.

  3. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  4. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-06-04

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 641±9 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively.

  5. A test of the intergenerational conflict model in Indonesia shows no evidence of earlier menopause in female-dispersing groups

    PubMed Central

    Snopkowski, Kristin; Moya, Cristina; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Menopause remains an evolutionary puzzle, as humans are unique among primates in having a long post-fertile lifespan. One model proposes that intergenerational conflict in patrilocal populations favours female reproductive cessation. This model predicts that women should experience menopause earlier in groups with an evolutionary history of patrilocality compared with matrilocal groups. Using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test this model at multiple timescales: deep historical time, comparing age at menopause in ancestrally patrilocal Chinese Indonesians with ancestrally matrilocal Austronesian Indonesians; more recent historical time, comparing age at menopause in ethnic groups with differing postmarital residence within Indonesia and finally, analysing age at menopause at an individual-level, assuming a woman facultatively adjusts her age at menopause based on her postmarital residence. We find a significant effect only at the intermediate timescale where, contrary to predictions, ethnic groups with a history of multilocal postnuptial residence (where couples choose where to live) have the slowest progression to menopause, whereas matrilocal and patrilocal ethnic groups have similar progression rates. Multilocal residence may reduce intergenerational conflicts between women, thus influencing reproductive behaviour, but our results provide no support for the female-dispersal model of intergenerational conflict as an explanation of menopause. PMID:24966311

  6. A test of the intergenerational conflict model in Indonesia shows no evidence of earlier menopause in female-dispersing groups.

    PubMed

    Snopkowski, Kristin; Moya, Cristina; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-08-07

    Menopause remains an evolutionary puzzle, as humans are unique among primates in having a long post-fertile lifespan. One model proposes that intergenerational conflict in patrilocal populations favours female reproductive cessation. This model predicts that women should experience menopause earlier in groups with an evolutionary history of patrilocality compared with matrilocal groups. Using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test this model at multiple timescales: deep historical time, comparing age at menopause in ancestrally patrilocal Chinese Indonesians with ancestrally matrilocal Austronesian Indonesians; more recent historical time, comparing age at menopause in ethnic groups with differing postmarital residence within Indonesia and finally, analysing age at menopause at an individual-level, assuming a woman facultatively adjusts her age at menopause based on her postmarital residence. We find a significant effect only at the intermediate timescale where, contrary to predictions, ethnic groups with a history of multilocal postnuptial residence (where couples choose where to live) have the slowest progression to menopause, whereas matrilocal and patrilocal ethnic groups have similar progression rates. Multilocal residence may reduce intergenerational conflicts between women, thus influencing reproductive behaviour, but our results provide no support for the female-dispersal model of intergenerational conflict as an explanation of menopause.

  7. Psychometric data for the revised token test in normally developing Mexican children ages 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Geisa; Guàrdia, Joan; Villaseñor, Teresita; McNeil, Malcolm R

    2011-04-01

    Language comprehension is vital to social and educational development but few pediatric tests are available for its assessment. To approach this problem, two versions of the Token Test (TT), "TT short form" (DeRenzi & Faglioni, 1978) and "Revised Token Test" (RTT), were first compared. Using a sample of 88 normally developing Spanish-speaking children, the tests were compared on their: (a) established psychometric development and (b) internal consistency. The RTT was judged to be superior and was selected for additional experimentation. The RTT was compared with a developmental measure of lexical knowledge on a cross-sectional sample of 250 4-12-year-old normally developing Spanish-speaking children. A significant positive and high correlation supports its concurrent validity. Significant differences across the age groups, along with a principal component analysis that yielded a three-factor structure, support its construct validity. Preliminary normative data across the nine age groups are provided.

  8. Group Discussions and Test-Enhanced Learning: Individual Learning Outcomes and Personality Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenlund, Tova; Jönsson, Fredrik U.; Jonsson, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N = 98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions…

  9. Quantifying the impact of expanded age group campaigns for polio eradication.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bradley G; Behrend, Matthew R; Klein, Daniel J; Upfill-Brown, Alexander M; Eckhoff, Philip A; Hu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    A priority of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) 2013-2018 strategic plan is to evaluate the potential impact on polio eradication resulting from expanding one or more Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs) to children beyond age five-years in polio endemic countries. It has been hypothesized that such expanded age group (EAG) campaigns could accelerate polio eradication by eliminating immunity gaps in older children that may have resulted from past periods of low vaccination coverage. Using an individual-based mathematical model, we quantified the impact of EAG campaigns in terms of probability of elimination, reduction in polio transmission and age stratified immunity levels. The model was specifically calibrated to seroprevalence data from a polio-endemic region: Zaria, Nigeria. We compared the impact of EAG campaigns, which depend only on age, to more targeted interventions which focus on reaching missed populations. We found that EAG campaigns would not significantly improve prospects for polio eradication; the probability of elimination increased by 8% (from 24% at baseline to 32%) when expanding three annual SIAs to 5-14 year old children and by 18% when expanding all six annual SIAs. In contrast, expanding only two of the annual SIAs to target hard-to-reach populations at modest vaccination coverage-representing less than one tenth of additional vaccinations required for the six SIA EAG scenario-increased the probability of elimination by 55%. Implementation of EAG campaigns in polio endemic regions would not improve prospects for eradication. In endemic areas, vaccination campaigns which do not target missed populations will not benefit polio eradication efforts.

  10. Hydroacoustic separation of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in Lake Champlain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, Stetter S.L.; Rudstam, L. G.; Stritzel, Thomson J.L.; Parrish, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Separate assessment of young-of-year (YOY) and yearling-and-older (YAO) fish is desirable from both ecological and management perspectives. Acoustic assessments provide information on fish population size structure in the target strength (TS) distribution, but interpretation of TS distributions must be done carefully, as single age groups can produce multiple TS modes. We assessed the ability of in situ TS distributions to identify Lake Champlain rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) age groups in June, July, and September of 2001 using mobile and stationary surveys, knowledge of vertical distribution preferences, and predicted TS from trawl catches. YAO rainbow smelt (93-179 mm total length) had wide TS distributions between -60 and -35 dB in all 3 months with two modes at approximately -50 and -40 dB. Most stationary survey single-fish tracks attributed to YAO had targets in both TS modes and a wide TS range often over 15 dB. Between June and September, YOY rainbow smelt TS increased, but single-fish tracks were unimodal, and the TS range was smaller (6 dB). Overlap in TS attributed to YOY and YAO increased from no overlap in June (YOY TS -76 to -61 dB, 15-25 mm) to moderate overlap in July (-76 to -50 dB, 25-63 mm) to considerable overlap in September (-68 to -45 dB, 33-80 mm). In June and July, the TS distribution changed abruptly at the thermocline, indicating almost complete separation of the two groups. A more gradual TS transition was evident in September, indicating substantial overlap between YOY and YAO. Separate estimates can be obtained in September by decomposing TS overlap into components attributed to YOY and YAO rainbow smelt. However, this decomposition introduces additional uncertainty and an assessment in July or possibly August is preferable to obtain separate abundance estimates of YOY and YAO. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Bhattathiry, Malini M.; Ethirajan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP), which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of “unmet need for FP” and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed. PMID:24696634

  12. A comparison of time-motion and technical-tactical variables between age groups of female judo matches.

    PubMed

    Miarka, Bianca; Cury, Rubiana; Julianetti, Ricardo; Battazza, Rafael; Julio, Ursula Ferreira; Calmet, Michel; Franchini, Emerson

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify differences between age groups of female judo matches in time-motion and technical-tactical analysis. The sample was composed of pre-cadet (13-14 years, n = 148), cadet (15-16 years, n = 228), junior (17-19 years, n = 104) and senior (>20 years, n = 237) groups. The time-motion indicators consisted of total combat time, standing combat time, displacement without contact, gripping time, total time of techniques, groundwork combat time and pause time, per match and by each combat/pause cycle. Technical and tactical variables were also collected. The one-way analysis of variance and a post hoc test were conducted, P ≤ 0.05. Cadets, with a median of 7 (2, 12), had a number of combat/pause cycles different from junior, with 3 (1, 8.5). Regarding time-motion per match and per cycle, senior had longer total combat time, standing combat time and gripping time than other groups. Senior presented lower frequency of leg techniques than pre-cadet, cadet and junior. Time-motion and technical-tactical variables effects in female judo athletes emphasise the difference between seniors and other groups.

  13. Testing the renormalisation group theory of cooperative transitions at the lambda point of helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipa, J. A.; Li, Q.; Chui, T. C. P.; Marek, D.

    1988-01-01

    The status of high resolution tests of the renormalization group theory of cooperative phase transitions performed near the lambda point of helium is described. The prospects for performing improved tests in space are discussed.

  14. Race-Ethnicity and Health Trajectories: Tests of Three Hypotheses across Multiple Groups and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tyson H.; O’Rand, Angela M.; Adkins, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Racial-ethnic disparities in static levels of health are well documented. Less is known about racial-ethnic differences in age trajectories of health. The few studies on this topic have examined only single health outcomes and focused on black-white disparities. This study extends prior research by using a life course perspective, panel data from the Health and Retirement Study, and multilevel growth curve models to investigate racial-ethnic differences in the trajectories of serious conditions and functional limitations among blacks, Mexican Americans, and whites. We test three hypotheses on the nature of racial-ethnic disparities in health across the life course (aging-as-leveler, persistent inequality, and cumulative disadvantage). Results controlling for mortality selection reveal that support for the hypotheses varies by health outcome, racial-ethnic group, and life stage. Controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, adult social and economic resources, and health behaviors reduces but does not eliminate racial-ethnic disparities in health trajectories. PMID:22940814

  15. Effects of Age and Cognition on a Cross-Cultural Paediatric Adaptation of the Sniffin' Sticks Identification Test

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro, Marilisa Mantovani; Lees, Andrew John; Warner, Thomas T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To study the effects of age and cognition on the performance of children aged 3 to 18 years on a culturally adapted version of the 16 item smell identification test from Sniffin' Sticks (SS16). Methods A series of pilots were conducted on 29 children aged 3 to 18 years old and 23 adults to produce an adapted version of the SS16 suitable for Brazilian children (SS16-Child). A final version was applied to 51 children alongside a picture identification test (PIT-SS16-Child) to access cognitive abilities involved in the smell identification task. In addition 20 adults performed the same tasks as a comparison group. Results The final adapted SS16-Child was applied to 51 children with a mean age of 9.9 years (range 3-18 years, SD=4.25 years), of which 68.3% were girls. There was an independent effect of age (p<0.05) and PIT-SS16-Child (p<0.001) on the performance on the SS16-Child, and older children reached the ceiling for scoring in the cognitive and olfactory test. Pre-school children had difficulties identifying items of the test. Discussion/Conclusions A cross-culturally adapted version of the SS16 can be used to test olfaction in children but interpretation of the results must take age and cognitive abilities into consideration. PMID:26267145

  16. Predictability and Reliability of Different Anterio-Posterior Skeletal Discrepancy Indicators in Different Age Groups - A Cephalometric Study

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Rana; Gupta, Abhishek; Joshi, Rishi; Tiwari, Anil; Sen, Priyank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The lateral cephalometric skeletal discrepancy indicators play a major role in diagnosing and preparing a case for orthognathic surgeries and the dentofacial corrections. Aim The study was aimed to check the reliability and the predictability of different anterio-posterior skeletal discrepancy indicators in different age groups and to derive the most reliable indicator for the orthodontic diagnosis. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 100 subjects including 29 adolescent (15 males and 14 females) and 71 adult (41 males and 30 females) subjects with the mean age of 19.05 ± 5.78 years. All the subjects had Angle’s Class I molar relationship. The lateral cephalograms of the sample were taken under the standard setting and hand tracing of the cephalometric radiographs using a sharp 4H pencil were made on acetate tracing paper. The anterio-posterior cephalometric indicators like β-angle, Wits appraisal (mm), Sella- Nasion plane to Point A and Point B distance (SN-AB mm) and Maxillo-Mandibular plane angle bisector to Point A and Point B distance (MM-AB mm) were measured. Intra-examiner reliability of tracings was evaluated using Intra Class Correlation (ICC) test. Mann Whitney U-test was applied for comparison of parameters between different malocclusion groups. Concurrent validity of various parameters was calculated using Cohen’s kappa. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The comparison of intra-examiner reliability of tracings in Angle’s Class I adolescent group showed, MM-AB to have an almost perfect agreement followed by Wits. Intra-examiner reliability of tracings in Angle’s Class I adult group showed moderate agreement for Wits and MM-AB showed almost perfect agreement and all the parameters showed statistically significant ICC. Comparison of parameters between adolescent and adult, Angle’s Class I malocclusion group showed significant difference between adolescent and

  17. Increase in participation but decrease in performance in age group mountain marathoners in the 'Jungfrau Marathon': a Swiss phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Zingg, Matthias A; Rüst, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    Participation and performance trends for age group marathoners have been investigated for large city marathons such as the 'New York City Marathon' but not for mountain marathons. This study investigated participation and trends in performance and sex difference in the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' held in Switzerland from 2000 to 2014 using single and mixed effects regression analyses. Results were compared to a city marathon (Lausanne Marathon) also held in Switzerland during the same period. Sex difference was calculated using the equation ([race time in women] - [race time in men]/[race time in men] × 100). Changes in sex differences across calendar years and were investigated using linear regression models. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', participation in all female and male age groups increased with exception of women in age groups 18-24 and men in age groups 30-34, 40-44 and 60-64 years where participation remained unchanged. In 'Lausanne Marathon', participation increased in women in age groups 30-34 to 40-44 years. In men, participation increased in age groups 25-29 to 44-44 years and 50-54 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon' runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 to 70-74 years. In 'Lausanne Marathon', runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 and 30-34 to 65-69 years, but not for 25-29, 70-74 and 75-79 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', sex difference increased in age groups 25-29 (from 4 to 10 %) and 60-64 years (from 3 to 8 %) but decreased in age group 40-44 years (from 12 to 6 %). In 'Lausanne Marathon', the sex difference showed no changes. In summary, participation increased in most female and male age groups but performance decreased in most age groups for both the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' and the city marathon 'Lausanne Marathon'. The sex differences were lower in the 'Jungfrau Marathon' (~6-7 %) compared to the 'Lausanne Marathon' where the sex difference was ~10-12 % from age groups 18-24 to 55

  18. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications. PMID:26892834

  19. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Z B; Luan, J H; Miller, M K; Yu, C Y; Liu, C T

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. The co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  20. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    DOE PAGES

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; ...

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for twomore » interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. Lastly, the co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.« less

  1. Group precipitation and age hardening of nanostructured Fe-based alloys with ultra-high strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Z. B.; Luan, J. H.; Miller, M. K.; Yu, C. Y.; Liu, C. T.

    2016-02-19

    The precipitation of nanoparticles plays a key role in determining the properties of many structural materials, and the understanding of their formation and stabilization mechanisms has been a long standing interest in the material field. However, the critical issues involving the group precipitation of various nanoparticles and their cooperative hardening mechanism remain elusive in the newly discovered Fe-based alloys with nanostructures. Here we quantitatively elucidate the nucleation mechanism, evolution kinetics and hardening effects of the group-precipitated nanoparticles in the Fe-Cu-Ni-Al-based alloys by atom probe tomography together with both first-principles and thermodynamic calculations. Our results provide the compelling evidence for two interesting but complex group precipitation pathways of nanoparticles, i.e., the Cu-rich and NiAl-based precipitations. Lastly, the co-existence of the two precipitation pathways plays a key role in age hardening kinetics and ultimately enhances the hardening response, as compared to the single particle type of strengthening, therefore providing an effective new approach for strengthening materials for structural applications.

  2. A test of the revised auricular surface aging method on a modern European population.

    PubMed

    Moraitis, Konstantinos; Zorba, Eleni; Eliopoulos, Constantine; Fox, Sherry C

    2014-01-01

    The accurate age estimation of adults is an important step in the construction of the biological profile of skeletonized remains. The auricular surface of the ilium as it was developed in 1985 by Lovejoy et al., is one of the methods employed for age estimation. This study presents the results of a blind test of the revised auricular surface aging method developed by Buckberry and Chamberlain. A sample of 120 individuals from the Athens Collection was used to test this revised aging technique. Almost all features and composite score were positively correlated with known age-at-death. The calculation of bias demonstrated no obvious trend for either overestimation or underestimation of age when all individuals were pooled together. Inaccuracy showed that absolute errors of estimated ages against known ages are substantial. The data generated from this study suggest that the revised method can be reliable for age estimation on a modern European population.

  3. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance.

    PubMed

    Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; Borleffs, Jan C C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-05-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands. All applicants for the academic year 2015-2016 were included and had to choose between learning communities Global Health (n = 126), Sustainable Care (n = 149), Intramural Care (n = 225), or Molecular Medicine (n = 116). This choice was used as a proxy for vocational interest. In addition, all graduate-entry applicants for academic year 2015-2016 (n = 213) were included to examine the effect of previous academic experience on performance. We used MANCOVA analyses with Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparisons tests for applicant performance on a six-scenario SJT. The MANCOVA analyses showed that for all scenarios, the independent variables were significantly related to performance (Pillai's Trace: 0.02-0.47, p < .01). Vocational interest was related to performance on three scenarios (p < .01). Graduate-entry applicants outperformed all other groups on three scenarios (p < .01) and at least one other group on the other three scenarios (p < .01). Female applicants outperformed male applicants on three scenarios (p < .01) and age was positively related to performance on two scenarios (p < .05). A good fit between applicants' vocational interests and SJT scenario was related to better performance, as was previous academic experience. Gender and age were related to performance on SJT scenarios in different settings. Especially the first effect might be helpful in selecting appropriate candidates for areas of health care in which more professionals are needed.

  4. Neuropsychological Testing in a Rural African School-Age Population: Evaluating Contributions to Variability in Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitsao-Wekulo, Patricia K.; Holding, Penny A.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Abubakar, Amina; Connolly, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of a number of neuropsychological tests adapted for use in sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 308 school-age children in a predominantly rural community completed the tests. These tests were developed to assess skills similar to those measured by assessments of cognitive development published for use…

  5. Aging and strategic retrieval in a cued-recall test: the role of executive functions and fluid intelligence.

    PubMed

    Taconnat, Laurence; Clarys, David; Vanneste, Sandrine; Bouazzaoui, Badiâa; Isingrini, Michel

    2007-06-01

    Cued-recall in episodic memory was investigated in relation to low and high cognitive support at retrieval, executive function level and fluid intelligence level in 81 healthy adults divided first into two age groups (young and elderly adults). The first analyses showed that age-related differences were greater when a low cognitive support was provided to recall the words. An individual index of loss of performance when the number of cues was decreased was then calculated. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the executive functions measure (perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test) was a better candidate than the fluid intelligence measure (Cattell's culture fair test) to account for the age-related variance of the size of performance loss. These findings suggest that age differences in implementing strategic retrieval may be mainly due to a decline in executive functions.

  6. Multivariate Analyses and Classification of Inertial Sensor Data to Identify Aging Effects on the Timed-Up-and-Go Test

    PubMed Central

    Vervoort, Danique; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Kosse, Nienke; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Many tests can crudely quantify age-related mobility decrease but instrumented versions of mobility tests could increase their specificity and sensitivity. The Timed-up-and-Go (TUG) test includes several elements that people use in daily life. The test has different transition phases: rise from a chair, walk, 180° turn, walk back, turn, and sit-down on a chair. For this reason the TUG is an often used test to evaluate in a standardized way possible decline in balance and walking ability due to age and or pathology. Using inertial sensors, qualitative information about the performance of the sub-phases can provide more specific information about a decline in balance and walking ability. The first aim of our study was to identify variables extracted from the instrumented timed-up-and-go (iTUG) that most effectively distinguished performance differences across age (age 18–75). Second, we determined the discriminative ability of those identified variables to classify a younger (age 18–45) and older age group (age 46–75). From healthy adults (n = 59), trunk accelerations and angular velocities were recorded during iTUG performance. iTUG phases were detected with wavelet-analysis. Using a Partial Least Square (PLS) model, from the 72-iTUG variables calculated across phases, those that explained most of the covariance between variables and age were extracted. Subsequently, a PLS-discriminant analysis (DA) assessed classification power of the identified iTUG variables to discriminate the age groups. 27 variables, related to turning, walking and the stand-to-sit movement explained 71% of the variation in age. The PLS-DA with these 27 variables showed a sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 85%. Based on this model, the iTUG can accurately distinguish young and older adults. Such data can serve as a reference for pathological aging with respect to a widely used mobility test. Mobility tests like the TUG supplemented with smart technology could be used in clinical

  7. [Peculiarities of cardiovascular system pathology depending on psychological profile in patients of senior age groups].

    PubMed

    Prokhorenko, I O

    2013-01-01

    Interrelations between peculiarities of psychological profile of patients of senior age groups (according to Cattel), level of stress hormones in blood and background pathology of cardiovascular system were studied. Levels of catecholamine and corticosteroids in dynamics, rate of magnesium in erythrocytes and calcium in plaques of coronary arteries as well as fats, Holter ECG, daily profiles of blood pressure, vasomotor function of endothelium and microcirculation were analysed. It is established that stress hormones indirectly determine original form of stress reaction depending on patients' psychological profile. This contributes to the development of one or another form of cardiovascular system pathology. Excessive alcohol intake also promotes progression of cardiovascular system pathology. Depression, being a reflection of disbalance of stress hormones levels, can be used as a marker of unfavourable course of cardiovascular pathology.

  8. SPECTRUM: A Training and Treatment Program for Continuous Glucose Monitoring for All Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Gehr, Bernhard; Holder, Martin; Kulzer, Bernhard; Lange, Karin; Liebl, Andreas; Sahm, Claudia; von Sengbusch, Simone; Schlüter, Sandra; Siegmund, Thorsten; Thurm, Ulrike; Ziegler, Ralph; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz

    2016-08-10

    Optimal usage of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) requires adequate preparation and training. Patients using a CGM system without special training often do not achieve their intended improvement of metabolic control or even stop using the system due to disappointing results. For this reason a structured training program called "SPECTRUM" was developed in Germany to ensure a high-quality standard for the use of CGM systems. This program is suitable for patients of all age groups and is applicable to all CGM systems and all forms of insulin therapy. Structured curricula (adults, parents of young children, adolescents) have been developed enabling diabetes centers with less experience to offer comprehensive CGM training. Key requirements of SPECTRUM were independency of manufacturers and product neutrality enabling certification for reimbursement after formal evaluation within the framework of a large clinical trial. SPECTRUM was published in January 2016 in German, and translations into other languages are planned.

  9. Analysis of normal human eye with different age groups using infrared images.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Ng, E Y K; Yee, Gerk Chang; Hua, Tan Jian; Kagathi, Manjunath

    2009-06-01

    The human body temperature is a good health indicator. All objects emit thermal radiation as a function temperature and wavelength for all wavelengths. The wavelength of infrared rays lies between visible and microwave radiations ranging between 700 nm to 0.1 mm. Infrared (IR) imaging is relatively inexpensive, noninvasive and harmless. Nowadays, it is widely used in the medical field for diagnosis. In this work, we have applied image processing techniques on the IR images of the eye for the analysis of the ocular surface temperature (OST) of the normal subjects of three categories (young, middle and old ages). In our study, 67 IR normal images were analyzed. Two parameters, average ocular temperature and the temperature deviation were proposed to study the variability of OST in different normal category subjects. Our study shows that, the two parameters proposed, show distinct ranges for different groups with 'p' values less than 0.05.

  10. Nutritional deficiencies in the pediatric age group in a multicultural developed country, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Haimi, Motti; Lerner, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide. Diseases and morbid conditions have been described to result from nutritional deficiencies. It is essential to address nutrient deficiencies as these may lead to chronic long-term health problems such as rickets, iron deficiency anemia, goiter, obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, cancer and osteoporosis. In the present review we surveyed the extent and severity of nutritional deficiencies in Israel through a selective and comprehensive Medline review of previous reports and studies performed during the last 40 years. Israeli populations have multiple nutritional deficiencies, including iron, calcium, zinc, folic acid, and vitamins B12, C, D and E, spanning all age groups, several minorities, and specific regions. In Israel, some of the nutrients are mandatorily implemented and many of them are implemented voluntarily by local industries. We suggest ways to prevent and treat the nutritional deficiencies, as a step to promote food fortification in Israel. PMID:24868510

  11. Multi-directional Reach Test: An Investigation of the Limits of Stability of People Aged between 20-79 Years.

    PubMed

    Tantisuwat, Anong; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat; Boonyong, Sujitra

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] The multi-directional reach test (MDRT) is a simple, inexpensive, reliable and valid screening tool for assessing the limits of stability in the anterorposterior and mediolateral directions. The aim of this study was to quantify the limits of stability of people aged between 20 and 79 years using the MDRT. [Subjects] One hundred and eighty subjects were divided into the following 6 age groups: 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70-79 years (n=30 per group). [Methods] The MDRT was used to measure the limits of stability in four directions: forward, backward, leftward and rightward. Subjects performed maximal outstretched arm reach in each direction with their feet flat on the floor. [Results] All age groups performed the greatest values of the limit of stability in the forward direction. The 60-79 year group demonstrated significantly lower limits of stability in the forward, leftward and rightward directions compared to the 20-39 year group. [Conclusion] The limits of stability declined with age mainly in the forward, leftward and rightward directions. The MDRT appears to be a useful assessment tool for postural control and balance of those aged 60 years and over.

  12. Scappoose Formation, Columbia County, Oregon: new evidence of age and relation to Columbia River basalt group

    SciTech Connect

    VanAtta, R.O.; Kelty, K.B.

    1985-05-01

    The Scappoose Formation, considered to be late Oligocene to early Miocene in age, was originally believed to be disconformably separated from both the underlying Pittsburg Bluff Formation and the overlying Yakima subgroup of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Recent mapping and petrography show that it lies disconformably on both the Keasey and Pittsburg Bluff Formations, and interfingers with the Yakima Basalt. The Scappoose is composed of fluvial sandstone, conglomerate, and carbonaceous to coal-bearing mud rock, intertongued with shallow neritic to estuarine siltstone, mud rock, and minor sandstone. Chemistry of basalt clasts from fluvial conglomerates reveals that they are derived from the Yakima subgroup. Basalt conglomerate and palagonitic sediments in the upper part of the formation are intercalated with Grande Ronde basalt (Yakima subgroup) flows at many localities. Flows of Yakima Basalt are also invasive into originally wet, unconsolidated Scappoose sediment. Grande Ronde basalt and the Frenchman Springs Member of the Wanapum basalt overlie conglomerate of the Scappoose. In places, the Scappoose Formation is absent, and Yakima Basalt lies directly on the Pittsburg Bluff and Keasey Formations. The thickness of both the Scappoose Formation and the Columbia River Basalt Group varies widely, indicating that both were deposited over a paleotopography with a relief up to 800 ft (245 m). The definition of the boundaries of the Scappoose Formation should be revised, owing to the disconformable relation of the Scappoose to both the underlying Keasey and Pittsburg Bluff Formations and to the Scappoose's intercalation with the overlying Yakima Basalt. Definition of age must also be revised, inasmuch as sedimentation of the formation was coeval with Columbia River Basalt volcanism.

  13. Rheumatic mitral regurgitation. The case for annuloplasty in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, J G; Kawabori, I; Morgan, B C; Dillard, D H; Merendino, K A; Guntheroth, W G

    1975-08-01

    Eight youngsters (five female, three male, ages 10 to 19 years, mean 15 years) with isolated severe rheumatic mitral regurgitation have been subjected to mitral annuloplasty because of limiting symptoms and prominent ECG and X-ray changes. They have been followed for up to 11 years (mean 3.7 years), and 7 have had excellent results. An early (1961) patient had a small annulus and was not a favorable candidate; he had only transient improvement. Seven are greatly improved, have decreased cardiac size (often dramatic), and have improved ECG's. One has undergone successful pregnancy, and none has been limited in activities. The extent and duration of improvement, lack of mortality, and resumption of normal activities by these youngsters indicate surgical success. The essence of childhood and youth is activity and the future life span hopefully long; hence, annuloplasty would appear to be the procedure of choice for severe rheumatic mitral regurgitation in the pediatric age group, avoiding the usual need for anticoagulation and uncertain long-term results associated with mitral valve replacement.

  14. Comparing Groups in a Before-After Design: When t Test and ANCOVA Produce Different Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Researchers often test people before and after some treatment and compare these scores with a control group. Sometimes it is not possible to allocate people into conditions randomly, which means the initial scores for the two groups may differ. There are two main approaches: t test on the gain scores and ANCOVA partialling out the…

  15. Environmental exposure of the pediatric age groups in Cairo City and its suburbs to cadmium pollution.

    PubMed

    Hossny, E; Mokhtar, G; El-Awady, M; Ali, I; Morsy, M; Dawood, A

    2001-06-12

    In a trial to assess the exposure of subjects in the pediatric age group to cadmium (Cd) pollution, serum Cd was estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry in 405 subjects, birth-18 years old, from Cairo City and its suburbs. Serum Cd mean concentrations were: 0.92 microg/l in 32 neonates (birth-4 weeks); 1.33 microg/l in 70 infants (4 weeks-2 years); 1.11 microg/l in 100 children in the preschool period (2-6 years); 1.34 microg/l in 103 primary school children (6-12 years); and 1.24 microg/l in 100 adolescents (12-18 years). In neonates, serum Cd was higher in babies with weights and heights that remained below the 5th percentile for age. Breast-fed infants had a serum Cd geometric mean level (1.25 microg/l) that was not in accordance to that of their mothers' milk (0.52 microg/l, P < 0.001), suggesting alternative routes of exposure. Environmental tobacco-smoke exposure was the most important determinant of Cd status in the school-aged children, the geometric mean being 1.42 microg/l in passive smokers vs. 1.2 microg/l in non-exposed children (P < 0.05). Moreover, adolescents who were active smokers had a significantly higher serum Cd level (1.7 microg/l) as compared to non-smokers (1.2 microg/l). Gender did influence the Cd status in adolescents, being higher among males, probably related to smoking, or to the difference in lifestyle of adolescents according to gender in the community. Alpha-1-microglobulinuria was accompanied by a higher serum Cd concentration in the group of adolescents only, suggesting a subclinical renal effect after several years of cumulative exposure. The residential classification, whether urban or suburban, did not influence the serum Cd status; neither did the present or past history of bronchial asthma. These findings certainly justify further evaluation of the problem of Cd pollution among Cairene individuals, knowing the long-term consequences of exposure to it. Systematic efforts for the proper disposal of Cd wastes and prevention

  16. Multiple Group Testing Procedures for Analysis of High-Dimensional Genomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyoseok; Kim, Kipoong

    2016-01-01

    In genetic association studies with high-dimensional genomic data, multiple group testing procedures are often required in order to identify disease/trait-related genes or genetic regions, where multiple genetic sites or variants are located within the same gene or genetic region. However, statistical testing procedures based on an individual test suffer from multiple testing issues such as the control of family-wise error rate and dependent tests. Moreover, detecting only a few of genes associated with a phenotype outcome among tens of thousands of genes is of main interest in genetic association studies. In this reason regularization procedures, where a phenotype outcome regresses on all genomic markers and then regression coefficients are estimated based on a penalized likelihood, have been considered as a good alternative approach to analysis of high-dimensional genomic data. But, selection performance of regularization procedures has been rarely compared with that of statistical group testing procedures. In this article, we performed extensive simulation studies where commonly used group testing procedures such as principal component analysis, Hotelling's T2 test, and permutation test are compared with group lasso (least absolute selection and shrinkage operator) in terms of true positive selection. Also, we applied all methods considered in simulation studies to identify genes associated with ovarian cancer from over 20,000 genetic sites generated from Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27K Beadchip. We found a big discrepancy of selected genes between multiple group testing procedures and group lasso. PMID:28154510

  17. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in Brazilian Samples of Different Age Groups: Findings from Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Brietzke, Elisa; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Kristensen, Christian Haag; Arteche, Adriane Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is internationally accepted as a key tool for the assessment of childhood abuse and neglect experiences. However, there are relative few psychometric studies available and some authors have proposed two different factor solutions. We examined the dimensional structure and internal consistency of the Brazilian version of the CTQ. A total of 1,925 participants from eight different clinical and non-clinical samples including adolescents, adults and elders were considered in this study. First, we performed Confirmatory Factor Analysis to investigate the goodness of fit of the two proposed competitive factor structure models for the CTQ. We also investigated the internal consistency of all factors. Second, multi-group analyses were used to investigate measurement invariance and population heterogeneity across age groups and sex. Our findings revealed that the alternative factor structure as opposed to the original factor structure was the most appropriate model within adolescents and adults Brazilian samples. We provide further evidence for the validity and reliability of the CTQ within the Brazilian samples and report that the alternative model showed an improvement in fit indexes and may be a better alternative over the original model. PMID:24475237

  18. Acceptance of Genetic Testing in a General Population: Age, Education and Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, A. R.; Hakonen, A.; Hietala, M.; Lonnqvist, J.; Niemela, P.; Peltonen, L; Aula, P.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of age, education, and gender on acceptance of genetic testing were studied. Finnish participants responded to a questionnaire presenting reasons for and against genetic testing (N=1,967). Intentions to take genetic tests, worries, and experience of genetic test or hereditary disease were also assessed. Results are presented and discussed.…

  19. Does Relative Age Influence Motor Test Performance of Fourth Grade Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattie, Nick; Tietjens, Maike; Schorer, Jörg; Ghanbari, Marie-Christine; Strauss, Bernd; Seidel, Ilka; Baker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore relative age's influence on physical and motor tests among fourth grade children (9 to 10 years) from Germany. Data from 1218 children (49% female) who had performed the German Motor Ability Test (Bös et al., 2009) were analysed. The test battery, which was comprised of physical and motor tests, included…

  20. Memory for names test provides a useful confrontational naming task for aging and continuum of dementia.

    PubMed

    Brouillette, Robert M; Martin, Corby K; Correa, John B; Davis, Allison B; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Foil, Heather C; Hymel, Aimee; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need to develop new neuropsychometric tools sensitive enough to detect subtle declines in cognitive performance during normal aging, as well as to distinguish between normal aging and the earliest stages of dementia. In this study, we report our findings regarding a new confrontational naming test, the Memory for Names test. We conducted evaluations utilizing a cohort of 234 elderly participants who comprised a spectrum of cognitive function ranging from normal for age (Uniform Data Set Overall Appraisal = 2, Clinical Dementia Rating = 0) to demented (Clinical Dementia Rating = 1-2, Mini Mental Status Examination Total Score <25). The Memory for Names test was found to measure the same cognitive construct as the Boston Naming Test. In conclusion, the Memory for Names test is a reliable and valid measure of age-related cognitive function that can discriminate between normal aging and mild cognitive impairment, and between mild cognitive impairment and dementia.

  1. Memory for Names Test Provides a Useful Confrontational Naming Task for Aging and Continuum of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Brouillette, Robert M.; Martin, Corby K.; Correa, John B.; Davis, Allison B.; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D.; Foil, Heather C.; Hymel, Aimee; Keller, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing need to develop new neuropsychometric tools sensitive enough to detect subtle declines in cognitive performance during normal aging, as well as to distinguish between normal aging and the earliest stages of dementia. In this study, we report our findings regarding a new confrontational naming test, the Memory for Names test. We conducted evaluations utilizing a cohort of 234 elderly participants who comprised a spectrum of cognitive function ranging from normal for age (Uniform Data Set Overall Appraisal = 2, Clinical Dementia Rating = 0) to demented (Clinical Dementia Rating = 1–2, Mini Mental Status Examination Total Score <25). The Memory for Names test was found to measure the same cognitive construct as the Boston Naming Test. In conclusion, the Memory for Names test is a reliable and valid measure of age-related cognitive function that can discriminate between normal aging and mild cognitive impairment, and between mild cognitive impairment and dementia. PMID:21304184

  2. Two-stage hierarchical group testing for multiple infections with application to the Infertility Prevention Project

    PubMed Central

    Tebbs, Joshua M.; McMahan, Christopher S.; Bilder, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Screening for sexually transmitted diseases has benefited greatly from the use of group testing (pooled testing) to lower costs. With the development of assays that detect multiple infections, screening practices now involve testing pools of individuals for multiple infections simultaneously. Building on the research for single infection group testing procedures, we examine the performance of group testing for multiple infections. Our work is motivated by chlamydia and gonorrhea testing for the Infertility Prevention Project (IPP), a national program in the United States. We consider a two-stage pooling algorithm currently used to perform testing for the IPP. We first derive the operating characteristics of this algorithm for classification purposes (e.g., expected number of tests, misclassification probabilities, etc.) and identify pool sizes that minimize the expected number of tests. We then develop an expectation-maximization algorithm to estimate probabilities of infection using both group and individual retest responses. Our research shows that group testing can offer large cost savings when classifying individuals for multiple infections and can provide prevalence estimates that are actually more efficient than those from individual testing. PMID:24117173

  3. A new golden age: testing general relativity with cosmology.

    PubMed

    Bean, Rachel; Ferreira, Pedro G; Taylor, Andy

    2011-12-28

    Gravity drives the evolution of the Universe and is at the heart of its complexity. Einstein's field equations can be used to work out the detailed dynamics of space and time and to calculate the emergence of large-scale structure in the distribution of galaxies and radiation. Over the past few years, it has become clear that cosmological observations can be used not only to constrain different world models within the context of Einstein gravity but also to constrain the theory of gravity itself. In this article, we look at different aspects of this new field in which cosmology is used to test theories of gravity with a wide range of observations.

  4. The Prediction of Success in Engineering Graphics Using the Group Embedded Figures Test and the Hidden Figures Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Russell C.; Davis, Paul D.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to continue the assessment of the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), to assess the value of the Hidden Figures Test (HFT), and to assess the usefulness of the two instruments used in combination as tools for predicting student success and early identification of students who may need special assistance in engineering…

  5. The effects and mechanism of estrogen on rats with Parkinson’s disease in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Zhong; Sui, Chen-Yan; Chen, Qiang; Zhuang, Yuan-Su; Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In order to investigate the effect and mechanism of estrogen in rotenone-induced Parkinson’s disease (PD) rats in different age groups. Methods: we established rat models of PD by rotenone at different interventions. Then, behavioral tests, immunohistochemistry, western blot, high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD) and electron microscopy were performed. Results: Results revealed the following: (1) Rotenone significantly reduced rotarod latencies in senile rats, prolonged their climbing pole time, and decreased TH positive cells, DA and its metabolite, DOPAC. Estrogen ameliorated this effect, in which weaker effects were observed in younger rats compared with older rats. (2) Rotenone increased the expression of LC3-II in older rats, but estrogen and tamoxifen did not show the same effect. (3) Rotenone increased the number of autophagosomes, but estrogen increased the proportion of autolysosomes/autophagosomes in the rotenone-treated group. (4) U0126 could reduce the number of autophagosomes in the rotenone-treated group, but this did not change the proportion of autolysosome/autophagosome in combining rotenone with the estrogen group. Rapamycin did not increase the number of autophagosomes in the rotenone-treated group, but combining rapamycin with estrogen and rotenone was able to further increase the proportion of autolysome/autophagosomes. Therefore, we speculate that the senile rat model of PD was more reliable than that in young rats. Conclusions: In addition, estrogen could promote autophagy maturation through the ERK pathway, and had an obvious therapeutic effect on the rat model of PD. PMID:27829998

  6. Age constraints for Paleoproterozoic glaciation in the Lake Superior Region: Detrital zircon and hydrothermal xenotime ages for the Chocolay Group, Marquette Range Supergroup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallini, D.A.; Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    A geochronological study of the Chocolay Group at the base of the Paleoproterozoic Marquette Range Supergroup in Michigan, Lake Superior Region, is attempted for the first time, Age data from detrital zircon grains and hydrothermal xenotime from the basal glaciogenic formation, the Enchantment Lake Formation, and the stratigraphically higher Sturgeon Quartzite and its equivalent, the Sunday Quartzite, provide maximum and minimum age constraints for the Chocolay Group. The youngest detrital zircon population in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2317 ?? 6 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2306 ?? 9 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2647 ?? 5 Ma. The oldest hydrothermal xenotime age in the Enchantment Lake Formation is 2133 ?? 11 Ma; in the Sturgeon Quartzite, it is 2115 ?? 5 Ma, and in the Sunday Quartzite, it is 2207 ?? 5 Ma. The radiometric age data in this study implies the depositional age of the Chocolay Group is constrained to ???2.3-2.2 Ga, which proves its correlation with part of the Huronian Supergroup in the Lake Huron Region, Ontario, and reveals the unconformity that separates the Chocolay Group from the overlying Menominee Group is up to 325 million years in duration. The source(s) of the ??? 2.3 Ga detrital zircon populations in the Enchantment Lake Formation and Sturgeon Quartzite remains an enigma because no known rock units of this age are known in the Michigan area. It is speculated that once widespread volcano-sedimentary cover sequences in Michigan were removed or concealed prior to Chocolay Group deposition. The hydrothermal xenotime ages probably reflect basinal hydrothermal fluid flow associated with the period of extension involving rifting and major dyke formation, that affected the North American provinces between 2.2 and 2.1 Ga. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  7. Age differences in the impact of forced swimming test on serotonin transporter levels in lateral septum and dorsal raphe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Forced swimming test (FST) is an animal model which evaluates behavioral despair and the effect of antidepressants such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; the FST modifies the expression of some receptors related to antidepressant response, but it is not known whether serotonin transporter (SERT), their main target, is affected by this test in animals of different ages. Antidepressant response has shown age-dependent variations which could be associated with SERT expression. The aim of the present study was to analyze changes in the SERT immunoreactivity (SERT-IR) in dorsal raphe and lateral septum of male rats from different age groups with or without behavioral despair induced by their exposure to the FST, since these two structures are related to the expression of this behavior. Methods Prepubertal (24 PN), pubertal (40 PN), young adult (3–5 months) and middle-aged (12 months) male rats were assigned to a control group (non-FST) or depressed group (FST, two sessions separated by 24 h). Changes in SERT-IR in dorsal raphe and lateral septum were determined with immunofluorescence. Results Pubertal and middle-aged rats showed higher levels of immobility behavior compared to prepubertal rats on the FST. SERT-IR showed an age-dependent increase followed by a moderate decrease in middle-aged rats in both structures; a decreased in SERT-IR in lateral septum and dorsal raphe of pubertal rats was observed after the FST. Conclusions Age differences were observed in the SERT-IR of structures related to behavioral despair; SERT expression was modified by the FST in lateral septum and dorsal raphe of pubertal rats. PMID:24490994

  8. Constructing local age norms based on ability for the Bender-Gestalt test.

    PubMed

    Bolen, Larry M

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine developmental patterns in visuomotor functioning across age and ability groups. A second purpose was to develop local norms to allow practicing psychologists to examine relative differences within age and IQ groups in visuomotor performance. Thus, an age-by-mental ability normative data set (N=4,014) was constructed from archival records from 10 public school systems and analyzed to identify both qualitative and quantitative differences in visuomotor functioning for children between 6 and 18.11 yr. of age across 9 IQ levels ranging from 40 to 129.

  9. A powerful and robust test statistic for randomization inference in group-randomized trials with matched pairs of groups.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Traskin, Mikhail; Small, Dylan S

    2012-03-01

    For group-randomized trials, randomization inference based on rank statistics provides robust, exact inference against nonnormal distributions. However, in a matched-pair design, the currently available rank-based statistics lose significant power compared to normal linear mixed model (LMM) test statistics when the LMM is true. In this article, we investigate and develop an optimal test statistic over all statistics in the form of the weighted sum of signed Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon statistics under certain assumptions. This test is almost as powerful as the LMM even when the LMM is true, but it is much more powerful for heavy tailed distributions. A simulation study is conducted to examine the power.

  10. The Effect of Computer-Based Tests on Racial-Ethnic and Gender Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Ann; Bridgeman, Brent; Cahalan, Cara

    2002-01-01

    Examined data from several national testing programs to determine whether the change from paper-based administration to computer-based tests influences group differences in performance. Results from four college and graduate entrance examinations and a professional licensing test show that African Americans and, to a lesser degree, Hispanics,…

  11. 77 FR 17457 - Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial Measuring Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Work Group on Alternative Test Methods for Commercial...-type volumetric field standards and associated test procedures) widely used by weights and measures officials and service companies to test commercial measuring devices as well as proposed alternatives...

  12. Frontal Lobe Morphometry with MRI in a Normal Age Group of 6-17 Year-Olds

    PubMed Central

    İlkay Koşar, M; Otağ, İlhan; Sabancıoğulları, Vedat; Atalar, Mehmet; Tetiker, Hasan; Otağ, Aynur; Çimen, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Background Morphometric data of the frontal lobe are important for surgical planning of lesions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide suitable data for this purpose. Objectives In our study, the morphometric data of mid-sagittal MRI of the frontal lobe in certain age and gender groups of children have been presented. Patients and Methods In a normal age group of 6-17-year-old participants, the length of the line passing through predetermined different points, including the frontal pole (FP), commissura anterior (AC), commissura posterior (PC), the outermost point of corpus callosum genu (AGCC), the innermost point of corpus callosum genu (IGCC), tuberculum sella (TS), AGCC and IGCC points parallel to AC-PC line and the point such line crosses at the frontal lobe surface (FCS) were measured in three age groups (6-9, 10-13 and 14-17 years) for each gender. Results The frontal lobe morphometric data were higher in males than females. Frontal lobe measurements peak at the age group of 10-13 in the male and at the age group of 6-13 in the female. In boys, the length of FP-AC increases 4.1% in the 10-13 age group compared with the 6-9-year-old group, while this increase is 2.3% in girls. Conclusion Differences in age and gender groups were determined. While the length of AGCC-IGCC increases 10.4% in adults, in children aged 6-17, the length of AC-PC is 11.5% greater than adults. These data will contribute to the preliminary assessment for developing a surgical plan in fine interventions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings in children. PMID:23599707

  13. Clinical features of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in Taiwan: differences between young and senior age groups.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chung-Lan; Hsieh, Wan-Ling; Chern, Chang-Ming; Chen, Liang-Kung; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Chan, Rai-Chi

    2009-12-01

    BPPV is a common cause of vertigo. Several treatment procedures can facilitate recovery. In this study, we aimed to identify the demographic features, resolution and recurrence rates and impacts on daily activities in BPPV patient between young and senior age groups in Taiwan. This retrospective study recruited 218 patients of BPPV. Medical history, canal involvement, treatment required for complete resolution, symptom free period and recurrence rates were evaluated between the two age groups. Up to 80.7% of patients were successfully treated by a single treatment. For patients aged more than 65 years, the recurrence rate was 1.7 times higher than that in the younger age group (p = 0.07). The symptom-free period before recurrence was nearly 2.2 times longer in the senior age group (p = 0.03). Work-related activities were influenced more by BPPV in the younger age group (p = 0.03). We conclude that BPPV is prone to occur and recur in people of senior age. Clinicians should have the knowledge to diagnose different types of BPPV and treat it accordingly to prevent further complications.

  14. Functional equivalence of the National Adult Reading Test (NART) and Schonell reading tests and NART norms in the Dynamic Analyses to Optimise Ageing (DYNOPTA) project.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Kim M; Luszcz, Mary A; Piguet, Olivier; Christensen, Helen; Bennett, Hayley; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates the functional equivalence of two measures of irregular word pronunciation--National Adult Reading Test (NART) and Schonell--which are popular instruments used to assess verbal neurocognitive functioning and to estimate premorbid IQ. We report norms for the NART in a pooled sample from 3 Australian population-based studies of adults aged 65-103 years. Norms were stratified by sex and age left school in 5-year age groups. The NART and the Schonell had a strong linear relation, allowing for the imputation of NART scores based on Schonell performance within 1 study. Neither measure was sensitive to the effects of sex after adjusting for the effects of age and education. Early school leavers performed worse on both measures. Data pooling enables greater precision and improved generalizability of NART norms than do methods that use single older adult samples.

  15. Report of the Army Scientific Advisory Panel Ad Hoc Group on Climatic Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-23

    Development Testing Test Managemant Test Requirements Test Facilities Test Criteria M. AB»TRAcrf&p«fcu»—fw»—«MiMii—«—r«■*M—«i»>yMooiwfcwj The Report...testing phase. A key need Is to ensure early attention to minimize the risk of "surprises" entailing costly modifica- tion later. 21 The Group...of developers outside the formal TECOM framework . To amplify these missions, a primary thrust of: TTC testing should be in support of development

  16. Emergency department visits related to functional abdominal pain in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Pant, Chaitanya; Deshpande, Abhishek; Sferra, Thomas J; Olyaee, Mojtaba

    2017-01-10

    To analyze visits to and admissions from the emergency department (ED) in children with a primary diagnosis of functional abdominal pain (FAP). This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (HCUP-NEDS 2008-2012). FAP-related ED visits were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. The most frequent secondary diagnoses associated with FAP-related ED visits were also extracted. In 2012, a total of 796,665 children presented to the ED with a primary diagnosis of FAP. This correlated to a rate of 11.5 ED visits/1000 population. The highest incidence of ED visits was observed for children in the 10-14-year age group; median (IQR) age of 11 (8) years. In analyzing the temporal trends associated with FAP-related ED visits, we observed an increase in both the overall number of visits (14.0%) as well as the population-adjusted incidence (16.0%) during the period 2008-2012. This coincided with a decreasing trend in hospital admissions from the ED; from 1.4% in 2008 to 1.0% in 2012 (-28.5%). The overwhelming majority (96.7%) of patients with FAP who presented to the ED were treated and released. On multivariate analysis, the leading factor associated with an increased likelihood of admission from the ED was teaching hospital status (aOR 2.07; 95% CI 1.97 to 2.18). The secondary diagnosis most commonly associated with FAP-related ED visits was nausea and/or emesis (19.8%). Pediatric FAP-related ED visits increased significantly from the period 2008 to 2012. However, the incidence of hospital admissions from the ED declined during the same period.

  17. Load carrying walking test and its relationships to endurance and neuromuscular capabilities in women and men of different ages.

    PubMed

    Holviala, J; Häkkinen, A; Nyman, K; Aho, J; Karavirta, L; Häkkinen, K

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine load carrying walking test (TMload) performance on the treadmill and its associations to endurance and neuromuscular capabilities in women and men of different ages. Sixty participants (aged 28 to 71 years) were divided into young, middle-aged and old groups of both genders. Clinical stress test was performed by stationary cycle ergometer (CEload). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), heart rate and lactate concentration were measured using maximal TMload test. Isometric strength and EMG-activity of upper and lower extremities were measured before and after TMload. VO2peak of TMload correlated significantly with TMload exercise time (ET) in all other groups (r=0.67 to 0.91 and p ≤ 0.05 to p<0.001) except old men. Leg extension force decreased (p ≤ 0.05 to p<0.001) after TMload in all groups, grip force in young groups (p ≤ 0.05), while plantar flexion force and all EMGs remained unchanged. In men VO2peak explained 81% and in women VO2peak and age explained 87% of the total variation of the TMload ET. In conclusion, ET of TMload is associated with high VO2peak, but not with muscle strength or its changes during the loading. The present load carrying walking test may be used for testing workers with heavy loading in their occupation or in rehabilitation purposes. Further research is needed to examine in more detailed the loading model of the present study as well as the effects of different types of training on load carrying performance.

  18. [The effect of heavy metal ions and peptide bioregulators on the expression of chromosome fragile sites in the individuals of different age groups and breast cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Dzhokhadze, T A; Ganozishvili, M N; Lezhava, T A

    2008-09-01

    Expression rates of chromosome fragile sites in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been studied in clinically healthy individuals of different age groups (20-38 yrs and 75-86 yrs) and breast cancer patients (8 cases). In individuals with a normal check-up of different age groups the heavy metal (nickel, zinc and cobalt) ions were also examined on their influence on the expression of the fragile sites and the peptide bioregulators (Livagen and Epithalon) were tested on their ability to correct the pattern of expression. Short-term lymphocyte cultures were used as tested material. The analysis showed that the chromosomes of people from young and old age groups differ from each other by the expression pattern of fragile sites - the chromosomes of young individuals were found to be more active by spontaneous formation of fragile sites. They were also sensitive to their induction by heavy metals. Both tested bioregulators lessen heavy metals effect that was statistically reliable only for the young people group. As for the patients with breast cancer general elevated fragility of chromosomes and specific distribution of the fragile sites along the chromosomes were revealed.

  19. Field test of a group education program for type 2 diabetes: measures and predictors of success on individual and group levels.

    PubMed

    Sarkadi, A; Rosenqvist, U

    2001-08-01

    We performed field testing of a previously described group education program for type 2 diabetes. HbA(1c) levels at start, 6 and 12 months were collected and demographic factors examined to identify predictors of long-term glycemic control on individual and group levels. "Glycemic success" comprised of (1) achieving target values of HbA(1c) < or =6.5% and/or (2) decreasing HbA(1c) progressively, depending on initial values. Groups in the field test and previous pilot-study (N=105) decreased their mean HbA(1c) significantly after 6 months, implying that diabetes mass education led by pharmacists could be possible in the future. Target HbA(1c) < or =6.5% was seen in 51% at start and 63% after 12 months (P=0.023). Initial HbA(1c) and BMI were the most important success predictors; age, sex, duration, and civil status showed no effects. Overweight individuals relapsed after initially decreasing their HbA(1c), emphasizing the need for long-term support in weight management. Experienced loneliness affected outcomes, indicating interaction between diet self-care and social relations.

  20. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  1. The Effect of Reminiscence Group Work on Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem and Mood of Ageing People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Puyenbroeck, Joris; Maes, Bea

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the effects of reminiscence group work on the subjective well-being of ageing people with intellectual disabilities. Methods: The content of the successive group work sessions was manipulated as follows: a control-phase with three "current topics" sessions, an experimental phase with six "reminiscence" sessions and…

  2. Does whom you work with matter? Effects of referent group gender and age composition on managers' compensation.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, Cheri; Atwater, Leanne E

    2003-08-01

    Much research has examined gender and age effects on compensation, concluding that a wage gap exists favoring men and negative stereotypes against older workers persist. Although the effect of an employee's gender or age has been widely studied, little work has examined the impact of the demographic characteristics of a focal employee's immediate referent groups (e.g., subordinates, peers, or supervisors) on pay. The effect of the gender and age composition of a focal manager's subordinates, peers, and supervisor on the manager's compensation levels was investigated in a sample of 2,178 managers across a wide range of organizations and functional areas. After controlling for a number of human capital variables, results indicated that not only does a wage gap favoring men exist, but also managerial pay is lower when managers' referent groups are largely female, when subordinates are outside the prime age group, and when peers and supervisors are younger.

  3. A systematic review of CPAP adherence across age groups: clinical and empiric insights for developing CPAP adherence interventions.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Amy M; Gooneratne, Nalaka S; Marcus, Carole L; Ofer, Dafna; Richards, Kathy C; Weaver, Terri E

    2011-12-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a highly efficacious treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but adherence to the treatment limits its overall effectiveness across all age groups of patients. Factors that influence adherence to CPAP include disease and patient characteristics, treatment titration procedures, technological device factors and side effects, and psychological and social factors. These influential factors have guided the development of interventions to promote CPAP adherence. Various intervention strategies have been described and include educational, technological, psychosocial, pharmacological, and multi-dimensional approaches. Though evidence to date has led to innovative strategies that address adherence in CPAP-treated children, adults, and older adults, significant opportunities exist to develop and test interventions that are clinically applicable, specific to sub-groups of patients likely to demonstrate poor adherence, and address the multi-factorial nature of CPAP adherence. The translation of CPAP adherence promotion interventions to clinical practice is imperative to improve health and functional outcomes in all persons with CPAP-treated OSA.

  4. Benton's Visual Retention Test: New Age, Scale Score and Percentile Norms for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, James A.

    The Benton Visual Retention Test which is designed to assess visual perceptual, visual motor, and visuoconstructive abilities can give school personnel greater precision and range in testing. The standardization of this instrument was tested on 700 Houston elementary school students. Chronological age differences were maintained and correlation…

  5. Blood pressure categories and long-term risk of cardiovascular disease according to age group in Japanese men and women.

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Akira; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2012-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) categories defined by systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) are commonly used. However, the BP category-specific risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has not been thoroughly investigated in different age groups. The aim of this study was to assess long-term CVD risk and its impact according to BP categories and age group. Pooling individual data from 10 cohorts, we studied 67 309 Japanese individuals (40-89 years old) who were free of CVD at baseline: we categorized them as belonging to three age groups: 'middle-aged' (40-64 years), 'elderly' (65-74 years) and 'very elderly' (75-89 years). BP was classified according to the 2009 Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines. Cox models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for CVD deaths. We observed 1944 CVD deaths over a mean follow-up of 10.2 years. In all age groups, the overall relationship between BP category and CVD risk was positive, with a greater strength observed for younger age groups. We observed a trend of increased risk from SBP/DBP ≥ 130/85 mm Hg in the very elderly, and a significant increase from SBP/DBP ≥ 120/80 mm Hg in the other age groups. The population attributable fractions (PAFs) of CVD death in reference to the SBP/DBP<120/80 mm Hg category ranged from 23.4% in the very elderly to 60.3% in the middle-aged. We found an overall graded increase in CVD risk with higher BP category in the very elderly. The PAFs suggest that keeping BP levels low is an important strategy for primary CVD prevention, even in an elderly population.

  6. Differences in Sex and Curricula on Learning the Group Embedded Figures Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusk, Edward J.; Wright, Haviland

    1981-01-01

    The Group Embedded Figures Test was administered to 416 randomly selected college students in science, liberal arts, business, or mathematics classes. No sex differences in performance or improvement were found when differences in curriculum were taken into account. (SJL)

  7. An Empirical Test of Schutz' Three-Dimensional Theory of Group Process in Adolescent Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Stephen; Roback, Howard

    1977-01-01

    This study, employing inclusion, control, and affection as independent variables, tests empirically Schutz' (1958) three-dimensional theory of group process, using a Prisoner's Dilemma experimental analogue situation with dyads. (Author)

  8. Correlational structure of ‘frontal’ tests and intelligence tests indicates two components with asymmetrical neurostructural correlates in old age

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Simon R.; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Ferguson, Karen J.; Nissan, Jack; Royle, Natalie A.; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Both general fluid intelligence (gf) and performance on some ‘frontal tests’ of cognition decline with age. Both types of ability are at least partially dependent on the integrity of the frontal lobes, which also deteriorate with age. Overlap between these two methods of assessing complex cognition in older age remains unclear. Such overlap could be investigated using inter-test correlations alone, as in previous studies, but this would be enhanced by ascertaining whether frontal test performance and gf share neurobiological variance. To this end, we examined relationships between gf and 6 frontal tests (Tower, Self-Ordered Pointing, Simon, Moral Dilemmas, Reversal Learning and Faux Pas tests) in 90 healthy males, aged ~ 73 years. We interpreted their correlational structure using principal component analysis, and in relation to MRI-derived regional frontal lobe volumes (relative to maximal healthy brain size). gf correlated significantly and positively (.24 ≤ r ≤ .53) with the majority of frontal test scores. Some frontal test scores also exhibited shared variance after controlling for gf. Principal component analysis of test scores identified units of gf-common and gf-independent variance. The former was associated with variance in the left dorsolateral (DL) and anterior cingulate (AC) regions, and the latter with variance in the right DL and AC regions. Thus, we identify two biologically-meaningful components of variance in complex cognitive performance in older age and suggest that age-related changes to DL and AC have the greatest cognitive impact. PMID:25278641

  9. Auricular surface aging: a blind test of the revised method on historic Italians from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Hens, Samantha M; Belcastro, M Giovanna

    2012-01-10

    Age determination from human skeletal remains is an important biological parameter in both forensic and bioarchaeological contexts. This study presents the results of a blind test of the revised auricular surface age estimation method proposed by Buckberry and Chamberlain (Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 119 (2002) 321-329) on a large sample (n=404) of known sex and age from the Sassari collection, housed at the Museum of Anthropology, University of Bologna, Italy. Ilia were scored for five features: transverse organization, surface texture, microporosity, macroporosity, and apical changes, which combined for a composite score. The results indicated that all features and the composite score were positively correlated with known age. Composite scores were significantly different between the sexes, suggesting that males and females should be treated separately. Bias and inaccuracy varied across age intervals. Age tended to be overestimated in individuals under age 59 and underestimated for those over age 60 years. However, the revised method showed improvement over the original auricular surface method (Lovejoy et al., Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 68 (1985) 15-28), especially for aging older individuals. Considerable variation exists in the age ranges derived from composite scores and few significant differences were found between age stages, suggesting that fewer stages with wider age ranges may be necessary. The independent, quantitative scoring of the surface features makes the revised method substantially easier to apply and the method shows significant improvement for aging older individuals.

  10. Relationships among the Y balance test, Berg Balance Scale, and lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Lee, Tae-Sik; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    Background: Older females have less dynamic postural control and muscle strength than do middle-aged females. Aging-related strength losses may limit balancing performance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of the Y Balance Test (YBT) and lower limb strength to discriminate between females in 2 age groups, the relationship between YBT distance and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the degree to which performance on YBT distance is related to lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females. Method: The 40 healthy, independently active females were divided into 2 groups: older and middle-aged. The participants underwent measurements of YBT distance using the YBT, maximal muscular strength of the lower limbs using a handheld dynamometer, and the BBS. Results: The YBT distance in 3 directions and lower limb muscle strength for both lower limbs were significantly lower in the older adults than in the middle-aged group. A moderate correlation but insignificant correlation was found between the YBT composite distance and the BBS score. In the older females, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip abductor. In the middle-aged group, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip extensor. Conclusions: Performance on the YBT was influenced by the strength of lower limb. We suggested that YBT can be used to alternative as a measurement of dynamic balance. Proper training programs for older people could include not only strengthening exercises but also YBT performance to improve balance. PMID:26039033

  11. Income, neighborhood stressors, and harsh parenting: test of moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender.

    PubMed

    Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2014-12-01

    Family and neighborhood influences related to low-income were examined to understand their association with harsh parenting among an ethnically diverse sample of families. Specifically, a path model linking household income to harsh parenting via neighborhood disorder, fear for safety, maternal depressive symptoms, and family conflict was evaluated using cross-sectional data from 2,132 families with children ages 5-16 years from Chicago. The sample was 42% Mexican American, 41% African American, and 17% European American. Results provide support for a family process model where a lower income-to-needs ratio is associated with higher reports of neighborhood disorder, greater fear for safety, and more family conflict, which is in turn, associated with greater frequency of harsh parenting. Our tests for moderation by ethnicity/immigrant status, child gender, and child age (younger child vs. adolescent) indicate that although paths are similar for families of boys and girls, as well as for families of young children and adolescents, there are some differences by ethnic group. Specifically, we find the path from neighborhood disorder to fear for safety is stronger for Mexican American (United States born and immigrant) and European American families in comparison with African American families. We also find that the path from fear for safety to harsh parenting is significant for European American and African American families only. Possible reasons for such moderated effects are considered.

  12. Accuracy of Cameriere, Haavikko, and Willems radiographic methods on age estimation on Bosnian-Herzegovian children age groups 6-13.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Cameriere, Roberto; Nakaš, Enita; Galić, Elizabeta; Selimović, Edin; Brkić, Hrvoje

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the accuracy of the Cameriere European formula (Cameriere), adopted Haavikko method from 1974 (Haavikko), and revisited Demirjian method by Willems (Willems) for age estimation on orthopantomograms (OPGs) of Bosnian-Herzegovian (BH) children age groups 6-13 years. The accuracy was determined as difference between estimated dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA) and the absolute accuracy (absolute difference) was assessed by analyzing OPGs of 591 girls and 498 boys. The Cameriere method overestimated the mean age by 0.09 year for girls and underestimated by -0.02 year for boys. The Haavikko method underestimated the mean age by -0.29 year for girls and -0.09 year for boys. The Willems method overestimated the mean age by 0.24 year in girls and by 0.42 year in boys. The absolute accuracies were 0.53 year for girls and 0.55 year for boys for Cameriere method; for Haavikko method, 0.59 year for girls and 0.62 year for boys; and for Willems method 0.69 year for girls and 0.67 year for boys. In conclusion, Cameriere method is the most accurate for estimating the age of BH children age groups 6-13 years using OPGs, following adopted Haavikko method and Willems method.

  13. Group discussions and test-enhanced learning: individual learning outcomes and personality characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Stenlund, Tova; Jönsson, Fredrik U.; Jonsson, Bert

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper focuses on the factors that are likely to play a role in individual learning outcomes from group discussions, and it includes a comparison featuring test-enhanced learning. A between-groups design (N = 98) was used to examine the learning effects of feedback if provided to discussion groups, and to examine whether group discussions benefit learning when compared to test-enhanced learning over time. The results showed that feedback does not seem to have any effect if provided to a discussion group, and that test-enhanced learning leads to better learning than the discussion groups, independent of retention interval. Moreover, we examined whether memory and learning might be influenced by the participants’ need for cognition (NFC). The results showed that those scoring high on NFC remembered more than those who scored low. To conclude, testing trumps discussion groups from a learning perspective, and the discussion groups were also the least beneficial learning context for those scoring low on NFC.

  14. 77 FR 70484 - Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... COMMISSION Preoperational Testing of Onsite Electric Power Systems To Verify Proper Load Group Assignments... Power Systems to Verify Proper Load Group Assignments, Electrical Separation, and Redundancy.'' DG-1294... regulations, techniques that the staff uses in evaluating specific problems or postulated accidents, and...

  15. Chicago's Two Public School Systems: Standardized Test Results Compared by Racial/Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James H.

    Throughout the Chicago Public Schools systematic differences exist between the performance of children of different racial and ethnic groups. In most schools where students of more than one group are found, Asians and Whites test at higher levels than Blacks and Hispanics. When income level and school type are controlled, small differences are…

  16. DIF Testing with an Empirical-Histogram Approximation of the Latent Density for Each Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.

    2011-01-01

    This research introduces, illustrates, and tests a variation of IRT-LR-DIF, called EH-DIF-2, in which the latent density for each group is estimated simultaneously with the item parameters as an empirical histogram (EH). IRT-LR-DIF is used to evaluate the degree to which items have different measurement properties for one group of people versus…

  17. Minority Versus Majority Group Performance on an Aptitude Test Battery. Project Access Research Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaugher, Ronald L.

    Black students from two cities and Mexican-American students, both male and female, showed small but consistent tendencies to perform better, relative to White groups, on three nontraditional measures: tests of inductive reasoning, spatial scanning, and associative memory. These measures showed somewhat less discrepancy between the groups than did…

  18. The Effect of Among-Group Dependence on the Invariance Likelihood Ratio Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Farmer, L. Allison

    2010-01-01

    When comparing latent variables among groups, it is important to first establish the equivalence or invariance of the measurement model across groups. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a commonly used methodological approach to examine measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I). Within the CFA framework, the chi-square goodness-of-fit test and…

  19. Modified forelimb grip strength test detects aging-associated physiological decline in skeletal muscle function in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Hikari; Yamamoto, Koichi; Nozato, Satoko; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Imaizumi, Yuki; Hongyo, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Serina; Takeda, Masao; Oguro, Ryosuke; Takami, Yoichi; Itoh, Norihisa; Takeya, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Ken; Fukada, So-ichiro; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2017-01-01

    The conventional forelimb grip strength test is a widely used method to assess skeletal muscle function in rodents; in this study, we modified this method to improve its variability and consistency. The modified test had lower variability among trials and days than the conventional test in young C57BL6 mice, especially by improving the variabilities in male. The modified test was more sensitive than the conventional test to detect a difference in motor function between female and male mice, or between young and old male mice. When the modified test was performed on male mice during the aging process, reduction of grip strength manifested between 18 and 24 months of age at the group level and at the individual level. The modified test was similar to the conventional test in detecting skeletal muscle dysfunction in young male dystrophic mice. Thus, the modified forelimb grip strength test, with its improved validity and reliability may be an ideal substitute for the conventional method. PMID:28176863

  20. Girls arrested for murder: an empirical analysis of 32 years of U.S. data by offender age groups.

    PubMed

    Heide, Kathleen M; Sellers, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on juvenile homicide offenders (JHOs) have used small samples and have concentrated on adolescent male offenders. As a result, little is known about the population of female juveniles arrested for murder. This study utilized the Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) database to investigate age differences between younger (aged 6-12 years) and older (aged 13-17 years) females arrested for murder in the United States from 1976 to 2007. As predicted, six variables used to test seven hypotheses with respect to younger and older female JHOs in single victim incidents were significant (victim age, victim gender, victim offender relationship, murder weapon, offender count, and homicide circumstance). Regression analysis revealed that younger girls were seven times more likely than older girls to kill children aged 0-12 years. Girls aged 6-12 years were five times more likely than their teen counterparts to be involved in conflict-related homicides as opposed to crime-related homicides. Although approximately the same percentages of younger and older girls killed infants under the age of 1, the victims were significantly different for the two offender age groups. This article concludes with a discussion of our findings and directions for future research.

  1. Older age is associated with greater central aortic blood pressure following the exercise stress test in subjects with similar brachial systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masatake; Oshima, Kazutaka; Iwasaki, Yoichi; Kumai, Yuto; Avolio, Alberto; Yamashina, Akira; Takazawa, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Brachial systolic pressure (BSP) is often monitored during exercise by the stress test; however, central systolic pressure (CSP) is thought to be a more direct measure of cardiovascular events. Although some studies reported that exercise and aging may play roles in changes of both BSP and CSP, the relationship between BSP and CSP with age following the exercise stress test remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of age on the relationship between BSP and CSP measured after exercise. Ninety-six subjects underwent the diagnostic treadmill exercise stress test, and we retrospectively divided them into the following 3 groups by age: the younger age group (43 ± 4 years), middle age group (58 ± 4 years), and older age group (70 ± 4 years). Subjects exercised according to the Bruce protocol, to achieve 85 % of their age-predicted maximum heart rate or until the appearance of exercise-associated symptoms. BSP, CSP, and pulse rate (PR) were measured using a HEM-9000AI (Omron Healthcare, Japan) at rest and after exercise. BSP, CSP, and PR at rest were not significantly different among the 3 groups (p = 0.92, 0.21, and 0.99, respectively). BSP and PR immediately after exercise were not significantly different among the groups (p = 0.70 and 0.38, respectively). However, CSP immediately after exercise was 144 ± 18 mmHg (younger age), 149 ± 17 mmHg (middle age), and 158 ± 19 mmHg (older age). CSP in the older age group was significantly higher than that in the younger age group (p < 0.01). Despite similar BSPs in all age groups after exercise, CSP was higher in the older age group. Therefore, older subjects have a higher CSP after exercise, which is not readily assessed by conventional measurements of BSP.

  2. Attitudes Toward Breast Cancer Genetic Testing in Five Special Population Groups

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Amelie G.; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J.; Muñoz, Edgar; Holden, Alan E.; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Smith, Selina A.; Wong-Kim, Evaon; Wyatt, Stephen W.; Suarez, Lucina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study examined interest in and attitudes toward genetic testing in 5 different population groups. Methods The survey included African American, Asian American, Latina, Native American, and Appalachian women with varying familial histories of breast cancer. A total of 49 women were interviewed in person. Descriptive and nonparametric statistical techniques were used to assess ethnic group differences. Results Overall, interest in testing was high. All groups endorsed more benefits than risks. There were group differences regarding endorsement of specific benefits and risks: testing to “follow doctor recommendations” (p=0.017), “concern for effects on family” (p=0.044), “distrust of modern medicine” (p=0.036), “cost” (p=0.025), and “concerns about communication of results to others” (p=0.032). There was a significant inverse relationship between interest and genetic testing cost (p<0.050), with the exception of Latinas, who showed the highest level of interest regardless of increasing cost. Conclusion Cost may be an important barrier to obtaining genetic testing services, and participants would benefit by genetic counseling that incorporates the unique cultural values and beliefs of each group to create an individualized, culturally competent program. Further research about attitudes toward genetic testing is needed among Asian Americans, Native Americans, and Appalachians for whom data are severely lacking. Future study of the different Latina perceptions toward genetic testing are encouraged. PMID:26855846

  3. This Is Only a Test: Teaching for Mathematical Understanding in an Age of Standardized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litton, Nancy; Wickett, Maryann

    2009-01-01

    "This Is Only a Test" helps teachers plan a year of instruction that takes testing into account while staying focused on a curriculum that encourages students to love and understand mathematics. Transform teachers' and students' feelings toward standardized tests from panic and anxiety to control and confidence. This book's proven strategies help…

  4. A survey of the causes of sudden cardiac death in the under 35-year-age group.

    PubMed

    Quigley, F; Greene, M; O'Connor, D; Kelly, F

    2005-09-01

    CRY (Cardiac Risk in the Young) is a registered Irish charity established by parents who are bereaved as a result of sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study is to establish the incidence and causes of sudden cardiac death in Dublin city in the 10-year period from 1st January 1993 to 31st December 2002. All sudden cardiac deaths in the under 35-year age group which were reported to the city coroner in the study period were examined. Details regarding age, sex, previous symptoms, investigations, circumstances of death and main pathological finding were recorded in each case. A total of 72 cases of sudden cardiac death in the under-35 year age group were reported. 52 were men. The median age was 26.5 years (range 12-34 years). The cause of death in 20 cases was reported as atherosclerotic Coronary Artery Disease. The second commonest cause of death (24% cases) was Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy was the commonest cause of death under the age of 25 years. Overall atherosclerotic coronary artery disease was the commonest cause of death in this group. The importance of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is highlighted by the fact it was the commonest cause of death in the under 25-year age group. Screening those at high risk of sudden cardiac death especially the relatives of those affected by Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy need to be discussed and implemented.

  5. Age Differences in Perseveration: Cognitive and Neuroanatomical Mediators of Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Denise; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Raz, Naftali

    2009-01-01

    Aging effects on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) are fairly well established but the mechanisms of the decline are not clearly understood. In this study, we examined the cognitive and neural mechanisms mediating age-related increases in perseveration on the WCST. MRI-based volumetry and measures of selected executive functions in…

  6. Diaphragmatic pathology: a cause of clinically unexplained death in the perinatal/paediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, S; Ostojic, N S; Rushton, D I; Cox, P M; Acland, P

    2005-04-01

    Sudden unexpected death in infancy and childhood requires a 'full' post-mortem investigation. Guidance from the Royal College of Pathologists recommends sampling of all the major organs. However, the diaphragm does not feature in this or in most lists of routine histology. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of sampling the diaphragm for histological examination during autopsy. We describe three autopsy cases of clinically unexplained death in the perinatal and paediatric age group that showed significant pathology of the diaphragm. In Case 1, a previously healthy five-year-old girl collapsed suddenly and died four days later. In Case 2, an eight-month-old infant had repeated episodes of respiratory arrest that culminated in death. Autopsy demonstrated a predominantly diaphragmatic myositis. In Case 3 a female neonate had a respiratory arrest three days after birth and died less than a month later. Autopsy showed multiple large calcified necrotic fibres in the diaphragm. The diaphragm is seldom sampled at autopsy. In the first two cases a predominantly diaphragmatic myositis was either the direct or underlying cause of death. In the third case long-standing diaphragmatic pathology of uncertain cause may have contributed to the original respiratory arrest. Had the diaphragm not been examined histologically, the cause of death would have remained unascertained in these cases. In cases of sudden death in infancy and childhood, failure to reach a diagnosis may lead to undue suspicion falling upon the child's carers. This underscores the need for full histology at post-mortem in child deaths, including diaphragmatic sampling.

  7. Absolute age constraints on the age and tectonics of the Middle and Late Proterozoic Pahrump Group, southern Death Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Calzia, J.P. ); Troxel, B.W.

    1993-04-01

    The Pahrump Group unconformably overlies 1.35 Ga granite, is unconformably overlain by the Late Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite, and is divided into the Crystal Spring Formation, the Beck Spring Dolomite, and the Kingston Peak Formation. Contacts between these formations are gradational through several meters of interbedded clastic and carbonate rocks. Lithologic data, sedimentary structures, and fossil assemblages suggest that the Pahrump Group, from middle Crystal Spring to lower Kingston Peak time, was deposited in an intratidal to supratidal environment. Diamictite, volcanic ash, and mono lithologic megabreccia suggest that the middle and the upper members of the Kingston Peak Formation were deposited in a higher energy sedimentary and tectonic environment. Dikes and sills of 1.08 Ga diabase intrude the gneiss and all members of the Crystal Spring Formation; erosional clasts of diabase first appear in the middle Kingston Peak Formation. The diabase sills are up to 450 m thick and have caused at least 20 percent inflation of the Crystal Spring, Beck Spring, and lower Kingston Peak formations. If these sedimentary rocks were deposited at or above wave base, evidence of intraplate rifting or gross stratigraphic inflation is not recorded in the Pahrump stratigraphy until middle and upper Kingston Peak time. Therefore, the stratigraphic and petrologic data suggest that the diabase was emplaced in the Crystal Spring Formation during post-lower but pre-middle Kingston Peak time. The Beck Spring Dolomite and the lower Kingston Peak Formation are older than 1.08 Ga; the contact between the lower and the middle Kingston Peak Formation is a regional disconformity that marks significant changes in the depositional and the tectonic environments of the Pahrump Group at about 1.08 Ga.

  8. Evaluation of MIMIC-Model Methods for DIF Testing with Comparison to Two-Group Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when an item on a test or questionnaire has different measurement properties for 1 group of people versus another, irrespective of mean differences on the construct. This study focuses on the use of multiple-indicator multiple-cause (MIMIC) structural equation models for DIF testing, parameterized as item…

  9. On the Interchangeability of Individually Administered and Group Administered Ability Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevo, Baruch; Sela, Roni

    2003-01-01

    This research studied the interchangeability of individually administered and group administered cognitive tests. Seventy undergraduate students took the Hebrew version of the WAIS-R (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised), and their IQs were measured. They also took the IPET (Israeli Psychometric Entrance Test) and their IPET scores were…

  10. Reader reaction: A note on the evaluation of group testing algorithms in the presence of misclassification.

    PubMed

    Malinovsky, Yaakov; Albert, Paul S; Roy, Anindya

    2016-03-01

    In the context of group testing screening, McMahan, Tebbs, and Bilder (2012, Biometrics 68, 287-296) proposed a two-stage procedure in a heterogenous population in the presence of misclassification. In earlier work published in Biometrics, Kim, Hudgens, Dreyfuss, Westreich, and Pilcher (2007, Biometrics 63, 1152-1162) also proposed group testing algorithms in a homogeneous population with misclassification. In both cases, the authors evaluated performance of the algorithms based on the expected number of tests per person, with the optimal design being defined by minimizing this quantity. The purpose of this article is to show that although the expected number of tests per person is an appropriate evaluation criteria for group testing when there is no misclassification, it may be problematic when there is misclassification. Specifically, a valid criterion needs to take into account the amount of correct classification and not just the number of tests. We propose, a more suitable objective function that accounts for not only the expected number of tests, but also the expected number of correct classifications. We then show how using this objective function that accounts for correct classification is important for design when considering group testing under misclassification. We also present novel analytical results which characterize the optimal Dorfman (1943) design under the misclassification.

  11. Demographically Adjusted Groups for Equating Test Scores. Research Report. ETS RR-14-30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, I investigated 2 procedures intended to create test-taker groups of equal ability by poststratifying on a composite variable created from demographic information. In one procedure, the stratifying variable was the composite variable that best predicted the test score. In the other procedure, the stratifying variable was the…

  12. Are We There Yet? Exploring the Impact of Translating Cognitive Tests for Dementia Using Mobile Technology in an Aging Population

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Kai; Maguire, Áine; Andrews, Jack L.; Martin, Eric; Menon, Shantanu

    2016-01-01

    This study examines implications of the expanded use of mobile platforms in testing cognitive function, and generates evidence on the impact utilizing mobile platforms for dementia screen. The Saint Louis University Mental State examination (SLUMS) was ported onto a computerized mobile application named the Cambridge University Pen to Digital Equivalence assessment (CUPDE). CUPDE was piloted and compared to the traditional pen and paper version, with a common comparator test for both groups. Sixty healthy participants (aged 50–79) completed both measurements. Differences were tested between overall outcomes, individual items, and relationship with the comparator. Significant differences in the overall scores between the two testing versions as well as within individual items were observed. Even when groups were matched by cognitive function and age, scores on SLUMS original version (M = 19.75, SD = 3) were significantly higher than those on CUPDE (M = 15.88, SD = 3.5), t(15) = 3.02, p < 0.01. Mobile platforms require the development of new normative standards, even when items can be directly translated. Furthermore, these must fit aging populations with significant variance in familiarity with mobile technology. Greater understanding of the interplay and related mechanisms between auditory and visual systems, which are not well understood yet in the context of mobile technologies, is mandatory. PMID:27014053

  13. Are We There Yet? Exploring the Impact of Translating Cognitive Tests for Dementia Using Mobile Technology in an Aging Population.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Maguire, Áine; Andrews, Jack L; Martin, Eric; Menon, Shantanu

    2016-01-01

    This study examines implications of the expanded use of mobile platforms in testing cognitive function, and generates evidence on the impact utilizing mobile platforms for dementia screen. The Saint Louis University Mental State examination (SLUMS) was ported onto a computerized mobile application named the Cambridge University Pen to Digital Equivalence assessment (CUPDE). CUPDE was piloted and compared to the traditional pen and paper version, with a common comparator test for both groups. Sixty healthy participants (aged 50-79) completed both measurements. Differences were tested between overall outcomes, individual items, and relationship with the comparator. Significant differences in the overall scores between the two testing versions as well as within individual items were observed. Even when groups were matched by cognitive function and age, scores on SLUMS original version (M = 19.75, SD = 3) were significantly higher than those on CUPDE (M = 15.88, SD = 3.5), t (15) = 3.02, p < 0.01. Mobile platforms require the development of new normative standards, even when items can be directly translated. Furthermore, these must fit aging populations with significant variance in familiarity with mobile technology. Greater understanding of the interplay and related mechanisms between auditory and visual systems, which are not well understood yet in the context of mobile technologies, is mandatory.

  14. Age and motives for volunteering: testing hypotheses derived from socioemotional selectivity theory.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Schultz, Amy

    2003-06-01

    Following a meta-analysis of the relations between age and volunteer motives (career, understanding, enhancement, protective, making friends, social, and values), the authors tested hypotheses derived from socioemotional selectivity theory regarding the effects of age on these volunteer motives. The Volunteer Functions Inventory was completed by 523 volunteers from 2 affiliates of the International Habitat for Humanity. Multiple regression analyses revealed, as predicted, that as age increases, career and understanding volunteer motivation decrease and social volunteer motivation increases. Contrary to expectations, age did not contribute to the prediction of enhancement, protective, and values volunteer motivations and the relation between age and making friends volunteer motivation was nonlinear. The results were discussed in the context of age-differential and age-similarity perspectives on volunteer motivation.

  15. National survey on edentulism and its geographic distribution, among Mexicans 18 years of age and older (with emphasis in WHO age groups).

    PubMed

    Medina-Solís, C E; Pérez-Núñez, R; Maupomé, G; Avila-Burgos, L; Pontigo-Loyola, A P; Patiño-Marín, N; Villalobos-Rodelo, J J

    2008-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of edentulism in adults aged 18 years and older in Mexico and to describe its distribution in 20 of the 32 States in Mexico, highlighting the experience in the WHO age groups. A secondary analysis of the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2002-2003 (representative at the state level and part of the Word Health Survey) was undertaken. The sample design was probabilistic, stratified and through conglomerates. Data on dental conditions were available only for 20 of the 32 states of Mexico, leading to a total of 24 159 households (N = 54 638 654). The percentage of edentulism was determined as the proportion of subjects that self-reported complete loss of teeth. Data were analyzed using the SVY module for complex surveys in STATA 8.2. The mean age was 41.3 +/- 17.0 years (range 18-99). An estimated 6.3% (N = 3 437 816) of the population > or =18 years was edentulous. Lowest prevalences were observed in the states of Tlaxcala, Puebla and the Estado de Mexico with 3.4%, 3.8% and 4.5%, respectively. Highest prevalences were observed in San Luis Potosí, Colima, and Michoacán with 10.3%, 10.2% and 10.1%, respectively. Following the WHO age groups, the prevalence ranged from 2.4% in the 35-44 group through 25.5% in the 65-74 group. No obvious association between socio-economic and socio-demographic indicators at the state level and prevalence of edentulism was found. The prevalence of complete tooth loss observed in the present study varied greatly across states, although no straightforward association was found with socio-economic and socio-demographic indicators at the state level. This study could serve as a baseline to enable future evaluations of the oral status of Mexican adults and elders, following WHO age groups.

  16. Comparative Model Tests of SDP and CFA Pile Groups in Non-Cohesive Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasiński, Adam; Kusio, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    The research topic relates to the subject of deep foundations supported on continuous flight auger (CFA) piles and screw displacement piles (SDP). The authors have decided to conduct model tests of foundations supported on the group of piles mentioned above and also the tests of the same piles working as a single. The tests are ongoing in Geotechnical Laboratory of Gdaňsk University of Technology. The description of test procedure, interpretation and analysis of the preliminary testing series results are presented in the paper.

  17. Allometric Growth of Testes in Relation to Age, Body Weight and Selected Blood Parameters in Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Arora, Kashmiri L

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a very valuable animal model for research in a variety of biological disciplines. The purpose of this study was to characterize and interrelate age-dependent testicular parameters with various blood constituents: blood glucose, plasma proteins and packed cell volume that are developing concurrently in the growing bird. Another objective of the study was to identify selective physioanatomical markers for predicting the testicular growth and the onset of sexual maturity. Male Japanese quail hatchlings were raised in temperature controlled brooders for up to 3 weeks of age under a constant light and then shifted to hanging cages in an air conditioned room set at ~73° F under a 14L: 10D lighting system and ad libitum access to feed and water. Starting d8, a group of 8-10 birds of uniform size and weight were selected randomly at 4-day intervals up to d52 of age for the project. The birds were weighed and blood sampled using the brachial vein and Blood Glucose (BGL), Total Plasma Proteins (PP) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) levels were measured prior to euthanization. The testes were removed and measured for weight, length, width and Volume (VOL). All the testicular measurements were then correlated with age and body weight. The left testes were larger than the right testes and their differences were evident at d36 of age. Testicular measurements also reflected two distinct growth surges at d28, d32 and d36 of age. Combined Testes Weight (CTW) and Combined Testes Volume (CTV) revealed a strong positive correlation with PCV and PP and a negative correlation with Blood Glucose Level (BGL). Accordingly, these measurements could serve as reliable markers of growth rate and sexual maturation in male Japanese quail.

  18. Students' perceptions of being graded as a group in the college classroom: relations among students' age, employment, and perceived group satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Barfield, Rufus L

    2002-12-01

    This investigation compared and measured for different age groups of students, hours of employment, and previous grading experiences of one student cohort in relation to their perceived overall satisfaction with being graded as a group. A cohort of 230 students from a large southern metropolitan university enrolled in sections of two undergraduate classes. Group Interaction and Decision Making and Conflict Management, participated. Analysis indicated that (a) older students (28-47 years) were more likely to be dissatisfied with a group grade experience than middle (23-27 years) and younger (18-22 years) students. (b) Older students working part time were significantly more dissatisfied with the overall group experience than the younger part-time working students. (c) Older part-time working students were significantly more dissatisfied with the overall experience of working and being graded as a group than the middle part-time and middle full-time working students. Differences were noted between the older and younger students, which supported older students' overall dissatisfaction with their experience of being graded as a group. Common complaints by older students were that younger students were immature, irresponsible, lacked "real-life" experience, and had misplaced priorities. Common complaints by younger students were that older students were too serious and rigid. It is recommended that this work be extended to include other comparison groups, graduate students, and other disciplines.

  19. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings.

  20. Effects of message framing on self-report and accelerometer-assessed physical activity across age and gender groups.

    PubMed

    Li, Kin-Kit; Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Fung, Helene H

    2014-02-01

    This study compared message-framing effects on physical activity (PA) across age and gender groups. Participants included 111 younger and 100 older adults (68% were women), randomly assigned to read gain-framed or loss-framed PA messages in promotion pamphlets, and who wore accelerometers for the following 14 days. Using regression analyses controlling for demographic and health factors, we found significant age-by-gender-by-framing interactions predicting self-report (B = -4.39, p = .01) and accelerometer-assessed PA (B = -2.44, p = .02) during the follow-up period. Gain-framed messages were more effective than loss-framed messages in promoting PA behaviors only among older men. We speculated that the age-related positivity effect, as well as the age and gender differences in issue involvement, explained the group differences in framing. In addition, more time availability and higher self-efficacy among older men might have contributed to the results.

  1. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Zytoon, Mohamed A; Basahel, Abdulrahman M

    2017-02-24

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels.

  2. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Zytoon, Mohamed A.; Basahel, Abdulrahman M.

    2017-01-01

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels. PMID:28245578

  3. Pharyngeal Pressure Generation during Tongue-Hold Swallows across Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Macrae, Phoebe; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effects of the tongue-hold swallowing maneuver on pharyngeal pressure generation in healthy young and elderly research volunteers. Method: Sixty-eight healthy research volunteers (young, n = 34, mean age = 26.8 years, SD = 5.5; elderly, n = 34, mean age = 72.6 years, SD = 4.8; sex equally represented) performed 5…

  4. A Note on Sex Differences in Mental Rotation in Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Christian; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Eid, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A large number of studies have reported average performance differences in favor of males in mental rotation tasks. However, it is still unclear to what extent the magnitude of the sex differences varies across age, and whether the differences increase with age. In this study, we reanalyzed data from a cross-sectional investigation of N = 1624…

  5. Using 40Ar/39Ar ages of intercalated silicic tuffs to date flood basalts: Precise ages for Steens Basalt Member of the Columbia River Basalt Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahood, Gail A.; Benson, Thomas R.

    2017-02-01

    To establish causality between flood basalt eruptions and extinction events and global environmental effects recorded by isotopic excursions in marine sediments, highly accurate and precise ages for the flood basalts are required. But flood basalts are intrinsically difficult to date. We illustrate how 40Ar/39Ar feldspar ages for silicic tuffs intercalated with and overlying sections of Steens Basalt, the earliest lavas of the Middle Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group in the northwestern United States, provide high-precision ages that, for the first time, make it possible to resolve age differences with stratigraphic position within a section of these flood lavas. The stratigraphically lowest rhyolitic tuff, a fall deposit, yielded an age of 16.592 ± ± 0.028 Ma (FCs = 28.02 Ma), and the uppermost, the alkali rhyolite ignimbrite Tuff of Oregon Canyon, is 16.468 ± ± 0.014 Ma. The argon and stratigraphic data indicate that Steens Basalt eruptions occurred from ∼16.64 to 16.43 Ma in the southern end of its distribution. We estimate that the Steens Mountain geomagnetic reversal occurred at 16.496 ± ± 0.028 Ma (±0.18 Ma total error). Our estimates of the timing for initiation of volcanism and volumetric eruptive rates do not seem to support volcanic forcing by the initial stages of Columbia River Basalt Group eruptions as an explanation for the abrupt warming and carbonate dissolution at the beginning of the Miocene Climatic Optimum.

  6. Test Series 4: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Exide EMP-13 battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L.L.; Hente, D.B.; Kukreti, B.M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J.D.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.D.; Aucoin, B.D.

    1985-03-01

    This report, the fourth in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of a 27-year old lead-antimony Exide EMP-13 cells from the recently decommissioned Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; and multicell (five-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of nine electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations. None of the nine cells failed during the actual seismic tests when a range of ZPAs up to 1.5 g was imposed. Subsequent discharge capacity tests of five of the cells showed, however, that none of the cells could deliver the accepted standard of 80% of their rated electrical capacity for 3 hours. In fact, none of the 5 cells could deliver more than a 33% capacity. Two of the seismically tested cells and one untested, low capacity cell were disassembled for examination and metallurgical analyses. The inspection showed the cells to be in poor condition. The negative plates in the vicinity of the bus connections were extremely weak, the positive buses were corroded and brittle, negative and positive active material utilization was extremely uneven, and corrosion products littered the cells.

  7. Age Group Differences in HIV Risk and Mental Health Problems among Female Sex Workers (FSWs) in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Liying; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao

    2014-01-01

    HIV risk and mental health problems are prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. The purpose of this research was to study age group differences in HIV risk and mental health problems in this population. In the current study we divided a sample of 1,022 FSWs into three age groups (≤20 years, 21– 34 years, and ≥35 years). Results showed that among the three groups (a) older FSWs (≥35 years) were likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged (e.g., rural residency, little education, employment in low-paying venues, and low monthly income); (b) older FSWs reported the highest rates of inconsistent, ineffective condom use and STD history; (c) younger FSWs (≤20 years) reported the highest level of depression, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, regular-partner violence, and substance use; (d) all health-related risks except casual-partner violence were more prevalent among older and younger FSWs than among FSW aged 21–34 years; (e) age had a significant effect on all health indicators except suicide attempts after controlling for several key demographic factors. These findings indicate the need for intervention efforts to address varying needs among FSWs in different age groups. Specific interventional efforts are needed to reduce older FSWs’ exposure to HIV risk; meanwhile, more attention should be given to improve FSWs’ mental health status, especially among younger FSWs. PMID:24410298

  8. Processing speed in the aging process: screening criteria for the Spanish Quick Test of Cognitive Speed.

    PubMed

    Subirana-Mirete, Judit; Bruna, Olga; Virgili, Carles; Signo, Sara; Palma, Carolina

    2014-10-01

    A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed was administered to 357 participants without cognitive impairment, aged 18 to 85 years, to explore the effects of age on processing speed variables in Spanish speakers and to provide normative data for the test adapted to this population. Results were consistent with previous findings: correlations between age and naming times were high and statistically significant. Linear regression indicated that cognitive processing speed on this test slows 2 to 4 sec. per decade, depending on the task. Normalized data were provided. The findings concur with several studies that have linked age-cognitive impairment with slowing processing speed. This study attempted to assess the importance of this relation, as information processing speed could be considered a measure of cognitive impairment in everyday clinical screening evaluations.

  9. On the derivation of a full life table from mortality data recorded in five-year age groups.

    PubMed

    Pollard, J H

    1989-01-01

    Mortality data are often gathered using 5-year age groups rather than individual years of life. Furthermore, it is common practice to use a large open-ended interval (such as 85 and over) for mortality data at the older ages. These limitations of the data pose problems for the actuary or demographer who wishes to compile a full and accurate life table using individual years of life. The author devises formulae which handle these problems. He also devises methods for handling mortality during the 1st year of life and for dealing with other technical problems which arise in the compilation of the full life table from grouped data.

  10. Caries Experience Differs between Females and Males across Age Groups in Northern Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Feingold, Eleanor; Govil, Manika; McNeil, Daniel W.; Crout, Richard J.; Weyant, Robert J.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Sex disparities in dental caries have been observed across many populations, with females typically exhibiting higher prevalence and more affected teeth. In this study we assessed the sex disparities in two Northern Appalachian populations from West Virginia (WV, N = 1997) and Pennsylvania (PA, N = 1080) by comparing caries indices between males and females across four phases of dental development: primary dentition in children aged 1–5 years, mixed dentition in children aged 6–11 years, permanent dentition in adolescents aged 12–17 years, and permanent dentition in adults aged 18–59 years. No significant sex differences were observed for children aged 1–5 years. Contrary to national and international trends, WV girls aged 6–11 years had 1.5 fewer affected teeth than boys (p < 0.001). However, by ages 12–17, caries indices in the WV girls matched those in boys. In both WV and PA adults, women and men had similar total counts of affected teeth (i.e., DMFT), although women had more dental restorations (p < 0.001) and men had more current decay (p < 0.001). These results suggest that in some Appalachian populations, young girls benefit from protection against caries that is lost during adolescence and that adult women utilize dental health care to a greater degree than men. PMID:26106416

  11. Lower Paleozoic Through Archean Detrital Zircon Ages From Metasedimentary Rocks of the Nome Group, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, J. M.; Miller, E. L.; Gehrels, G.

    2003-12-01

    Metamorphic rocks of Seward Peninsula have been divided into two groups based on their metamorphic grade and history: The Nome Group and the Kigluaik Group. Although it is sometime been assumed that the higher structural position of the Nome Group versus the Kigluaik Group indicates the Kigluaik Group is older, this relationship and the age of the protoliths of these rocks has never been well-established. The Nome Group includes (delete the) lower grade blueschist and greenschist facies rocks which are widespread across the Seward Peninsula (delete) Rock types include pelitic schist, more mafic chlorite-white mica-albite schist, marble, quartzite, and metabasite. An early metamorphic event (pre-120 Ma) occurred at high pressure and relatively low temperature, and is everywhere overprinted by younger deformation and greenschist facies Rare eclogite facies assemblages are preserved in metabasites, and garnet-glaucophane in some of the pelitic schists. The Kigluaik Group includes upper greenschist to granulite facies rocks that are exposed in the core of a gneiss dome. They record a younger event (~91 Ma) that occurred at higher temperatures and resulted in partial thermal overprinting of the Nome Group and upper greenschist to granulite facies assemblages forming in the Kigluaik Group. The Kigluaik Group and equivalent rocks in the Bendeleben and Darby Mountains represent at least in part similar protoliths to many of the units in the Nome Group (Till and Dumoulin, 1994). The boundary between the rocks of the Nome Group and those clearly affected by the second metamorphic event is placed arbitrarily at the "Biotite-in" isograd along the flanks of the gneiss dome. In order to assess the protolith ages and source rock ages for these units, detrital zircon ages were obtained from three samples from the Nome Group, with Kigluaik Group ages forthcoming. LA-MC-ICPMS U/Pb isotope analysis was used for dating. Two samples were collected from the western Kigluaik Mountains

  12. Engaging Focus Group Methodology: The 4-H Middle School-Aged Youth Learning and Leading Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson

    2015-01-01

    With young people, discussing complex issues such as learning and leading in a focus group can be a challenge. To help prime youth for the discussion, we created a focus group approach that featured a fun, interactive activity. This article includes a description of the focus group activity, lessons learned, and suggestions for additional…

  13. Pap Smear Test Prevalence within Three Years (Age 18+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    For Pap smear test, a woman 18 years of age or older must have reported having at least one Pap smear test in her life. Furthermore, she should have had one within the last three years by the time of interview.

  14. The Mediating Effect of Age on the Relationship between Hyperactivity and Neuropsychological Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massman, Paul J.; Nussbaum, Nancy L.

    The relationship between hyperactivity and neuropsychological test performance at different age levels was investigated with 90 children 6-8 years old and 92 children 9-12 years old. Subjects were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests, and a parent completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBC). Young children demonstrated no…

  15. Using multiple group modeling to test moderators in meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schoemann, Alexander M

    2016-12-01

    Meta-analysis is a popular and flexible analysis that can be fit in many modeling frameworks. Two methods of fitting meta-analyses that are growing in popularity are structural equation modeling (SEM) and multilevel modeling (MLM). By using SEM or MLM to fit a meta-analysis researchers have access to powerful techniques associated with SEM and MLM. This paper details how to use one such technique, multiple group analysis, to test categorical moderators in meta-analysis. In a multiple group meta-analysis a model is fit to each level of the moderator simultaneously. By constraining parameters across groups any model parameter can be tested for equality. Using multiple groups to test for moderators is especially relevant in random-effects meta-analysis where both the mean and the between studies variance of the effect size may be compared across groups. A simulation study and the analysis of a real data set are used to illustrate multiple group modeling with both SEM and MLM. Issues related to multiple group meta-analysis and future directions for research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Aging, Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), and high potential testing of damaged cables

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, R.A.; Jacobus, M.J.

    1994-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of high potential testing of cables and to assess the survivability of aged and damaged cables under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) conditions. High potential testing at 240 Vdc/mil on undamaged cables suggested that no damage was incurred on the selected virgin cables. During aging and LOCA testing, Okonite ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables with a bonded jacket experienced unexpected failures. The failures appear to be primarily related to the level of thermal aging and the presence of a bonded jacket that ages more rapidly than the insulation. For Brand Rex crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cables, the results suggest that 7 mils of insulation remaining should give the cables a high probability of surviving accident exposure following aging. The voltage necessary to detect when 7 mils of insulation remain on unaged Brand Rex cables is approximately 35 kVdc. This voltage level would almost certainly be unacceptable to a utility for use as a damage assessment tool. However, additional tests indicated that a 35 kvdc voltage application would not damage virgin Brand Rex cables when tested in water. Although two damaged Rockbestos silicone rubber cables also failed during the accident test, no correlation between failures and level of damage was apparent.

  17. A Systematic Review of CPAP Adherence Across Age Groups: Clinical and Empiric Insights for Developing CPAP Adherence Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, A.M.; Gooneratne, N.; Marcus, C.L.; Ofer, D.; Richards, K.C.; Weaver, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a highly efficacious treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but adherence to the treatment limits its overall effectiveness across all age groups of patients. Factors that influence adherence to CPAP include disease and patient characteristics, treatment titration procedures, technological device factors and side effects, and psychological and social factors. These influential factors have guided the development of interventions to promote CPAP adherence. Various intervention strategies have been described and include educational, technological, psychosocial, pharmacological, and multi-dimensional approaches. Though evidence to date has led to innovative strategies that address adherence in CPAP-treated children, adults, and older adults, significant opportunities exist to develop and test interventions that are clinically applicable, specific to subgroups of patients likely to demonstrate poor adherence, and address the multifactorial nature of CPAP adherence. The translation of CPAP adherence promotion interventions to clinical practice is imperative to improve health and functional outcomes in all persons with CPAP-treated OSA. PMID:21652236

  18. Alternative Fuels Compatibility with Army Equipment Testing - Aged Niedner Rifts Conduit Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    ends of the conduit using IPDS couplings to attach them to the conduit end fittings. 2 Setup the plumbing for the pump to pressurize the conduit. 3...Cyclic Testing Procedure Step No. Description 1 End Plugs should be installed on both ends of the conduit using IPDS couplings to attach them to the...testing site. Pressurization Cycles 12 End Plugs should be installed on both ends of the conduit using IPDS couplings to attach them to the conduit

  19. [Tissue specificity of antioxidant system functioning and lipid peroxidation in different age groups of Amur carp].

    PubMed

    Kras', S I; Tarasiuk, S I

    2011-01-01

    Key features of tissue enzymes functioning in antioxidant system (AOS) in sexually mature and immature individuals of Amur carp were studied. The activity of antioxidant enzymes was highest in the myocardium and subjected to age-related changes. It was concluded that changes in the functioning of AOS and intensity of lipid peroxidation processes are characterized by organ-tissue metabolic features and age peculiarities of metabolism that is most expressed in the myocardium.

  20. Hearing and loud music exposure in a group of adolescents at the ages of 14-15 and retested at 17-18.

    PubMed

    Biassoni, Ester C; Serra, Mario R; Hinalaf, María; Abraham, Mónica; Pavlik, Marta; Villalobo, Jorge Pérez; Curet, Carlos; Joekes, Silvia; Yacci, María R; Righetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Young people expose themselves to potentially damaging loud sounds while leisure activities and noise induced hearing loss is diagnosed in increasing number of adolescents. Hearing and music exposure in a group of adolescents of a technical high school was assessed at the ages of: 14-15 (test) and 17-18 (retest). The aims of the current study were: (1) To compare the auditory function between test and retest; (2) to compare the musical exposure levels during recreational activities in test and retest; (3) to compare the auditory function with the musical exposure along time in a subgroup of adolescents. The participants in the test were 172 male; in the retest, this number was reduced to 59. At the test and retest the conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and recreational habits questionnaire were performed. In the test, hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were classified as: Normal (Group 1), slightly shifted (Group 2), and significantly shifted (Group 3); the Musical General Exposure (MGE), categorized in: Low, moderate, high, and very high exposure. The results revealed a significant difference (P < 0.0001) between test and retest in the HTL and global amplitude of TEOAEs in Group 1, showing an increase of the HTL and a decrease TEOAEs amplitude. A subgroup of adolescents, with normal hearing and low exposure to music in the test, showed an increase of the HTL according with the categories of MGE in the retest. To implement educational programs for assessing hearing function, ear vulnerability and to promote hearing health, would be advisable.

  1. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Çınar, Alev; Sadıç, Murat; İkbal Atılgan, Hasan; Baskın, Aylin; Koca, Gökhan; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT). Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA). Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years) of whom 62 (12.4%) were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6%) were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was positive in 245 (49%) cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34%) had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51%) had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8%) children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family. PMID:26316471

  2. Aging and physical mobility in group-housed Old World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shively, Carol A; Willard, Stephanie L; Register, Thomas C; Bennett, Allyson J; Pierre, Peter J; Laudenslager, Mark L; Kitzman, Dalane W; Childers, Martin K; Grange, Robert W; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2012-10-01

    While indices of physical mobility such as gait speed are significant predictors of future morbidity/mortality in the elderly, mechanisms of these relationships are not understood. Relevant animal models of aging and physical mobility are needed to study these relationships. The goal of this study was to develop measures of physical mobility including activity levels and gait speed in Old World monkeys which vary with age in adults. Locomotor behaviors of 21 old ([Formula: see text] = 20 yoa) and 24 young ([Formula: see text] = 9 yoa) socially housed adult females of three species were recorded using focal sample and ad libitum behavior observation methods. Self-motivated walking speed was 17% slower in older than younger adults. Likewise, young adults climbed more frequently than older adults. Leaping and jumping were more common, on average, in young adults, but this difference did not reach significance. Overall activity levels did not vary significantly by age, and there were no significant age by species interactions in any of these behaviors. Of all the behaviors evaluated, walking speed measured in a simple and inexpensive manner appeared most sensitive to age and has the added feature of being least affected by differences in housing characteristics. Thus, walking speed may be a useful indicator of decline in physical mobility in nonhuman primate models of aging.

  3. Longitudinal posturography and rotational testing in children 3-9 years of age: Normative data

    PubMed Central

    Casselbrant, Margaretha L.; Mandel, Ellen M.; Sparto, Patrick J; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S.; Fall, Patricia A.; Furman, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To obtain normative longitudinal vestibulo-ocular and balance test data in children from ages 3 to 9 with normal middle-ear status. Study Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort Setting Tertiary care pediatric hospital Subjects and Methods Three-year-old children were entered and tested yearly. Subjects underwent earth vertical axis rotation testing using sinusoidal and constant velocity stimuli and performed the Sensory Organization Test. Results One hundred forty-eight children were entered and usable data were collected on 127 children. A linear increase in the vestibulo-ocular reflex gain as children aged was found, without a change in the phase of the response. An age-related linear increase in Equilibrium Scores, indicating reduced postural sway, was also observed. Conclusion These normative data can be used in the evaluation of dizziness and balance disorders in children. PMID:20416461

  4. Superheated-steam test of ethylene propylene rubber cables using a simultaneous aging and accident environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.R.; St. Clair, S.D.; Gilmore, T.W.

    1986-06-01

    The superheated-steam test exposed different ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables and insulation specimens to simultaneous aging and a 21-day simultaneous accident environment. In addition, some insulation specimens were exposed to five different aging conditions prior to the 21-day simultaneous accident simulation. The purpose of this superheated-steam test (a follow-on to the saturated-steam tests (NUREG/CR-3538)) was to: (1) examine electrical degradation of different configurations of EPR cables; (2) investigate differences between using superheated-steam or saturated-steam at the start of an accident simulation; (3) determine whether the aging technique used in the saturated-steam test induced artificial degradation; and (4) identify the constituents in EPR that affect moisture absorption.

  5. Evaluation of an alternative in vitro test battery for detecting reproductive toxicants in a grouping context.

    PubMed

    Kroese, E Dinant; Bosgra, Sieto; Buist, Harrie E; Lewin, Geertje; van der Linden, Sander C; Man, Hai-yen; Piersma, Aldert H; Rorije, Emiel; Schulpen, Sjors H W; Schwarz, Michael; Uibel, Frederik; van Vugt-Lussenburg, Barbara M A; Wolterbeek, Andre P M; van der Burg, Bart

    2015-08-01

    Previously we showed a battery consisting of CALUX transcriptional activation assays, the ReProGlo assay, and the embryonic stem cell test, and zebrafish embryotoxicity assay as 'apical' tests to correctly predict developmental toxicity for 11 out of 12 compounds, and to explain the one false negative [7]. Here we report on applying this battery within the context of grouping and read across, put forward as a potential tool to fill data gaps and avoid animal testing, to distinguish in vivo non- or weak developmental toxicants from potent developmental toxicants within groups of structural analogs. The battery correctly distinguished 2-methylhexanoic acid, monomethyl phthalate, and monobutyltin trichloride as non- or weak developmental toxicants from structurally related developmental toxicants valproic acid, mono-ethylhexyl phthalate, and tributyltin chloride, respectively, and, therefore, holds promise as a biological verification model in grouping and read across approaches. The relevance of toxicokinetic information is indicated.

  6. Age effects on EEG correlates of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Nuno S; Ferreira, Daniela; Reis, Joana; Jacinto, Luís R; Fernandes, Luís; Pinho, Francisco; Festa, Joana; Pereira, Mariana; Afonso, Nuno; Santos, Nadine C; Cerqueira, João J; Sousa, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Body and brain undergo several changes with aging. One of the domains in which these changes are more remarkable relates with cognitive performance. In the present work, electroencephalogram (EEG) markers (power spectral density and spectral coherence) of age-related cognitive decline were sought whilst the subjects performed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Considering the expected age-related cognitive deficits, WCST was applied to young, mid-age and elderly participants, and the theta and alpha frequency bands were analyzed. From the results herein presented, higher theta and alpha power were found to be associated with a good performance in the WCST of younger subjects. Additionally, higher theta and alpha coherence were also associated with good performance and were shown to decline with age and a decrease in alpha peak frequency seems to be associated with aging. Additionally, inter-hemispheric long-range coherences and parietal theta power were identified as age-independent EEG correlates of cognitive performance. In summary, these data reveals age-dependent as well as age-independent EEG correlates of cognitive performance that contribute to the understanding of brain aging and related cognitive deficits. PMID:26216431

  7. Reliability of squat and countermovement jump tests in children 6 to 8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Acero, Rafael Martin; Fernández-del Olmo, Miguel; Sánchez, Jose Andres; Otero, Xose Luis; Aguado, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the squat jump test (SJ) and countermovement jump test (CMJ), in fifty-six children (30 girls and 26 boys) with ages ranging from 6 to 8 years. Each subject performed two evaluation sessions (T1, T2) with seven days between tests. The results show that the CMJ test has a high intratrial reproducibility in T1 and T2 measured through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC ≥ 0.95). The ICC for the SJ test had a high value (0.99) only in T1. The variability for both tests among children under 9 years of age is higher than those reported for adult subjects in other studies. The intersession reliability was questionable with a high methodical error (ME= 9.86-15.1%, for the SJ and CMJ, respectively) and a significant worsening of the results of CMJ in T2 (p < .05).

  8. Recommended protocols for the liver micronucleus test: Report of the IWGT working group.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Morita, Takeshi; Luijten, Mirjam; Beevers, Carol; Hamada, Shuichi; Itoh, Satoru; Ohyama, Wakako; Takasawa, Hironao

    2015-05-01

    At the 6th International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT), the liver micronucleus test working group discussed practical aspects of the in vivo rodent liver micronucleus test (LMNT). The group members focused on the three methodologies currently used, i.e., a partial hepatectomy (PH) method, a juvenile/young rat (JR) method, and a repeated-dose (RD) method in adult rodents. Since the liver is the main organ that metabolizes chemicals, the LMNT is expected to detect clastogens, especially those that need metabolic activation in the liver, and aneugens. Based on current data the three methods seem to have a high sensitivity and specificity, but more data, especially on non-genotoxic but toxic substances, would be needed to fully evaluate the test performance. The three methods can be combined with the micronucleus test (MNT) using bone marrow (BM) and/or peripheral blood (PB). The ability of the PH method to detect both clastogens and aneugens has already been established, but the methodology is technically challenging. The JR method is relatively straightforward, but animal metabolism might not be fully comparable to adult animals, and data on aneugens are limited. These two methods also have the advantage of a short testing period. The RD method is also straightforward and can be integrated into repeated-dose (e.g. 2 or 4 weeks) toxicity studies, but again data on aneugens are limited. The working group concluded that the LMNT could be used as a second in vivo test when a relevant positive result in in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity tests is noted (especially under the condition of metabolic activation), and a negative result is observed in the in vivo BM/PB-MNT. The group members discussed LMNT protocols and reached consensus about many aspects of test procedures. However, data gaps as mentioned above remain, and further data are needed to fully establish the LMNT protocol.

  9. Minimising costs in spinal surgery: is group & save testing justified in lumbar decompression surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Young, Adam M. H.; Fivey, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Lumbar microdiscectomy and laminectomy are two of the most common neurosurgical procedures performed worldwide. Current practice still sees pre-operative group and save testing prior to this surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the need for pre-operative group and save and post-operative blood checks. Methods Patient archives were reviewed to identify those undergoing primary elective lumbar decompression surgery at the Institute of Neurological Sciences, Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow, UK. Hematology results before and after surgery, whether group and save was carried out, and blood transfusion requirements, if any, were collected. Results A total of 200 patients in total were included. Ninety-one percent of microdiscectomy patients and 95% of laminectomy patients underwent group and save testing prior to surgery. No patients received a transfusion as a result of their procedure. The mean hemoglobin drop after surgery was 11 g/L for the microdiscectomy group and 17 g/L for the laminectomy group. Conclusions Our findings strongly suggest that pre-operative group and save is unnecessary in lumbar microdiscectomy and laminectomy. As such, we support the abandonment of routine pre-operative group and save and post-operative blood checks, with significant cost saving effects. However, O negative blood should always be available in case of major peri-operative bleeding. PMID:28097244

  10. Summary and Evaluation of NRC-Sponsored Stellite 6 Aging and Friction Tests

    SciTech Connect

    J. C. Watkins; K. G. DeWall; D. Bramwell

    1999-04-01

    This report describes four sets of tests sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and conducted by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The tests support research addressing the need to provide assurance that motor-operated valves are able to perform their intended safety function, usually to open or close against specified (design basis) flow and pressure loads. One of the parameters that affects a gate valve's operability is the friction between the disc seats and the valve body seats. In most gate valves, these surfaces are hardfaced with Stellite 6, a cobalt-based alloy. The tests described in this report investigate the changes that occur in the friction as the Stellite 6 surfaces develop an oxide film as they age. Stellite 6 specimens were aged in a corrosion autoclave, the oxide films were examined and characterized, and the specimens were subjected to friction testing in a friction autoclave. A very thin oxide film formed after only a fe w days of natural aging. Even a very thin oxide film caused an increase in friction. The surface structure of the oxide film was dominated by a hard crystalline structure, such that the friction response was analogous to rubbing two pieces of sandpaper together. In the limited data provided by naturally aged specimens (78 days maximum exposure, very thin oxide films), the friction increased with greater aging time, approaching an as-yet-undetermined plateau. Although the thickness of the oxide film increased with greater aging time, the mechanical properties of the oxide film (larger granules with greater aging time) appeared to play a greater role in the friction response. Friction testing of specimens subjected to simulated in-service testing strokes at intervals during the aging process showed only a slight decrease in friction, compared to other specimens. Results from specimens subjected to accelerated aging were inconclusive, because of differences in the structure and comp osition

  11. Does the Great Valley Group contain Jurassic strata? Reevaluation of the age and early evolution of a classic forearc basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Surpless, K.D.; Graham, S.A.; Covault, J.A.; Wooden, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of Cretaceous detrital zircon in Upper Jurassic strata of the Great Valley Group may require revision of the lower Great Valley Group chronostratigraphy, with significant implications for the Late Jurassic-Cretaceous evolution of the continental margin. Samples (n = 7) collected from 100 km along strike in the purported Tithonian strata of the Great Valley Group contain 20 Cretaceous detrital zircon grains, based on sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe age determinations. These results suggest that Great Valley Group deposition was largely Cretaceous, creating a discrepancy between biostratigraphy based on Buchia zones and chronostratigraphy based on radiometric age dates. These results extend the duration of the Great Valley Group basal unconformity, providing temporal separation between Great Valley forearc deposition and creation of the Coast Range Ophiolite. If Great Valley forearc deposition began in Cretaceous time, then sediment by passed the developing forearc in the Late Jurassic, or the Franciscan subduction system did not fully develop until Cretaceous time. In addition to these constraints on the timing of deposition, pre-Mesozoic detrital zircon age signatures indicate that the Great Valley Group was linked to North America from its inception. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  12. Age-Related Differences in Functional Nodes of the Brain Cortex – A High Model Order Group ICA Study

    PubMed Central

    Littow, Harri; Elseoud, Ahmed Abou; Haapea, Marianne; Isohanni, Matti; Moilanen, Irma; Mankinen, Katariina; Nikkinen, Juha; Rahko, Jukka; Rantala, Heikki; Remes, Jukka; Starck, Tuomo; Tervonen, Osmo; Veijola, Juha; Beckmann, Christian; Kiviniemi, Vesa J.

    2010-01-01

    Functional MRI measured with blood oxygen dependent (BOLD) contrast in the absence of intermittent tasks reflects spontaneous activity of so-called resting state networks (RSN) of the brain. Group level independent component analysis (ICA) of BOLD data can separate the human brain cortex into 42 independent RSNs. In this study we evaluated age-related effects from primary motor and sensory, and, higher level control RSNs. One hundred sixty-eight healthy subjects were scanned and divided into three groups: 55 adolescents (ADO, 13.2 ± 2.4 years), 59 young adults (YA, 22.2 ± 0.6 years), and 54 older adults (OA, 42.7 ± 0.5 years), all with normal IQ. High model order group probabilistic ICA components (70) were calculated and dual-regression analysis was used to compare 21 RSN's spatial differences between groups. The power spectra were derived from individual ICA mixing matrix time series of the group analyses for frequency domain analysis. We show that primary sensory and motor networks tend to alter more in younger age groups, whereas associative and higher level cognitive networks consolidate and re-arrange until older adulthood. The change has a common trend: both spatial extent and the low frequency power of the RSN's reduce with increasing age. We interpret these result as a sign of normal pruning via focusing of activity to less distributed local hubs. PMID:20953235

  13. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Katharine; Thambinayagam, Ananthy; Pillay, Yogan; Loykissoonlal, Dayanund; Bonnecwe, Collen; Barron, Peter; Kiwango, Eva; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15–49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa’s efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC. Methods and Findings The study team populated the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0) with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM), as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20–34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15–24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15–29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15–34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program’s cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections. Conclusion The VMMC program’s impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15–34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25–34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them

  14. Semantic structure in schizophrenia as assessed by the category fluency test: effect of verbal intelligence and age of onset.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, C; Matsui, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Yamashita, I; Sumiyoshi, S; Kurachi, M

    2001-12-31

    It has been reported that long-term memory function, including the semantic structure of category, is impaired in patients with schizophrenia. The present study was performed to determine: (1) whether the deficit in semantic structure in schizophrenia is independent of cultural backgrounds, and (2) the effect of age of onset and verbal intelligence on the degradation of semantic structure in these patients. Fifty-seven Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 33 normal control subjects entered the study. The semantic structure was derived by Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis based on data from the ANIMAL category fluency test. The semantic structure was compared between: (1) schizophrenic patients as a whole vs. normal control subjects; (2) earlier onset (age of onset <20 years) vs. later-onset groups of patients; and (3) high Vocabulary score (score of the Vocabulary subtest from the WAIS-R>7) vs. low Vocabulary score patient groups. Normal control subjects demonstrated the domestic/size dimension in semantic structure, while no such dimension was obtained in patients with schizophrenia. The subgroup comparisons revealed that the later onset or the high Vocabulary score group maintained a relatively intact semantic structure compared with the earlier onset or the low Vocabulary score group, respectively. These findings suggest that the deficit in semantic structure in patients with schizophrenia is commonly observed irrespective of cultural backgrounds, and that age of onset and the level of verbal intelligence are closely related to severity of degradation of the semantic structure in schizophrenia.

  15. Utility of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in Children Ages 4–7 Years with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Heather; Kirk, John Woodard; Mahone, E. Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is growing consensus that assessment for non-credible performance is a necessary component of pediatric neuropsychological examination. The current study examined the utility and validity of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in children ages 4–7 years with and without Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Sixty-six children (30 controls, 36 ADHD) completed all three TOMM trials. There were no significant group differences in total score on any trial, or passing rate for Trial 2 or Retention. Four-year-olds with ADHD achieved “passing” score on Trial 1 less often than controls. Across groups, performance on Trial 2 and Retention improved with age, such that 85% of the sample achieved passing score. Four-year olds had greater difficulty and achieved passing score significantly less often than children 5–7 years. Moreover, half of the 4-year olds performed worse on Retention than Trial 2, calling into question the utility of the Retention trial at this age. Performance was associated with IQ only within the ADHD group on the Retention trial. Results suggest that the TOMM can be used with confidence in clinical groups as young as 5 years. Among 4-year olds, performance appears dependent on severity of ADHD or disruptive behaviors, and may be associated with factors other than effort. PMID:25247460

  16. Circulation of HIV antigen in blood according to stage of infection, risk group, age and geographic origin.

    PubMed

    Goudsmit, J; Paul, D A

    1987-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus antigen (HIV-ag) was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in HIV-antibody (anti-HIV) positive as well as pre-anti-HIV seroconversion sera and the results analysed according to stage of infection, risk group, age and geographic origin. Eleven (19%) of 58 homosexual men tested showed HIV-ag in a serum taken 3-4 months before or one at the time of anti-HIV seroconversion. In another eight (14%) HIV-ag persisted after seroconversion and half of them developed AIDS or AIDS-related complex (ARC) in contrast to none of the other 50 anti-HIV seroconversions. Two (13%) of 16 haemophiliacs tested had HIV-ag only in the first anti-HIV seropositive sample. HIV-ag was present in 86% (30/35) of Dutch homosexual men with AIDS, in 32% (7/22) of men with ARC and in 17% (24/145) of men with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) or without symptoms. Three percent (2/60) of sera of asymptomatic i.v. drug users from Amsterdam were HIV-ag positive. Ten percent (1 of 10) of sera from Central Africans with 'Slim Disease' were HIV-ag positive. Among infected children from the USA or Europe 89-100% (8/9 and 2/2) of AIDS cases, 67-100% (6/9 and 3/3) of children with ARC and 75% (3/4) of asymptomatic children were HIV-ag positive. The HIV-ag EIA appears to be able to identify HIV infection earlier than the available anti-HIV assays in a significant number of cases. Since persistence of HIV-ag, except possibly in African cases, is strongly associated with clinical deterioration, HIV-ag appears to be a suitable marker for, independent of their clinical status, selecting individuals for antiviral therapy and also for monitoring the efficiency of such therapy.

  17. Test series 1: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Gould NCX-2250 battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L. L.; Hente, D. B.; Kukreti, B. M.; Schendel, J. S.; Tulk, J. D.; Janis, W. J.; Black, D A; Paulsen, G. D.; Aucoin, B. D.

    1984-09-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged, nuclear station, safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds; and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the end-of-life of a battery, given a seismic event. This report covers the first test series of an extensive program using 12-year old, lead-calcium, Gould NCX-2250 cells, from the James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Station operated by the New York Power Authority. Seismic tests with three cell configurations were performed using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, rigidly mounted; multi-cell (three) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack; and single-cell tests specifically aimed towards examining propagation of pre-existing case cracks. In general the test philosophy was to monitor the electrical properties including discharge capacity of cells through a graduated series of g-level step increases until either the shake-table limits were reached or until electrical failure of the cells occurred. Of nine electrically active cells, six failed during seismic testing over a range of imposed g-level loads in excess of a 1-g ZPA. Post-test examination revealed a common failure mode, the cracking at the abnormally brittle, positive lead bus-bar/post interface; further examination showed that the failure zone was extremely coarse grained and extensively corroded. Presently accepted accelerated-aging methods for qualifying batteries, per IEEE Std. 535-1979, are based on plate growth, but these naturally-aged 12-year old cells showed no significant plate growth.

  18. Racial disparities in age at time of homicide victimization: a test of the multiple disadvantage model.

    PubMed

    Lo, Celia C; Howell, Rebecca J; Cheng, Tyrone C

    2015-01-01

    This study sought the factors associated with race/ethnicity disparities in the age at which homicide deaths tend to occur. We used the multiple disadvantage model to take race into account as we evaluated associations between age at time of homicide victimization and several social structural, mental health-related, and lifestyle factors. Data were derived from the 1993 National Mortality Followback Survey, a cross-sectional interview study of spouses, next of kin, other relatives, and close friends of individuals 15 years and older who died in the United States in 1993. Our results showed age at time of homicide mortality to be related to the three types of factors; race moderated some of these relationships. In general, being employed, married, and a homeowner appeared associated with reduced victimization while young. The relationship of victimization age and employment was not uniform across racial groups, nor was the relationship of victimization age and marital status uniform across groups. Among Blacks, using mental health services was associated with longer life. Homicide by firearm proved important for our Black and Hispanic subsamples, while among Whites, alcohol's involvement in homicide exerted significant effects. Our results suggest that programs and policies serving the various racial/ethnic groups can alleviate multiple disadvantages relevant in homicide victimization at an early age.

  19. Generalization of Muscle Strength Capacities as Assessed From Different Variables, Tests, and Muscle Groups.

    PubMed

    Cuk, Ivan; Prebeg, Goran; Sreckovic, Sreten; Mirkov, Dragan M; Jaric, Slobodan

    2017-02-01

    Cuk, I, Prebeg, G, Sreckovic, S, Mirkov, DM, and Jaric, S. Generalization of muscle strength capacities as assessed from different variables, tests, and muscle groups. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 305-312, 2017-The muscle strength capacities to exert force under various movement conditions have been indiscriminately assessed from various strength tests and variables applied on different muscles. We tested the hypotheses that the distinctive strength capacities would be revealed (H1) through different strength tests, and (H2) through different strength variables. Alternatively, (H3) all strength variables independent of the selected test could depict the same strength capacity of the tested muscle. Sixty subjects performed both the standard strength test and the test of alternating contractions of 6 pairs of antagonistic muscles acting in different leg and arm joints. The dependent variables obtained from each test and muscle were the maximum isometric force and the rate of force development. A confirmatory principle component analysis set to 2 factors explained 31.9% of the total variance. The factor loadings discerned between the tested arm and leg muscles, but not between the strength tests and variables. An exploratory analysis applied on the same data revealed 6 factors that explained 60.1% of the total variance. Again, the individual factors were mainly loaded by different tests and variables obtained from the same pair of antagonistic muscles. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment of the muscle strength capacity of the tested individual should be based on a single strength test and variable obtained from a number of different muscles, than on a single muscle tested through different tests and variables. The selected muscles should act in different limbs and joints, while the maximum isometric force should be the variable of choice.

  20. [THE PERCENTAGE OF BLOOD SERUM TESTS WITH HEMOLYSIS IN DIFFERENT GROUPS OF PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Moshkin, A V

    2015-06-01

    In the process of laboratory analysis most of the errors occur at the pre-analytical stage. The percentage of blood serum tests with hemolysis is largely applied as an indicator of quality of sampling and transport of blood tests in laboratory. The study was carried out to analyze percentage of tests with hemolysis in different groups of in- and out-patients. The percentage of tests with hemolysis was estimated according actual recommendation of IFCC working group "Laboratory Errors and Patient Safety" as percentage oftests with free hemoglobin more than 0.5 g/l of total amount of serum tests analyzed on biochemical analyzer capable to measure hemolysis index. The hemolysis was identified in 199 (1.4%) out of 14 170 samples. The large dispersion of results in different groups of patient was established. In children younger than 7 years treated in hospital percentage of hemolysis amounted to 2.44%, in patients of reanimation department - 2.38%. In adult patients of hospital this indicator of quality ranged from 0.31% to 1.59%. In two groups of out-patients this indicator amounted to 0.36% (clinic personnel, dispensarization) and 1.81% (out-patients). Such a dispersion complicates inter-laboratory comparison of quality according this particular indicator. The necessity is substantiated to apply more efforts concerning harmonization of indicators of quality in laboratory medicine.

  1. Planning and Decision Making about the Future Care of Older Group Home Residents and Transition to Residential Aged Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, C.; Bowers, B.; Webber, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Planning for future care after the death of parental caregivers and adapting disability support systems to achieve the best possible quality of life for people with intellectual disability as they age have been important issues for more than two decades. This study examined perceptions held by family members, group home staff and…

  2. Perceptions of Retirement Affect Career Commitment: The Mediating Role of Retirement System Satisfaction for Two Teacher Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Justin L.; Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated a sample of California elementary, intermediate, and high school employed teachers (N = 247) to assess the effects of retirement perceptions on career commitment among teachers who are in different age groupings. Using path analysis, the influence of five retirement perceptions variables was examined: concerns about…

  3. An Investigation of the Usability of the Stylus Pen for Various Age Groups on Personal Digital Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Xiangshi; Zhou, Xiaolei

    2011-01-01

    Many handheld devices with stylus pens are available in the market; however, there have been few studies which examine the effects of the size of the stylus pen on user performance and subjective preferences for handheld device interfaces for various age groups. Two experiments (pen-length experiment and pen-tip width/pen-width experiment) were…

  4. Effectiveness of a School-Based Early Intervention CBT Group Programme for Children with Anxiety Aged 5-7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruocco, Sylvia; Gordon, Jocelynne; McLean, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Early manifestations of anxiety in childhood confer significant distress and life interference. This study reports on the first controlled trial of the "Get Lost Mr. Scary" programme, a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group intervention for children with anxiety aged 5-7 years. Participants were 134 children (65 males and 69 females) drawn…

  5. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  6. EVALUATION OF TERMINAL VERTEBRAL PLATE ON CERVICAL SPINE AT DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH INTERVERTEBRAL DISC THICKNESS

    PubMed Central

    Luiz Vieira, Juliano Silveira; da Silva Herrero, Carlos Fernando Pereira; Porto, Maximiliano Aguiar; Nogueira Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Garcia, Sérgio Britto; Zambelli Ramalho, Leandra Náira; Aparecido Defino, Helton Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate, by means of histomorphometry, terminal vertebral plate thickness, intervertebral disc thickness and its correlation on different age groups, seeking to identify its correlation. Methods: C4-C5 and C5-C6 cervical segments removed from human cadavers of both genders were assessed and divided into five groups of 10-year age intervals, from 21 years old. TVP and intervertebral disc thickness evaluation was made by means of histomorphometry of histological slides stained with hematoxylin and eosyn. Lower C4 TVP, upper C5 TVP, and upper C6 TVP de were compared between each other and to the interposed intervertebral disc thickness between relevant TVP. Results: The thickness of terminal vertebral plates adjacent to the same ID did not show statistic differences. However, the comparison of upper and lower vertebral plates thickness on the same cervical vertebra (C5), showed statistical difference on all age groups studied. We found a statistical correlation coefficient above 80% between terminal vertebral plate and adjacent intervertebral disc, with a proportional thickness reduction of both structures on the different cervical levels studied, and also on the different age groups assessed. Conclusion: Terminal vertebral plate shows a morphologic correlation with the intervertebral disc next to it, and does not show correlation with the terminal vertebral plate on the same vertebra. PMID:26998448

  7. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of…

  8. Gender Differences in Physical Health and Psychosocial Well Being among Four Age-Groups of Elderly People in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, Sara; Bernstein, Judith H.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the well-established gender differences in physical and psychosocial well being in adulthood persist throughout different age groups of elderly persons, in order to support one of two opposing hypotheses: the convergence and divergence hypotheses. Data were collected by structured…

  9. Structuring Asynchronous Discussion Groups: Comparing Scripting by Assigning Roles with Regulation by Cross-Age Peer Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The present study focuses on comparing the impact of role assignment and cross-age peer tutors on students' level of knowledge construction in 15 asynchronous discussion groups of nine students each in a first-year university course (N=135). Content analysis was applied to analyse the level of knowledge construction in students' online postings.…

  10. Sudden unexpected deaths in different age groups at Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand: a retrospective autopsy study during 2003-2007.

    PubMed

    Udnoon, Jitta; Chirachariyavej, Thamrong; Peonim, Vichan

    2009-01-01

    A sudden unexpected death is considered one type of medico-legal death in Thailand. In some studies, it comprises up to 50-60% of all medico-legal deaths. In this retrospective study, data were collected from 1,460 cases of sudden unexpected deaths, 39.9% of all deaths in which a medico-legal autopsy had been carried out. The study was conducted over a 5-year period from January 2003 to December 2007. There were 1,009 males and 451 females (M:F ratio = 2.2:1). The mean age was 55.3+/-0.98 years. The peak age group was the 46-60 years accounting for 28.2% of cases. The most common cause of death in all age groups was coronary atherosclerosis. Understanding epidemiological autopsy data is vital for determining the characteristics of the population involved.

  11. Test Series 2: seismic-fragility tests of naturally-aged Class 1E Exide FHC-19 battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L. L.; Hente, D. B.; Kukreti, B. M.; Schendel, J.; Tulk, J. D.; Janis, W. J.; Black, D. A.; Paulsen, G. D.; Aucoin, B. D.

    1985-03-01

    The seismic-fragility of naturally-aged nuclear station safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and their thresholds and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the ''end-of-life'' of a battery if subjected to a seismic event. This report, the second in a test series of an extensive seismic research program, covers the testing of 10-year old lead-calcium Exide FHC-19 cells from the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station operated by the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. The Exide cells were tested in two configurations using a triaxial shake table: single-cell tests, both rigidly and loosely mounted; and multicell (three-cell) tests, mounted in a typical battery rack. A total of six electrically active cells was used in the two different cell configurations.

  12. Preferred Tone of Nutrition Text Messages for Young Adults: Focus Group Testing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Young adults are a particularly hard to reach group using conventional health promotion practices as they do not see nutrition messages as personally relevant to them. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) offers an innovative approach to reaching young adults to support and promote dietary behavior change. Objective The aim of this study was to develop and test tonal preferences for nutrition text messages among young adults using focus groups. Methods A total of 39 young adults aged 18-30 years residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in four focus groups. Participants briefly discussed their perception of healthy eating and their responses to messages about increasing fruit and vegetables, and reducing “junk food” and alcohol intake. They ranked their preference for 15 nutrition messages across 3 dietary behaviors (fruit and vegetables, junk food, and alcohol) with 5 different message tones (authoritative, empathetic, generation Y, solutions, and substitutions) and identified the messages most likely to persuade young adults to change their diet. A 5-point ranking of the nutrition messages was from the most likely to least likely to persuade (1-5). The focus groups were conducted by a trained facilitator and observer and were recorded. Data driven content analysis was used to explore themes. Tonal preferences and potential motivators were collated and frequencies presented. Results Participants ranked offering substitutes (29%, 11/39) and using empathy (22%, 9/39) as the most persuasive message techniques in improving diets of young adults, with low responses for Generation Y (17%, 7/39), solutions (17%, 7/39), and authoritative (15%, 6/39) tones. Females were more likely to consider substitution messages persuasive (35%, 7/20) compared with males (22%, 4/19). A greater proportion of males compared with females considered authoritative messages persuasive: (22%, 4/19) compared with (7%, 1/20). There is a strong preference for a

  13. Attitudes Toward Mental Health Services Among American Indians by Two Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Roh, Soonhee; Brown-Rice, Kathleen A; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Yee-Melichar, Darlene; Talbot, Elizabeth P

    2015-11-01

    This study examined determinants of attitudes toward mental health services with a sample of American Indian younger-old-adults (aged 50-64, n = 158) and American Indian older-old adults (aged 65 and older, n = 69). Adapting Andersen's behavioral model of healthcare utilization, predisposing factors, mental health needs, and enabling factors were considered as potential predictors. Female and those with higher levels of social support tend to report more positive attitudes toward mental health services. Culture-influenced personal belief was associated with negative attitudes toward mental health services among American Indian younger-old -adults. Age and higher chronic medical conditions were significantly related to negative attitudes toward mental health services. Health insurance was positively associated with positive attitudes toward mental health services in the American Indian older-old adults. Findings indicate that practitioners should engage how culture, social support, and chronic conditions influence the response to mental health needs when working with older American Indians.

  14. Focus Groups with Working Parents of School-Aged Children: What's Needed to Improve Family Meals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Rydell, Sarah; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Garwick, Ann; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Dudovitz, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To conduct focus groups to identify parents' perceptions of barriers to family meals and elucidate ideas to guide the development of interventions to overcome barriers. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 27 working parents in urban community settings. Results: Parents reported enjoying the sharing/bonding…

  15. Absolute vs. Weight-Related Maximum Oxygen Uptake in Firefighters: Fitness Evaluation with and without Protective Clothing and Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus among Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Guidetti, Laura; Cignitti, Lamberto; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    During fire emergencies, firefighters wear personal protective devices (PC) and a self-contained breathing apparatus (S.C.B.A.) to be protected from injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of aerobic level in 197 firefighters (age: 34±7 yr; BMI: 24.4±2.3 kg.m-2), evaluated by a Queen’s College Step field Test (QCST), performed with and without fire protective garments, and to analyze the differences among age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr, 31-35 yr, 36-40 yr and >40 yr). Variance analysis was applied to assess differences (p < 0.05) between tests and age groups observed in absolute and weight-related values, while a correlation was examined between QCST with and without PC+S.C.B.A. The results have shown that a 13% of firefighters failed to complete the test with PC+S.C.B.A. and significant differences between QCST performed with and without PC+S.C.B.A. in absolute (F(1,169) = 42.6, p < 0.0001) and weight-related (F(1,169) = 339.9, p < 0.0001) terms. A better correlation has been found in L•min-1 (r=0.67) than in ml•kg-1•min-1 (r=0.54). Moreover, we found significant differences among age groups both in absolute and weight-related values. The assessment of maximum oxygen uptake of firefighters in absolute term can be a useful tool to evaluate the firefighters' cardiovascular strain. PMID:25764201

  16. Absolute vs. weight-related maximum oxygen uptake in firefighters: fitness evaluation with and without protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus among age group.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Guidetti, Laura; Cignitti, Lamberto; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    During fire emergencies, firefighters wear personal protective devices (PC) and a self-contained breathing apparatus (S.C.B.A.) to be protected from injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of aerobic level in 197 firefighters (age: 34±7 yr; BMI: 24.4±2.3 kg.m-2), evaluated by a Queen's College Step field Test (QCST), performed with and without fire protective garments, and to analyze the differences among age groups (<25 yr; 26-30 yr, 31-35 yr, 36-40 yr and >40 yr). Variance analysis was applied to assess differences (p < 0.05) between tests and age groups observed in absolute and weight-related values, while a correlation was examined between QCST with and without PC+S.C.B.A. The results have shown that a 13% of firefighters failed to complete the test with PC+S.C.B.A. and significant differences between QCST performed with and without PC+S.C.B.A. in absolute (F(1,169) = 42.6, p < 0.0001) and weight-related (F(1,169) = 339.9, p < 0.0001) terms. A better correlation has been found in L•min-1 (r=0.67) than in ml•kg-1•min-1 (r=0.54). Moreover, we found significant differences among age groups both in absolute and weight-related values. The assessment of maximum oxygen uptake of firefighters in absolute term can be a useful tool to evaluate the firefighters' cardiovascular strain.

  17. Coherence of Influenza Surveillance Data across Different Sources and Age Groups, Beijing, China, 2008-2015

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yanhui; Sun, Jingyi; Qin, Guoyou; Yang, Lin; Qin, Jingning; Xiao, Zheng; Ren, Jian; Qin, Di; Wang, Xiling; Zheng, Xueying

    2016-01-01

    Influenza is active during the winter and spring in the city of Beijing, which has a typical temperate climate with four clear distinct seasons. The clinical and laboratory surveillance data for influenza have been used to construct critical indicators for influenza activities in the community, and previous studies have reported varying degrees of association between laboratory-confirmed influenza specimens and outpatient consultation rates of influenza-like illness in subtropical cities. However, few studies have reported on this issue for cities in temperate regions, especially in developing countries. Furthermore, the mechanism behind age-specific seasonal epidemics remains unresolved, although it has been widely discussed. We utilized a wavelet analysis method to monitor the coherence of weekly percentage of laboratory-confirmed influenza specimens with the weekly outpatient consultation rates of influenza-like illness in Beijing, China. We first examined the seasonal pattern of laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza A (subtyped into seasonal A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) and pandemic virus A(H1N1) pdm09) and influenza B separately within the period from 2008–2015; then, we detected the coherence of clinical and laboratory surveillance data in this district, specially examining weekly time series of age-specific epidemics of influenza-like illnesses in the whole study period for three age categories (age 0–5, 5–15 and 25–60). We found that influenza A and B were both active in winter but were not always seasonally synchronous in Beijing. Synchronization between age ranges was found in most epidemic peaks from 2008–2015. Our findings suggested that peaks of influenza-like illness in individuals aged 0–5 and 5–15 years consistently appeared ahead of those of adults, implying the possibility that schoolchildren may lead epidemic fluctuations. PMID:28036373

  18. PROGRESSIVE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF HUMAN CORTICAL BONE IN TENSION FOR TWO AGE GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Jeffry S.; Roy, Anuradha; Reyes, Michael J.; Wang, Xiaodu

    2007-01-01

    The capacity of bone for post-yield energy dissipation decreases with age. To gain information on the cause of such changes, we examined the mechanical behavior of human cadaveric bone as a function of progressive deformation. In this study, tensile specimens from tibiae of 9 middle aged and 8 elderly donors were loaded till failure in an incremental and cyclic (load-dwell-unload-dwell-reload) scheme. The elastic modulus, maximum stress, permanent strain, stress relaxation, viscoelastic time constant, plastic strain energy, elastic release strain energy, and hysteresis energy were determined at incremental strains of each loading cycle. Experimental results showed that elderly bone failed at much lower strains compared to middle aged bone, but little age-related differences were observed in the mechanical behavior of bone until the premature failure of elderly bone. Energy dissipation and permanent strain appeared to linearly increase with increasing strain, while non-linear changes occurred in the modulus loss and stress relaxation/time constant with increasing strain. Such changes suggest that two distinct stages may exist in the progressive deformation of bone. In Stage I, rapid damage accumulation and increased involvement of collagen in load bearing appeared to dominate the mechanical behavior of bone with limited energy dissipation (<20% of total energy dissipated), whereas Stage II is dominated by continuous plastic deformation, accompanied by major energy dissipation through all three pathways till failure. This study suggests that damaging mechanisms in bone vary with deformation and age affects the post-yield mechanisms causing a significant decline in the capacity of aged bone to dissipate energy. PMID:18437693

  19. Causes of dysphagia among different age groups: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Roden, Dylan F; Altman, Kenneth W

    2013-12-01

    Dysphagia is a common problem that has the potential to result in severe complications such as malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. Based on the complexity of swallowing, there may be many different causes. This article presents a systematic literature review to assess different comorbid disease associations with dysphagia based on age. The causes of dysphagia are different depending on age, affecting between 1.7% and 11.3% of the general population. Dysphagia can be a symptom representing disorders pertinent to any specialty of medicine. This review can be used to aid in the diagnosis of patients presenting with the complaint of dysphagia.

  20. A Preliminary Study of the Validity of Memory Tests Recommended by the Working Group for Individuals with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyo, G.; Kripakaran, K.; Curtis, K.; Curtis, R.; Markwell, S.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Normal aging and Dementia of Alzheimer's Type (DAT) among higher functioning individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have been relatively well studied using a variety of cognitive tests. However, cognitive studies for lower functioning individuals with ID are scarce in the literature. The Working Group recommended the Test…

  1. Service Lifetime Estimation of EPDM Rubber Based on Accelerated Aging Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Li, Xiangbo; Xu, Likun; He, Tao

    2017-02-01

    Service lifetime of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber at room temperature (25 °C) was estimated based on accelerated aging tests. The study followed sealing stress loss on compressed cylinder samples by compression stress relaxation methods. The results showed that the cylinder samples of EPDM can quickly reach the physical relaxation equilibrium by using the over-compression method. The non-Arrhenius behavior occurred at the lowest aging temperature. A significant linear relationship was observed between compression set values and normalized stress decay results, and the relationship was not related to the ambient temperature of aging. It was estimated that the sealing stress loss in view of practical application would occur after around 86.8 years at 25 °C. The estimations at 25 °C based on the non-Arrhenius behavior were in agreement with compression set data from storage aging tests in natural environment.

  2. Ethylene propylene cable degradation during LOCA research tests: tensile properties at the completion of accelerated aging

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.

    1982-05-01

    Six ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) insulation materials were aged at elevated temperature and radiation stress exposures common in cable LOCA qualification tests. Material samples were subjected to various simultaneous and sequential aging simulations in preparation for accident environmental exposures. Tensile properties subsequent to the aging exposure sequences are reported. The tensile properties of some, but not all, specimens were sensitive to the order of radiation and elevated temperature stress exposure. Other specimens showed more severe degradation when simultaneously exposed to radiation and elevated temperature as opposed to the sequential exposure to the same stresses. Results illustrate the difficulty in defining a single test procedure for nuclear safety-related qualification of EPR elastomers. A common worst-case sequential aging sequence could not be identified.

  3. Test-Retest Reliability of the 10-Metre Fast Walk Test and 6-Minute Walk Test in Ambulatory School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Patricia; Beath, Tricia; Bell, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Gabrielle; Phair, Tegan; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, F. Virginia

    2008-01-01

    Short-term test-retest reliability of the 10-metre fast walk test (10mFWT) and 6-minute walk test (6MWT) was evaluated in 31 ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP), with subgroup analyses in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) Levels I (n=9), II (n=8), and III (n=14). Sixteen females and 15 males participated, mean age 9 years…

  4. Testing Group Differences in Brain Functional Connectivity: Using Correlations or Partial Correlations?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junghi; Wozniak, Jeffrey R.; Mueller, Bryon A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging allows one to study brain functional connectivity, partly motivated by evidence that patients with complex disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, may have altered functional brain connectivity patterns as compared with healthy subjects. A functional connectivity network describes statistical associations of the neural activities among distinct and distant brain regions. Recently, there is a major interest in group-level functional network analysis; however, there is a relative lack of studies on statistical inference, such as significance testing for group comparisons. In particular, it is still debatable which statistic should be used to measure pairwise associations as the connectivity weights. Many functional connectivity studies have used either (full or marginal) correlations or partial correlations for pairwise associations. This article investigates the performance of using either correlations or partial correlations for testing group differences in brain connectivity, and how sparsity levels and topological structures of the connectivity would influence statistical power to detect group differences. Our results suggest that, in general, testing group differences in networks deviates from estimating networks. For example, high regularization in both covariance matrices and precision matrices may lead to higher statistical power; in particular, optimally selected regularization (e.g., by cross-validation or even at the true sparsity level) on the precision matrices with small estimation errors may have low power. Most importantly, and perhaps surprisingly, using either correlations or partial correlations may give very different testing results, depending on which of the covariance matrices and the precision matrices are sparse. Specifically, if the precision matrices are sparse, presumably and arguably a reasonable assumption, then using correlations often yields much higher powered and more

  5. Comparing the interface pressure redistribution of three different types of cushions: differences according to age groups and cushion preferences

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Su; Lee, Sang-Heon

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the change in interface pressure redistribution of three different types of cushions sat on by individuals in their 20s and older than 60 years old. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred and eleven college students and 100 persons than 60 years old were recruited. Sitting pressure redistribution was measured while subjects sat without cushions or on honeycomb, air, and memory foam cushions in that order. Subsequently, the cushion preference was measured. After obtaining all measurements, the mean total pressure and each quadrant’s mean and peak pressure were analyzed. [Results] The mean hip and the peak pressures were low in the group of females aged 60 years or older, and the highest in the group of males in their 20s. The hip pressure ratio was low in the groups of females in their 20s and 60 years or older, whereas the thigh pressure ratio was high in the same groups. The analysis of cushion preference showed that the groups of males (42.0%) and females (40.0%) in their 20s mostly preferred air cushion. The men (55.1%) and women (50.0%) aged 20 years or older selected honeycomb and air cushions as the first and third preferred cushions with a high response rate. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that gender and age should be considered when recommending appropriate pressure redistribution cushions. PMID:28210039

  6. Adopted cognitive tests for gerbils: validation by studying ageing and ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wappler, Edina A; Szilágyi, Géza; Gál, Anikó; Skopál, Judit; Nyakas, Csaba; Nagy, Zoltán; Felszeghy, Klára

    2009-04-20

    Transient occlusion of common carotid arteries in gerbils is a simple and widely used model for assessing histological and functional consequences of transient forebrain ischemia and neuroprotective action of pharmaceuticals. In the present study we aimed to introduce additional behavioural tests as novel object recognition and food-motivated hole-board learning in order to measure attention and learning capacity in gerbils. For validating these cognitive tests the effects of ageing (4, 9 and 18 months) and those of transient forebrain ischemia induced by bilateral carotid occlusion at 9 months of age were investigated. Neuronal cell death was estimated in the hippocampus using TUNEL and caspase-3 double fluorescence labelling and confocal microscopy. Ageing within the selected range although influenced ambulatory activity, did not considerably change attention and memory functions of gerbils. As a result of transient ischemia a selective neuronal damage in CA1 and CA2 regions of the hippocampus has been observed and tested 4 days after the insult. Ischemic gerbils became hyperactive, but showed decreased attention and impaired spatial memory functions as compared to sham-operated controls. According to our results the novel object recognition paradigm and the hole-board spatial learning test could reliably be added to the battery of conventional behavioural tests applied previously in this species. The novel tests can be performed within a wide interval of adult age and provide useful additional methods for assessing ischemia-induced cognitive impairment in gerbils.

  7. Age-related changes in human posture control: Motor coordination tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.

    1989-01-01

    Postural responses to support surface displacements were measured in 214 normal human subjects ranging in age from 7 to 81 years. Motor tests measured leg muscle Electromyography (EMG) latencies, body sway, and the amplitude and timing of changes in center of pressure displacements in response to sudden forward and backward horizontal translations of the support surface upon which the subjects stood. There were small increases in both EMG latencies and the time to reach the peak amplitude of center of pressure responses with increasing age. The amplitude of center of pressure responses showed little change with age if the amplitude measures were normalized by a factor related to subject height. In general, postural responses to sudden translations showed minimal changes with age, and all age related trends which were identified were small relative to the variability within the population.

  8. Age-related differences in strategy knowledge updating: blocked testing produces greater improvements in metacognitive accuracy for younger than older adults.

    PubMed

    Price, Jodi; Hertzog, Christopher; Dunlosky, John

    2008-09-01

    Age-related differences in updating knowledge about strategy effectiveness after task experience have not been consistently found, perhaps because the magnitude of observed knowledge updating has been rather meager for both age groups. We examined whether creating homogeneous blocks of recall tests based on two strategies used at encoding (imagery and repetition) would enhance people's learning about strategy effects on recall. Younger and older adults demonstrated greater knowledge updating (as measured by questionnaire ratings of strategy effectiveness and by global judgments of performance) with blocked (versus random) testing. The benefit of blocked testing for absolute accuracy of global predictions was smaller for older than younger adults. However, individual differences in correlations of strategy effectiveness ratings and postdictions showed similar upgrades for both age groups. Older adults learn about imagery's superior effectiveness but do not accurately estimate the magnitude of its benefit, even after blocked testing.

  9. Age-related Differences in Strategy Knowledge Updating: Blocked Testing Produces Greater Improvements in Metacognitive Accuracy for Younger than Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jodi; Hertzog, Christopher; Dunlosky, John

    2008-01-01

    Age-related differences in updating knowledge about strategy effectiveness after task experience have not been consistently found, perhaps because the magnitude of observed knowledge updating has been rather meager for both age groups. We examined whether creating homogeneous blocks of recall tests based on two strategies used at encoding (imagery and repetition) would enhance people’s learning about strategy effects on recall. Younger and older adults demonstrated greater knowledge updating (as measured by questionnaire ratings of strategy effectiveness and by global judgments of performance) with blocked (vs. random) testing. The benefit of blocked testing for absolute accuracy of global predictions was smaller for older than younger adults. However, individual differences in correlations of strategy effectiveness ratings and postdictions showed similar upgrades for both age groups. Older adults learn about imagery’s superior effectiveness but do not accurately estimate the magnitude of its benefit, even after blocked testing. PMID:18608048

  10. Act Smart. HIV/AIDS Education Curriculum for Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.

    This Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education curriculum was developed for boys and girls, ages 6 to 17 years. It is a supplement to a similar program, "SMART Moves," aimed at prevention of drug abuse and premature sexual activity. The Act SMART prevention team should consist of a staff…

  11. Intraoperative cholangiography. A review of indications and analysis of age-sex groups.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, S B; Lerner, H J; Leifer, E D; Lindheim, S R

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective review was performed of patients who had biliary tract stone formation as the primary diagnosis for hospitalization and indication for surgery. Five hundred and eighty-nine consecutive charts were reviewed of patients admitted between 1975 and 1979. Intraoperative cholangiography was performed in 166 patients of whom 22 had common duct exploration. Choledochotomy in this series was performed in 63 cases without utilizing pre-exploratory cholangiography. A normal intraoperative cholangiogram was found to be 100% accurate; however, an abnormal cholangiogram was associated with a 16% false positive rate of exploration of the common duct. The incidence of unsuspected common duct stones detected only by intraoperative cholangiography was 2.3%. Age-sex analysis confirms a 10-year mean age difference between men and women within the population of this study (p less than 0.001). This age-sex difference is maintained in patients without common duct pathology as well as in patients with sterile bile. However, the mean age difference between male and female patients with either demonstrable common duct obstruction by stones or infected bile as determined by routine intraoperative culture is not statistically significant. A review of the role of intraoperative cholangiography, and the experience at Northeastern Hospital is discussed. PMID:6639173

  12. Predicting the location of the hip joint centres, impact of age group and sex

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Reiko; McGinley, Jennifer; Briggs, Chris; Baker, Richard; Sangeux, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical gait analysis incorporating three-dimensional motion analysis plays a key role in planning surgical treatments in people with gait disability. The position of the Hip Joint Centre (HJC) within the pelvis is thus critical to ensure accurate data interpretation. The position of the HJC is determined from regression equations based on anthropometric measurements derived from relatively small datasets. Current equations do not take sex or age into account, even though pelvis shape is known to differ between sex, and gait analysis is performed in populations with wide range of age. Three dimensional images of 157 deceased individuals (37 children, 120 skeletally matured) were collected with computed tomography. The location of the HJC within the pelvis was determined and regression equations to locate the HJC were developed using various anthropometrics predictors. We determined if accuracy improved when age and sex were introduced as variables. Statistical analysis did not support differentiating the equations according to sex. We found that age only modestly improved accuracy. We propose a range of new regression equations, derived from the largest dataset collected for this purpose to date. PMID:27883044

  13. Protein intake and exercise for optimal muscle function with aging: recommendations from the ESPEN Expert Group.

    PubMed

    Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Bauer, Jürgen M; Barazzoni, Rocco; Biolo, Gianni; Boirie, Yves; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Cederholm, Tommy; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso; Krznariç, Zeljko; Nair, K Sreekumaran; Singer, Pierre; Teta, Daniel; Tipton, Kevin; Calder, Philip C

    2014-12-01

    The aging process is associated with gradual and progressive loss of muscle mass along with lowered strength and physical endurance. This condition, sarcopenia, has been widely observed with aging in sedentary adults. Regular aerobic and resistance exercise programs have been shown to counteract most aspects of sarcopenia. In addition, good nutrition, especially adequate protein and energy intake, can help limit and treat age-related declines in muscle mass, strength, and functional abilities. Protein nutrition in combination with exercise is considered optimal for maintaining muscle function. With the goal of providing recommendations for health care professionals to help older adults sustain muscle strength and function into older age, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) hosted a Workshop on Protein Requirements in the Elderly, held in Dubrovnik on November 24 and 25, 2013. Based on the evidence presented and discussed, the following recommendations are made (a) for healthy older people, the diet should provide at least 1.0-1.2 g protein/kg body weight/day, (b) for older people who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition because they have acute or chronic illness, the diet should provide 1.2-1.5 g protein/kg body weight/day, with even higher intake for individuals with severe illness or injury, and (c) daily physical activity or exercise (resistance training, aerobic exercise) should be undertaken by all older people, for as long as possible.

  14. The Evolution of a Therapeutic Group Approach to School-Age Pregnant Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braen, Bernard B.

    This report evaluates the Young Mothers' Educational Development Program sponsored by the State University of New York, for pregnant girls between the ages of 16 and 21. The program provided needed services in the areas of obstetrics, pediatrics, education, social work, nursing, and psychology. The girls were Black, Caucasian, and Indian.…

  15. Stratified at Seven: In-Class Ability Grouping and the Relative Age Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    There is an established body of evidence indicating that a pupil's relative age within their school year cohort is associated with academic attainment throughout compulsory education. In England, autumn-born pupils consistently attain at higher levels than summer-born pupils. Analysis here investigates a possible channel of this relative age…

  16. Characteristics of Talented Dancers and Age Group Differences: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Imogen J.; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.; Redding, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the characteristics of talented dancers in relation to age. Physical (handgrip muscular strength, leg muscular power, hamstring flexibility and external hip rotation), psychological (passion, self-esteem and anxiety) and social (the motivational climate) characteristics were assessed in 334 students enrolled…

  17. The Hierarchical Factor Model of ADHD: Invariant across Age and National Groupings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Sorge, Geoff B.; Flora, David B.; Chen, Wai; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Franke, Barbara; Gill, Michael; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Thompson, Margaret; Tannock, Rosemary; Asherson, Philip; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factor structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of 1,373 children and adolescents with ADHD and their 1,772 unselected siblings recruited from different countries across a large age range. Hierarchical and correlated factor analytic models were compared separately in the ADHD and…

  18. Protein intake and exercise for optimal muscle function with aging: Recommendations from the ESPEN Expert Group

    PubMed Central

    Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.; Bauer, Jurgen M.; Barazzoni, Rocco; Biolo, Gianni; Boirie, Yves; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Cederholm, Tommy; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso; Krznaric, Zeljko; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Singer, Pierre; Teta, Daniel; Tipton, Kevin; Calder, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    The aging process is associated with gradual and progressive loss of muscle mass along with lowered strength and physical endurance. This condition, sarcopenia, has been widely observed with aging in sedentary adults. Regular aerobic and resistance exercise programs have been shown to counteract most aspects of sarcopenia. In addition, good nutrition, especially adequate protein and energy intake, can help limit and treat age-related declines in muscle mass, strength, and functional abilities. Protein nutrition in combination with exercise is considered optimal for maintaining muscle function. With the goal of providing recommendations for health care professionals to help older adults sustain muscle strength and function into older age, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) hosted a Workshop on Protein Requirements in the Elderly, held in Dubrovnik on November 24 and 25, 2013. Based on the evidence presented and discussed, the following recommendations are made: (1) for healthy older people, the diet should provide at least 1.0 to 1.2 g protein/kg body weight/day (2) for older people who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition because they have acute or chronic illness, the diet should provide 1.2 to 1.5 g protein/kg body weight/day, with even higher intake for individuals with severe illness or injury, and (3) daily physical activity or exercise (resistance training, aerobic exercise) should be undertaken by all older people, for as long as possible. PMID:24814383

  19. Reserve capacity of the elderly in aging-sensitive tests of fluid intelligence: replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Baltes, P B; Dittmann-Kohli, F; Kliegl, R

    1986-06-01

    Fluid intelligence belongs to that cluster of intellectual abilities evincing aging loss. To examine further the range of intellectual reserve available to aging individuals and the question of replicability in a new cultural and laboratory setting, 204 healthy older adults (mean age = 72 years; range = 60-86) participated in a short-term longitudinal training study. For experimental subjects, 10 sessions consisted of cognitive training involving two subability tests (Figural Relations, Induction) of fluid intelligence. The pattern of outcomes replicates and expands on earlier studies. Older adults have the reserve to evince substantial increases in levels of performance in fluid intelligence tests. Transfer of training, however, is narrow in scope. Training also increases accuracy of performance and the ability to solve more difficult test items. Difficulty level was estimated in a separate study, with a comparable sample of N = 112 elderly adults. Future research is suggested to examine whether intellectual reserve extends to near-maximum levels of performance.

  20. Do anxiety and depression cluster into distinct groups?: a test of tripartite model predictions in a community sample of youth.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Melinda F; Weems, Carl F

    2006-01-01

    Because of their high comorbidity and strong associations, the distinctiveness of anxiety and depression in youth continues to be debated. In this study we used cluster analysis in a community sample (n=225) of youth to test tripartite model predictions regarding the grouping of individuals based on their levels of anxiety and depression symptoms. Findings were consistent with tripartite model predictions that four groups would emerge (primarily elevated on anxiety symptoms only, elevated on depression symptoms only, elevated on both anxiety and depression symptoms, and a low symptom group). Analyses using specific tripartite model variables and parent report of internalizing symptoms provided additional support for the groupings and tripartite model predictions. Across age groupings, the clustering of anxiety and depression symptoms was consistent with some hypothesized developmental differences in the expression of internalizing symptoms in youth. Findings add support for the tripartite model in youth, and support the idea that anxiety and depression do represent unique syndromes in youth. Depression and Anxiety 23:453-460, 2006. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Testing the applicability of six macroscopic skeletal aging techniques on a modern Southeast Asian sample.

    PubMed

    Gocha, Timothy P; Ingvoldstad, Megan E; Kolatorowicz, Adam; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Meghan-Tomasita J; Sciulli, Paul W

    2015-04-01

    Most macroscopic skeletal aging techniques used by forensic anthropologists have been developed and tested only on reference material from western populations. This study examined the performance of six aging techniques on a known age sample of 88 Southeast Asian individuals. Methods examined included the Suchey-Brooks method of aging the symphyseal face of the os pubis (Brooks and Suchey, Hum. Evol. 5 (1990) 227), Buckberry and Chamberlain's, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 119 (2002) 231 and Osborne et al.'s, J. Forensic Sci. 49 (2004) 1 revisions of the Lovejoy et al., Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 68 (1985) 15 method of aging the auricular surface of the ilium, İşcan et al.'s, J. Forensic Sci. 29 (1984) 1094, İşcan et al.'s, J. Forensic Sci. 30 (1985) 853 method of aging the sternal end of the fourth rib, and Meindl and Lovejoy's, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 68 (1985) 57 methods for aging both lateral-anterior and vault sutures on the cranium. The results of this study indicate that application of aging techniques commonly used in forensic anthropology to individuals identified as Asian, and more specifically Southeast Asian, should not be undertaken injudiciously. Of the six individual methods tested here, the Suchey-Brooks pubic symphysis aging method performs best, though average age estimates were still off by nearly 10 years or greater. Methods for aging the auricular surface perform next best, though the Osborne et al. method works better for individuals below 50 years and the Buckberry and Chamberlain method works better for those above 50 years. Methods for age estimation from the sternal ends of the fourth rib and vault and lateral-anterior cranial sutures perform poorly and are not recommended for use on remains of Southeast Asian ancestry. Combining age estimates from multiple indicators, specifically the pubic symphysis and one auricular surface method, was superior to individual methods. Data and a worked example are provided for calculating the conditional

  2. Sixth Status Report: Testing of Aged Softwood Fiberboard Material for the 9975 Shipping Package

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2015-03-31

    Samples have been prepared from several 9975 lower fiberboard subassemblies fabricated from softwood fiberboard. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. Some softwood fiberboard properties tend to degrade faster in some environments, while some cane fiberboard properties degrade faster in the two most aggressive environments. As a result, it is premature to assume both materials will age at the same rates, and the preliminary aging models developed for cane fiberboard might not apply to softwood fiberboard. However, it is expected that both cane and softwood fiberboard assemblies will perform satisfactorily in conforming packages stored in a typical KAC storage environment for up to 15 years. Samples from an additional 3 softwood fiberboard assemblies have begun aging during the past year to provide information on the variability of softwood fiberboard behavior. Aging and testing of softwood fiberboard will continue and additional data will be collected to support development of an aging model specific to softwood fiberboard.

  3. Research and Teaching: Aligning Assessment to Instruction--Collaborative Group Testing in Large- Enrollment Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Marcelle; Roberts, Tina M.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Izci, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a collaborative group-testing strategy implemented and studied in undergraduate science classes. This project investigated how the assessment strategy relates to student performance and perceptions about collaboration and focused on two sections of an undergraduate biotechnology course taught in separate semesters.

  4. Testing Measurement Invariance of the Students' Affective Characteristics Model across Gender Sub-Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Ergül

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to construct a significant structural measurement model comparing students' affective characteristics with their mathematic achievement. According to this model, the aim was to test the measurement invariances between gender sub-groups hierarchically. This study was conducted as basic and descriptive research. Secondary…

  5. Testing Measurement Invariance: A Comparison of Multiple-Group Categorical CFA and IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun Sook; Yoon, Myeongsun

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated two major approaches in testing measurement invariance for ordinal measures: multiple-group categorical confirmatory factor analysis (MCCFA) and item response theory (IRT). Unlike the ordinary linear factor analysis, MCCFA can appropriately model the ordered-categorical measures with a threshold structure. A simulation…

  6. CONSTRUCTION OF A GENERAL GROUP TEST FOR PUERTO RICAN STUDENTS IN THE ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROCA, PABLO

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED TO DEVELOP A GROUP TEST OF GENERAL ABILITY WHICH WILL ACCURATELY ASSESS THE INTELLECTUAL CAPACITIES OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY STUDENTS IN THE PUERTO RICAN SCHOOLS. THE OBJECTIVES WERE--(1) TO DETERMINE WHAT COMMON INTELLECTUAL TASKS INDICATE MENTAL ABILITY IN SPANISH-SPEAKING PUERTO RICAN AND OTHER ENGLISH-SPEAKING AMERICAN…

  7. Focus Groups and Usability Testing in Redesigning an Academic Library's Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldham, Bonnie W.

    2008-01-01

    As the World Wide Web has advanced since its inception, librarians have endeavored to keep pace with this progress in the design of their library Web pages. User recommendations collected from focus groups and usability testing have indicated that the University of Scranton's Weinberg Memorial Library's Web site was not working as intended, and…

  8. Scholars Probe Diverse Effects of Exit Exams: State Graduation Tests Found to Hit Certain Groups Harder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    A study released last week suggesting that California's high school exit exams are affecting some student demographic groups more than others is the latest in a small spate of studies pointing to trade-offs from policies that require high school students to pass state tests to graduate. Twenty-six states have exit exams in place or will by 2012,…

  9. Seismic-fragility tests of new and accelerated-aged Class 1E battery cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L.L.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged nuclear station safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the potential survivability of a battery given a seismic event. Prior reports in this series discussed the seismic-fragility tests and results for three specific naturally-aged cell types: 12-year old NCX-2250, 10-year old LCU-13, and 10-year old FHC-19. This report focuses on the complementary approach, namely, the seismic-fragility response of accelerated-aged batteries. Of particular interest is the degree to which such approaches accurately reproduce the actual failure modes and thresholds. In these tests the significant aging effects observed, in terms of seismic survivability, were: embrittlement of cell cases, positive bus material and positive plate grids; and excessive sulphation of positive plate active material causing hardening and expansion of positive plates. The IEEE Standard 535 accelerated aging method successfully reproduced seismically significant aging effects in new cells but accelerated grid embrittlement an estimated five years beyond the conditional age of other components.

  10. Performance testing of aged hydrogen getters against criteria for interim safe storage of plutonium bearing materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Nissen, April; Buffleben, George M.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen getters were tested for use in storage of plutonium-bearing materials in accordance with DOE's Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium Bearing Materials. The hydrogen getter HITOP was aged for 3 months at 70 C and tested under both recombination and hydrogenation conditions at 20 and 70 C; partially saturated and irradiated aged getter samples were also tested. The recombination reaction was found to be very fast and well above the required rate of 45 std. cc H2h. The gettering reaction, which is planned as the backup reaction in this deployment, is slower and may not meet the requirements alone. Pressure drop measurements and {sup 1}H NMR analyses support these conclusions. Although the experimental conditions do not exactly replicate the deployment conditions, the results of our conservative experiments are clear: the aged getter shows sufficient reactivity to maintain hydrogen concentrations below the flammability limit, between the minimum and maximum deployment temperatures, for three months. The flammability risk is further reduced by the removal of oxygen through the recombination reaction. Neither radiation exposure nor thermal aging sufficiently degrades the getter to be a concern. Future testing to evaluate performance for longer aging periods is in progress.

  11. [Solving of Revesh-Krushinsky test by animals of different taxonomic groups].

    PubMed

    Pleskacheva, M G; Zorina, Z A

    2012-01-01

    There has been compared behavior of rats, corvid birds, and primates of different species at their performance of the Revesh-Krushinsky test (RKT) developed by L. V. Krushinsky to extimate the human capability for revealing rule of discrete translocation of hidden target object. RKT was introduced as an addition to the test for extrapolation of the movement direction of the bait seen only at the initial pathway fragment; this test is close to Piaget's tests (stage 6) evaluating the capability for mental representation and determination of location of the moving hidden object. During RKT, the bait, hidden from the animals, was placed, near where it was previous time: at the first test presentation--under the 1st cylinder, at the 2nd one--under the 2nd cylinder, etc. The animals were tested once. It was shown that they did not catch the necessary for successful solution rule of the bait translocation, direction and step of its translocation in each presentation. Only some of the animals solved RKT, found the bait 3 and more times in succession with no errors or with one error. Nevertheless, in all groups the number of errors was lower than that in the model situation of random search. Such optimization was a consequence of universal for all groups strategy of search in the places where the bait was found recently. With the similar number of errors, rats, birds, and monkeys performed the search differently. Rats were looking for bait mainly among the cylinders where they had found it previously, whereas monkeys and birds chosen the first the new cylinders located near the target one, which implies the existence, to the weak extent, of elements of prognosis. For all groups of animals, RKT turned out to be more difficult both of the test for extrapolation and the Piaget's test.

  12. Application of differential similarity to finding nondimensional groups important in tests of cooled engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sucec, J.

    1977-01-01

    The method of differential similarity is applied to the partial differential equations and boundary conditions which govern the temperature, velocity, and pressure fields in the flowing gases and the solid stationary components in air-cooled engines. This procedure yields the nondimensional groups which must have the same value in both the test rig and the engine to produce similarity between the test results and the engine performance. These results guide the experimentalist in the design and selection of test equipment that properly scales quantities to actual engine conditions. They also provide a firm fundamental foundation for substantiation of previous similarity analyses which employed heuristic, physical reasoning arguments to arrive at the nondimensional groups.

  13. Considerations on photochemical genotoxicity: report of the International Workshop on Genotoxicity Test Procedures Working Group.

    PubMed

    Gocke, E; Müller, L; Guzzie, P J; Brendler-Schwaab, S; Bulera, S; Chignell, C F; Henderson, L M; Jacobs, A; Murli, H; Snyder, R D; Tanaka, N

    2000-01-01

    Recent toxicological observations have caused concern regarding the need to test, for example, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic products for photochemical genotoxicity. The objective of this report is to give assistance on how to adapt existing test methods to investigate the potential of light-absorbing compounds to induce genotoxic effects on photoactivation. In general, the Organization for Economic Co-Operation & Economic Development (OECD) draft guideline on in vitro phototoxicity testing served as a basis for consideration. Concomitant exposure of the cells to the test compound and solar simulated light was considered appropriate as the initial, basic test condition. Optimization of the exposure scheme, e.g., a change of the irradiation spectrum, might be indicated depending on the initial test results. Selection of test compound concentrations should be based on results obtained with the dark version of the respective test system but might have to be modified if phototoxic effects are observed. Selection of the irradiation dose has to be performed individually for each test system based on dose-effect studies. The irradiation should induce per se a small, reproducible toxic or genotoxic effect. The report includes a specification of necessary controls, discusses factors that might have an impact on the irradiation characteristics, and gives a rationale for the omission of an external metabolic activation system. It also addresses the question that physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties might trigger the need to test a chemical for photochemical genotoxicity. Relevant experimental observations are presented to back up the recommendations. The working group did not reach a consensus as to whether a single, adequately perfomed in vitro test for clastogenicity would be sufficient to exclude a photogenotoxic liability or whether a test battery including a gene mutation assay would be needed for product safety testing regarding photochemical genotoxicity.

  14. Two experimental tests of the relationship between group stability and aggressive conflict in Polistes wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A.; Reeve, Hudson Kern

    2008-05-01

    Two field experiments were used to examine how the relative benefits of cooperation influence within-group conflict in foundress associations of the paper wasp Polistes dominulus. P. dominulus foundresses can either nest alone or cooperate with other foundresses. We experimentally manipulated the relative benefits of co-foundress associations vs independent reproduction and tested the effect on aggressive within-group conflict. First, we examined aggression between alpha and beta co-foundresses before and after lower-ranking foundresses were removed. Removal of subordinates increases the relative contributions of the remaining subordinates to group reproductive output as there are fewer adults to care for the brood. Transactional models predict that group conflict over reproductive shares will increase as the relative benefits of grouping increase. As predicted, aggression between the co-foundresses significantly increased following subordinate removal. Second, we experimentally reduced ecological constraints on independent nesting by placing a previously orphaned, adoptable nest comb near the occupied nests. Providing an independent breeding opportunity is predicted to increase the benefits of independent reproduction relative to those of cooperating, thereby reducing group stability and aggression. As predicted, aggression between dominant and subordinate foundresses significantly decreased after the orphaned comb was presented. Therefore, group members sense variation in ecological constraints and relative productivity contributions and quickly modulate their behavior in response. Overall, these two experiments suggest that paper wasps behave as if within-group competition is limited by the threat of group dissolution such that stable groups where cooperation is strongly favored can withstand higher levels of conflict than unstable groups.

  15. Clinical Implications of Obstructed Hemivagina and Ipsilateral Renal Anomaly (OHVIRA) Syndrome in the Prepubertal Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jang Hee; Lee, Yong Seung; Im, Young Jae; Kim, Sang Woon; Lee, Mi-Jung; Han, Sang Won

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly (OHVIRA) syndrome is a rare syndrome characterized by Müllerian duct and renal anomalies. It is usually regarded as a disease of adolescence; however, due to a number of possible problems, the management of patients before puberty should not be overlooked. We assessed the clinical course of prepubertal patients to propose appropriate management. Materials and Methods We retrospectively assessed 43 prepubertal OHVIRA syndrome patients who were diagnosed and followed up at our institution from July 2004 to June 2015. We reviewed medical records, focusing on presentation, radiologic findings, surgical management, and the overall clinical course. Results Median age at diagnosis was 1.3 months and median follow-up period was 25.5 months. The most common accompanying ipsilateral urologic anomalies were ectopic ureter and ureterocele, while the most common contralateral anomaly was vesicoureteral reflux. During the follow-up period, six patients (14.0%) required surgery at a median age of 31.2 months due to recurrent urinary tract infection, uncontrolled vaginal distention compressing adjacent organs, urinary incontinence, or intractable abdominal pain. Conclusions While OHVIRA syndrome is known as a postpubertal disease, about 13% of prepubertal patients in our study required surgery. When ectopic ureter insertion into the vagina is present, further treatment may be needed to address the complications caused by continuous urine production. Patients should be monitored for complications arising from either obstructed hemivagina or renal anomalies with regular follow-up, especially before the age of five years. PMID:27861623

  16. Validating the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale: testing factor structure and measurement invariance across child gender and age in a Dutch sample.

    PubMed

    Koomen, Helma M Y; Verschueren, Karine; van Schooten, Erik; Jak, Suzanne; Pianta, Robert C

    2012-04-01

    The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) is widely used to examine teachers' relationships with young students in terms of closeness, conflict, and dependency. This study aimed to verify the dimensional structure of the STRS with confirmatory factor analysis, test its measurement invariance across child gender and age, improve its measurement of the dependency construct, and extend its age range. Teachers completed a slightly adapted STRS for a Dutch sample of 2335 children aged 3 to 12. Overall, the 3-factor model showed an acceptable fit. Results indicated metric invariance across gender and age up to 8years. Scalar invariance generally did not hold. Lack of metric invariance at ages 8 to 12 primarily involved Conflict items, whereas scale differences across gender and age primarily involved Closeness items. The adapted Dependency scale showed strong invariance and higher internal consistencies than the original scale for this Dutch sample. Importantly, the revealed non-invariance for gender and age did not influence mean group comparisons.

  17. Archean Age Fossils from Northwestern Australia (Approximately 3.3 to 3.5 GA, Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Penny A. Morris

    1999-01-01

    Archean aged rocks from the Pilbara Block area of western Australia (Warrawoona Group, Towers Formation, -3.3-3.5 Ga) contain microfossils that are composed of various sizes of spheres and filaments. The first descriptions of these microfossils were published in the late 1970's (Dunlop, 1978; Dunlop, et. al., 1978). The authenticity of the microfossils is well established. The small size of the microfossils prevents isotope dating, at least with the present technology. Microbiologists, however, have established guidelines to determine the authenticity of the Archean aged organic remains (Schopf, Walter, 1992).

  18. The moderating role of sexual identity in group teletherapy for adults aging with HIV.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Bernadette Davantes; Lovejoy, Travis I; Heckman, Timothy G; Anderson, Timothy; Grimes, Tiffany; Sutton, Mark; Bianco, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    Older adults living with HIV/AIDS experience high rates of depression and suicidal ideation but are less likely than their younger counterparts to seek psychological services. HIV continues to disproportionately impact older men who have sex with men (MSM), many of whom were infected in their 20s and 30s. This study examined whether therapy attendance rates and the efficacies of two group-format teletherapies for the treatment of depression (coping effectiveness group training and supportive-expressive group therapy) were comparable for older MSM and older heterosexuals living with HIV. Intervention-outcome analyses found that older MSM and older heterosexuals living with HIV attended comparable numbers of teletherapy sessions. Older heterosexuals living with HIV who received telephone-administered supportive-expressive group therapy reported significantly greater reductions in depressive symptoms than SOC controls. A similar pattern was not found in older MSM. More research is needed to personalize and tailor group teletherapies for older MSM living with HIV.

  19. Aging, Depression, and Wisdom: A Pilot Study of Life-Review Intervention and PTSD Treatment With Two Groups of Vietnam Veterans.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Lori R; Boehnlein, James; McCallion, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Vietnam War veterans are a sometimes overlooked subgroup of the aging baby boomer generation. Forty years after the war ended, war veterans still seek out VA or Vet Center counselors to assist with traumatic stress symptoms. However, there currently are no specific age-related protocols for treating older war veterans suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), nor have established PTSD interventions incorporated gerontology content for these older trauma survivors. This pilot study juxtaposed life review within regular PTSD group counseling for 12 Vietnam veterans at a community-based Vet Center using a partial crossover design. The Life Review and Experiencing Form (LREF) structured the delivery of the life review component. T-tests and repeated measures ANOVA were used to examine depression and self-assessed wisdom outcomes using measures previously tested with older adults. Findings suggest that life review prior to PTSD group therapy has clinical benefits for reducing symptoms of depression and increasing self-assessed wisdom. The study illuminates the possible relationship of traumatic stress symptom effects on the natural reminiscing process for older veterans and provides insights into methods for more age-appropriate treatment for trauma survivors participating in Vet Center and VA programs nationwide.

  20. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Influence of Age, Sex, and Education; and Normative Data for a Large Sample Across the Adult Age Range

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

    2006-01-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to 1,856 cognitively screened, healthy Dutch-speaking participants aged 24 to 81 years. The effects of age, gender, and education on Stroop test performance were investigated to adequately stratify the normative data. The results showed that especially the speed-dependent Stroop scores (time to complete…

  1. Influence of the age and sex of human hosts on the distribution of Escherichia coli ECOR groups and virulence traits.

    PubMed

    Gordon, David M; Stern, Steven E; Collignon, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli were isolated from the faeces of 266 individuals living in the Canberra region of Australia. The isolates were characterized for their ECOR group membership (A, B1, B2 or D) and for the presence of 29 virulence-associated traits. Overall, 19.5 % of the strains were members of group A, 12.4 % B1, 45.1 % B2 and 22.9 % D. The frequency with which strains belonging to the four ECOR groups were observed varied with the age and sex of the hosts from which they were isolated. In males, the probability of isolating A or D strains increased with host age, whilst the probability of detecting a group B2 strain declined. In females, the probability of recovering A or B2 strains increased with increasing host age and there was a concomitant decline in the likelihood of isolating B1 or D strains. Of the 29 virulence-associated traits examined, 24 were detected in more than one strain. The likelihood of detecting most traits varied with a strain's ECOR membership, with the exception of afa/draBC, astA, cvaC, eaeA, iss and iutA, for which there was no statistically significant evidence of an association with ECOR group. The frequency with which fimH, iha, eaeA, iroN, hlyD, iss, ompT and K1 were detected in a strain depended on the age or sex of the host from which the strain was isolated. In group B2 strains many of the virulence traits were non-randomly associated, with some co-occurring in a strain less often than expected by chance, whilst others were co-associated. In 17 cases, the extent to which two virulence traits were co-associated was found to depend on host sex and age. The results of this study suggest that the morphological, physiological and dietary differences that occur among human individuals of different sex or age may influence the distribution of E. coli genotypes.

  2. Myocardial antioxidant status and oxidative stress after combined action of exercise training and ethanol in two different age groups of male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Pushpalatha, K; Nishanth, K; Sathyavelu Reddy, K

    2007-06-01

    The interaction of exercise training and ethanol on the myocardial antioxidant enzymes and the oxidative stress markers was investigated in the Wistar strain male albino rats. We also tested the interactive effects of exercise training and ethanol on the age-associated free radical production and antioxidant defense system. We found a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the myocardium of old rats when compared to young rats by 26% and 58%, respectively, suggesting the onset of age-dependent decrease in the myocardial antioxidant enzyme system. In contrast to the decreased antioxidant enzyme activity, xanthine oxidase (XOD) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were elevated, suggesting the age-induced oxidative stress. Exercise training significantly (p < 0.05) elevated the activities of SOD, CAT, XOD and LPO levels in both the age groups of animals. Ethanol consumption significantly lowered the SOD and CAT activities in both the age groups, whereas a significant increase was observed in the XOD and LPO levels. In contrast, the combination of exercise training plus ethanol lowered XOD and LPO levels in both the age groups of rats compared to ethanol treated rats. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in the activities of SOD and CAT was reported in the rats treated with the combination of exercise training plus ethanol. This increase was more pronounced in the younger rats than the older rats. The findings of the present investigation on the potential role of antioxidant enzymes to counter the ethanol-induced pro-oxidants showed an increase with the interaction of exercise training. With age, a decrease in the antioxidant enzyme capacity was observed. This reveals that the old age rats were more affected to the pro-oxidants when compared to the young age rats. In conclusion it is demonstrated that two months treadmill endurance exercise training is beneficial to both young and old rats in improving

  3. Inequality of Experience of Dental Caries between Different Ethnic Groups of Brazilians Aged 15 to 19 Years

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Methods Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Results Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24–1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02–3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Conclusions Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education

  4. Characterization and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 3) and REDOX Cladding Waste Sludge (Group 4) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Lanee A.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-13

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.(a) The testing program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual wastetesting program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR)—are the subjects of this report. Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, requiring caustic leaching. Characterization of the composite Group 3 and Group 4 waste samples confirmed them to be high in gibbsite. The focus of the Group 3 and 4 testing was on determining the behavior of gibbsite during caustic leaching. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  5. Reducing Test Anxiety among School-Aged Adolescents: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave; Chamberlain, Suzanne; Daly, Anthony L.; Sadreddini, Shireen

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a multimodal and information technology (IT)-delivered intervention for test anxiety. Participants were randomly allocated to an intervention or waiting list group. Test anxiety was measured pre- and post-intervention and academic buoyancy, a construct that refers to students' capacity to withstand…

  6. Multi-Site Fatigue Testing and Characterization of Fuselage Panels from Aging Aircraft Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-07

    Multi-site fatigue damage is a common problem in the riveted lap joint structure of aging aircraft. Modeling and characterization of such damage is...an especially daunting task. In this effort we present the results from fatigue tests which were performed on fuselage lap joints extracted from...in the lap joint . Some spot welded lap joint panels were also tested during the larger program; however, only the results from mechanically fastened

  7. Bill Gates' Great-Great-Granddaughter's Honeymoon: An Astronomy Activity for Several Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    When students finish a unit or course on the planets these days, they are often overwhelmed with facts, comparisons, and images. A good culminating activity, to help them organize their thinking (and review), is to have them divide into small groups (travel agencies) and come up with their top ten solar system "tourist sights" for future space…

  8. Fears and Related Anxieties across Three Age Groups of Mexican American and White Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared levels and types of fears and anxieties in a sample of Mexican American children and adolescents with disabilities to a group of White children and adolescents with similar disabilities. Students (N = 238), parents, and teachers completed the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (T. H. Ollendick, 1983) and the Revised…

  9. Developing and Implementing Democratic Parenting Methods in a Group Home Servicing Children Ages Three to Eleven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Lucia, Sister Paul Marie

    Society still carries the lingering remains of the autocratic cultural mores of reward and punishment. Staff in a group home setting for children must be aware of the complexity caused by the mingling of autocratic and democratic mores. This phenomenon causes discrepancy in parenting methods. It was surmised that training the staff (N=4) at one…

  10. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.

    2009-02-19

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.() The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. Two of the eight defined groups—bismuth phosphate sludge (Group 1) and bismuth phosphate saltcake (Group 2)—are the subjects of this report. The Group 1 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus and was implicitly assumed to be present as BiPO4 (however, results presented here indicate that the phosphate in Group 1 is actually present as amorphous iron(III) phosphate). The Group 2 waste was also anticipated to be high in phosphorus, but because of the relatively low bismuth content and higher aluminum content, it was anticipated that the Group 2 waste would contain a mixture of gibbsite, sodium phosphate, and aluminum phosphate. Thus, the focus of the Group 1 testing was on determining the behavior of P removal during caustic leaching, and the focus of the Group 2 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  11. Stereotype threat and group differences in test performance: a question of measurement invariance.

    PubMed

    Wicherts, Jelte M; Dolan, Conor V; Hessen, David J

    2005-11-01

    Studies into the effects of stereotype threat (ST) on test performance have shed new light on race and sex differences in achievement and intelligence test scores. In this article, the authors relate ST theory to the psychometric concept of measurement invariance and show that ST effects may be viewed as a source of measurement bias. As such, ST effects are detectable by means of multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. This enables research into the generalizability of ST effects to real-life or high-stakes testing. The modeling approach is described in detail and applied to 3 experiments in which the amount of ST for minorities and women was manipulated. Results indicate that ST results in measurement bias of intelligence and mathematics tests.

  12. FOURTH STATUS REPORT: TESTING OF AGED SOFTWOOD FIBERBOARD MATERIAL FOR THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2013-03-05

    Samples have been prepared from a 9975 lower fiberboard subassembly fabricated from softwood fiberboard. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. Some softwood fiberboard properties tend to degrade faster in elevated humidity environments, while some cane fiberboard properties degrade faster in the hotter dry environments. As a result, it is premature to assume both materials will age at the same rates, and the preliminary aging models developed for cane fiberboard might not apply to softwood fiberboard. However, it is expected that both cane and softwood fiberboard assemblies will perform satisfactorily in conforming packages stored in a typical KAMS environment for up to 15 years. Aging and testing of softwood fiberboard will continue and additional data will be collected. Post-conditioning data have been measured on samples from a single softwood fiberboard assembly, and baseline data are also available from a limited number of vendor-provided samples. This provides minimal information on the possible sample-to-sample variation exhibited by softwood fiberboard. Data to date are generally consistent with the range seen in cane fiberboard, but some portions of the data trends are skewed toward the lower end of that range. Further understanding of the variability of softwood fiberboard properties will require testing of additional material.

  13. Pilot Testing "Okay with Asthma"[TM]: An Online Asthma Intervention for School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tami H.; Hauenstein, Emily J.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is the leading cause of missed school days despite advancements in asthma treatment. This may be, in part, due to a lack of understanding about asthma. "Okay With Asthma"[TM], an online story with psychosocial management strategies for school-age children, was pilot tested to measure its effect on asthma knowledge and attitude. The online…

  14. Test-Retest Reliability of the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egger, Helen Link; Erkanli, Alaattin; Keeler, Gordon; Potts, Edward; Walter, Barbara Keith; Angold, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the test-retest reliability of a new interviewer-based psychiatric diagnostic measure (the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment) for use with parents of preschoolers 2 to 5 years old. Method: A total of 1,073 parents of children attending a large pediatric clinic completed the Child Behavior Checklist 1 1/2-5. For 18 months,…

  15. Training implications of maximal forces on a computer-controlled and motor-driven leg press by age group, sex, footplate direction, and speed

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Brian W.; Hart-Hughes, Stephanie; Gordon, Mark T.; Bulat, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Strength training that overloads lengthening muscle fibers may result in greater strength gains with less effort and perceived exertion than conventional training modalities. This study evaluates a device capable of this overloading (a motor-driven and computer-controlled leg press) to develop recommendations for future training interventions. Unimpaired younger and older men and women (7/group, total n=28) performed three maximal-effort trials for both directions of footplate motion (IN and OUT) at three speed profiles (knee rotation speeds of 15, 25, and 35°/s) on a motor-driven and computer-controlled leg press. Normalized forces were tested for effects of age group, sex, direction of footplate motion, and knee rotation speed. Peak forces were 57% greater for younger and 20% greater for IN. Trends of greater IN relative to OUT forces (IN overloading) were present in women, but this was due to an inverse correlation between strength and IN overloading that was independent of age group and sex. Leg press strength training on a device that is capable of overloading lengthening muscle fibers is a promising new training method that appears to have the greatest potential benefits for the weakest participants. Training target profiles on the device tested and others similar to it should be set based on participant-specific maximums across the ROM in both IN and OUT directions at a speed in the middle of the range to be trained. PMID:22289381

  16. Who are lonely? Loneliness in different age groups (18-81 years old), using two measures of loneliness.

    PubMed

    Nicolaisen, Magnhild; Thorsen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    This study asks if the prevalence of loneliness in the population varies depending on the measures used, with special focus on loneliness among the elderly. The study compares loneliness in different age groups between 18 and 81 years old (N = 14,743) using two measures of loneliness: the (indirect) six-item De Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale and a single-item, direct question about loneliness. Data are from the Norwegian LOGG (Life Course, Generation, and Gender) study. We compare the findings on loneliness according to age, gender, health, and partner status. Overall, the two loneliness measures indicate a similar prevalence of loneliness, but attribute loneliness to somewhat different people. When using a direct measure, loneliness is more prevalent among women; when using the (indirect) De Jong Gierveld Scale, loneliness is more prevalent among men. Also, the association between age and loneliness differed when using the direct and the indirect measure.

  17. Perceived exercise barriers and their associations with regular exercise across three age groups of rural women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing-Juin; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Lee, Bih-O; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to explore the differences in perceived exercise barriers across three age groups of Taiwanese rural women (30-50, 51-70, and >70 years old) and to examine the associations between perceived exercise barriers and regular exercise behavior. A total of 227 women completed the Self-Reported Exercise Behavior and the Perceived Exercise Barrier Scale. Women older than 70 reported higher physical and psychological barriers and lower administrative barriers than did the younger group. Women who did not exercise regularly tended to have a higher perception of exercise barriers.

  18. Immigrant differences in school-age children's verbal trajectories: a look at four racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Tama; Xue, Yange; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    This study explored inter- and intraindividual immigrant group differences in children's English verbal ability over ages 6-16 in 4 racial/ethnic groups-White Americans, Black Americans, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans (N=2,136). Although all children's mean verbal scores increased with age, immigrant children (except for Black Americans) had lower scores than respective nonimmigrant children. In contrast, immigrant children (except for Mexican Americans) had more persistent verbal growth into adolescence than respective nonimmigrant children. Family resources moderately accounted for immigrant differences in children's mean verbal scores only. The findings support different theoretical models for understanding inter- and intraindividual immigrant differences in achievement. Mexican-American immigrants and Black American nonimmigrants were struggling and merit policy attention.

  19. Monitoring of cerebral blood flow autoregulation in adults undergoing sevoflurane anesthesia: a prospective cohort study of two age groups.

    PubMed

    Goettel, Nicolai; Patet, Camille; Rossi, Ariane; Burkhart, Christoph S; Czosnyka, Marek; Strebel, Stephan P; Steiner, Luzius A

    2016-06-01

    Autoregulation of blood flow is a key feature of the human cerebral vascular system to assure adequate oxygenation and metabolism of the brain under changing physiological conditions. The impact of advanced age and anesthesia on cerebral autoregulation remains unclear. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on cerebral autoregulation in two different age groups. This is a follow-up analysis of data acquired in a prospective observational cohort study. One hundred thirty-three patients aged 18-40 and ≥65 years scheduled for major noncardiac surgery under general anesthesia were included. Cerebral autoregulation indices, limits, and ranges were compared in young and elderly patient groups. Forty-nine patients (37 %) aged 18-40 years and 84 patients (63 %) aged ≥65 years were included in the study. Age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentrations of sevoflurane were 0.89 ± 0.07 in young and 0.99 ± 0.14 in older subjects (P < 0.001). Effective autoregulation was found in a blood pressure range of 13.8 ± 9.8 mmHg in young and 10.2 ± 8.6 mmHg in older patients (P = 0.079). The lower limit of autoregulation was 66 ± 12 mmHg and 73 ± 14 mmHg in young and older patients, respectively (P = 0.075). The association between sevoflurane concentrations and autoregulatory capacity was similar in both age groups. Our data suggests that the autoregulatory plateau is shortened in both young and older patients under sevoflurane anesthesia with approximately 1 MAC. Lower and upper limits of cerebral blood flow autoregulation, as well as the autoregulatory range, are not influenced by the age of anesthetized patients. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00512200).

  20. Prevalence and intensity of dentition defects and secondary deformations in the population of 15-40 age group.

    PubMed

    Kraveishvili, S; Shonia, N; Sakvarelidze, Z; Sakvarelidze, N

    2014-01-01

    Partial secondary adentia together with caries and parodont diseases is among the most widespread diseases of dentofacial system, correlated, in addition, to the number of lost teeth, with the age. Result in speech and chewing functions' disorders, change of face shape, esthetic and psychosocial inferiority, pathologies of digestive and other systems, formation of the chronic infection areas, changes of reactivity etc,. Improvement of the methods of prevention and treatment of the above diseases is one of the most significant problems in the dentistry. Effectiveness of dental assistance organization and planning is based on the epidemiological studies. In Georgia, epidemiological studies were conducted in the populations of various age groups in previous years though, according to our data, no studies of dentition defects and deformations were conducted in the recent decades. Goal of our research was study of prevalence and severity of dentition defects and deformations, regarding sizes of existing defects, their localization, causes and types of deformation in different age groups, for development of specialized dentistry assistance plans and prevention programs. We have studied 147 patients of ages between 15 and 40 years. We have developed special questionnaire. Researches showed that in the studied age group (15-40), 62% (96 patients), i.e. more than half of studied 147 patients had secondary adentia. Most of them had the defects in the buccal teeth area. 112 of studied 147 patients required orthopedic treatment but only 18 (16%) of them have visited the clinic for this purpose while 94 (83.9%) of them were unaware about need of prothetic assistance. Regarding significance of the mentioned problem, the obtained results show the need of timely orthopedic intervention for the purpose of prevention of further complications. As a result, a specialized dental assistance plan and prevention measures' program has been developed to prevent further complications.